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Sample records for platycladus orientalis linnaeus

  1. Effect of Cryopreservation on Germination of Seeds of Amorpha fruticosa and Platycladus orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to explore the feasibility of cryopreservation storage on forest tree seeds, germination of Amorpha fruticosa and Platycladus orientalis seeds with moisture content (MC) changing was tested after storage in liquid nitrogen of -196 oC for 30 d. The results showed that both species of seeds can keep high germination percentage after cryopreservation. For A. fruticosa, the germination percentage of seeds was the highest when 4.1% MC was used for storage, and for P. orientalis it was the highest when 6...

  2. Old-growth Platycladus orientalis as a resource for reproductive capacity and genetic diversity.

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    Lin Zhu

    Full Text Available AIMS: Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae is an old-growth tree species which distributed in the imperial parks and ancient temples in Beijing, China. We aim to (1 examine the genetic diversity and reproductive traits of old-growth and young populations of P. orientalis to ascertain whether the older populations contain a higher genetic diversity, more private alleles and a higher reproductive output compared with younger populations; (2 determine the relationships between the age of the population and the genetic diversity and reproductive traits; and (3 determine whether the imperial parks and ancient temples played an important role in maintaining the reproductive capacity and genetic diversity of Platycladus orientalis. METHODS: Samples from seven young (younger than 100 yrs. and nine old-growth (older than 300 yrs. artificial populations were collected. For comparison, three young and two old-growth natural populations were also sampled. Nine microsatellite loci were used to analyze genetic diversity parameters. These parameters were calculated using FSTAT version 2.9.3 and GenAlex v 6.41. IMPORTANT FINDINGS: The old-growth artificial populations of P. orientalis have significantly higher genetic diversity than younger artificial populations and similar levels to those in extant natural populations. The imperial parks and ancient temples, which have protected these old-growth trees for centuries, have played an important role in maintaining the genetic diversity and reproductive capacity of this tree species.

  3. A comparative study on phytochemical investigation and pharmacological screening of Platycladus orientalis and Ocimum canum

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    Jhansee Mishra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In ayurveda, plants have been used for the treatment of so many diseases. Herbal drugs are easily available and have fewer side effects. So, many people are attracted towards the herbal drugs. Platycladus orientalis is one of the useful plant in Indian & Chinese medicine. It is used in treatment of so many diseases like diuretic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, stomachic, antipyretic, analgesic and anthelmintic etc. In Zimbabwe, Mozambique and South Africa Platycladus orientalis is grown as an ornamental. The essential oils extracted from leaves, cones and wood are important in body care products used in the Western world.Platycladus orientalis (Commonly- Morpankhi, Family- Cupressaceae is an evergreen, monoecious trees or shrubs used in various forms of traditional medicines and homeopathy in various ways. In traditional practices Thuja is used for treatment of bronchial catarrh, enuresis, cystitis, psoriasis, uterine carcinomas, amenorrhea and rheumatism. Recent re-searches in different parts of the world have shown that p. orientalis and its active component thujone have the great potential against a various health problemsThe medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional systems of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant of Ocimum canum Linn (known as  kalaTulsi in Hindi, a small herb seen throughout India, have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, bronchial asthma, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin diseases, arthritis, painful eye diseases, chronic fever, insect bite etc. The Ocimum canum L. has also been suggested to possess antifertility, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antiemetic, antispasmodic, analgesic,adaptogenic and diaphoretic actions.

  4. Effects of light radiation intensity on photosynthetic characteristics and water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weiqiang; HE Kangning; WANG Yunqi; WANG Baitian; DENG Juntao; ZHOU Yi; ZHONG Xijun; LI Zhaoqing

    2007-01-01

    In order to offer a scientific basis for cultivation and management of forests,effects of light radiation intensity on photosynthetic characteristics and water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis were studied under different soil moisture contents.By adopting artificial control methods to soil moisture,and under simulated photosynthetic radiation (SPR),the net photosynthetic rate (PN),transpiration rate (Tr),water use efficiency (WUE) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci,) of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis in the semi-arid region of the Loess Plateau,were studied.Results are as follows:within the photon range of 0-2,200 μmol/(m2·s),PN,Tr and WUE were enhanced with an increase in SPR in both species.PN and WUE of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis,however,declined with continued increase in SPR.PN,Tr,WUE and light saturation point (LSP) of Platycladus orientalis were higher than those of Pinus tabulaeformis,while light compensation point (LCP) of Platycladus orientalis was lower than that of Pinus tabulaeformis at the same soil moisture content.The efficiency of light energy utilization of Platycladus orientalis was higher than that of Pinus tabulaeformis;PN,Tr and Ci of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis were enhanced by increasing soil moisture content,whereas WUE declined.At soil moistures of 7.90%,13.00% and 19.99%,LSP of Platycladus orientalis LCP was 42,25 and 13 μmol/(m2·s) respectively,with corresponding maximal net CO2 photosynthetic rates (Pmax)of 3.04,4.06 and 5.53 μmol(m2·s).At soil moistures of 7.83%,13.04% and 20.15%, the LSP of Pinus tabulaeformis was 1,100, 1,325 and 1,500 μmol/(m2·s) respectively and LCP was 60,30 and 23μmol/(m2·s), with Pmas of 1.08, 3.35 and 4.36 μmol/(m2·s)respectively.

  5. STUDY OF THE FLAVOUR PROFILES OF THE FRUITS AND TERMINAL BRANCHLETS OF PLATYCLADUS ORIENTALIS (L. FRANCO

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    S AFSHARIPOOR

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco, is a native plant growing wild in Iran. Methods. The essential oils of fresh fruits and terminal branch lets with adherent leaves of this plant were obtained by means of steam distillation method and analysed by GC-MS. Results and Discussion. Eighty components were identified in the investigated essential oils. The essential oil obtained from the branchlets of this plant contained 21 monoterpenoids, 28 sesquiterpenoids and 3 diterpenoids, while the essential oil of the fruits contianed 27 monoterpenoids, 12 sesquiterpenoids and 3 diterpenoids. The major constituent of both oils was ?-3-Carene

  6. Isolation of high-quality RNA from Platycladus orientalis and other Cupressaceae plants

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    Ermei Chang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Platycladus orientalis has a lifespan of several thousand years in China, making it a good plant in which to study aging at the molecular level, but this requires sufficient quantities of high-quality P. orientalis RNA. However, no appropriate methods have been reported for total RNA isolation from P. orientalis leaves. The TRIzol method did not extract RNA, while cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, sodium dodecyl sulfate-phenol, and plant RNAout kit (Tianz, Inc., China protocols resulted in low yields of poor quality RNA. Isolating total RNA using the Spectrum™ Plant Total RNA Kit (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA resulted in a high-quality product but a low yield. However, the two-step removal of polyphenols and polysaccharides in the improved plant RNAout kit protocol resulted in the isolation of RNA with a 28S:18S rRNA ratio of band intensities that was ~2:1, the A260/A280 absorbance ratio was 2.03, and the total RNA yield from P. orientalis leaves was high. This protocol was tested on different P. orientalis tissues of different ages and on leaves of five other Cupressaceae plants. The total RNAs were successfully used in complementary DNA synthesis for transcriptome sequencing and would be suitable to use in additional experiments. The results of this study will benefit future studies in Cupressaceae plants.

  7. Cytotoxicologic Studies of the Extracts of Iranian Juniperus Sabina and Platycladus Orientalis on Cancer Cells

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    A Jafarian-Dehkordi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isolation and identification of some potent anti-tumor compounds from medicinal plants, has motivated researchers to screen different parts of plant species for anti-tumor effects. It has been reported that several conifers posses cytotoxic activities on some human tumor cell lines. Methods: In this study male and female branchlets or fruits of two different species of Iranian conifers were collected from the northern parts of Iran and identified. Hydroalcoholic extracts of them were prepared by perculation. The cytotoxic effects of the extracts on three human tumor cell lines (Hela, KB, and MDA-MB-468 were determined. Different concentrations of extracts were added to cultured cells and incubated for 72 h. Cell survival was evaluated using MTT-based cytotoxicity assay. Cytotoxicity was considered when mor than 50% decrese was seen in cell survival. Results: Although the extracts from Platycladus orientalis significantly decreased Hela and MDA-MB-468 cell curvival, their effects were not considerable. Extracts from fruit and branchlets of male and female Juniperus sabina showed cytotoxic activities against Hela and MDA-MB-468 cells. Conclusion: It is concluded that extracts of J. sabin have cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. Keywords: Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis, Cytotoxicity, MTT assay, Cancer cells.

  8. Predicting Impacts of Future Climate Change on the Distribution of the Widespread Conifer Platycladus orientalis.

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    Xian-Ge Hu

    Full Text Available Chinese thuja (Platycladus orientalis has a wide but fragmented distribution in China. It is an important conifer tree in reforestation and plays important roles in ecological restoration in the arid mountains of northern China. Based on high-resolution environmental data for current and future scenarios, we modeled the present and future suitable habitat for P. orientalis, evaluated the importance of environmental factors in shaping the species' distribution, and identified regions of high risk under climate change scenarios. The niche models showed that P. orientalis has suitable habitat of ca. 4.2×106 km2 across most of eastern China and identified annual temperature, monthly minimum and maximum ultraviolet-B radiation and wet-day frequency as the critical factors shaping habitat availability for P. orientalis. Under the low concentration greenhouse gas emissions scenario, the range of the species may increase as global warming intensifies; however, under the higher concentrations of emissions scenario, we predicted a slight expansion followed by contraction in distribution. Overall, the range shift to higher latitudes and elevations would become gradually more significant. The information gained from this study should be an useful reference for implementing long-term conservation and management strategies for the species.

  9. Hair growth promoting activity of cedrol isolated from the leaves of Platycladus orientalis.

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    Zhang, Yan; Han, Ling; Chen, Shan-Shan; Guan, Jian; Qu, Fan-Zhi; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2016-10-01

    Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco is traditionally known to potentiate hair growth promotion. However, there has been no report on its main active ingredient responsible for the hair growth activity. In the current work, cedrol as a major constituent from P. orientalis was evaluated for its potential on hair growth in vivo. Different concentrations of cedrol (10, 20 and 30mg/mL) were applied topically over the shaved skin of C57BL/6 mice and monitored for 21days. Results indicated that cedrol significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, particularly for the female mice. Both male and female mice groups treated with 30mg/mL cedrol required shorter time than the blank control and 2% minoxidil groups at different growth stages. Compared with the blank control (8.87mm) and 2% minoxidil (9.94mm) groups at 21days, the hair length of female mice treated with 30mg/mL cedrol showed a remarkable increase with the value of 11.07mm. Hair in male and female mice groups treated with 30mg/mL cedrol was heavier than the 2% minoxidil (38.2 and 35.9mg, respectively) groups with the weight of 42.6 and 45.2mg, respectively. Further observation of the hair follicle demonstrated that cedrol exerted a remarkable effect on the hair follicle length. These findings suggested that cedrol may be the main active ingredient of P. orientalis and have the potential of becoming a new hair growth promoter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Characterization for the Widespread and Stress-Tolerant Conifer Platycladus orientalis.

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    Xian-Ge Hu

    Full Text Available Platycladus orientalis, of the family Cupressaceae, is a widespread conifer throughout China and is extensively used for ecological reforestation, horticulture, and in medicine. Transcriptome assemblies are required for this ecologically important conifer for understanding genes underpinning adaptation and complex traits for breeding programs. To enrich the species' genomic resources, a de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. In total, 104,073,506 high quality sequence reads (approximately 10.3 Gbp were obtained, which were assembled into 228,948 transcripts and 148,867 unigenes that were longer than 200 nt. Quality assessment using CEGMA showed that the transcriptomes obtained were mostly complete for highly conserved core eukaryotic genes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 62,938 (42.28% of all unigenes, 42,158 (28.32%, and 23,179 (15.57% had homologs in the Nr, GO, and KOG databases, 25,625 (17.21% unigenes were mapped to 322 pathways by BLASTX comparison against the KEGG database and 1,941 unigenes involved in environmental signaling and stress response were identified. We also identified 43 putative terpene synthase (TPS functional genes loci and compared them with TPSs from other species. Additionally, 5,296 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified in 4,715 unigenes, which were assigned to 142 motif types. This is the first report of a complete transcriptome analysis of P. orientalis. These resources provide a foundation for further studies of adaptation mechanisms and molecular-based breeding programs.

  11. Genetic evaluation of the breeding population of a valuable reforestation conifer Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae)

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    Jin, Yuqing; Ma, Yongpeng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Xian-Ge; Huang, Li-Sha; Li, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Platycladus orientalis, a widespread conifer with long lifespan and significant adaptability. It is much used in reforestation in north China and commonly planted in central Asia. With the increasing demand for plantation forest in central to north China, breeding programs are progressively established for this species. Efficient use of breeding resources requires good understanding of the genetic value of the founder breeding materials. This study investigated the distribution of genetic variation in 192 elite trees collected for the breeding program for the central range of the species. We developed first set of 27 polymorphic EST-derived SSR loci for the species from transcriptome/genome data. After examination of amplification quality, 10 loci were used to evaluate the genetic variation in the breeding population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average He = 0.348) and low population differentiation (Fst = 0.011). Extensive admixture and no significant geographic population structure characterized this set of collections. Our analyses of the diversity and population structure are important steps toward a long-term sustainable deployment of the species and provide valuable genetic information for conservation and breeding applications.

  12. Diurnal Course of Gas Exchange and Water Use Efficiency of Platycladus orientalis in the Semiarid Region of the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Jinghui; He Kangning; Wang Baitian; Guo Jianghong; Zhang Weiqiang; Yin Jing

    2006-01-01

    The daily gas exchange,stomatal conductance,and water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis in the test field of Fangshan county of Shanxi Province in the semiarid region of the Loess Plateau were measured with portable Li-6200 gas analysis system in natural conditions.The results showed that the diurnal course of net photosynthetic rate displayed a two-peak pattern,that of stomatal conductance displayed a hollow pattern,and that of transpiration rate displayed a signal-peak pattern.Water use efficiency culminated in the early morning.On the basis of two criteria of stomatal limitation of photosynthesis suggested by Farquhar and Sharkey,the predominant limiting factor of photosynthesis was the stomatal conductance of stomatal limitation in the morning (10:00-12:00).However,the midday depression of photosynthesis at noon (12:00-14:00) and the decrease in photosynthesis in the afternoon (16:00-18:00) were the results of nonstomatal limitation,such as low carboxylation capacity of the leaf mesophyll.

  13. Effects of Ultra-drying on Viability and Physiological Characteristics of Platycladus orientalis Seed from Arid and Semiarid Areas of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to supply quality seed for vegetation restoration in arid and semiarid areas of Northwest China, the effects of Platycladus orientalis seed storage under ultra-drying and accelerated aging were studied. The seeds were dried from 6.8% to 5.1%, 4.4%, 3.7% and 2.2% MC, respectively, in a desiccator with the silica gel. The germination energy, germination percentage, germination index and vigor index of the seed were investigated. After ultra-drying, groups of seeds were carried on the accelerated agin...

  14. Photosynthesis and Water Use Efficiency of Platycladus Orientalis and Robinia Pseudoacacia Saplings under Steady Soil Water Stress during Different Stages of Their Annual Growth Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A simulated drought experiment was conducted in a rain-free shed to test the physiological response of Platycladus orientalis and Robinia pseudoacacia saplings to steady soil water stress during different stages. The five soil water treatments were: 100%, 87.84%, 70%, 52.16% and 40% of field capacity. The results showed that the net photosynthetic rate of R. pseudoacacla decreased as soil water potential decreased in the range between -0.041 MPa and -0.292 MPa.The threshold value at which the net photosynthetic rate changed significantly was -0.12 MPa. The relationship between net photosynthetic rate of P. orientalis and soil water potential could be described as a quadratic parabola in the range between -0.041 MPa and -0.648 MPa. Analysis of variance showed significant differences In the net photosynthetic rate of P. orientalis between soil water potentials of -0.061 MPa ~ -0.648 MPa. Average water use efficiency (WUE) increased as soil water potential decreased, but the influence mechanism of soil water stress on leaf WUE and photosynthetic rate for the two species were different evidently.

  15. Water Stress Experiments of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tablaeformis Young Trees%侧柏、油松幼苗水分胁迫试验

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    李新平; 贺艳萍; 武秀娟; 任庆福

    2011-01-01

    By taking two-year-old Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis mulched by plastic film, stone, etc. as the research objects, the water stress experiments were conducted in calcareous rock area in middle Taihang Mountain. The soil water content was measured three times a day by using time domain reflectometry (TDR), and the wilting time was recorded. The results are as follows: the mulching treatments could decrease soil water consumption, increase soil waterholding time of effective water, prolong the survival time of sapling under water stressed condition; the least soil water content for sapling survive were 6.70% and 7.80% for Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis, respectively, and forest planting could not be carried out when soil water content was lower.%在太行山石灰岩中山区,以侧柏、油松2年生苗为研究对象,选择地膜、石块等材料覆盖,进行水分胁迫试验,每天3次用TDR测定土壤含水量.记录苗木严重萎蔫时的时间.结果表明:地膜覆盖盆植侧柏苗各层土壤温度均高于对照,而在生态垫覆盖下均低于对照;两种覆盖处理均能明显增加侧柏苗的土壤体积含水量,且延长侧柏苗存活天数10 d 以上;覆盖处理盆植油松苗各层土壤温度与对照间均无显著差异;地膜和生态垫覆盖下油松苗的土壤体积含水量显著高于对照,石块覆盖下的土壤体积含水量与对照间无显著差异;地膜、生态垫、石块覆盖的油松幼树存活天数明显长于对照,以地膜覆盖延长的时间最多;侧柏苗和油松苗的致死土壤体积含水量分别为6.7%和7.8%.

  16. Possible effect of solar activity on variation of the tree-rings of a 500 a platycladus orientalis at the Mausoleum of Emperor Huang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Bor; HAN YanBen

    2009-01-01

    The variation of the tree-ring's index of a platycladus orientalie at the Mausoleum of Emperor Huang and of a long series of sunspots relative number during AD1470--1974 are analyzed by using the wavelet power spectrum method, and their variation characters are also discussed. It is determined that the tree-ring's variation has cycles of approximate 2--7, 11, 93 and 150 a. Two data series are used for analyzing sunspot relative number (SSN) variation. First, the analysis of the annual average SSN during AD1700--1974 proved that variation cycles are about 11, 50, and 93 a; then, the data during AD1465--1975 obtained from the decadal average SSN train over 7000 a reconstructed on the geo-magnetic data is analyzed and its variation cycles are about 50, 90, and 160 a. Besides the tree-rings cycle of 2--7 a is commonly considered to be related to ENSO, while 11 a cycle is related to solar Schwabe cycle; In addition, it is possible that the cycles of 90 and150 a are likely to be related to solar Gleissberg cycle and Suess cycle. The correlations between them are possibly due to the effect of solar activity on the climate and additionally on the tree's growth.

  17. Possible effect of solar activity on variation of the tree-rings of a 500 a platycladus orientalis at the Mausoleum of Emperor Huang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The variation of the tree-ring’s index of a platycladus orientalis at the Mausoleum of Emperor Huang and of a long series of sunspots relative number during AD1470-1974 are analyzed by using the wavelet power spectrum method,and their variation characters are also discussed. It is determined that the tree-ring’s variation has cycles of approximate 2-7,11,93 and 150 a. Two data series are used for analyzing sunspot relative number(SSN) variation. First,the analysis of the annual average SSN during AD1700-1974 proved that variation cycles are about 11,50,and 93 a; then,the data during AD1465-1975 obtained from the decadal average SSN train over 7000 a reconstructed on the geomagnetic data is analyzed and its variation cycles are about 50,90,and 160 a. Besides the tree-rings cycle of 2-7 a is commonly considered to be related to ENSO,while 11 a cycle is related to solar Schwabe cycle; in addition,it is possible that the cycles of 90 and150 a are likely to be related to solar Gleissberg cycle and Suess cycle. The correlations between them are possibly due to the effect of solar activity on the climate and additionally on the tree’s growth.

  18. 日本花柏和侧柏精油的GC-MS分析%GC-MS analysis of essential oils in Chamaecyparis pisifera and Platycladus orientalis

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    刘志明; 王海英; 王芳; 田补; 潘晓星

    2011-01-01

    In order to search main active compounds and provide the basic data for high value-added product development of essential oils in Chamaecyparis pisifera and Platycladus orientalis, the chemical composition and extrac tion yield of essential oils in C. Pisifera and P. Orientalis were analyzed through extracting by vapor distillation. The results showed that extraction yield of upper heartwood of growth ring from 5 to 10 years of C. Pisifera (0. 764%) and lower heartwood of growth ring from 12 to 20 years of P. Orientalis (0. 769%) were the highest. The results of essential oils in C. Pisifera and P. Orientalis analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that main compound with the highest mass fraction of essential oils from heartwood at trunk diameter, upper heartwood of growth ring from 5 to 10 years of C. Pisifera and upper bark of P. Orientalis was cr cadinol, while cedrol was the highest mass fraction compound of essential oils of lower heartwood of C. Pisifera , upper heartwood of growth ring less than 6 years as well as upper sapwood of P. Orientalis. crCadinol and cedrol were active compounds with development potential.%为给日本花柏和侧柏精油高附加值产品的开发提供基础数据,比较分析了日本花柏和侧柏精油的提取得率及其化学组成,以寻找主要活性化合物.以水蒸气蒸馏法分别提取日本花柏和侧柏精油,结果表明:日本花柏年轮5~10年处上部心材的提取得率最高(0.764%);侧柏年轮12~20年处底部心材的提取得率最高(0.769%).日本花柏和侧柏精油的气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)分析结果表明:日本花柏干径心材、年轮5~10年处上部心材和侧柏上部树皮精油质量分数最高的主成分是α-杜松醇;日本花柏底部心材、侧柏年轮低于6年处上部心材和上部边材精油质量分数最高的主成分是柏木醇.α-杜松醇和柏木醇都是具有开发潜力的活性化合物.

  19. Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction of terpenoids in platycladus orientalis leaves%超临界CO2流体萃取侧柏叶萜烯化合物方法的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骏; 吴京科

    2011-01-01

    Adding entrainer in supercritical CO2 fluid will increase the extraction quantity and extracted types of terpenoids in platycladus orientalis leaves. In this paper, terpenoids α-pinene and (β-caryophyllene in platy-cladus orientalis leaves were extracted through controlling the single factor and by using ethanol and ethyl acetate as entrainers, and were detected by GC and GC/MS. The results showed that using an extraction vessel with a volume of 10mL, the optimal extraction rate for a-pinene and β-caryophyllene was achieved when 2mL ethanol was used as entrainer and the fresh platycladus orientalis leaves was 1. 5g, with the extraction temperature of 38℃ and the extraction pressure of 30 Mpa.%在改变温度和压力条件下尤其是添加夹带剂后,超临界CO2流体可进一步增加侧柏叶萜烯类化合物的萃取量和化合物种类.本文通过控制单因子变化,选取无水乙醇和乙酸乙酯为夹带剂,对侧柏叶中萜烯类化合物α-蒎烯、β-石竹烯进行萃取和GC、GC/MS检测.研究结果表明,应用体积10mL的萃取釜,在鲜侧柏叶1.5g,萃取温度为38℃、压力为30MPa时,2mL无水乙醇对侧柏叶α-蒎烯、β-石竹烯的提取率较好.

  20. Chemical Constituents and Toxicity of Essential Oils of Oriental Arborvitae, Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco, against Three Stored-Product Beetles Componentes Químicos y Toxicidad de Aceites Esenciales de Tuya Oriental, Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco, contra Tres Escarabajos de Productos Almacenados

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    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites play an important role in plant-insect interactions and therefore such compounds may have insecticidal or biological activity against insects. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils of leaves and fruits from oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco (Cupressaceae was investigated against adults of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab., rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L., and red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Fresh leaves and fruits were subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oils was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Twenty-six compounds (92.9% and 23 constituents (97.8% were identified in the leaf and the fruit oils, respectively. The major components of both leaves and fruits oils were α-pinene (35.2%, 50.7%, α-cedrol (14.6%, 6.9% and Δ-3-carene (6.3%, 13.8%, respectively. Both oils in the same concentration were tested for their fumigant toxicity on each species. Results showed that leaf oils were more toxic than fruit oils against three species of insects. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than S. oryzae and T. castaneum. LC510 values of the leaf and the fruit oils at 24 h were estimated 6.06 and 9.24 μL L¹ air for C. maculatus, 18.22 and 21.56 μL L-1 air for S. oryzae, and 32.07 and 36.58 μL L4 air for T. castaneum, respectively. These results suggested that P. orientalis oils may have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae, and T. castaneum.Los metabolitos secundarios de las plantas juegan un papel importante en las interacciones planta-insecto, y por lo tanto pueden tener actividad insecticida o biológica en los insectos. La toxicidad fumigante de los aceites esenciales de hojas y frutos del árbol oriental de la vida (Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco (Cupressaceae fue investigada contra adultos de gorgojo del guisante (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab

  1. 侧柏叶精油的抗细菌和抗氧化活性%Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of the Leaf Essential Oil of Platycladus orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雨凡; 王蓟花; 刘志龙; 王琦; 贺伟; 周立刚

    2011-01-01

    The leaf essential oil of Platycladus orientalis obtained by hydro-distillation was investigated by GC and GCMS.8-Propoxy cedrane ( 15.41% ),terpinen-4-ol ( 12.98% ),α-pinene (9.85%),sabenene (9.92%),and 3-carene (6.77%) were the major compounds of the 29 identified components which accounted for 96.64% of the total oil of P.orientalis.The oil was rich in monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids.It was assayed to have the broad spectral antibacterial activity with the MBC values ranged from 0.10 mg/mL to 1.0 mg/mL,the MIC values from 0.063 mg/mL to 0.90mg/mL,and the IC50 values from 0.044 mg/mL to 0.763 mg/mL.The essential oil was subjected to the screening for the antioxidant activity by ferrozine-Fe2+ complex formation and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assays.It inhibited both the formation of ferrozine-Fe2 + complex and β-carotene-linoleic acid oxidation in a dose dependent manner with the IC50 values of 0.409 mg/mL and 0.526 mg/mL,respectively.%采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取侧柏叶精油,通过GC和GC-MS分析精油的组成.从侧柏叶精油中鉴定出29种成分,主要为单萜和倍半萜,含量较高的化合物有:8-丙氧基-柏木烷(15.41%)、松油烯-4-醇(12.98%)、α-蒎烯(9.85%)、桧烯(9.92%)和3-蒈烯(6.77%).侧柏叶精油具有广谱的抗细菌活性,对供试细菌的最低杀菌浓度(MBC)在0.1 mg/mL和1.0 mg/mL之间,最低抑菌浓度(MIC)在0.063 mg/mL和0.90 mg/mL之间,半抑制浓度(IC50)在0.044 mg/mL和0.763 mg/mL之间.侧柏叶精油能有效抑制菲啰嗪与Fe2+的螯合(IC50值为0.409 mg/mL)和β-胡萝卜素-亚油酸的氧化(IC50值为0.526mg/mL).

  2. Effects of Shading Treatments of Different Light Gradients on the Germination of Platycladus orientalis Seed%遮荫处理对侧柏种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫兴富; 周立彪; 杜茜

    2009-01-01

    在不同光照梯度55.44%自然全光照(Natural sonlight,NS)、21.12%NS、3.47%NS 和0.86%NS的人工遮荫条件下,研究了侧柏(Platycladus orientalis)种子萌发的特点.结果表明:4个光照梯度处理的侧柏种子的萌发率分别为68.9%、82.2%、44.4%和42.2%;随着光照强度的减弱,种子萌发进程减慢;萌发指数和幼苗活力指数均在21.12%NS处理最大,分别为1.89和770.8.

  3. Biological activities of Wiedemannia multifida (Linnaeus Bentham and Wiedemannnia orientalis Fisch. & Mey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Albayrak

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: The present study suggests that methanolic extracts of W. multifida and W. orientalis could be a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in foods, pharmaceuticals preparations.

  4. 侧柏人工林下层木本植物的组成及多样性%Species composition and diversity of understory woody plants in Platycladus orientalis plantation in Xu zhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤海梅; 阎传海; 于法展; 王仲宇

    2011-01-01

    为明确徐州山地现有侧柏人工林下层木本植物的自然更新状况,依据40个20m×20m样地群落的调查数据,分析了林下自然更新的木本植物的组成及其相似性.结果表明,侧柏人工林下层自然更新的木本植物中单科种、单属种优势明显,林下木本植物区系组成复杂,出现的12种区系地理成分中,温带成分占主体,热带成分占较大比例.侧柏人工林下层出现的木本植物种类较多,但不同生境下群落的物种丰富度和多样性不高、组成树种的相似性极高,尤其是乔木树种的相似性明显高于灌木树种.林下木本植物的种类组成受立地条件和种子传播方式的显著影响,建议改善立地条件以提高林下木本植物的丰富度和多样性,同时控制外来树种的侵入以促进人工林的地带性演替.%In order to explore the natural regeneration condition of understory woody species in Platycladus orientalis plantation in Xuzhou mountainous region, 40 plots of 20 m x 20 m were set up and surveyed, and composition and similarity of the communities were analyzed. The result showed that the single -species family, the single -species genera were the main part of natural regeneration woody plants in understory of Platycladus orientalis plantation, the composition of understory woody species was complex. There were 12 geographic elements of the flora, and the temperate elements were the main part of the woody flora and the tropic element hold a great proportion. Although the richness and diversity of understory woody species was lower, the similarities of understory woody species between plots were very high, especially, the similarities of tree species were significant higher than the shrubs. Composition of understory woody species was influenced by the habitat and the seed dispersal; Therefore, the habitats of understory should be improved to raise the richness and diversity of understory woody species, and the invasion of

  5. Biological activities of Wiedemannia multifida (Linnaeus) Bentham and Wiedemannnia orientalis Fisch. & Mey.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sevil Albayrak; Ahmet Aksoy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate total phenolic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of the Wiedemannia multifida (W. multifida) and Wiedemannnia orientalis (W. orientalis). Methods: Phosmomolybdenum assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity andβ-carotene-linoleate bleaching were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. Results: The total phenolics were found to be (22.45±0.60) and (9.53±0.00) mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g in W. multifida and W. orientalis extracts, respectively. The predominant phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD in the both extracts were rutin+ellagic acid and kaempferol. Total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity of W. multifida were higher than W. orientalis. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, both extracts exhibited strong inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the agar diffusion method against fifteen microorganisms. Both extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity. Conclusions:The present study suggests that methanolic extracts of W. multifida and W. orientalis could be a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in foods, pharmaceuticals preparations.

  6. 油松和侧柏无纺布容器苗雨季移植试验%Test on Non-woven Fabric Container Seedlings of Pinus tabuliformis and Platycladus orientalis Transplantation in the Rainy Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程瑞春; 李显玉; 张丽; 段磊

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究埋土前取下无纺布容器袋对油松和侧柏苗木生长的影响。[方法]以苗龄为2.5年的油松、侧柏无纺布容器苗为试验材料,雨季移植时分为埋土前取下无纺布容器袋(去袋苗)和保留无纺布容器袋(带袋苗)2个处理,移植1年后,调查移植苗成活率,成活苗木株高、地径、高生长量。[结果]经χ2检验,去袋苗与带袋苗成活率差异不显著;经方差显著性F检验,去袋苗和带袋苗2个正态总体株高方差差异显著,地径方差差异极显著,高生长方差差异不显著;经t检验,去袋苗和带袋苗株高、地径、高生长量平均值差异不显著。[结论]在雨季移植埋土前取下无纺布容器袋对半干旱地区油松、侧柏苗木成活和前期生长无不良影响。%Objective] Influence of removing non-woven fabric container before burying on seedling growth was studied.[Method]2.5-year old non-woven container seedlings of Pinus tabuliformis and Platycladus orientalis were used as experimental materials,which were divided into two types:seedling without non-woven fabric container and seedling with non-woven fabric container.The survival rates of transplant seedlings,plant height,ground diameter and height growth of survival seedlings were surveyed after transplanting 1 year.[ Result] According to χ2 test,survival rates of seedling without non-woven fabric container and seedling with non-woven fabric container had no significant difference .There had signifi-cant differences in the normal population variances of plant height and ground diameter between two kinds of survival seedlings ,but no significant difference in height growth by F test.There had no significant differences in the means of plant height ,ground diameter and height growth between two kinds of survival seedlings by t test.[ Conclusion] Removing non-woven fabric container before burying in the rainy season had no harmful effects on seedling

  7. Development of male gametophyte of Platycladus orientalis from dormant period to pollination%侧柏雄配子体休眠至传粉期间的发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚明; 邢世岩; 董章凯; 付茵茵

    2011-01-01

    Morphological indexes of microstrobilus of Platycladus orientalis (Linn. ) Franco from dormant period to pollination in Mountain Tai were studied using conventional paraffin slice. The results showed that; (1) Morphological changes; the front-end of the microstrobilus turned light brown, and the P. Orientalis entered into dormant period, which lasted from Oct. 22 to the middle of Feb. Next year. The dormant period was over on Feb. 27, and microsporangium developed in microstrobilus. On Mar. 11, the microstrobilus cracked and pollen dispersed. After pollination, the microstrobilus abscised. (2) Development of the male gametophyte: On Oct. 25, sporogenous cell produced microspore mother cell by mitosis in microsporangium. Meanwhile, microspore mother cell arranged densely. In dormant period, microspore mother cell produced microspore by meiosis. On Feb. 27, microspore developed into mononuclear pollen grain. On Mar. 11, mononuclcar pollen grain developed to matured pollen grain.%以泰山侧柏为研究对象,于2008年10月至2009年3月对其休眠期至传粉过程中的小孢子叶球进行形态指标测量和常规石蜡切片观察.结果表明:(1)10月22日,雄球花先端变为浅褐色,此时雄球花进入休眠,直至翌年2月中旬;2月27日,休眠结束,雄球花内小孢子囊发育;3月11日,雄球花开裂,花粉散发;传粉后,雄球花脱落.(2)10月25日,小孢子囊内由造孢细胞有丝分裂产生小孢子母细胞,此时小孢子母细胞排列紧密;休眠期内小孢子母细胞减数分裂形成小孢子;2月27日,小孢子发育形成单核花粉粒;3月11日,单核花粉粒发育为成熟花粉粒.

  8. 赤松、侧柏两树种含碳量方程的构建%Construction of Carbon Content Equations of Pinus densiflora and Platycladus orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宁; 李建华; 崔传洋; 周才平; 冯燕; 刘新; 侯化洋

    2016-01-01

    To get the carbon content of tissues and whole trees from Pinus densiflora and Platycladus orientalis, this paper took the live data by way of excavating whole trees and weighing dividually in combination with sampling in the wild and determining carbon rate in door to construct the regression equations at diameters and heights as independent variables, carbon content as dependent variables. The results showed there were significant difference in the single-variable carbon content equation with DBH as the independent variable and the binary carbon content equation with DBH and height as the independent variables. This method saved time, labor and had a specific target compared with traditional methods. Therefore, the equations not only could be used to measure the carbon storage of the two species, but also provide technology way to measure other species for reference.%本文采用整株挖掘、分割称重法野外获得15株赤松和16株侧柏的单木及器官生物量实测数据,结合野外取样和室内含碳率测定求算出树木各器官及整株含碳量。以含碳量为因变量,树木胸径和树高为自变量建立含碳量回归方程。结果表明:以胸径为自变量的一元含碳量方程与以胸径、树高同时为自变量的二元含碳量方程均达到极显著水平。该方法与传统的方法相比,具有省时、省力、针对性强的特点,因此,所建方程不仅可用于两树种的碳储量计测研究,同时也为今后其他树种的碳储量计测提供了可供借鉴的技术方法。

  9. Comparison on Photosynthetic Characteristics and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters between Thuja sutchuenensis and Platycladus orientalis%崖柏与侧柏光合特性和叶绿素光参数的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建锋; 杨文娟; 史胜青; 郭泉水; 江泽平

    2011-01-01

    The paper focused on the ecological adaptability of an endemic and endangered species, Thuja sutchuenensis , by detecting the difference of the photosynthetic characteristic,gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters from its related widespread species, Platycladus orientalis. The results showed thati(l)For the light response parameters,the apparent quantum efficiency (a) of T. Sutchuenensis and P. Orientalis were not significantly different,and were 0. 039 mol · mol-1 photons and 0. 027 mol · mol-1 photons?respectively. However,the light compensation point (LCP) of T. Sutchuenensis (81. 04 jLtmol · m-1 ? A-1) was significantly higher than that of P. Orientalis (59. 72 μmol · m -2 · s-1 )(PpsⅡ ) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) were not significantly different in the two species. However, the photochemical quenching (PQ) of T. Sutchuenensis was significantly lower than that of P. Orientalis, which were 0. 218 and 0. 322, respectively. The above results showed that, the photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of T. Sutchuenensis exhibited greater similarity with P. Orientalis, which indicated T. Sutchuenensis had a strong adaptability to the northern environment during the growing season.%以盆栽的中国特有濒危植物崖柏及其近缘广布种侧柏幼苗为材料,测定了二者的光照和二氧化碳响应特征参数、光合作用气体交换参数和叶绿素荧光参数,比较分析两者间差异并探讨崖柏异地保存的可行性.结果显示:(1)在光响应参数方面,崖柏和侧柏的表观量子效率分别为0.039和0.027 mol·mol-1,但二者差异不显著;崖柏的光补偿点(81,04 μmol·m-2·s-1)显著高于侧柏(59.72 μmol·m-2·s-1),但二者的最大净光合速率(Pmax)、光饱和点(LSP)和暗呼吸速率(Rd)均无显著差异;崖柏的CO2补偿点(129.17fmol·mol-1)显著高于侧柏(95.86μmol·mol-1),而光呼吸速率则崖柏略高于侧柏,但二者的羧化效率相当.(2)气

  10. 侧柏球果体外抑菌作用初探%Preliminary study on in vitro antibacterial activities of ethanol extract and fractions from Platycladus orientalis cones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建苹; 赵虎彪; 张云丁; 胡志明

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To study in vitro bacteriostasis of ethanol extract and fractions from Platycladus orientalis cones. Methods: The cones were percolated with ethanol and then the residue was sequentially extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol after reduce-pressure distillation. The crude extract and various polar fractions were screened for in vitro antibacterial activities by disc-diffusion method. The minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs) were further determined for active polar fractions by broth microdilution method. Results.- The ethanol extract, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate soluble-parts inhibited growth of Gram-positive (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-negative (Staphylococcus aureus, Baicllus licheniformis and Streptococcus agalactiae). The strongest antibacterial activity was seen in the PE-soluble part against all the six test strains with MICs of 78.2μg. mL~. The MICs of ethyl acetate-soluble part were 625μg. mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 312.5 μg-mL against Streptococcus agalactiae and Klebsiella pneumonia, 156.3μg-mL against the other three microorganisms. Conclusion: The ethanol extract, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate solubleparts from Platycladus orientalis cones possess dramatic antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Baicllus licheniformis and Streptococcus agalactiae.%目的:观察侧柏球果乙醇提取物的体外抑菌活性。方法:运用渗漉法提取并制备石油醚、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇和水萃取物,用滤纸片法对粗提物及各萃取物进行粗筛,有抑菌作用的萃取物进一步用微量肉汤稀释法测定其最低抑菌浓度(MIC)。结果:侧柏球果乙醇提取物及石油醚和乙酸乙酯萃取物具有抑制金黄色葡萄球菌等3种孳兰氏阳性菌和大肠埃希菌等3种举兰氏阴性菌生长繁殖的活性,乙

  11. 侧柏与其他树种枯落叶混合分解对养分释放的影响%IMPACTS OF DECOMPOSITION OF MIXTURE OF LEAF LITTERS FROM PLATYCLADUS ORIENTALIS AND OTHER TREES ON NUTRIENT RELEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓曦; 刘增文; 祝振华; 杜良贞

    2013-01-01

    以黄土高原的主要人工林树种侧柏为对象,通过采集侧柏及其他拟混交的8个树种的当年枯落叶,以无林荒草地腐殖质层土壤作为分解介质,在室内将侧柏与不同树种枯落叶剪碎后以一定比例混合装入尼龙网袋并埋人盛土培养钵中,进行恒温恒湿下连续345 d分解培养试验,测定分解前后枯落叶质量及养分含量的变化.结果表明:(1)在枯落叶分解释放养分元素中,K最活跃而易于释出,p一般比较迟钝而难以释出,C、N居中并具有一定的释出同步性,且各种养分的周转期约为1~2a.(2)与侧柏枯落叶混合分解后,在对C释放的影响中白榆表现为促进作用,紫穗槐、白桦和辽东栎表现为抑制作用;在对N释放的影响中小叶杨表现为促进作用,白桦、辽东栎和紫穗槐表现为抑制作用;在对P释放的影响中除小叶杨、白榆不明显之外均表现为抑制作用;在对K释放的影响中白榆表现为促进作用,紫穗槐表现为抑制作用.(3)应用主成分分析法分析不同树种枯落叶混合分解对C、N、P、K释放的综合影响结果表明,与侧柏枯落叶混合分解后总体上促进养分释放的树种以白榆、小叶杨最显著,其次为柠条和辽东栎;而总体上抑制养分释放的树种以紫穗槐的作用最强,白桦、沙棘和刺槐的作用较弱.%For this study,Platycladus orientalis,a major tree species used in afforestation in the Loess Plateau,was chosen.Leaf litters of the current year were gathered from P.orientalis and 8 other tree species that were planned to be planted in mixed forests,and soil from the humus layer (0 ~ 20 cm) of a tract of tree-free waste grassland was used as medium,in which litters were to be decomposed.Mixtures of litter from P.orientalis with others were shredded and packed into nylon mesh bags according to a set ratio,separately.Then the bags were buried into the soil contained in pots for incubation under a

  12. Extraction and analysis of volatile compounds in leaf of Platycladus orientalis(L.) Franco by SPME-GC-MS%固相微萃取结合气-质联用分析侧柏叶中的挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨克玉; 李燕敏; 黄佳; 张昱; 刘玉平

    2016-01-01

    以产自河北的侧柏叶为原料,采用四种固相微萃取纤维对其中的挥发性成分进行提取,用气质联用进行分析,共分离出112种成分,采用质谱与保留指数进行定性,鉴定出87种成分(四种萃取纤维的提取物中都鉴定出的成分有59种),其中烯烃类51种(以单萜和倍半萜为主),烷烃类4种,芳香烃类3种,醇类18种,醛酮类3种,酯类4种,醚类3种,吡嗪类1种;另外采用质谱初步定性出12种。采用面积归一化法确定了它们的相对含量,含量较高的有(1R)-(+)-α-蒎烯、(+)-3-蒈烯、D-柠檬烯、β-水芹烯、δ-松油烯、β-榄香烯、石竹烯、顺式-罗汉柏烯、葎草烯、大根香叶烯D、δ-杜松烯、柏木脑等。对比所得结果可以发现,CAR/PDMS(85μm)的萃取纤维对侧柏叶中挥发性成分的提取效果较好。%The volatile compounds in leaf of Platycladus orientalis( L. ) Franco from Hebei province were extracted by four different SPME fibers and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. There were 112 compounds isolated. 87 volatile components were identified by MS and RI qualitative analysis,including 51 alkenes( mainly belonging to terpenoid and sesquiterpenoid) ,4 al-kanes,3 aromatic hydrocarbons,18 alcohols,3 carbonyl compounds,4 esters,3 ethers and 1 pyrazine. In addition,12 compounds were identified tentatively only by MS. The relative contents were determined by peak area normalization method. The major volatile constituents were(1R)-(+)-α-pinene,(+)-3-carene,D-limonene,β-phellandrene,δ-terpinene,β-elemene,caryophyllene,cis-thu-jopsene,humulene,germacrene D,δ-cadinene,cedrol,etc. By analyzing the experiment results,it could be found that CAR/PDMS (85μm)fiber was better fiber to extract the volatile compounds in leaf of Platycladus orientalis(L. )Franco.

  13. 北京山地不同密度侧柏人工林林分生长及灌草多样性研究%Study on Forest Growth and Shrub-grass Diversity of Platycladus Orientalis Plantations in the Different Densities in Mountain of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁绍伟; 陈波; 李少宁; 张玉平; 潘青华; 王华

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Forest growth and shrub-grass diversity of Platycladus Orientalis plantations were studied. [Method] This article selects Beijing Badaling shifosi shallow mountain area 5 different densities (1 500, 2 000,2 550,2 700, 2 900 plants/hm2) artificial pure forest of platycladus orientalis for the object. The growth and diversity of shrub-grass were studied. [ Result] The order of stand growth factor is tree height > grown > DBH > clear length. The shrub-grass number first increase, then reduce with stand density increase. The Menhinick value of shrub ranges from 0.40 to 1.49, and herbal Menhinick value ranges from 1.05 to 1.51. Simpson index of shrub ranges from 0.66 to 0.82, and grass Simpson index ranges from 0.65 to 0.79. Shannon-wiener values of shrub-grass are respectively 2.68 -5.66 and 3.40 -4.95. Jsw values of shrub and herbal are respectively 1.29-2.46 and 1.64-2.38. [ Conclusion]The best density of stand growth is 2 550/hm2, on this condition ,shrub and grass diversity index value is the biggest, the stand growth is optimal.%[目的]研究不同密度侧柏人工林林分生长及灌草多样性.[方法]以北京市八达岭石佛寺浅石山区5种不同密度(1 500、2 000、2 550、2 700、2 900 株/hm2)侧柏人工纯林为研究对象,对其生长状况及灌草多样性进行初步研究.[结果]林分生长因子排序为:树高>冠幅>胸径>枝下高.灌草物种数目均随林分密度增大先增加而后减少,灌草各多样性指数值和总和均随林分密度增加先增大后减小,在密度为2 550株/hm2时达最大值;灌木Menhinick值变化范围为0.40~1.49、草本Menhinick值在1.05 ~1.51、灌草Simpson指数分别在0.66 ~0.82和0.65 ~0.79、灌草Shannon-wiener值分别在2.68 ~ 5.66和3.40 ~4.95、灌木Jsu值在1.29 ~2.46、草本Jsw值在1.64~2.38.[结论]密度为2 550株/hm2的林分生长最好、灌草多样性指数值最大,林分最优.

  14. 侧柏挥发物变化规律%Variation of Volatile Organic Compounds Released by Platycladus orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 王成; 彭镇华

    2010-01-01

    采用动态顶空采集吸附对侧柏在一年四季释放的挥发物进行采集,同时结合Licor-6400便携式光合系统测定仪测定其主要生理生态指标,目的是了解侧柏挥发物的主要成分、变化规律等.结果表明:一年四季侧柏共释放挥发物成分202种,包括烷烃、烯烃、炔烃、醇、酮、醛、酸、脂、芳香烃及醚10类化合物,其中烷烃和烯烃质量分数较高,烯烃中的萜烯类化合物出现频率和相对质量分数最高,因此萜烯类化合物是侧柏的主要有机挥发物;侧柏总挥发物质量分数的季节变化规律是夏季>春季>秋季>冬季,其中在春季和冬季日变化呈"两峰两谷"形,夏季和秋季日变化呈"三峰三谷"形.总体上表现为白天从9:00-13:00和夜间从20:00-次日3:00常出现高峰,白天5:00-9:00和17:00-21:00常出现低谷.经相关分析得到,总挥发物质量分数释放与采样时温度、湿度、光照、蒸腾速率、净光合速率、气孔导度关系密切.

  15. Orientalis dan Peranannya dalam Mempelajari Bahasa Arab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustiar Agustiar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientalisme is a knowledge about easterners which is important to we know. Because beside positive values consisting in it also there are negative values. That negative values represent noxious poison in effort paralyse Islam with understanding able to be groggy of clan belief in God of muslimin to al-Qur’an, Rasul, apocalypse and others. Clan of orientalis in general consist of people of Nasrani and Jew having hand in glove with Christian missionary mission and also colonist. They investigate and collect science coming eastward with various target and motiv which they wish. Even among all orientalis in its importance study Arab language there is with aim to be negative that is for the destroy of association of Islam, but there is also with aim to be positive that is devoted x’self solely for science by bearing its masterpieces in Arab language area and its literature. A lot of easting books written by clan of orientalis particularly about Islam concerning with problem of Alqur’an, Al- Hadist , Tarekh and Culture of Islam, Islam law and others. To investigate science above, Arab language is as especial bridge for them. The language of Arab which in advance they study to disclose the sciences to Europe language like Latin language, English, French, Germany , Dutch and others. Their ability study Arab language, making they ready to translate into their language and also write books in Arab language.

  16. Carl Linnaeus: pictures and propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2003-03-01

    How do scientists become famous? Carl Linnaeus was an expert at self-promotion who used portraits to gain patronage and consolidate his reputation. His sexualized classification system was hugely controversial, yet his successors celebrated him as a great hero of botany.

  17. REINFORCING POTENTIAL OF JUTE PULP WITH TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA) PULP

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Rawshan; M. Sarwar Jahan

    2009-01-01

    Two morphologically different pulps, a long-fiber jute pulp from a soda-AQ process and a short-fiber Trema orientalis pulp from a kraft process, were evaluated and compared for their reinforcing potential. T. orientalis pulp needed less beating energy than jute pulp at the same drainage resistance. Addition of jute fiber pulp to the T. orientalis pulp increased tear strength. Sheet density of pulp blends was increased with the increase of beating degree of both pulps and the proportion of T. ...

  18. Conejo Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Salgado I. 2016. Conejo Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758). En: Calzada J., Clavero M. & Fernández A. (eds). “Guía virtual de los indicios de los mamíferos de la Península Ibérica, Islas Baleares y Canarias”. Sociedad Española para la Conservación y Estudio de los Mamíferos (SECEM). http://www.secem.es/guiadeindiciosmamiferos/ Downloaded on "12/12/2016”

  19. Bioguided investigation of the antimalarial activities of Trema orientalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... of the emergence of resistance to nearly all antimalarial drugs (Kim and Schneider, 2013). Trema orientalis ... parasitic disease remains a public health concern which ... cause of under five mortality (20%) and constitutes 10%.

  20. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of Astrodaucus orientalis (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... 3Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of .... and A. orientalis (L.) Drude which grow wild in different ... treated cells using TriPure isolation reagent (Roche, Germany).

  1. Biofilm formation of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Halliday-Wimmonds, Iona; Francis , Stewart; Kearney, Michael T; Hansen, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen in both marine and fresh water environments. The bacterium is suspected to persist in the environment even without the presence of a suitable fish host. In the present study, the influence of different abiotic factors such as salinity and temperature were used to study the biofilm formation of different isolates of Fno including intracellular growth loci C (iglC)and pathogenicity determinant protein A (pdpA) knockout strains. Finally, we compared the susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm to three disinfectants used in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry, namely Virkon®, bleach and hydrogen peroxide. The data indicates that Fno is capable of producing biofilms within 24 h where both salinity as well as temperature plays a role in the growth and biofilm formation of Fno. Mutations in theiglC or pdpA, both known virulence factors, do not appear to affect the capacity of Fno to produce biofilms, and the minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum biocidal concentration for the three disinfectants were lower than the minimum biofilm eradication concentration values. This information needs to be taken into account if trying to eradicate the pathogen from aquaculture facilities or aquariums.

  2. Genotyping, Orientalis-like Yersinia pestis, and plague pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drancourt, Michel; Roux, Véronique; Dang, La Vu; Tran-Hung, Lam; Castex, Dominique; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Crubézy, Eric; Raoult, Didier

    2004-09-01

    Three pandemics have been attributed to plague in the last 1,500 years. Yersinia pestis caused the third, and its DNA was found in human remains from the second. The Antiqua biovar of Y. pestis may have caused the first pandemic; the other two biovars, Medievalis and Orientalis, may have caused the second and third pandemics, respectively. To test this hypothesis, we designed an original genotyping system based on intergenic spacer sequencing called multiple spacer typing (MST). We found that MST differentiated every biovar in a collection of 36 Y. pestis isolates representative of the three biovars. When MST was applied to dental pulp collected from remains of eight persons who likely died in the first and second pandemics, this system identified original sequences that matched those of Y. pestis Orientalis. These data indicate that Y. pestis caused cases of Justinian plague. The two historical plague pandemics were likely caused by Orientalis-like strains.

  3. Bad math in Linnaeus' Philosophia Botanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podani, János; Szilágyi, András

    2016-09-01

    In Philosophia Botanica (1751), Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) presented a calculation of the number of plant genera that may be distinguished based on his taxonomic concepts. In order to derive that number, he relied upon the organs of fructification, which represent the flower and the fruit, by selecting over 30 elements from them, and then assuming that each could vary by four dimensions. However, while Linnaeus was good in counting stamens and pistils, he and many of his followers who edited or translated Philosophia Botanica were less careful, basing their calculations of the number of possible genera on flawed assumptions, or even introducing basic arithmetic errors. Furthermore, although mathematics was quite advanced in the eighteenth century, the gap between combinatorial and botanical thinking was too deep, preventing Linnaeus to seek a reasonable solution to the problem he raised. The authors demonstrate this by a historical analysis of 15 editions of Philosophia Botanica, plus many references to it, and conclude that the desired number almost always appeared in error during the past 265 years. The German botanist J. G. Gleditsch (1714-1786) was the most successful with respect to Linnaeus' original intention. Elementary mathematics demonstrates that if Linnaeus' assumptions were taken seriously, then the possible number of genera would be astronomical. The practice he followed in Genera Plantarum (1754) shows, however, that the fructification dimensions served as a universal set for Linnaeus from which he chose only the relevant ones for describing a particular genus empirically. Based on the corrections and modifications implemented in reworked editions, we suggest an evolutionary network for the historical and modern versions or translations of Philosophia Botanica.

  4. Feeding Preferences of the Endangered Diving Beetle Cybister tripunctatus orientalis Gschwendtner (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ya Ohba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The numbers of Cybister tripunctatus orientalis Gschwendtner diving beetles are declining in most regions of Japan, and it is included in the Red Data List of species in 34 of 47 prefectures of Japan. However, basic ecological information about C. tripunctatus orientalis, such as its feeding habits, remains unknown. In order to elucidate the feeding habits of C. tripunctatus orientalis larvae, feeding preference experiments were carried out in 2nd and 3rd instar larvae. The number of Odonata nymphs consumed was significantly higher than the number of tadpoles consumed, indicating that C. tripunctatus orientalis larvae prefer Odonata nymphs to tadpoles. In addition, all the first instar larvae of C. tripunctatus orientalis developed into second instars when they were supplied with motionless Odonata nymphs, but their survival rate was lower when they were supplied with motionless tadpoles. These results suggest that C. tripunctatus orientalis larvae prefer insects to vertebrates.

  5. [Analysis of cell arrangements in Biota orientalis using Fourier transformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duo, Hua-Qiong; Wang, Xi-Ming

    2009-10-01

    Fourier transform image-processing technology is applied for determining the cross section cell arrangement of early-wood in Biota orientalis. In this method, the disc-convoluted dot map from each cell radius with 10 pixels is transformed by Fourier transform, generating the angle distribution function in the power spectral pattern. The maximum value is the arrangement of the cell. The results of Fourier transform image-processing technology indicated that the arrangements of the cell of Biota orientalis are 15 degrees in oblique direction, respectively. This method provides a new basis for the digitized identification of the wood, and also the new theoretical research direction for the digitized identification and examination of the wood species.

  6. Furostanol glycosides from the rhizomes of Helleborus orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Matsuo, Yukiko; Watanabe, Kazuki; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2010-10-01

    Eight new furostanol glycosides (1-8), together with two known ones (9 and 10), have been isolated from a glycoside-enriched fraction prepared from the rhizomes of Helleborus orientalis (Ranunculaceae). The structures of 1-8 were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR, and the results of hydrolytic cleavage. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HSC-2 cells.

  7. A Novel Polypeptide from Cervus elaphus Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangWENG; QiuLiZHOU; 等

    2002-01-01

    A novel polypeptide having stimulant effect on some cell proliferation was isolated from the velvet antler (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus). The velvet antler polypeptide consists of a single chain of 32 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence of the polypeptide was identified as:VLSAADKSNVKAAWGKVGGNAPAFGAEALLRM.

  8. Kirenol production in hairy root culture of Siegesbeckea orientalis and its antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ping Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the excellent anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic efficacy associated with kirenol generation, the content of kirenol in Siegesbeckea orientalis is quite low. Objective: This study was designed to establish a reliable kirenol production protocol by transformed root cultures of S. orientalis and to investigate the antimicrobial activities of kirenol, hairy root, and S. orientalis. Materials and Methods: Transformed root cultures of S. orientalis were established by the transformation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4. Transgenic status of the roots was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using rolB specific primers. The biomass and kirenol accumulation of hairy root clones were assessed using four different culture media: MS, MS/2, B5, and white. The antimicrobial activities of kirenol, hairy root, and S. orientalis were evaluated by the disc diffusion method. Results: The optimum media for kirenol synthesis was MS. The content of kirenol in transformed hairy roots made up about 80% of that observed in natural leaves of S. orientalis (1.6 mg/g dry weight. All tested samples displayed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii, with MIC ranging from 78 to 625 μg/mL. Discussion and Conclusion: The high level of kirenol contents was obtained from hairy roots of S. orientalis. Kirenol was effective against gram-positive bacteria. Interestingly, the extract from hairy roots showed a diverse antimicrobial effect from that of kirenol and S. orientalis.

  9. Shell repair in the freshwater gastropod Bithynia tentaculata (Linnaeus, 1758)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadée, Gerhard C.

    2015-01-01

    A large sample rich in empty Bithynia tentaculata (Linnaeus, 1758) was collected in a drift-line along Lake IJssel, The Netherlands. Of 400 adult Bithynia shells 62 (15.5%) showed repair of a damaged outer lip, most probably due to failed attacks by predators. The roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 17

  10. Bibliographie der Flussperlmuschel Margaritifera Margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbluth, J.H.; Coomans, H.E.; Grohs, H.

    1985-01-01

    Bibliography of the freshwater Pearlmussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda] The freshwater pearlmussel, described by Linnaeus as Mya margaritifera is one of the most important molluscs existing. It belongs with only a few congeneric fossil and recent species to the

  11. 嵩山国家森林公园侧柏人工林种子植物区系研究%Study on Spermatophyte Flora in Platycladus orientalis Plantation in Songshan Mountain National Forest Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷; 袁志良; 藤开琼; 叶永忠

    2007-01-01

    研究表明,嵩山森林公园侧柏人工林下种子植物共计33科75属87种,其区系基本特征是:地理成分较复杂,温带成分略占优势,但受热带成分的影响较大,南北过渡性明显.

  12. 北京静福寺侧柏古树林鸟类群落多样性研究%Avian community diversity in Platycladus orientalis ancient trees at the Jingfu Temple in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宗骥; 董大颖; 郑然; 王敏增; 王奇峰; 关文彬

    2013-01-01

    During the period from April 2011 to April 2012,the bird community was surveyed at the Jingfu Temple in Beijing with fixed strip method for arborvitae ancient forest,deciduous broadleaved forest and mixed broad-conifer forest.A total of 65 species of birds,belonging to 8 orders and 27 families,were recorded,among which there were 28 species of permanent residents,23 summer breeders,5 winter visitors and 9 travelers,and 4 Class Ⅱ protected wildlife of China ; the avifauna was mainly composed of paratactic birds of 44 species (accounted for 67.69%),9 oriental (accounted for 13.85%) and 12widespread species(accounted for 18.46%).The dominant species were great tit (Parus major),blackbilled magpie (Pica pica),aure-winged magpie (Cyanopica cyana),large-billed crow (Covus macrorhynchosw),and red-billed blue magpie (Urocissa erythrorhyncha).According to the survey results,the species,quantity,diversity index of birds had different changes,the species and quantity were the smallest,the diversity index and evenness index were the lowest,the dominance index was the highest in arborvitae ancient forest; the species and quantity were the largest,the diversity index was the highest in deciduous broadleaved forest; while the evenness index was the highest in mixed broad-conifer forest,reflecting the most uniform distribution and the most obvious advantage phenomenon of birds in arborvitae ancient forest.The bird functional food group had different composition in different forest types,4 functional food groups in arborvitae ancient forest of the birds,5 functional food groups in mixed broad-conifer forest,6 functional food groups in deciduous broadleaved forest,reflecting the adaptability of different forest habitat for birds.%2011年4月至2012年4月,采用固定样带法对北京静福寺侧柏古树林区的侧柏古树林、针阔混交林和落叶阔叶林3种林型进行鸟类群落调查.共记录到鸟类65种,隶属8目27科,留鸟28种,夏候鸟23种,冬候鸟5种,旅鸟9种,国家Ⅱ级重点保护鸟类4种;鸟类区系组成以古北界种类为主,共44种(占67.69%),东洋界鸟类9种(占13.85%),广布种12种(占18.46%);优势种为大山雀、喜鹊、灰喜鹊、大嘴乌鸦和红嘴蓝鹊.调查结果显示:3种林型鸟类种类、数量与多样性指数变化不一致,其中侧柏古树林的鸟类种类和数量最少,落叶阔叶林鸟类种类和数量最多;而侧柏古树林多样性指数、均匀度指数最低,但优势度指数最大;落叶阔叶林的鸟类多样性指数最高,针阔混交林的均匀度指数最高.调查结果反映出侧柏古树林鸟类分布最均匀,鸟类优势现象最明显.不同林型鸟类食物功能团组成不一致,其中侧柏古树林鸟类包括4种食物功能团,针阔混交林鸟类包括5种食物功能团,落叶阔叶林包括6种食物功能团,反映出鸟类对不同林型生境的适应性.

  13. 侧柏不同地理种源种子发芽能力分析%Study on Difference in Seed Germination Ability Among Different Geographical Provenances of Platycladus orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛升; 周继磊; 邢世岩; 卢本荣; 姜广国; 蒋秀丽

    2009-01-01

    对山东枣庄抱犊崮林场37个地理种源的23年生侧柏种源林种子的发芽率、发芽势、活力指数、发芽值4个指标研究发现:不同地理种源间侧柏种子的发芽能力存在很大差异,福建南平(FNP)、辽宁凌源(LLY)、甘肃徽县(GHX)3个种源发芽能力较强,发芽率分别为65.00% ,62.50%和52.00%;山东灵岩(SLY)、河南灵宝(HLB)、内蒙乌拉山(NWS)发芽能力较弱,发芽率仅为6.50%,7.50%和10.50%.确定枣庄抱犊崮林场及毗邻地区种子发芽能力最佳种源为福建南平(FNP)、辽宁凌源(LLY)、甘肃徽县(GHX)3个种源.

  14. Study on Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase and Antioxidation from Platycladus orientalis Leaves in vitro%侧柏叶不同提取部位抑制胰脂肪酶及抗氧化活性筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾君; 孙怡

    2015-01-01

    目的:考察侧柏叶不同提取部位体外抑制胰脂肪酶活性和抗氧化活性.方法:对侧柏叶的醇提液、石油醚部位、乙酸乙酯部位、正丁醇部位、水部位采用体外抑制胰脂肪酶活性研究,并通过其清除1,1二苯基苦基苯肼(DPPH)自由基和Fe3+还原能力(FRAP)测定侧柏叶提取物的体外抗氧化作用.结果:侧柏叶提取物均有不同程度抑制胰脂肪酶活性,以乙酸乙酯部位效果最佳(IC50为26.09 mg·L-1),其次正丁醇部位(IC50为39.02 mg·L-1)和醇提物(IC50为98.20 mg·L-1),石油醚部位(IC50为188.27 mg·L-1)和水部位(IC50为325.28 mg·L-)最弱.抗氧化活性依次为醇提液(DPPH IC50为7.59 mg·L-1,FRAP 4.40 mmol·g-1)>乙酸乙酯部位(DPPH IC50为8.28 mg·L-1,FRAP 3.82 mmol·g-1)>正丁醇部位(DPPH IC50为24.21mg·L-1,FRAP l.77 mmol·g-1)>水部位(DPPH IC50为27.53 mg·L-1,FRAP 1.38 mmol·g-1)>石油醚部位.结论:初步确定侧柏叶抑制胰脂肪酶活性有效成分主要在乙酸乙酯与正丁醇部位,抗氧化及其相关成分主要在乙酸乙酯部位.

  15. Crescimento de Siegesbeckia orientalis sob diferentes condições de luminosidade Growth of Siegesbeckia orientalis under different light conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera,D.B.; Ferreira,F.A.; P.R. Cecon

    2004-01-01

    Neste estudo, objetivou-se contrastar os efeitos de sombreamento sobre o crescimento de S. orientalis, utilizando a análise de crescimento. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em vasos, a pleno sol (A) e sob sombrite 50% (B). As plantas tiveram seus índices de crescimento determinados aos 14, 28, 42, 56, 80, 94 e 108 dias após o transplante (DAT), para A; e aos 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 108, 122 e 136 DAT, para B. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. O...

  16. Molecular Epidemiological Survey of Theileria orientalis in Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Theileria orientalis is a benign bovine protozoan parasite that occasionally causes serious economic loss in the livestock industry.We report the findings of a molecular epidemiological survey of T. orientalis in 94 Vietnamese yellow cattle, 43 water buffaloes,21 sheep, 21 goats and 85 blood-sucking ticks of cattle in the Thua Thien Hue province of Vietnam. The major piroplasm surface protein(MPSP) gene of T. orientalis was detected using polymerase chain reaction from 13 cattle (13.8%), 11 w...

  17. [Optimization of extraction process for tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2 method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Song; Tong, Zhi-Ping; Tan, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Zhen

    2014-08-01

    In order to optimize extraction process conditions of tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2, the content of tannins was determined by phosphomolybdium tungsten acid-casein reaction, with extraction pressure, extraction temper- ature and extraction time as factors, the content of tannins from extract of G. orientali-tibeticum as index, technology conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. Optimum technology conditions were as follows: extraction pressure was 25 MPa, extraction temperature was 50 °C, extracted 1.5 h. The content of tannins in extract was 12.91 mg x g(-1), extract rate was 3.67%. The method established could be used for assay the contents of tannin in G. orientali-tibeticum. The circulated extraction was an effective extraction process that was stable and feasible, and that provides a way of the extraction process conditions of tannin from G. orientali-tibeticum.

  18. [Optimization of extraction process for tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2 method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Song; Tong, Zhi-Ping; Tan, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Zhen

    2014-08-01

    In order to optimize extraction process conditions of tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2, the content of tannins was determined by phosphomolybdium tungsten acid-casein reaction, with extraction pressure, extraction temper- ature and extraction time as factors, the content of tannins from extract of G. orientali-tibeticum as index, technology conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. Optimum technology conditions were as follows: extraction pressure was 25 MPa, extraction temperature was 50 °C, extracted 1.5 h. The content of tannins in extract was 12.91 mg x g(-1), extract rate was 3.67%. The method established could be used for assay the contents of tannin in G. orientali-tibeticum. The circulated extraction was an effective extraction process that was stable and feasible, and that provides a way of the extraction process conditions of tannin from G. orientali-tibeticum.

  19. Antioxidant Activities of Chemical Constituents Isolated from Echinops orientalis Trauv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Erenler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Echinops belonging to the Asteraceae family comprises 130 species. The dried leaves and seeds of Echinops orientalis Trauv. were extracted separately with methanol. Apigenin-7-O-(6"-trans-p-coumaroyl- b -D-glucopyranoside 1, and Apigenin-7-O- b -D glucoside 2 were isolated from leaves and 1-methoxycarbonylindole 3 and beta-sitositerol 4 were isolated from seeds. The compounds were isolated by chromatographic techniques, based on column chromatography, preparative TLC and identified by spectroscopic methods including 1D-, 2D-NMR, UV, IR, HPLC-QTOF/MS. Isolated compounds and extracts were applied to antioxidant activity tests. While s eeds and leaves extracts have high DPPH and moderate ABTS radical scavenging activities, the isolated flavones exhibited high cation radical scavenging activities.

  20. The cytochemistry of oocytes of Chinese shrimp Penaeus orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiu

    1991-06-01

    In the growth of oocytes of Penaeus orientalis Kishinouye, five stages were distinguished. Histochemical tests showed the presence of DNA in the chromatin and nucleolus of the cell. The cytoplasm at the previtellogenetic stage and the nucleolus are rich in RNA and the proteins abounding with cysteine, tyrosine and tryptophan. The yolk consists mainly of proteins and phospholipids. The 1,2-glycol groups of carbohydrate occur in the cytoplasm at stage II, and aggregate mostly into cortical rods at stages IV and V. Neutral lipid droplets, and protein containing disulfides, appear in the cytoplasm at stages III and IV respectively. The proteins in the cortical rod differ from those in other components of the cell in the presence of cystine and absence of arginine.

  1. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxicosis in two Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiffer, D L

    2001-03-01

    Two 6-yr-old male sibling Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) housed together at the Pittsburgh Zoo presented for acute onset of diarrhea with no changes in appetite or behavior. Heat-fixed modified Wright-stained and Gram-stained fecal smears revealed a mixed bacterial population with a large number of gram-positive Clostridium perfringens-like spores (>20 per high-power oil immersion field). In addition, C. perfringens enterotoxin was isolated from one leopard at 1:256, confirming the presence of C. perfringens enterotoxicosis. Treatment with oral metronidazole, tylosin tartrate, and psyllium fiber was prescribed, with return of more normal stool by the third day of treatment. Fecal consistency steadily improved and was considered normal by the time all prescribed treatments were complete. Diarrhea has not recurred. Partially thawed meat in the leopards' diet may have precipitated the production of an endogenous clostridial enterotoxicosis by disrupting digestive tract flora with resultant clostridial overgrowth and sporulation.

  2. Optimization of lactobionic acid production by Acetobacter orientalis isolated from Caucasian fermented milk, "Caspian Sea yogurt".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, Takaaki; Yamauchi, Kouhei; Masuyama, Araki; Ooe, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    We have reported that lactobionic acid is produced from lactose by Acetobacter orientalis in traditional Caucasian fermented milk. To maximize the application of lactobionic acid, we investigated favorable conditions for the preparation of resting A. orientalis cells and lactose oxidation. The resting cells, prepared under the most favorable conditions, effectively oxidized 2-10% lactose at 97.2 to 99.7 mol % yield.

  3. Development and validation of an inexpensive and efficient method for the extraction of Theileria orientalis DNA from blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogema, D R; Fell, S A; O'Rourke, B A; Collins, D; Eamens, G J; Jenkins, C

    2015-09-15

    Theileria orientalis is an emerging bovine pathogen in Australasia. PCR-based detection methods for this parasite are sensitive but relatively expensive, partly due to costs associated with DNA extraction. An inexpensive and efficient technique was developed for the extraction of T. orientalis DNA from blood based on hypotonic erythrocyte lysis and detergent-proteinase K treatment (DPK method). The DPK method compares favourably to a commercial extraction kit when paired with a T. orientalis multiplex qPCR.

  4. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae) Extratos de folhas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) atuam como larvicida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of diff...

  5. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of diff...

  6. Emergence of new types of Theileria orientalis in Australian cattle and possible cause of theileriosis outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Joseph; de Vos, Albertus J; Playford, Matthew; Salim, Bashir; Kinyanjui, Peter; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2011-02-21

    Theileria parasites cause a benign infection of cattle in parts of Australia where they are endemic, but have, in recent years, been suspected of being responsible for a number of outbreaks of disease in cattle near the coast of New South Wales. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the species of Theileria in cattle on six farms in New South Wales where disease outbreaks have occurred, and compare with Theileria from three disease-free farms in Queensland that is endemic for Theileria. Special reference was made to sub-typing of T. orientalis by type-specific PCR and sequencing of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, and sequence analysis of the gene encoding a polymorphic merozoite/piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) that may be under immune selection. Nucleotide sequencing of SSU rRNA and MPSP genes revealed the presence of four Theileria genotypes: T. orientalis (buffeli), T. orientalis (ikeda), T. orientalis (chitose) and T. orientalis type 4 (MPSP) or type C (SSU rRNA). The majority of animals showed mixed infections while a few showed single infection. When MPSP nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids, base transition did not change amino acid composition of the protein product, suggesting possible silent polymorphism. The occurrence of ikeda and type 4 (type C) previously not reported to occur and silent mutation is thought to have enhanced parasite evasion of the host immune response causing the outbreak.

  7. Emergence of new types of Theileria orientalis in Australian cattle and possible cause of theileriosis outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinyanjui Peter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Theileria parasites cause a benign infection of cattle in parts of Australia where they are endemic, but have, in recent years, been suspected of being responsible for a number of outbreaks of disease in cattle near the coast of New South Wales. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the species of Theileria in cattle on six farms in New South Wales where disease outbreaks have occurred, and compare with Theileria from three disease-free farms in Queensland that is endemic for Theileria. Special reference was made to sub-typing of T. orientalis by type-specific PCR and sequencing of the small subunit (SSU rRNA gene, and sequence analysis of the gene encoding a polymorphic merozoite/piroplasm surface protein (MPSP that may be under immune selection. Nucleotide sequencing of SSU rRNA and MPSP genes revealed the presence of four Theileria genotypes: T. orientalis (buffeli, T. orientalis (ikeda, T. orientalis (chitose and T. orientalis type 4 (MPSP or type C (SSU rRNA. The majority of animals showed mixed infections while a few showed single infection. When MPSP nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids, base transition did not change amino acid composition of the protein product, suggesting possible silent polymorphism. The occurrence of ikeda and type 4 (type C previously not reported to occur and silent mutation is thought to have enhanced parasite evasion of the host immune response causing the outbreak.

  8. A Historical Overview of Research on Babesia orientalis, a Protozoan Parasite Infecting Water Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis is a globally important zoonotic disease caused by tick-borne intraerythrocytic protozoan of the genus Babesia (phylum apicomplexa. In China, there are five species that infect cattle buffalo and cause great economic loss, which include Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, B. major, B. ovata, and B. orientalis. Among them, B. orientalis is the most recently identified new Babesia species epidemic in China. This review summarized the work done in the past 33 years to give an overview of what learned about this parasite. This parasitic protozoan was found in 1984 in Central and South China and then named as B. orientalis in 1997 based on its differences in transmitting host, morphology, pathogenicity and characteristics of in vitro cultivation when compared with B. bigemina and B. bovis. It was found that Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides is the transmitting vector and water buffalo is the only reported host. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S rRNA gene also confirmed that B. orientalis is a new species. After species verification, four diagnostic methods including semi-nest PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay, reverse line blot hybridization assay, and real-time PCR were established for lab and field use purposes. Genomic sequencing was conducted and the complete genomes of mitochondria and apicoplast were annotated. Future work will be focused on developing effective vaccines, identifying drug targets and screening useful drugs for controlling B. orientalis in water buffalo.

  9. EPG monitoring of the probing behaviour of the common brown leafhopper Orosius orientalis on artificial diet and selected host plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trebicki, P.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Harding, R.M.; Rodoni, B.C.; Powell, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    The common brown leafhopper Orosius orientalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is a polyphagous vector of a range of economically important pathogens, including phytoplasmas and viruses, which infect a diverse range of crops. Studies on the plant penetration behaviour by O. orientalis were conducted using

  10. Chlorophyll dynamics in leaves of Platanus orientalis L. and P. acerifolia willd. in the conditions of environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kapelyush

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The state of pigmentary system of plants Platanus orientalis and P. acerifolia under conditions of environmental pollution was studied. Green pigments in leaves of Platanus acerifolia are more resistant to environmental pollution in comparison with Platanus orientalis leaves. The abundance of chloroplasts per a unit of area decreases in leaves of both plane-tree species.

  11. Chlorophyll dynamics in leaves of Platanus orientalis L. and P. acerifolia willd. in the conditions of environmental pollution

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Kapelyush

    2005-01-01

    The state of pigmentary system of plants Platanus orientalis and P. acerifolia under conditions of environmental pollution was studied. Green pigments in leaves of Platanus acerifolia are more resistant to environmental pollution in comparison with Platanus orientalis leaves. The abundance of chloroplasts per a unit of area decreases in leaves of both plane-tree species.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genomes of Opisthoplatia orientalis and Blaptica dubia (Blattodea: Blaberidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoxuan; Ma, Guangyin; Cui, Ying; Dong, Pengzhi; Zhu, Yan; Gao, Xiumei

    2017-01-01

    The first complete mitochondrial genome in Blaberidae has been reported in this research. Opisthoplatia orientalis (Blaberidae, Epilamprinae) known as ground cockroach with golden edge is distributed in East and South Asia and widely used for thrombolytic therapy in China. Meanwhile, Blaptica dubia (Blaberidae, Blaberinae) has been adopted as feeder insect for various kinds of pets all over the world. In the present study, we investigated the complete mitochondrial genome of O. orientalis and B. dubia, and the mitogenome is 18 724  and 17 340 bp in length, respectively. The circular molecule consists of 13 protein coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region, with an AT content of 75.7% for O. orientalis and 72.8% for B. dubia. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis has been carried out with 11 related species and the status of these two species is further confirmed.

  13. Orbilia orientalis and its anamorph%东方圆盘菌及其无性型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任艳玲; 刘斌; 陈艳露; 李永江

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]To identify the Orbilia orientalis collected from dead branches .[Method]Its ana-morph was isolated from the ascospores of Orbilia orientalis.[Result and conclusion]The anamorph was identified as Drechslerella cf.brochopaga.The connection between anamorph Orbilia orientalis and teleo-morph Drechslerella cf.brochopaga was established .%[目的]东方圆盘菌Orbilia orientalis及其无性型的鉴定.[方法]从枯树枝上采集标本;通过子囊孢子弹射法分离到其无性型.[结果和结论]该标本被鉴定为Orbilia orientalis;无性型被鉴定为Drechslerella cf.brochopaga;建立了有性型Orbilia orientalis和无性型Drechslerella cf.brochopaga之间的对应关系.

  14. An observational study of the vertical transmission of Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) in a New Zealand pastoral dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K E; Gedye, K; McFadden, A M J; Pulford, D J; Pomroy, W E

    2016-03-15

    Although only recently recognised, Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) is now the most important infectious cause of anaemia in New Zealand cattle. The aim of this study was to test if vertical transmission of T. orientalis (Ikeda) from dam to calf across the placenta occurs in naturally infected New Zealand dairy cattle and to also test whether the infection status of the dam at calving affects the future susceptibility of its offspring to T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection. Dairy cows (n=97) and their calves were sampled at calving; and the calves again at 4 months of age. All samples were measured for haematocrit and screened for T. orientalis genotypes using a multiplex Buffeli, Chitose and Ikeda specific TaqMan assay. Ikeda positive samples were further tested by singleplex PCR in triplicate to calculate the Ikeda infection intensity as genomes/μl of blood from each infected animal. No T. orientalis (Ikeda) infected calves were born to either T. orientalis (Ikeda) infected or uninfected dams. There were 56/97 dams positive for T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection at calving and 79/90 calves positive for T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection at 4 months of age but no effect on calf susceptibility of dam infection status at calving. There was a significant negative effect of infection intensity on haematocrit after controlling for whether the infected animal was a dam or a 4 month old calf. Vertical trans-uterine transmission of T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection is unlikely in chronically infected dairy cows and thus not a factor in the epidemiology of T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection.

  15. Effects of EDTA on mechanism of lead accumulation in Typha orientalis Presl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongli; Liu, Jingling; Liu, Yunguo; Li, Xin

    2009-10-01

    The effects of EDTA on the mechanism of accumulation under Pb2+ stress in Typha orientalis Presl were investigated. The results indicated that addition of the chelator with Pb limited metal phytotoxicity. The mean total chlorophyll concentration and protein content were increased with the addition of EDTA in Pb2+ solution. We also demonstrated a significant effect of EDTA on the reduced glutathione (GSH) content which was obviously increased both in leaves and caudices. It was supposed that EDTA elevated the tolerance of Typha orientalis Presl under Pb2+ stress primarily by increasing the GSH level.

  16. Phenolic compounds from the stem bark Erythrina Orientalis and detection of antimalaria activity by ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjahjadarie, Tjitjik Srie; Saputri, Ratih Dewi; Tanjung, Mulyadi

    2016-03-01

    Erythrina orientalis has local name "Dadap". This plant has known producing alkaloids, flavonoids, pterocarpans, stilbenes, and arylbenzofurans which are active compounds.Three prenylated flavonoids, 8-prenyl-daidzein (1), alpinumisoflavone (2) and 4'-O-methyl licoflavanone (3) had been isolated from the stem bark of Erythrina Orientalis. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data,which are IR, UV, MS, and NMR 1D (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) and 2D (COSY, HMQC, and HMBC).

  17. A new record for Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Muscidae) from peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, W K; Kurahashi, H; Nazni, W A; Heo, C C; Heah, S K; Jeffery, J; Lee, H L

    2012-09-01

    Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 is recorded for the first time in peninsular Malaysia. Specimens were collected from a mushroom cultivation farm in Genting Highlands, Pahang (3°25'18"N 101°47'48"E). Previously, this species had been recorded from Azerbaijin, India, Russia, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey and South Korea. The male of Lispe orientalis can be determined by the following characteristics: body non-metallic, ashy gray, third antennal segment black, R5 cell not narrow apically, hind metatarsus normal, legs entirely black, femora with long bristle-like hairs on av and pv surfaces, hind tibia without av and pv seta and the palpi orangish in colour.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Oriental Hornet, Vespa orientalis F. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal; Al-Nakeeb, Kosai Ali Ahmed; Petersen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    The Oriental Hornet (Vespa orientalis) is a social insect belonging to the Vespiade family (Wasps, Hornets, Yellowjackets), genus Vespa (true Hornets). The oriental hornet is a scavenger and an agricultural pest, especially to bee farmers, but is also recently described as a harvester of solar...... energy. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the Oriental Hornet, Vespa orientalis F., which may play a vital role in understanding this wasp biology, light trapping and generation of electricity. The mitochondrial genome of this hornet is 16,099 bp in length, containing 13 protein...

  19. Fungi isolated from phyllosphere of fodder galega (Galega orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambrozik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the experiment was fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam. cultivated in 2001-2003 as field crop on three plots: 1. without fertilization, 2. 40 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 80 kg K2O × ha-1, 3. 80 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 160 kg K2O × ha-1. During the dry and warm vegetation season of 2002 almost two times fewer isolates were obtained from the leaves than in 2003 that was the most abundant in fungi. Yeasts-like fungi (30% of the total number of isolates and saprotrophic fungi with dominated species: Acremonium strictum (8.5%, genus Epicoccum (7.8%, Humicola (9.5% and Penicillium (18.9% were the fungi most frequently populating the leaves of galega. The share of pathogens in the total number of isolates obtained from the phyllosphere was 10.6%. They were represented by fungi of Ascochyta spp., Botrytis cinerea, genus Fusarium, Phoma medicaginis and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Reduction by 1.9 to 4.6% in the number of fungi isolated from the phyllosphere of galega without fertilization as compared to galega cultivated in combinations with fertilization was recorded. Generally, the smallest number of pathogens was recovered from galega fertilized with 40 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 80 kg K2O × ha-1. B. cinerea most frequently populated galega in combination without fertilization, genus Fusarium fungi in combination without fertilization and with fertilization with 80 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 160 kg K2O × ha-1, while Ascochyta spp. were isolated from galega with fertilization only.

  20. Crescimento de Siegesbeckia orientalis sob diferentes condições de luminosidade Growth of Siegesbeckia orientalis under different light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Aguilera

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, objetivou-se contrastar os efeitos de sombreamento sobre o crescimento de S. orientalis, utilizando a análise de crescimento. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em vasos, a pleno sol (A e sob sombrite 50% (B. As plantas tiveram seus índices de crescimento determinados aos 14, 28, 42, 56, 80, 94 e 108 dias após o transplante (DAT, para A; e aos 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 108, 122 e 136 DAT, para B. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os dados foram analisados por meio de análise de regressão. Os modelos foram escolhidos com base na significância dos coeficientes de regressão, utilizando-se o teste t até 10%, no coeficiente de determinação e no fenômeno em estudo. As plantas apresentaram comportamento semelhante em A e B para a maioria das variáveis analisadas, embora as plantas sombreadas (radiação média de 218 µmol m-² s-¹ tivessem maior duração do ciclo cultural, cerca de 140 DAT, retardando os valores máximos e/ou mínimos, em relação às plantas a luz plena (média de 658 µmol m-² s-¹, com aproximadamente 110 DAT. Em B, foram obtidas também as maiores médias para a maioria dos índices avaliados - área foliar, altura, números de folhas e capítulos florais, biomassa seca total, taxa de crescimento absoluto, taxa de crescimento relativo, razão de peso foliar, razão de área foliar e área foliar específica -, sugerindo que a espécie é favorecida pelo sombreamento.This study aimed to contrast the effects of shading on the growth of S. orientalis by applying growth analysis. The experiments were conducted in pots under full sunlight (A and 50% shading (B. Plant growth indices were determined at 14, 28, 42, 56, 80, 94 and 108 days after transplant (DAT for A and at 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 108, 122, 136 DAT for B. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four repetitions. Data were analyzed by means of regression analysis. The models were

  1. 以甜果螨为食的东方钝绥螨的种群生命表%Life Table of Experimental Population of Amblyseius orientalis Feeding on Carpoglyphus lactis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛福敬; 王恩东; 徐学农; 王伯明

    2014-01-01

    As an important specific predator, Amblyseius orientalis (Ehara) shows effective control for mites, while lack of large-scale production of A. orientalis restricts its wide application. In this paper, life table of an experimental population of A. orientalis feeding on Carpoglyphus lactis (Linnaeus) was established for investigation of its development and reproduction under controlled temperature (25 ℃) and humidity (80%) conditions. Results showed that developmental duration of different stages of A. orientalis were 1.77, 0.77, 1.05 and 1.05 d, respectively. The mean generation time (T), intrinsic increase rate (rm), finite increase rate (λ) and the time for double population were 14.07, 0.18, 1.20 and 3.87 d, respectively. Daily fecundity and fecundity of single female were 1.71 and 22.50. These results suggest that C. lactis is a good alternative prey for A. orientalis.%东方钝绥螨是叶螨的重要捕食性天敌,对多种叶螨的防控起着重要的作用。东方钝绥螨一直被认为是叶螨的专食性捕食者,其规模化生产不成功极大地限制了其应用。本试验在(25±1)℃、RH 80%±5%、光周期16L:8D的条件下,以甜果螨为食,东方钝绥螨能够完成发育和繁殖,并以此组建了东方钝绥螨试验种群生命表。试验结果表明,东方钝绥螨以甜果螨为食各发育阶段历期较短,分别为卵期1.77 d,幼螨期0.77 d,前若螨和后若螨期各为1.05 d。25℃时东方钝绥螨的世代平均周期为14.07 d,内禀增长率0.18,周限增长率1.20,种群倍增时间3.87 d。日均产卵量1.71粒/d,总产卵量平均22.50粒/雌。由此得出甜果螨是饲养东方钝绥螨的一种很好的替代猎物。

  2. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; Rossi, Juliana Chedid Nogared; Pedroso, Murilo Fernandes; Kanis, Luiz Alberto; Silva, Onilda Santos

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.

  3. Nematodes in the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758) and the common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula Linnaeus, 1758) (Anatidae) from Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Daria I; Yakovleva, Galina A; Ieshko, Evgeny P

    2015-10-01

    There are first data on nematodes of Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 (mallard) and Bucephala clangula Linnaeus, 1758 (common goldeneye) from Northern Europe (Ladoga Lake region). The ducks were found to be infected with nine nematode species. A. platyrhynchos hosted eight nematode species and B. clangula was host to four nematode species. All species except Capillaria anatis were found in the region for the first time. Nematodes Amidostomum acutum, Streptocara crassicauda, and Tetrameres fissispina parasitized on both hosts and were the most abundant. The biggest number of parasites revealed was biohelminths with a direct life cycle.

  4. Predicting the potential environmental suitability for Theileria orientalis transmission in New Zealand cattle using maximum entropy niche modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K E; Summers, S R; Heath, A C G; McFadden, A M J; Pulford, D J; Pomroy, W E

    2016-07-15

    The tick-borne haemoparasite Theileria orientalis is the most important infectious cause of anaemia in New Zealand cattle. Since 2012 a previously unrecorded type, T. orientalis type 2 (Ikeda), has been associated with disease outbreaks of anaemia, lethargy, jaundice and deaths on over 1000 New Zealand cattle farms, with most of the affected farms found in the upper North Island. The aim of this study was to model the relative environmental suitability for T. orientalis transmission throughout New Zealand, to predict the proportion of cattle farms potentially suitable for active T. orientalis infection by region, island and the whole of New Zealand and to estimate the average relative environmental suitability per farm by region, island and the whole of New Zealand. The relative environmental suitability for T. orientalis transmission was estimated using the Maxent (maximum entropy) modelling program. The Maxent model predicted that 99% of North Island cattle farms (n=36,257), 64% South Island cattle farms (n=15,542) and 89% of New Zealand cattle farms overall (n=51,799) could potentially be suitable for T. orientalis transmission. The average relative environmental suitability of T. orientalis transmission at the farm level was 0.34 in the North Island, 0.02 in the South Island and 0.24 overall. The study showed that the potential spatial distribution of T. orientalis environmental suitability was much greater than presumed in the early part of the Theileria associated bovine anaemia (TABA) epidemic. Maximum entropy offers a computer efficient method of modelling the probability of habitat suitability for an arthropod vectored disease. This model could help estimate the boundaries of the endemically stable and endemically unstable areas for T. orientalis transmission within New Zealand and be of considerable value in informing practitioner and farmer biosecurity decisions in these respective areas.

  5. The antimicrobial activity of Liquidambar orientalis mill. against food pathogens and antioxidant capacity of leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okmen, G; Turkcan, O; Ceylan, O; Gork, G

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are an important source of substances which are claimed to induce antimicrobial, antimutagenic and antioxidant effects. Many plants have been used due to their antimicrobial treatments. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of L. orientalis have not been reported to the present day. The aim of this work was to investigate of the antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of different extracts from L. orientalis. The extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity against different food pathogens. These bacteria include 4 Gram positive and 3 Gram negative bacteria and one fungi. The leaf extracts of plant were tested by disc diffusion assay. The MIC was evaluated on plant extracts as antimicrobial activity. In addition to, the plant extracts were tested against the stable DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazylhydrate) free-radical. The acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts of L. orientalis showed maximum inhibition zone of 12 mm against Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition to, the methanol extract displayed a strong antioxidant activity (trolox equivalent = 2.23 mM). L. orientalis extracts have antimicrobial, and antioxidant potential. Our results support the use of this plant in traditional medicine and suggest that some of the plant extracts possess compounds with good antibacterial properties that can be used as antibacterial agents in the search for new drugs.

  6. Evolutionary History of the Genus Capsella (Brassicaceae - Capsella orientalis , New for Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Neuffer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the evolutionary history of the genus Capsella , we included the hitherto poorly known species C. orientalis and C. thracica into our studies together with C. grandifl ora , C. rubella , and C. bursa-pastoris . We sequenced the ITS, and four loci of noncoding cpDNA regions (trnL – F, rps16, trnH – psbA, trnQ – rps16. In common garden fi eld experiments C. orientalis turned out as early fl owering with a specifi c leaf type. The crossing ability of the species was tested in pollen germination experiments. Capsella orientalis (self-compatible, SC; 2n = 16 forms a clade (eastern lineage with C . bursa-pastoris (SC; 2n = 32, which is a sister clade (western lineage to C. grandifl ora (self-incompatible, SI; 2n = 16 and C. rubella (SC; 2n = 16. Capsella bursa-pastoris is an autopolyploid species of multiple origin, whereas the Bulgarian endemic C. thracica (SC; 2n = 32 is allopolyploid and emerged from interspecifi c hybridisation between C. bursa-pastoris and C. grandifl ora . The common ancestor of the two lineages was diploid and SI, and its distribution ranged from eastern Europe to central Asia, predominantly confi ned to steppe like habitats. Biogeographic dynamics during the Pleistocene caused geographic and genetic subdivisions within the common ancestor giving rise to the two extant lineages. Capsella orientalis is verifi ed at several positions in western Mongolia.

  7. Nutrient enrichment effects on photosynthesis in the wetland plants Typha orientalis and Phormium tenax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans; Tanner, Chris

    -growing species raupo (Typha orientalis) and slower-growing flax (Phormium tenax). Photosynthesis was compared between 9 field locations differing in nutrient availability where the two species co-existed, and in an outdoor growth experiment. Raupo accumulated higher concentrations of nitrogen (N) and especially...

  8. Molecular prevalence and genetic diversity of bovine Theileria orientalis in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawm, Saw; Shimizu, Kohei; Hirota, Jun-Ichi; Tosa, Yusuke; Htun, Lat Lat; Maw, Ni Ni; Thein, Myint; Kato, Hirotomo; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken

    2014-08-01

    Theileria orientalis is a causative agent of benign theileriosis in cattle and distributed in mainly Asian countries. In the present study, we examined the prevalence of T. orientalis infection by PCR based on the major piroplasm surface protein gene (MPSP) sequences in cattle in Myanmar, followed by phylogenetic analysis of the MPSP genes. The MPSP gene was amplified in 258 of 713 (36.2%) cattle blood DNA samples collected from five cities in different geographical regions of Myanmar. Phylogenetic analysis of MPSP sequences from 54 T. orientalis-positive DNA samples revealed the presence of six allelic genotypes, including Types 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, and N-3. Types 5 and 7 were the predominant types detected. Sequences of the MPSP genes detected in Myanmar were closely related to those from Thailand, Vietnam or Mongolia. These findings suggest that movement of animals carrying T. orientalis parasites between Southeast Asian countries could be a reason for the similar genotype distribution of the parasites in Myanmar.

  9. Emergence of new genotype and diversity of Theileria orientalis parasites from bovines in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Neena; Bhandari, Vasundhra; Reddy, D Peddi; Sharma, Paresh

    2015-12-01

    Bovine theileriosis is a serious threat to livestock worldwide. Uncertainty around species prevalence, antigenic diversity and genotypes of strains make it difficult to assess the impact of this parasite and to provide necessary treatment. We aimed to characterize genotypic diversity, phylogeny and prevalence of Theileria orientalis parasites from the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, India by collecting bovine blood samples from the major districts of the two states. Bioinformatic analysis identified antigenic diversity among the prevalent parasite strains using major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene. Our study revealed a prevalence rate of 4.8% (n=41/862) of T. orientalis parasites in bovine animals and a new genotype of T. orientalis parasite which was not previously reported in India. The emergence of these new genotypes could be an explanation for the frequent outbreaks of bovine theileriosis. Further, whole genome sequencing of T. orientalis strains will help to elucidate the genetic factors relevant for transmissibility and virulence as well as vaccine and new drug development.

  10. First identification of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis causing mortality in Mexican tilapia Oreochromis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Cesar; Mancera, Gerardo; Enríquez, Ricardo; Vargas, Augusto; Martínez, Simón; Fajardo, Raúl; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Navarrete, María José; Romero, Alex

    2016-08-01

    Francisellosis, an emerging disease in tilapia Oreochromis spp., is caused by the facultative, intracellular bacterium Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis, which is present in various countries where tilapia farming is commercially important. We confirmed the presence of francisellosis in Mexican tilapia cultures in association with an outbreak during the second semester of 2012. Broodstock fish presented a mortality rate of approximately 40%, and disease was characterized by histologically classified granulomas, or whitish nodules, in different organs, mainly the spleen and kidney. Through DNA obtained from infected tissue and pure cultures in a cysteine heart medium supplemented with hemoglobin, F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis was initially confirmed through the amplification and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes demonstrated close similarity with previously reported F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis sequences obtained from infected tilapia from various countries. The identification of this subspecies as the causative agent of the outbreak was confirmed using the iglC gene as a target sequence, which showed 99.5% identity to 2 F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis strains (Ethime-1 and Toba04). These findings represent the first documented occurrence of francisellosis in Mexican tilapia cultures, which highlights the importance of establishing preventative measures to minimize the spread of this disease within the Mexican aquaculture industry.

  11. Helleborus orientalis als houdbare snijbloem : marktperspectief en invloed teeltklimaat op de houdbaarheid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Victoria, N.; Slootweg, G.

    2014-01-01

    Studenten InHolland hebben marktonderzoek gedaan naar de kansen voor de nieuwe Helleborus orientalis rassen als snijbloem. Dit exclusief seizoensproduct kan meer en directer worden gepromoot met het hogere marktsegment als doelgroep. Voorwaarde voor succes is wel dat de houdbaarheid ervan verbetert.

  12. Helleborus orientalis Queens als houdbare snijbloem II : invloed voorbehandelingsmiddelen en -methodes op de houdbaarheid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Victoria, N.; Slootweg, G.

    2014-01-01

    De Kritische Succes Factor voor een succesvolle marktintroductie van de nieuwe Helleborus orientalis Queens rassen van GreenWorks is een goede houdbaarheid na de oogst. Hiertoe is onder andere een goede, eenduidige strategie nodig voor het voorbehandelen van de bloemen na de oogst, voordat ze het

  13. Environment clearing role of Platanus orientalis in plantations of sanitary function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kapelyush

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of air clearing role of Platanus orientalis L. trees under conditions of environmental contamination is represented. The research has shown sufficiently high ability of the plane-trees to the air cleansing from compounds of sulfur, fluorine, chlorine and phenols.

  14. Environment clearing role of Platanus orientalis in plantations of sanitary function

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Kapelyush; V. P. Bessonova

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of air clearing role of Platanus orientalis L. trees under conditions of environmental contamination is represented. The research has shown sufficiently high ability of the plane-trees to the air cleansing from compounds of sulfur, fluorine, chlorine and phenols.

  15. Helleborus orientalis als houdbare snijbloem : marktperspectief en invloed teeltklimaat op de houdbaarheid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Victoria, N.; Slootweg, G.

    2014-01-01

    Studenten InHolland hebben marktonderzoek gedaan naar de kansen voor de nieuwe Helleborus orientalis rassen als snijbloem. Dit exclusief seizoensproduct kan meer en directer worden gepromoot met het hogere marktsegment als doelgroep. Voorwaarde voor succes is wel dat de houdbaarheid ervan verbetert.

  16. Detection of Theileria orientalis in Iran by semi-nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, Peyman; Hoghooghi-Rad, Nasser; Shayan, Parviz; Eckert, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    In order to identify and differentiate Theileria orientalis in cattle which may be infected with Theileria annulata simultaneously, a semi-nested PCR was performed. Thus, 160 blood samples were collected from apparently healthy native cattle in Golestan province of northern Iran, during 2009 to 2011. The Tbs-S/Tbs-A primer set derived from the 18S rRNA encoding gene was used for first PCR amplification, and the amplified sequence weight by this primer set for Theileria sp. was 426-430 bp. Then, DNA solution from purified PCR product was used for the semi-nested PCR analysis. The first PCR product amplified using T. orientalis primer set (To-S/Tbs-A) derived from the 18SrRNA encoding gene, and this specific primer weight was 235 bp. Also, the first PCR product amplified using T. annulata primer set (Ta-S/Tbs-A) derived from the 18SrRNA encoding gene and this specific primer weight was 193 bp. Having extracted DNA of each sample, using Tbs-S/Tbs-A primer set for PCR and analyzing the PCR products on the 2% agarose gel electrophoresis, 13 out of 160 blood samples (8.12%) were positive for Theileria sp. Meanwhile, performing semi-nested PCR with T. orientalis-specific primers, 9 out of 13 blood samples (5.62%) were positive and performing semi-nested PCR with T. annulata-specific primers, 12 out of 13 blood samples (7.5%) were also positive. This molecular assay approves the presence of T. orientalis in the native cattle of northern parts of Iran for the first time. In addition, this procedure will detect the concurrent infection of T. orientalis and T. annulata in the cattle too.

  17. Composition and Biological Activity of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis Seed and Cone Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2017-03-01

    The increasing consumption of natural products lead us to discover and study new plant materials, such as conifer seeds and cones, which could be easily available from the forest industry as a waste material, for their potential uses. The chemical composition of the essential oils of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis was fully characterized by GC and GC/MS methods. Seed and cone oils of both tree species were composed mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, among which limonene, α- and β-pinene were the major, but in different proportions in the examined conifer essential oils. The levorotary form of chiral monoterpene molecules was predominant over the dextrorotary form. The composition of oils from P. pungens seeds and cones was similar, while the hydrodistilled oils of P. orientalis seeds and cones differed from each other, mainly by a higher amount of oxygenated derivatives of monoterpenes and by other higher molar mass terpenes in seed oil. The essential oils showed mild antimicrobial action, however P. orientalis cone oil exhibited stronger antimicrobial properties against tested bacterial species than those of P. pungens. Effects of the tested cone essential oils on human skin fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were similar: in a concentration of 0 - 0.075 μl/ml the oils were rather safe for human skin fibroblasts and 0 - 0.005 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. IC50 value of Picea pungens oils was 0.115 μl/ml, while that of Picea orientalis was 0.105 μl/ml. The value of IC50 of both oils were 0.035 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. The strongest effect on cell viability had the oil from Picea orientalis cones, while on DNA synthesis the oil from Picea pungens cones. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  18. Parasites of Periplaneta americana linnaeus "domestic cockroach" from Ica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Fernádez B.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 244 specimens of Periplaneta americana Linnaeus from 13 localities of Ica were studied. Nematodes and protozoa were identified. They are Lophomonas blattarum, Leptomonas sp., Leidynema appendiculatum and Hammerschmidtiella diesingi. Also, parasites of man were found, three of which are pathogenic: Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis and Cryptosporidium sp.

  19. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae Extratos de folhas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae atuam como larvicida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Somariva Prophiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito larvicida de extratos hidro-etanólicos de folhas verdes e secas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae em Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. Todos os extratos avaliados induziram mortalidade em larvas de 3º e 4º estágios de Aedes aegypti, após 24 e 48 horas de exposição aos produtos. Embora estudos prévios tenham demonstrado a ação de sementes e frutos de Melia azedarach em larvas de diferentes populações de Aedes aegypti, o presente estudo é o primeiro a reportar o efeito larvicida de folhas verdes e secas desta planta.

  20. Muğla-Fethiye Yöresinde Doğal Yayılış Yapan Crataegus orientalis Pall. ex M.Bieb. Taksonlarının Uçucu Bileşenlerinin Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgin ÖZDERİN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, volatile components of C. orientalis subsp. orientalis and C. orientalis subsp. szovitsii which are belonging an important howthorn taxa for Turkey, was determined. Leaf and flower samples of plant taxa were collected from Muğla-Fethiye in 2012 and dried in room temperature for determining to volatile contents of howthorn taxa and these contents were determined by GC-MS As result of analyses, totally 53 volatile components belonging to C. orientalis subsp. orientalis and C. orientalis subsp. szovitsii taxa were determined. According to GC-MS results, most effective components were determined as 2-Hexenal (38,55%, 3-Hexenol (13,98%, Capronaldehyde (6,81% for C. orientalis subsp. orientalis and Propyl methyl ketone (26.60%, Butyraldehyde(9,37%, 2-Hexenal (6,55% in case C. orientalis subsp. szovitsii

  1. Discovery of a bird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis (Diptera: Carnidae), in Japan, with bionomic remarks and a key to Carnus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Hironori; Asahi, Kento

    2014-03-01

    A bird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis Maa, 1968, is recorded for the first time from Japan, and it is taxonomically reexamined on the basis of specimens collected in Okinawa Prefecture. Adult flies were found from nestlings of Ryukyu scops owl (Otus elegans Cassin, 1852), which is a new host for C. orientalis. Bionomic remarks regarding C. orientalis are presented, and akey to the world species of Carnus is also provided.

  2. Bunias orientalis L. as a natural overwintering host OF Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kobyłko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A virus was isolated, using mechanical inoculation, from hill mustard (Bunias orientalis L. plants exhibiting yellow mottling and blistering on leaves, which were frequently accompanied by asymmetric leaf narrowing. It systemically infected certain plants from the family Brassicaceae (Brassica rapa, Bunias orientalis, Hesperis matronalis, Sinapis alba as well as Cleome spinosa and Nicotiana clevelandii, and locally Atriplex hortensis, Chenopodium quinoa, Ch. amaranticolor, N. tabacum. In the sap, it maintained infectivity for 3-4 days and lost it after heating for 10 min. at a temperature of 55 - 60oC or when diluted with water at 10-3. Virus particles were thread- like with a length of 675 - 710 nm. Based on an analysis of biological properties of the pathogen, serological response, particle morphology and data from field observations, it was identified as an isolate of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, and hill mustard was recognised as a natural overwintering host for this pathogen.

  3. A chromosomal analysis of Nepa cinerea Linnaeus, 1758 and Ranatra linearis (Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Nepidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Angus

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An account is given of the karyotypes and male meiosis of the Water Scorpion Nepa cinerea Linnaeus, 1758 and the Water Stick Insect Ranatra linearis (Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Nepomorpha, Nepidae. A number of different approaches and techniques were tried: the employment of both male and female gonads and mid-guts as the sources of chromosomes, squash and air-drying methods for chromosome preparations, C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for chromosome study. We found that N. cinerea had a karyotype comprising 14 pairs of autosomes and a multiple sex chromosome system, which is X1X2X3X4Y (♂ / X1X1X2X2X3X3X4X4 (♀, whereas R. linearis had a karyotype comprising 19 pairs of autosomes and a multiple sex chromosome system X1X2X3X4Y (♂ / X1X1X2X2X3X3X4X4 (♀. In both N. cinerea and R. linearis, the autosomes formed chiasmate bivalents in spermatogenesis, and the sex chromosome univalents divided during the first meiotic division and segregated during the second one suggesting thus a post-reductional type of behaviour. These results confirm and amplify those of Steopoe (1925, 1927, 1931, 1932 but are inconsistent with those of other researchers. C-banding appeared helpful in pairing up the autosomes for karyotype assembly; however in R. linearis the chromosomes were much more uniform in size and general appearance than in N. cinerea. FISH for 18S ribosomal DNA (major rDNA revealed hybridization signals on two of the five sex chromosomes in N. cinerea. In R. linearis, rDNA location was less obvious than in N. cinerea; however it is suggested to be similar. We have detected the presence of the canonical “insect” (TTAGGn telomeric repeat in chromosomes of these species. This is the first application of C-banding and FISH in the family Nepidae.

  4. [Genoprotective activities of the oils from leaves and fruits of Fagus orientalis Lipsky].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabeĭli, R A; Mirzazade, G G

    2011-01-01

    The antimutagenic activities of the oils obtained from leaves and fruits of Fagus orientalis have been shown in experiments with spontaneous and mutagen- and ageing-induced variability. The aberrations of chromosomes in the meristematic cells of the Allium cepa L., Vicia faba L., Triticum aestivum L., and marrow cells of Vistar rats as well as Arabidopsis thaliana gene mutations have been mobilized as experimental tests.

  5. Temporal dynamics and subpopulation analysis of Theileria orientalis genotypes in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, C; Micallef, M; Alex, S M; Collins, D; Djordjevic, S P; Bogema, D R

    2015-06-01

    In Australia, outbreaks of clinical theileriosis caused by Theileria orientalis have been largely associated with the Ikeda genotype which can occur as a sole infection, or more commonly, as a mixture of genotypes. The most prevalent genotype, Chitose, frequently co-occurs with type Ikeda, however the role of this genotype in clinical disease has not been clearly established. Furthermore, the dynamics of individual genotypes in field infection of cattle have not been examined. In this study we developed quantitative PCR (qPCR) and genotyping methods to examine the role of the Chitose genotype in clinical disease and to investigate the temporal dynamics of T. orientalis Ikeda, Chitose and Buffeli genotypes in naïve animals introduced to a T. orientalis-endemic area. Analysis of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) genes of Chitose isolates revealed the presence of two distinct phylogenetic clusters, Chitose A and Chitose B. A genotyping assay aimed at determining Chitose A/B allele frequency revealed that the Chitose A phylogenetic cluster is strongly associated with clinical disease but nearly always co-occurs with the Ikeda genotype. qPCR revealed that the Chitose genotype (particularly Chitose A), undergoes temporal switching in conjunction with the Ikeda genotype and contributes substantially to the overall parasite burden. The benign Buffeli genotype can also undergo temporal switching but levels of this genotype appear to remain low relative to the Ikeda and Chitose types. Interplay between vector and host immunological factors is presumed to be critical to the population dynamics observed in this study. Genotypic switching likely contributes to the persistence of T. orientalis in the host.

  6. Phragmites australis and Typha orientalis in removal of pollutant in Taihu Lake, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Ziqiang; ZHENG Binghui; LIU Meizhen; ZHANG Zhenyu

    2009-01-01

    Two plant populations of Phragmites australis and Typha orientalis grown in gravel and sediment substrate were studied to assess their capabilities for purifying polluted water in Taihu Lake, China. The substrate displayed most significant effects on the suspended matter (P < 0.01), with the reduction of 76%-87% and 52%-63% for P. australis, and 83%-86% and 45%-62% for T. orientalis in gravel substrate and sediment substrate, respectively. Both species and substrates significantly decreased the N and P concentrations of water body (P < 0.01). P. australis showed higher total N and P concentrations in tissues than T. orientalis and had greater potential to remove nutrients from the lake. Phosphate was easily to concentrate in the belowground tissues, while nitrate concentration was higher in leaf and stalk. Therefore, harvesting the aboveground tissues could take most of nitrate out of the sediment. The saturate photosynthetic rate (Asat) of P. australis was higher than that of T. orientalis when grown in sediment substrate. But instance water use efficiency (WUEi) and intrinsic water use efficiency (A/gs) showed the maximum values of two species grown in river water. With significant difference in gs, however, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) had no obvious difference in two species which indicated that high Asat value of P. australis might result from the increased carboxylation capacity of the mesophyll, because of the central role of N in photosynthetic enzymes. Our findings suggest that the plants could absorb most of nitrogen in polluted water, while gravel displayed high capacity for absorbing the suspended matters and phosphate salts. Therefore, biological and physiological pathways for pollutant removal should be integrated.

  7. Patent ductus arteriosus in an adult amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douay, Guillaume; Drut, Amandine; Ribas, Thibault; Gomis, David; Graille, Mélanie; Lemberger, Karin; Bublot, Isabelle

    2013-03-01

    A clinically healthy 16-yr-old female leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) was diagnosed with a patent ductus arteriosus on echocardiography and later confirmed on necropsy A murmur was heard on auscultation during a routine examination, and the congenital defect was an incidental finding. The animal had been asymptomatic its entire life. This deformity is rarely observed in nondomestic felids and may be asymptomatic, as has been described in domestic cats.

  8. Hypodectes propus (Acarina: Hypoderatidae) in a rufous turtle dove, Streptopelia orientalis (Aves: Columbiformes), in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    An adult male rufous turtle dove, Streptopelia (S.) orientalis (Aves: Columbiformes), was found dead in Yorii-machi Town, Osato District 369-1217, Saitama Prefecture, Japan, and subjected to necropsy. A large number of immobile hypopi (deutonymphs) of the hypoderatid mite, Hypodectes (H.) propus (Acarina: Hypoderatidae), were found individually encapsulated subcutaneously primarily in the adipose tissue. The mites were 1.43 mm in length and 0.44 mm in width on average, and had provoked mild i...

  9. Redescription de l'holotype de Ephemera orientalis Mclachlan, 1875 (Insecta, Ephemeroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoulin, G.

    1965-01-01

    En 1875, R. McLachlan décrivit Ephemera orientalis d'après un unique exemplaire ♂, capturé au Japon par P. F. von Siebold. Depuis lors, l'espèce a été signalée à nouveau, non seulement du Japon, mais de Sibérie orientale, et ce par divers auteurs. Mais aucune iconographie n'en a été donnée. En 1952,

  10. Redescription de l'holotype de Ephemera orientalis Mclachlan, 1875 (Insecta, Ephemeroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoulin, G.

    1965-01-01

    En 1875, R. McLachlan décrivit Ephemera orientalis d'après un unique exemplaire ♂, capturé au Japon par P. F. von Siebold. Depuis lors, l'espèce a été signalée à nouveau, non seulement du Japon, mais de Sibérie orientale, et ce par divers auteurs. Mais aucune iconographie n'en a été donnée. En 1952,

  11. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on the expression of Platanus orientalis pollen allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghy, Farnaz; Sankian, Mojtaba; Moghadam, Maliheh; Ghasemi, Ziba; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2016-06-01

    Air pollutants and their interaction with environmental allergens have been considered as an important reason for the recent increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the traffic pollution effect, as a stressor, on Platanus orientalis pollen allergens messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression. P. orientalis pollen grains were collected along main streets of heavy traffic and from unpolluted sites in Mashhad city, in northeast Iran. The pollen samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. To assess the abundance of pollen allergens (Pla or 1, Pla or 2, and Pla or 3) from polluted and unpolluted sites, immunoblotting was performed. Moreover, the sequences encoding P. orientalis allergens were amplified using real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy showed a number of particles of 150-550 nm on the surface of pollen from polluted sites. Also, protein and gene expression levels of Pla or 1 and Pla or 3 were considerably greater in pollen samples from highly polluted areas than in pollen from unpolluted areas (p public policies aimed at controlling traffic pollution to improve air quality and prevent the subsequent clinical outcomes and new cases of asthma.

  12. Ferulone A and ferulone B: two new coumarin esters from Ferula orientalis L. roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Nahar, Lutfun; Talischi, Hamideh; Sarker, Satyajit Dey

    2016-10-01

    Ferula orientalis (Apiaceae) is a well-known perennial herb growing wild in Iran used in traditional medicine. To perform phytochemical studies, dried ground roots of F. orientalis were sequentially Soxhlet-extracted using n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol. A combination of vacuum liquid chromatography and preparative thin-layer chromatographic analyses were performed to isolate coumarin esters. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and in vitro free-radical-scavenging property was determined by the DPPH assay. Two new coumarin esters, 7-O-(4,8,12,16-tetrahydroxy-4,8,12,16-tetramethyl-heptadecanoyl)-coumarinand 7-O-(4-hydroxy-4,8,12-trimethyl-trideca-7,11-dienoyl)-coumarin, named ferulone A and ferulone B, respectively, were isolated from the n-hexane extract of the roots of F. orientalis. Both compounds showed a low level of free-radical-scavenging property with the RC50 values of 0.252 and 0.556 mg/mL for compounds 1 and 2, respectively, as opposed to that of the positive control (quercetin) 0.004 mg/mL. This is the first report on the purification of coumarin esters from the genus Ferula.

  13. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Buenor Adinortey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials.

  14. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials.

  15. Evaluation of effects of photooxidized Vespa orientalis venom on memory and learning in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mukund

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wasp venom is mixture of complex proteins that have several physical and pharmacological properties. The photochemical detoxification of Vespa orientalis venom is expected to generate photooxidized venom sac extract (PVSE. Antigenically active PVSE is obtained by exposing the venom sac extract (VSE of Vespa orientalis to ultraviolet radiation in the presence of methylene blue. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of PVSE on learning and memory of rats. Detoxification of PVSE was evident since treated mice had longer survival time than the group of mice treated with VSE. Photooxidized VSE of V. orientalis revealed enhancement on learning and memory by shortening the time to reach food (TRF in T-maze. In a 28-day study with rats, we observed that PVSE significantly decreased transfer latency (TL in elevated plus maze (EPM, significantly increased step down latency (SDL, diminished step down errors (SDE and time spent in shock zone (TSS in step down avoidance test. Thus, we concluded that although there is a possibility of employing PVSE in the treatment of Alzheimer, dementia or neurodegenerative illness as a non-herbal and non-synthetic alternative for patients who do not respond to available therapy, further investigation is still required.

  16. Tejón europeo Meles meles (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Salgado I (2014) Tejón europeo Meles meles (Linnaeus, 1758). En: Calzada J, Clavero M, Fernández A (eds). Guía virtual de los indicios de los mamíferos de la Península Ibérica, Islas Baleares y Canarias. Sociedad Española para la Conservación y Estudio de los Mamíferos (SECEM). http://www. secem.es/guiadeindiciosmamiferos/

  17. Molecular epidemiology of bovine Babesia spp. and Theileria orientalis parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Cao, Shinuo; Iguchi, Aiko; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Zhou, Mo; Vudriko, Patrick; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Wongsawang, Witsanu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle production represents the largest cattle population in Thailand. Their productivity is constrained by tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis and theileriosis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria orientalis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic markers that were used for detection of the above parasites were sequenced to determine identities and similarity for Babesia spp. and genetic diversity of T. orientalis. Furthermore the risk factors for the occurrence of the above protozoan parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern parts of Thailand were assessed. A total of 329 blood samples were collected from beef cattle in 6 provinces. The study revealed that T. orientalis was the most prevalent (30.1%) parasite in beef cattle followed by B. bigemina (13.1%) and B. bovis (5.5%). Overall, 78.7% of the cattle screened were infected with at least one of the above parasites. Co-infection with Babesia spp. and T. orientalis was 30.1%. B. bigemina and T. orientalis were the most prevalent (15.1%) co-infection although triple infection with the three parasites was observed in 3.0% of the samples. Sequencing analysis revealed that B. bigemina RAP1 gene and B. bovis SBP2 gene were conserved among the parasites from different cattle samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the T. orientalis MPSP gene from parasites isolated from cattle in north and northeast Thailand was classified into types 5 and 7 as reported previously. Lack of tick control program was the universal risk factor of the occurrence of Babesia spp. and T. orientalis infection in beef cattle in northern and northeastern Thailand. We therefore recommend training of farmers on appropriate tick control strategies and further research on potential vectors for T. orientalis and elucidate the effect of co-infection with Babesia spp. on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis infection on beef in northern and northeastern Thailand

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of Metorchis orientalis (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae): Comparison with other closely related species and phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Lu; Gao, Jun-Feng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Fu, Xue; Su, Xin; Yue, Dong-Mei; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chun-Ren

    2016-04-01

    Metorchis orientalis (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae) is an important trematode infecting many animals and humans, causing metorchiasis. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of M. orientalis was sequenced. The complete mt genome of M. orientalis is 13,834 bp circular DNA molecule and contains 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes. The gene content and arrangement of M. orientalis is the same as those of Opisthorchiidae trematodes (Opisthorchis viverrini, Opisthorchis felineus and Clonorchis sinensis), but distinct from Schistosoma spp. Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes with three different computational algorithms (Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony) revealed that M. orientalis and O. viverrini represent sister taxa. The mt genome provides a novel genetic marker for further studies of the identification, classification and molecular epidemiology of Opisthorchiidae trematodes, and should have implications for the diagnosis, prevention and control of metorchiasis in animals and humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Morfologia externa dos imaturos de Caligo teucer (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae External morphology of the immatures of Caligo teucer (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuda A. de Souza

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve os imaturos de Caligo teucer (Linnaeus, 1758. O material criado é proveniente do nordeste do Brasil. As larvas se alimentam de folhas de bananeira Musa spp. (Musaceae, Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae, Canna indica (Cannaceae e Alpinia purpurata (Zingiberaceae.This paper describes the immatures of Caligo teucer teucer (Linnaeus,1758, from material reared in northeast Brazil. The larva feed on leaves of Musa spp. (Musaceae, Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae, Canna indica (Cannaceae and Alpinia purpurata (Zingiberaceae.

  20. Anatomia e histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos de Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae Anatomy and histochemistry of the vegetative organs of Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Aguilera

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se a anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis, em estrutura primária, enfatizando a caracterização e histoquímica de suas estruturas secretoras. Folhas, caules e raízes foram fixados em FAA50 e em sulfato ferroso e estocados em etanol 70%. Cortes transversais e longitudinais foram submetidos ao azul-de-toluidina pH 4,0, ao vermelho-de-rutênio, à reação de PAS, ao reativo Xylidine Ponceau, ao Sudan Black B e ao reativo Dragendorff. Anatomicamente, os órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis são semelhantes aos caracteres descritos para Asteraceae. As raízes laterais são triarcas e o caule, um eustelo. Ductos estão ausentes na raiz e presentes no caule e na folha. Estas estruturas são de pequeno diâmetro, sendo delimitadas por quatro a cinco células epiteliais. No caule, os ductos estavam presentes no córtex, próximos à endoderme e na medula; nas folhas, associados aos feixes vasculares, tanto para o lado do xilema quanto para o do floema. As folhas são dorsiventrais e anfiestomáticas. Três tipos de estruturas secretoras foram observados: ductos, hidatódios e tricomas glandulares. Os testes histoquímicos aplicados demonstraram a presença de compostos fenólicos e alcalóides nos ductos e, nos tricomas, de compostos lipofílicos e fenólicos. Esses resultados indicam a complexidade da secreção produzida pelas estruturas secretoras na espécie.The anatomy of the vegetative organs of S. orientalis in primary structure was described, emphasizing the characterization and histochemistry of its secretory structures. Leaves, stems and roots were fixed in FAA50 and ferrous sulphate and stored in 70% ethanol. Cross and longitudinal sections were submitted to toluidine blue pH 4.0, ruthenium red, PAS reaction, Ponceau Xylidine reactive, Sudan Black B and Dragendorff reactive. Anatomically, S. orientalis vegetative organs are similar to the characters described for the Asteraceae. The lateral roots are triarches and

  1. Throughfall nutrients in a degraded indigenous Fagus orientalis forest and a Picea abies plantation in the of North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Abbasian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The objective of this study was to compare the quantity and quality of TF (throughfall in an indigenous, but degraded, stand of Fagus orientalis and Picea abies plantation.Area of study: Forests of Kelar-Dasht region located in Mazandaran province, northern Iran.Material and Methods: TF measured by twenty collectors that were distributed randomly underneath each stand. For 21 storms sampled in 2012 (August-December and 2013 (April-June, we analyzed pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, NO3-, and P of  gross rainfall (GR and TF.Main results: Cumulative interception (I for F. orientalis and P. abies were 114.2 mm and 194.8 mm of the total GR, respectively. The amount of K+ (13.4 mg L-1 and Ca2+ (0.9 mg L-1 were higher (for both elements, p = 0.001 in the TF of P. abies compared to those of F. orientalis (6.8 and 0.5, mg L-1, respectively and GR (3.2 and 0.37 mg L-1, respectively. Conversely, mean P concentration was doubled (p = 0.022 in the TF of F. orientalis (11.1 mg L-1 compared to GR (5.8 mg L-1.Research highlights: P. abies plantations may provide a solution for reforestation of degraded F. orientalis forests of northern Iran, yet how P. abies plantations differentially affect the quality and quantity of rainfall reaching subcanopy soils (TF compared to F. orientalis is unknown. Understanding the connection between hydrological processes and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems is crucial for choosing the appropriate species to rehabilitate the degraded indigenous forests with nonindigenous species.  Keywords: concentration; hydrological process; interception; reforestation.

  2. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on the expression of Platanus orientalis pollen allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghy, Farnaz; Sankian, Mojtaba; Moghadam, Maliheh; Ghasemi, Ziba; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2017-01-01

    Air pollutants and their interaction with environmental allergens have been considered as an important reason for the recent increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the traffic pollution effect, as a stressor, on Platanus orientalis pollen allergens messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression. P. orientalis pollen grains were collected along main streets of heavy traffic and from unpolluted sites in Mashhad city, in northeast Iran. The pollen samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. To assess the abundance of pollen allergens (Pla or 1, Pla or 2, and Pla or 3) from polluted and unpolluted sites, immunoblotting was performed. Moreover, the sequences encoding P. orientalis allergens were amplified using real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy showed a number of particles of 150-550 nm on the surface of pollen from polluted sites. Also, protein and gene expression levels of Pla or 1 and Pla or 3 were considerably greater in pollen samples from highly polluted areas than in pollen from unpolluted areas ( p < 0.05). In contrast, no statically significant difference in Pla or 2 protein and mRNA expression level was found between samples from the two areas. We found greater expression of allergens involved in plant defense mechanisms (Pla or 1 and Pla or 3) in polluted sites than in unpolluted ones. The high expression of these proteins can lead to an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. These findings suggest the necessity of supporting public policies aimed at controlling traffic pollution to improve air quality and prevent the subsequent clinical outcomes and new cases of asthma.

  3. Physiological integration ameliorates negative effects of drought stress in the clonal herb Fragaria orientalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchun Zhang

    Full Text Available Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to establish ramets in sites of contrasting resource status. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clones in heterogeneous environments can act as cooperative systems--effects of stress on one ramet can be ameliorated by another connected ramet inhabiting benign conditions. But little is known about the effects of patch contrast on physiological integration of clonal plants and no study has addressed its effects on physiological traits like osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates and antioxidant enzymes. We examined the effect of physiological integration on survival, growth and stress indicators such as osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs and antioxidant enzymes in a clonal plant, Fragaria orientalis, growing in homogenous and heterogeneous environments differing in patch contrast of water availability (1 homogeneous (no contrast group; 2 low contrast group; 3 high contrast group. Drought stress markedly reduced the survival and growth of the severed ramets of F. orientalis, especially in high contrast treatments. Support from a ramet growing in benign patch considerably reduced drought stress and enhanced growth of ramets in dry patches. The larger the contrast between water availability, the larger the amount of support the depending ramet received from the supporting one. This support strongly affected the growth of the supporting ramet, but not to an extent to cause increase in stress indicators. We also found indication of costs related to maintenance of physiological connection between ramets. Thus, the net benefit of physiological integration depends on the environment and integration between ramets of F. orientalis could be advantageous only in heterogeneous conditions with a high contrast.

  4. Modelling the Effects of Radioactive Effluent on Thunnus orientalis and Oncorhynchus gorbuscha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of the Pacific Ocean by the radioactive pollutants released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has raised legitimate concerns over the viability of marine wildlife. We develop a modified Crank-Nicholson method to approximate a solution to the diffusion-advection-decay equation in time and three spatial dimensions to explore the extent of the effects of the radioactive effluent on two marine species: the Pacific Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus orientalis and the Pacific Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha.

  5. The metal effect on the Polyphenol oxidase enzyme from borage(Trachystemon orientalis plant

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    Esma Hande Alıcı

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Polyphenol oxidase was extracted from Borage plant (Trachystemon orientalis and the crude extract was used for the assays. Its pH and temperature optima for 4-methyl cathecol were 5.0 and 5°C, respectively. Km of this enzyme was 4.55 mM for 4-methyl cathecol. We also found that the enzyme was activated by Fe3+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ca2+, K+, but inhibited by Hg2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Sn2+, Na+. Ba2+, Al3+ and Pb2+ metal ions both activated and inhibited the enzyme at different concentrations.

  6. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of HAG1 in the floral organs of Hyacinthus orientalis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宪省; 李全梓; 李兴国; 白书农; 陆文樑

    2000-01-01

    HAG1 gene was isolated from the floral organs of Hyacinthus orientalis L. by using RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that this gene was homologous to AGAMOUS. Northern hybridization indicated that HAG1 was specifically expressed in floral organs using 3’ end of HAG1 as a probe. Further, transcript of this gene was not detected in differentiating tepals induced by lower concentration of hormones, however, it was detected in differentiating stemans by higher concentration of hormones in vitro. It is possible that there is a close relationship between the concentration of hormones, homeotic genes and identities of floral organs.

  7. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of HAG1 in the floral organs of Hyacinthus orientalis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    HAG1 gene was isolated from the floral organs of Hyacinthus orientalis L. by using RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that this gene was homologous to AGAMOUS. Northern hybridization indicated that HAG1 was specifically expressed in floral organs using 3′ end of HAG1 as a probe. Further, transcript of this gene was not detected in differentiating tepals induced by lower concentration of hormones, however, it was detected in differentiating stemans by higher concentration of hormones in vitro. It is possible that there is a close relationship between the concentration of hormones, homeotic genes and identities of floral organs.

  8. Influence of environmental pollution on leaf properties of urban plane trees, Platanus orientalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Rastin, Nayerah; Olbrich, Andrea; Langenfeld-Heyser, Rosemarie; Polle, Andrea

    2010-09-01

    To investigate whether leaves of plane trees (Platanus orientalis) are damaged by traffic pollution, trees from a megacity (Mashhad, Iran) and a rural area were investigated. Soil and air from the urban centre showed enrichment of several toxic elements, but only lead was enriched in leaves. Leaf size and stomata density were lower at the urban site. At the urban site leaf surfaces were heavily loaded by dust particles but the stomata were not occluded; the cuticle was thinner; other anatomical properties were unaffected suggesting that plane trees can cope with traffic exhaust in megacities.

  9. Influence of Environmental Pollution on Leaf Properties of Urban Plane Trees, Platanus orientalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Rastin, Nayerah; Olbrich, Andrea; Langenfeld-Heyser, Rosemarie

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether leaves of plane trees (Platanus orientalis) are damaged by traffic pollution, trees from a megacity (Mashhad, Iran) and a rural area were investigated. Soil and air from the urban centre showed enrichment of several toxic elements, but only lead was enriched in leaves. Leaf size and stomata density were lower at the urban site. At the urban site leaf surfaces were heavily loaded by dust particles but the stomata were not occluded; the cuticle was thinner; other anatomical properties were unaffected suggesting that plane trees can cope with traffic exhaust in megacities. PMID:20577871

  10. Natural history and information overload: The case of Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle

    2012-03-01

    Natural History can be seen as a discipline paradigmatically engaged in 'data-driven research.' Historians of early modern science have begun to emphasize its crucial role in the Scientific Revolution, and some observers of present day genomics see it as engaged in a return to natural history practices. A key concept that was developed to understand the dynamics of early modern natural history is that of 'information overload.' Taxonomic systems, rules of nomenclature, and technical terminologies were developed in botany and zoology to catch up with the ever increasing amount of information on hitherto unknown plant and animal species. In our contribution, we want to expand on this concept. After all, the same people who complain about information overload are usually the ones who contribute to it most significantly. In order to understand this complex relationship, we will turn to the annotation practices of the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778). The very tools that Linnaeus developed to contain and reduce information overload, as we aim to demonstrate, facilitated a veritable information explosion that led to the emergence of a new research object in botany: the so-called 'natural' system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Histochemical and biometric study of the gastrointestinal system of Hyla orientalis (Bedriaga, 1890) (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akat, E; Arıkan, H; Göçmen, B

    2014-11-28

    This study was carried out to assess the localization of hyaluronic acid (HA) and the distribution of glycoproteins in the gastrointestinal system of adult Hyla orientalis. Histochemical analysis of the gastrointestinal system in H. orientalis showed that mucous content included glycogene and/or oxidable dioles [periodic acid/Schiff (PAS)+], neutral or acid-rich (PAS/AB pH 2.5+), sialic acid residues (KOH/PAS+) and acid sulphate [Aldehyde fuchsin (AF)+] glycoproteins. However the mucus content was not the same in stomach, small and large intestine. The mucus content of stomach included only glycogene and/or oxidable dioles and sialic acid residues. Besides these histochemical methods, the localization of HA was detected using biotinylated hyaluronic acid binding protein labeled with streptavidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). In the extracellular matrix of the submucosa, the reaction for HA was evident. Since HA was located in submucosa beneath the epithelial layer of gastrointestinal system, it has a significant role in hydric balance, and essential to provide the gastrointestinal system integrity and functionality. According to biometric results, there were statistical differences between small and large intestine in terms of the amount of material stained positive with PAS/AB, PAS, KOH/PAS and AF/AB. Additionally, number of goblet cells in the small and large intestine was significantly different.

  12. Muscular system in the pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Teleostei: Scombridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio; Shinohara, Gento; Okada, Tokihiko; Matsuura, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    The muscular system in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis is studied in detail. For the first time, a complete description of the muscular anatomy of a thunnid is provided here. Eighty-two elements including subdivisions of components of the muscular system are identified. This is less than found in a basal perciform and two other investigated scombrid species, owing mainly to the absence or fusion of pectoral, pelvic and caudal fin muscles. The absence of elements of the basal perciform pattern was most prominent in the caudal fin, which includes only the flexor dorsalis, flexor ventralis, hypochordal longitudinalis, and interradialis. In the caudal fin, the medial fan-shaped ray was identified as the first dorsal ray, judging from myological and neuroanatomical characters. The highly developed gill filament muscles in Thunnus orientalis and sheet-like rectus communis control gill ventilation. Long body muscle tendons reduce the metabolic energy needed during rapid and continuous swimming. These characters are interpreted as adaptations in the context of the oceanic life style of the species.

  13. Siegesbeckia orientalis Extract Inhibits TGFβ1-Induced Migration and Invasion of Endometrial Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Type II endometrial carcinoma typically exhibits aggressive metastasis and results in a poor prognosis. Siegesbeckia orientalis Linne is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb with several medicinal benefits, including the cytotoxicity against various cancers. This study investigates the inhibitory effects of S. orientalis ethanol extract (SOE on the migration and invasion of endometrial cancer cells, which were stimulated by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ. The inhibitory effects were evaluated by determining wound healing and performing the Boyden chamber assay. This study reveals that SOE can inhibit TGFβ1-induced cell wound healing, cell migration, and cell invasion in a dose-dependent manner in RL95-2 and HEC-1A endometrial cancer cells. SOE also reversed the TGFβ1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, including the loss of the cell-cell junction and the lamellipodia-like structures. Western blot analysis revealed that SOE inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and Akt, as well as the expression of MMP-9, MMP-2, and u-PA in RL95-2 cells dose-dependently. The results of this investigation suggest that SOE is a potential anti-metastatic agent against human endometrial tumors.

  14. Effect of growth regulators on growth of hybrids of east hellebore (Helleborus orientalis Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Henschke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of growth regulators in foliar or soil applications on the growth of Helleborus orientalis ‘Red Hybrids’. Used benzyladenine, gibberellic acid and flurprimidol varying concentrations depending on the method of application. Plant growth was assessed on the basis of plant height, number of resume buds and the number of leaves. Type of growth regulator and method of application had a significant impact on the features. It has been found that the use of BA or BA+GA3, regardless of the application method, will increase the number of resume buds and leaves and decrease the plant height. Flurprimidol in­hibits plant growth, and does not increase the number of resume buds and leaves. In the cultivation of Helleborus orientalis it is recommended to water the plants twice with a mixture of solutions of BA 500 mg·dm-3 + GA3 150 mg·dm-3 at a dose of 50 cm3 per 1 dm3 of medium.

  15. Anti-proliferative activities of terpenoids isolated from Alisma orientalis and their structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Li, Ting; Qiu, Jian-Fang; Wu, Shui-Sheng; Huang, Ming-Qing; Lin, Li-Gen; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Lu, Jin-Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate terpenoids from Alisma orientalis (Sam.) Juzep. and elucidate their antiproliferative activities, as well as structure-activity relationships. Fourteen protostane-type triterpenoids were isolated from the rhizome of A. orientalis. Among these triterpenoids, alisol A (1), alisol A 24-acetate (2), alisol B (3), alisol B 23-acetate (4), and alisol G (8) presented inhibitory effects on cancer cell lines tested. Compounds 3 and 4 showed the highest potential; IC50 values for HepG2, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 cells were 16.28, 14.47, and 6.66 μM for 3 and 18.01, 15.97, and 13.56 μM for 4, respectively. Based on these results, we concluded that the degree of C-16 oxidation and the double bond between C-13 and C-17 may be significant in anti-proliferative activities. Further study showed that 3 and 4 effectively induced apoptosis, as confirmed by flow cytometry. Increased intracellular calcium concentration and endoplasmic reticulum stress were detected after treatment with 4 in HepG2 cells. Although compounds 1 and 2 induced minimal apoptosis, they evidently delayed the G2/M phase in HepG2 cells. Further study showed that 1-4 also enhanced LC3II expression, indicating autophagy is occured.

  16. Hypodectes propus (Acarina: Hypoderatidae) in a rufous turtle dove, Streptopelia orientalis (Aves: Columbiformes), in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Inui, Kosei; Kimura, Junpei; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2013-01-01

    An adult male rufous turtle dove, Streptopelia (S.) orientalis (Aves: Columbiformes), was found dead in Yorii-machi Town, Osato District 369-1217, Saitama Prefecture, Japan, and subjected to necropsy. A large number of immobile hypopi (deutonymphs) of the hypoderatid mite, Hypodectes (H.) propus (Acarina: Hypoderatidae), were found individually encapsulated subcutaneously primarily in the adipose tissue. The mites were 1.43 mm in length and 0.44 mm in width on average, and had provoked mild inflammatory reactions that predominantly manifested as foamy macrophages and lymphoplasmocytes. PCR analysis using ribosomal DNA extracted from paraffin-blocked tissues produced a 240 bp band specific for hypoderatids. Based on the morphological features (distinct coxal apodemes, especially in the anterior portion) and PCR-based findings, the hypopi were identified as H. propus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the subcutaneous mite H. propus in a rufous turtle dove, S. orientalis, in Japan. This study also highlights the use of paraffin blocks as a source of tissue DNA for molecular evaluation.

  17. Transplantation immunity in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana: the rejection of integumentary grafts from Blatta orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, R D; Meade, C C

    1993-01-01

    The results from several previous studies have indicated that the American cockroach is able to respond to integumentary xenografts, but doubt remained as to whether cockroaches could effectively discriminate between self and allogeneic differences. This was emphasized by the fact that while one study reported that Periplaneta americana responded to grafts donated by the closely related genus Blatta orientalis, the data reported elsewhere, using a different assay system, found no such reactivity. Since we have subsequently reported, using a direct histological assay, that Periplaneta can in fact recognize and destroy integumentary allografts, we initiated a study to hopefully sort out the enigma presented by previous data using Blatta as a transplant donor. Integument from Blatta orientalis was transplanted orthotopically onto Periplaneta americana, and at various time points post-transplant, scored histologically for the survival of the subcuticular epidermal layer. The results clearly demonstrated that Periplaneta reacted to the Blatta tissue, because approximately 82% of the grafts had the epidermal layer destroyed by day 7 posttransplant. The kinetics of the response to Blatta was more in line with our allograft data, which would be in agreement with other work indicating that the closer the donor and recipient are on the phylogenetic tree, the less intense the reactivity to the foreign transplant.

  18. First record of Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae is recorded for the first time in Brazil (Bahia. It was originally described from Europe and is currently widely distributed in that continent and Asia.

  19. Efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in Nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) (syn. F. asiatica) is an emergent Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. Although it is considered one of the most pathogenic bacteria in fish, there are no commercially available treatments of vaccines. The objective of this project was ...

  20. Genetically modified yeast of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely relates species, and fermentation processes using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Highland Ranch, CO; Pentilla, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI; Koivuranta, Kari [Vantaa, FI; Roberg-Perez, Kevin [Minneapolis, MN

    2012-01-17

    Cells of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely related yeast species are transformed with a vector to introduce an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene. The cells produce lactic acid efficiently and are resistant at low pH, high lactate titer conditions.

  1. Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

    2012-03-01

    Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species (Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from nativespecies.

  2. Larval morphology of Atherigona orientalis (Schiner) (Diptera: Muscidae) - a species of sanitary and forensic importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Larval morphology is documented using both light and scanning electron microscopy for all three instars of the muscid fly Atherigona orientalis (Schiner), which is a species of known sanitary and forensic importance found in tropical and subtropical areas of all biogeographic regions. The unpaire...

  3. Development of Mamestra brassicae and its solitary endoparasitoid Microplitis mediator on two populations of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Gols, R.

    2011-01-01

    The warty cabbage Bunias orientalis is an invasive pest in much of central Europe, including much of Germany since the 1980s, whereas in other countries, such as The Netherlands, it is a less common exotic species. Here, healthy larvae of Mamestra brassicae, which has been found feeding on B. orient

  4. Development of Mamestra brassicae and its solitary endoparasitoid Microplitis mediator on two populations of the invasive weed, Bunias orientalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Gols, R.

    2011-01-01

    The warty cabbage Bunias orientalis is an invasive pest in much of central Europe, including much of Germany since the 1980s, whereas in other countries, such as The Netherlands, it is a less common exotic species. Here, healthy larvae of Mamestra brassicae, which has been found feeding on B. orient

  5. Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

    2012-03-01

    Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species ( Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from native species.

  6. Evidence of Sperm Storage in Nursehound (Scyliorhinus stellaris, Linnaeus 1758): Juveniles Husbandry and Tagging Program

    OpenAIRE

    Primo Micarelli; Emilio Sperone; Fabrizio Serena; Leonard J. V. Compagno

    2016-01-01

    Nursehound, Scyliorhinus stellaris (Linnaeus 1758), is a shark of the Scyliorhinidae family, close to the Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus 1758), frequently hosted in public aquaria. Information on biology and ecology is deficiently available regarding this species of sharks. In the Mediterranean basin, they are occasional rare and vulnerable species (Serena, 2005). In 2003 a female specimen of Scyliorhinus stellaris, 90 cm long, fished in the Tyrrhenian Sea was transferred to Tuscany Argentar...

  7. Helminths of the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Worm burdens were evaluated and compared in two groups of the guinea pig, Cavia poreellus (Linnaeus, 1758: animals of the first group were conventionally maintained in an institutional animal house and those of the second group were openly kept in pet shops in Brazil. Animals from both sources were infected only with the nematode Paraspidodera uncinata (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1914 (10% of prevalence in guinea pigs from lhe institutional facility and 40% in those animals from the pet shop. Other helminth samples recovered from Brazilian guinea pigs during 52 years and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CHIOC were also analyzed. Paraspidodera uncinata and the cestode Monoecocestus parcitesticulatus Rêgo, 1960 were identified in these samples.

  8. Attempted eradication of Porphyrio porphyrio Linnaeus in the Florida Everglades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave EGGEMAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrio porphyrio (Fulica porphyrio Linnaeus was reported to the South Florida Water Management District in a Water Conservation Area and in constructed wetlands in the Everglades in 2006. A rapid assessment, including casual observations and surveys of land managers, indicated a limited number of P. porphyrio (~300 birds was present, and an eradication attempt was initiated. From 2006 – 2008, more than 3100 P. porphyrio were killed by shotgun from airboats during 73 hunts, suggesting the initial population assessment was severely underestimated. After removing nearly 1500 P. porphyrio in 2008, we concluded that eradication was not possible. Failure of this eradication attempt is attributed to P. porphyrio’s affinity with dense emergent vegetation, which greatly limited shooting effectiveness. Further, the failed eradication underscores the importance of a reporting network to improve early detection and the chance to eliminate naturalized or feral populations of non‐native species.

  9. Is there a Future for the Isolated Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky Forests in Southern Turkey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YILMAZ, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky is mainly found in the northern region of Turkey.There is also an approximate 40,000 ha of isolated relict oriental beech forest in southern Turkey. Thisrelict population differs somewhat from the northern distribution in terms of average altitudinaldistribution, health conditions, and reactions to climate change. Beech forest distribution in southernTurkey starts at about 1000 m, contrary to the northern distribution, which begins at about 150-200 m. Insouthern Turkey, the average temperature is higher, and summer drought occurs due to irregular rainfall.Beech trees in the south decay at earlier ages due to their sprout origins and higher temperatures than in thenorth. In recent decades, some part of the beech forests have shed leaves during the summer in response tosevere drought. Therefore, these relict populations are on the verge of extinction under unfavorableconditions.

  10. Effect of Altitude and Aspect on Wood-Water Relations of Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Topaloğlu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of altitude and aspect on wood-water relations in Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. were studied. Study area divided into five altitude steps and two aspect groups, total of 20 trees were cut off. In order to determine the wood-water relations; volume density value, fiber saturation point, maximum moisture content, and shrinkage and swelling percentages were determined. According to results, with 95% significance level (p<0,05, altitude affects volume density value, shrinkage and swelling percentages, fiber saturation point and maximum moisture content; aspect affects volume density value, tangential and radial shrinkage percentages, volumetric shrinkage percentage, tangential and longitudinal swelling percentages, fiber saturation point and maximum moisture content while it has no effect on longitudinal shrinkage percentage, radial and volumetric swelling percentages. Results demonstrated that northern aspect and first altitude step has the lowest values, thus, this aspect and altitude step making a suitable place for this tree species to be used as solid wood.

  11. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction and in vitro antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Trametes orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Li, Yong; Wang, Wei-dong

    2014-10-13

    A Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize ultrasonic-assisted extraction of Trametes orientalis polysaccharides (TOP). The crude polysaccharides were purified by DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography, giving a main fraction named as PTOP. The antioxidant properties of PTOP were evaluated by different in vitro antioxidant assays, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, reducing power, superoxide radical scavenging activities, and chelating ability of ferrous ions. The results showed that optimal extraction parameters were as follows: ratio of water to raw material 30.6 mL/g, ultrasonic power 109.8 W, extraction temperature 40.2 °C, and extraction time 42.2 min. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 7.49 ± 0.14%, which agreed closely with the predicted value (7.47%). Furthermore, PTOP exhibited antioxidant capacity in a concentration-dependent manner in all assays.

  12. The effects of selected pre-treatments on germination of seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Halil Bariş

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of some pre-treatments implemented on seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis), which has wide geographical variation along Turkey on germination percentage values were investigated. For this purpose, 13 different pre-treatments were implemented to seeds obtained from 17 different populations. According to the obtained results (except control seeds), pre-treatments leading to lowest germination percentage value (8.1%) in Oriental hornbeam seeds was PT10: Keeping seeds for 90 min in sulfuric acid, while highest germination percentage (86.58%) has been obtained with pre-treatment PT13: Implementation of 40% dose of Baikal EM1 + Biohoumous mixture to the seeds, while lowest germination percentage (40.50%) was observed on seeds collected from P7 (Bartin-Kozcağiz) population, highest germination percentage was observed in seeds obtained from P17 (Artvin-Hopa) population.

  13. 'Missing link' species Capsella orientalis and Capsella thracica elucidate evolution of model plant genus Capsella (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurka, Herbert; Friesen, Nikolai; German, Dmitry A; Franzke, Andreas; Neuffer, Barbara

    2012-03-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary history of the genus Capsella, we included the hitherto poorly known species C. orientalis and C. thracica into our studies together with C. grandiflora, C. rubella and C. bursa-pastoris. We sequenced the ITS and four loci of noncoding cpDNA regions (trnL - F, rps16, trnH -psbA and trnQ -rps16). Sequence data were evaluated with parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Divergence time estimates were carried out with the software package BEAST. We also performed isozyme, cytological, morphological and biogeographic studies. Capsella orientalis (self-compatible, SC; 2n = 16) forms a clade (eastern lineage) with C. bursa-pastoris (SC; 2n = 32), which is a sister clade (western lineage) to C. grandiflora (self-incompatible, SI; 2n = 16) and C. rubella (SC; 2n = 16). Capsella bursa-pastoris is an autopolyploid species of multiple origin, whereas the Bulgarian endemic C. thracica (SC; 2n = 32) is allopolyploid and emerged from interspecific hybridization between C. bursa-pastoris and C. grandiflora. The common ancestor of the two lineages was diploid and SI, and its distribution ranged from eastern Europe to central Asia, predominantly confined to steppe-like habitats. Biogeographic dynamics during the Pleistocene caused geographic and genetic subdivisions within the common ancestor giving rise to the two extant lineages. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Mutation scanning-based analysis of Theileria orientalis populations in cattle following an outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cufos, Nadia; Jabbar, Abdul; de Carvalho, Luís M; Gasser, Robin B

    2012-07-01

    Bovine theileriosis is a tick-borne disease caused by one or more hemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Theileria. In the past, Theileria infection in cattle in Australia was largely asymptomatic and recognized to be associated with Theileria buffeli. However, outbreaks of theileriosis have occurred in beef and dairy cattle in subtropical climatic regions (New South Wales) of Australia. There is also one published report of a recent theileriosis outbreak in a beef farm near Seymour in the southeastern state of Victoria. In order to gain an improved insight into the genetic composition of Theileria populations following this outbreak, we undertook herein an integrated PCR-coupled mutation scanning-sequencing-phylogenetic analysis of sequence variation in part of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene within and among samples from cattle involved in the outbreak. Theileria DNA was detected in 89.4% of 94 cattle in the Seymour farm; the genetic analysis showed that the ikeda and chitose genotypes representing the Theileria orientalis complex were detected in 75 and 4.8% of 84 infected cattle, respectively, and that mixed populations of these two genotypes were found in 20.2% of infected cattle. Given unpublished reports of a significant increase in the number of outbreaks in Victoria, future investigations should focus sharply on elucidating the epidemiology of Theileria to subvert the economic impact on the cattle industry in this state. Although used here to explore genetic variation within the T. orientalis complex in Australia, a mutation scanning-based approach has broad applicability to other species of Theileria in other countries.

  15. Nickel affects gill and muscle development in oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan

    2017-01-01

    The developmental toxicity of nickel was examined in the embryos of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian in Korea. Based on a standard frog embryo teratogenesis assay, the LC50 and EC50 for malformation of nickel after 168h of treatment were 33.8μM and 5.4μM, respectively. At a lethal concentration (100μM), nickel treatment decreased the space between gill filaments and caused epithelial swelling and abnormal fusion of gill filaments. These findings suggest that nickel affects the functional development of gills, leading to embryonic death. At sublethal concentrations (1-10μM), nickel produced multiple embryonic abnormalities, including bent tail and tail dysplasia. At 10μM, nickel significantly decreased tail length and tail muscle fiber density in tadpoles, indicating inhibition of myogenic differentiation. Before hatching, the pre-muscular response to muscular response stages (stages 26-31) were the most sensitive period to nickel with respect to tail muscle development. During these stages, MyoD mRNA was upregulated, whereas myogenic regulatory factor 4 mRNA was downregulated by 0.1μM nickel. Calcium-dependent kinase activities in muscular response stage embryos were significantly decreased by nickel, whereas these activities were restored by exogenous calcium. In tadpoles, 10μM nickel significantly decreased the expression of the myosin heavy chain and the 12/101 muscle marker protein in the tail. Expression was restored by exogenous calcium. Our results indicate that nickel affects muscle development by disrupting calcium-dependent myogenesis in developing B. orientalis embryos.

  16. Phytochemical characterization of phenolics by LC-MS/MS and biological evaluation of Ajuga orientalis from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Göger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reveal the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Ajuga orientalis. According to the antimicrobial results, the methanol extract of A. orientalis showed a MIC value of 312.5 µg/mL against the tested pathogenic bacterial strains. Anticandidal activity of extract was found as 156.3 µg/mL both against Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis strains. Whereas the extract was more effective against C. tropicalis with the MIC value of 78.1 µg/mL. The in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extract was determined as IC50=0.4 ± 0.02 mg/mL whereas the standard BHT IC50 was 0.01 ± 0.00 mg/mL. Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC of extract was determined 1.3 mM TEAC, while BHT, 1.9 mM TEAC.

  17. Analysis of essential oils from Scutellaria orientalis ssp. alpina and S. utriculata by GC and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Piozzi, Franco; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides

    2011-09-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Scutellaria orientalis L. ssp. alpina (Boiss.) O. Schwarz and S. utriculata Labill. growing wild in Lebanon, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In S. orientalis ssp. alpina, strongly characterized by sesquiterpenes (41.2%) and particularly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (31.7%), hexahydrofarnesylacetone (11.7%) was recognized as the main constituent, together with hexadecanoic acid (7.6%), caryophyllene (7.4%), caryophyllene oxide (6.8%), 4-vinylguaiacol (5.4%) and germacrene D (5.4%). S. utriculata oil was instead constituted above all by monoterpenes (42.2%), particularly oxygen containing monoterpenes (39.9%), and in this oil the main compounds were linalool (20.1%), 4-vinyl guaiacol (15.5%), alpha-terpineol (8.9%), (E)-nerolidol (8.9%) and geraniol (8.2%).

  18. Evaluation of New Schemes Efficacy for Blatta Orientalis and Blattella Germanica Control in Food Units with HACCP Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINELA REFUGJATI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blatta orientalis and Blattella germanica are the most common pests in the food industry. The aim of this study is the evaluation of new treatment schemes effectiveness as well as the monetary cost, humans and environment toxicity against Blatta orientalis and Blattella germanica. The study was carried out in 28 food units infested with Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis in Tirana. The duration of the study was 24 months. The treatment efficacy of 2.15% imidacloprid (in gel form is tested for 12 months, in thirteen units meanwhile one unit served as a control unit. The monetary cost of insecticide mentioned was calculated using the quantity and treatment duration of insecticide applied. For this reason, we calculated the quantity of gel baits used in seven food units as well as the quantity of insecticide in spray form used in seven others food units for a period of 12 months. Technical and safety data sheets were used to assess human and environment safety. Insect elimination was achieved by the end of the ninth week. This study found that in the units which used imidacloprid the short term cost was 21 Euro / unit, while in other units which used the classic method the cost was 8.3 Euro / unit. Our study identified that at the units which used imidacloprid the annual cost was 68 Euro while in the other category the cost was 78 Euro.Technical and safety data sheets detected that insecticides in gel form are safer for human and environment. As in analog studies conducted by foreign researchers, we found that the use of insecticides in gel form is the right choice for Blatta orientalis and Blattella germanica control.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genomes of Umalia orientalis and Lyreidus brevifrons: The phylogenetic position of the family Raninidae within Brachyuran crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guohui; Cui, Zhaoxia; Hui, Min; Liu, Yuan; Chan, Tin-Yam; Song, Chengwen

    2015-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of two primitive crabs, Umalia orientalis and Lyreidus brevifrons (Decapoda: Brachyura: Raninidae) were determined. The mitogenomes of the two species are 15,466 and 16,112bp in length with AT content of 68.0% and 70.6%, respectively. Each genome contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. The gene arrangement of U. orientalis is the same with those reported for most brachyuran species. Nevertheless, the gene arrangement of L. brevifrons differs from that of U. orientalis in having an additional non-coding region. The newly found non-coding region is located between nad3 and trnA with 641bp in length. Its nucleotide composition and secondary structure are similar to the typical control region. In L. brevifrons, the secondary structures of trnS-AGN and trnI are significantly different from those in U. orientalis and other brachyuran species. The start codon for cox1 is ATG in all reported Eubrachyura mitogenomes, while a common start codon ACG is found in the Podotremata. Phylogenetic analyses for crustacean decapods based on the nucleotide and amino acid of 13 PCGs indicate that Homolidae is more primitive in Brachyura, and Raninidae is a sister group to Eubrachyura. This implies that Raninidae is closer to Eubrachyura than to Homolidae, and Podotremata may be a paraphyletic assemblage. The results also indicate that the subfamily Lyreidinae is closer to Notopodinae than to Ranininae within Raninidae. The novel mitogenome data provides useful information for refining the phylogenetic relationships within Brachyura.

  20. [Individual identification of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) using molecular-genetic methods and estimation of the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhnov, V V; Sorokin, P A; Lukarevskiĭ, V S; Naĭdenko, S V; Ernandes-Blanko, Kh A; Lukarevskiĭ, S V

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, the genetic structure of a population of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) in southwest Primorie was analyzed in detail. In 2010-2012, 23 individuals were identified individually. It was shown that the studied microsatellite markers are suitable for individual identification of leopards, monitoring the population numbers, and creating a unified database of genetic profiles of this species to solve research and nature-preserving tasks.

  1. Physiological and biochemical changes associated with flower development and senescence in so far unexplored Helleborus orientalis Lam. cv. Olympicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahri, Waseem; Tahir, Inayatullah; Islam, Sheikh Tajamul; Bhat, Mushtaq Ahmad

    2011-03-01

    The so far unexplored H. Orientalis cv. Olympicus exhibits a unique pattern of flower senescence, involving re-greening of creamy white petaloid sepals at the later stages. The greenish sepals become photosynthetically competent immediately after pollination and persist until the seeds are set. After the seed set, the entire (green) flower abscises from the plant. Flower development of Helleborus orientalis cv. Olympicus growing in the open was divided into six stages (I-VI) from tight bud stage to the senescent stage. The average life span of an individual flower after it is fully open is about 6 days. Membrane permeability of sepal tissues estimated as electrical conductivity of leachates increased during senescence. The content of sugars and soluble proteins in the sepal tissues increased during flower opening and declined thereafter during senescence. The protease activity increased as the flower progressed towards senescence. From the present study, it becomes evident that decline in the sugar status and elevation in specific protease activity leading to degradation of proteins are the important factors regulating development and senescence in H. orientalis flowers. Although the tissue content of soluble proteins registered an overall quantitative decrease but SDS-PAGE of protein extract from sepal tissues suggested a decrease in the expression of high molecular weight proteins and an increase in low molecular weight proteins during flower development and senescence. At this stage it is not known whether the polypeptides that increased during senescence play an important role in the senescence of Helleborus orientalis flowers. The increase in these polypeptides during flower senescence is of particular interest because they may be linked to flower longevity. Understanding the nature of these proteins can provide new insights into the pathways that execute senescence and the post-transcriptional regulation of senescence in this flower system.

  2. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus (Nematoda: Diplogastridae) is associated with the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias; Mayer, Werner E; Hong, Ray L; Kienle, Simone; Minasaki, Ryuji; Sommer, Ralf J

    2007-09-01

    Pristionchus pacificus has been developed as a nematode satellite organism in evolutionary developmental biology. Detailed studies of vulva development revealed multiple differences in genetic and molecular control in P. pacificus compared to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. To place evolutionary developmental biology in a comprehensive evolutionary context, such studies have to be complemented with ecology. In recent field studies in western Europe and eastern North America we found 11 Pristionchus species that are closely associated with scarab beetles and the Colorado potato beetle. However, P. pacificus was not commonly found in association with scarab beetles in these studies. Here, we describe the results of a similar survey of scarab beetles in Japan. Pristionchus pacificus was the most common Pristionchus species on scarab beetles in Japan, with 40 out of 43 (93%) isolates. The other Pristionchus isolates represent three novel species, which we refer to as Pristionchus sp. 11, Pristionchus sp. 14, and Pristionchus sp. 15. Thirty-seven of the established P. pacificus strains were found on the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis. Laboratory studies with the sex pheromone (Z)-7-tetradecen-2-one of the oriental beetle revealed that P. pacificus shows strong olfactory attraction to the beetle's sex pheromone, which provides a potential mechanism for the recognition and interaction of P. pacificus and E. orientalis. Together, this study identifies P. pacificus as the most common Pristionchus nematode in field studies in Japan, identifies E. orientalis as an important host species, and provides the basis for the ecology of P. pacificus.

  3. Involvement of Acetobacter orientalis in the production of lactobionic acid in Caucasian yogurt ("Caspian Sea yogurt") in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, T; Kiso, T; Nakano, H; Ooe, K; Kimura, T; Murakami, H

    2009-01-01

    Lactobionic acid was first found in a Caucasian fermented milk product popularly known as "Caspian Sea yogurt" in Japan. The presence of lactobionic acid in the fermented milk was indicated by the results of both high-performance anion-exchange chromatographic analysis with pulsed amperometric detection and mass spectrometric analysis. Thereafter, the acid was purified from the yogurt and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. A substantial amount of lactobionic acid was found to be accumulated in the upper layer of the yogurt, especially within 10 mm from the surface. A total of 45 mg of lactobionic acid per 100 g of the upper yogurt layer was collected after 4 d of fermentation. The annual intake of lactobionic acid in individuals consuming 100 g of the yogurt every day would be 0.5 to 1.0 g. A lactose-oxidizing bacterium was isolated from the fermented milk and was identified as Acetobacter orientalis. Washed A. orientalis cells oxidized monosaccharides such as d-glucose at considerable rates, although their activities for substrates such as lactose, maltose, and cellobiose were much lower. When A. orientalis cells were cultivated in cow's milk, they exhibited lactose-oxidizing activity, suggesting that this bacterium was the main organism involved in the production of lactobionic acid in the yogurt.

  4. Investigation of the index case herd and identification of the genotypes of Theileria orientalis associated with outbreaks of bovine anaemia in New Zealand in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, D J; McFadden, Amj; Hamilton, J S; Donald, J

    2016-01-01

    On 7 September 2012 the Ministry for Primary Industries was notified of a dairy cow with regenerative anaemia (haematocrit (HCT) 0.08 L/L) in a herd of 465 Jersey-Friesian cross cows (index case herd) in the Northland region of New Zealand. Organisms consistent with Theileria spp. were present in red blood cells on a blood smear. No other causes of anaemia were detected following examination of affected cows. Blood samples collected from 29 randomly selected cows on 26 September 2012 showed that 24 (83%) were anaemic (HCT≤0.24 L/L) and therefore fitted the case definition for bovine anaemia associated with Theileria orientalis infection. Using a T. orientalis type-specific PCR assay that targeted the single subunit rRNA gene, all of six animals tested were positive for T. orientalis type Ikeda. Blood samples collected from clinically affected cattle in 11 subsequent outbreaks from throughout the North Island showed that T. orientalis Ikeda type was a common finding, but mixed infections with Chitose type were also identified. In addition, using a PCR assay that targeted the major piroplasm surface gene, T. orientalis type 5 was detected in one cow from the Waikato region. The presence of T. orientalis type Ikeda, as well as type 5, was confirmed in cattle from outbreaks of bovine anaemia in herds throughout the North Island of New Zealand. Two new types of T. orientalis were identified in this investigation, that were associated with a sudden rise in cases of bovine anaemia. The body of evidence showed that the Ikeda type was implicated as the cause of disease observed in this epidemic.

  5. A study of the type series of Nautilus pompilius Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca, Cephalopoda, Nautilida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, Svetlana V

    2015-05-25

    Few animals are treasured by zoologists more than Nautilus, and Nautilus pompilius Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of the genus, in particular. However, the type series of this species has not been studied in great detail. According to the rules of zoological nomenclature the type series consists of all the specimens included by the author in the new nominal taxon at the time of description (whether directly or by bibliographic reference), and any evidence, published or unpublished, may be taken into account to determine what specimens are included. The type series of Nautilus pompilius includes specimens in the Linnean Society of London, the University Museum in Uppsala, and specimens figured by pre-Linnaean authors indicated by reference by Linnaeus (1758). One specimen in London and four specimens in Uppsala, which are still extant, are likely to have been known to Linnaeus at the time when he prepared the 10th Edition of Systema Naturae (Linnaeus 1758), although none of these specimens was specifically mentioned by him. Even though it is widely believed that Linnaeus (1767) designated as lectotype a specimen figured by Rumphius (1705) in his D'Amboinsche Rariteitkamer, referred to in the Systema Naturae, this presumed lectotypification is not valid because Linnaeus did not explicitly indicate that any particular specimen was considered to be the type of the species. Later lectotype designations of Rumphius' illustrations are invalid because they show three different specimens. It seems that the best approach, given the quality of the material and the lack of clarity as to its type status, would be to apply to the ICZN asking to set aside all previous type fixations and designate a neotype, preferably a DNA sequenced specimen of known provenance.

  6. Homage to Linnaeus: How many parasites? How many hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Andy; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Jetz, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of the total number of species that inhabit the Earth have increased significantly since Linnaeus's initial catalog of 20,000 species. The best recent estimates suggest that there are ≈6 million species. More emphasis has been placed on counts of free-living species than on parasitic species. We rectify this by quantifying the numbers and proportion of parasitic species. We estimate that there are between 75,000 and 300,000 helminth species parasitizing the vertebrates. We have no credible way of estimating how many parasitic protozoa, fungi, bacteria, and viruses exist. We estimate that between 3% and 5% of parasitic helminths are threatened with extinction in the next 50 to 100 years. Because patterns of parasite diversity do not clearly map onto patterns of host diversity, we can make very little prediction about geographical patterns of threat to parasites. If the threats reflect those experienced by avian hosts, then we expect climate change to be a major threat to the relatively small proportion of parasite diversity that lives in the polar and temperate regions, whereas habitat destruction will be the major threat to tropical parasite diversity. Recent studies of food webs suggest that ≈75% of the links in food webs involve a parasitic species; these links are vital for regulation of host abundance and potentially for reducing the impact of toxic pollutants. This implies that parasite extinctions may have unforeseen costs that impact the health and abundance of a large number of free-living species.

  7. [On similarities and differences between morphological concepts of Linnaeus and Goethe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korona, V V

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of C. Linnaeus' and J.W. Goethe's morphological ideas shows that they both deal with structure of object under study however Linnaeus understood it perceptive structure while Goethe as its proper structure. Perceptive structure is an image (Gestalt) formed in observer's mind and recognized by the discriminating traits. The proper object structure is composed of its morphological elements, that can be distinguished only by a special study of their transformations. Notion of the plants modular construction originated within Goethe's ideas about plant morphology. We cannot expect any remarkable advances in modular theory as well in the descriptive and constructive morphology until conceptual differences between these two approaches will be understood.

  8. The lectotypification of two names referred by Linnaeus to the genus Illecebrum (Caryophyllales)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iamonico, Duilio; Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    . javanicum. Illecebrum bengalense is here lectotypified with a specimen preserved at LINN and is placed in synonymy with Nothosaerva brachiata. Illecebrum javanicum, based on Iresine javanica, is lectotypified with a Burman illustration. The name Aerva tomentosa is placed in synonymy of Iresine javanica. ......Linnaeus had a broad concept of Illecebrum and, based on the current circumscription wherein the genus is considered  monotypic, only one out of the seventeen names Linnaeus treated in combination with Illecebrum – I. verticillatum – remains in the genus. The other sixteen names are now referred...

  9. In vitro antihistamine-releasing activity of a peptide derived from wasp venom of Vespa orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jafar Jalaei; Mehdi Fazeli; Hamid Rajaian; Somayeh Layeghi Ghalehsoukhteh; Alireza Dehghani; Dominic Winter

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antihistamine-releasing effect of a peptide isolated from wasp venom of Vespa orientalis.Methods: This peptide was separated from crude venom by chromatography methods and mass spectrometry. Then various concentrations(2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 and256 mmol/L) of the peptide were incubated with mast cells and lactate dehydrogenase assay was performed.Results: No significant effect was observed in lactate dehydrogenase absorbance under128 mmol/L concentration. This implied that the peptide did not cause cell death in mast cells and consequently, histamine release did not happen. Moreover, the results showed the IC50 of mast cells degranulation at 126 mmol/L, which was approximately high implying that this peptide had high selectivity for normal cells and did not cause histamine release from these cells.Conclusions: This would be a great aim in new drug development, in which an agent acts potentially on its target tissue without activating the immune system.

  10. Analysis of release cutting effects on increment and growth in Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücesan, Zafer; Ozçelik, Sevilay; Oktan, Ercan

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effects of release cuttings on stand structures and increment and growth relations were investigated in afforested oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stands. To maximize spatial variation in dataset, stratified random sampling was used to layout transects. 24 sampling plots were determined which reflects average characteristics of actual stand structure. 8 sampling plots were selected from unthinned stands, 8 sampling plots were selected from lightly thinned (19% of the total basal area removed) stand and 8 sampling plots were selected from heavily thinned (40% of the total basal area removed) stand. Light thinning was done in the year 2008 and heavy thinning in 2009. Stem analyses were carried out and pre- and post-treatment height, diameter, basal area and volume increments were examined according to thinning intensities. Obtained results showed that removal of 40% of the basal area does not contribute to stand increment and growth more positively than those in stands treated by removal of 19% of the basal area. Expected increase in height and diameter increment did not occurr post-treatment in 2008 and 2009. However, in only lightly thinned stands mean basal area increment increased after treatment. Release cuttings in beech stand needs to be practiced at least twice every 5 to 6 years, provided that peculiar characteristics of every habitat are considered.

  11. Anti-Proliferative Effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis Ethanol Extract on Human Endometrial RL-95 Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is a common malignancy of the female genital tract. This study demonstrates that Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE significantly inhibited the proliferation of RL95-2 human endometrial cancer cells. Treating RL95-2 cells with SOE caused cell arrest in the G2/M phase and induced apoptosis of RL95-2 cells by up-regulating Bad, Bak and Bax protein expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression. Treatment with SOE increased protein expression of caspase-3, -8 and -9 dose-dependently, indicating that apoptosis was through the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, SOE was also effective against A549 (lung cancer, Hep G2 (hepatoma, FaDu (pharynx squamous cancer, MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer, and especially on LNCaP (prostate cancer cell lines. In total, 10 constituents of SOE were identified by Gas chromatography-mass analysis. Caryophyllene oxide and caryophyllene are largely responsible for most cytotoxic activity of SOE against RL95-2 cells. Overall, this study suggests that SOE is a promising anticancer agent for treating endometrial cancer.

  12. Identifying ecological corridors for Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelle, Dale G; Rozhnov, Vyachaslav V; Ermoshin, Victor; Murzin, Andre A; Nikolaev, Igor G; Hernandez-Blanco, Jose A; Naidenko, Sergie V

    2015-07-01

    The rapid explosion of human populations and the associated development of human-dominated landscapes have drastically reduced and fragmented habitat for tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus) across Asia, resulting in multiple small populations. However, Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) habitat in Russia has remained largely interconnected, except for a break between tigers in southwest Primorye and the southern Sikhote-Alin Mountains. This habitat patch in southwest Primorye also retains the last population of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis). Genetic differentiation of tigers in southwest Primorye and the Sikhote-Alin Mountains along with survey data suggest that habitat fragmentation is limiting movement of tigers and leopards across the Razdolnaya River basin. We looked at historical and recent survey data on tigers and leopards and mapped existing cover types to examine land-use patterns of both large felids and humans in the development strip along the Razdolnaya River. We then used least-cost distance analyses to identify the most effective potential corridor to retain connectivity for large felids between Land of the Leopard National Park and Ussuriskii Zapovednik (Reserve). We identified a single potential corridor that still exists with a total distance of 62.5 km from Land of the Leopard National Park to Ussuriskii Zapovednik, mostly (93%) through forested habitat. We recommend formal recognition of a Razdolnaya ecological corridor and provide specific recommendations for each of 3 proposed management sections.

  13. Etomidate anaesthesia by immersion in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, D; Spadavecchia, C; Angeli, G; Adami, C

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of etomidate anaesthesia by immersion technique in Bombina orientalis. The study comprised two phases. The first phase was carried out to identify the etomidate concentration capable of producing anaesthetic induction, as well as surgical anaesthesia, in the toads. The second phase was aimed at testing that concentration in eight additional animals. Etomidate administered via immersion at a concentration of 37.5 mg/L produced effective anaesthesia in oriental fire-bellied toads. The average duration of surgical anaesthesia was 20 min. All the toads enrolled in the study survived the anaesthesia and long-term complications did not occur. However, undesired side-effects, namely itching, myoclonus and prolonged recovery, were noticed during the perianaesthetic period. The authors concluded that etomidate anaesthesia by immersion, at a concentration of 37.5 mg/L, is suitable in oriental fire-bellied toads and produces anaesthesia of a depth and duration that is sufficient to allow the completion of various experimental procedures, without resulting in lethal complications. However, the occurrence of undesired side-effects opens a debate on the safety of this anaesthetic technique, and imposes the need for further investigation prior to proposing the latter for routine laboratory practice.

  14. Genetic diversity of culturable bacteria in oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jussila, Minna M. [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Viikki Biocenter, PO Box 56, FI-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: minna.m.jussila@helsinki.fi; Jurgens, German [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Viikki Biocenter, PO Box 56, FI-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Lindstroem, Kristina [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Viikki Biocenter, PO Box 56, FI-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Suominen, Leena [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Viikki Biocenter, PO Box 56, FI-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-01-15

    A collection of 50 indigenous meta-toluate tolerating bacteria isolated from oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis on selective medium was characterized and identified by classical and molecular methods. 16S rDNA partial sequencing showed the presence of five major lineages of the Bacteria domain. Gram-positive Rhodococcus, Bacillus and Arthrobacter and gram-negative Pseudomonas were the most abundant genera. Only one-fifth of the strains that tolerated m-toluate also degraded m-toluate. The inoculum Pseudomonas putida PaW85 was not found in the rhizosphere samples. The ability to degrade m-toluate by the TOL plasmid was detected only in species of the genus Pseudomonas. However, a few Rhodococcus erythropolis strains were found which were able to degrade m-toluate. A new finding was that Pseudomonas migulae strains and a few P. oryzihabitans strains were able to grow on m-toluate and most likely contained the TOL plasmid. Because strain specific differences in degradation abilities were found for P. oryzihabitans, separation at the strain level was important. For strain specific separation (GTG){sub 5} fingerprinting was the best method. A combination of the single locus ribotyping and the whole genomic fingerprinting techniques with the selective partial sequencing formed a practical molecular toolbox for studying genetic diversity of culturable bacteria in oil-contaminated rhizosphere. - Bacterial diversity during rhizoremediation in oil-contaminated soil is characterized by a combination of molecular methods.

  15. The Effects of Exposure, Elevation and Tree Age on Seed Characteristics of Fagus orientalis Lipsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Ertekin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Natural or artificial regeneration, rehabilitation, and conversion from coppice to high forest are important practices in Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky forests in Turkey. Studies of the seeds of this species have increased in number because mast years are infrequent and seed germination is inhibited by dormancy. In this study we quantified the effects of tree age (40-59, 60-79 and 80-99 years, stand exposure (north, west, east and south and elevation (600 and 800 m a.s.l. on seed characteristics (germination, moisture content, and weight of Oriental beech. Material and Methods: The seeds used in this study were collected from natural beech forest at Kumluca, Bartin, in the western Black Sea region of Turkey. Experiments were carried out in the laboratory and the greenhouse of Bartin University. Results: Seed germination and moisture content varied significantly by elevation, and seed germination was strongly influenced by elevation. Moisture content was 14% at 600 m and 16% at 800 m. The effects of elevation and tree age on 100 seed weights were not significant but exposure had a significant effect. The highest 100 seed weight was recorded for trees on southern exposures and the highest germination percentage of 82% was recorded for trees on northern exposures. Conclusions: In conclusion, since oriental beech seedlings are produced by generative propagation method, seeds should be harvested in optimum distribution area of beech, from average ages and phenotypically plus tree.

  16. Growth and survival of endangered angelwing clam, Pholas orientalis fed different algal diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shirley M. Golez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mature angelwing clam, Pholas orientalis were collected from the wild and transported tothe laboratory for broodstock development. They were fed with mixed algal cultures of Isochrysisgalbana, Chaetoceros sp., and Tetraselmis sp. for a period of two months and a half to determine theeffects of these algal cultures on growth and survival of the broodstock. Growth in terms of length wasnot significantly different among the treatment groups, whereas, there was significant reduction in theweight of the clams in the group fed with a mixture of Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros sp., andTetraselmis sp. Survival of the clams decreased after two months of feeding with algal diets, withsignificant mortality observed in groups fed with a mixture of Isochrysis galbana and Tetraselmis sp. aswell as with the mixture of the three microalgae. All the water quality parameters in the rearing tankswere within the optimum levels required for optimum growth of the clams. These results showed thatmixed algal diets for broodstock development in angelwing clam have no direct effect on growth butmoderate effect on survival. Future studies are aimed towards determining other factors that willcontribute to better growth and survival of angelwing clam broodstock in captivity as well as for thesearch of alternative algal diets for angelwing broodstock, particularly by exploring the microalgae thatare found in their natural habitat.

  17. Anti-proliferative effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract on human endometrial RL-95 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Huang, Kuo-Hung; Wu, Jing-Mei; Kuo, Shyh-Ming; Ling, Xue-Hua; Houng, Jer-Yiing

    2014-12-01

    Endometrial cancer is a common malignancy of the female genital tract. This study demonstrates that Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE) significantly inhibited the proliferation of RL95-2 human endometrial cancer cells. Treating RL95-2 cells with SOE caused cell arrest in the G2/M phase and induced apoptosis of RL95-2 cells by up-regulating Bad, Bak and Bax protein expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression. Treatment with SOE increased protein expression of caspase-3, -8 and -9 dose-dependently, indicating that apoptosis was through the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, SOE was also effective against A549 (lung cancer), Hep G2 (hepatoma), FaDu (pharynx squamous cancer), MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer), and especially on LNCaP (prostate cancer) cell lines. In total, 10 constituents of SOE were identified by Gas chromatography-mass analysis. Caryophyllene oxide and caryophyllene are largely responsible for most cytotoxic activity of SOE against RL95-2 cells. Overall, this study suggests that SOE is a promising anticancer agent for treating endometrial cancer.

  18. Development and validation of a quantitative PCR assay using multiplexed hydrolysis probes for detection and quantification of Theileria orientalis isolates and differentiation of clinically relevant subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogema, D R; Deutscher, A T; Fell, S; Collins, D; Eamens, G J; Jenkins, C

    2015-03-01

    Theileria orientalis is an emerging pathogen of cattle in Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. This organism is a vector-borne hemoprotozoan that causes clinical disease characterized by anemia, abortion, and death, as well as persistent subclinical infections. Molecular methods of diagnosis are preferred due to their sensitivity and utility in differentiating between pathogenic and apathogenic genotypes. Conventional PCR (cPCR) assays for T. orientalis detection and typing are laborious and do not provide an estimate of parasite load. Current real-time PCR assays cannot differentiate between clinically relevant and benign genotypes or are only semiquantitative without a defined clinical threshold. Here, we developed and validated a hydrolysis probe quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay which universally detects and quantifies T. orientalis and identifies the clinically associated Ikeda and Chitose genotypes (UIC assay). Comparison of the UIC assay results with previously validated universal and genotype-specific cPCR results demonstrated that qPCR detects and differentiates T. orientalis with high sensitivity and specificiy. Comparison of quantitative results based on percent parasitemia, determined via blood film analysis and packed cell volume (PCV) revealed significant positive and negative correlations, respectively. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that blood samples from animals with clinical signs of disease contained statistically higher concentrations of T. orientalis DNA than animals with subclinical infections. We propose clinical thresholds to assist in classifying high-, moderate-, and low-level infections and describe how parasite load and the presence of the Ikeda and Chitose genotypes relate to disease.

  19. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroz-Romero Héctor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST analysis and RNA interference (RNAi. Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160 were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group, reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations.

  20. Molecular detection and genetic identification of Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Anaplasma marginale in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mo; Cao, Shinuo; Sevinc, Ferda; Sevinc, Mutlu; Ceylan, Onur; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Iguchi, Aiko; Vudriko, Patrick; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-02-01

    Babesia spp., Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. are significant tick-borne pathogens of livestock globally. In this study, we investigated the presence and distribution of Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Anaplasma marginale in cattle from 6 provinces of Turkey using species-specific PCR assays. The PCR were conducted using the primers based on the B. bigemina rhoptry-associated protein 1a (BbiRAP-1a), T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 (Tams-1), T. orientalis major piroplasm surface protein (ToMPSP) and A. marginale major surface protein 4 (AmMSP4) genes, respectively. Fragments of B. bigemina internal transcribed spacer (BbiITS), T. annulata internal transcribed spacer (TaITS), ToMPSP and AmMSP4 genes were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. PCR results revealed that the overall infections of A. marginale, T. annulata, B. bigemina and T. orientalis were 29.1%, 18.9%, 11.2% and 5.6%, respectively. The co-infection of two or three pathogens was detected in 29/196 (15.1%) of the cattle samples. The results of sequence analysis indicated that BbiRAP-1a, BbiITS, Tams-1, ToMPSP and AmMSP4 were conserved among the Turkish samples, with 99.76%, 99-99.8%, 99.34-99.78%, 96.9-99.61% and 99.42-99.71% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Turkish TaITS gene sequences were relatively diverse with 92.3-96.63% identity values. B. bigemina isolates from Turkey were found in the same clade as the isolates from other countries in phylogenetic analysis. On the other hand, phylogenetic analysis based on T. annulata ITS sequences revealed significant differences in the genotypes of T. annulata isolates from Turkey. Additionally, the T. orientalis isolates from Turkish samples were classified as MPSP type 3 genotype. This is the first report of type 3 MPSP in Turkey. Moreover, AmMSP4 isolates from Turkey were found in the same clade as the isolates from other countries. This study provides important data for understanding the

  1. Mercury in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis):bioaccumulation and trans-Pacific Ocean migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Nogueira, Jacob I.; Pancorbo, Oscar C.; Batdorf, Carol A.; Block, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) have the largest home range of any tuna species and are well known for the capacity to make transoceanic migrations. We report the measurement of mercury (Hg) concentrations in wild Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT), the first reported with known size-of-fish and capture location. The results indicate juvenile PBFT that are recently arrived in the California Current from the western Pacific Ocean have significantly higher Hg concentrations in white muscle (0.51 ug/g wet mass, wm) than PBFT of longer California Current residency (0.41 ug/g wm). These new arrivals are also higher in Hg concentration than PBFT in farm pens (0.43 ug/g wm) that were captured on arrival in the California Current and raised in pens on locally derived feed. Analysis by direct Hg analyzer and attention to Hg by tissue type and location on the fish allowed precise comparisons of mercury among wild and captive fish populations. Analysis of migration and nearshore residency, determined through extensive archival tagging, bioaccumulation models, trophic investigations, and potential coastal sources of methylmercury, indicates Hg bioaccumulation is likely greater for PBFT juvenile habitats in the western Pacific Ocean (East China Sea, Yellow Sea) than in the eastern Pacific Ocean (California Current). Differential bioaccumulation may be a trophic effect or reflect methylmercury availability, with potential sources for coastal China (large hypoxic continental shelf receiving discharge of three large rivers, and island-arc volcanism) different from those for coastal Baja California (small continental shelf, no large rivers, spreading-center volcanism).

  2. Quantifying mercury isotope dynamics in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Yun Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analyses of mercury (Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues are used increasingly to infer sources and biogeochemical processes of Hg in natural aquatic ecosystems. Controlled experiments that can couple internal Hg isotope behavior with traditional isotope tracers (δ13C, δ15N can improve the applicability of Hg isotopes as natural ecological tracers. In this study, we investigated changes in Hg isotope ratios (δ202Hg, Δ199Hg during bioaccumulation of natural diets in the pelagic Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis; PBFT. Juvenile PBFT were fed a mixture of natural prey and a dietary supplement (60% Loligo opalescens, 31% Sardinops sagax, 9% gel supplement in captivity for 2914 days, and white muscle tissues were analyzed for Hg isotope ratios and compared to time in captivity and internal turnover of δ13C and δ15N. PBFT muscle tissues equilibrated to Hg isotope ratios of the dietary mixture within ∼700 days, after which we observed a cessation in further shifts in Δ199Hg, and small but significant negative δ202Hg shifts from the dietary mixture. The internal behavior of Δ199Hg is consistent with previous fish studies, which showed an absence of Δ199Hg fractionation during Hg bioaccumulation. The negative δ202Hg shifts can be attributed to either preferential excretion of Hg with higher δ202Hg values or individual variability in captive PBFT feeding preferences and/or consumption rates. The overall internal behavior of Hg isotopes is similar to that described for δ13C and δ15N, though observed Hg turnover was slower compared to carbon and nitrogen. This improved understanding of internal dynamics of Hg isotopes in relation to δ13C and δ15N enhances the applicability of Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues for tracing Hg sources in natural ecosystems.

  3. Prevalence of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in cultured tilapia on the island of Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; McGovern-Hopkins, Kathleen; Klinger-Bowen, Ruth; Fox, Bradley K; Brock, James; Antonio, Nathene; Waal, Zelda van der; Rushton, Stephen; Mill, Aileen; Tamaru, Clyde S

    2013-06-01

    Francisellosis is an emergent disease in cultured and wild aquatic animals. The causative agent, Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno), is a gram-negative bacterium recognized as one of the most virulent pathogens of warmwater fish. The main objective of this project was to investigate the prevalence of Fno in cultured tilapia (specifically, Mozambique Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus, Koilapia [also known as Wami Tilapia] O. hornorum, Blue Tilapia O. aureus, and Nile Tilapia O. niloticus hybrids) on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, using conventional and real-time PCR assays followed by statistical modeling to compare the different diagnostic methods and identify potential risk factors. During 2010 and 2012, 827 fish were collected from different geographical locations throughout the island of Oahu. Upon collection of fish, the water temperature in the rearing system and the length of individual fish were measured. Extraction of DNA from different tissues collected aseptically during necropsy served as a template for molecular diagnosis. High correlation between both molecular methods was observed. Moreover, the bacterium was isolated from infected tilapia on selective media and confirmed to be Fno utilizing a species-specific Taqman-based real-time PCR assay. Although a direct comparison of the prevalence of Fno between the different geographical areas was not possible, the results indicate a high prevalence of Fno DNA in cultured tilapia throughout the farm sites located on Oahu. Of the different tilapia species and hybrids currently cultured in Hawaii, Mozambique Tilapia were more susceptible to infection than Koilapia. Water temperature in the rearing systems and fish size also had a strong effect on the predicted level of infection, with fish held at lower temperatures and smaller fish being more susceptible to piscine francisellosis.

  4. Alfaxalone anesthesia by immersion in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Chiara; Spadavecchia, Claudia; Angeli, Giovanni; d'Ovidio, Dario

    2015-09-01

    To establish an effective alfaxalone concentration to be used for bath immersion of fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) and to describe its effects. Prospective experimental study. Thirteen oriental fire-bellied toads. The study was carried out in two phases. The pilot phase involved five animals and aimed to identify an alfaxalone concentration capable of producing induction of anesthesia, defined as immobility with a head down position and loss of responsiveness to stimulation with a stick. The following trial in an additional eight toads used the effective alfaxalone concentration established during the pilot phase. Data from 11 animals (three toads in the pilot study and the eight additional toads) were analyzed. Twenty minutes after immersion in the anesthetic solution, the toads were removed from the bath, and heart rate, respiratory rate, the righting, myotactic and the nociceptive withdrawal reflexes were evaluated every 5 minutes. The loss of both righting and nociceptive withdrawal reflexes was considered indicative of a surgical depth of anesthesia. The time elapsed from anesthetic induction to return of righting reflex, the quality of recovery and the occurrence of undesired effects were observed and recorded. Immersion was found to be a suitable anesthetic technique for oriental fire-bellied toads and 200 mg L(-1) alfaxalone concentration produced anesthetic induction in 10 out of 11 toads. Side effects, such as skin irritation, erythema and changes in cutaneous pigmentation, were not observed in any animal. The duration of anesthesia ranged from 10 to 30 minutes after removal of the toads from the alfaxalone bath, and surgical depth of anesthesia was never achieved. It was concluded that alfaxalone anesthesia induced by immersion in a concentration of 200 mg L(-1) is only suitable for toads undergoing non-invasive short procedures. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  5. Amino acid isotope incorporation and enrichment factors in Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J Bradley

    Full Text Available Compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA of amino acids has received increasing attention in ecological studies in recent years due to its ability to evaluate trophic positions and elucidate baseline nutrient sources. However, the incorporation rates of individual amino acids into protein and specific trophic discrimination factors (TDFs are largely unknown, limiting the application of CSIA to trophic studies. We determined nitrogen turnover rates of individual amino acids from a long-term (up to 1054 days laboratory experiment using captive Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (PBFT, a large endothermic pelagic fish fed a controlled diet. Small PBFT (white muscle δ(15N∼11.5‰ were collected in San Diego, CA and transported to the Tuna Research and Conservation Center (TRCC where they were fed a controlled diet with high δ(15N values relative to PBFT white muscle (diet δ(15N∼13.9‰. Half-lives of trophic and source amino acids ranged from 28.6 to 305.4 days and 67.5 to 136.2 days, respectively. The TDF for the weighted mean values of amino acids was 3.0 ‰, ranging from 2.2 to 15.8 ‰ for individual combinations of 6 trophic and 5 source amino acids. Changes in the δ(15N values of amino acids across trophic levels are the underlying drivers of the trophic (15N enrichment. Nearly all amino acid δ(15N values in this experiment changed exponentially and could be described by a single compartment model. Significant differences in the rate of (15N incorporation were found for source and trophic amino acids both within and between these groups. Varying half-lives of individual amino acids can be applied to migratory organisms as isotopic clocks, determining the length of time an individual has spent in a new environment. These results greatly enhance the ability to interpret compound specific isotope analyses in trophic studies.

  6. Cloisonné kidney in mouflon sheep (Ovis orientalis musimon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervás, J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a case of cloisonné kidney associated with infection by Babesia ovis in a wild mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimonj found dead in year in eastern Sierra Morena (Andalusia, Spain. The major macroscopic lesions were a icteric coloration in ocular and oral mucosa, and b dark metal coloration on the kidneys' external surface. Intense dark coloration alternating with intense greyish strips was observed on renal cortex sections. Blood samples were collected for haematological and parasitological analyses, as well as samples from various organs for histopathological examination. Infection by B. ovis was confirmed by using the Polymerase Chain Reaction test (PCR. Histopathological examination revealed tubulonephrosis associated with thickening of the basal membrane of the convoluted portions of the renal tubules (both proximal and distal, which took on an intense brownish pigmentation. These renal lesions have been described as "cloisonné" kidney. Cloisonné kidneys show uncommon coloring of the renal tubular system, associated with ferritin and hemosiderin deposits in these structures resulting from a chronic hemolitic process (hemoparasites, toxins, etc.. In our case, hemolitic phenomena are associated with infection by B. ovis. The seroprevalence of this hemoparasite in wild mouflon populations in other regions of Spain (Catalonia is up to 15%.

    [fr]
    Nous étudions un cas de rein cloisonné associé à l'infection par Babesia ovis sur un mouflon sauvage (Ovis orientalis musimon qui a été trouvé la même année dans la partie orientale de la Sierra Morena (Andalousie, Espagne. Les principales lésions macroscopiques étaient: a coloration ictérique sur les muqueuses oculaire et orale, et b coloration métallique foncée sur la partie extérieure du rein. Cette coloration foncée intense alternait avec des bandes grisâtres dans les sections du cortex rénal. Nous avons pris

  7. In vivo antiplasmodial activity of extract and fractions of Trema orientalis in P. berghei-induced malaria in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oludele Olanlokun; Moses David; Tolulope Ilori; Victoria Abe

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess the in vivo antimalarial potential of various solvent extracts and fractions of Trema orientalis. Methods: In this study, the animal model of antimalarial activity was employed using Plasmodium berghei-induced mice. The crude methanol extract was fractionated using vacuum liquid chromatography in the order of increasing polarity using dichloromethane, ethylacetate and methanol. Percentages of parasitemia and clearance were used as indices for antiplasmodial activities. The full blood count was also assayed while the gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of the most potent fraction was carried out to detect the active compounds presenting in it. Results:Dichloromethane fraction had the least percentage of parasitemia [(0.19 ± 0.07)%] and the highest percentage of clearance [(91.74 ± 8.38)%] at the highest dose used (200 mg/kg body weight) after day 7 relative to the artemisinin control which cleared the parasite after day 3. The ethylacetate fraction showed the least percentage of clearance [(70.52 ± 5.64)%] at the highest dose used (200 mg/kg body weight) after day 7. Conclusions:The results obtained showed that purification enhanced the antiplasmodial activity of Trema orientalis in Plasmodium berghei-induced malaria in mice. The antiplasmodial activity of the dichloromethane is a strong indication that the fraction, if purified further, may contain drug candidates for the treatment of malaria in the nearest future.

  8. Spatial distribution of Dactylogyrus wunderi Bychowsky on gills of Abramis brama orientalis Berg (Leuciscinae) in Irtysh River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Cuilan; Yue, Cheng; Yao, Weijian; Yin, Jianguo; Jiao, Li; Zhu, Mengying; Jia, Shu'an; Wang, Na; Wang, Xin

    2013-09-01

    The spatial distribution of the monogenean Dactylogyrus wunderi Bychowsky, 1931 on the gill filaments of the bream Abramis brama orientalis Berg (Leuciscinae) inhabiting the Irtysh River of Xinjiang, China was investigated from June to July 2012. D. wunderi was identified by sequencing a fragment of its ITS rDNA region. Sixty-five fish were examined, with 55% testing positive for monogenean infection. The prevalence of the parasite in the left and right gill arches was 46% and 48%, respectively. In fish with a large body length, the prevalence of the parasite and the infection intensity did not significantly differ between the right and left gill arches but both were slightly higher in the former. Among the three size groups of fish (small, medium and large) the prevalence and the intensity of infection were lowest in fish with small body lengths. The distribution of the monogenean population in the host gills showed an aggregate distribution, with little change in the degree of aggregation, suggesting that most hosts were either not or only slightly infected by D. wunderi and that the parasite infected only a few hosts. In addition, differences in D. wunderi infections between gill arches of A. brama orientalis were not significant ( P>0.05).

  9. Alfaxalone-butorphanol versus alfaxalone-morphine combination for immersion anaesthesia in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Chiara; d'Ovidio, Dario; Casoni, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    Oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) are small semi-aquatic anuran species popular as both pets and laboratory animals. Although they are commonly anaesthetized to undergo clinical and experimental procedures, very little is known about their anaesthetic management. The aims of this prospective, randomized, cross-over experimental trial were to establish effective butorphanol and morphine concentrations to be added to alfaxalone for immersion anaesthesia (pilot study), and to compare the anaesthetic and antinociceptive effects of the two drug mixtures (alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine), in Bombina orientalis toads. For the actual trial, the toads were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: AB and AM, with seven animals in each group, which received alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine combinations, respectively, at the concentrations established during the pilot study. Heart rate, respiratory rate, von Frey filament threshold and response to nociceptive withdrawal (NWR), righting and myotactic reflexes were measured at 5 min intervals until return of righting reflex was observed. The investigator who carried out all the measurements was blinded to the treatment. Any undesired effect or complication was noted and recorded. The two treatments were found to be comparable in terms of onset and duration of anaesthesia, and occurrence of undesired effects. However, group AM resulted in lower NWR scores and higher von Frey filament thresholds than group AB. It is concluded that, at the investigated concentrations and in combination with alfaxalone by immersion, morphine provides better antinociception than butorphanol in oriental fire-bellied toads.

  10. Reproductive biology and seasonality of the Indo-Australasian mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Crustacea: Mysida) in a tropical mangrove estuary, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanamura, Yukio; Siow, Ryon; Chee, Phaik-Ean

    2008-04-01

    A year-round survey of the tropical shallow-water mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Tattersall, 1908) (Crustacea, Mysidacea) was conducted in the Merbok mangrove estuary, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. The mysid formed dense aggregations at the river's edge close to the mangrove forest during the daytime, but very few were captured elsewhere in the estuary system. The sampled population was found in a wide range of salinities from 16 to 32, demonstrating broad euryhalinity, and the number of the catch at the littoral zone ranged from 11.8 to 2273 ind m -2. The overall annual mean was 709.2 ind m -2. Females predominated over males in the entire population, and brooding females were present at every monthly sample, indicating that reproduction is continuous year round. The clutch size positively correlated with female body length. The diameter of eggs (Stage I embryos) was unaffected by the seasonality and independent of the maternal size within an observed size range. The life history pattern of the estuarine population of M. orientalis showed close similarity to that of the coastal counterpart. However, the former was found to produce fewer but larger eggs, and the specimens in this population were larger than those in the coastal population at the embryo, juvenile, and adult stages. This evidence indicates that the life history features of the estuarine population would differ to some degree from those of the coastal counterpart.

  11. Analysis on Nutrient Compositions and Nutritional Quality of Lota lota( Linnaeus) Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Gefeng; Wang; Yuyu; Bai; Qingli; Li; Xiaolong; Jia; Zhonghe

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the nutritional quality of Lota lota(Linnaeus) muscle,the common nutrient components,amino acid composition and fatty acid composition in muscle of wild Lota lota(captured in Hailang reaches of Mudan River) were determined by routine methods. The results showed that the contents of moisture,crude protein,crude fat and ash were 81. 82%,15. 93%,0. 44% and 1. 06% in fresh muscle of Lota lota,respectively. Totally 17 amino acids,including seven kinds of essential amino acids(EAA),were detected in dry muscle of Lota lota(Linnaeus),accounting for 72. 43% of total dry muscle. The content of EAA was 29. 82%,accounting for 41. 17% of TAA,meeting the amino acid composition of high-quality protein standard required by Food and Agriculture Organization /Word Health Organization(FAO /WHO). There were four delicious amino acids(DAA) in dry muscle,accounting for 28. 34% of total dry weight.The percentage of DAA to TAA was 39. 13% in dry muscle. The contents of C20:5n- 3(EPA) and C22:6n- 3(DHA) in dry muscle were 8. 65% and 20. 32%respectively,which were significantly higher than that of the artificially cultured fish species,such as Oxyeleotris marmorata(EPA:2. 24%,DHA:4. 74%),Spinibarbus sinensis(EPA:0. 87%,DHA:3. 08%) and Glossogobius giuris(EPA: 3. 94%,DHA: 8. 10%). Based on the amino acids score(AAS) and chemical score(CS),the first limited amino acid in Lota lota(Linnaeus) was sulfur-containing amino acid(methionine + cysteine). The essential amino acids index(EAAI) of Lota lota(Linnaeus) was 62.58. It is concluded that Lota lota(Linnaeus) is abundant in amino acids and high-unsaturated fatty acids,and rational in composition of amino acids. Thus,Lota lota(Linnaeus) is a high quality freshwater fish with high nutritional value and health value,possessing good exploitation and utilization prospects.

  12. Assessment of sequence variability in a p23 gene region within and among three genotypes of the Theileria orientalis complex from south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Piyumali K; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-03-01

    Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by one or more genotypes of Theileria orientalis complex. In this study, we assessed sequence variability in a region of the 23kDa piroplasm membrane protein (p23) gene within and among three T. orientalis genotypes (designated buffeli, chitose and ikeda) in south-eastern Australia. Genomic DNA (n=100) was extracted from blood of infected cattle from various locations endemic for oriental theileriosis and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-coupled mutation scanning (single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP)) and targeted sequencing analysis. Eight distinct sequences represented all DNA samples, and three genotypes were found: buffeli (n=3), chitose (3) and ikeda (2). Nucleotide pairwise comparisons among these eight sequences revealed considerably higher variability among the genotypes (6.6-11.7%) than within them (0-1.9%), indicating that the p23 gene region allows the accurate identification of T. orientalis genotypes. In the future, we will combine this gene with other molecular markers to study the genetic structure of T. orientalis populations in Australasia, which will pave the way to establish a highly sensitive and specific PCR-based assay for genotypic diagnosis of infection and for assessing levels of parasitaemia in cattle.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis STIR-GUS-F2f7, a Highly Virulent Strain Recovered from Diseased Red Nile Tilapia Farmed in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Pär; Wehner, Stefanie; Bekaert, Michaël; Öhrman, Caroline; Metselaar, Matthijs; Thompson, Kimberly Dawn; Richards, Randolph Harvey; Penman, David James; Adams, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A highly virulent strain of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis, STIR-GUS-F2f7, was isolated from moribund red Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farmed in Europe. In this communication, the complete genome sequencing of this bacterium is reported. PMID:28302784

  14. Source identification of heavy metals in atmospheric dust using Platanus orientalis L. leaves as bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Norouzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on atmospheric dust have been limited by the high cost of instrumental monitoring methods and also sampling difficulties. The use of organisms acting as bioaccumulators has recently been proposed. In this study, the leaves of Platanus orientalis L., as a possible biomonitor of heavy metals in atmospheric dust, were evaluated to understand the likely source(s of pollution in Isfahan, Iran. Concentration of Zn, Cu, Ni and Mn and Magnetic susceptibility (χlf were determined in washed (WL and unwashed leaves (UL, monthly sampled from May to Nov., 2012. By subtracting the amount of metal concentrations and χlf in UL and WL, the amount of these parameters in dust deposited on the leaves (UL-WL were calculated. Enrichment factor analysis (EF, correlation coeficient, principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA on the UL-WL data were employed to trace the heavy metals sources. Results showed that the metal concentration in UL and WL in primary sampling times was not statistically different. As time passed, this difference became more noticeable. Seasonal accumulation trends of elements concentration in UL-WL, referred to as accumulative biomonitors showing the accumulation of dust on the leaves are considerable and the contamination of plants by metal occurs mainly by retention of particulate matter. All the heavy metals are well correlated with χlf, indicating the potential of magnetic measurement as an inexpensive and less laborious method to estimate heavy metals. Cu and Zn exhibited a very strong correlation with each other and the highest correlation with χlf, suggesting an anthropogenic nature of these two metals. High EF of Cu and Zn showed that anthropogenic sources contribute a substantial amount of these metals to dust deposited on leaves. Whereas, less EF for Mn and Ni shows that natural source and local polluted soils might be the main origins of these metals. PCA results showed 2 principal components. Factor 1 with

  15. Effects of odors on behaviors of captive Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangying YU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Captive environments often fail to resemble the wild environment in respects of limited space, unchanging habitat, lack of stimulus and contingency. Common animal welfare problems which occur in captive animals include low behavioral diversity, abnormal behavior and excessive inactivity. Environmental enrichment, as an effective strategy to tackle these problems and promote mental health of captive animals, has been recognized as an important principal for captive animal management. Among all the enrichment techniques, olfactory enrichment is a simple and effective method for improving the well-being of the olfactory sensitive felids. Behavioral problems were observed in six Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis at Beijing Zoological Garden. These were held in the older type exhibits which have now been rebuilt. These behaviors include stereotypic behavior and excessive inactivity caused by the spatially limited enclosures with low levels of stimuli. To determine the effects of predator, prey, and herb odors as potential enrichment materials for captive leopards, we conducted olfactory enrichment experiments for the leopards and tested the effects of nutmeg Myristica fragrans, feces of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and urine of Amur tiger Panthera tigris altaica to test for an increase in behavioral repertoire and activity. Odors provided in this study were also believed to improve the psychological and physiological health of individuals. To standardize the method of presentation the odors were introduced to the enclosures by rubbing or spraying onto a clean towel. Our results show that the selected three odors effectively increased the behavioral diversity. Ten new behavior types were observed in the nutmeg experiment, eight in the feces of roe deer experiment and six in the tiger urine experiment. Among the three odors, cats responded to nutmeg for the longest duration, followed by tiger urine and feces of roe deer. Leopards showed more

  16. Effects of odors on behaviors of captive Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangying YU; Zhigang JIANG; Hui ZHU; Chunwang LI; Enquan ZHANG; Jinguo ZHANG; Carin HARRINGTON

    2009-01-01

    Captive environments often fail to resemble the wild environment in respects of limited space,unchanging habitat,lack of stimulus and contingency. Common animal welfare problems which occur in captive animals include low behavioral diversity,abnormal behavior and excessive inactivity. Environmental enrichment,as an effective strategy to tackle these problems and promote mental health of captive animals,has been recognized as an important principal for captive animal management. Among all the enrichment techniques,olfactory enrichment is a simple and effective method for improving the well-being of the olfactory sensitive felids. Behavioral problems were observed in six Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis at Beijing Zoological Garden.These were held in the older type exhibits which have now been rebuilt. These behaviors include stereotypic behavior and excessive inactivity caused by the spatially limited enclosures with low levels of stimuli. To determine the effects of predator,prey,and herb odors as potential enrichment materials for captive leopards,we conducted olfactory enrichment experiments for the leopards and tested the effects of nutmeg Myristica fragrans,feces of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and urine of Amur tiger Panthera tigrisaltaica to test for an increase in behavioral repertoire and activity. Odors provided in this study were also believed to improve the psychological and physiological health of individuals. To standardize the method of presentation the odors were introduced to the enclosures by rubbing or spraying onto a clean towel. Our results show that the selected three odors effectively increased the behavioral diversity. Ten new behavior types were observed in the nutmeg experiment,eight in the feces of roe deer experiment and six in the tiger urine experiment. Among the three odors,cats responded to nutmeg for the longest duration,followed by tiger urine and feces of roe deer. Leopards showed more play behavior in presence of nutmeg

  17. Alfaxalone versus alfaxalone-dexmedetomidine anaesthesia by immersion in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Chiara; d'Ovidio, Dario; Casoni, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    To determine a dexmedetomidine concentration, to be added to an alfaxalone-based bath solution, that will enhance the anaesthetic and analgesic effects of alfaxalone; and to compare the quality of anaesthesia and analgesia provided by immersion with either alfaxalone alone or alfaxalone with dexmedetomidine in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis). Pilot study followed by a prospective, randomized, experimental trial. Fourteen oriental fire-bellied toads. The pilot study aimed to identify a useful dexmedetomidine concentration to be added to an anaesthetic bath containing 20 mg 100 mL(-1) alfaxalone. Thereafter, the toads were assigned to one of two groups, each comprising eight animals, to be administered either alfaxalone (group A) or alfaxalone-dexmedetomidine (group AD). After immersion for 20 minutes, the toads were removed from the anaesthetic bath and the righting, myotactic and nociceptive reflexes, cardiopulmonary variables and von Frey filaments threshold were measured at 5 minute intervals and compared statistically between groups. Side effects and complications were noted and recorded. In the pilot study, a dexmedetomidine concentration of 0.3 mg 100 mL(-1) added to the alfaxalone-based solution resulted in surgical anaesthesia. The toads in group AD showed higher von Frey thresholds and lower nociceptive withdrawal reflex scores than those in group A. However, in group AD, surgical anaesthesia was observed in two out of eight toads only, and induction of anaesthesia was achieved in only 50% of the animals, as compared with 100% of the toads in group A. The addition of dexmedetomidine to an alfaxalone-based solution for immersion anaesthesia provided some analgesia in oriental fire-bellied toads, but failed to potentiate the level of unconsciousness and appeared to lighten the depth of anaesthesia. This limitation renders the combination unsuitable for anaesthetizing oriental fire-bellied toads for invasive procedures. © 2015

  18. An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico

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    Alejandro Salinas-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758 were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864 near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest.

  19. The mortality of Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae induced by powdered plants

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    Kłyś Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether powdered plants of different species namely: peppermint Mentha piperita (L. (Lamiaceae, wormwood Artemisia absinthium (L. (Asteraceae, common sage Salvia officinalis (L. (Lamiaceae, allspice Pimenta dioica (Linnaeus et Merrill (Myrtaceae and common garlic Allium sativum (L. (Amaryllidaceae, added to semolina using concentrations of 1.23, 3.61, and 5.88%, influence the mortality rate in the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory at 28°C and relative humidity 60±5%. At the concentration of 1.23%, allspice seeds caused the highest mortality amongst the saw-toothed grain beetle. When concentrations of 3.61 and 5.88% were used, sage, peppermint and wormwood caused the highest statistically significant mortality of O. surinamensis

  20. Grammoplites vittatus (Valenciennes), (Scorpaeniformes, Platycephalidae), removed from synonymy with Grammoplites scaber (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Leslie W; Imamura, Hisashi

    2014-08-04

    Grammoplites vittatus (Valenciennes), often previously overlooked by authors or regarded as a junior synonym of G. scaber (Linnaeus), is shown here to be a valid species.  It has more gill rakers (7-8) then G. scaber and G. knappi (usually 6) and a narrower interorbital width than G. scaber.  A key to the species of Grammoplites Fowler is  given. 

  1. Four cases of pediculosis caused by Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) from peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakeer, O; Jeffery, J; Mohamed, A M; Ahmad, F; Baharudin, O

    2007-12-01

    Four cases of pediculosis, two in adults and two in children, caused by the crab-louse, Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) is reported from peninsular Malaysia. This is the second report of the problem to be documented from the country. Although P. pubis is closely associated with genital hairs, it is, however, also found to occur on the eyelashes, eyebrows, hairs of the body, head and axilla. The few reported cases of pthiriasis probably do not reflect the true situation.

  2. Scale insect species names combined with the genus name Chermes Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D J

    2015-01-01

    Species names in the scale insects that have been combined with the genus name Chermes Linnaeus, 1758, are listed. This list supplements a list published already for the Sternorrhyncha but that was restricted to names of species that had been described originally in the genus. The present list includes, in addition, all species names in the scale insects that have been combined with the name Chermes. 

  3. Extraction, characterization and application of gelatina obtained from nile tilapia scale, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Emanuella de Oliveira Martins

    2015-01-01

    Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758), is one of the most cultivated species in our country. The fish processing industries generate large amounts of waste. In the tilapia processing waste materials represent more than 60%. Collagen is the main protein of connective tissue and is the most abundant protein in mammals, birds and fish. A commercial use of the collagen is gelatin, obtained by partial hydrolysis of collagen. Edible coatings and films are types of protection that can...

  4. Progress of Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du; Zhengcai; Hou; Xiaotao; Huang; Qing; Deng; Jiagang; Fanshi; Fangcao

    2014-01-01

    Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus is a traditional marine drug. There are more than two thousand years of history using clamshell as a component of medicine.After a review of relevant literature at home and abroad for nearly 20 years,the author summarized chemical composition and pharmacological effects of M. meretrix,in order to provide a scientific basis for further development and utilization of M. meretrix.

  5. Effect of different solvents on extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of hawthorn (Crataegus orientalis fruits

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    Hacer ÇOKLAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of bio compounds from plant materials is one of the most important step of the processes such as dietary supplement production and recovery of the compounds from the industrial wastes. It is highly affected from the factors such as solvent type, particle size, extraction time and temperature. To determine the total phenolics, individual phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of Hawthorn (Crataegus orientalis fruit extracted with different solvents and to specify the best solvent for extraction of phenolics were aimed in this research. Fruits, picked from wild growing trees in Beyşehir, were extracted with water, methanol and methanol:water (1:1 mixture. Highest total phenolics and antioxidant activity were observed in methanol:water extract. While gallic acid was extracted effectively in water, methanol:water mixture was the best solvent for extraction of procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2, (-- epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and rutin.

  6. Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Bionomics aspects of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Viviana de Oliveira Torres

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar alguns aspectos bionômicos da vespa social neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758. Vinte e seis colônias foram acompanhadas entre abril de 2004 e julho de 2006, no município de Mundo Novo, estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Os resultados encontrados nesse estudo sugerem que o padrão fenológico de Polistes canadensis canadensis é assincrônico nessa região, com fundações e abandonos podendo ocorrer o ano todo. A duração média dos estágios imaturos foi diferente entre as estações climáticas fria-seca e úmida-quente. Diferentes substratos foram escolhidos para nidificação, contudo em ambientes que forneceram condições físicas mais homogêneas durante o dia foram encontradas as maiores freqüências de sucesso. Colônias nessa espécie são fundadas por haplometrose ou pleometrose, no entanto, o sucesso tem sido maior para colônias pleometróticas.Certain aspects of the bionomics of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied. Twenty-six colonies were observed from April 2004 through July 2006, in the municipal district of Mundo Novo, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central-Brazil. The results suggest that the colony phenological pattern of this species is asynchronous, and colonies may be founded or abandoned at any time of the year. The mean duration of the immature stages differed between the cold-dry and warm-rainy seasons. Colonies were founded on several different kinds of substrates, but were more successful in environments that provided more-homogeneous physical conditions during the day. Colonies in this species are founded by haplometrosis or pleometrosis, and pleometrotic colonies were more successful.

  7. Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junheon; Seo, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2008-08-27

    Commercial essential oils from 28 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of 26, 11, and 4 major compounds from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) oils, respectively. Compounds from each plant essential oil were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode. Among the compounds, benzaldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, octanal, nonanal, decanal, trans-2-decenal, undecanal, dodecanal, decanol, and trans-2-decen-1-ol showed strong nematicidal activity. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pine wood nematode.

  8. The distinctive character of shell morphology Rectidens sumatrensis (DUNKER, 1852) against Elongaria orientalis (LEA, 1840) (two local species, bivalvia: Unionidae) from the Brantas river, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affandi, Moch.; Hariyanto, Sucipto; Soegianto, Agoes

    2017-09-01

    This research is directed to recognize the main characters of shell morphology that can easily be used to distinguish the two local species of Bivalia Unionidae in the Brantas River in East Java (Indonesia) which are very similar, namely Rectidens sumatrensis and Elongaria orientalis. A total of 49 individuals sampled specimens of both species were characterized based on identification guide Jutting (1953). About of 30 of shell morphological characters were observed, there are three characters identified in specimens Rectidens sumatrensis that can be used to distinguish from the specimen Elongaria orientalis, namely the presence of wrinkles noticeable on the surface structure of the interior of the shell; anteriorly of the greatest diameter of the shell, there is generally a shallow concavity in the flanks; and the two cardinal teeth in each valve shells left and right are relatively undeveloped.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Eutetranychus orientalis Klein in the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Eutetranychus orientalis in the European Union (EU and evaluated the effectiveness of phytosanitary measures in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Entry through the plants for planting pathway is assessed as very likely, while entry through other pathways is estimated as moderately likely to unlikely owing to the different probability of transfer to a suitable host. Establishment is rated as very likely in Mediterranean areas and from moderately likely to unlikely in non-Mediterranean areas, because of unfavourable environmental conditions. Spread is rated as very likely because of the many ways the pest can spread, its polyphagy and the wide distribution of hosts. Impact is rated as minor, with an expected increase in the damage when populations of natural enemies are severely affected by control measures and/or when environmental conditions are stressful for the host. However, the lack of information resulted in an overall medium level of uncertainty. The Panel evaluated the effectiveness of current EU phytosanitary measures and concluded that the removal of E. orientalis from Annex IIAII would not affect its probability of entry, because the importation from Third countries of some host plants regulated for this pest(Citrus, Fortunella, Poncirus species and their hybrids is prohibited in Annex III. However, spread could be affected since there would no longer be a requirement to inspect for this pest before issuing a plant passport (Annex V. However, since the regulated Rutaceae species constitute an extremely small proportion of the potential host plants of E. orientalis, the current phytosanitary measures are mostly ineffective in preventing further introduction and spread of E. orientalis in the EU. The Panel identified surveillance at the production site and treatment of the consignment as the most effective and technically feasible risk reduction options, particularly when

  10. Mortality patterns in nondomestic hoofstock (Ovis orientalis laristanica, Capra aegagrus, Capra ibex nubiana) indicate species-specific differences in disease susceptibility in small ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Deiss, R.; Hammer, C.; Müller, D.W.H.; Deb, A.; Clauss, Marcus; S. Hammer

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective evaluation was performed regarding cause of death in 91 Laristan mouflons (Ovis orientalis laristanica), 32 wild goats (Capra aegagrus) and 31 Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana) at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP) between 2001 and 2008. The Capra spp. (i.e. wild goat and Nubian ibex) were strongly affected by an outbreak of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in April 2004, whereas the mouflon remained mainly unaffected. Of the mouflon, 12 % (eleven animals) died with icteru...

  11. Biologia reprodutiva da cobra-coral Erythrolamprus aesculapii Linnaeus (Colubridae, no Sudeste do Brasil Reproductive biology of the coral snake Erythrolamprus aesculapii Linnaeus (Colubridae in the Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio A.V. Marques

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissection of 286 specimens of the "false" coral snake Erythrolamprus aesculapii Linnaeus, 1766, combined with data on captive individuais, provided information on the reproductive biology of this colubrid snake. Adult females (x snout-vent length = 74.5cm attain larger body size than males (x SVL = 62.6. Clutch size ranged from one to eight eggs and was correlated with maternal body size. Neonates measured 20.2-22.5cm SVL and weighed 5.1-5.8g. Males attain sexual maturity earlier than females. Reproduction seems to be aseasonal, with vitellogenesis occurring throughout the year. Apparently the growth rate of folheies decreases in the dry season, possibly due to lower tempeiatures during this period. Multiple clutches were recorded in captive snakes. Foraging strategies and availability of prey may explain continuous reproduction in E. aesculapii. However, data for other related snakes suggest that continuous reproduction is conservative in the Xenodontini.

  12. Fatal Theileria orientalis N2 genotype infection among Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in a commercial dairy farm in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinodkumar, Kulangara; Shyma, Varikkottil; Justin, Davis Kollannur; Ashok, Sivasailam; Anu, Joseph Parassery; Mini, Kattilveetil; Muhammedkutty, Varikkottil; Sasidharan, Suchithra; Chullipparambil, Sunanda

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen dairy buffaloes of a farm in the state of Kerala, India developed fatal oriental theileriosis within 2 months of their procurement. Typical piroplasms of Theileria orientalis were observed in the erythrocytes of all affected animals by Giemsa-Leishman staining of blood smears. Case fatality rate was 87·5% (seven out of eight) in the clinically progressed cases. Therapeutic management with anti-theilerial drugs buparvaquone and oxytetracycline led to recovery of seven other animals in less advanced stages of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons for increased virulence of this pathogen, hitherto considered to be benign. Acute haemolytic anaemia was the predominant haematological finding in the affected animals. Lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of vital organs leading to functional derangement was the cause of the high mortality. Identification of T. orientalis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA sequencing of the PCR products revealed close identity with already reported sequences of T. orientalis/buffeli N2 genotype. The sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession number KM609973 and KM043772. Rhipicephalus ticks, previously not reported as vectors for oriental theileriosis, were identified as the potential vectors. This is the first report of fatal oriental theileriosis in Asian water buffaloes.

  13. Influence of geology and human activity on the genetic structure and demography of the Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jonathan J; Li, Pi-Peng; Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Zheng-Yan; Leaché, Adam D; Min, Mi-Sook; Waldman, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    The Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) is a commonly used study organism, but knowledge of its evolutionary history is incomplete. We analyze sequence data from four genetic markers (mtDNA genes encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome b, and 12S-16S rRNA; nuDNA gene encoding recombination activating gene 2) from 188 individuals across its range in Northeast Asia to elucidate phylogeographic patterns and to identify the historic events that shaped its evolutionary history. Although morphologically similar across its range, B. orientalis exhibits phylogeographic structure, which we infer was shaped by geologic, climatic, and anthropogenic events. Phylogenetic and divergence-dating analyses recover four genetically distinct groups of B. orientalis: Lineage 1-Shandong Province and Beijing (China); Lineage 2-Bukhan Mountain (Korea); Lineage 3-Russia, Northeast China, and northern South Korea; and Lineage 4-South Korea. Lineage 2 was previously unknown. Additionally, we discover an area of secondary contact on the Korean Peninsula, and infer a single dispersal event as the origin of the insular Jeju population. Skyline plots estimate different population histories for the four lineages: Lineages 1 and 2 experienced population decreases, Lineage 3 remained stable, while Lineage 4 experienced a sharp increase during the Holocene. The timing of the population expansion of Lineage 4 coincides with the advent of rice cultivation, which may have facilitated the increase in population size by providing additional breeding habitat.

  14. Characterisation of the 33kDa piroplasm surface antigen of Theileria orientalis/sergenti/buffeli isolates from West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, Marc; Verhaert, Peter; Jongejan, Frans; Goddeeris, Bruno M

    2002-03-01

    The immunodominant 33/35kDa antigen of a Theileria isolate from West Java, Indonesia, was characterised and immuno-affinity purified by use of a monoclonal antibody, KUL-a4, and was shown to be representative of the T. orientalis/sergenti/buffeli group. The aminoterminal sequence of the purified 35kDa peptide (20 residues) was determined by automated Edman degradation and found to correspond to the predicted amino acid sequence of a prospective p33 gene previously sequenced from the same isolate. The cleavage site of a putative signal peptide was identified and conforms the (-3, -1) rule for signal peptidases. The existence of dimeric and trimeric forms of the p33/35 antigen is hypothesised from Western blot profiles. KUL-a4 appeared specific for the T. orientalis/sergenti/buffeli group. It did not recognise in indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), intraerythrocytic bodies of Anaplasma marginale or piroplasms and schizonts of T. mutans, T. parva and T. annulata, whereas cattle antisera raised to these species showed cross-reactivity in IFAT. It however, appeared weakly cross-reactive in Western blot and ELISA, with the 34kDa piroplasm antigen of one T. annulata (Gharb) isolate. The present study indicates that the isolated antigen belongs to the p33/34 antigen family described within the T. sergenti/orientalis/buffeli group, and documents the group-specificity of one of its epitopes.

  15. Discovery of intermediate hosts for two species of blood flukes Cardicola orientalis and Cardicola forsteri (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) infecting Pacific bluefin tuna in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Shin, Sang Phil; Honryo, Tomoki; Uchida, Hiro'omi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Fish blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) are important pathogens of farmed finfish around the world. Among them, Cardicola spp. infecting farmed tuna are considered to be serious threats to tuna farming and have received tremendous attention. We conducted periodical samplings at a tuna farming site in Japan between January and May, 2015 to determine the life cycle of Cardicola spp. We collected over 4700 terebellid polychaetes from ropes, floats and frames of tuna culture cages and found nearly 400 infected worms. Sporocysts and cercariae found in Nicolea gracilibranchis were genetically identified as Cardicola orientalis by 28S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA sequences. This was the first discovery of the intermediate host for this parasite species. Infection prevalence and the abundance of N. gracilibranchis significantly varied between sampling points and the highest number of infected terebellids were collected from ropes. We also demonstrated morphologically and molecularly that asexual stages found in a single Amphitrite sp. (Terebellidae) and adult worms isolated from farmed juvenile tuna were Cardicola forsteri. This is the first report of C. forsteri in Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT) Thunnus orientalis in Japan. Our results demonstrated that all three species of Cardicola orientalis, C. forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis exist in Japanese farmed PBTs and that they all use terebellid polychaetes as the intermediate hosts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of nonylphenol on early embryonic development, pigmentation and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine-induced metamorphosis in Bombina orientalis (Amphibia: Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Jin; Kang, Han Seung; Gye, Myung Chan

    2010-11-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an estrogenic endocrine disruptor in many aquatic species. In an effort to highlight the developmental toxicity of NP in amphibians, we examined the effects of NP on the embryonic survival, tadpole growth, melanophore development and metamorphosis of a native Korean amphibian species, Bombina orientalis (Anura). When treated to fertilized eggs, 1 μM NP significantly decreased embryonic survival at 48 h post fertilization (p.f.), suggesting that 1 μM NP can exert systemic toxicity in B. orientalis embryos. In the surviving embryos, there were no significant differences in malformation rates between NP-treated embryos and controls at 240 h p.f., suggesting no or low teratogenicity of NP in B. orientalis embryos. Below LC(50) NP significantly decreased body growth and development of melanophores at 0.1 μM, suggesting that NP far below the LC(50) targets multiple developmental events in tadpoles of this frog species. In metamorphosis assay using the premetamorphic tadpoles (corresponding to Nieuwkoop Faber stage 53 in Xenopus laevis) exogenous 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3)-induced tail resorption was significantly decreased by 1 μM NP. However, NP (0.1 and 1 μM)-only treatment did not affected total body T3 and T4 levels, suggesting that NP at tested concentrations inhibits thyroid hormones action but not the synthesis of hormones during metamorphosis.

  17. Body mass-related modifications involved in starvation at pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Centrarchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina F. Radu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the modifications observed on a population of pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758 after a 60 days period of exposure to starvation and attempt to correlate the obtained results to other body-related characteristics, either linearly-measured (such as length, volume and density or weight-related, in order to achieve an estimation of a weight-loss allowance for the species of interest, that may be interpreted, if of a low daily value, as an advantage in the invasion process.

  18. Bioaccumulation and depuration of some trace metals in the mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, P.T. (Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin (India)); Nambisan, P.N.K. (Cochin Univ. of Science and Technology (India))

    1989-07-01

    Bivalves are well known for their ability to concentrate heavy metals in their tissue from environmental water. Experimental studies on the accumulation of these pollutants by molluscs have been extensively conducted. The depuration of accumulated metals in a toxicant free medium has also been studied. Bivalve molluscs may form useful tools in monitoring heavy metal pollution. However, such studies are scant in tropical species. This paper reports the bioaccumulation and depuration of Hg, Cu, Zn and Pb by the mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) from seawater and explores its suitability as an indicator organism for metal pollution.

  19. Miologia do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766)

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo M. Leal; Sá,Rafaela M. de; Oliveira,Fabricio S. de; Sasahara, Tais H. C.; Minto, Bruno W.; Marcia R.F. Machado

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: Objetivam-se descrever os músculos do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766), mediante dissecção anatômica dessa região. Foram utilizadas dez Cuniculus paca adultas, machos e fêmeas, pesando entre cinco e 10 kg do plantel de pacas do setor de Animais Silvestres da FCAV, Unesp, Jaboticabal/SP. Os animais foram fixados em formaldeído 10% e conservados em solução salina a 30% para dissecação anatômica da musculatura da pelve, coxa e perna, identificando-se a origem e inse...

  20. Comparative study on the nocturnal activity of phlebotomine sand flies in a highland and lowland foci of visceral leishmaniasis in north-western Ethiopia with special reference to Phlebotomus orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklilu, Esayas; Gebresilassie, Araya; Yared, Solomon; Kindu, Mizan; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2017-08-23

    Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is most probably vectored by Phlebotomus orientalis in north-western Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the nocturnal activity patterns of Ph. orientalis in VL endemic foci of Libo-Kemkem (highland) and Metema (lowland) districts of north-western Ethiopia. Sampling of sand flies was conducted bimonthly from January-May 2012 in the highland and from March-June 2013 in the lowland. Sand flies were sampled using two CDC light traps placed in compounds occupied by both cattle and humans. Sampling of sand flies started at 18:00 h and ended at 06:00 h. Every hour, a cage was replaced by another cage. In total, 9479 nocturnally active sand flies were collected from both study areas. Six Phlebotomus species (Ph. orientalis, Ph. duboscqi, Ph. papatasi, Ph. bergeroti, Ph. rodhaini and Ph. martini) and several Sergentomyia spp. were identified. In both areas, of the six Phlebotomus spp., Ph. orientalis was the preponderate. In the highland, the hourly activity pattern of Ph. orientalis females was higher before midnight with a peak in density between 22:00-23:00 h, whereas in the lowland after midnight between 03:00-04:00 h. The present study showed that Ph. orientalis females exhibited different nocturnal activity patterns with a peak in the early part of the night in the highland and in the latter part of the night in the lowland areas. As the risk of acquiring L. donovani infections vary in the two areas, appropriate control strategies should be developed according to the activity of Ph. orientalis in the respective areas.

  1. Are eavesdroppers multimodal?Sensory exploitation of floral signals by a non-native cockroach Blatta orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigo C.VERGARA; Alejandra TORRES-ARANEDA; Diego A.VILLAGRA; Robert A.RAGUSO; Mary T.K.ARROYO; Cristian A.BILLAGRA

    2011-01-01

    The study of multi-modal communication has only recently been extended to innate and learned interactions between flowers and their animal visitors,and usually only to pollinators.Here we studied the relevance of floral scent and visual display of a night blooming,putatively hawkmoth-poilinated plant Oenothera acaulis(Onagraceae)in the attraction of non-native cockroaches Blatta orientalis(Blattodea:Blattldae),which function as facultative floral lajrcenists in coastal habitats of central Chile.We experimentally decoupled visual(corolla)and olfactory(fragrance)stimuli by presentlng paper corollas and green mesh bags,with or without a freshly-picked natural flower inside.We then contrasted the behavioral responses of roaches in these treatments with those to the natural combination of traits in actual flowers and their respective control treatments,measuring the roaches'frequency of first visits,mean and total residence time spent in each treatment.The roaches primarily used olfactory cues when approaching O.acaulis flowers at two biologically relevant spatial scaies.In addition,the presence of conspecific roaches bad a strong influence on recruitment to the expenrnental arena,increasing the statlstical differences among treatments.Our results suggest a primacy of floral fragrance over visual stimuli in the foraging responses of B.orientalis.Olfactory cues were necessary and sufficient to attract the roaches,and the visual cues presented in our manipulations only marginally increased their attraction within a 20 cm diameter of the stimulus.The full spectrum of floral visitation behavior was not elicited by the artlficial flowers,suggesting the need for addltional tactile or contact chemosensory stimuli not provided by paper.Although the nitrogenous scent compounds that we found in O.acaulis flowers are almost exclusively found in hawkmoth-pollinated flowers,the attractiveness of these compounds to a non-native,facultative flower-visiting insect indicates that they

  2. Anti-Hyperuricemic, Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis L. Resulting from the Fraction with High Phenolic Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy Duong; Thuong, Phuong Thien; Hwang, In Hyun; Hoang, Thi Kim Huyen; Nguyen, Minh Khoi; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Na, MinKyun

    2017-04-04

    The medicinal plant Siegesbeckia orientalis L. has been commonly used for the treatment of acute arthritis, rheumatism, and gout in Vietnam. However, pharmacological research of this plant associated with gout has not been reported. Anti-hyperuricemic and anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated and observed for the crude ethanol extract (CEE) of S. orientalis. Retention of these biological properties was found in a n-butanol-soluble fraction (BuOH fr.) of the extract, and therefore further biological and chemical investigations were undertaken on the BuOH fr. to support the medical relevance of this plant. The aerial part of S. orientalis was obtained in the mountainous region of Vietnam. The crude ethanol extract (CEE) and its BuOH fr. were prepared from the plant materials. Anti-hyperuricemic activities of the CEE and BuOH fr. were tested in vivo using the model oxonate-induced hyperuricemia rats through determination of serum uric acid levels and inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase (XO) in the rat liver. Anti-inflammatory activities of the BuOH fr. were also evaluated in vivo using carrageenan-induced paw edema and urate-induced synovitis in rats. Active components of the BuOH fr. were characterized by comparison of HPLC retention time (t R) and spectroscopic data (UV, (1)H-NMR) with those of reference compounds. The CEE of S. orientalis displayed anti-hyperuricemic activity, and the BuOH fr. was found to be the most active portion of the extract. Further in vivo studies on this fraction showed 31.4% decrease of serum uric acid levels, 32.7% inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO), 30.4% reduction of paw edema volume, symptomatic relief in urate-induced synovitis and significant analgesic effect at the dose of 120 mg/kg, as compared to the corresponding values of the control groups. Chemical analysis of the BuOH fr. revealed high phenolic content, identified as caffeic acid analogues and flavonones. This study suggested that anti-hyperuricemic and anti

  3. Investigation and Study on Parasites of Abramis brama orientalis Berg in Ergis River%额尔齐斯河东方欧鳊(Abramis brama orientalis Berg)寄生虫调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦丽; 樊江; 赵江山; 闫昊; 谭士艳; 张超; 岳城

    2010-01-01

    按照鱼类寄生虫调查及研究方法,对额尔齐斯河(中国段)东方欧鳊(Abramis brama orientalis Berg)寄生虫种类及感染情况进行了调查研究.结果检出寄生虫8种:对盲囊线虫、复口吸虫、温氏指环虫、宽头鲤蠢绦虫、奇怪双身虫、复殖吸虫幼虫、泡吻棘头虫和毛细线虫.感染率分别达43.75%,37.5%,18.75%,18.75%,14.58%,12.5%,8.33%,2.08%.奇怪双身虫经检索鉴定,为我国单殖吸虫纲铗钩虫目双身虫科的一属、种新记录.

  4. Resolution of the type material of the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Proboscidea, Elephantidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gentry, A.; Palkopoulou, E.

    2014-01-01

    .maximus, a complete foetus preserved in ethanol, is actually an African elephant, genus Loxodonta. We further discovered that an additional E.maximus syntype, mentioned in a description by John Ray (1693) cited by Linnaeus, has been preserved as an almost complete skeleton at the Natural History Museum...

  5. Metabolic costs of avian flight in relation to flight velocity : a study in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, S; Biebach, H; Visser, GH

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic costs of flight at a natural range of speeds were investigated in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus) using doubly labelled water. Eight birds flew repeatedly and unrestrained for bouts of 6 h at speeds from 9 to 14 m s(-1) in a low-turbulence wind tunnel, corresponding

  6. GENOMIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TWO SPECIES OF TURNERA HEXAPLOID, T. ORIENTALIS AND T. VELUTINA, AND A DIPLOID, T.GRANDIFLORA (TURNERACEAE SERIES TURNERA RELACIONES GENÓMICAS ENTRE DOS ESPECIES HEXAPLOIDES DE TURNERA, T. ORIENTALIS y T. VELUTINA, Y UNA DIPLOIDE, T. GRANDIFLORA (TURNERACEAE, SERIE TURNERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveliano Fernández

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    We hybridized two hexaploid species (2n=6x=30 T. orientalis and T. velutina and one diploid species (2n=2x=10, T. grandiflora. These species had regular meiosis forming 15 II the hexaploids and 5 11 the diploid. One hexaploid, 2n=6x=30 (T. orientalis x T. velutina, one pentaploid, 2n=5x=25 (T. orientalis x T. grandiflora and one tetraploid, 2n=4x=20 (T. velutina x T. grandiflora hybrids were obtained and studied cytologically to deter ine their genomic relationships. Meiotic behavior in the T. orientalis x T. velutina hybrid was very irregular, with many laggard chromosomes and bridges at AI and AII. Mean pairing relationships were 10,38 I,9,66 II,0,07III and 0,03 IV. The hybrid T. orientalisx T. grandiflora presented irregular meiosis. Mean pairing relationships were 14,66 I and 5,16 II. T. velutina x T. grandiflora presented the most irregular meiosis, with mean pairing relationships of 6,94 I, 6,42 II an 0,05 IV. The three hybrids were sterile. The genome constitution of T. orientalis is AºAºBBBºBº and of T. grandiflora is Cg Cg. On the basis of chromosome associations in the hybrids, we propose the genomic formula AAAvAvCvCv for T. velutina. One genome of T. orientalis is similar to one of the three genomes of T. velutina. The latter species shows one genome similar to the genome of T. grandiflora. Both T. orientalis and T. velutina are segmentary alohexaploids
    Hemos hibridizado dos especies hexaploides (2n = 6x = 30 T. orientalis y T. velutina y una especie diploide (2n = 2x = 10, T. grandiflora. Estas especies habían meiosis regular la formación de 15 II de la hexaploides y 5 11 diploide el. Una hexaploide, 2n = 6x = 30 (T. orientalis x T. velutina, un pentaploide, 2n = 5x = 25 (T. orientalis x T. grandiflora y un tetraploide, 2n = 4x = 20 (x T. velutina T . grandiflora híbridos se han obtenido y estudiado citológicamente para

  7. The first detection of species of Babesia Starcovici, 1893 in moose, Alces alces (Linnaeus), in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puraite, Irma; Rosef, Olav; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Lipatova, Indre; Paulauskas, Algimantas

    2016-04-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease and various wildlife species are reservoir hosts for zoonotic species of Babesia Starcovici, 1893. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and prevalence of Babesia spp. in moose Alces alces (Linnaeus) in two regions of Norway. A total of 99 spleen samples were collected from animals of various ages from an area with the occurrence of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758), and from an area where the ticks are known to be absent. Infection was detected by the amplification of different regions of the 18S rRNA gene by using two different PCR primer sets specific of Babesia. Babesia spp. were found in the spleen samples of four moose. All Babesia-infected animals were from an area where ticks occur, with an infection rate of 6% (4 of 70). Babesia-positive samples were obtained from a five-month old moose calf and three adults. Two Babesia species, Babesia capreoli (Enigk et Friedhoff, 1962) and a B. odocoilei-like, were identified. Co-infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum was obtained in two animals. This is the first report of the occurrence of B. capreoli and B. odocoilei-like species in moose.

  8. Evidence of Sperm Storage in Nursehound (Scyliorhinus stellaris, Linnaeus 1758: Juveniles Husbandry and Tagging Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Micarelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nursehound, Scyliorhinus stellaris (Linnaeus 1758, is a shark of the Scyliorhinidae family, close to the Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus 1758, frequently hosted in public aquaria. Information on biology and ecology is deficiently available regarding this species of sharks. In the Mediterranean basin, they are occasional rare and vulnerable species (Serena, 2005. In 2003 a female specimen of Scyliorhinus stellaris, 90 cm long, fished in the Tyrrhenian Sea was transferred to Tuscany Argentario Mediterranean Aquarium and placed in a 20.000 L tank. The female laid 42 eggs and juveniles were born on 2004 and 2005. They were transferred to the aquarium laboratory in order to get standard protocol for correct juveniles husbandry. After a total of 18-month observations, some of them were tagged and let free on 2006. To collect data about nursehound shark needs in terms of feeding and growing in captivity, especially during the first life years, is a necessary and fundamental step in order to develop a Mediterranean program of tagging and study in the field of conservation policy proposal. Husbandry protocol for this species’ juveniles was developed in this study. This is the first reported case of a nursehound storing sperm for 2 years, in captivity (Pratt, 1993; Hamlett et al., 2002; Awruch, 2007.

  9. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-03-01

    This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

  10. Use of multiplexed tandem PCR to estimate the prevalence and intensity of Theileria orientalis infections in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Piyumali K; Gasser, Robin B; Read, Elizabeth; Malmo, Jakob; Nguyen, Hanh; Nyein, Simon; Cheng, Allan; Jex, Aaron R; Rawlin, Grant; Spithill, Terence W; Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-06-01

    This study employed a semi-quantitative, multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) to assess the prevalence and infection intensity of four genotypes (buffeli, chitose, ikeda and type 5) of Theileria orientalis in cattle in Australia. Genomic DNA samples from blood samples (n=448) collected from 27 to 32 dairy cows from each of 15 dairy herds with a history of recent theileriosis outbreaks (Group 1), and from blood samples available from 24 cows with or without oriental theileriosis (Group 2) were tested using MT-PCR. Results revealed that all four genotypes were present in Group 1 cattle; genotype buffeli had the highest prevalence (80.5%), followed by genotypes ikeda (71.4%), chitose (38.6%) and type 5 (20.3%). Genotype ikeda had the highest average infection intensity in the cattle (relating to 55,277 DNA copies), followed by buffeli, chitose and type 5 (6354-51,648 copies). For Group 2, results indicated that genotype ikeda had a significantly higher average intensity of infection than buffeli in symptomatic cattle (P<0.001), and symptomatic cattle had a higher intensity of ikeda than asymptomatic cattle (P=0.004). Future studies should assess the utility of the present MT-PCR assay as a diagnostic and epidemiological tool in other parts of Australasia and the world.

  11. Comparison of genetic variation of wild and farmed Bream (Abramis brama orientalis; berg, 1905 using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Hosseinnia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bream (Abramis brama orientalis is one of the most commercially valuable fish in the Caspian Sea. The aim of this study was to compare levels of genetic polymorphism between wild and farmed Bream populations using seven microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was investigated by studying samples collected from two regions; Chaboksar and the Artificial Propagation Center of Guilan province. Allele frequency was found to have declined in wild and cultured fish due to inbreeding and genetic drift. Significant population differentiation (Fst was observed between wild and farmed populations, which could be explained by the low number of alleles in two populations. Significant deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were found at more loci. Beyond the null alleles' hypothesis, heterozygote deficiency may have arisen due to inbreeding. Both populations showed lowest genetic diversity according to the number of alleles and genotypes per each locus. This approach was carried out for the first time and could provide information regarding the genetic variability of farmed and wild abramis brama fish using microsatellite markers. Results could be used for the management and conservation of artificial Bream propagation programs.

  12. Modification of a prey catching response and the development of behavioral persistence in the fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Zachary J; Ikura, Juntaro; Laberge, Frédéric

    2013-11-01

    The present report investigated how fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) modified their response in a prey catching task in which the attribution of food reward was contingent on snapping toward a visual stimulus of moving prey displayed on a computer screen. Two experiments investigated modification of the snapping response, with different intervals between the opportunity to snap at the visual stimulus and reward administration. The snapping response of unpaired controls was decreased compared with the conditioned toads when hour or day intervals were used, but intervals of 5 min produced only minimal change in snapping. The determinants of extinction of the response toward the visual stimulus were then investigated in 3 experiments. The results of the first experiment suggested that increased resistance to extinction depended mostly on the number of training trials, not on partial reinforcement or the magnitude of reinforcement during training. This was confirmed in a second experiment showing that overtraining resulted in resistance to extinction, and that the pairing of the reward with a response toward the stimulus was necessary for that effect, as opposed to pairing reward solely with the experimental context. The last experiment showed that the time elapsed between training trials also influenced extinction, but only in toads that received few training trials. Overall, the results suggest that toads learning about a prey stimulus progress from an early flexible phase, when an action can be modified by its consequences, to an acquired habit characterized by an increasingly inflexible and automatic response.

  13. First data of Iberian Nematomorpha, with redescription of Gordius aquaticus Linnaeus, G. plicatulus Heinze, Gordionus wolterstorffii (Camerano) and Paragordius tricuspidatus (Dufour)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalobos, de Leonor Cristina; Ribera, Ignacio; Bilton, David T.

    2001-01-01

    Four species of Nematomorpha are recorded from NE Spain, representing the first reliable data on the group in the Iberian peninsula. Gordius aquations Linnaeus, 1758, G. plicatulus Heinze, 1937, Gordionus wolterstorffii (Camerano, 1888) and Paragordius tricuspidatus (Dufour, 1828) are redescribed

  14. The influence of moonlight and lunar periodicity on the efficacy of CDC light trap in sampling Phlebotomus (Larroussius) orientalis Parrot, 1936 and other Phlebotomus sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresilassie, Araya; Yared, Solomon; Aklilu, Essayas; Kirstein, Oscar David; Moncaz, Aviad; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-02-15

    Phlebotomus orientalis is the main sandfly vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the north and northwest of Ethiopia. CDC light traps and sticky traps are commonly used for monitoring sandfly populations. However, their trapping efficiency is greatly influenced by various environmental factors including moonlight and lunar periodicity. In view of that, the current study assessed the effect of moonlight and lunar periodicity on the performance of light traps in collecting P. orientalis. Trapping of P. orientalis and other Phlebotomus spp. was conducted for 7 months between December 2012 and June 2013 using CDC light traps and sticky traps from peri-domestic and agricultural fields. Throughout the trapping periods, collections of sandfly specimens were carried out for 4 nights per month, totaling 28 trapping nights that coincided with the four lunar phases (viz., first quarter, third quarter, new and full moon) distributed in each month. In total, 13,533 sandflies of eight Phlebotomus species (P. orientalis, P. bergeroti, P. rodhaini, P. duboscqi, P. papatasi, P. martini, P. lesleyae and P. heischi) were recorded. The predominant species was P. orientalis in both trapping sites and by both methods of collection in all lunar phases. A significant difference (P full moon. However, the number of P. orientalis and the other Phlebotomus spp. from sticky traps did not differ in their density among the four lunar phases (P = 0.122). Results of the current study demonstrated that the attraction and trapping efficiency of CDC light traps is largely influenced by the presence moonlight, especially during a full moon. Therefore, sampling of sandflies using light traps to estimate population density and other epidemiological studies in the field should take the effect of moonlight and lunar periodicity into account on the trapping efficacy of light traps.

  15. Ontogenic profiling of glucosinolates, flavonoids, and other secondary metabolites in Eruca sativa (salad rocket), Diplotaxis erucoides (wall rocket), Diplotaxis tenuifolia (wild rocket), and Bunias orientalis (Turkish rocket).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Mellon, Fred A; Kroon, Paul A

    2006-05-31

    As an influence of the Mediterranean diet, rocket species such as Eruca sativa L., Diplotaxis species, and Bunias orientalis L. are eaten all over the world at different ontogenic stages in salads and soups. They are all species within the plant order Capparales (glucosinolate-containing species), and all are from the family Brassicaceae. Predominantly, the leaves of these species are eaten raw or cooked, although Eruca flowers are also consumed. There is considerable potential with raw plant material for a higher exposure to bioactive phytochemicals such as glucosinolates, their hydrolysis products, and also phenolics, flavonoids, and vitamins such as vitamin C. These compounds are susceptible to ontogenic variation, and the few published studies that have addressed this topic have been inconsistent. Thus, an ontogenic study was performed and all samples were analyzed using a previously developed robust liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the identification and quantification of the major phytochemicals in all tissues of the rocket species. Seeds and roots of both Eruca and Diplotaxis contained predominantly 4-methylthiobutylglucosinolate. Leaves of Eruca and Diplotaxis contained high amounts of 4-mercaptobutylglucosinolate with lower levels of 4-methylthiobutlyglucosinolate and 4-methylsulfinylbutylglucosinolate. Flowers of Eruca and Diplotaxiscontained predominantly 4-methylsulfinylbutyl-glucosinolate. In addition, roots of both Diplotaxisspecies contained 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate but 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate was absent from roots of Eruca. Seeds and seedlings of all Eruca contained N-heterocyclic compounds but no sinapine, whereas Diplotaxis contained sinapine but not the N-heterocycles. In all tissues of B. orientalis, 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate and 4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenylglucosinolate were predominant. All rocket tissues, except roots, contained significant levels of polyglycosylated flavonoids, with/without hydroxycinnamoyl

  16. Selection strategy and the design of hybrid oligonucleotide primers for RACE-PCR: cloning a family of toxin-like sequences from Agelena orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipkin Alexey

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background the use of specific but partially degenerate primers for nucleic acid hybridisations and PCRs amplification of known or unknown gene families was first reported well over a decade ago and the technique has been used widely since then. Results here we report a novel and successful selection strategy for the design of hybrid partially degenerate primers for use with RT-PCR and RACE-PCR for the identification of unknown gene families. The technique (named PaBaLiS has proven very effective as it allowed us to identify and clone a large group of mRNAs encoding neurotoxin-like polypeptide pools from the venom of Agelena orientalis species of spider. Our approach differs radically from the generally accepted CODEHOP principle first reported in 1998. Most importantly, our method has proven very efficient by performing better than an independently generated high throughput EST cloning programme. Our method yielded nearly 130 non-identical sequences from Agelena orientalis, whilst the EST cloning technique yielded only 48 non-identical sequences from 2100 clones obtained from the same Agelena material. In addition to the primer design approach reported here, which is almost universally applicable to any PCR cloning application, our results also indicate that venom of Agelena orientalis spider contains a much larger family of related toxin-like sequences than previously thought. Conclusion with upwards of 100,000 species of spider thought to exist, and a propensity for producing diverse peptide pools, many more peptides of pharmacological importance await discovery. We envisage that some of these peptides and their recombinant derivatives will provide a new range of tools for neuroscience research and could also facilitate the development of a new generation of analgesic drugs and insecticides.

  17. Synthesis of δ-lactonic pheromones ofXylocopa hirsutissima andVespa orientalis and an allomone of some ants of genusCamponotus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacardit, R; Moreno-Mañas, M

    1983-06-01

    Simple preparations ofcis-3,6-dimethyltetrahydro-2-pyrone, VII,6-n-undecyltetrahydro-2-pyrone, XVIIb, and 6-n-pentyl-5,6-dihydro-2-pyrone, XVIa, have been achieved. Products VII and XVIIb, respectively, are the major constituent of the pheromonal blend of a carpenter bee (Xylocopa hirsutissima) and the pheromone of the queens of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis). The lactone XVIa is a suspected defensive allomone in two species of formicine ants of the genusCamponotus. All three compounds have been prepared from dehydroacetic acid, I, a cheap and industrially available starting material.

  18. Detection rate of diarrhoea-causing Kudoa hexapunctata in Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis from Japanese waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Jun; Murata, Rie; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2015-02-01

    Diffuse outbreaks of food poisoning with unknown aetiologies leading to diarrhoea and vomiting within a short time after ingesting flatfish (Paralichthys olivaceus), tuna (Thunnus spp.), or amberjack (Seriola dumerili) have occurred nationwide in Japan, including the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this study, we surveyed the detection rates of kudoid parasites in 12 tuna samples that caused clinical diarrhoea from 2009 to 2012; we assessed 104 samples of whole juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT, Thunnus orientalis) and 153 block samples of other tuna distributed in the Tokyo Metropolitan Central Wholesale Market. The survey revealed that more than 70% of clinical diarrhoea cases due to tuna ingestion occurred between June and September, and Kudoa hexapunctata were detected in 9 of 12 tuna samples associated with clinical diarrhoea cases. The numbers of spores and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) copies per gram of fish in 8 of 9 samples were more than 1×10(6) spores and 1×10(9) copies, respectively. Market research revealed that the K. hexapunctata-positive rate in juvenile PBT from Japanese waters was 64.4% (67/104) but that in adult PBT was 10.4% (7/67). The numbers of K. hexapunctata 18S rDNA copies in 64.5% (20/31) samples and 72.7% (16/22) of <5kg fish samples collected between May and July were more than 1×10(9)copies/g. On the other hand, kudoid parasites were not detected from 73 tuna samples except for a single sample of Thunnus albacares. Cell monolayer permeability assays performed to examine the toxicity of K. hexapunctata against Caco-2 cells revealed that the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in 5×10(7)K. hexapunctata spores decreased by 80% within 2-4h. In conclusion, K. hexapunctata was commonly detected in juvenile PBT from Japanese waters and are a likely cause of the diarrhoea outbreaks.

  19. The Effectiveness of Crataegus orientalis M Bieber. (Hawthorn Extract Administration in Preventing Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats with Experimental Periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mükerrem Hatipoğlu

    Full Text Available The purpose of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn (Crataeus orientalis M Bieber. extract on serum oxidative status and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: non- ligated+placebo (saline (NL, n = 9, ligature only+placebo (saline (LO, n = 9, and ligature and treated with hawthorn extract in saline (H, n = 9 (100 mg/kg orogastrically, once a day for 11 days. Periodontitis was induced by submerging a 4/0 silk ligature in the sulcus of the mandibular right first molars of rats, and the animals were sacrificed after 11 days. Micro-CT examinations were performed for linear and volumetric parameter assessment of alveolar bone. Periodontal tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups. Levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS/total oxidant status (TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI were also analyzed. Alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced by hawthorn administration compared to LO group (p<0.05. The number of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts in the LO group was significantly higher than that of the NL and H groups (p< 0.05. The number of osteoblasts in the LO and H groups was significantly higher than that of the NL group (p<0.05. TOS and OSI levels were significantly reduced in H group compared to LO group (P <0.05 and TAS levels were similar in H and NL group (p< 0.05. Hawthorn extract showed inhibitory effect on periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss by regulating TAS, TOS and OSI levels in periodontal disease in rats when administered systemically.

  20. The Effectiveness of Crataegus orientalis M Bieber. (Hawthorn) Extract Administration in Preventing Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats with Experimental Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Mükerrem; Sağlam, Mehmet; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Köksal, Ekrem; Keleş, Ali; Esen, Hacı Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn (Crataeus orientalis M Bieber.) extract on serum oxidative status and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: non- ligated+placebo (saline) (NL, n = 9), ligature only+placebo (saline) (LO, n = 9), and ligature and treated with hawthorn extract in saline (H, n = 9) (100 mg/kg orogastrically, once a day for 11 days). Periodontitis was induced by submerging a 4/0 silk ligature in the sulcus of the mandibular right first molars of rats, and the animals were sacrificed after 11 days. Micro-CT examinations were performed for linear and volumetric parameter assessment of alveolar bone. Periodontal tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups. Levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS)/total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also analyzed. Alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced by hawthorn administration compared to LO group (p<0.05). The number of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts in the LO group was significantly higher than that of the NL and H groups (p< 0.05). The number of osteoblasts in the LO and H groups was significantly higher than that of the NL group (p<0.05). TOS and OSI levels were significantly reduced in H group compared to LO group (P <0.05) and TAS levels were similar in H and NL group (p< 0.05). Hawthorn extract showed inhibitory effect on periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss by regulating TAS, TOS and OSI levels in periodontal disease in rats when administered systemically.

  1. Structures of ovary and ovarian follicle in flathead lobster,Thenus orientalis (Lund, 1793) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Scyllarida)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The ovary contains four morphological components : (1) the ovarian wall, (2) therepro ductive epithelium, (3) the cellular layer containing oocytes, oogonia (especially for early-developing ovary) and follicle cells, and (4) the extensions of the ovarian wall. The ovarian wall and its extensions consist of blood vessels, sinuses, muscle cells and others. The extensions of the ovarian wall project into among the follicles and insert on the thick basal membrane of each follicle.From inside to outside, the follicles are composed of four parts: (1) the oocyte, (2) the perivitelline space, (3) the follicle cells, and (4) the basal membrane. The surface of the oocyte during vitellogenesis is folded into numerous long microvilli that project into the perivitelline space between the oocyte surface and the bace of the follicle cell layer. In addition, the plasma membrane of the vitellogenic oocyte contains many pinocytotic pits. The perivitelline space is engorged with more electrondenser material as the development of the follicle. The inclusion of perivitelline space in the mature follicle is named specially as the chorion. The chorion is composed of two region, a thinner exochorion and a thicker endochorion containing electron-dense granular material. The follicle cell layer is composed of a single layer of polygonal follicle cells which exhibit higher synthetic activity. The synthetic product of the follicle cell layer is one source for the inclusion of the perivitelline space.The structures of the ovary and ovarian follicle in T. orientalis show that the exogenously biosynthetic yolk plays important roles in the vitellogenesis.

  2. Tissue turnover rates and isotopic trophic discrimination factors in the endothermic teleost, pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis.

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    Daniel J Madigan

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis (SIA of highly migratory marine pelagic animals can improve understanding of their migratory patterns and trophic ecology. However, accurate interpretation of isotopic analyses relies on knowledge of isotope turnover rates and tissue-diet isotope discrimination factors. Laboratory-derived turnover rates and discrimination factors have been difficult to obtain due to the challenges of maintaining these species in captivity. We conducted a study to determine tissue- (white muscle and liver and isotope- (nitrogen and carbon specific turnover rates and trophic discrimination factors (TDFs using archived tissues from captive Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT, Thunnus orientalis, 1-2914 days after a diet shift in captivity. Half-life values for (15N turnover in white muscle and liver were 167 and 86 days, and for (13C were 255 and 162 days, respectively. TDFs for white muscle and liver were 1.9 and 1.1‰ for δ(15N and 1.8 and 1.2‰ for δ(13C, respectively. Our results demonstrate that turnover of (15N and (13C in bluefin tuna tissues is well described by a single compartment first-order kinetics model. We report variability in turnover rates between tissue types and their isotope dynamics, and hypothesize that metabolic processes play a large role in turnover of nitrogen and carbon in PBFT white muscle and liver tissues. (15N in white muscle tissue showed the most predictable change with diet over time, suggesting that white muscle δ(15N data may provide the most reliable inferences for diet and migration studies using stable isotopes in wild fish. These results allow more accurate interpretation of field data and dramatically improve our ability to use stable isotope data from wild tunas to better understand their migration patterns and trophic ecology.

  3. An outbreak of Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis - Linnaeus, 1758 envenoming in Southeastern Brazil

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    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Portuguese man-of-war, Physalia physalis (Linnaeus, 1758, are cnidarians capable of discharging intracellular organelles filled with venom, resulting in severe envenomation in humans. Methods We report the clinical and therapeutic aspects of 331 accidents involving Portuguese man-of-war in an outbreak on the coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Results The clinical manifestations of envenomation were rare and mild and mostly local, systemic reactions; there was a low rate of late complications. Conclusions The consequences of envenomation were of moderate severity, and first aid measures were effective in controlling the pain. Outbreaks of accidents involving Portuguese man-of-war occur periodically in the area without a clear explanation.

  4. Subulura halli (Ascaridida: Subuluridae) from the endangered great bustard Otis tarda Linnaeus (Aves: Gruiformes) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li-Qiang; Xu, Zhen; Li, Shun-Cai; Li, Liang

    2014-02-01

    Subulurid nematodes identified as Subulura halli Barreto, 1918 were collected from the endangered bird Otis tarda Linnaeus (Gruiformes: Otididae) in China. A detailed redescription of the hitherto poorly known species is presented using both light and, for the first time, scanning electron microscopy. Previously unreported and erroneous morphological features of taxonomic significance are revealed. This species can be readily distinguished from its congeners by the relatively long oesophagus (1.47-1.92 mm long, representing 10.6-16.9% of body length), the number and arrangement of male caudal papillae (11 pairs in total, arranged as five pairs of precloacal and six pairs of postcloacal papillae), the equal length of spicules (1.35-1.52 mm long, representing 10.7-13.7% of body length) and the presence of a small medioventral, precloacal papilla in the male.

  5. Parasites of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus from Western Johor Straits, Malaysian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the apicomplexa as well as other parasites infecting organs/tissues of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus, from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly by hand picking, in November and December 2013. Histological techniques were performed, stained using Masson's Trichrome protocol and observed under light microscope. The results showed that gonad and gill were the most infected organs followed by digestive gland, intestine and adductor muscle. No pathology condition was observed in the mantle. Histophatological examination showed that the gregarine, Nematopsis, unidentified coccidian and Perkinsus were found in the gill and gonad, and also in the numerous hemocytes. Other pathological conditions such as bacteria-like inclusion and intracellular bacteria were also observed in the same organs. Further investigations are needed particularly on other molluscs present at the study area. Understanding the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  6. Distribution of blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1758 in Trang Province

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    Buncha Somboonsuke

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The fishery of the blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1758 is very important to the economy of small-scale fishermen. Greater knowledge about its distribution could lead to more efficient management. This study was conducted in Trang Province from October 2006 to August 2007 using collapsible crab traps. To reveal the spatial distribution of the species, we analyzed the data using geostatistical methods. The standard interpolate procedure was applied to model the crab distribution. There were clear spatial distribution differences among the small crabs, large crabs and ovigerous females in study area. The mapping showed that small crabs (carapace width 10 cm were farther offshore. Ovigerous females peaked in abundance during 2 periods: March – April and August – September. This information can be used to support decision making concerning the designation of fishing zones and the optimization of the blue swimming crab fishery in the study area.

  7. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON CERTAIN BIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF A LADYBEETLE COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTA TA LINNAEUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShefaliSrivastava; Dmkar

    2003-01-01

    Influence of temperature on certain biological attributes of an aphidophagous ladybeetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, feeding on mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), at five different temperatures, viz. 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35℃ was investigated. Its developmental period was shortest (11.7±0.09days) at 35℃ and longest (20.6±0.35 days) at 20℃. Developmental rate increased with increase in temperature. Hatching percent, larval survival, adult emergence and growth index were maximum at 30℃ and minimumat 20℃. Oviposition period and fecundity were highest at 30℃ and lowest at 20℃. A positive linear relationship exists between temperature and developmental rate and negative correlation between the duration of immature life stages and temperature. The proportion of developmental period allocated to each immature stage was found to be similar at each temperature regime. Thus, 30℃ was found as the most suitable for C. septempunctata amongst the five temperatures tested.

  8. Settling the name Diomedea exulans Linnaeus, 1758 for the Wandering Albatross by neotypification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schodde, Richard; Tennyson, Alan J D; Groth, Jeff G; Lai, Jonas; Scofield, Paul; Steinheimer, Frank D

    2017-02-21

    On-going conflict in use of the name Diomedea exulans Linnaeus, 1758 for different taxa of the great albatrosses (Wandering Albatross complex) is resolved by neotypification, fixing the name to the large subantarctic form formerly often known as D. chionoptera Salvin, 1896. Application of all scientific names in the complex is reviewed, an annotated synonymy for the large subantarctic form is provided, available names for smaller, temperate-zone forms are listed, and unavailable and otherwise invalid names referable to the complex are identified. Syntypes of D. chionoptera and D. spadicea J.F. Gmelin, 1789 are lectotypified as well, fixing their names as synonyms of D. exulans to prevent possible disturbance to in-use names for the smaller, temperate-zone forms.

  9. Pengelolaan Lingkungan dalam Rangka Mengantisipasi Perkembangan Hama Belalang Nomadacris succincta Linnaeus (Orthoptera: Acrididae

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    Sri Suharni Siwi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Swarming grasshopper Nomadacris succincta (Linnaeus, sinonim: Patanga succincta (L. was one of the dominant species attacked corn and soybean plantations at Jeneponto District, South Sulawesi in early 2005. The species has been identified for a long time occurred in that environment, although has never been reported before as pest of farmer's crops. For a basis of the capability in controlling the swarm grasshopper in the field, changed of increasing population hould be monitored regularly to prevent future outbreak. Information on taxonomic and ecology research of N. succincta are needed for environmental management efforts, such as change in morphology, physiology and behavior, change in host's preferences of gregarious adult, and environmental conditions i.e. climate, cultural techniques, and the death of natural enemies in the field.

  10. Antennal sensory organs of Scathophaga stercoraria (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Scathophagidae): ultramorphology and phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Hui; Liu, Jia-Jia; Li, Xin-Yu; Zhang, Dong

    2016-01-21

    Scathophaga stercoraria (Linnaeus, 1758) is a well-established insect model species involved in numerous investigations on behavior, biology, phylogeny, genetics and evolution. The antennal sensilla of S. stercoraria are examined via scanning electron microscopy in order to emphasize their importance on taxonomy and phylogeny. On antennal scape and pedicel, both microtrichiae and several sharp-tipped mechanoreceptors are observed, while another two structures, setiferous plaques and pedicellar button, are also detected on antennal pedicel. One type of sensory pit and four types of antennal sensilla, including trichoid sensilla, basiconic sensilla, coeloconic sensilla and clavate sensilla, are observed on antennal funiculus. Similarity and disparity of setiferous plaques among different calyptrate groups are analyzed in terms of phylogeny. The phylogenetic results supported by morphology of setiferous plaques strongly accord with the cladistic relations based on known molecular tree, implying the potential taxonomic and phylogenetic implications of the plaques in Calyptratae.

  11. Analysis of the blackening of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced weight percentage after sun drying, and the changes in colour and appearance of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries after blanching and sun drying. The results show that the degree of reduced weight percentage and browning in green pepper berries after blanching for 10 min is greater at 100°C than at 90 and 80°C. Moreover, the samples blanched at 100°C for 10 min had the fastest water loss, but the lowest PPO activity. Thus, the PPO enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols might not be the only reason for the browning of green pepper berries. This result is significantly different from that of Variyar, Pendharkar, Banerjeea, and Bandyopadhyay (1988) and therefore deserves further study.

  12. Solid state characterization of {alpha}-chitin from Vanessa cardui Linnaeus wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Jessica D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schauer, Caroline L., E-mail: cschauer@coe.drexel.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-05-05

    Material properties of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui Linnaeus were investigated using typical material science techniques. The examined butterflies were raised and hatched from the larvae stage and their chemical and crystalline structure evaluated and compared to that of crab shell ({alpha}-chitin) and squid pens from Notodarus sloanii and Loligo pealei ({beta}-chitin). Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the painted lady butterflies are composed of {alpha}-chitin. Additionally, macro- and microstructure characterization of the chitins was conducted utilizing digital photography and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). This work demonstrates that common characterization techniques combined with simple sample preparation of biological materials can yield successful material characterization, which could aide the fabrication of biomimetic materials.

  13. A SEM study of the antenna and mouthparts of Omosita colon (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan-Kun; Huang, Min

    2016-12-01

    There are direct relationships between the behavioral mechanisms and sensilla. To obtain a better understanding of the behavioral mechanisms in Omosita colon (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), we investigated the types, quantities, and distribution of sensilla on the antenna and mouthparts of O. colon by scanning electron microscopy. The clavate antenna comprised the scape, pedicel, and nine segment flagellomeres and had six types of sensilla, including two subtypes of sensilla chaetica (SC), three subtypes of sensilla basiconica (SB) and sensilla trichodea (ST), and one type of sensilla cavity, sensilla styloconica, and Böhm bristles (BB). The chewing mouthparts of O. colon consist of the labrum, mandible, maxillae, labium, and hypopharynx and had seven types sensilla, including two subtypes of SC and sensilla placodea, seven subtypes of SB, and one type of BB, ST, sensilla coeloconica, and sensilla campaniformia. In this research, we also deduced the relationships between the sensilla on the antenna and mouthparts and their functions.

  14. FIRST RECORD OF SCUTIGERA COLEOPTRATA (LINNAEUS, 1758 IN THE SOUTH OF WESTERN SIBERIA, RUSSIA (CHILOPODA: SCUTIGEROMORPHA: SCUTIGERIDAE

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    P.S. Nefediev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The order, family, genus and species of the house centipede are new to Asian Russia’s list: Scutigeromorpha, Scutigeridae, Scutigera Lamark, 1801, and Scutigera coleoptrata (Linnaeus, 1758. All records of the species in the south of western Siberia appear to be associated with synanthropic habitats. Distributional remarks are provided, all currently reported findings being mapped as well.

  15. The Study Progress on Curcuma Linnaeus Plants%姜黄属花卉植物研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雪慧

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing the aspects of resource distribution and types of Curcuma Linnaeus flowers ,its biological characteristics , method of propagation ,and the significance of research ,this paper summarized the research status of Curcuma Linnaeus flow‐ers ,and put forward that the research focus would put on the breeding of new varieties ,cultivation techniques and industriali‐zation of Curcuma Linnaeus flower in the future .%从姜黄属花卉的资源分布与种类、生物学特性、繁殖方法、研究开发意义、研究前景展望等方面总结了姜黄属花卉的研究现状,认为姜黄属花卉将来研究的重点会集中在选育新品种、栽培技术与姜黄属花卉的产业化发展上。

  16. Effects of sowing site, sowing time and some pretreatments on germination of oriental hawthorn (Crataegus orientalis Paal. Ex. M. Bieb seeds

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    Aşkın Göktürk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of sowing site, sowing time, chemical scarification and floating on water solution of ash pretreatments on germination percentage of hawthorn (Crataegus orientalis paal. Ex. M. Bieb seeds. Seeds were pretreated with sulphuric acid (H2SO4, nitric acid (HNO3, citric acid (C6H8O7 and water solution of ash within two different or separated groups to determine most appropriate methods for removing seed dormancy of oriental hawthorn. Sowings were carried out in green house and open field conditions in September to determine field effects. Sowings were also carried out to determine effects of sowing time in August and September at open field conditions with three replications of randomized block design. As a results of this study it was determined that pretreatments of sulphuric acid, nitric acid and citric acid were not effective on overcoming of seed dormancy of C. orientalis seeds. Best germination percentage were achieved from seeds sown in August after pretreated with soaking water solution of ash for 6 days as 74 %.

  17. Antioxidant Activity and Antibacterial Effects on Clinical Isolated Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius of Extracts from Several Parts of Cladogynos orientalis and Their Phytochemical Screenings

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    Pongtip Sithisarn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial assays against clinically isolated Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius of the extracts prepared by decoction and ethanolic reflux of different parts of Chettaphangki (Cladogynos orientalis Zipp. ex Span, including the leaves, roots, and stems, using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging assay and disc diffusion method were conducted. Quantitative analysis of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods was also performed. Finally, phytochemical screening by thin layer chromatography (TLC and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was conducted. Leaf ethanolic reflux extract (100 g contained the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of 7.21 ± 0.28 μg gallic acid equivalent (GAE and 11.51 ± 2.02 μg rutin equivalent (RE, respectively. Chettaphangki extracts promoted low antioxidant activity with EC50 values in the range of 0.27–0.48 mg/mL. Extracts and fractions from the roots and stems of this plant promoted low to intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with the inhibition zones between 7 and 14 mm. The chromatographic data suggested that the leaf extracts of C. orientalis contained rutin while the root and stem extracts contained scopoletin and chettaphanin I. Rutin promoted strong antioxidant activity while chettaphanin I showed low antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus intermedius.

  18. The influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

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    MARZIEH BEGYOM-FAGHIR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pourbabaei H, Haddadi-Moghaddam H, Begyom-Faghir M, Abedi T. 2013. The influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 14: 89-94.This study was conducted to investigate the influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran province. Fifteen gaps in small, medium, and large sizes were randomly selected. Abundance of tree saplings, shrubs and herbaceous species were counted on 4 m2 micro-plots within the gaps. Diversity indices including Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, Mc Arthur's N1, Hill's N2, species richness and Smith-Wilson’s evenness index were computed. The results revealed that there was significant difference among three gap categories in terms of diversity. The highest diversity values of tree and herbaceous species were obtained in the large gaps, while the highest diversity value of shrub species was in the medium gaps. Species composition of small gaps (28 species: 7 trees and 21 herbaceous, medium gaps (37 species: 7 trees, 5 shrubs and 25 herbaceous and large gaps (40 species: 7 trees, 4 shrubs and 29 herbaceous were recognized. Therefore, based on the results of this study, it is recommended that in order to maintain plant diversity and composition up to 400 m2 gap size cloud be used in this forests.

  19. Reprodução de Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus no litoral de Santa Catarina, Brasil Reproduction of the Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus in the Santa Catarina's coast, Brazil

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    Joaquim O. Branco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O savacu Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758 é uma espécie de hábitos crepusculares e noturnos, com ampla distribuição geográfica. Sua biologia reprodutiva tem sido intensivamente estudada nos países de ocorrência, entretanto, no Brasil, é comumente citada nos levantamentos de ornitólogos, mas não existem informações disponíveis sobre seu ciclo de vida. Esse trabalho objetiva contribuir para o conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva dessa espécie no litoral catarinense. As amostragens foram realizadas nos anos de 2000 a 2002 na Ilha dos Pássaros e de 2002 na Ilha dos Lobos, Santa Catarina. As maiores abundâncias de exemplares e ninhos com ovos ocorreram em outubro, sendo que o comprimento médio dos ovos variou entre 5,02 ± 0,23 a 5,07 ± 0,21 cm e o volume 31,71 ± 2,64 a 35,92 ± 3,47 cm³ e as maiores freqüências de filhotes em novembro, culminando o abandono da colônia em meados de janeiro. Foram identificados sete itens nos regurgitos dos filhotes, sendo que os peixes marinhos representaram 44,4% da massa total. O principal predador na colônia foi o urubu-comum, que atuou sobre os ovos no início da temporada e os filhotes no final.The black-crowned night heron N. nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758 is a aquatic bird with twilight and night habits, with wide geographical distribution. His reproductive biology has been studied intensively at the occurrence countries, however, in Brazil, it is mentioned commonly in the ornithologists' risings, but available information don't exist on his life cycle. This work aims to contribute for the knowledge of the reproductive biology of that species in the Santa Catarina coast. The samplings were accomplished in the years from 2000 to 2002 in the Ilha dos Pássaros and of 2002 in the Ilha dos Lobos, Santa Catarina. The largest abundances of individuals and nests with eggs happened in October, and the medium length of the eggs varied between 5.02 ± 0.23 to 5.07 ± 0.21 cm and the volume 31

  20. Ontogenia do fruto em desenvolvimento de Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae Ontogeny of fruits of Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae

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    Vanessa de Carvalho Harthman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus são espécies invasoras que ocorrem em culturas e terrenos baldios na região de Maringá, Paraná. O trabalho teve por objetivo a análise morfoanatômica dos frutos em desenvolvimento e estruturas não pericárpicas dessas duas espécies, com a finalidade de contribuir com informações estruturais para identificação das espécies, classificação dos frutos e investigações ecológicas. Flores e frutos foram coletados no campus da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, fixados em Glutaraldeído, secionados em micrótomo de rotação e corados com a azul de Toluidina. As bractéolas e perigônio são persistentes nos frutos e têm estrutura diferente nas duas espécies. O aquênio de Alternanthera tenella mantém o mesmo número de estratos celulares que o ovário, que sofrem colapso na fase madura, exceto o mesocarpo interno que se mantém com espessamento parietal em U e cristais. O utrículo de Amaranthus blitum é semelhante ao ovário em número de camadas celulares e apresenta aerênquima quando maduro. As sementes maduras são exotestais, com mesotesta e endotesta colapsadas, e embrião curvo. Nesse estudo, foram registrados alguns caracteres estruturais dos perigônios e dos frutos que são potencialmente significativos para caracterização e separação das espécies, ao contrário das sementes que são muito semelhantes.Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus are weeds that occur in crops and uncultivated areas in the Maringá region of Paraná. In this study, a morphoanatomical analysis of fruit development and the pericarp of A. tenella and A. blitum was made in order to contribute structural information for species identification, fruit classification, and ecological investigations. Flowers and fruits were collected at the campus of the State University of Maringá, Paraná, fixed in glutaraldehyde, sectioned with a rotary microtome and stained with

  1. Unraveling the karyotype structure of the spurges Euphorbia hirta Linnaeus, 1753 and E. hyssopifolia Linnaeus, 1753 (Euphorbiaceae) using genome size estimation and heterochromatin differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Karla C. B.; Pinangé, Diego S. B.; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Oliveira, Ana R.; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana C.; Alves, Marccus V.; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euphorbia Linnaeus, 1753 (Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most diverse and complex genera among the angiosperms, showing a huge diversity in morphologic traits and ecologic patterns. In order to improve the knowledge of the karyotype organization of Euphorbia hirta (2n = 18) and Euphorbia hyssopifolia (2n = 12), cytogenetic studies were performed by means of conventional staining with Giemsa, genome size estimations with flow cytometry, heterochromatin differentiation with chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Giemsa C-banding, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 45S and 5S rDNA probes, and impregnation with silver nitrate (AgNO3). Our results revealed small metacentric chromosomes, CMA+/DAPI0 heterochromatin in the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes and CMA+/DAPI− in the distal part of chromosome arms carriers of nucleolar organizing regions (NORs). The DNA content measurements revealed small genomes for both species: Euphorbia hirta with 2C = 0.77 pg and Euphorbia hyssopifolia with 2C = 1.41 pg. After FISH procedures, Euphorbia hirta, and Euphorbia hyssopifolia presented three and four pairs of terminal 45S rDNA sites, respectively, colocalizing with CMA+ heterochromatic blocks, besides only one interstitial pair of 5S rDNA signals. Additionally, the maximum number of active NORs agreed with the total number of observed 45S rDNA sites. This work represents the first analysis using FISH in the subfamily Euphorbioideae, revealing a significant number of chromosomal markers, which may be very helpful to understand evolutionary patterns among Euphorbia species. PMID:28123686

  2. Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isai Jorge de Castro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. A vocalização dos morcegos provavelmente atraiu os marsupiais para a rede, onde estes os predaram aproveitando que estavam presos. Este tipo de interação pode ocorrer naturalmente, no entanto, com maior dificuldade de registro.We observed three occasional predations of bats captured in mist nets by marsupials and a frog during studies in a várzea forest in the Amapá state. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed upon by Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed on by Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. The bats vocalizations probably attracted the marsupials and a frog to the mist nets where they preyed. This interaction form can occur naturally, however, are more difficult to observed.

  3. Action of sulfurous acid on pollen. [Hepatica triloba; Helleborus orientalis; Vinca minor; Viola tricolor; Primula officinalis; Lilium candidum; Petunia; Pisum; Helleborus viridus; Galanthus nivealis; Vinca major; Convallaria maialis; Narcissus poeticus; Caltha palustris; Cystisus laburnum; Orchis maculata; Bilbergia; Eranthus; Crocus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabachnikoff, V.

    1912-01-23

    The following ornamental plants: Hepatica triloba, Helleborus orientalis, Vinca minor, Viola tricolor, Primula officinalis, Lilium candidum, Petunia, Pisum, Helleborus viridus, Galanthus nivealis, Vinca major, Convallaria maialis, Narcissus poeticus, Caltha palustris, Cystisus laburnum, Orchis maculata, Bilbergia, Eranthus, and Crocus were tested for seed production. Exposure to sulfuric acid ranged from three to forty-eight hours. Responses were noted for varying concentrations.

  4. LINNAEUS OIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    barium enhanced waste marble catalyst was prepared via precipitation/ h performance to ... e active species as indicated from characterization data with Brunauer with Brunauer ..... catalysts for biodiesel production: current status and future ...

  5. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Issatchenkia orientalis GPI-Anchored Protein, IoGas1, Required for Resistance to Low pH and Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushika, Akinori; Negi, Kanako; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Goshima, Tetsuya; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2016-01-01

    The use of yeasts tolerant to acid (low pH) and salt stress is of industrial importance for several bioproduction processes. To identify new candidate genes having potential roles in low-pH tolerance, we screened an expression genomic DNA library of a multiple-stress-tolerant yeast, Issatchenkia orientalis (Pichia kudriavzevii), for clones that allowed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to grow under highly acidic conditions (pH 2.0). A genomic DNA clone containing two putative open reading frames was obtained, of which the putative protein-coding gene comprising 1629 bp was retransformed into the host. This transformant grew significantly at pH 2.0, and at pH 2.5 in the presence of 7.5% Na2SO4. The predicted amino acid sequence of this new gene, named I. orientalis GAS1 (IoGAS1), was 60% identical to the S. cerevisiae Gas1 protein, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein essential for maintaining cell wall integrity, and 58-59% identical to Candida albicans Phr1 and Phr2, pH-responsive proteins implicated in cell wall assembly and virulence. Northern hybridization analyses indicated that, as for the C. albicans homologs, IoGAS1 expression was pH-dependent, with expression increasing with decreasing pH (from 4.0 to 2.0) of the medium. These results suggest that IoGAS1 represents a novel pH-regulated system required for the adaptation of I. orientalis to environments of diverse pH. Heterologous expression of IoGAS1 complemented the growth and morphological defects of a S. cerevisiae gas1Δ mutant, demonstrating that IoGAS1 and the corresponding S. cerevisiae gene play similar roles in cell wall biosynthesis. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that two conserved glutamate residues (E161 and E262) in the IoGas1 protein play a crucial role in yeast morphogenesis and tolerance to low pH and salt stress. Furthermore, overexpression of IoGAS1 in S. cerevisiae remarkably improved the ethanol fermentation ability at pH 2.5, and at pH 2.0 in the presence of

  6. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Issatchenkia orientalis GPI-Anchored Protein, IoGas1, Required for Resistance to Low pH and Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushika, Akinori; Negi, Kanako; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Goshima, Tetsuya; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2016-01-01

    The use of yeasts tolerant to acid (low pH) and salt stress is of industrial importance for several bioproduction processes. To identify new candidate genes having potential roles in low-pH tolerance, we screened an expression genomic DNA library of a multiple-stress-tolerant yeast, Issatchenkia orientalis (Pichia kudriavzevii), for clones that allowed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to grow under highly acidic conditions (pH 2.0). A genomic DNA clone containing two putative open reading frames was obtained, of which the putative protein-coding gene comprising 1629 bp was retransformed into the host. This transformant grew significantly at pH 2.0, and at pH 2.5 in the presence of 7.5% Na2SO4. The predicted amino acid sequence of this new gene, named I. orientalis GAS1 (IoGAS1), was 60% identical to the S. cerevisiae Gas1 protein, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein essential for maintaining cell wall integrity, and 58–59% identical to Candida albicans Phr1 and Phr2, pH-responsive proteins implicated in cell wall assembly and virulence. Northern hybridization analyses indicated that, as for the C. albicans homologs, IoGAS1 expression was pH-dependent, with expression increasing with decreasing pH (from 4.0 to 2.0) of the medium. These results suggest that IoGAS1 represents a novel pH-regulated system required for the adaptation of I. orientalis to environments of diverse pH. Heterologous expression of IoGAS1 complemented the growth and morphological defects of a S. cerevisiae gas1Δ mutant, demonstrating that IoGAS1 and the corresponding S. cerevisiae gene play similar roles in cell wall biosynthesis. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that two conserved glutamate residues (E161 and E262) in the IoGas1 protein play a crucial role in yeast morphogenesis and tolerance to low pH and salt stress. Furthermore, overexpression of IoGAS1 in S. cerevisiae remarkably improved the ethanol fermentation ability at pH 2.5, and at pH 2.0 in the presence of

  7. Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Roveré Franz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Stored grains are subject to losses in quality nutritional value and in sanitation from the time they are stored to the time they are consumed. Botanical insecticides may offer an alternative solution for pest control. The objective was to test the insecticidal properties of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (leaf, Zingiber officinale (root and Mentha sp. (leaf. The efficacy of these oils was tested to control the rice weevil, S. oryzae, using hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis of the essential oils was carried out by gas chromatography. Major components of C. citratus were geranial (48% and neral (31%, of Z. officinale were α-zingibereno (13%, geranial (16%, neral (10% and α-farneseno (5% and of Mentha sp. was menthol (92%. Bioassays were carried out by fumigation and topical application. In topical application assays, the essential oil of C. citratus had greater toxicity (LC50 0.027 µL mL-1 and shorter exposure time than the oils of the other two plants. After 24 h and 48 h, 70% and 100% mortality of S. oryzae occurred, respectively. In fumigation assays, essential oil of Z. officinale had a lower LC50 (1.18 µL cm-2 and 70% mortality after 24 h exposure. Therefore, we recommend the use of essential oils of C. citratus and Z. officinale to control the rice weevil S. oryzae.

  8. Prevalence of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus Skuse in Koderma, Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K; Dhiman, R C; Dua, V K

    2011-09-01

    Entomological survey was carried out in different localities of Koderma district of Jharkhand with a view to study the prevalence, distribution and stratification of areas for Aedes mosquito species. A total of 233 houses were covered during house to house larval and adult survey. Aedes breeding could be detected in 157 houses. In all, a total of 942 domestic water containers were searched, out of which 461 were found positive. The overall house index(HI) container index(CI) breteau index(B1) and pupal index(PI) were 67.38%, 48.94%, 197.85% and 79.4%, respectively. The survey revealed that Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus Skuse are well established in Koderma with most of the areas showing high adult and larval indices. The preventive strategy needs to be directed towards minimizing the breeding potential of Aedes and water management practice by individuals along with implementation of urban bye-laws as well as IEC activities to contain Aedes breeding in future.

  9. ANATOMIA DA ARTÉRIA LINGUAL PROFUNDA EM Sus scrofa domestica, LINNAEUS, 1 758

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    JUSSARA ROCHA FERREIRA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the arteries of the tongue of Sus scrofa doméstica (Linnaeus, 1 758 from 20 animals whose tongues were slaughtered while fresh and kept cooled (4ºC for transportation. The blood vessels of 1 5 animals were flowed with water (37ºC, injected with stainedlatex, fixated with phormaldeid and dissected with magnifying glass. We injected 5 tongues with air and acetone PA; later, we injected again with air and at last with vinyl stained acetate. The material was put in water for 24 h and, after this, submerged in sulfuric acid 30% for two weeks to reveal the arterial system mold. The arteries provided dorsal, ventral and collateral branches in the following way: dorsal branches at the tongue root - three branches (50%, four branches (46.6%, five branches (3.4%; arrangements of the following dorsal and ventral branches at the tongue body - one ventral and two dorsal (46.6%, one ventral and three dorsal (23.3%, one ventral and one dorsal (23.3%, one ventral and four dorsal (3.4% and one ventral branch (3.4%. At the lingual apex, the artery was parallel between antimers, made a medial curve, and reached the counter-lateral artery, establishing anastomoses by inosculation, forming arterial islands from which radial branches to the tip of the tongue were originated.

  10. Locomotion of Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus (Gastropoda, Muricidae on a mixed shore of rocks and sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos G. Papp

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed shores of rocks and sand are appropriate systems for the study of limitations that the isolation of rocks may impose for gastropods that typically inhabit rocky shores. We marked 52 Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 snails on a mixed shore and found that 34 of them moved between rocks one to four times during 15 surveys in a period of 72 days. In the experiments, the snails moved on rock by continuous, direct, ditaxic, alternate undulations of the foot sole but on submerged sand they used slower arrhythmic discontinuous contractions of the foot sole. They switched between modes of locomotion in response to the type and topography of the substrate and possibly to water dynamics. In nature, snails moved between rocks forming aggregations where they oviposited. This may have masked other causes of movement, such as availability of prey. Most snails burrowed into the sand when the rocks became exposed during low tides. Further experiments are needed to explicitly address the possible causes of movements among rocks and burial.

  11. A note on captive breeding and reproductive parameters of the Chinese pangolin, Manis pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhua Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758 is a critically endangered species, and documents on its captive breeding and reproductive parameters are scarce. MP8, kept in the Pangolin Research Base for Artificial Rescue and Conservation Breeding of South China Normal University (the PRB-SCNU, gave birth to a male offspring (MP86 on 19 October 2011. The baby pangolin was well developed, with a weight of 120 g and a total length of 23.2 cm. The gestation length of MP8 was estimated to be from 182 to 225d. Reproductive parameters of the Chinese pangolin are discussed based on collected data about this species. The Chinese pangolin has an obvious reproductive seasonality and its gestation length is typically six to seven months. In this observation, estrus and mating principally occurred in a one-year period from February to July. Parturition principally took place from September to February of the next year. Chinese pangolins usually give birth to one offspring at a time (n = 27. Sex ratio at birth was 0.71:1 (♀:♂, n = 12. Average weight for the reproducible females was 3.57 ± 1.38 kg (2.14–6.8 kg, n = 15. We estimated that Chinese pangolins could reach sexual maturity before they were one year old.

  12. A note on captive breeding and reproductive parameters of the Chinese pangolin, Manis pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuhua; Wu, Shibao; Zou, Cuiyun; Wang, Qiaoyun; Li, Shaoshan; Sun, Ruyong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758) is a critically endangered species, and documents on its captive breeding and reproductive parameters are scarce. MP8, kept in the Pangolin Research Base for Artificial Rescue and Conservation Breeding of South China Normal University (the PRB-SCNU), gave birth to a male offspring (MP86) on 19 October 2011. The baby pangolin was well developed, with a weight of 120 g and a total length of 23.2 cm. The gestation length of MP8 was estimated to be from 182 to 225d. Reproductive parameters of the Chinese pangolin are discussed based on collected data about this species. The Chinese pangolin has an obvious reproductive seasonality and its gestation length is typically six to seven months. In this observation, estrus and mating principally occurred in a one-year period from February to July. Parturition principally took place from September to February of the next year. Chinese pangolins usually give birth to one offspring at a time (n = 27). Sex ratio at birth was 0.71:1 (♀:♂, n = 12). Average weight for the reproducible females was 3.57 ± 1.38 kg (2.14–6.8 kg, n = 15). We estimated that Chinese pangolins could reach sexual maturity before they were one year old. PMID:27853403

  13. Metabolic Plasticity of Nitrogen Assimilation by Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jang K.Kim; George P.Kraemer; Charles Yarish

    2012-01-01

    The physical stresses associated with emersion have long been considered major factors determining the vertical zonation of intertidal seaweeds.We examined Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing thalli from the vertical extremes in elevation of an intertidal population (i.e.upper and lower intertidal zones) to determine whether Porphyra thalli acclimate to different vertical elevations on the shore with different patterns of nitrate uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities in response to different degrees of emersion stress.We found that the nitrate uptake and NR recovery in the emersed tissues took longer in lower intertidal sub-population than in upper intertidal sub-population; and GS activity was also significantly affected by emersion and,interestingly,such an activity was enhanced by emersion of thalli from both upper and lower intertidal zones.These results suggested that intra-population variability in post-emersion recovery of physiological functions such as nutrient uptake and NR activity enables local adaptation and contributes to the wide vertical distribution of P.umbilicalis.The high GS activity during periodic emersion stress may be a protective mechanism enabling P.umbilicalis to assimilate nitrogen quickly when it again becomes available,and may also be an evidence of photorespiration during emersion.

  14. On the morphology of the worker immatures of the leafcutter ant Atta sexdens Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Daniel Russ; Fox, Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson; Ceccato, Marcela; Reiss, Itamar Cristina; Décio, Pâmela; Lorenzon, Natalia; Da Silva, Natiele Gonçalves; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2012-08-01

    Leafcutter ants of the genus Atta Fabricius are serious agricultural pests. Morphological studies of immature stages within this group are few, and the data provided for species of considerable importance are usually incomplete. In this study, the immatures of Atta sexdens Linnaeus are described and compared using light and scanning electron microscopy. Only specimens from founding stage colonies (i.e., lacking adult workers) were used. The existence of four larval instars was estimated by a frequency plot of maximum head widths, and the larvae of different instars differed from each other mainly by their bodily dimensions. Worker larvae belonged to two distinct morphological castes: (1) gardeners and nurses and (2) within-nest generalists. The worker larvae described in this study differed from a previous description of the same species by the following traits: the existence of a genal lobe, the number of clypeal hairs, the presence of two hairs on the ninth abdominal somite, the presence of hairs on the anterior surface of the labrum, and the shape of the maxillary palpus. This study provides a comparative analysis of immature stages of A. sexdens that may be relevant to future morphological and biological studies of the Attini.

  15. Anatomy of the liver of Guinea pig fetuses in late gestation (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela de Toledo Barbino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To describe the anatomy of the liver of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758] fetuses in late gestation and to obtain anatomical characteristics that can support and help the understanding of the physiology of fetal circulation. Three fetuses of Guinea pig in late gestation have been used, which were dissected and had their livers removed. These were analized, described, and photographed macroscopically and microscopically through light microscopy in HE and scanning electronic microscopy. Macroscopically, the fetuses livers have a reddish brown color and their division into lobes is clearly seen, as well as the presence of the gallbladder. The liver is divided into left lateral lobe, left medial lobe, right lateral lobe, right medial lobe, quadrate lobe, and caudate lobe with caudate and papillary processes. Through light microscopy, highly vascularized tissue is observed, and the left portion of the liver receive blood from the placenta through the umbilical vein, and the right portion is irrigated by the portal vein. The structures found on the liver of Guinea pig fetuses in late gestation are anatomically similar to those of other mammalian species.

  16. Metabolic plasticity of nitrogen assimilation by Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang K.; Kraemer, George P.; Yarish, Charles

    2012-12-01

    The physical stresses associated with emersion have long been considered major factors determining the vertical zonation of intertidal seaweeds. We examined Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing thalli from the vertical extremes in elevation of an intertidal population ( i.e. upper and lower intertidal zones) to determine whether Porphyra thalli acclimate to different vertical elevations on the shore with different patterns of nitrate uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities in response to different degrees of emersion stress. We found that the nitrate uptake and NR recovery in the emersed tissues took longer in lower intertidal sub-population than in upper intertidal sub-population; and GS activity was also significantly affected by emersion and, interestingly, such an activity was enhanced by emersion of thalli from both upper and lower intertidal zones. These results suggested that intra-population variability in post-emersion recovery of physiological functions such as nutrient uptake and NR activity enables local adaptation and contributes to the wide vertical distribution of P. umbilicalis. The high GS activity during periodic emersion stress may be a protective mechanism enabling P. umbilicalis to assimilate nitrogen quickly when it again becomes available, and may also be an evidence of photorespiration during emersion.

  17. Miologia do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo M. Leal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Objetivam-se descrever os músculos do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766, mediante dissecção anatômica dessa região. Foram utilizadas dez Cuniculus paca adultas, machos e fêmeas, pesando entre cinco e 10 kg do plantel de pacas do setor de Animais Silvestres da FCAV, Unesp, Jaboticabal/SP. Os animais foram fixados em formaldeído 10% e conservados em solução salina a 30% para dissecação anatômica da musculatura da pelve, coxa e perna, identificando-se a origem e inserção de cada músculo. Os resultados foram fotodocumentados e discutidos com base na literatura sobre animais domésticos, ratos e cobaias. Salvo algumas variâncias na origem e inserção de cada músculo e na fusão dos ventres de alguns grupos musculares, de forma geral, a musculatura da paca assemelha-se a dos animais domésticos e a de outros roedores.

  18. Ultrastructure of the spermatozoa of Psammotettix striatus (Linnaeus) and Exitianus nanus (Distant) (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mei; Dietrich, Christopher H; Zhang, Yalin; Dai, Wu

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies of insect spermatozoa indicate that these specialized cells have undergone significant morphological evolution and exhibit traits useful for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships. Although leafhoppers (Cicadellidae) are among the largest and most economically important insect families, few comparative studies of their spermatozoa have been published. Here, the ultrastructure of mature spermatozoa of two leafhoppers Psammotettix striatus (Linnaeus) and Exitianus nanus (Distant), representing two different tribes of the largest leafhopper subfamily, Deltocephalinae, was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The shape and ultrastructure of spermatozoa of the two species are very similar to those of other Cicadellidae as well as other Auchenorrhyncha, comprising a conical acrosome invaginated to form a subacrosomal space, a filiform homogeneously condensed nucleus, a lamellate centriolar adjunct connecting the nucleus with the mid-piece/flagellum, a long flagellum with a 9 + 9 + 2 axoneme pattern and two symmetrical mitochondrial derivatives with an orderly array of peripheral cristae, and two drop-shaped accessory bodies. They may be distinguished by the size of the sperm, and the shape of the nucleus, accessory bodies, and paracrystalline region of mitochondrial derivatives. The fine morphology and ultrastructure of spermatozoon in P. striatus and E. nanus are illustrated, along with a brief discussion of the implications for classification and phylogenetic analyses of the subfamily.

  19. Growth and reproductive properties of Tench, Tinca tinca Linnaeus, 1758 in Trasimeno Lake (Umbria, Italy

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    Pompei L.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth and some reproductive properties of native Tinca tinca Linnaeus, 1758 from Trasimeno Lake were investigated during 2009 and 2010. The total sample of fish (510 was composed by 126 males, 221 females and 163 immature specimens. Total length (TL ± 0.1 cm and weight (W ± 0.1 g were recorded; age estimation was based on scalimetry and sex was determined by microscopic observation of the gonads. Age composition varied from 1+  to 11+ . The TL-W relationship was log 10W =  −2.235 + 3.248log 10TL. Previous growth was determined with back-calculation from scale measurements using the Fraser-Lee method. Theoretical length growth was estimated with von Bertalanffy’s model. Analysis of the gonadosomatic index (GSI suggests that the reproductive period of the population took place from May to July. Sexual maturation occurred in both sexes at the second year of life. The mean diameter of eggs was 0.075 mm. The mean number of eggs produced by each female was 233 930 and increased with the size of the specimens. Though it is one of the most widespread and interested species in fishing in Italian waters, tench has not been widely studied; this research deepens some biological characteristics of this species that is strongly shrinking in Italy.

  20. Helminth fauna of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 from the suburban area of Belgrade, Serbia

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    Kataranovski D.S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The helminth fauna of the house mouse (Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 was studied on the basis of 429 host individuals from the suburban area of Belgrade. Eleven helminth species were recorded: three cestode species - Catenotaenia pusilla, Rodentolepis fraterna, and Cysticercus (= Strobilocercus fasciolaris [larval stage of Taenia taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1821]; and eight nematode species - Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia sp., Aspiculuris tetraptera, Syphacia obvelata, Heterakis spumosa, Trichuris muris, Mastophorus muris, and Gongylonema sp. Within the general helminth fauna, H. polygyrus was found to be the most prevalent species (39.2% and caused the highest infection intensity. Prevalences of A. tetraptera, C. pusilla, and S. obvelata ranged from 12.8% to 6.1%, while the remaining species showed prevalences ranging from 4.9% (for Syphacia sp. to 0.2% (for Gongylonema sp.. All the species found in males were also present in females, with the exceptions of M. muris and Gongylonema sp. No significant differences were found between males and females regarding prevalence (P%, mean infection intensity (MI, or mean abundance (MA.

  1. Structural and Immunological Activity Characterization of a Polysaccharide Isolated from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Li, Heng; Qian, Jianying; He, Yongfeng; Zheng, Jialin; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Zhenghong; Shi, Jinsong

    2015-12-29

    Polysaccharides from marine clams perform various biological activities, whereas information on structure is scarce. Here, a water-soluble polysaccharide MMPX-B2 was isolated from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus. The proposed structure was deduced through characterization and its immunological activity was investigated. MMPX-B2 consisted of d-glucose and d-galctose residues at a molar ratio of 3.51:1.00. The average molecular weight of MMPX-B2 was 510 kDa. This polysaccharide possessed a main chain of (1→4)-linked-α-d-glucopyranosyl residues, partially substituted at the C-6 position by a few terminal β-d-galactose residues or branched chains consisting of (1→3)-linked β-d-galactose residues. Preliminary immunological tests in vitro showed that MMPX-B2 could stimulate the murine macrophages to release various cytokines, and the structure-activity relationship was then established. The present study demonstrated the potential immunological activity of MMPX-B2, and provided references for studying the active ingredients in M. meretrix.

  2. Horn growth related to testosterone secretion in two wild Mediterranean ruminant species: the Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) and European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano-Díaz, A; Santiago-Moreno, J; Gómez-Brunet, A; Pulido-Pastor, A; López-Sebastián, A

    2007-12-01

    Seasonal variations in the horn development and testicular activity of the Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) (n=6) and European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) (n=5) were monitored to determine the role of increasing testosterone concentration on the arrest of horn growth during the rutting season. Marked seasonal variations in the rate of horn growth (Pmouflon R=-0.51, Pmouflon, the increase in plasma testosterone concentration recorded in September (P<0.05 compared with the lowest concentration) coincided with a significant reduction in horn growth (P<0.05). In the ibex, the increase in plasma testosterone concentration in October (P<0.05 compared with the lowest concentration) was associated with a significant arrest of horn growth in November (P<0.05). These results appear to support the hypothesis that high peripheral plasma levels of testosterone are linked with the seasonal arrest of horn growth during the rutting period.

  3. Effects of Steaming, Drying Temperature, and Adhesive Type on Static Bending Properties of LVL made of Picea orientalis and Abies nordmanniana veneers

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    Huseyin Peker

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The modulus of elasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR were evaluated for laminated veneer lumber (LVL in static bending. The studied species were spruce (Picea orientalis and fir (Abies nordmanniana originated from the Eastern Black sea region and prepared with phenol-formaldehyde and melamine-urea-formaldehyde. The effect of wood species, steaming, drying temperature, and type of adhesive on static bending MOE and MOR were determined. According to the experimental results, the bending strength of spruce wood (Maçka treated with phenol formadehyde adhesives is the highest for the specimens steamed for 6 h at a drying temperature of 110 ºC. Furthermore, the modulus of elasticity for spruce wood (Maçka treated with phenol formadehyde adhesive is the highest for the specimens steamed for 12 h and subjected to a drying temperature of 150 ºC.

  4. An outbreak of granulomatous inflammation associated with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in farmed tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; Li, Ningqiu; Fu, Xiaozhe; Hu, Qiandong; Chang, Ouqin; Liu, Lihui; Zhang, Defeng; Wang, Guangjun; San, Guibao; Wu, Shuqin

    2016-05-01

    In 2013, a novel disease was detected in tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) in Guangzhou, South China. To identify the causative pathogen, we conducted histological examination, bacteria isolation, and purification, and sequenced the 16S rRNA gene of isolates. Infected fish had a large number of white granulomas in the kidney, liver, heart, and spleen. The head kidney and spleen were markedly swollen. A bacterium strain designated as gz201301 was recovered from the spleen of infected tilapia. The 16S rRNA sequence of gz201301 revealed that it was highly similar to F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis. This is the first report of a Francisella-like infection in farmed tilapia in China.

  5. Determination of genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of essential oil from Ferula orientalis L. using Ames/Salmonella and E. coli WP2 bacterial test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Hakan; Yanmis, Derya; Karadayi, Mehmet; Bal, Tugba; Baris, Ozlem; Gulluce, Medine

    2014-09-01

    The essential oils having many application fields such as medicine, flavoring, cosmetics are natural products obtained from aromatic plants. As the natural products of Ferula species have a wide range of use in folk medicine, this study was planned to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of essential oils of leaves and flowers of Ferula orientalis grown in Erzurum, through the bacterial reverse mutation assay. Furthermore, the chemical compositions of essential oils isolated by the hyrodistillation method were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), as their biological activities were connected to their contents. According to our results, any tested essential oil at any used concentration on Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 and TA1537 strains and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA strain showed no mutagenic activity. However, the tested materials at different concentrations showed antimutagenic activities against the used mutagens. The inhibition rates ranged against sodium azide (NaN3) on S. typhimurium TA1535 from 29% to 36%, against 9-aminoacridine (9-AA) on S. typhimurium TA1537 from 40% to 68% and against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) on E. coli WP2 uvrA from 23% to 52%, respectively. Also, it is revealed by GC and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils isolated from the leaves and flowers, respectively. The major compounds in these oils were determined as α-cadinol, δ-cadinene and germacrene D-4-ol. The results of this study indicate that as the essential oils of F. orientalis have many constituents, they show no mutagenic activity but significant antimutagenic activity, and these materials can be safely used in medicinal applications after further investigations.

  6. 栉江珧生殖细胞的发生%Gametogenesis in Atria pectinata Linnaeus (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅芳; 余祥勇; 王如才

    2000-01-01

    通过观察栉江珧(Atrina pectinata linnaeus)的未分化生殖细胞,精原细胞和卵原细胞,精母细胞和卵母细胞,精子和卵子的形态结构与分布状况及核仁在卵成熟过程中的变化,对栉江珧生殖细胞发生及成熟过程的有关问题进行了探讨.

  7. Assessment of the functional properties of protein extracted from the brown seaweed Himanthalia elongata (Linnaeus) S. F. Gray

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A protein extract from the brown seaweed Himanthalia elongata (Linnaeus) S. F. Gray was prepared and its functional properties, colour and amino acid composition were assessed for its potential future use by the food industry. The total content of amino acids was determined as 54.02 ± 0.46 g amino acids/kg dry weight, with high levels of the essential amino acids lysine and methionine. SDS-PAGE showed 5 protein bands with molecular weights of 71.6, 53.7, 43.3, 36.4 and 27.1 kDa. The water hol...

  8. Maturation and growth curves of Macrobrachium Carcinus (Linnaeus) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae) from Ribeira de Iguape River, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Valenti,Wagner C; Jeanette de T.C. de Mello; Vera L Lobão

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, female Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758) maturation curve, weight/length relationship, length and weight growth curves were studied. Prawns were captured, by traps, in Ribeira de Iguape river (24ºS and 47ºW), southern Brazil. There were used 207 females. It was observed that M. carcinus presents several spawnings during its life cycle and reproductive period goes on, at least till six years old. Weight/length relationship can be represented for the equation W = 8.73 E-3 L...

  9. Size and quality of wood used by Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in beech woodlands of Gipuzkoa (northern Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    De Castro, A.

    2012-01-01

    La conservación de la especie saproxilófaga legalmente protegida Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758) en los hayedos de Europa conlleva una gestión adecuada de los árboles muertos y moribundos. Sin embargo, los parámetros de los árboles preferidos (tamaño y calidad de la madera) permanecen aún poco conocidos. En esta contribución se analizan los datos de distribución procedentes de seis años de trabajo en cuatro Lugares de Interés Comunitario de la provincia de Gipuzkoa (norte de España). Los indi...

  10. First report of five nematode species in Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus (Aves, Galliformes, Phasianidae in Brazil Primeiro registro de cinco espécies de nematóides em Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus (Aves, Galliformes, Phasianidae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the first report of the nematodes Dispharynx nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819 Stiles & Hassall, 1920, Gongylonema ingluvicola Ransom, 1904, Oxyspirura mansoni (Cobbold, 1879 Ransom, 1904, Subulura brumpti (Lopez-Neyra, 1922 Cram, 1923 and Tetrameres fissipina (Diesing, 1860 Travassos, 1914, parasitizing the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus, 1758 in Brazil. Morphological data on the parasites as well as on the prevalence, mean intensity, mean abundance and range of intensity of the nematodes in the infected birds are provided.O presente trabalho diz respeito à primeira referência dos nematóides Dispharynx nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819 Stiles & Hassall, 1920, Gongylonema ingluvicola Ransom, 1904, Oxyspirura mansoni (Cobbold, 1879 Ransom, 1904, Subulura brumpti (Lopez-Neyra, 1922 Cram, 1923 e Tetrameres fissipina (Diesing, 1860 Travassos, 1914, parasitando o faisão-coleira, Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus, 1758 no Brasil. São fornecidos dados morfológicos sobre os parasitos, bem como sobre a prevalência, intensidade média, abundância média e amplitude de variação da intensidade de infecção dos nematóides nas aves parasitadas.

  11. Características morfológicas da distribuição vascular cerebral de Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla Morphological characteristics of the cerebral vascular distribution of Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandyr de A. Câmara Filho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a vascularização arterial do encéfalo do javali, Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758, Suidae, e comparar com outras espécies. Cinco machos e cinco fêmeas foram injetados com látex colorido. O suprimento arterial do encéfalo foi descrito e análises morfológicas foram feitas. Nesta espécie o circuito arterial do encéfalo é formado por ramos da artéria carótida interna, como: as artérias comunicantes caudais, o ramo rostral, as artérias cerebrais rostrais, e artérias comunicantes rostrais.The aim this study was to verify the arterial vascularization of the wild boar brain, Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758, Suidae, and compare with other species. Five male and five female were injected with colored latex. The arterial supply of the brain was described and were done morphological analyses. In this species the arterial circuit of the brain is formed by the internal carotid artery branches, such as: the caudal communicant arteries, rostral branch, rostral cerebral arteries and rostral communicant arteries.

  12. Predation on Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae by Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae Predação em Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae por Leopardus pordalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. D. Miranda

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a few studies about predation on primates. Howler monkeys, being relatively large animals, were believed to be preyed on successfully only by medium to large-sized carnivores and large birds of prey. Our study took place at Chácara Payquerê, which is situated in the municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Fingers and nails from Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 were founded in two faecal samples from Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758. With our documentation large howler monkey remains in faeces, the possibility of ocelot being a potential predator of all Neotropical primates should be taken into consideration.São poucos os estudos sobre a predação de primatas. Sendo os bugios animais relativamente grandes, acredita-se que somente médios e grandes carnívoros e grandes rapineiros possam lograr sucesso em sua predação. O estudo foi realizado na Chácara Payquerê, situada no município de Balsa Nova, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Dedos e unhas de Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 foram encontradas em duas amostras fecais de Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 que foram coletadas. Com este registro de grande primata em fezes, a possibilidade de a jaguatirica ser um potencial predador de todos os primatas neotropicais pode ser levada em consideração.

  13. Learedius learedi Price 1934 (Digenea, Spirorchiidae in Chelonia mydas Linnaeus 1758 (Testudines, Chelonidae in Brazil: case report Learedius learedi Price 1934 (Digenea, Spirorchiidae em Chelonia mydas Linnaeus 1758 (Testudines, Chelonidae no Brasil: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Werneck

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the occurrence of Learedius learedi Price 1934 (Digenea, Spirorchiidae in Chelonia mydas Linnaeus 1758 (Testudines, Chelonidae in Brazil. Eleven animals were included in this study, 54.6 % of them were parasitized. Two hundred and fifty five parasite specimens were recovered from heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, mesenterium, and body wash. Results contribute to the knowledge about the helminthofauna of marine chelonian and their geographical distribution. This is the first report of L. learedi in the Southwestern Atlantic.Relata-se a ocorrência de Learedius learedi Price 1934 (Digenea, Spirorchiidae em Chelonia mydas Linnaeus 1758 (Testudines, Chelonidae no Brasil. Onze animais foram examinados e destes, 54,6% estavam parasitados. Duzentos e cinqüenta e cinco exemplares de L. learedi foram recuperados de órgãos (coração, fígado, baço, pulmões, rins, mesentério e do lavado corporal dos animais. Os resultados contribuem para o conhecimento da helmintofauna de quelônios marinhos e sua distribuição geográfica. Este é o primeiro registro da ocorrência de L. learedi na região do Atlântico Sul Ocidental.

  14. Spirorchiids (Digenea: Spirorchiidae infecting a Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus 1758 from Brazil Spirorchiids (Digenea: Spirorchiidae infectando uma tartaruga marinha de pente Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus 1758 no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Werneck

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 and Carettacola stunkardi Martin & Bamberger 1952 in a young specimen of Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 in Brazil was reported. Five A. caborojoensis trematodes were found in the small intestine (n=2 and liver (n=3, and two adult C. stunkardi specimens were collected from body wash. This is the first report of parasites of E. imbricata in Brazilian waters and Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and the second report of members of the Spirorchiidae family in that region. In addition, E. imbricata is a new host recorded for C. stunkardi.Relata-se a ocorrência de Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 e Carettacola stunkardi Martin e Bamberger 1952, em um exemplar juvenil de tartaruga marinha de pente Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 no Brasil. Foram coletados cinco trematódeos da espécie A. caborojoensis, dois no intestino delgado e três no fígado e dois exemplares adultos de C. stunkardi no lavado corporal. Destes apenas a espécie A. caborojoensis já tinha sido relatada como parasita dessa espécie de quelônio marinho. Esta é a primeira descrição de parasitas em E. imbricata em águas brasileiras e na área do Atlântico Sul Ocidental, e o segundo relato de membros da família Spirorchiidae na mesma região.

  15. The potential of periphyton-based culture of two Indian major carps, rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and gonia Labeo gonius (Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Dam, van A.A.; Beveridge, M.C.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of periphyton, grown on bamboo substrates, on growth and production of two Indian major carps, rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and gonia, Labeo gonius (Linnaeus), were studied at the Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. For each species, five ponds were provided with bamboo subs

  16. A hitherto unrecorded sighting of the Common Pochard Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae in Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samidurai Jayakumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Pochard Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae is recorded for the first time in Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India. As this species is recorded in other parts of Tamil Nadu, a brief sightings and distribution map is also specified.

  17. First data of Iberian Nematomorpha, with redescription of Gordius aquaticus Linnaeus, G. plicatulus Heinze, Gordionus wolterstorffii (Camerano) and Paragordius tricuspidatus (Dufour)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalobos, de Leonor Cristina; Ribera, Ignacio; Bilton, David T.

    2001-01-01

    Four species of Nematomorpha are recorded from NE Spain, representing the first reliable data on the group in the Iberian peninsula. Gordius aquations Linnaeus, 1758, G. plicatulus Heinze, 1937, Gordionus wolterstorffii (Camerano, 1888) and Paragordius tricuspidatus (Dufour, 1828) are redescribed ba

  18. First record of Braconidae as parasitoids of Capnodis tenebrionis (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), with notes on the ecology of Spathius erythrocephalus Wesmael (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsignore, C.P.; Achterberg, van C.; Vacante, V.

    2008-01-01

    For the first time an ichneumonoid parasitoid is reported from the peach flatheaded rootborer Capnodis tenebrionis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in a heavily infested plum and apricot orchard in south-western Sicily. In 2005 and 2006 the ecology of the ectoparasitoid Spathius erythrocep

  19. Coexistence of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) and blue mussels Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 on a sheltered intertidal bivalve bed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, M.W.; Davids, J.K.; Dolmer, Per;

    2016-01-01

    The invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793 was introduced in Denmark for aquaculture in the 1970s. Presently, feral populations are found in many parts of the country, with the largest populations established on existing beds of blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758...

  20. First natural infection by Ascocotyle (Phagicola longa Ransom (Digenea, Heterophyidae in an avian host, Ardea cocoi Linnaeus (Aves, Ciconiiformes, Ardeidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Antunes Barros

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The first case of a natural avian infection caused by the digenetic trematode Ascocotyle (Phagicola longa Ransom, 1920 in Brazil, is reported from the ardeid bird Ardea cocoi Linnaeus, 1766. This represents a new host record and data on clinical and pathological findings are also reported.

  1. On the skull of a Lynx, Lynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758), found in the Roman castellum at Valkenburg, province of Zuid-Holland, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.; Clason, A.T.

    1971-01-01

    The authors report on the almost complete skull of a Lynx, Lynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758) found during excavation of a Roman castellum at Valkenburg, Province of Zuid-Holland, the Netherlands in 1962. Photographs and measurements of the skull are presented as well as a review of the Lynx remains found i

  2. First record of Braconidae as parasitoids of Capnodis tenebrionis (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), with notes on the ecology of Spathius erythrocephalus Wesmael (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsignore, C.P.; Achterberg, van C.; Vacante, V.

    2008-01-01

    For the first time an ichneumonoid parasitoid is reported from the peach flatheaded rootborer Capnodis tenebrionis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in a heavily infested plum and apricot orchard in south-western Sicily. In 2005 and 2006 the ecology of the ectoparasitoid Spathius

  3. Distribution of the invasive Caprella mutica Schurin, 1935 and native Caprella linearis (Linnaeus, 1767) on artificial hard substrates in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, Joop W.P.; Lengkeek, Wouter; Degraer, Steven; Kerckhof, Francis; Kirkwood, Roger J.; Lindeboom, Han J.

    2016-01-01

    Studying offshore natural and artificial hard substrates in the southern North Sea (51ºN–57ºN/1ºW–9ºE), the invasive introduced Japanese skeleton shrimp Caprella mutica Schurin, 1935 was found to co-exist with the native Caprella linearis (Linnaeus, 1767) only on near-shore locations that had an

  4. Age, Growth and Reproduction of Coryphaena hippurus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Maltese Waters, Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. GATT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Age, growth and reproduction of the dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758 collected from the Central Mediterranean in the period 2004-2010 by the traditional Maltese fish aggregating devices (FAD and surface longline fisheries were studied. The a and b parameters of the length-weight relationship for fish 11-142 cm fork length (FL (n = 4042 were determined as a = 0.018 and 0.022 with b = 2.85 and 2.79, for males and females respectively. The counting of annual increments from dorsal spines of >65 cm FL dolphinfish at X25 magnification (n = 47 permitting an age reading resolution in years  , and the counting of daily increments from sagittal otoliths of <65 cm FL dolphinfish at X400 magnification (n = 583 permitting an age reading resolution in days, were estimated; the von Bertalanffy growth model applied to these fish gave the following parameters: L∞ = 107.8 cm FL and 120.2 cm FL, and K = 1.9 yr-1 and 1.56 yr-1, for males and females respectively. The maximum age observed was 2 years. Size at 50% maturity for fish 10-131 cm FL (n = 1376 was 58.9 cm FL and 62.5 cm FL for males and females, respectively. The sex ratio for the fish sampled from the FAD fishery (10.5-131 cm FL was 1:1.54 (M:F and for dolphinfish sampled from the surface longline fishery (91-130 cm FL was 1:0.76 (M:F.  Back-calculated hatch dates from age-0 dolphinfish (n = 518 suggested that spawning occurs from June to September with the highest levels in June. This study is the first to use dorsal spines to determine the age of adult dolphinfish.

  5. Genetic parameter estimation for juvenile growth and upper thermal tolerance in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tianshi; KONG Jie; LIU Baosuo; WANG Qingyin; CAO Baoxiang; LUAN Sheng; WANG Weiji

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-six half-sib groups (53 full-sib families) of turbot,Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus, were obtained by artificial insemination. We measured growth in the offspring (40-50 individuals/family) and subjected them to a thermal tolerance challenge over a period of 34 d. There was no significant difference in daily mor-tality (range: 0.580%-1.391%) between Days 1-13 during the thermal tolerance challenge. However, daily cumulative mortality increased rapidly between Days 14 and 29, especially on Days 15 and 16 (20.232% and 34.377%, respectively). Mortality was highest on Day 16 (14.145%). We estimated the genetic parameters using the average information restricted maximum likelihood method. We used a likelihood ratio test to evaluate the significance of effects in models with and without identity as an effect, and compared the final log-likelihoods (maximum log L). Lastly, we estimated phenotypic and genetic correlation between the up-per thermal tolerance limit (UTT) and body weight (BW). In this study, the positive phenotypic correlation was low between UTT and BW (0.093±0.029). The genetic correlation between UTT and BW was negative (-0.044±0.239). The heritability for upper thermal tolerance was low (0.087±0.032), which is of approximate-ly moderate heritability. The heritability for body weight was high (0.303±0.074). Our results suggest there is significant potential for improvement in the culture of turbot by selective breeding.

  6. Microorganismos patógenos en Jatropha curcas Linnaeus. Estrategias potenciales para su manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Alonso

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas Linnaeus (piñón botija, considerada la gran promesa verde para el biodiesel, es una planta de la que existen considerables incógnitas en el ámbito científico desde el punto de vista agronómico, sobre todo en lo referente a los microorganismos causantes de enfermedades, entre las que sobresale la conocida como damping off (estrangulamiento de las plántulas que es provocada por varias especies de hongos. Por ello, el objetivo de este artículo es compilar la mayor cantidad de información sobre los principales microorganismos fitopatógenos que afectan a J. curcas, así como las posibles estrategias para su manejo, con el fin de obtener rendimientos eficientes y rentables de este cultivo energético en Cuba. Se encontraron 48 agentes causales de enfermedades; los más representativos fueron los hongos, entre los que predominan los que producen la roya y el mildiu polvoso, fundamentalmente. En cuanto al manejo fitosanitario, se citan las medidas culturales preventivas y las químicas, como curativas. De ahí que en Cuba, al igual que en otros países donde se cultiva el piñón botija, sea imprescindible conocer los fitopatógenos que pueden reducir los rendimientos de dicha planta, para después implementar un sistema de manejo fitosanitario que contribuya a evitar pérdidas considerables en la producción de biodiesel como producto final.

  7. Biochemical Mechanism of Chlorantraniliprole Resistance in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhen-di; FENG Xia; LIN Qing-sheng; CHEN Huan-yu; LI Zhen-yu; YIN Fei; LIANG Pei; GAO Xi-wu

    2014-01-01

    The insecticide chlorantraniliprole exhibits good efifcacy and plays an important role in controlling the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella Linnaeus. However, resistance to chlorantraniliprole has been observed recently in some ifeld populations. At present study, diamondback moths with resistance to chlorantraniliprole (resistant ratio (RR) was 82.18) for biochemical assays were selected. The assays were performed to determine potential resistance mechanisms. The results showed that the selected resistant moths (GDLZ-R) and susceptible moth could be synergized by known metabolic inhibitors such as piperonyl butoxide (PBO), triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and diethyl-maleate (DEM) at different levels (1.68-5.50-fold and 2.20-2.89-fold, respectively), and DEM showed the maximum synergism in both strains. In enzymes assays, a high level of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was observed in the resistant moth, in contrast, moths that are susceptible to the insecticide had only 1/3 the GST activity of the resistant moths. The analysis of short-term exposure of chlorantraniliprole on biochemical response in the resistant strain also showed that GST activity was signiifcantly elevated after exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of chlorantraniliprole (about 1/3 LC50, 12 mg L-1) 12 and 24 h, respectively. The results show that there is a strong correlation between the enzyme activity and resistance, and GST is likely the main detoxiifcation mechanism responsible for resistance to chlorantraniliprole in P. xylostella L., cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) and carboxy-lesterase (CarE) are involved in to some extent.

  8. Karyotype characterization and comparison of three hexaploid species of Bromus Linnaeus, 1753 (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Leonardo Luís; Mazzocato, Ana Cristina; Ferreira, Juliano Lino; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chromosome morphometry and nuclear DNA content are useful data for cytotaxonomy and to understand the evolutionary history of different taxa. For the genus Bromus Linnaeus, 1753, distinct ploidy levels have been reported, occurring from diploid to duodecaploid species. The geographic distribution of Bromus species has been correlated with chromosome number and ploidy level. In this study, the aims were to determine the nuclear genome size and characterize the karyotype of the South American Bromus species: Bromus auleticus Trinius ex Nees, 1829, Bromus brachyanthera Döll, 1878 and Bromus catharticus Vahl, 1791. The mean nuclear 2C value ranged from 2C = 12.64 pg for B. catharticus to 2C = 17.92 pg for B. auleticus, meaning a maximum variation of 2C = 5.28 pg, equivalent to 41.70%. Despite this significant difference in 2C value, the three species exhibit the same chromosome number, 2n = 6x = 42, which confirms their hexaploid origin. Corroborating the genome size, the chromosome morphometry (total, short- and long-arm length) and, consequently, the class differed among the karyotypes of the species. Based on the first karyograms for these Bromus species, some morphologically similar and several distinct chromosome pairs were found. Therefore, the karyotype characterization confirmed the hexaploid origin of the studied Bromus species, which differ in relation to the karyogram and the nuclear 2C value. Considering this, cytogenetics and flow cytometry can be used to discriminate Bromus species, contributing to taxonomy and systematic studies and providing information on the evolutionary history of this taxa. PMID:28919960

  9. Structural and ultrastructural features of the agouti tongue (Dasyprocta aguti Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciena, Adriano Polican; de Sousa Bolina, Cristina; de Almeida, Sonia Regina Yokomizo; Rici, Rose Eli Grassi; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco; da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Watanabe, Ii-sei

    2013-08-01

    The agouti (Dasyprocta aguti Linnaeus, 1766) is a wild rodent belonging to the family Dasyproctidae that is found throughout Brazil and feeds on fruits and seeds. The aim of the present study was to describe the following features of the tongue of agouti: its morphological structures, the three-dimensional characteristics of the lingual papillae surface, the connective tissue cores (CTCs) and the epithelial cell ultrastructure. Four types of papillae were observed on the dorsal surface of the tongue with a triangular shape: filiform, fungiform, foliate and vallate. Filiform papillae were distributed throughout the tongue surface, and removal of the epithelial surface revealed conical CTCs and multifilaments. Fungiform papillae were observed in the rostral and middle regions, whereas foliate papillae developed in pairs on the lateral margin of the caudal region. Removal of the epithelium in these regions revealed CTCs with parallel laminar conformation. Vallate papillae were arranged in a V-shape in the caudal region, and their CTCs ranged in shape from elongate to ovoid. The ultrastructural components of the dorsal epithelium were the basal, spinous, granular and keratinised layers. A broad area with cytoplasmic projections was identified in the interface region between the lamina propria and the basal layer. Flattened cells with intermediate filaments were observed in the transitional region between spinous and granular layers. The keratinised layer was composed of superimposed epithelial cells where desmosomes and cell-surface microridges were observed. These structural features, including the three-dimensional aspects of the lingual papillae, the CTCs and the epithelial ultrastructure, indicate that when compared with other animals, particularly other rodent species, the morphological features of the tongue of agouti are relatively well developed, especially regarding foliate and vallate papillae.

  10. Optimal-rearing density for head-starting green turtles (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanghae, Hirun; Thongprajukaew, Karun; Jatupornpitukchat, Sasiporn; Kittiwattanawong, Kongkiat

    2016-09-01

    While ex situ conservation programs of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758), before release to natural habitats, have been conducted in several countries, the optimal-stocking density for husbandry has not yet been reported. The optimization of stocking density was the main purpose of this study. The 15-day-old post-hatching turtles (29.30 ± 0.05 g body weight) were reared in round fiberglass tanks at various stocking densities including 20 turtles/m(3) (20TM), 40 turtles/m(3) (40TM), 60 turtles/m(3) (60TM), and 80 turtles/m(3) (80TM), over an 8-week trial. Water quality, survival, growth performance, feed utilization, aggressive behavior, fecal digestive enzymes, and hematological parameters were compared between the treatments, and were used as indicators of a successful captive rearing program. The water quality across the four treatments was in the standard range, but a high-stocking density reduced the quality significantly. No mortality was observed in any treatment group. Superior growth and feed utilization were only observed with the 40TM treatment, relative to the others (P < 0.05). The turtles in this group had no aggressive behavior, as indicated by observing hind limb biting. This treatment manipulated the level of proteolytic activity of pepsin and trypsin in response to density stressor, but not amylase, lipase, and chymotrypsin. The 40TM treatment also maintained the hematological characteristics, indicating no negative effects on health status. Overall, the findings indicate that the captivity program of post-hatching turtles at 40 turtles/m(3) is the preferred option in their head-started propagation, as well as in public displays in zoos or aquaria. Zoo Biol. 35:454-461, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction and characterization of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus skin

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    Weiwei Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus skin contains high amount of nutrients including unsaturated fatty acids and collagen. A pepsin-assisted extraction procedure was developed and optimized for the extraction of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus skins. Objective: To determine the optimum conditions with the maximum yield of the pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC extraction. Materials and Methods: The conditions of the extraction were optimized using response surface methodology. The Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the three independent variables (extraction time, enzyme concentration, and solid-liquid ratio on the PSC yield of the sturgeon skin. Results: The optimal conditions were: solid-liquid ratio of 1:11.88, enzyme concentration of 2.42%, and extraction time of 6.45 h. The maximum yield of 86.69% of PSC was obtained under the optimal conditions. This value was not significantly different from the predicted value (87.4% of the RSM (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the production of PSC from sturgeon skin is feasible and beneficial. The patterns of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns (SDS-PAGE indicated that the sturgeon skin contains type I collagen, which is made of α-chain and β-chain. The infrared spectra of the collagens also indicated that pepsin hydrolysis does not affect the secondary structure of collagen, especially triple-helical structure.

  12. ECOLOGICAL AND HEMATOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON ROACH (RUTILUS RUTILUS LINNAEUS, 1758 IN THE ZAPOROZHYE RESERVOIR

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    T. S. Sharamok

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in Zaporozhye Reservoir (Ukraine in the period from 2014 to 2015. Researches were taken in two parts of the reservoir, which differ in their ecological and hydrological conditions, are the main spawning areas and the most industrial mastered reservoirs. The water quality of Zaporozhye Reservoir lower areas (according to the containing of heavy metals is largely relevant to carp fisheries regulations with the exception of copper, which exceeded MАC by 7 times. In the Samara Bay the copper content exceeded by 8 times, manganese – 1.7 times, plumbum – 1.5 and cadmium – 2 times comparing to the MAC. The aim of research was to identify the characteristics of heavy metal accumulation, to set cytometric, morphological and physiological characteristics of erythrocyte and leukocyte formula in different age groups of roach (Rutilus rutilus Linnaeus, 1758. It was established that the content of heavy metals in fish did not exceed the MАC for fish as food. The 2-year roach accumulates essential elements more extensively than mature fish (4-year. The statistically significant differences between the content of some heavy metals were registered for fish specimens from different ecological parts of reservoirs. A characteristic feature of blood cells taken from 2-year and 4-year roach of polluted Samara Bay reservoir was the reducing of the relative abundance of mature forms of red blood cells and probable increasing of immature normoblasts, especially basophilic normoblasts (up to 40–60%, which indicates the suppression of erythropoiesis processes in fish. A probable increase the various kinds of pathology (anisocytosis, hypochromia, cytolysis, destroying cell membranes, kariolisis, kariopiknoz etc. in blood cells of roach from Samara Bay was revealed. The morphological-cytometric research of red blood cells showed no probable differences in fish from the two studied areas, except for nuclei areas of red blood cells, which

  13. Ocorrência de Mirounga leonina Linnaeus (Pinnipedia, Phocidae no extremo-sul do Brasil: agressão e patologias Occurrence of Mirüunga leonina Linnaeus (Pinnipedia, Phocidae from Southernmost Brazil: injury and pathologies

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    César Jaeger Drehmer

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A male specimen of Mirounga leonina Linnaeus, 1758 age estimated betvveen 7-8 years old, collected at Santa Vitória do Palmar, Rio Grande do Sul State, soutiiernmost Brazil (32º44'S and 53º22'W is presented. Ali the skeleton was recovered except the rostral region. It shows an advanced osteomyelitis in the lefl dentary, extending from the synfisis until the middle portion of the body; as well as Scheuermann disease at lumbar vertebrae. Such diseases could explain its presence at that locality, where rt was shot. The bullct was recovered from the rostrum, and might be responsible for death. This is the first vhlually complete skeleton of M. leonina recovered from Brazilian coast.

  14. Diet of the fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera in a mangrove area of southern Brazil Dieta do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera em uma área de manguezal do sul do Brasil

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    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to December 1999, the diet of Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 was determined in a salt-water ecosystem, by analysing the feces of bats captured in mist nets. Of the 61 samples analyzed, most contained remains of fish (90.2%, followed by insects (70.5% and crustaceous (29.5%. The most frequent fishes species were: silversides Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, anchovies Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 and scaly sardines Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. The most frequent insects were moths (Saturniidae and beetles (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae and Coccinellidae, as well as two species of bat ectoparasites (Streblidae. Among the crustaceous the shrimp (Palaemonidae and crabs (Gecarcinidae are was present. The consumption of fish, insects and crustaceans was different for the males and females throughout the year.De janeiro a dezembro de 1999, foi estudada a dieta de Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 em um ecossistema de manguezal, através da análise das fezes de morcegos capturados com redes-neblina. Das 61 amostras analisadas, a maioria continha fragmentos de peixes (90.2%, seguido de insetos (70.5% e crustáceos (29,5%. As espécies de peixes mais freqüentes foram: peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, manjuba Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 e sardinha Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. Os insetos mais freqüentes foram mariposas (Saturniidae e besouros (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae e Coccinellidae, além de duas espécies de ectoparasitas (Streblidae. Entre os crustáceos, houve a presença apenas de camarões (Palaemonidae e siris (Gecarcinidae. O consumo de peixes, insetos e crustáceos foi diferente para machos e fêmeas ao longo do ano.

  15. Effect of livestock grazing and human uses on herbaceous species diver-sity in oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forests, Guilan, Masal, northern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sepide Sadat Ebrahimi; Hassan Pourbabaei; David Potheir; Ali Omidi; Javad Torkaman

    2014-01-01

    Plant diversity plays key ecological roles in forest ecosystems, including influencing succession, resilience and nutrient cycling. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of livestock grazing and human uses on herbaceous species diversity. We surveyed 50 ha of pro-tected area and 50 ha of unprotected area to evaluate herbaceous species diversity in oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forests in northern Iran. We calculated and compared three indices each of diversity and evenness, and species richness between the two areas. Herbaceous cover was higher in the unprotected area while leaf litter depth and tree canopy cover were higher in the protected area. The diversity indices, H (Shan-non-Wiener index ), N1 (McArthur index), N2 (Hill΄s index), EQ (Modified Nee index), Evar (Smith-Wilson index), E5 (modified index of Hill) and R=S (species richness) and species richness R=S were greater in the protected area than in the unprotected area, suggesting that protection from grazing results in increased numbers of plants and species. The effect of land protection on plant diversity was more pronounced for evenness than for species richness and the positive correlation between diversity and even-ness indices was higher than that between diversity and richness.

  16. Enzymic synthesis of 3'-O- and 6'-O-N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetyllactosaminide glycosides catalyzed by beta-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase from Nocardia orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, T; Tashiro, A; Itoh, T; Usui, T

    1997-06-06

    beta-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase from Nocardia orientalis catalyzed the synthesis of beta-D-GlcNAc-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-Gal-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-GlcNAc-OC6H4NO2-p (1) and beta-D-GlcNAc-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-Gal-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-GlcNAc-OC6H4NO2-p (2) with its isomer beta-D-Gal-(1 --> 4)-[beta-D-GlcNAc-(1 --> 6)]-beta-D-GlcNAc-OC6H4NO2-p (3) through N-acetylglucosaminyl transfer from N-,N'-diacetylchitobiose to p-nitrophenyl beta-N-acetyllactosaminide. The enzyme formed a mixture of trisaccharides 1, 2, and 3 in a ratio of 11:33:56. In the case, when an inclusion complex of p-nitrophenyl beta-N-acetyllactosaminide with alpha-CD was used, compounds 1, 2, and 3 were formed in a molar ratio of 24:63:13. The regioselectivity of glycosidase-catalyzed formation of the trisaccharide glycosides was substantially changed. It resulted not only in a significant increase of the proportion of the desired compounds 1 and 2 but also in the substantial increase of the overall yield of transfer products.

  17. Characterization of ESBL- and AmpC-Producing and Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Mouflons (Ovis orientalis musimon in Austria and Germany.

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    Igor Loncaric

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of β-lactamase producing or fluoroquinolone-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in European mouflons (Ovis orientalis musimon. The mouflon samples originated from nasal and perineal swabs and/or organ samples in cases of a suspected infection. Only one of the 32 mouflons was tested positive for the presence of Enterobacteriaceae that displayed either an ESBL/AmpC phenotype or were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The positively tested swab originated from a sample of the jejunal mucosa of a four-year old female mouflon. Two different colony morphotypes were identified as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. These isolates were phenotypically and genotypically characterized in detail by a polyphasic approach. Both isolates were multi-drug resistant. The E. coli isolate belonged to the phylogenetic group B1 and sequence type (ST 744 and harboured the β-lactamase genes blaCTX-M-15 and blaOXA-1. The K. pneumoniae, identified as ST11, harboured the β-lactamase genes blaSHV-11, blaOXA-1, and blaDHA-1 as well as the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR gene qnrB55. The present study demonstrates that wild animals can acquire human-derived resistance determinants and such findings may indicate environmental pollution with resistance determinants from other sources.

  18. Chemical skin defence in the Eastern fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis: an ultrastructural approach to the mechanism of poison gland rehabilitation after discharge

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    Sara Quagliata

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Type I serous glands in the skin of the Eastern yellow-bellied toad Bombina orientalis released their product massively after 10-3 M nor-adrenalin (NA stimulation, mimicking orthosympathetic control on poison emission in chemical skin defence. Features of cutaneous glands involved in this bulk discharge were observed under light and electron microscopes. Furthermore, restoration of depleted glands was followed after 1, 2 and 3 weeks, and compared with serous biosynthesis during larval gland development. Bulk discharge was caused by contraction of myoepithelial cells (mecs encircling the secretory units. Mec compression dramatically affected the secretory unit, but parts of this syncytial cytoplasm were saved from degeneration and cooperated in gland renewal with stem cells from the gland neck. These adenoblasts underwent proliferation and secretory cytodifferentiation, until merging with the syncytium. Cytoplasm that had resumed secretory activity showed the features typical of larval gland development: the endoplasmic reticulum (rer cisterns were aligned in close parallel arrangement and Golgi stacks released minute type I granules. Secretory rehabilitation led to increasing amounts of granule content. In the meantime, rough cisterns decreased in number and assumed the less ordered pattern described in control specimens. Data collected in the present study revealed that chemical skin defence in anurans is a multi-factorial mechanism involving specific activities: mechanical from mecs, biosynthetic from secretory syncytium and proliferative from intercalated stem cells.

  19. 泽泻中二萜成分的结构测定%ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF DITERPENES FROM ALISMA ORIENTALIS JUZEP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭国平; 楼凤昌

    2002-01-01

    目的研究我国常用中药泽泻(Alisma orientalis Juzep.)块茎的乙醇提取物的化学成分.方法将乙醇提取物用硅胶柱色谱进行分离纯化,用IR,NMR,MS及CD等方法解析化学结构.结果共分离出3个ent-kaurane二萜化合物(I~III),其结构分别鉴定为16(R)-ent-kaurane-2,12-dione (I),16(R)-3-hydroxy-ent-kaurane-12-one (II),16(R)-ent-kaurane-12-one 3α-O-β-d-xyloside (III).结论化合物II和III为新化合物,分别命名为泽泻二萜醇(oriediterpenol)及泽泻二萜苷(oriediterpenoside),I为已知二萜kaurane-2,12-dione.

  20. Phenolic Compounds from Barks of Platanus orientalis Linn.%三球悬铃木树皮的酚类化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司传领; 邓小娟; 王丹; 苏艳芳; 刘忠

    2008-01-01

    研究了三球悬铃木树皮的酚类化学成分.采用SephadexLH-20柱色谱及薄层色谱等方法进行分离,从其70%丙酮提取物乙酸乙酯溶性部分中分到11种化合物,经波谱分析及理化性质化合物分别鉴定为:儿茶素、表儿茶素、没食子儿茶素、表没食子儿茶素、山奈酚、槲皮素、阿福豆苷、异槲皮苷、紫云英苷-6″-没食子酸酯、异槲皮苷-6″-没食子酸酯和酪醇.11种化合物均首次从该树种中分得.%Study on the EtOAc participated fraction from the barks of Platanus orientalis Linn. led to the isolation of ( + )-catechin, ( - )-epicatechin, ( + )-gallocatechin, ( - )-epigallocatechin, kaempferol, quercetin, afzelin, isoquercitrin, astragalin-6″-O-gallate, isoquercitrin-6″-O-gallate and tyrosol by column chromatography over Sephadex LH-20. The structures of these phenolic compounds, which have not previously been isolated from its barks, were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidences.

  1. Effects of feeding, digestion and fasting on the respiration and swimming capability of juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus, Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lu; Johnson, David; Fang, Min; Mandal, Prashant; Tu, Zhiying; Huang, Yingping

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to provide information on changes in swimming capability and respiration of the sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus, Linnaeus 1758) caused by different levels of fasting. Before testing, the four groups of sturgeon (body length: 12.1-15.4 cm, body mass: 10.0-20.2 g) fasted for 6 h, 2 days, 1 and 2 weeks, respectively. Swimming tests were then performed to measure critical swimming speed and oxygen consumption at 20 ± 0.5 °C. Results show: (1) Fasting times shorter than 2 days has little effect on swimming capability, but it decreases significantly when the fasting time is longer than a week. (2) After 2 weeks of fasting, swimming efficiency is significantly reduced. (3) Anaerobic capacity increases when digestion nears completion.

  2. The relationship between concentration of clorophyll-a with skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis, Linnaeus 1758) production at West Sumatera waters, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman; Ersti Yulika Sari, T.; Syaifuddin; Audina

    2017-01-01

    The regression and correlation technic was uses to evaluated the contribution of chlorophyll-a concentration on variation of longline skipjack tuna production. An analysis was performed by placing Chlorophyll-a as predictor and Skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis, Linnaeus 1758) production as dependent variable, using Chlorophyll-a derived from NPP VIIRS, and CPUE derived from longline fisherman log books for the year of 2013. Chlorophyll-a distribution which derived from NPP VIIRS between 0.13-0.26 mg/m3 whereas maximum CPUE as much as 0,1875 kg/trip in April. The regression equation obtained was CPUE = -1.12 + 11.5 Chl-a. Correlation between chlorophyll-a and CPUE have moderate relationship (r=0.51). From regression equation for those variables showed that the variation of chlorophyll-a had affected about 26% on variation of CPUE, only.

  3. Genetic identification and structure of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Southeast Asia using a mitochondrial DNA marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paolin; Sulaiman, Zohrah

    2015-05-22

    A phylogenetic tree and median-joining network based on cytochrome b sequence data revealed clades consistent with morphological differences and geographical distribution of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Southeast Asia. AMOVA analysis for variation was significant among populations (PJava and Brunei/Borneo, Brunei/Borneo and west Malaysia, and Java and west Malaysia samples (P Java, and between west Malaysia and Laos-Sumatra. Nine haplotypes were unique to geographical regions. The Java species had high haplotype (1.000 ± 0.126) but low nucleotide (0.017) diversities, suggesting a population bottleneck followed by expansion. However, SSD and Hri (P=0.5) did not support demographic expansion. Instead, purifying selection where mutations occur and accumulate at silent sites is a more acceptable explanation.

  4. Ecosystem engineering potential of the gastropod Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767) in mangrove wastewater wetlands--a controlled mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil; Bartolini, Fabrizio; Limbu, Samwel; Cannicci, Stefano; Mgaya, Yunus; Kristensen, Erik; Paula, José

    2010-01-01

    The effect of different sewage concentrations (0, 20, 60 and 100%), vegetation (Bare, Avicennia marina or Rhizophora mucronata) and immersion periods (immersion/emersion period of 12/12 h or 3/3 days just for 100%) conditions were studied for 6 months on survival and growth rates of Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767). Gastropods' activity and ecosystem engineering preformed at bare and A. marina planted cells and 3 sewage conditions (0, 20 and 60%) were determined. Survival rates were higher than 70% in all treatments. Growth rate decreased significantly with increasing sewage concentrations (mainly at unplanted conditions) and longer immersion periods. A complete shift (from immersion to emersion periods) and a significant decrease in mobility and consequently its engineer potential, due to sewage contamination, lead to a 3-4 fold decrease in the amount of sediment disturbed. Sewage contamination, primary producers' abundance and environmental conditions may have influenced the gastropods survival, growth and its ecosystem engineering potential.

  5. Población y distribución del búho real Bubo bubo (Linnaeus, 1758 en Gipuzkoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALVAREZ, K., OLANO, M., UGARTE, J., VAZQUEZ, J., AIERBE, T., ANSORREGI, F., GALDOS, A., URRUZOLA, A., HURTADO, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado la población de búho real Bubo bubo (Linnaeus, 1758 en el Territorio Histórico de Gipuzkoa (País Vasco durante las temporadas de reproducción de 2009-2010 y 2010-2011. En total se han registrado dos y tres territorios ocupados por la especie cada temporada, respectivamente, y se ha confirmado la reproducción exitosa de 2 parejas. Los resultados obtenidos muestran una ligera mejora de la situación de la especie en Gipuzkoa, si bien se continúan detectando amenazas que pueden poner en peligro la estabilidad de la misma.

  6. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL LIMITATIVE FACTORS FOR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS LINNAEUS, 1758 IN EXTENSIVELY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. DIMA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The oldest and most common method of increasing fish is a fish breeding ponds in which the supervision of nutrition and growth of biological material. Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus ruthenus Linnaeus 1785 is the 4th of sturgeon scale and economic importance as a share of production of these fish .Monitoring of physicochemical parameters of sturgeons ponds has a crucial role to obtain satisfactory yields both in qualitative and quantitative. Chemical characteristics of water were determined in laboratory ecosystems Chemistry of the Institute of Research and Development for Ecology Aquaculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture Galaţi for the samples have been taken of the total water. Determination of the chemical characteristics was performed by standardized methods. Physic-chemical parameters of water were determined according to norm on the classification of surface water quality in order to establish the ecological status of water (Order no. 161/2006, for Class II of quality.

  7. Effects of seasonal variations and collection methods on the mineral composition of propolis from Apis mellifera Linnaeus Beehives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E A; Zaluski, R; Veiga, N; Orsi, R O

    2016-06-01

    The effects of seasonal variations and the methods of collection of propolis produced by Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, on the composition of constituent minerals such as magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), and potassium (K) were evaluated. Propolis was harvested from 25 beehives by scraping or by means of propolis collectors (screen, "intelligent" collector propolis [ICP], lateral opening of the super [LOS], and underlay method). During the one-year study, the propolis produced was harvested each month, ground, homogenized, and stored in a freezer at -10 ºC. Seasonal analyses of the mineral composition were carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey-Kramer's test to compare the mean values (pminerals (Mg, Fe, Na, Ca, and Cu), and the propolis harvesting method affects the contents of 4 minerals (Mg, Zn, Fe, and Ca).

  8. Maturation and growth curves of Macrobrachium Carcinus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae from Ribeira de Iguape River, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner C Valenti

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, female Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 maturation curve, weight/length relationship, length and weight growth curves were studied. Prawns were captured, by traps, in Ribeira de Iguape river (24ºS and 47ºW, southern Brazil. There were used 207 females. It was observed that M. carcinus presents several spawnings during its life cycle and reproductive period goes on, at least till six years old. Weight/length relationship can be represented for the equation W = 8.73 E-3 L3.28. Expressions obtained for length and weight growth curves are Lt = 21 .0 (1-e-0493t and Wt= 190 (1-e-0493t3.28. respectively. A symptotic maximum length and asymptotic maximum weight are nearly attained at six and eight years old, respectively.

  9. Description of Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), a parasite of Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae) in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; da Costa, Paulo André Ferreira Borges; Maschio, Gleomar Fabiano; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    A new lung-dwelling nematode species is described from the common lancehead Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) in the Brazilian Amazon Region. The species is assigned to the genus Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 based on the presence of six lips arranged in two lateral groups, the absence of prominent cuticular inflations, and lung parasitism in snakes. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. differs from other species of the genus mainly by details of the morphology of the anterior end: cuticularised ring surrounding the anterior part of the buccal cavity and six minute onchia present in the oesophastome. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. is the seventh species of the genus known from the Neotropical Realm and the second species described from viperid snakes.

  10. A Return to Linnaeus's Focus on Diagnosis, Not Description: The Use of DNA Characters in the Formal Naming of Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Susanne S

    2016-11-01

    Descriptions and diagnoses are alternative choices in all Codes of Nomenclature because Linnaeus relied on diagnoses, not descriptions, to name ca. 13,400 animals, plants, and fungi. A diagnosis names characters in which a new taxon differs from the most similar known taxon; a description mixes taxonomically informative and uninformative features, usually without indicating which is which. The first formal diagnoses of new taxa that included DNA-based characters came out in 2001, and by November 2015, at least 98 names of species of acoels, lichens, angiosperms, annelids, alveolates, arachnids, centipedes, turtles, fishes, butterflies, mollusks, nematodes, and pathogenic fungi have been published based on diagnostic mitochondrial, plastid, or nuclear DNA substitutions, indels, or rarely genetic distances, with or without additional morphological features. Authors have found diverse ways to specify the diagnostic traits (all published studies are here tabulated). While descriptions try to "cover" within-species variation, a goal rarely accomplished because of (i) the stochastic nature of specimen availability (thousands of species are known from single collections) and (ii) the subjective circumscription of species, the purpose of diagnoses was and is speedy identification. Linnaeus tried to achieve this by citing images, geographic occurrence, and previous literature. The renewed attention to sharp diagnosis now coincides with worldwide barcoding efforts, may speed up formal naming, and matches the increasing reliance on DNA for both classification and identification. I argue for DNA-based diagnoses of new species becoming a recommendation in all Codes, not just the bacterial code. [Codes of Nomenclature; description; diagnosis; DNA-based diagnosis; naming new species; nomenclature.

  11. Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae): a survey across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadílek, David; Sťáhlavský, František; Vilímová, Jitka; Zima, Jan

    2013-10-03

    Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4) and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57). The karyotype of all the specimens of Cimex lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3%) from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the fitness of

  12. [Natural helminth infection in Sicalis flaveola (Linnaeus, 1766), by Acuaria mayori Lent, Freitas and Proença, 1945 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maria L de A; Muniz-Pereira, Luís C; Pinto, Roberto M; Lins, Fernanda P; Riehl Vaz, Mônica G; de Abreu, Ana Paula M; de Souza, Paulo César A

    2005-01-01

    This is the first report of a natural infection in the saffron finch Sicalis flaveola (Linnaeus, 1766) captured in Brazil, with the establishment of a new host record for the acuarioid nematode Acuaria mayori Lent, Freitas and Proença, 1945, previously referred in Cyanocorax chrysops (Vieillot, 1818) from Paraguay and Sporophila caerulescens caerulescens (Vieillot, 1823) and C. cyanomelas (Wied, 1821) from Brazil and Myarchus nuttingi (Ridgway, 1883) from Costa Rica.

  13. Parhadjelia cairinae n. sp. (Nematoda: Habronematoidea: Habronematidae) in the Muscovy duck, Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae), from the area de conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R

    2005-04-01

    A new species of Parahadjelia occurs in the muscovy duck, Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The new species differs from Parhadjelia neglecta Lent and Freitas, 1939, in the body size, in the spicules shape and ratio of spicules, and in having 2 pairs of sessile papillae near the tail tip of the male. The characters exhibited by P. neglecta and the new species validate its generic status distinct from Hadjelia.

  14. Pathological changes by Hapalotrema postorchis Rao 1976 (Digenea: Spirorchiidae in a green turtle Chelonia mydas Linnaeus 1758 (Testudines, Cheloniidae from Brazil

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    Werneck M. R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This note reports the occurrence of Hapalotrema postorchis Rao 1976 collected from an aortic aneurysm in a green turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus 1758 found on the coast of Brazil. Besides the vascular lesion, granulomatous reactions with foreign - body giant cells were found surrounding the parasite eggs in the heart, intestines, liver, pancreas, spleen, brain and kidneys. This paper presents the first report of H. postorchis and accompanying lesions in a green sea turtle from the western South Atlantic Ocean.

  15. THE NUTRITION OF A PIKEPERCH, Stizostedion lucioperca Linnaeus, 1758 in THE RIVER NERETVA

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    Sadbera Trožić-Borovac

    2007-04-01

    ., 1976; T r o ž i ć – B o r o v a c, 2002a, it could be concluded that a pikeperch has no competitor. The other fish species have fed on the invertebrates and plants of benthos, accept a rare lake trout Salmo trutta m. lacustris Linnaeus, 1758 specimens which have shown tendency to the greedy way of the nutrition. This paper is the contribution to the knowledge of a pikeperch nutrition in the river Neretva accumulations that is, beside the reproduction, the important character of population growth control of this greedy animal, and in the aim of the survival of the autochthonous ichthyopopulations in the river Neretva system.

  16. Altitudinal variation and bio-climatic variables influencing the potential distribution of Culicoides orientalis Macfie, 1932, suspected vector of Bluetongue virus across the North Eastern Himalayan belt of Sikkim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Emon; Hazra, Surajit; Saha, Goutam Kumar; Banerjee, Dhriti

    2017-09-19

    Culicoides orientalis was first recorded from Sikkim, in the year 1963, but no evidence based disease outbreak were available. In the last 50 years, 260 Bluetongue disease outbreaks caused by Culicoides species have been evidenced from India. Moreover, in recent years with increase of average temperature worldwide and increase in longevity of arthropod vectors like Culicoides along with a geographical range shift to new suitable warmer regions has increased the potentiality of vector borne disease outbreak throughout the world. The Himalayan range of Sikkim in India is a biodiversity hotspot and is extremely sensitive to such global climate changes. An attempt has been made to evaluate the altitude, climate and environmental data on selected study sites of Sikkim for a period of two years (2014-2015) for discerning potential distribution of C.orientalis in this region. The altitude, temperature, precipitation and potential distribution range maps of C. orientalis showed the areas of highest species abundance within the altitudinal range of 550-1830m, with some species extending its range up to 3750m, with average precipitation of 2010-2590mm and mean temperature of 11-18°C. The Maximum Entropy Modelling (MaxEnt) and the Jackknife test of the MaxEnt model further revealed that the major contributing factors governing C. orientalis distribution are annual precipitation (78.8%), followed by precipitation of driest quarter (8.3%) and mean temperature of the warmest quarter (3.3%). Accuracy of the study was evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC=0.860). The Biplot on F1-F2 axes (N=16, α=0.05) in the PCA showed the linear depiction of all the variables considered in our study, major contributors were annual precipitation, precipitation of driest quarter and mean temperature of warmest quarter being the primary factors governing species distribution, as analogous to results of the MaxEnt model. This study would help in developing strategies for monitoring and

  17. Comparative Agronomic Performance and Reaction to Fusarium wilt of Lens culinaris × L. orientalis and L. culinaris × L. ervoides derivatives

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    Mohar Singh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of transgressive phenotype in the segregating populations has been speculated to contribute to niche divergence of hybrid lineages, which occurs most frequently at larger genetic distances. Wild Lens species are considered to be more resistant against major biotic and abiotic stresses than that of the cultivated species. In the present study, we assessed the comparative agronomic performance of lentil (Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris inter-sub-specific (L. culinaris subsp. orientalis and interspecific (L. ervoides derivatives, also discussed its probable basis of occurrence. The F3, F4, and F5 inter sub-specific and interspecific populations of ILL8006 × ILWL62 and ILL10829 × ILWL30, respectively revealed a substantial range of variation for majority of agro-morphological traits as reflected by the range, mean and coefficient of variation. A high level of fruitful heterosis was also observed in F3 and F4 progeny for important traits of interest. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV was higher in magnitude than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV in all generations for several quantitative characters. The results showed high heritability estimates for majority of traits in conjunction with low to high genetic advance in F3 and F4 generations. Further, F5 progeny of ILL10829 × ILWL30, manifested resistant disease reaction for fifteen recombinant inbred lines (RILs against (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis (Vasd. Srin. Gord.. The multilocation agronomic evaluation of both crosses showed better results for earliness, desirable seed yield and Fusarium wilt resistance under two agro-ecological regions of north-western India. These better performing recombinants of ILL8006 × ILWL62 and ILL10829 × ILWL30 can be advanced for further genetic improvement and developing high yielding disease resistant cultivars of lentil.

  18. GC-MS of Volatile Chemical Constituents of Liquidamobar orientalis%苏合香挥发性化学成分的GC-MS研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世宇; 彭颖; 夏厚林; 周颖; 王建; 曾南

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究苏合香的挥发性化学成分.方法:通过固相微萃取技术提取苏合香的挥发性成分,采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术进行分析鉴定.结果:共鉴定出苏合香28种成分,占总色谱峰面积的90.72%,其中α-蒎烯(15.97%)、莰烯(13.28%)和β-蒎烯(12.82%)的含量较高.结论:本方法简便、高效,可为芳香辛味含挥发性成分药物的成分研究提供参考.%OBJECTIVE: To investigate the volatile chemical constituents of Liquidamobar orientalis. METHODS: HS-SPME was used to extract the volatile chemical constituents and GC-MS was used to analyze the volatile chemical constituents. RESULTS: 28 compounds were identified, which accounts for 90.72% of the total GC peak area, of which the amounts of the volatile chemical constituents a-pinene( 15.97%),camphene( 13.28%) and ^-pinene (12.82%) had taken a larger part. CONCLUSION: The method employed in the study is convenient and efficient, and the study can serve as a reference to researches on aromatic and pungent Pharmaceuticals with volatile constituents.

  19. Allozyme Polymorphism and Genetic Differentiation Among Populations of Jaculus jaculus and J.orientalis (Rodentia:Dipodidae)in Tunisia%突尼斯非洲跳鼠(Jaculus jaculus)和埃及跳鼠(J.orientalis)群体的等位酶多态及遗传分化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abderraouf Ben Faleh; Adel AB Shahin; Khaled Sai

    2009-01-01

    Genetic variability and divergence among natural populations of Jaculus jaculus and J.orientalis in Tunisia were examined by electrophoretic analysis of 16 enzymatic proteins encoded by 23 genetic loci.Low levels of genetic variability were found among populations Of both species in comparison to those of other rodent and mammal species of which data are available.In J.jaculus populations,the mean level of observed heterozygosity(Hobs)ranged from 0.08 to 0.19,while the mean percenmge of polymorphic loci(P)ranged from 26.2%to 45.2%and the mean number of alleles per locus(A)ranged from 1.1 to 1.4.Nevertheless,the mean values were 0.10 to 0.15,29.3%to 44.1%and 1.1 to 1.7.respectively,for J.onentalls.In addition,populations of the two species have revealed a lower degree of genetic differentiation (Fst=0.0017 fot J.jaculus and 0.0019 for J.orientalis).Moreover,Fst was 0.607,P<0.05 between populations of the two species,indicating that tbey were highly genetically diverged from each other.The present data assures the previous results on the validity of the present taxonomic situation of the two species and emphasis on the effect of geographic factors(environments type and bioclimatic stages)on the genetic structure of both species.%运用16种酶蛋白编码的23个遗传座位对突尼斯非洲跳鼠(Jaculus jaculus)和埃及跳鼠(J.orientalis)自然群体的遗传变异和分化进行了电泳分析.结果表明,与其他啮齿动物等哺乳动物的相关数据比较,发现这两个种群体的遗传变异水平较低.非洲跳鼠群体的观测杂合度(Hobs)为0.08-0.19,多态座位百分比(P)为26.2%-45.2%,每个座何的平均等位基因数(A)为1.1-1.4;埃及跳鼠的Hobs为0.10-0.15,P为29.3%-44.1%,A为1.1-1.7.两个种群体各自的遗传分化程度较低(非洲跳鼠和埃及跳鼠的Fst分别为0.0017和0.0019).而两个种群体间的Fst为0.607(P<0.05),表明两个种之间高度的遗传分化.本研究支持这两个种分类地位的合法

  20. The Invigorating Spleen Function by Alisma orientalis before and after Processing%泽泻麸制前后健脾作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏达; 谢雪; 陈昱竹; 任国杰; 王晓玲; 许枬

    2012-01-01

    目的:对比泽泻炮制前后对大鼠胃泌素含量以及十二指肠Na+ -K+ -ATP酶活性的影响,探讨泽泻炮制前后健脾作用的变化.方法:取50只雄性SD大鼠随机分为空白组、泽泻生品低剂量组、泽泻生品高剂量组、泽泻麸制品低剂量组、泽泻麸制品高剂量组,空白组ig给予生理盐水,各低、高剂量组每次ig给予对应药物2.0,6.0 g·kg-1.每天ig给药2次,7d后测定大鼠血清胃泌素水平及十二指肠中Na+ -K+ -ATP酶活性.采用离体器官实验法,以大鼠离体十二指肠平滑肌的收缩幅度、相对张力及收缩频率为指标,观察在克氏液中泽泻炮制前后提取液对大鼠离体十二指肠平滑肌的影响.结果:泽泻麸制品高剂量组血清胃泌素含量为(3.77±0.49) ng·L-1,明显高于相同剂量生品组(3.24±0.13)ng·L-1(P<0.05);麸制品高剂量组Na+ -K+-ATP酶含量为(13.31±1.99)pmol·g-1,明显高于相同剂量生品组(11.77±1.37) pmol· g-1(P<0.05);生品和麸制品在高浓度时,对大鼠离体十二指肠收缩振幅及相对张力都有增强(P<0.05).结论:泽泻能增加大鼠血清胃泌素含量、提高十二指肠Na+ -K+ -ATP酶活性,以及大鼠离体十二指肠肠管的运动功能,且呈剂量依赖关系,炮制后作用增强.%Objective; To compare the influence of Alisma orientalis gastrin content and Na+-K+-ATP enzyme activity, and to explore the invigorating spleen function of A. orientalis before and after processing. Method; Fifty healthy male SD rats were divided randomly into the control group, the bown product low dose group, bom product high dose group, the processed products low dose group, the processed products high dose group, and control group was given physiological saline, the low dose groups were given corresponding drugs at dose of 2. 0 g·kg-1 , the high dose groups were given corresponding drugs at dose of 6. 0 g·kg-1 twice a day for 7 days. Then, the gastrin levels and duodenal Na+ -K

  1. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

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    Chang HB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong-Bin Chang,1 Bing-Huei Chen1,21Department of Food Science, 2Graduate Institute of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 µg/mL, demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 µg/mL, and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 µg/mL. A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 µg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.Keywords: curcuminoid extract, curcuminoid nanoemulsion, Curcuma longa Linnaeus, lung cancer cell, cell cycle, apoptosis mechanism

  2. Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae: a survey across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sadílek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4 and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57. The karyotype of all the specimens of C. lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3% from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the

  3. Morphology and phylogenies of two hypotrichous brackish-water ciliates from China, Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp. and Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb., with establishment of a new genus Neourostylopsis n. gen. (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangrui; Shao, Chen; Liu, Xihan; Huang, Jie; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigates the morphology, infraciliature and small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences of two hypotrichous ciliates, Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp., and Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb. (basionym Gastrostyla sterkii), collected from coastal waters in southern China. Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp. is diagnosed mainly by the arrangement of brownish cortical granules, the numbers of adoral membranelles and frontal and transverse cirri and the characteristics of its midventral cirral pairs. The SSU rRNA gene phylogeny strongly supports the establishment of the new genus Neourostylopsis n. gen., which is characterized mainly by the following features: frontal and transverse cirri clearly differentiated, buccal cirri present, two frontoterminal cirri, midventral complex composed of midventral pairs only and not exceeding the halfway point of the cell, more than one row of marginal cirri on each side which derive from individual anlagen within each parental row, caudal cirri lacking. Thus, two new combinations are required: Neourostylopsis songi (Lei et al., 2005) n. comb., and Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) n. comb. Additionally, improved diagnoses for both Metaurostylopsis and Apourostylopsis are supplied in this study. Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb. differs from the similar congener Protogastrostyla pulchra mainly in body shape, ratio of buccal field to body length in vivo and molecular data. Based on the present studies, we conclude that the estuarine population of P. pulchra collected by J. Gong and others [Gong et al., J Eukaryot Microbiol (2007) 54, 468-478] is a population of P. sterkii.

  4. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino médio de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae midgut

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    Edy de Lello

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, 1781 midgut is internally lined by an epithelium of polytenic cells, some low others prismatic with well developed brush border. Their apical portion are enlarged by secretory vesicles, forming button-like structures that are pinched off to the lumen, some accompained by the nucleus characterizing apocrine and holocrine secretions. This epithelium is gradually renewed by small, non polytenic regenerative cells, found scattered at its basal portion. At the end of the third instar the metamorphosis begins. The epithelial cells present signs of degeneration and at the first day of pupation the regenerative cells increase in number. By the 5th day of pupation these regenerative cells, besides being increased in number, differentiate themselves into two layers: one similar to the dense conective tissue that sustainning the larval epithelium is pinched off to the midgut lumen forming the "yellow bodies"; the other, develops right under it as the imaginal epitelium. The disorganized muscles bundles of the midgut wall, are invaded by phagocytes. At the end of pupation the midgut has a low prismatic epithelium with brush-border. In the adult, the torax portion of the midgut has prismatic homogeneously basophilic epithelium while in the abdominal portion the epithelium is made of high prismatic cells full of small vacuoles. The larval midgut epithelium suffers programmed cell death non compatible with apoptose. During the metamorphosis the midgut lenght diminishes from 31mm in the larva to 14mm in the adult.

  5. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino anterior de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae foregut

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    Ana Maria Vieira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Foregut in D. hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 as the majority of the larval Diptera somatic tissue, is made up of polytenic cells, and grows at the expenses of the polytenization of its nuclei followed by the increase in size of each cell. The oesophagus, of ectodermic origem, is interiorly covered by a chitinous squamous epithelium that rests upon a very thin basal lamina. This sheet is surrounded by thick muscle bundles. The oesophagus intussuscepts the midgut forming the cardia. The cardia, with three epithelial layers: two internal ones, of ectodermal origin and one external of endodermic origin. At the anterior portion of the cardia, between these two types of epithelium, there is a cluster of small, non polytenic cells, forming the imaginal disk of the foregut. Metamoiphosis begins at the end of the larval period with signs of nuclear degeneration of all the polytenic cells, as well as the increase in number of the imaginal disk ones. The oesophagic portion intussuscepted into the cardia, everts; its cells suffer apoptosis and are replaced by the new cells growing from the imaginal disk. The external layer cells also degenerate and are pinched off into the lumen of the very anterior portion of the midgut. The newly formed oesophagus intussuscepts "de novo" to form the two internal layers of the adult cardia. At the same time the midgut regenerative cells grow anteriorly to form the new external layer of the adult cardia.

  6. Ecosystem engineering potential of the gastropod Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767) in mangrove wastewater wetlands - A controlled mesocosm experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil, E-mail: gil.penha-lopes@biology-research.co [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Bartolini, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Limbu, Samwel [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Cannicci, Stefano [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Mgaya, Yunus [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Kristensen, Erik [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Paula, Jose [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal)

    2010-01-15

    The effect of different sewage concentrations (0, 20, 60 and 100%), vegetation (Bare, Avicennia marina or Rhizophora mucronata) and immersion periods (immersion/emersion period of 12/12 h or 3/3 days just for 100%) conditions were studied for 6 months on survival and growth rates of Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767). Gastropods' activity and ecosystem engineering preformed at bare and A. marina planted cells and 3 sewage conditions (0, 20 and 60%) were determined. Survival rates were higher than 70% in all treatments. Growth rate decreased significantly with increasing sewage concentrations (mainly at unplanted conditions) and longer immersion periods. A complete shift (from immersion to emersion periods) and a significant decrease in mobility and consequently its engineer potential, due to sewage contamination, lead to a 3-4 fold decrease in the amount of sediment disturbed. Sewage contamination, primary producers' abundance and environmental conditions may have influenced the gastropods survival, growth and its ecosystem engineering potential. - Terebralia palustris high ecosystem engineering potential in constructed mangrove wetlands.

  7. Susceptibility of larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae to entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae

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    María L. PESCHIUTTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae es vector de los agentes etiológicos de la fiebre amarilla y del dengue. Una alternativa al control químico de este vector es el uso de agentes biológicos. Los nematodos entomopatógenos son efectivos en el control de plagas. La infectividad y el ciclo de vida de un aislado argentino de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae en larvas de A. aegypti se registró por primera vez bajo condiciones de laborato - rio. Para cada unidad experimental, 30 larvas de mosquito de segundo estadio fueron expuestas a 8 dosis del nematodo (0:1, 1:1, 5:1, 15:1, 100:1, 500:1, 750:1, 1500:1. Los juveniles infectivos (JIs utilizados fueron multiplicados sobre Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. La continuidad infectiva de los JIs obtenidos de A. aegypti fue probada aplicándolos en una dosis de 100:1 sobre larvas del mosquito . Las tasas de mortalidad fueron de 0% a 84%. El número de nematodos desarrollados dentro de la larva de mosquito, la mortalidad larval y los nuevos JIs se incrementaron con el aumento de la dosis de nematodos. Los resultados indican que H. bacteriophora es capaz de infectar larvas de A. aegypti , se desarrolla y produce nuevos JIs, permitiendo la continuidad de su ciclo de vida.

  8. Spatial distribution and esterase activity in populations of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae resistant to temephos

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    Wanessa Porto Tito Gambarra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypti collected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba. METHODS: Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a./L and multiple concentrations that caused mortalities between 5% and 99%. Electrophoresis of isoenzymes was used to verify the patterns of esterase activity among populations of the vector. RESULTS: All populations of Aedes aegypti were resistant to temephos, presenting a resistance rate (RR greater than 20. The greatest lethal dose 50% of the sample (CL50 was found for the municipality of Lagoa Seca, approximately forty-one times the value of CL50 for the Rockefeller population. The populations characterized as resistant showed two to six regions of α and β-esterase, called EST-1 to EST-6, while the susceptible population was only seen in one region of activity. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes aegypti is widely distributed and shows a high degree of resistance to temephos in all municipalities studied. In all cases, esterases are involved in the metabolism and, consequently, in the resistance to temephos.

  9. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions

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    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of <70%, and 12 hours photophase. Fifteen hymenopteran specimens were dissected daily to evaluate their stage and development time. The phenology concluded that S. endius had a development cycle of 19 days with an incubation period of 24 hours. The development of the larvae of S. endius occurred in the subsequent eight days, during which a series of morphological alterations were observed. The pre-pupal stage occurred on the tenth day, where the movement ceased and elimination of the meconium started. The pupal stage occurred from the 11th to the 19th day, with emergence of males first, followed by female emergence approximately 24 hours later. These results allowed the evaluation of aspects of the detailed bionomics of the development of S. endius in order to record and program production of this parasitoid, thus optimizing its utilization as a biological control agent.

  10. Trace metals in flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), and sediments from the Baltic Sea and the Portuguese Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna

    2013-10-01

    Trace metals were examined in the muscle tissue of flatfish species of flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), sediments from two southern Baltic Sea sites (Gdańsk Bay and Ustecko-Łebskie as a reference) and in two areas of the Portuguese Atlantic coast (Douro River estuary and Atlantic fishing ground as a reference) to evaluate spatial differences in trace metals. Additionally, the accumulation of trace metals in flounder of different length classes was assessed. Flounder from the Gdańsk Bay area contained twofold more cupper (Cu), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) than did flounder from the Douro River estuary, but zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) were at similar concentrations. The sediments from Gdańsk Bay contained significantly more Zn and threefold more Cd, while concentrations of Cu and Pb were twofold lower. The concentrations of metals in the sediments did not correlate with those in the flounder. Spatial differences were noted in metal concentrations in flounder from the southern Baltic Sea and the Portuguese Atlantic coast as well as within these regions, with higher concentrations in the flounder from the Baltic Sea Gdańsk Bay. The flounder in length class 25-30 cm from Gdańsk Bay contained metal concentrations comparable to those of class 40-45 cm specimens from the Atlantic coast. The accumulation of metals in flounder length classes differed in the two regions.

  11. Anidamientoydieta de Harpia harpyja Linnaeus en la Comunidad Nativa de Infierno, Madre de Dios, Perú

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    Renzo P. Piana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El Águila Arpía (Harpia harpyja Linnaeus es la rapaz de mayor tamaño que habita los bosques amazónicos, sin embargo en el Perú, es muy poco lo que se sabe de esta especie. Desde 1996 a 2001, realizó una investigación en la Comunidad Nativa de Infi erno para obtener información sobre la biología de la especie mediante la localización y observación de nidos activos y abandonados. La investigación permitió encontrar los primeros nidos activos descritos para el Águila Arpía en Perú e indicarían una cierta preferencia para anidar en castañales. Así mismo, la información recogida ha permitido establecer que el área de anidamiento de una pareja de Águilas Arpía en la zona de estudio es de aproximadamente 4300 hectáreas. El análisis de los restos de las presas consumidas y de las egagrópilas recolectadas dentro y alrededor de la base de los nidos nos han permitido hacer una primera descripción de la dieta de la especie, la cual está compuesta principalmente por mamíferos arbóreos.

  12. Origin, distribution, and insertion of the brachial plexus nerves in Blue-and-yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus, 1758

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    Kamal Achôa Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has about 80 species of parrots cataloged, and five of them are identified as Macaws. As the vast majority of birds, Macaws use flight as their primary means of locomotion. However, the strength and power generated during the cycle of beating wings require a mechanism of active neuromuscular control and specialized adaptations of muscles responsible for flight, which are innervated by the brachial plexus. This study aims to describe the origin and distribution of peripheral nerves that make up the brachial plexus in Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus, 1758, in order to aid the veterinarian to recognize and locate neuromuscular lesions in this species. We used five dead bodies, obtained from the Screening Center for Wild Animals in Paraíba, Brazil, in which the nerves were identified by direct dissection. Four nerve roots were viewed, originating three nerve trunks, which stem from the intervertebral spaces between the tenth cervical vertebra and the second thoracic vertebra. Nerves from the dorsal cord innervated extensor muscles, while ventral cord nerves innervated flexor muscles of the wing, in addition to the pectoral branches, responsible to innervate the superficial thoracic and shoulder muscles.

  13. A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure in the bivalve ligament of Meretrix linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weigang; Zhang, Gangsheng

    2015-12-01

    A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the bivalve ligament of Meretrix linnaeus (LML) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of LML were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the LML has complex structural colors from blue to orange in the wet state from ventral to dorsal, which are derived from the aragonite fiber diameter increases continuously from ventral to dorsal of the ligament. The reflection peak wavelength of the wet LML can blue-shift from 522 nm to 480 nm with the air drying time increased from 0 to 60 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and only a weak reflection peak at last, relevant color changes from green to light blue. The structural color in the LML is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consists of aligned aragonite fibers and proteins, in which the diameters of the aragonite fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 104±11 nm and 126±16 nm, respectively. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tune the degree of order and lattice constant of the ligament in the different wet states.

  14. Spatial distribution and esterase activity in populations of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae resistant to temephos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Porto Tito Gambarra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypti collected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba. METHODS: Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a./L and multiple concentrations that caused mortalities between 5% and 99%. Electrophoresis of isoenzymes was used to verify the patterns of esterase activity among populations of the vector. RESULTS: All populations of Aedes aegypti were resistant to temephos, presenting a resistance rate (RR greater than 20. The greatest lethal dose 50% of the sample (CL50 was found for the municipality of Lagoa Seca, approximately forty-one times the value of CL50 for the Rockefeller population. The populations characterized as resistant showed two to six regions of α and β-esterase, called EST-1 to EST-6, while the susceptible population was only seen in one region of activity. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes aegypti is widely distributed and shows a high degree of resistance to temephos in all municipalities studied. In all cases, esterases are involved in the metabolism and, consequently, in the resistance to temephos.

  15. Modeling suitable habitat of invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) in North and South America’s coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Paul H.; Young, Nicholas E.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2016-01-01

    We used two common correlative species-distribution models to predict suitable habitat of invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) in the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. The Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) model were applied using the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling. We compared models developed using native occurrences, using non-native occurrences, and using both native and non-native occurrences. Models were trained using occurrence data collected before 2010 and evaluated with occurrence data collected from the invaded range during or after 2010. We considered a total of 22 marine environmental variables. Models built with non-native only or both native and non-native occurrence data outperformed those that used only native occurrences. Evaluation metrics based on the independent test data were highest for models that used both native and non-native occurrences. Bathymetry was the strongest environmental predictor for all models and showed increasing suitability as ocean floor depth decreased, with salinity ranking the second strongest predictor for models that used native and both native and non-native occurrences, indicating low habitat suitability for salinities species distribution models for invasive species.

  16. Habitat-related predation on juvenile wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunz, G W.; Minello, T J.

    2001-05-31

    We examined the patterns of habitat-specific mortality for newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) using an experimental mesocosm approach. Experiments were designed to analyze prey vulnerability and fish rearing-type (wild-caught or hatchery-reared) in estuarine habitats of varying structural complexity including marsh (Spartina alterniflora Loisel), oyster reef (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin), seagrass (Halodule wrightii Aschers), and nonvegetated sand bottom. We used two different predators, pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides Linnaeus) and spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus Cuvier). For both predators, vulnerability of wild-caught red drum was significantly lower in structurally complex habitats such as seagrass and oyster reef; the highest vulnerability was associated with the nonvegetated bottom. This habitat effect was not apparent for hatchery-reared prey. In trials using a combination of both rearing-types, there was no significant habitat effect on prey selection, but hatchery-reared red drum suffered higher overall mortality than wild-caught fish from pinfish predators. In these trials, spotted seatrout did not select for either prey type. Differences we observed in prey vulnerability were likely caused by behavioral differences between wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum. Our results reinforce the conclusion that structural complexity in estuarine habitats increases survival of newly settled fishes. Our data also suggest that hatchery-reared red drum may be more vulnerable to predation than natural fishes, and that survival of stocked fish may be enhanced through habitat-related behavior modification.

  17. Effects of seasonal variations and collection methods on the mineral composition of propolis from Apis mellifera Linnaeus Beehives

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    E. A. Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of seasonal variations and the methods of collection of propolis produced by Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, on the composition of constituent minerals such as magnesium (Mg, zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, sodium (Na, calcium (Ca, copper (Cu, and potassium (K were evaluated. Propolis was harvested from 25 beehives by scraping or by means of propolis collectors (screen, “intelligent” collector propolis [ICP], lateral opening of the super [LOS], and underlay method. During the one-year study, the propolis produced was harvested each month, ground, homogenized, and stored in a freezer at -10 ºC. Seasonal analyses of the mineral composition were carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA, followed by Tukey-Kramer’s test to compare the mean values (p<0.05. The results showed that seasonal variations influence the contents of 5 minerals (Mg, Fe, Na, Ca, and Cu, and the propolis harvesting method affects the contents of 4 minerals (Mg, Zn, Fe, and Ca.

  18. Effect of unialgal diets on the composition of fatty acids and sterols in juvenile ark shell Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jilin; Zhou, Haibo; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhou, Chengxu; Zhu, Peng; Ma, Bin

    2012-04-18

    This study has investigated the effects of six different unialgal diets ( Chaetoceros calcitrans , Platymonas helgolandica , Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana , Nannochloropsis oculata , and Pavlova viridis ) on the composition of fatty acids and sterols in juvenile ark shell Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus. The best feeding effects on the growth of shellfish were found in C. calcitrans, followed by I. galbana and P. viridis, whereas Chlorella sp. and N. oculata exhibited relatively poor effects. The fatty acid and sterol compositions in the six microalgae and the juvenile ark shell after feeding were analyzed, and 39 fatty acids and 18 sterols were identified. Although the results demonstrate a close correlation between the sterol compositions in algal species and juvenile ark shell, a similar correlation was not observed between fatty acids. In the juvenile ark shell fed microalgae, the ratio of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) rapidly decreases, whereas the proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) increases considerably. The abundances of AA, EPA, and DHA increase most significantly in shellfish with better growth (fed C. calcitrans, I. galbana, and P. viridis). The number of sterol species is reduced, but the total sterol content in groups fed corresponding microalgae increases, and abundant plant sterols, instead of cholesterol, are accumulated in juvenile ark shell fed appropriate microalgae I. galbana and P. viridis. Therefore, to be more conducive to human health, I. galbana and P. viridis, of the six experimental microalgae, are recommended for artificial ark shell culture.

  19. Reducing sugar-producing bacteria from guts of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (yellow mealworm) for lignocellulosic waste minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Chen, Chia-Lung; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The guts of Tenebrio Molitor Linnaeus (yellow mealworm) were used as inocula to isolate reducing sugar-producing bacteria during bioconversion of lignocellulose to reducing sugars in this study. Three carbon sources, i.e., carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), filter paper (FP), and lignocellulosic waste (LIG), were specifically selected; and two types of culturing media (M1 and M2) were used. After 6 months of sequential cultivation, lignocellulose (i.e., polysaccharides) degradation of enrichments M1-CMC (47.5%), M1-FP (73.3%), M1-LIG (70.4%), M2-CMC (55.7%), M2-FP (73.1%) and M2-LIG (71.7%) was achieved, respectively, with incubation for 48 h. Furthermore, seven bacterial strains were successfully isolated corresponding to most of the major bands detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. The maximum reducing sugars yield by the combination of Agromyces sp. C42 and Stenotrophomonas sp. A10b was 56.7 mg g·LIG(-1) of 48 h, which is approximate 2-5 times higher than the original enrichments and individual microbial strains. These findings suggest that bioconversion by microorganisms from mealworm guts has great application potential for lignocellulose hydrolysis.

  20. Trace Metals in Noah's Ark Shells (Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758): Impact of Tourist Season and Human Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanković, Dušica; Erk, Marijana; Župan, Ivan; Čulin, Jelena; Dragun, Zrinka; Bačić, Niko; Cindrić, Ana-Marija

    2016-10-01

    Commercially important bivalve Noah's Ark shell (Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758) represents a high-quality seafood product, but the data on levels of metal contaminants that could pose a human health risk and also on some essential elements that are important for health protection are lacking. This study examined the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, and Zn in the soft tissue of A. noae from harvesting area in the central Adriatic Sea, to survey whether heavy metals are within the acceptable limits for public health and whether tourism could have an impact on them. The concentrations of analysed metals varied for Cd: 0.15-0.74, Pb: 0.06-0.26, Cr: 0.11-0.34, Ni: 0.09-0.22, Cu: 0.65-1.95, Co: 0.04-0.09, and Zn: 18.3-74.7 mg/kg wet weight. These levels were lower than the permissible limits for safe consummation of seafood, and only for Cd, some precautions should be taken into account if older shellfish were consumed. Increase of Cd, Cr, and Cu in shell tissue was observed during the tourist season at the site closest to the marine traffic routes, indicating that metal levels in shellfish tissue should be monitored especially carefully during the peak tourist season to prevent eventual toxic effects due to increased intake of metals, specifically of Cd.

  1. Hibernation impact on the catalytic activities of the mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase in liver and brain tissues of jerboa (Jaculus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiani Assia

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jerboa (Jaculus orientalis is a deep hibernating rodent native to subdesert highlands. During hibernation, a high level of ketone bodies i.e. acetoacetate (AcAc and D-3-hydroxybutyrate (BOH are produced in liver, which are used in brain as energetic fuel. These compounds are bioconverted by mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH E.C. 1.1.1.30. Here we report, the function and the expression of BDH in terms of catalytic activities, kinetic parameters, levels of protein and mRNA in both tissues i.e brain and liver, in relation to the hibernating process. Results We found that: 1/ In euthemic jerboa the specific activity in liver is 2.4- and 6.4- fold higher than in brain, respectively for AcAc reduction and for BOH oxidation. The same differences were found in the hibernation state. 2/ In euthermic jerboa, the Michaelis constants, KM BOH and KM NAD+ are different in liver and in brain while KM AcAc, KM NADH and the dissociation constants, KD NAD+and KD NADH are similar. 3/ During prehibernating state, as compared to euthermic state, the liver BDH activity is reduced by half, while kinetic constants are strongly increased except KD NAD+. 4/ During hibernating state, BDH activity is significantly enhanced, moreover, kinetic constants (KM and KD are strongly modified as compared to the euthermic state; i.e. KD NAD+ in liver and KM AcAc in brain decrease 5 and 3 times respectively, while KD NADH in brain strongly increases up to 5.6 fold. 5/ Both protein content and mRNA level of BDH remain unchanged during the cold adaptation process. Conclusions These results cumulatively explained and are consistent with the existence of two BDH enzymatic forms in the liver and the brain. The apoenzyme would be subjected to differential conformational folding depending on the hibernation state. This regulation could be a result of either post-translational modifications and/or a modification of the mitochondrial membrane state

  2. 两个品种风信子花芽分化的研究%The Flower Bud Differentiation of 2 Varieties of Hyacinthus orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉萍; 苗淑杏; 何楠楠; 罗凤霞

    2011-01-01

    The changes of total soluble sugar,protein content and peroxidase activity in different periods of the two cultivars of Hyacinthus orientalis are determined;and based on paraffin section technology,the flower bud differentiation process of two cultivars is studied.It is found that the content of soluble sugar shows a gradually rising trend;the protein content drops gradually before the inflorescence anlage,achieves the minimum value when the flower bud differentiation starts,rises during the inflorescence idiophase,and drops in the floret idiophase;the POD activity displays the change tendency in which it drops first,rises again and then drops;and the bud form differentiation can be divided into four periods including undifferentiated period,inflorescence anlage differentiation stage,inflorescence axial elongation growth period and floret differentiation stage.The complete bud differentiation process needs about 60 days.%以两个风信子品种为试验材料,采用石蜡切片技术,对两个品种花芽分化的过程,以及花芽分化期间可溶性糖含量、蛋白质含量和过氧化物酶活性的变化进行了研究。结果表明:1)可溶性糖含量呈逐步上升趋势;2)蛋白质含量在花序原基出现前逐步下降,花芽分化开始时达到最低值,花序分化期回升,小花分化期又下降;3)过氧化物酶活性表现出下降—上升—下降的变化趋势;4)花芽形态分化可分为未分化期、花序原基分化期、花序轴伸长生长期和小花分化期四个时期,完成花芽分化约需60 d。

  3. Aportaciones corológicas de la colección del Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona a la fauna iberobalear del género Dermestes Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Dermestidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto, M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chorological contributions from the Natural History Museum of Barcelona collection to the Ibero-Balearic fauna of the genus Dermestes Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Dermestidae Chorological information of 15 Ibero-Balearic species of the genus Desmestes Linnaeus, 1758 is provided. Data were obtained from the review of 635 specimens housed in the entomological collection of the Natural History Museum of Barcelona. All examined material is listed, and the distributions are discussed taking into account the collection records and bibliographical sources. The distribution areas for most species have been extended.

  4. A new species of Agonopterix feeding on giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) in the Caucasus, with a discussion of the nomenclature of A. heracliana (Linnaeus) (Depressariidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Lvovsky, Alexandr L.; Nielsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Agonopterix caucasiella sp.n. is described and compared with its closest relatives, A. ciliella (Stainton, 1849) and A. heracliana (Linnaeus, 1758). Adults and genitalia of these species are figured. The life history of A. caucasiella sp.n. in the Caucasus is described. Its larva feeds in the umb......Agonopterix caucasiella sp.n. is described and compared with its closest relatives, A. ciliella (Stainton, 1849) and A. heracliana (Linnaeus, 1758). Adults and genitalia of these species are figured. The life history of A. caucasiella sp.n. in the Caucasus is described. Its larva feeds...

  5. Eco-toxicological effects of two kinds of lead compounds on forest tree seed in alkaline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nan; Zhou, Fu-Rong; Wang, Jin-Xin

    2016-03-01

    In order to compare the different eco-toxicological effects of lead nitrate and lead acetate on forest tree seed, a biological incubation experiment was conducted to testify the inhibition effects of two lead compounds on rates of seed germination, root and stem elongation, and seedling fresh weight for six plants (Amaorpha fruticosa L., Robinia psedoacacia L., Pinus tabuliformis Carr., Platycladus orientalis L., Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm., Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in soil. The results indicate that the inhibition effects of the two lead compounds on the rates of root elongation of plants were greater than other indices; root elongation can possibly be used as indices to investigate the relationship between lead toxicity and plant response. The response of trees to lead toxicity varied significantly, and the order of tolerance to lead pollution was as follows: Amaorpha fruticosa L. > Platycladus orientalis L. > Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. > Robinia psedoacacia L. > Pinus tabuliformis Carr. > Hippophae rhamnoides L. Therefore, we suggest that Amaorpha fruticosa L. and Platycladus orientalis L. be used as tolerant plants for soil phytoremediation and Hippophae rhamnoides L. as an indicative plant to diagnose the toxicity of lead pollution on soil quality. Lead nitrate and lead acetate differentially restrain seeds, with seeds being more sensitive to lead nitrate than lead acetate in the soil. Thus, the characteristics of lead compounds should be taken into full consideration to appraise its impact on the environment.

  6. Relationship between effective solar radiation and sap flow process during an entire growing season in Western Mountains of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jun-jiang; Ma Lv-yi

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the relationship between the time processes of solar radiation and sap flow, sap flow velocity (SFV) of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis,effective solar radiation (ESR) and other environmental factors wore synchronously monitored for one year in the Beijing Western Mountains by using a thermal dissipation probe (TDP) system and an automatic weather station. Results showed significant differences between changes in diurnal characteristics of ESR and sap flow in sunny days during three seasons. Starting times of sap flow occurred generally 1. 5-3 hours later than those of solar radiation and there were small differences between Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis. But peak times and stopping times of sap flow varied considerably with large contrasts in ESR. The duration of sap flow showed clear differences among the seasons owing to the variable rhythms of climate factors in Beijing. Fluctuation amplitude in the duration of sap flow remained relatively stable during the autumn but changed greatly during spring and summer. Changes in diurnal sap flow velocity of both Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis were about 0-3 hours later than those of ESR but with the same configuration. The start of sap flow was mainly induced by the sudden intensification of ESR (sunrise effect). Seasonal models of SFV indicated that a cubic equation had the best fit. It Was more practical to simulate seasonal water consumption models of trees with ESR. In further investigations,these models should be optimized.

  7. Study of peripheral blood cell cultivetion and karyotype of Sander lucioperca Linnaeus%梭鲈的淋巴细胞培养及其核型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金善; 范兆廷

    2012-01-01

    The blood cell of Sander lucioperca was cultured (Linnaeus)by the whole culture medium of RPMI 1640 in vitro. By evaluating the content of colchicines and permeating time, establish a set of mature experimental method to cultivate the blood lymphocytic cell and prepare chromosome of pike-perch. Metaphase chromosome specimens of Sander lucioperca Linnaeus were prepared from short-term culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes with air-drying technique. Experimental results indicated that the diploid chromosome number was 2n=48 and the karyotype was compose of 2m, 10sm, 10st,12t, NF=60.%采用RPMI1640全培养基对梭鲈(Sander lucioperca Linnaeus)淋巴细胞进行体外培养,经空气干燥制备染色体玻片标本并对其核型进行分析.结果表明,梭鲈染色体数目为48条,包括2条中部着丝点染色体、10条亚中部着丝点染色体、12条亚端部着丝粒染色体和24条端部着丝粒染色体,未发现异型性染色体对和随体.梭鲈核型公式为2n=48,2m+10sm+12st+24t,其染色体总臂数(NF)为60.

  8. INVAZIA GHIDRINULUI – GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS LINNAEUS, 1758 ÎN FLUVIUL NISTRU (LIMITELE REPUBLICII MOLDOVA ŞI FACTORII DETERMINANŢI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru BULAT

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available În condiţiile intensificării presingului antropic în ecosistemele acvatice din Republica Moldova majoritatea speciilor stenobionte au devenit ameninţate cu dispariţia, însă unele, cu potenţial adaptiv înalt, dimpotrivă, pe fonul eliberării nişe­lor spaţiale, pot prolifera în exces şi chiar provoca efect invaziv. Pentru fluviul Nistru (limitele Republicii Moldova un exemplu elocvent este ghidrinul Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758 care, după construcţia hidrocentralei dela Novodnestrovsk (1981 a devenit o specie multidominantă, formând până la or. Soroca o populaţie locală deosebit de numeroasă.În lucrare sunt analizate particularităţile bioecologice ale ghidrinului şi sunt evidenţiaţi factorii de mediu ce au con­tribuit la invazia taxonului în fl. Nistru (limitele Republicii Moldova.THE INVASION OF THREE-SPINED STICKLEBACK – GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS LINNAEUS, 1758 IN DNIESTER RIVER (LIMITS OF REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AND ITS DETERINANT FACTORS Under the intensification of anthropogenic pressure in aquatic ecosystems of Republic of Moldova, most of stenobionte species became threatened with extinction, but some species, potentially high adaptive, contrast, in present demonstrates an evident biological progression, in some hydrobiotops causing a stressed invasive effect. For Dniester River (limits of Republic of Moldova three-spined stickleback – Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758 is a good example, after the construction of Novodnestrovsk hydropower (1981 became a multidominate species forming to Soroca city a particularly large local population.In this paper are analyzed bio- ecological peculiarities of three-spined stickleback and are highlighted environmental factors that contributed to taxon invasion in Dniester River (limits of Republic of Moldova.

  9. Confirmation of the presence of Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chaetodontidae and Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål, 1775 (Pomacanthidae in Iraqi marine waters, Arabian Gulf

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    Jawad, L. A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two specimens (116,119 mm TL of Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and four specimens (171–190 mm TL of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål, 1775 were collected from Iraqi marine waters of the Arabian Gulf. These findings confirm the presence of H. acuminatus and establish the first record of P. maculosus from Iraqi waters. The samples were captured by hook and line off the coasts of Al–Fao City Peninsula, southern Iraq. Arabian Gulf. morphometric and meristic data are provided and compared with data from other parts of the world.

  10. Coexistence of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) and blue mussels Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 on a sheltered intertidal bivalve bed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, M.W.; Davids, J.K.; Dolmer, Per;

    2016-01-01

    The invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793 was introduced in Denmark for aquaculture in the 1970s. Presently, feral populations are found in many parts of the country, with the largest populations established on existing beds of blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758...... and M. edulis were collected from the bivalve bed, shell lengths were converted into biomass, which were interpolated to create biomass contours and combined with modelled topography of the bivalve bed to study niche separation. The bivalve bed slowly extended northwards over a period of 11 years, where...

  11. Larval morphology of Plagiosterna adamsii (Baly) and P. aenea (Linnaeus) with resurrection of Gastrolinoides Chûjô & Kimoto and P. formosana (Bates) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Chrysomelinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hee-Wook; Świętojańska, Jolanta

    2017-02-22

    Larvae of Plagiosterna adamsii (Baly, 1864) and P. aenea (Linnaeus, 1758) are redescribed and illustrated in detail, with discussion of the previous misinterpretations. The first instar larva of Plagiosterna adamsii is described for the first time. The original name and citation of P. adamsii is confirmed. The genus Gastrolinoides Chûjô & Kimoto, 1960 is resurrected from synonymy with Plagiosterna Motschulsky, 1860. Plagiosterna formosana (Bates, 1866) is resurrected from synonymy with P. aenea. A key to the larvae of the Palaearctic Plagiosterna is provided. Tubercular pattern, pigmentation and sclerotized platelets of the integument are used as diagnostic characters for particular species.

  12. Tupinambis teguixin Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Teiidae) : First record for the state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Benício, Ronildo Alves; Fonseca, Mariluce Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Tupinambis teguixin Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Teiidae). Brazil, state of Piauí, municipality of Barras, (4º14'40" S, 42º17'40" W, 70 m a.s.l.). Collector: Ronildo Alves Benício. In 09 July 2011 at 10:30 an adult specimen (SVL 2750 mm) was caught foraging in an open area with vegetation characteristic of transition Caatinga-Cerrado, and deposited in the Coleção Herpetológica Jorge Jim (CHJJ 0666) of the Laboratório de Ecologia da Universidade Federal do Piauí (UFPI)–Campus Picos.

  13. Desarrollo del cultivo integral de la coquina Donax trunculus (Linnaeus, 1758). Ciclo reproductivo, cultivo en criadero y en el medio natural

    OpenAIRE

    Louzán Pérez, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Donax trunculus (Linnaeus, 1758), denominada comúnmente coquina y cadelucha en Galicia, es una especie de molusco bivalvo de distribución atlántico – mediterránea, cuyos bancos naturales en la actualidad se encuentran en regresión. Se trata de una especie con un elevado interés comercial y supone un recurso económico importante para el sector marisquero de Galicia. El desarrollo del cultivo en criadero de la coquina, como estrategia para la obtención de semilla, con fines de re...

  14. Report of Enodiotrema megachondrus (Looss, 1899 Looss, 1901 (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae in a green turtle Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758 (Testudines, Cheloniidae from Brazil

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    Werneck M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the occurrence of Enodiotrema megachondrus (Looss, 1899 Looss, 1901 in a juvenile green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758 found on the coast of Brazil. This parasite has been described in Caretta caretta from Egypt, France, the Mediterranean Sea, the Madeira Archipelago, the Adriatic Sea and the USA, in C. mydas from Egypt and the USA, in Eretmochelys imbricata from Cuba, in Lepidochelys olivacea from Mexico and Costa Rica and in Lepidochelys kempii from USA. This note represents the first report of E. megachondus in a green sea turtle in the South-West Atlantic Ocean.

  15. Osteologia craniana de Platalea ajaja (Linnaeus (Aves, Ciconiiformes, comparada com outras espécies de Threskiornithidae Skull osteology of Platalea ajaja (Linnaeus (Aves, Ciconiiformes, compared with others species of Threskiornithidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina D. Ferreira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Platalea ajaja (Linnaeus, 1758 pertence Threskiornithidae (curicacas e afins e colhereiros, Threskiornithoidea, Ciconiiformes. Threskiornithidae (colhereiros, curicacas e afins são subdivididos em dois grupos: Threskiornithinae que compreende curicacas e afins, caracteriza-se por seus representantes possuírem um bico longo, estreito e curvo, ao passo que Plataleinae inclui os colhereiros, que apresentam bico longo e achatado na ponta. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo descrever a osteologia craniana de P. ajaja (Plataleinae e comparar com outras espécies pertencentes à Threskiornithinae. As espécies utilizadas para tal comparação foram: Mesembrinibis cayennensis (Gmelin, 1789, Phimosus infuscatus (Lichteinstein, 1823, Theristicus caudatus (Boddaert, 1783 e Plegadis chivi (Vieillot, 1817. Outras espécies pertencentes a ordem Ciconiiformes também foram utilizadas para comparação. A partir do presente estudo, observou-se que P. ajaja (Plataleinae apresenta como características que a separa dos Threskiornithinae: 1 sutura frontonasal conspícua; 2 processo supra-orbital do osso lacrimal curto; 3 maxila superior achatada dorsoventralmente, sendo alargada na extremidade, tomando forma de uma colher; 4 narina curta e de forma oval; e 5 processo retroarticular curto. Entretanto, são necessários estudos osteológicos que contemplem as outras espécies da família, bem como um estudo filogenético do grupo para maior compreensão das relações existentes entre os Threskiornithidae.Platalea ajaja (Linnaeus, 1758 belongs to the Threskiornithidae (ibises and spoonbills, Threskiornitoidea, Ciconiiformes. The Threkiornithidae are currently divided into two groups: Threskiornithinae (ibises and allies, which have curved bills used to probe into the mud, and Plataleinae that have specialized flat bill shapes. The goal of the present work was to describe the cranial osteology of P. ajaja (Plataleinae and compare it with other species of the

  16. Behavioural responses of captive-born greater rheas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae submitted to antipredator training Respostas comportamentais de emas cativas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae submetidas a treinamentoanti-predação

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    Cristiano S. de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Human activities have been diminishing greater rhea Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758 populations throughout their natural distribution. The reintroductions of captive-born greater rheas have been tried but without success; since the individuals reintroduced were killed by predators. Captive-born animals that have been isolated from predators for many generations can lose their predator recognition abilities. To enhance the survival rates of the reintroduced animals, researchers are now using antipredator training techniques. We studied the response of 15 zoo-borne greater rheas to antipredator training. The animals were divided into three groups: two test groups and one control group. We ran 15 antipredator tests and four control testes with each group. Antipredator tests consisted of pairing a taxidermized predator model or a real predator (domestic dog with a simulation of a capture procedure. Control tests consisted of presenting the predator model (jaguar to the birds, after training but not associating it with an aversive event and recording behavioural responses. All tests were video-recorded and analysed a posteriori. Results showed that the trained rheas responded appropriately to the predators, becoming more vigilant and that there was considerable individual differences in response to antipredator training. The results demonstrated that antipredator training is effective and therefore an invaluable tool for reintroduction projects involving greater rheas. Furthermore, the methods employed in this research project should be applicable to other species of flightless birds.As atividades humanas têm diminuído as populações de emas Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758 por toda sua área de distribuição. Reintroduções de emas nascidas em cativeiro têm sido tentadas, mas sem sucesso, uma vez que os indivíduos reintroduzidos são mortos por predadores. Animais nascidos em cativeiro que foram isolados de seus predadores por várias gera

  17. Diet of crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, in a suburban area of southern Brazil Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

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    Ezequiel Pedó

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trails inside the Reserve. Samples were dried in an oven for 24h at 60ºC, immersed in 70% alcohol, and prey items were identified using a stereomicroscope. The diet of the crab-eating fox was essentially carnivorous (87.62% composed by vertebrates, with seasonal variation (p = 0.0009 and absence of fruits. Small non-flying mammals and birds were the most frequent prey, being proportionally more preyed in autumn and summer, respectively. Arthropods were more preyed in winter and spring and bird/reptile eggs only in summer and spring, in the reproduction period of these groups.O graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, é um canídeo de pequeno porte de hábito crepuscular e noturno que ocorre nas savanas e florestas da América do Sul. Neste estudo foi avaliada a sazonalidade e a dieta de C. thous na Reserva Biológica do Lami, uma unidade de conservação com 179,78ha, situada na região suburbana do município de Porto Alegre, no sul do Brasil. Durante o ano de 2000 foram coletadas 80 amostras fecais - 20 por estação do ano - em coletas realizadas a cada duas ou três semanas, percorrendo as trilhas existentes na Reserva. As amostras foram desidratadas em estufa por 24h a 60ºC, imersas em álcool a 70%, e as presas foram identificadas com auxílio de estereomicroscópio. A dieta do graxaim-do-mato apresentou-se essencialmente carnívora (87,62% composta por vertebrados, com variação sazonal (p = 0,0009 e ausência de frutos. Pequenos mamíferos n

  18. Fertilidade do caranguejo de mangue Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae, em Iguape (São Paulo, Brasil Fertility of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae, at Iguape (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Gustavo Yomar Hattori

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 58 Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763 ovigerous females in final embryonic stage were collected in mangrove forest at Iguape (São Paulo. Each female were kept in laboratory until the larvae hatching and had their carapace width (CW measured with caliper (0.05 mm and the larval number (LN calculated by volumetric method. The hatching rates (HR were calculated for each animal's size class (5 mm. The values of LN and CW obtained were subjected to regression analyses and the best fitting model was chosen by comparing the obtained determination coefficients (R². The fertility varied from 71,200 to 220,800 larvae (147,169 ± 32,070 larvae, corresponding to 41.7 to 76.8 mm CW (63.7±7.9 mm, respectively. The relationship LNxCW was expressed by the equation LN = 284.1CW1.5º¹ (N = 58; R² = 0.74; p < 0.01, that showed a positive correlation between the variables. Most part of ovigerous females (89.7% showed their hatching during the nightly period. A negative correlation between HR and CW was observed in these animals (p < 0.05, probably due to reduction of spermatophores in the seminal receptacle (multiparous females or due to senility in the females with large size. The biological studies of U. cordatus are very important for practices adoption that preserve and make the rational use of this recourse in Brazilian's mangrove forests.

  19. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells. PMID:26345201

  20. DYNAMICS OF PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS LINNAEUS, 1758 AGE STRUCTURE IN THE DNIEPER LOWER REACHES IN CONNECTION WITH FISHING

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    K. Geina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the dynamics of pike (Esox luceus Linnaeus, 1758 age structure of the Dnieper lower reaches in conditions of the modification of fishing pressure. Methodology. An analysis of fishing situation has been performed based on data of official fishery statistics. Fish sampling was done at control-observation posts of the Institute of Fisheries of the NAAS of Ukraine and directly in the fishery. Juvenile fish yield was determined using a complex of fry fishing gears using a stationary net-station. Field and cameral processing of the material was performed using generally accepted methods. Findings. A retrospective analysis of the situation in the Dnieper-Bug lower reach system clearly indicates on the presence of continuous tendency of catch decline of representative of native fish fauna – pike. With relatively uniform indices of the “yield” of its juveniles before Dnieper flow impoundment and in conditions of present time, its commercial catches significantly dropped. The dynamics of pike current age structure indicates on an increase of relative density of age groups, which form the recruitment of the commercial portion of the population (1-1+ and a decrease of importance of the component of the right side of age series. A discrepancy between the observed changes of the age group and commercial harvest quantities indicates on increased human pressure on this species. Originality. For the first, we analyzed the dynamics of fish juvenile “yield” and age structure of pike commercial stock of the Dnieper lower reaches in the river flow transformation process. Practical value. A decrease of the ichthyomass of piscivorous fishes in the Dnieper lower reaches results in changes of fish populations of littoral biotopes towards the prevalence of the dominance of coarse species that lead to a deterioration of forage availability for a number of valuable commercial species. An increase of the number of pike can regulate the strain

  1. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.

  2. Fungos Filamentosos Associados às Espécies Atta sexdens (Linnaeus e Atta laevigata (F. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Aline Dornelas

    2016-04-01

    Abstract. Leaf-cutting ants, Atta and Acromyrmex genera, are considered major pests in a neotropical agroforestry system because they cut plant material that will serve as food for the symbiotic fungus cultivated by them. Several fungi naturally occurring in the soil can be found associated with leaf-cutting ants, many of them are demonstrably entomopathogenic. However, these agents have not been used as biological control of leaf-cutting ants. The aim of this study was to isolate and to identify filamentous fungi associated with forage workers of Atta sexdens (Linnaeus and Atta laevigata (F. Smith and to test their pathogenicity against workers from laboratory colonies. To isolate filamentous fungi, it was collected a total of 180 forage workers (30 in each colony in six field colonies, 90 of A. sexdens and 90 workers of A. laevigata. Six fungi species from A. sexdens were isolated and identified: Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff Sorokin, Aspergillus flavus Link, Acremonium sp. 1, Aspergillus sp. 1, Colletotrichum sp. and Acremonium sp. 2. In A. laevigata, it was found four species: Mucor sp., Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium solani (Martius Saccardo, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem. Three of these fungi were selected for pathogenicity tests against workers of the leaf-cutting ant A. sexdens: A. flavus, A. niger and M. anisopliae. The LT50 (time to cause 50% mortality of workers in tests with A. niger and M. anisopliae were five days and significantly lower than the control group. Therefore, further tests should proceed with those isolates to demonstrate their potential use in the biological control of leaf-cutting ants.

  3. Environmental influences on the Indo-Pacific octocoral Isis hippuris Linnaeus 1758 (Alcyonacea: Isididae): genetic fixation or phenotypic plasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Sonia J; Pochon, Xavier; Watling, Les

    2015-01-01

    As conspicuous modular components of benthic marine habitats, gorgonian (sea fan) octocorals have perplexed taxonomists for centuries through their shear diversity, particularly throughout the Indo-Pacific. Phenotypic incongruence within and between seemingly unitary lineages across contrasting environments can provide the raw material to investigate processes of disruptive selection. Two distinct phenotypes of the Isidid Isis hippurisLinnaeus, 1758 partition between differing reef environments: long-branched bushy colonies on degraded reefs, and short-branched multi/planar colonies on healthy reefs within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP), Indonesia. Multivariate analyses reveal phenotypic traits between morphotypes were likely integrated primarily at the colony level with increased polyp density and consistently smaller sclerite dimensions at the degraded site. Sediment load and turbidity, hence light availability, primarily influenced phenotypic differences between the two sites. This distinct morphological dissimilarity between the two sites is a reliable indicator of reef health; selection primarily acting on colony morphology, porosity through branching structure, as well as sclerite diversity and size. ITS2 sequence and predicted RNA secondary structure further revealed intraspecific variation between I. hippuris morphotypes relative to such environments (ΦST = 0.7683, P < 0.001). This evidence suggests-but does not confirm-that I. hippuris morphotypes within the WMNP are two separate species; however, to what extent and taxonomic assignment requires further investigation across its full geographic distribution. Incongruence between colonies present in the WMNP with tenuously described Isis alternatives (Isis reticulataNutting, 1910, Isis minorbrachyblastaZou, Huang & Wang, 1991), questions the validity of such assignments. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses confirm early taxonomic suggestion that the characteristic jointed axis of the Isididae is in

  4. Environmental influences on the Indo–Pacific octocoral Isis hippuris Linnaeus 1758 (Alcyonacea: Isididae): genetic fixation or phenotypic plasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Xavier; Watling, Les

    2015-01-01

    As conspicuous modular components of benthic marine habitats, gorgonian (sea fan) octocorals have perplexed taxonomists for centuries through their shear diversity, particularly throughout the Indo–Pacific. Phenotypic incongruence within and between seemingly unitary lineages across contrasting environments can provide the raw material to investigate processes of disruptive selection. Two distinct phenotypes of the Isidid Isis hippuris Linnaeus, 1758 partition between differing reef environments: long-branched bushy colonies on degraded reefs, and short-branched multi/planar colonies on healthy reefs within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP), Indonesia. Multivariate analyses reveal phenotypic traits between morphotypes were likely integrated primarily at the colony level with increased polyp density and consistently smaller sclerite dimensions at the degraded site. Sediment load and turbidity, hence light availability, primarily influenced phenotypic differences between the two sites. This distinct morphological dissimilarity between the two sites is a reliable indicator of reef health; selection primarily acting on colony morphology, porosity through branching structure, as well as sclerite diversity and size. ITS2 sequence and predicted RNA secondary structure further revealed intraspecific variation between I. hippuris morphotypes relative to such environments (ΦST = 0.7683, P < 0.001). This evidence suggests—but does not confirm—that I. hippuris morphotypes within the WMNP are two separate species; however, to what extent and taxonomic assignment requires further investigation across its full geographic distribution. Incongruence between colonies present in the WMNP with tenuously described Isis alternatives (Isis reticulata Nutting, 1910, Isis minorbrachyblasta Zou, Huang & Wang, 1991), questions the validity of such assignments. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses confirm early taxonomic suggestion that the characteristic jointed axis of the

  5. Environmental influences on the Indo–Pacific octocoral Isis hippuris Linnaeus 1758 (Alcyonacea: Isididae: genetic fixation or phenotypic plasticity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia J. Rowley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As conspicuous modular components of benthic marine habitats, gorgonian (sea fan octocorals have perplexed taxonomists for centuries through their shear diversity, particularly throughout the Indo–Pacific. Phenotypic incongruence within and between seemingly unitary lineages across contrasting environments can provide the raw material to investigate processes of disruptive selection. Two distinct phenotypes of the Isidid Isis hippuris Linnaeus, 1758 partition between differing reef environments: long-branched bushy colonies on degraded reefs, and short-branched multi/planar colonies on healthy reefs within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP, Indonesia. Multivariate analyses reveal phenotypic traits between morphotypes were likely integrated primarily at the colony level with increased polyp density and consistently smaller sclerite dimensions at the degraded site. Sediment load and turbidity, hence light availability, primarily influenced phenotypic differences between the two sites. This distinct morphological dissimilarity between the two sites is a reliable indicator of reef health; selection primarily acting on colony morphology, porosity through branching structure, as well as sclerite diversity and size. ITS2 sequence and predicted RNA secondary structure further revealed intraspecific variation between I. hippuris morphotypes relative to such environments (ΦST = 0.7683, P < 0.001. This evidence suggests—but does not confirm—that I. hippuris morphotypes within the WMNP are two separate species; however, to what extent and taxonomic assignment requires further investigation across its full geographic distribution. Incongruence between colonies present in the WMNP with tenuously described Isis alternatives (Isis reticulata Nutting, 1910, Isis minorbrachyblasta Zou, Huang & Wang, 1991, questions the validity of such assignments. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses confirm early taxonomic suggestion that the characteristic jointed

  6. Myxobolus taibaiensis sp. n. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infecting the intestinal wall of common carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinhua; Hua, Congjie; Zhang, Qianqian; Zhao, Yuanli; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Jinyong

    2017-01-10

    Myxobolus taibaiensis sp. n. was found in the inner intestinal wall of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, during the investigation of fish parasite fauna in Lake Taibai, located in the middle reach of the Yangtze River, China. The whitish ellipsoidal plasmodia, up to 2.9 mm long and 1.7 mm wide, developed in the circular muscle layer of the intestinal wall and produced significant compression into adjacent tissues, but no significant inflammatory responses were observed against this infection. Mature spores are oval in frontal view and lemon-like in lateral and apical view, averaging 10.2-11.2 µm (10.8 ± 0.2 µm) in length, 9.1-9.9 µm (9.6 ± 0.2 µm) in width and 6.1-6.6 µm (6.3 ± 0.1 µm) in thickness. Polar capsules are pyriform, equal in size, slightly converging anteriorly, measuring 4.4-5.4 µm (5.0 ± 0.2 µm) in length by 3.2-3.6 µm (3.4 ± 0.1 µm) in width. Polar filaments coiled with four to five turns and arranged perpendicular to the polar capsule length, measuring up to 106 µm. Myxobolus taibaiensis sp. n. is morphologically similar to Myxobolus rotundatus Achmerov, 1956 which also infects the inner wall of the intestine of common carp. However, the small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence identity was only 94%, generally beyond the intraspecies variation in the genus. Phylogenetically, this new species is sister to M. rotundatus and then clusters with M. shantungensis Hu, 1965 to form an independent common carp-infecting cluster within the Henneguya-Myxobolus clade.

  7. Esterase-D and chromosome patterns in Central Amazon piranha (Serrasalmus rhombeus Linnaeus, 1766 from Lake Catalão

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    Aylton Saturnino Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents additional genetic data on piranha (Serrasalmus rhombeus Linnaeus, 1766 complex previously diagnosed due to the presence of distinct cytotypes 2n = 58 and 2n = 60. Three esterase-D enzyme loci (Est-D1, Est-D2 and Est-D3 were examined and complemented with chromosomal data from 66 piranha specimens collected from Lake Catalão. For all specimens the Est-D1 and Est-D2 loci were monomorphic. In contrast, the Est-D3 locus was polymorphic with genotypes and alleles being differentially distributed in the previously described cytotypes and served as the basis for detecting a new cytotype (2n = 60 B. In cytotype 2n = 58 the Est-D3 locus was also polymorphic and presented Mendelian allelic segregation with four genotypes (Est-D3(11, Est-D3(12, Est-D3(22 and Est-D3(33 out of six theoretically possible genotypes, presumably encoded by alleles Est-D3¹ (frequency = 0.237, EsT-D3² (0.710 and Est-D3³ (0.053. A Chi-squared (chi2 test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was applied to the Est-D3 locus and revealed a genetic unbalance in cytotype 2n = 58, indicating the probable existence in the surveyed area of different stocks for that karyotypic structure. A silent null allele (Est-D3(0 with a high frequency (0.959 occurred exclusively in the 2n = 60 cytotype. On the other hand, the new cytotype 2n = 60 B described here for the first time was monomorphic for the presumably fixed Est-D3³ allele. The data as a whole should contribute to the better understanding the rhombeus complex taxonomic status definition in the Central Amazon.

  8. Spatially explicit genetic structure in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1759 within the framework of the monopolisation hypothesis

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    Livia Lucentini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An apparent paradox is known for crustaceans, rotifers and bryozoans living in inland small water bodies: a potential for wide distribution due to the presence of resting stages is coupled with marked genetic differences between nearby water bodies, with enclave distributions masking clear phylogeographic patterns. According to the monopolisation hypothesis, this is due to the accumulation of resting stages, monopolising each water body. Freshwater sponges could represent a useful system to assess the generality of the mo- nopolisation hypothesis: these organisms i live in the same habitats as crustaceans, rotifers and bryozoans, ii produce resting stages that can accumulate, and iii have indeed a wide distribution. Currently, no studies on spatially explicit genetic differentiation on fresh- water sponges are available. The aim of the present study is to provide additional empirical evidence in support of the generality of the scenario for small aquatic animals with resting stages by analysing genetic diversity at different spatial scales for an additional model system, the freshwater sponge ephydatia fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1759. We expected that system genetic variability would follow enclave distributions, no clear phylogeographical patterns would be present, and nearby unconnected water bodies would show markedly different populations for this new model too. We analysed the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions 5.8S-ITS2-28S, the D3 domain of 28S subunit, the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I (COI and ten specific microsatellite markers of nine Italian and one Hungarian populations. Mitochondrial and nuclear sequences showed no or very low genetic polymorphism, whereas high levels of differentiation among populations and a significant polymorphism were observed using microsatellites. Microsatellite loci also showed a high proportion of private alleles for each population and an overall correlation between geographic and genetic

  9. The formulation of the essential oil of Piper aduncum Linnaeus (Piperales: Piperaceae) increases its efficacy as an insect repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamood, S N H; Hidayatulfathi, O; Budin, S B; Ahmad Rohi, G; Zulfakar, M H

    2017-02-01

    The essential oil (EO) of Piper aduncum Linnaeus, known as 'sireh lada' to locals Malaysian, has the potential to be used as an alternative to synthetic insect repellents such as N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide. However, the EO's efficacy as a repellent decreases after application due to the high volatility of its active ingredients. A number of studies have showed that optimizing the formulation of plant-based EOs can improve their efficacy as repellents. The present study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of 10% P. aduncum EO in ethanol and in three different semisolid formulations: ointment, cream and gel. These formulations were tested on Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. Each formulation was applied to the subject's hands, which were then inserted into a cage containing 25 nulliparous A. aegypti. The number of mosquitoes landing on or biting each subject's hand was recorded, and the repellency percentage, landing/biting percentage and protection time for each of the formulations were compared. There were no statistically significant differences between the semisolid EO formulations with regards to the repellency percentage and the landing/biting percentage at 4 h post-application. All three semisolid EO formulations were able to repel >65% of the A. aegypti at 4 h post-application. The EO ointment formulation provided a protection time (182.5 ± 16.01 min) that was statistically significantly longer than that associated with the EO gel formulation (97.5 ± 14.93 min). Meanwhile, the EO cream formulation provided a protection time of 162.5 ± 6.29 min. As the EO cream and ointment formulations displayed better repellent properties than the EO gel formulation, they appear to be the most promising P. aduncum EO formulations to be developed and commercialized as alternatives to synthetic repellents.

  10. Histological and histochemical characterization on stomach of Mystus cavasius (Hamilton, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus and Gudusia chapra (Hamilton: Comparative study

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    Saroj K. Ghosh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The histological features and histochemical characterization of the stomach were investigated in Mystus cavasius (Hamilton, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus and Gudusia chapra (Hamilton having different feeding habits. Histologically the stomach of all the three fishes was made up of mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa. The mucosa of superficial epithelium consists of a single layer of compactly arranged columnar epithelial cells. Prominent gastric glands are present in M. cavasius whereas in G. chapra the gastric glands are totally absent in the gizzard like stomach. However, in O. niloticus tubular gastric glands are present in the glandular epithelium of caecal like stomach. The distribution and chemical nature of mucopolysaccharides in the aforementioned fishes were studied histochemically by employing Periodic Acid Schiff’s in combination with the Alcian Blue (PAS–AB technique. Columnar epithelial cells lining the mucosa of the stomach including mucosal border were provided with exclusively neutral mucin which was probably involved in the protective functions against acid and enzymes. The different intensities of reaction of Best Carmine (BC for glycogen in the epithelial lining and gastric glands of the stomach of the aforesaid three fish species under study were discussed. The intense reaction for protein and tryptophan was noticed in the gastric epithelium and gastric glands of M. cavasius probably due to accumulation of zymogen granules in the gastric glands. On the contrary, moderate reaction for protein and tryptophan was associated with the epithelial cells and gastric glands of O. niloticus and G. chapra. The cytoarchitecture and different degrees of localization of mucopolysaccharides, glycogen, protein and tryptophan in the stomach of M. cavasius, O. niloticus and G. chapra were correlated with the functional significance of the region concerned.

  11. Variation in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae infestation in artificial containers in Caxias, state of Maranhão, Brazil

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    Joelma Soares-da-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dengue is a serious public health problem worldwide, with cases reported annually in tropical and subtropical regions. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762, the main vector of dengue, is a domiciliary species with high dispersal and survival capacities and can use various artificial containers as breeding sites. We assessed potential container breeding sites of A. aegypti in the municipality of Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: In the initial phase, we analyzed 900 properties in 3 neighborhoods during the dry and rainy seasons (August-October 2005 and February-April 2006, respectively. During the second sampling period, September 2006-August 2007, we used 5 assessment cycles for 300 properties in a single neighborhood. RESULTS: During the dry and rainy seasons, water-storage containers comprised 55.7% (n = 1,970 and 48.5% (n = 1,836 of the total containers inspected, and showed the highest productivity of immature A. aegypti; we found 23.7 and 106.1 individuals/container, respectively, in peridomicile sites. In intradomicile sites, water-storage containers were also the most important breeding sites with 86.4% (n = 973 and 85.6% (n = 900 of all containers and a mean of 7.9 and 108.3 individuals/container in the dry and rainy seaso-October 2006 (1,342. The highest number of positives (70 was recorded in May, mostly (94% in storage containers. CONCLUSIONS: Storage containers are the principal and most productive A. aegypti breeding sites and are a major contributing factor to the maintenance of this vector in Caxias.

  12. Hypoosmotic stress in the mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758): Is ecological history a determinant for organismal responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rola, Regina Coimbra; Souza, Marta Marques; Sandrini, Juliana Zomer

    2017-04-01

    Ecological history of organisms may be related to different responses and adaptations to stressors. This study aims to evaluate whether marine brown mussels (Perna perna Linnaeus, 1758) collected from sites with distinct histories of fluctuations in abiotic parameters, including salinity, respond differently to hypoosmotic stress. Mussels were collected at different sites (a marine site, with no history of salinity variation, and an estuarine site, with usual salinity variations) and exposed in laboratory for 14 days to hypoosmotic stress (salinities 25 and 20). It was observed that mussels collected at the marine site showed increased oxygen consumption (VO2), reduced haemolymph osmolality and concentrations of Na+, Cl-, and K+; increased levels of ninhydrin-positive substances in the haemolymph, and no changes in gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity, as expected for osmoconforming organisms. For animals collected at the estuarine site, except for VO2, this same pattern was only observed on day 1 of hypoosmotic stress. Unexpectedly, on days 4 and 14, VO2 decreased, the osmolality and ionic concentration returned to near baseline values, and mussels gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity increased at day 4. This long-term response detected for estuarine mussels is similar to that observed for osmoregulating organisms, which is very unexpected for marine bivalves. Despite being novel in the relevant literature, these results suggest that in some situations mussels could adopt osmoregulating behavior, such as increasing Na+/K+-ATPase activity and thereby probably reducing water circulating inside valves. In conclusion, these results indicate that ecological history, shown here by differences in organismal origin, influence physiological parameters of mussels in response to a stressful situation.

  13. Size and quality of wood used by Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae in beech woodlands of Gipuzkoa (northern Spain

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    CASTRO, A., MARTINEZ DE MURGUIA, L., FERNANDEZ, J., CASIS, A., MOLINO-OLMEDO, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La conservación de la especie saproxilófaga legalmente protegida Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758 en los hayedos de Europa conlleva una gestión adecuada de los árboles muertos y moribundos. Sin embargo, los parámetros de los árboles preferidos (tamaño y calidad de la madera permanecen aún poco conocidos. En esta contribución se analizan los datos de distribución procedentes de seis años de trabajo en cuatro Lugares de Interés Comunitario de la provincia de Gipuzkoa (norte de España. Los individuos vivos de R. alpina y sus orificios de emergencia fueron registrados exclusivamente en hayas. 72 individuos vivos y 520 orificios fueron registrados en 77 árboles. Las evidencias de ocupación (presencia de individuos vivos o de orificios o de ambos fueron más frecuentes en troncos Ø > 25 cm de hayas en pie (tanto aún vivas como muertas que en ramas y árboles caídos y más delgados. Sin embargo, el número de orificios no mostró diferencias entre las clases de tamaño y la calidad de la madera de los troncos principales. Las ramas más gruesas (Ø > 15 cm registraron mayores tasas de presencia y número de orificios que las más finas. Conociendo los tipos de árboles más seleccionados, se sugiere la elaboración de un mapa regional de disponibilidad de hábitat como herramienta práctica para planificar estrategias de conservación.

  14. Upstream migration, reproduction and fishery of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758 in the River Ulla (NW Spain

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    Sergio Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available After a juvenile haematophagous stage developed mainly at sea, the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758 stop feeding and return to the river to spawn. One of the main pressures in this stage is the presence of obstacles that reduce the accessible habitat, the mobility of individuals within this section and the energy resources available for gonad development and spawning. In addition, in the River Ulla, adults are targeted in a commercial fishery, using fyke-nets in the upper estuary and fishing in pesqueiras, which are stone constructions placed on the river bed, in the low section of the river. This study advances in the knowledge of the upstream migration (and related impact of barriers, reproduction and fishery of P. marinus in the River Ulla. The study combined fieldwork (radiotelemetry tracking of 19 adults in years 2012 and 2013 and inventory and characterization of obstacles, with information on the capture of lampreys (years 2000 to 2010 by commercial fishing and by a fixed trap located in the middle section of the river. The migration period in this river runs from January, or even December, until June, followed by reproduction in May and June. A total of 48 anthropogenic obstacles (all small-medium sized barriers except the last three, which are impassable, including 20 pesqueiras, were identified as a relevant obstacle for sea lamprey migration (which joins the impact of fishing performed in these sites. Hence, still more attention must be paid to "small" barriers, as pesqueiras, and to fisheries to properly conserve and manage populations of this and other anadromous lamprey species.

  15. Morphology and small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of two novel marine ciliates, Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. and Uronemella sinensis spec. nov. (Protista, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), with an improved diagnosis of the genus Uronemella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuming; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Ma, Honggang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Hu, Xiaozhong

    2013-09-01

    The morphology and infraciliature of two novel marine scuticociliates, Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. and Uronemella sinensis spec. nov., collected from sandy beaches at Qingdao, China, were investigated using live observation and protargol-staining methods. Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. is distinguished by the following characteristics: marine habitat and a slender to elongate oval body with pointed anterior end and rounded caudal end, in vivo about 25-50 µm long; buccal field about a quarter to a third of body length; nine or ten somatic kineties with dikinetids approximately in anterior half of body, monokinetids in posterior half; membranelles 1 and 2 almost equal in length and composed of two and three longitudinal rows of kinetids respectively; paroral membrane with zigzag structure extending anteriorly to middle portion of membranelle 2; contractile vacuole pore located at posterior end of somatic kinety 1. The genus Uronemella is redefined as follows: marine form with an elongate-elliptical or inverted pear-shaped body; apical plate conspicuous; buccal field about two-thirds of body length, cytostome subequatorially located; oral apparatus Uronema-like; somatic kineties comprising a mixture of dikinetids and monokinetids. Uronemella sinensis spec. nov. is recognized by having an elongate-elliptical body with truncated apical frontal plate, size in vivo about 25-35 × 15-20 µm, nine or ten somatic kineties, membranelle 1 consisting of two or three basal bodies, contractile vacuole pore at posterior end of somatic kinety 1. This study also compared the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of these two species with other closely related species to show the sequence divergence, which ranged from 3.53 to 9.60%. Phylogenetic analyses support the contention that the genus Uronemella is monophyletic, while Metanophrys is non-monophyletic.

  16. Study on Biological Characteristics of Papilio machaon Linnaeus*%金凤蝶生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建化; 戴仁怀

    2011-01-01

    通过不同恒温条件下饲养金凤蝶Papilio machaon Lirnaeus以研究其生长发育.结果表明,金凤蝶卵、幼虫和蛹的发育历期均与温度呈直线关系,发育起点温度分别为8.32℃、9.11℃和8.95℃,有效积温分别为79.39d·℃、297.99 d·℃和182.47d·℃;16℃条件下蛹滞育.9月份起室内常温条件下金凤蝶卵、幼虫和蛹的发育历期分别为(2.98±1.04)d、(21.84±2.67)d和(22.52±12.52)d;孵化率、化蛹率和羽化率分别为66.13%、55.28%和95.59%;绿色蛹占91.18%,明显高于褐色蛹;蛹质量(1.05±0.16)g,成虫性比(♀/♂)为0.97.%Development of P. machaon Linnaeus under different temperatures was investigated in the current work. The results indicated that the relationship between the development periods of egg, larva, pupa and temperatures was in linear form, the threshold temperatures and the effective accumulative temperature for egg, larva, pupa were 8.32℃, 9.11 ℃, 8.95 ℃ and 79.39, 297.99, 182.47 degree days, respectively.Pupae began to diapause under 16℃. From September, developmental periods of egg, Larva and pupa were (2.98 ± 1.04), (21.84 ± 2.67 ) and (22.52 ± 12.52 ) days, respectively, and the rates of hatchability,pupation and emergence were 66.13% , 55.28% and 95.59% respectively. The percentage of green pupae was 91.18% , and obviously higher than that of brown pupae. The pupal weight was ( 1.05 ±0.16) g, and the sex ratio ( ♀/♂ ) was 0.97.

  17. Ethanol fermentation characteristics of thermotolerant Issatchenkia orientalis%耐高温东方伊萨酵母乙醇发酵特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王风芹; 汪媛媛; 陶西; 张瑞; 谢慧; 宋安东

    2014-01-01

    As a renewable and clean energy, bio-ethanol has been received widespread attention in recent years. Ethanol fermentation at high temperature can reduce the consumption of cooling water and energy in the process of fermentation, it also solve the problems caused by saccharification and uncontrolled fermentation temperature, resulting in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic ethanol. Therefore, the fermentation period can be shorten and the production cost be reduced. A thermotolerant yeast strain HN-1 isolated from rotting tobacco leaves was identified and its ethanol fermentation characteristics was investigated in this study. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that phylogenetic strain HN-1 behaved likeIssatchenkia orientalis.This strain useed glucose and D-fructose but could not use xylose, maltose, lactose, sucrose, starch and cellobiose as sole carbon source to produce ethanol. When HN-1 was cultivated in 50 g/L glucose liquid medium, the highest biomass was obtained at 35 and 38℃. Increasing the cultivation temperature to 42 and 45℃ decreased the biomass growth and intensified the cell death. There was no major difference between ethanol productions (21.43~23.12 g/L) fermented at 35~45℃ from 50 g/L glucose. When increasing the fermentation temperature, the ethanol productivity was increased from 0.31 g/(L·h) at 35℃ to 0.65 g/(L·h) at 45℃ after 24h fermentation. The fermentation time was shortened. When the fermentation was conducted at 38℃, 28.77, 43.21, 58.19 and 59.53 g/L ethanol were produced from 60, 90, 120 and 150 g/L glucose with yields of 0.457, 0.468, 0.460 and 0.386 g/g and productivities of 0.38, 0.39, 0.48 and 0.40 g/(L·h) The results also indicated that fed batch fermentation could not enhance the ethanol production. Strain HN-1 could utilize corn straw hydrolysate with 43.08 g/L glucose and 27.13 g/L xylose to produce 20.74 g/L ethanol. The glucose conversion rate was 0.468 g/g, which was 91.6% of the

  18. The morphology and histology of the male reproductive system in Dolycoris baccarum Linnaeus 1758 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)--light and scanning electron micoscope studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Nurcan; Candan, Selami; Suludere, Zekiye

    2013-01-01

    The male reproductive system of Dolycoris baccarum (Linnaeus 1758) is studied morphologically and histologically using both light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). The reproductive system of the male D. baccarum consists of a pair of testis, a pair of vas deferens, a pair of seminal vesicles, accessory glands (mesadenia, ectadenia), a bulbus ejaculatorius, a pair of ectodermal sacs, and a ductus ejaculatorius. The number of testicular follicles varies from four to six. The testicular follicles have three different development zones (growth zone, maturation zone, differentiation zone). The testes are connected to the seminal vesicles by the vas deferens. Vas deferens and seminal vesicles, which are fine-long and cylindrical. The seminal vesicle is connected with bulbus ejaculatorius which is balloon-shaped and surrounded with accessory glands. The bulbus ejaculatorius is continuous with ductus ejaculatorius which connected to the aedeagus.

  19. Water ferns Azolla spp. (Azollaceae as new host plants for the small China-mark moth, Cataclysta lemnata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Acentropinae

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    Atousa Farahpour-Haghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water ferns (Azolla spp., Azollaceae are reported for the first time as host plants for the larvae of the small China-mark moth Cataclysta lemnata (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Acentropinae in rice fields and waterways of northern Iran. Cataclysta lemnata is a semi-aquatic species that has been recorded to feed on Lemnaceae and a few other aquatic plants. However, it has not been reported before on Azolla spp. Larvae use water fern as food source and shelter and, at high population density in the laboratory, they completely wiped water fern from the water surface. Feeding was confirmed after rearing more than eight continual generations of C. lemnata on water fern in the laboratory. Adults obtained this way are darker and have darker fuscous markings in both sexes compared with specimens previously reported and the pattern remains unchanged after several generations.

  20. Rhinoceronema unicornensis gen. n., sp. n. (Cosmocercoidea: Atractidae) from Indian one horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis Linnaeus, 1758) captivated at the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sagata; Manna, Buddhadeb

    2013-04-01

    During survey of nematodes from the faecal samples of Rhinoceros unicornis Linnaeus, 1758 remaining captivated in the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, India 2,500 specimens were recovered in 3 years from March, 2007 to February, 2010. After processing the specimens were identified as a member of the family Atractidae (Railliet 1917) Travassos 1919 which have 22 valid genera. The present specimens differs from all other valid atractid genera in the features of cephalic region, cup-shaped buccal cavity with a pair of teeth, structure of the oesophagus and coarse transversely striated body. A new genus Rhinoceronema has been created to accommodate the present newly erected type species R. unicornensis. A Key to the genera of family Atractidae is added.

  1. Biosécurité et productivité du tilapia du Nil Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958 élevé en zone rurale ivoirienne

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    Kone, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosecurity and Productivity of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958 Bred in Ivoirian's Rural Zone. Fingerlings of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were bred in three types of fish farming of rural zone in Ivory Coast to determine impacts of the compliance of biosecurity measures on zootechnical parameters of these bred fishes. Fish farming were shared out in three types of farming based on the value of biosecurity measures compliance, which were 5%, 55%, and 83%. No significant differences were observed between mean values of physic and chemical parameters of ponds water from three types of fish farming. Concerning mean values of zootechnical parameters, the fish breeding with 83% of rate compliance of biosecurity measures had registered better values of zoo technical performance with significant differences compared with others types of fish farming.

  2. Bioekologi vektor demam berdarah dengue (DBD serta deteksi virus dengue pada Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus dan Ae. albopictus (Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae di kelurahan endemik DBD Bantarjati, Kota Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahara Fadilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF is a viral disease that threatened community health in Indonesia. As part of an eradication program, it is important to learn the behavioral aspect of the disease vector. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of dengue virus in Aedes spp., at Bantarjati Village, Bogor City and to learn to bioecology of. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus. Detection of dengue virus in Aedes spp. were done by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR technique that consist of two phase were synthesis phase and cDNA amplification and dengue virus serotipe characterization. The Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (Skuse mosquitoes were collected using the landing and resting moquito collection technique booth indoors and outdoors. The highest density of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were found in April and the peak activity was occurred at 10:00-11:00 am. Dengue virus was not detected in female mosquitoes Aedes spp.

  3. Introduction to a new invasive pest, Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae)%外来入侵新害虫——无花果蜡蚧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海斌; 武三安

    2013-01-01

    无花果蜡蚧Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus)原产于非洲,是危害经济林和园林树种的重要害虫.2007年被列入《中华人民共和国进境植物检疫性有害生物名录》中.2012年4月下旬,该虫于广东省茂名市和四川省攀枝花市的榕树上被首次发现,为我国的新入侵害虫.本文介绍了其形态特征、地理分布、寄主植物、生物学和经济重要性等.

  4. Bed bug cytogenetics: karyotype, sex chromosome system, FISH mapping of 18S rDNA, and male meiosis in Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera: Cimicidae

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    Snejana Grozeva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera are frequently used as examples of unusual cytogenetic characters, and the family Cimicidae is one of most interest in this respect. We have performed a cytogenetic study of the common bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 using both classical (Schiff-Giemsa and AgNO3-staining and molecular cytogenetic techniques (base-specific DAPI/CMA3 fluorochromes and FISH with an 18S rDNA probe. Males originated from a wild population of C. lectularius were found to have 2n = 26 + X1X2Y, holokinetic chromosomes, 18S rRNA genes located on the X1 and Y chromosomes; achiasmate male meiosis of a collochore type; MI and MII plates nonradial and radial respectively.

  5. The availability of Piperaceae and the search for this resource by Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae, Carolliinae in Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

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    Isaac Passos de Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A study about the species of Piperaceae that are consumed by a colony of Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 in Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas (82,72 ha was carried out. Five available species of Piperaceae were found in the park: Piper aduncum Linnaeus, Piper amalago (Jacq. Yuncker, Piper crassinervium H.B.K., Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth and Piper sp. C. perspicillata fed on all of these species. During the spring, the most abundant item was P. amalago, but the consumption of P. aduncum was the highest. At the beginning of the summer, P. crassinervium was the most abundant and most consumed item. At the end of the summer and during the fall, P. gaudichaudianum was the most abundant and consumed item, even in May, when P. amalago was the most abundant item. During the winter, the most highly available items were P. aduncum, Piper sp. and P. amalago, and the ones that were consumed the most were Piper sp., P. gaudichaudianum and P. aduncum. The results have shown that the preferences of C. perspicillata in the park are related to the greater abundance or the higher energetic value of the available Piperaceae. The greater search for the most energetic and least abundant species, which happened in the spring and winter, is related to the energy gain, that is, the species searches for food that will provide a greater quantity of energy per unit of consumption; and the greater search for the most abundant item, which occurred in the summer and fall, is related to saving the energy used in the search for food.Estudou-se quais espécies de piperáceas são consumidas por uma colônia de Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 localizada do Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas (82,72ha. Foram encontradas no parque: Piper aduncum Linnaeus, Piper amalago (Jacq. Yuncker, Piper crassinervium H.B.K., Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth e Piper sp. C. perspicillata alimentou-se de todas essas espécies. Durante a primavera, o item mais abundante foi P. amalago, porém o

  6. Chemotaxonomic study of Chrysobalanus icaco Linnaeus (Chrysobalanaceae) using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection fingerprint in combination with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paracampo, Nádia Elígia Nunes Pinto; Prance, Ghillean Tolmie; Poppi, Ronei Jesus; da Silva, José Alberto Fracassi

    2017-03-29

    We investigated a strategy for the chemotaxonomy study of Chrysobalanus icaco Linnaeus (Chrysobalanaceae) based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection fingerprint in combination with multivariate analysis. Two models using principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis were developed, and the samples could be successfully classified into two classes: Class 1 (red morphotype) and Class 2 (white and black morphotypes). Furthermore, ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the main compounds responsible for class separation. The partial least squares discriminant analysis model accurately classified the C. icaco samples using an external validation subset with prediction ability of 100% and revealed the existence of two chemotypes. The most important finding obtained in this study is that the three morphotypes distinguished by the mature fruit color (white, red and black) are not all phytoequivalent to each other. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of the digenean Enodiotrema reductum Looss, 1901 (Platyhelminthes, Plagiorchioidea, Plagiorchiidae), parasite of the green turtle Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758) in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Papa Ibnou; Quilichini, Yann; Sène, Aminata; Tkach, Vasyl V; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Marchand, Bernard

    2012-08-01

    This study describes the ultrastructural organisation of the spermatozoon of a digenean Enodiotrema reductum (Pligiorchiida: Plagiorchiidae) from the green turtle Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758). This is the first report of E. reductum from Senegal. The mature spermatozoon of E. reductum is filiform and exhibits two axonemes of the 9 + "1" pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules, an extramembranar ornamentation associated with spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen, among other ultrastructural features. The spermatozoon of E. reductum is distinguished by the presence of a moniliform mitochondrion composed of a bulge associated with a long cord and of a central cytoplasmic expansion. This work represents the first utrastructural study of any representative of the large family Plagiorchiidae. Our results are compared with previously published data on spermatozoa of other digenean taxa.

  8. Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae

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    APT Medeiros

    Full Text Available The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed that aggression displayed by the reproductive males of red hybrid tilapia included threatening, undulation, parallel, lateral and frontal attacks, chasing, escape and submission. Possession of a territory influenced male aggressiveness, which was more intense in their own territory than that observed in a neutral situation. The males built nests, irrespective of female presence. All the behavioural patterns were in accordance with those previously described for one parental species, the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.

  9. Infestação de Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae em Plantas de Euterpe oleracea Martius (Arecaceae no Estado do Acre

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    Rodrigo Santos

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. The açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Martius is a native palm tree from the Amazon region floodplains and may be indicated as the most economically profitable species of this genus. Its fruit pulp is extracted and widely consumed by the population of northern Brazil in several ways. With the expansion of the planted area many factors may affect the production and limit the cultivation, highlighting the occurrence of insect pests that cause losses in production. This report presents the first occurrence of the leafhopper Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae in E. oleracea plants. The occurrence of this insect associated with açai palms in Rio Branco, Acre, increases the list of hosts for this leafhopper in Brazil and reinforces the need for studies of population dynamics, survey of natural enemies, levels of damage and control methods in order to anticipate population outbreaks of this pest in commercial plantations of açai palms in the State.

  10. 丁鱥鱼人工繁殖及鱼苗培育技术%Artificial propagation and breeding technology for Tinca tinca Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福艳; 梁万文; 冯鹏霏; 黄光华

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The experiment was conducted to obtain the artificial propagation and fry breeding technology for Tinea tinea Linnaeus and meet the need of farmers to fry for accelerating the extension of Tinca tinea Linnaeus in Guangxi. [ Method ]In Nov., 2004, one year old winter fry fishes were introduced for breeding, and in Mar., 2005, the mature parent fish was selected for artificial propagation in spring. [Result]Through half-year intensified breeding, the average body weight of parent fish reached above 600 g/tail, and the gonad of female and male parents developed to IV-V stage. As parturition by LRH-A2 and DOM, the parent fish had oviposition after 11-13 h of heating effects. The rate of 1* batch of artificial inoculation was the highest (85.0%), however, the breeding failed due to preying by larger enemies. The rate of 2nd and 3rd batch of inoculation was 59.3 and 63.0%, respectively, in water cement pit, and the inoculated fries attained 939 thousand tails, of which 648 thousand tails ranged from 3.0-5.0 cm in length. [Conclusion]By adopting reasonable breed of parent fish, practicing drug aided parturition and artificial inoculation Tinea tinea Linnaeus fry may be propagated successfully, however, it needs to regulate the water temperature. Stabilized temperature of 23-27X1 was found to promote the parturition in time and enhanced the quantity and quality of Tinea tinea Linnaeus fry.%[目的]探讨丁鱥鱼人工繁殖及鱼苗培育技术,满足广大水产养殖户对丁鱥鱼苗的需求,为加快丁鱥鱼在广西的推广养殖奠定基础.[方法]2004年11月和2005年3月,两次引进丁鱥1龄鱼进行培育,2005年春挑选成熟鱼进行人工繁育.[结果]亲鱼经过半年强化培育,平均体重600/尾以上,雌雄鱼性腺发育到第Ⅳ-V期;以促黄体生成素释放激素类似物(LRH-A2)和地欧酮(DOM)混合物催产,经11~13 h的发情效应,均出现产卵行为;经人工孵化和鱼苗培育,第1

  11. 气质联用法分析泽泻中的挥发性成分的研究%GC-MS Analysis of Volatile Components in Alisma orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐飞; 吴启南; 李兰; 谷巍; 于慧

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the volatile components of Alisma orientalis from three origins through three different extract methods by GC-MS. METHODS HS, SD and SFE-CO2 were accompanied with GC-MS to analyze the volatile components respectively. RESULTS HS-GC-MS affirmed 17 mutual components including δ-Elemene, β-Elemene and Beta-caryophyllene which are of high content. There were 14 mutual components identified by SD-GC-MS 14, of which Palmitic acid, Caryophyllene oxide and δ-Elemene are high contented. Besides, SFE-CO2-GC-MS got 7 mutual components, and n-Hexadecanoic acid, Alloaromadedrene and Ethyl linoleate are in a large quantity. CONCLUSION The volatile components of Alisma orientalis from different origins through different extract methods are different but connected. HS and SD are suitable for the further study into volatile components of Alisma orientalis.%目的 利用气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)分析3种不同提取方法 获取的3种产地泽泻的挥发性成分.方法 顶空萃取(HS)、水蒸气蒸馏提取(SD)和CO2超临界流体萃取(SFE-CO2)3种方法 分别与气相色谱-质谱技术联用对泽泻挥发性成分进行分析.结果 HS-GC-MS法分析鉴别出17种共有挥发性成分,其中含量较高的有δ-Elemene(δ-榄香烯)、β-Elemene(β-榄香烯)、Beta-caryophyllene(β-石竹烯);SD-GC-MS法分析鉴别出14种共有挥发性成分,其中含量较高的有Palmitic acid(棕榈酸)、Caryophyllene oxide(氧化石竹烯)、δ-Elemene(δ-榄香烯);SFE-CO2-GC-MS法分析鉴别出7种共有挥发性成分,其中含量较高的有n-Hexadecanoic acid(棕榈酸)、Alloaromadedrene(别香树烯)、Ethyl linoleate (亚油酸乙酯).结论 不同提取方法 不同产地的泽泻药材挥发性成分既有联系又有区别.HS和SD法均较适宜用于泽泻挥发性成分的进一步研究.

  12. AVALIAÇÃO DE RESISTÊNCIA EM VARIEDADES DE ARROZ (Oryza sativa L. AO ATAQUE DO Sitophilus oryzae LINNAEUS, 1763 (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE

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    SOUSA, Joseane Rodrigues

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of rice varieties to the attack of Sitophilus oryzae Linnaeus, 1763 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae was evaluated in an experiment conducted in the laboratory of the Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, in a randomized completely design with 19 treatments in six replications. The varieties used in this study were from field experiment conducted in Miranda do Norte, MA between the months of january to may 2006. We evaluated the emerged insects total at 35 and 60 days after harvest and at 35 days was determined thepercentage of grains with defects in the skin. The results showed that the varieties Nenenzinho and Branco Tardão were, respectively, in the two storage periods (35 and 60 days after harvest the most resistant to attack by S. oryzae as the variety Branco Tardão was the most susceptible in both storage of periods.A resistência de variedades de arroz ao ataque do Sitophilus oryzae, Linnaeus, 1763 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae foi avaliada em experimento conduzido em laboratório na Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com 19 tratamentos em seis repetições. As variedades utilizadas nesta pesquisa foram provenientes de experimento conduzido em campo no município de Miranda do Norte, MA entre os meses de janeiro a maio de 2006. Foram avaliados o total de insetos emergidos aos 35 e 60dias após a colheita e aos 35 dias foi determinado o percentual de grãos com defeitos na casca. Os resultados evidenciaram que as variedades Agulha e Nenenzinho foram, respectivamente, nos dois períodos de armazenamento (35 e 60 dias após a colheita as mais resistentes ao ataque de S. oryzae enquanto a variedade Branco Tardão foi a mais suscetível nos dois períodos de armazenamento.

  13. Selection for Feed and Feed Frequency of Myreleon formicarious Linnaeus%泛蚁蛉幼虫饲料及饲食频率的选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖娟; 李子忠

    2011-01-01

    研究比较了泛蚁蛉幼虫取食3种饲料后的发育历期、存活率、性比以及对蝇蛆和黄粉虫的利用率;比较了泛蚁蛉在蝇蛆不同饲食频率下的发育历期、存活率.结果表明取食蝇蛆和黄粉虫的泛蚁蛉幼虫的发育历期短,存活率高,性比接近于1;泛蚁蛉幼虫对蝇蛆的利用率高于黄粉虫;泛蚁蛉幼虫在蝇蛆1日一饲和3日一饲的频率下发育历期短,存活率高.%The development periods, survival probability and sex ratio of M. formicarious Linnaeus with 3 different feeds, and the utilization rate of feeding maggot and tenebrio molitor were compared in this study. The larval developmental period, survival probability of feeding maggot were analysed in different feeding frequency. The results showed that the larval developmental period of M. formicarious Linnaeus of feeding maggot and tenebrio molitor was shorter than others, but its survival probability was higher and the sex ratio was closed to 1. The utilization rate of feeding fly larvae was higher than tenebrio molitor. Under conditions of once feeding a day and once feeding every three days, the ant lion had short development times and high survival rate.

  14. Infracommunities of intestinal helminths of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 from Italian Alps

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    Anna Rita Di Cerbo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most common carnivore in Italy and its spread includes almost the whole national territory. The species shows an high ecological plasticity and a variable diet composition connected in part to human sources. This high adaptability permits the red foxes to colonize different habitats like the suburbs of large cities as well as the small villages located in mountain areas. On the other hand, the tourism pressure seems to assume a great importance in the Alps, also in those areas where the foxes live. So, indirect interactions could take place between these animals and the humans. The role of V. vulpes in the zoonoses has not to be understated since this carnivore could transmit parasitic diseases that are able to cause serious pathologies in humans. This study aims just to investigate on intestinal communities of helmiths of V. vulpes in order to make progress in current knowledge on epidemiological situation in Italian Alps. During 1998-2003, we have examined 450 foxes from Trentino Alto Adige, Veneto, Lombardia and Valle d'Aosta. The specimens collected were found dead or have been hunted (according to national law n. 157/92 in localities situated between 170 and 2200 m a.s.l. The carcasses were carried to the provincial sections of Zooprofilattici Institutes, where the intestine was drawn by each sample and all the material was sent to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Milan. Parasitological examination of the small intestines was performed by the analysis of the whole sediment and counting technique (SCT. Parasites were preserved in alcohol 70° before to be clarified or stained and identified by microscope (Zeiss Axioscop. Mean abundance, mean intensity and prevalence were calculated for each taxon of helminth. Dates of sampling were grouped within the four seasons. Statistic tests were performed with software package SPSS rel. 11.5 and spatial analysis with the

  15. Identification of the genes encoding NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases that are similar in sequence to Escherichia coli Fre in four species of luminous bacteria: Photorhabdus luminescens, Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenno, S; Saigo, K

    1994-06-01

    Genes encoding NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases (flavin reductases) similar in both size and sequence to Fre, the most abundant flavin reductase in Escherichia coli, were identified in four species of luminous bacteria, Photorhabdus luminescens (ATCC 29999), Vibrio fischeri (ATCC 7744), Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 33843), and Vibrio orientalis (ATCC 33934). Nucleotide sequence analysis showed Fre-like flavin reductases in P. luminescens and V. fischeri to consist of 233 and 236 amino acids, respectively. As in E. coli Fre, Fre-like enzymes in luminous bacteria preferably used riboflavin as an electron acceptor when NADPH was used as an electron donor. These enzymes also were good suppliers of reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) to the bioluminescence reaction. In V. fischeri, the Fre-like enzyme is a minor flavin reductase representing Fre-like enzyme has no appreciable homology in amino acid sequence to the major flavin reductase in V. fischeri, FRase I, indicates that at least two different types of flavin reductases supply FMNH2 to the luminescence system in V. fischeri. Although Fre-like flavin reductases are highly similar in sequence to luxG gene products (LuxGs), Fre-like flavin reductases and LuxGs appear to constitute two separate groups of flavin-associated proteins.

  16. In vitro Mosquito Larvicidal Activity of Marine Algae Against the Human Vectors, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Akbar Idhayadhulla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of twenty marine algae were collected from the rocky intertidal and subtidal regions of the southwest coast of India and extracted in methanol. The extracts were evaluated for larvicidal activity against the second and third instar larvae of the human vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae. Analysis on the activity profile of the above marine algae indicated that the early stage larvae were very sensitive to seven seaweed extracts that had been tested. Among the seven marine algae, Lobophora variegata was highly potential, showing LD50 value of 70.38 and 79.43 g mL-1 on the 2nd instar larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus respectively. The rank of larvicidal potency in highly active algae in the descending order is as follows: Lobophora variegata (Dictyotaceae>Spatoglossum asperum (Dictyotaceae>Stoechospermum marginatum (Dictyotaceae>Sargassum wightii (Sargassaceae >Acrosiphonia orientalis (Acrosiphoniaceae>Centroceras clavulatum (Ceramiacea>Padina tetrastromatica (Dictyotaceae. This is the first report that envisaged the mosquito larvicidal efficacy of L. variegata from the Indian coast. Therefore, this marine alga could be recognized as a potential resource of natural insecticide and can be developed to replace synthetic insecticides in future.

  17. Interação entre abelha Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Apidae e Aethalion reticulatum Linnaeus, 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae em Clitoria fairchildiana Howard (Papilionoideae

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    Fabrício Hiroiuki Oda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A cigarrinha do pedúnculo Aethalion reticulatum (Linnaeus, 1767 é um inseto que se alimenta da seiva de várias espécies vegetais e pode viver em simbiose com formigas do gênero Camponotus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Formicinae, atacando folhas e ramos de inúmeras plantas cultivadas e nativas, tais como acácia-negra, algodoeiro, aroeira, cafeeiro, eucalipto, citros, etc. Algumas relações aparentemente comensais podem ocorrer entre cigarrinhas e abelhas sem ferrão, principalmente Trigona. No presente estudo, observamos a interação entre a abelha irapuá, Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, 1836 e a cigarrinha do pedúnculo, A. reticulatum em Clitoria fairchildiana Howard (sombreiro. A interação entre T. hyalinata e A. reticulatum foi registrada por meio de fotografias digitais. A estimulação da cigarrinha para a liberação de exsudato iniciava-se quando as abelhas pousavam sobre as colônias de ninfas e adultos de A. reticulatum e estimulavam os indivíduos andando por cima deles, principalmente da região anterior (cabeça para a posterior (abdome do corpo da cigarrinha. Posteriormente, as abelhas tocavam as antenas na parte distal do abdome estimulando a secreção de exsudato e prontamente sugavam essa substância. Esta interação é mutuamente benéfica, sem implicar necessariamente dependência ou interdependência obrigatória, e pode promover uma proteção contra os inimigos naturais da cigarrinha. Todavia, a ocorrência de uma alta infestação de cigarrinhas, associada à intensa atividade de abelhas solicitando honeydew pode levar a depleção de nutrientes da planta, afetando o desenvolvimento e/ou reprodução de C. fairchildiana.Interaction between Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Apidae and Aethalion reticulatum Linnaeus, 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae in Clitoria fairchildiana Howard (Papilionoideae.Abstract. The Aethalion reticulatum (Linnaeus, 1767 is an insect that feeds of the sap of several vegetal

  18. Comparison of host volatiles under different physiological states and electroantennogram responses of Semanotus bifasciatus (Motschulsky)to these volatiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yue-qin; LUO You-qing; YAN Xiong-fei

    2008-01-01

    Based on an analytical TCT-GC/MS method, volatile compounds of branches of Platycladus orientalis under three physiological states (healthy, weak and baited trees) were analyzed. The results showed that α-pinene, β-phellandrene, 3-careen, limonene and thujopsane were released under all three physiological states. There were other kinds of volatiles released from branches of weak P. orientalis trees, such as camphene, γ-terpinen, (+)-4-carene and cedrene, but these four volatiles compounds were not released from the branches of healthy P. orientalis. Volatile components from the physically damaged branches of P. orientalis had changed.β-terpinene, myerene, isocaryophillene and caryophyllene were identified in both healthy and weak branches of P. orientalis. Only cedrene was identified in the baited wood. Electroantennogram (EAG) tests were conducted with nine volatile compounds from the branches of P. orientalis. Antannnae of male and female Semanotus bifasciatus (Motschulsky) were highly sensitive to these nine volatile compounds. Cedrene elicited the strongest response, whereas β-terpinene the lowest. Males and females showed no significant difference in their EAG responses to the nine volatile compounds.

  19. Enterobactérias associadas a adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro Enterobacteria associated to adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae at the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    V.C. Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterobactérias foram identificadas em adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Ambas as espécies foram capturadas no Jardim Zoológico da cidade do Rio de Janeiro e tiveram a superfície externa do corpo lavada e o sistema digestivo dissecado, para análise bacteriológica. Identificaram-se Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. e Salmonella Agona. P. mirabilis foi o isolado bacteriano mais freqüente. Em duas amostragens (8% de C. megacephala, isolou-se Salmonella Agona. As amostras de E. coli não foram enteropatogênicas. M. domestica e C. megacephala são potenciais veiculadoras de bactérias causadoras de enterites em humanos e animais.Enterobacteria were identified in adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Both species were captured in the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro. They had their external body surface washed and their digestive system dissected for bacteriological analysis. Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. and Salmonella serovar Agona were isolated in the samples. P. mirabilis was the species most frequent isolated. Strains of Salmonella Agona were isolated from two samples (8% of C. megacephala. Enteropathogenic E. coli was not isolated. M. domestica and C. megacephala showed themselves as potential vectors of agents related to enteric diseases in humans and other animals.

  20. Study on trace element determination in liver samples of great-white-egret Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 (Ardeidae, Aves) for environmental contamination biomionitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: rcsilva@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Predatory birds such as herons have been used as bioindicators of pollution since they are at the top of their food webs. The tissues of these animals are analyzed for assessing environmental pollution caused by toxic elements. In the present study, adequate experimental conditions were established for determination of trace elements concentrations in the liver samples of Great-white-egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758) for further application of this specimens as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Four liver samples were collected from Greatwhite- egrets found in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and were they analyzed by the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Concentrations of the elements Br, Co, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were measured in these liver tissues. The findings of this present study demonstrated that the established procedure for liver sample treatment was appropriate to obtain a homogeneous sample. The method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was very promising for liver sample analysis for evaluation of environmental contamination. (author)

  1. Coccidia of New World psittaciform birds (Aves: Psittaciformes): Eimeria ararae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Berto, Bruno Pereira; de Carvalho Balthazar, Lianna Maria; Coelho, Cleide Domingues; Neves, Daniel Medeiros; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2014-06-01

    In the New World, the avian order Psittaciformes comprises 142 species, yet to date only 3 (2%) of the species have been examined for coccidia, and from these only four species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 have been described. In this study, a new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) obtained from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus) is reported from Brazil. Oöcysts of Eimeria ararae n. sp. are ovoidal, measure 28.7 × 20.2 μm and have a smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1 μm thick. Both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal and measure 17.0 × 8.3 µm, with knob-like, prominent Stieda body and sporocyst residuum is composed of granules; sub-Stieda body is absent. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fifth description of an eimerid coccidian infecting a New World psittaciform bird.

  2. A new look at an old visual system: structure and development of the compound eyes and optic ganglia of the brine shrimp Artemia salina Linnaeus, 1758 (Branchiopoda, anostraca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildt, Miriam; Harzsch, Steffen

    2002-08-01

    Compared to research carried out on decapod crustaceans, the development of the visual system in representatives of the entomostracan crustaceans is poorly understood. However, the structural evolution of the arthropod visual system is an important topic in the new debate on arthropod relationships, and entomostracan crustaceans play a key role in this discussion. Hence, data on structure and ontogeny of the entomostracan visual system are likely to contribute new aspects to our understanding of arthropod phylogeny. Therefore, we explored the proliferation of neuronal stem cells (in vivo incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine) and the developmental expression of synaptic proteins (immunohistochemistry against synapsins) in the developing optic neuropils of the brine shrimp Artemia salina Linnaeus, 1758 (Crustacea, Entomostraca, Branchiopoda, Anostraca) from hatching to adulthood. The morphology of the adult visual system was examined in serial sections of plastic embedded specimens. Our results indicate that the cellular material that gives rise to the visual system (compound eyes and two optic ganglia) is contributed by the mitotic activity of neuronal stem cells that are arranged in three band-shaped proliferation zones. Synapsin-like immunoreactivity in the lamina ganglionaris and the medulla externa initiated only after the anlagen of the compound eyes had already formed, suggesting that the emergence of the two optic neuropils lags behind the proliferative action of these stem cells. Neurogenesis in A. salina is compared to similar processes in malacostracan crustaceans and possible phylogenetic implications are discussed.

  3. Influence of levamisole and Freund's adjuvant on mouse immunisation with antigens of adults of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Sanchez, Maria de Los Angeles; Luna-Herrera, Julieta; Trejo-Castro, Lauro; Montenegro-Cristino, Natividad; Almanza-Gonzalez, Alfredo; Escobar-Gutierrez, Alejandro; de la Rosa-Arana, Jorge Luis

    2015-08-28

    We have studied the influence of both levamisole (AL) and Freund's adjuvant (AF) on the immunisation of mice with the secretory antigens of adults of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758. Total IgG antibodies were detected in all groups where the F. hepatica antigen was administered, been levels of IgG1 increased respect to IgG2a antibodies. During immunisation, IL-4 and IFN-γ were only detected in AL and AF groups, but after infection, IL-4 boosted in all groups. IFN-γ increased two fold in AF and AL groups compared to the saline solution (AS) group. Worm recovering was of 32-35% in groups administered without antigen whereas in AS, AL and AF groups recovering was of 25%, 12% and 8%, respectively. Macroscopical lesions in the liver were scarce in AL and AF groups. Our data suggest that immunisation of mice with antigens of F. hepatica enhances the immune response avoiding both liver damage and worm establishment after challenge infection. The murine model of fasciolosis has appeared to be useful to elucidate the mechanism by which the parasite modulates immune responses toward a Th2 type but also the development of Th1 type-inducing vaccines.

  4. Descripción osteológica del rorcual común (Balaenoptera physalus, Linnaeus, 1758 del Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo, M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of the skeleton of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, Linnaeus, 1758 at the Natural History Museum of Barcelona We describe the osteology of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, L., registration code MZB 83-308 at the Natural History Museum of Barcelona. The specimen was stranded and died on a beach in Llançà (Girona, Spain in 1862. The skeleton weighed 1,161.59 kg and measured 14. 6 m, although the live animal would have been longer because the invertebral tissue was not included in the length originally stated. The newly reconstructed skeleton includes the invertebral discs and is 17.5 m long. The skull weighs 484 kg and the condilobasal length is 431 cm ( 24. 84% of the total length, corresponding to the mean length of specimens in the Mediterranean. The vertebral column has 58 vertebra structured following the formula: C7 T14 L14 Cd23. It is 10.29 m long and weighs 470.95 kg. All the cervical vertebra are free and show dorsoventral compression, differing from the thoracic, lumbar and first caudal vertebra that are relatively uniform, and rounded. From Cd14 se onwards, the vertebra vary in shape and the relationship between width and height is greater than 1, indicating lateral compression. The lack of suture lines in the epiphysis of the ulna and radius indicates the specimen is an adult that has reached ossification maturation.

  5. Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches.

  6. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (−)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (−)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (−)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H2DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound. PMID:26821032

  7. A wide hybrid zone of chromosome races of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia, between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers (Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Borisov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Karyological study of 75 specimens of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from 8 localities in the Berezina River basin (eastern Belarus was carried out. A wide hybrid zone (not less than 100 km between the northern West Dvina chromosome race (XX / XYY, af, bc, gm, hk, ip, jl, no, qr, tu and the southern Turov race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g, h/k, i, jl, m, n, o, p, q, r, tu was revealed in this region. Frequencies of fused-unfused arms comprising four diagnostic metacentrics of the West Dvina race (g/m, h/k, n/o, q/r were calculated in all capture sites. Taking into consideration the absence of metacentric ip in specimens from six northern localities, the Borisov (Bs race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g/m, h/k, i, jl, n/o, p, q/r, tu (Orlov, Borisov, 2009 was distinguished in these sites. Common shrews from two southern localities on the right and left banks of the Berezina River (Berezino vicinity were referred to the Turov race. The presence of four metacentrics descended from the West Dvina race in the Bs race testifies to the hypothesis expressed earlier that the polymorphic populations of the S. araneus between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers originated as a result of the West Dvina race spreading from the north and of hybridization between this race and local populations with acrocentric chromosomes.

  8. Use of space and temporal distribution of Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus in the region of Sagi, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil (Sirenia, Trichechidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Paludo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine manatee Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758 is endangered in the Brazilian Atlantic coast due to indiscriminate hunting practiced in the past, and to the low reproductive rate of the species. This work studies its use of space and temporal occurrence in the coastal area of Sagi, Northeastern Brazil. Daily observations from the beach of the animals in the sea were made during daytime from 1990 through 1993. The presence of reefs covered with marine algae is a determinant factor in the occurrence of the manatee. They were sighted feeding on algae that grow over the reefs close to beaches that were of high energy during high tide. The range used by manatees shifted according to tide. They occur in depths of 0.4 to 3.8 m; the distance from the beach varies according to the tide level. They show marked seasonality of occurrence, with higher frequencies in December - January and lowest in June - July. Two possible causes of the seasonal occurrence are discussed. Sagi is important for the conservation of the species in Northeastern Brazil as feeding and reproductive grounds.

  9. PCR-RFLP Analysis of 28 SrDNA for Specification of Fasciola gigantica (Cobbold, 1855) in the Infected Lymnaea auricularia (Linnaeus, 1785) Snails from Northwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhchali, Mohammad; Malekzadeh-Viayeh, Reza; Imani-Baran, Abass

    2014-09-01

    Fasciolosis in livestock is a crucial concern in the globe, mainly due to its impact on human health. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of infection with Fasciola gigantica (Cobbold, 1855) larvae in the field-collected snails of Lymnaea auricularia (Linnaeus, 1785) from northwestern Iran using a molecular approach. A total of 6,759 pond snails were collected from 28 freshwater bodies in West Azarbaijan. PCR was performed to amplify a 618-bp fragment of the nuclear 28 SrRNA gene of Fasciola. The PCR products were digested by AvaII restriction enzyme to create restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns specific for the detection of F. gigantica. Of the total collected snails 496 (7.34 %) were L. auricularia, among which 4.64% (23 out of 496) were infected with a Fasciola species according to the PCR analysis. Only 2.22% (11 out of 496) of the infected snails were from the mountainous areas. The highest Fasciola infection rate recorded in the snails of a single site was 1.81% (9 out of 496 snails). Based on the RFLP pattern, F. gigantica accounted for 2.42% of the infection rates in the study sites. Application of PCR-RFLP was proven to be a useful approach for valid and robust detection of the infection with F. gigantica in its intermediate host snails. These findings may therefore be applicable for establishment of the control programs against dissemination of the infection in different regions.

  10. Gastrintestinal helminths Of Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 -Smith, 1839 from the caatinga area of the Paraíba State, Brazil

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    Roberto César Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 – Smith, 1839, is a medium sized canid which is found in almost every region of Brazil. It is the only registered native canid specie to be found in the semi-arid Northeastern region of the country. This study had as its objectives: the identification of the helminth fauna common to Cerdocyon thous found in the Caatinga of the state of Paraíba; and the determination of the ecological indications of helminthic infection, hoping to make a favourable addition to the understanding of this little known biome. In this study, 58 animals that were found as ‘roadkill’ on the highways in the municipality of Patos were used. The gastrointestinal helminths from these animals were colected. All the animals in this study were infected with helminths. 16 species of helminths were identified, two being trematodes, one being a cestode, one being an acanthocephalus, and the remaining twelve being nematodes. In this study a new specie, named Pterygodermatites pluripectinata n. sp. Was discovered and its host and location described.

  11. Taenia arctos n. sp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) from its definitive (brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus) and intermediate (moose/elk Alces spp.) hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Meri, Seppo

    2011-11-01

    Taenia arctos n. sp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) is described from the brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus (definitive host) and moose/elk Alces spp. (intermediate hosts) from Finland (type-locality) and Alaska, USA. The independent status of the new species and the conspecificity of its adults and metacestodes have been recently confirmed by the mtDNA sequence data of Lavikainen et al. (2011; Parasitology International, 60, 289-295). Special reference is given to morphological differences between the new species and T. krabbei Moniez, 1879 (definitive hosts primarily canines for the latter), both of which use the moose/elk (Alces spp.) as intermediate hosts (the latter also uses Rangifer and perhaps other northern ruminants), and between the new species and T. ursina Linstow, 1893, both of which use the brown bear U. arctos as a definitive host. New morphological data are also provided for adults and cysticerci of T. krabbei. The analysis includes potentially useful morphometric features that have not been previously applied to Taenia spp.

  12. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (-)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (-)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (-)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H₂DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound.

  13. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae, against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Salvador-Neto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (−-elatol and (+-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (−-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (−-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H2DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound.

  14. Evaluation of the larvicidal activity of extracts obtained from the stem of Croton linearifolius Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lúcia da Cunha e Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the public health problems affecting the human population, at the national and world levels, dengue fever stands out, whose primary vector of the virus is Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762. For reducing the population density of this vector, an integrated control is recommended and, as an element of this control, the use of insecticides. However, this practice has led to the selection of resistant insect populations. Thus, there is a need to seek alternative insecticides that can contribute to control this vector. This study aimed to evaluate the larvicidal potential of an extract obtained from the stem of Croton linearifolius against larvae of A. aegypti, as well as conduct a phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract. The ethanolic extract and the hexane, dichloromethanic, and hydroalcoholic fractions, besides ethyl acetate, were tested on third-instar larvae of A. aegypti. The biological assays revealed the larvicidal effectiveness of the extract of the stem of C. linearifolius against A. aegypti, especially the dichloromethanic and hexane fractions. Phytochemical screening showed the presence in the ethanolic extract of strong fixed acids, alkaloids, catechins, free steroids, flavonoids, flavones, resins, condensed tannins, and xanthones.

  15. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit—URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 μGy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 μGy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  16. Absorbed dose rate due to intake of natural radionuclides by Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) estimated near uranium anomaly at Santa Quiteria, Ceara, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios], E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Unidade de Concentrado de Uranio], E-mail: Delcy@inb.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The uranium mining at Santa Quiteria (Santa Quiteria Unit - USQ) is in its environmental licensing phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the USQ, a monitoring program is underway. However, radioprotection of biota is not explicitly mentioned in Brazilian norms. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to behave in a pro-active way as expected by licensing organs, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology, based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected biomarker was the fish tilapia (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). Since there are no exposition limits for biota, in Brazil, the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5 x 10{sup 3} {mu}Gy/y has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for tilapia was 2.76 x 10{sup 0} {mu}Gy/y, that is less than 0.1 % of the limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was U-238, with 99% of the absorbed dose rate. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that in pre-operational conditions analyzed natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to the biota. (author)

  17. Vessel noise pollution as a human threat to fish: assessment of the stress response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Monica; Filiciotto, Francesco; Maricchiolo, Giulia; Genovese, Lucrezia; Quinci, Enza Maria; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Vazzana, Mirella; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the effects of boat noise pollution on the stress indices of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758). To assess the stress response in these fish, biometric values and plasma parameters such as ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity were analysed. After acclimatization of the animals, the experiment was carried out in a tank fitted with underwater speakers where the fish were exposed to sound treatments (in duplicate) consisting of: 10 days of no sound (control treatment; the animals were only exposed to the experimental tank's background noise) and 10 days of noise derived from original recordings of motor boats, including recreational boats, hydrofoil, fishing boat and ferry boat (vessel noise treatment). The exposure to noise produced significant variations in almost all the plasma parameters assessed, but no differences were observed in weights and fork lengths. A PERMANOVA analysis highlighted significantly increased values (p pollutant. Finally, these experimental studies could represent part of the science that is able to improve the quality of the policies related to management plans for maritime spaces (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 56/2008 CE) that are aimed at stemming this pollutant phenomenon.

  18. Distribution of the Orange-winged Parrot Amazona amazonica (Linnaeus, 1766 (Aves, Psittacidae in the coastal region of the State of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Carvalho Melo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-six villages along the coast of the State of Paraíba, Brazil, were visited to determine and map the occurrence of Amazona amazonica (Linnaeus, 1766. Search was conducted with binoculars and the residents of each locality were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain information about the occurrence and species´s biological data. Reports of recent and old occurrences, absence and feeding areas were registered. The food items mentioned were fruits, such as cashew, cashew nuts, palm oil, and agricultural products, such as corn. The reproductive period occurred between November and December. Breeding sites were mangrove areas and coconut trees, with nests being made in tree hollows. Questionnaires helped to elaborate a distribution map of the species, in which the actual distribution was based on visual records, whilst the potential distribution of the species was based on the questionnaire answers. Furthermore, they provided an overview of the biology of the species in agreement with that reported in the literature. Current data may be used in future studies on the conservation of the species in the State of Paraíba.

  19. Analysis of Isozyme Diversities in Atrina pectinata Linnaeus (Mollusca,Bivalvia)%栉江珧同工酶多态性的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余祥勇; 王梅芳; 杨书婷; 桂建芳

    2005-01-01

    采用垂直板聚丙烯酰胺梯度凝胶电泳对栉江珧(Atrina pectinata Linnaeus)消化盲囊进行了5种酶(SOD、EST、MDH、ME、LDH)的同工酶分析.结果表明不同个体的同工酶表达呈现多态现象,个体间酶带带型既有相一致的共同特征谱带,又有较多的变异,5种酶均可把样品大致区分为差异明显的2种或3种类型,而且酶谱类型与形态类型基本对应,同工酶表达上的多样性表明栉江珧种内在生化遗传上存在较大的变异,具有较丰富的遗传多态性.

  20. Repellency and Larvicidal Activity of Essential oils from Xylopia laevigata, Xylopia frutescens, Lippia pedunculosa, and Their Individual Compounds against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, A M D; Maia, T D S; Soares, T E S; Menezes, L R A; Scher, R; Costa, E V; Cavalcanti, S C H; La Corte, R

    2017-04-01

    In order to find new alternatives for vector control and personal protection, we evaluated the larvicidal and repellent activity of essentials oils from plants found in the Northeast of Brazil against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus mosquitoes. The plants tested include Xylopia laevigata, Xylopia frutescens, and Lippia pedunculosa and their major compounds, piperitenone oxide, and (R)-limonene. The essential oil of L. pedunculosa and its major volatile compounds were shown to be toxic for Ae. aegypti larvae with a LC50 lower than 60 ppm. The essential oil of plants from the Xylopia genus, on the other hand, showed no activity against Ae. aegypti, proving to be toxic to mosquito larvae only when concentrations were higher than 1000 ppm. All plants tested provided some degree of protection against mosquitoes landing, but only the essential oil of L. pedunculosa and the volatile compound piperitenone oxide suppressed 100% of mosquitoes landing on human skin, in concentrations lower than 1%. Among the plants studied, the essential oil of L. pedunculosa and its volatiles compounds have shown the potential for the development of safe alternative for mosquito larvae control and protection against Ae. aegypti mosquito bites.

  1. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776), Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758), and surface sediments of Bafa Lake (Eastern Aegean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin-Onen, S; Kucuksezgin, F; Kocak, F; Açik, S

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the bioaccumulation of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) in Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776) and also in the muscle and liver of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) collected from seven stations in the Bafa Lake was investigated. Sediment samples were also collected in each site to assess heavy metal levels and to provide additional information on pollution of the lake. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in sediment, H. diversicolor, and muscle and liver of the fish were found to be in the magnitude of Cr>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cd>Hg, Zn>Cu>Cr>Pb>Hg>Cd, Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr >Hg>Cd, and Cu>Zn>Cr>Cd>Pb>Hg, respectively. Hg, Cu, and Zn in H. diversicolor and Hg and Zn in muscle and also Hg, Cd, Cu, and Zn in liver of fish accumulated in a higher degree than in sediment. There was no clear relationship between metal concentrations in sediments, polychaetes, and fish, except Cr. According to international criteria and Turkish regulations, Pb and Zn values in edible muscle of the fish collected from stations S6 and S5 exceeded the food safety limits, respectively. The results of this study suggest that these sentinel species can be considered as good anthropogenic biological indicators for heavy metal pollution along the Bafa Lake.

  2. Ecotoxicological effects of POPs on ariidae Ariopsis felis (Linnaeus, 1766) from three coastal ecosystems in the Southern Gulf of Mexico and Yucatan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Pérez, Omar; Ceja-Moreno, Victor; Olmos, Mónica Roca; Pérez, María Teresa; Río-García, Marcela Del; Yarto, Mario; Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Ize-Lema, Ana-Irina; Gavilán-García, Arturo; Felipe, Sánchez-Teyer L; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo

    2007-08-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are still used for agricultural and disease vector control, as well as for industrial purposes. In the last decades, various studies have shown that fish are sensitive to the toxicological effects of certain POPs, including a large class of endocrine- disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In the present study, the relationship between of POPs and their effects using vitellogenin gene expression as biomarker of effect in hardhead catfish Ariopsis felis (Linnaeus, 1766) from three ecosystems in the Southern Gulf of Mexico and Yucatan Peninsula are discussed. Contaminant results showed that median concentrations of PCBs, HCHs, DDTs and Chlordanes were higher in Laguna de Terminos with respect to Celestun and Dzilam. In the same way, the vitellogenin gene expression was clearly over-expressed in fish collected from Terminos Lagoon. Principal Component Analysis showed that vitellogenin gene expression is related to the concentrations of total DDTs and PCBs, and negatively related to total Drins. Overall, this study represents the first tests exploring changes in molecular diagnostic indicators following exposure of several organic compounds in our country. Vitellogenin gene expressions associated with some endocrine disruptors detected in Terminos Lagoon were measured and we can now report clear changes in fish exposed.

  3. Laboratory and field evaluation of the effects of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid on the oviposition response of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Elsa Antonio-Arreola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we assessed the suitability of using the neonicotinoid imidacloprid with standard ovitraps by evaluating the ovicidal properties of imidacloprid and its influence on the oviposition response of gravid females of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae. First, we calculated the imidacloprid lethal dose 99 (LD99 by exposing third instar larvae of the target species to different concentrations of the insecticide. Next, Ae. aegypti eggs were exposed to the imidacloprid LD99 for 24 h and hatching inhibition was recorded. Finally, we investigated any potential repellent effect of the imidacloprid solution on the oviposition response of gravid Aedes females in field and laboratory conditions. The LD99 obtained from larvae tests proved to be sufficient to keep any exposed eggs from hatching. No repellent effect was observed; females laid as many eggs in imidacloprid-treated ovitraps as in traps containing either clean water or temephos-treated water in both field and laboratory conditions. Our results indicate that imidacloprid is a suitable insecticide for treating ovitraps against Ae. aegypti.

  4. Distribuição da Oviposição e Dinâmica Temporal do Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus por Meio de Ovitrampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Monteiro

    2014-12-01

    Abstract. This study aimed to monitor the spread of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus using ovitraps and correlate the results with the climate data over a period of approximately one year in the city of Macapá, AP, Brazil. A total of 66 ovitraps were installed in four areas of the city (west, south, north and central, and replaced weekly. The eggs were counted to calculate the egg positivity index (EPI and egg density index (EDI. The EPI and EDI were compared across zones and correlated with climate data. For the period of the study, the EPI was 50.44% and the EDI was 103.79. There was no difference in EPI across different areas, and only the EDI in the central area was greater than that in the other areas. The EPI and EDI were correlated positively with rainfall and humidity minimum and negatively with maximum humidity of air and maximum and minimum temperature. The monitoring of A. aegypti using ovitraps helps the team to combat the vector, enabling them to act more effectively in areas of higher positivity. Our results indicate that Macapa is similarly infested with A. aegypti and these high levels are strongly influenced by environmental variables, being the rainiest period with the largest entomological indices.

  5. Some aspects on the reproductive cycle of European conger eel, Conger conger (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Anguilliformes, Congridae captured from Western Algerian coasts: a histological description of spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abi-ayad Sidi-Mohammed El-Amine

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the annual reproductive cycle of European conger eel (Conger conger,Linnaeus, 1758 through analysis and description of spermatogenesis. A sample of 168 males was capturedbetween September 2008 and August 2009 from the Western coast of Algeria, from Béni Saf. Fish length andweight varied between 26.20-112 cm and 0.45-3.44 kg, respectively.Condition factors (K, gonadosomatic index (G.S.I. and hepatosomatic index (H.S.I. were calculatedmonthly. Factor K reached the minimum in August/September (0.10% corresponding to reproductive periodand a maximum in January (0.18%. Although G.S.I. values revealed to be statistically not significant, therewere two peaks for G.S.I., the first in March, denoting the beginning of spermatogenesis, and the second inAugust/September, indicating the reproduction period. H.S.I. reached a peak in December (1.90%, then thevalue decreased to a minimum in April.Histological analysis of testis allowed us to distinguish 5 stages summarized as follows: Stage 1:Spermatogonia A; Stage 2: Spermatogonia B; Stage 3: Spermatocytes and spermatids; Stage 4: Spermatocytes,spermatids and spermatozoa (cytodifferentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa; Stage 5: Spermatozoa(spermiogenesis or cytodifferentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa.

  6. 丁鱥鱼胚胎及仔鱼发育的观察%Observations on embryonic and larvae development in Tinca tinca Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福艳; 梁万文; 冯鹏霏; 黄光华

    2011-01-01

    [Objective ]The present experiment was aimed to study the growth and development of Tinca tinca Linnaeus under high water temperatures in southern China in order to solve the lack of fry in extending production in southern China.[Method]Entire process of growth from embryonic stage to larva and fish development in Tinca tinca Linnaeus had been observed during the artificial reproduction. [Result]The parturition was found to be induced within 11 hours , and the average fertilization and hatching rate were recorded as 75.3 and 82.7% , respectively. The survival rate of larvae fish was 59.3%.The fertilization spawn of Tinca tinca Linnaeus was spherical, steel grey in color and viscous, measuring 0.50 mm to 0.77 mm in diameter. At 27 to 31℃ water temperatures, fertilized spawn experienced 1936 min to complete the fertilizing to hatching stage, the effective accumulated temperature was 908.89℃·h. The embryonic development process included 6 stages with 30 phases. The average length of hatched larvae fish was 3.84 to 3.87 mm. Ahout 60 to 80% of yolk sac was absorbed within 3 days after hatching, and approximately 30% of larvae fish began to intake the food. After 4 days of hatching, 90% yolk sac was ahsorbed, and about 90% of larvae fish began to intake food. The yolk sac was found to b absorbed completely after 5 days of' hatching. [Conclustion] Tinca tinca Linnaeus was found reproducing and raising its fry suitably in southern China in the waters with 20-27℃ temperature. The harmful things should be removed from water to keep it clean and maintain high water quality. The fish bait should be given to larvae fish timely according to the water temperature.%[目的]研究丁鳞鱼在南方较高水温条件下的生长发育情况,解决丁鱥鱼在南方推广养殖中苗种欠缺的瓶颈问题.[方法]对丁鱥亲鱼进行人工繁殖,然后对其胚胎及仔鱼发育过程进行观察记录.[结果]丁鱥鱼催产效应时间11h,受精率为75.3%,

  7. 草地螟一代幼虫发生面积的气象预报模型%A Meteorological Forecast Model for Occurrence Area 0f the First Generation Larvae Of Loxostege sticticalis Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐红艳

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between occurrence area of the first generation larvae of Loxostege sticticalis Linnaeus and climate conditions was analyzed based on occurrence data of Loxostege sticticalis Linnaeusand and meteorological data from 1996 to 2009 ,and the main meteorological factors influenced occurrence of the first generation larvae of Loxostege sticticalis Linnaeus were determined.The meteorological forecast model for occurrence area of the first generation larvae of Loxostege sticticalis Linnaeus was established by using multiple regression method based on the survival adult quantity in spring and main meteorological factors.The results showed that occurrence area of first generation Loxostege sticticalis Linnaeus had positive correlation to relative humidity of mid-and-later May, and average temperature of mid-June, and had negative correlation to average temperature of mid-May and early June, relative humidity of mid-June.77% prediction was consistent with the actual situation and 15% prediction was grade 1 difference with actual situation through back substitution test.100% prediction accuracy meet grade 3.The model also tested by forecasting occurrence area of first generation Loxostege sticticalis Linnaeus in 2009, and it could provide references for understanding and controlling occurrence of first generation Loxostege sticticalis Linnaeus in local.%利用内蒙古兴安盟1996-2009年草地螟发生资料和同时段气象资料,分析了草地螟一代幼虫发乍面积与气象因子的相关关系,确定了影响草地螟一代幼虫发生面积的主要气象因子;以春季越冬代成虫数量即野外调查的百步惊蛾量和通过相关检验的气象因子为基础,采用多元回归方法建立了草地螟一代幼虫发生面积的气象预报模型.结果表明,一代幼虫发生面积与5月中、下旬相对湿度以及6月中旬平均温度呈正相关,与5月中旬-6月上旬温度以及6月中旬相对湿度呈负相关.通过模

  8. Molecular assays reveal the presence of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Júlia A G; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; Silvestre, Bruna T; Albernaz, Tatiana T; Leite, Rômulo C; Barbosa, José D; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 50% of buffalo herds in Brazil are located in Pará state in northern Brazil. There are several properties where cattle and buffalo live and graze together, and thus, buffalo pathogens may threaten the health of cattle and vice versa. Therefore, knowledge of infectious agents of buffalo is essential for maintaining healthy livestock. Clinical disease caused by Theileria and Babesia parasites in the Asian water buffalo is not common, although these animals may act as reservoir hosts, and the detection of these hemoparasites in buffaloes is as important as it is in cattle. Studies of the infection of buffaloes by hemoparasites in Brazil are scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Piroplasmida parasites in Asian water buffaloes in the state of Pará in the Amazon region of Brazil using nested PCR assays and phylogenetic analysis. The 18S rRNA gene and ITS complete region were amplified from DNA extracted from blood samples collected from 308 apparently healthy buffaloes bred on six properties in the state of Pará, Brazil. The prevalence of positive buffalo samples was 4.2% (13/308) for Theileria spp., 3.6% (11/308) for Babesia bovis and 1% (3/308) for Babesia bigemina. Animals infected with Theileria were detected in 50% (3/6) of the assessed properties. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Theileria species detected in this study were closely related to Theileria buffeli, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Theileria in Asian water buffaloes in the Americas. The majority of Theileria-positive buffaloes (11/13) belong to a property that has a history of animals presenting lymphoproliferative disease of unknown etiology. Therefore, the present research suggests that this disorder can be associated with Theileria infection in this property. Our results provide new insights on the distribution and biological aspects of hemoparasites transmissible from

  9. Atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais do manjericão (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus) e do gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) frente a linhagens de Escherichia coli enteropatogênicas isoladas de hortaliças

    OpenAIRE

    Martins,André Gustavo Lima de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Considerando-se a crescente participação dos vegetais na transmissão de microrganismos, incluindo as Escherichia coli enteropatogênicas multirresistentes às drogas convencionais, a busca por novas substâncias antimicrobianas a partir de fontes naturais, incluindo os óleos essenciais, tem se intensificado. Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar a atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais do manjericão (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus) e do gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) frente a linhagens de Esc...

  10. Atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais do manjericão (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus) e do gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) frente a linhagens de Escherichia coli enteropatogênicas isoladas de hortaliças

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, André Gustavo Lima de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Considerando-se a crescente participação dos vegetais na transmissão de microrganismos, incluindo as Escherichia coli enteropatogênicas multirresistentes às drogas convencionais, a busca por novas substâncias antimicrobianas a partir de fontes naturais, incluindo os óleos essenciais, tem se intensificado. Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar a atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais do manjericão (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus) e do gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) frente a linhagens de Esc...

  11. Spatial distribution, abundance and relationship to habitat features of the queen conch Eustrombus gigas (Linnaeus) (Mollusca: Strombidae) in Nuestra Señora del Rosario archipelago, Caribbean coast of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Campo, Kelly; Rueda, Mario; García-Valencia, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó la densidad poblacional y distribución espacial de Eustrombus gigas (Linnaeus) en el archipiélago Nuestra Señora del Rosario, así como su asociación a diferentes hábitats, a partir del muestreo sistemático de 184 estaciones en dos épocas climáticas, húmeda (mayo-noviembre) y seca (diciembre-abril) que coinciden con el período reproductivo de la especie. En cada estación se contaron y midieron los individuos presentes en un área circular de 1256.6 m2 ...

  12. Ultraestrutura do espermatozóide de Ucides cordatus Linnaeus (Crustacea, Ocypodidae do litoral norte do Brasil Ultrastructure of spermatozoon of the crab Ucides cordatus Linaeus (Crustacea, Decapoda of the northern littoral of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Matos

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructure of spermatozoa of the crab Ucides cordatus Linnaeus, 1763 is described and illustrated. Three parts can be distinguished: 1. the elongate-ovoid acrosome located anteriorly; 2. the cytoplasmic region; and 3. the nuclear region. The acrosome is composed of a thick electron-dense wall and a less electron-dense subacrosomal space. The cytoplasm region connects the acrosome with the nucleus, and three arms filled with microtubules arise from this region. The nucleus is polymorphous. The spermatozoon of Ucides cordatus follows the general pattern described for other Decapods.

  13. FLUCTUACIÓN POBLACIONAL INVIERNO – PRIMAVERA DE Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret), Fiorinia fioriniae (Targioni Tozzetti), Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linnaeus) (HEMIPTERA: DIASPIDIDAE) Y SUS PARASITOIDES, EN PALTO. LA MOLINA, LIMA – PERÚ

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Se realizaron observaciones sobre la fluctuación poblacional de Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret), Fiorinia fioriniae (Targioni Tozzetti), Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linnaeus) y sus parasitoides en el cultivo de palto en el área agrícola de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. El campo se dividió en 5 sectores y se tomaron 5 árboles al azar por cada sector, donde se evaluaron semanalmente 200 hojas (haz y envés) en estratos (tercio medio e inferior) desde el 16 de julio hasta el 17 de diciem...

  14. On mysterious occurrence of butterflies in the genus Delias at Jinmen Islands, with clarification on the nomenclature of D. pasithoe (Linnaeus, 1767) and D. acalis (Godart, 1819) in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Feng; Huang, Hang-Chi; Lu, Chen-Chih

    2017-06-11

    In recent years, a considerable number of pierid butterflies of the genus Delias have been found from Jinmen Islands, where no available hostplants grow, rendering a proof of cross sea water migration of these butterflies. It is suggested here that these butterflies come from nearby continent of eastern China, visiting the islands for nectar acquisition in seasons when nectar is in short supply because they mostly show up in autumn months. Samples obtained during the survey contained two species, namely Delias pasithoe (Linnaeus, 1767) and Delias acalis (Godart, 1819). Subspecific names applied to both species in eastern China appear to involve nomenclatural problems, with erroneous usage in recent literature.

  15. Una nueva especie de Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 del suroeste de Marruecos incluida en el grupo de M. (Eurymeloe rugosus Marsham, 1802 (Coleoptera: Meloidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz, José L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific collections of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC, Madrid hold an extense set of entomological materials collected in Morocco along the first decades of the XXth century by the preeminent naturalist M. Martínez de la Escalera. Morphological studies of the specimens of the genus Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Meloidae reveals the existence of populations morphologically differentiated along the coastal regions of Essaouira and Ifni. These populations are included within the Meloe rugosus Marsham, 1802 species group in the subgenus Eurymeloe Reitter, 1911. Their differential traits with respect to all other North African and European species of the Meloe rugosus species group are constant, and permit considering these populations as a taxonomic independent unit described herein, Meloe baamarani n. sp. This new species is characterized by having a black, opaque, general coloration all over the body and appendages; black short vestiture; broad head with broadly rounded temples, without median longitudinal groove; long antennae, with segments III to VIII subcylindrical and longer than wide; pronotum transverse, with convergent sides toward the base, without median groove; head and pronotum punctuation dense; aedeagus narrow, median lobe wide and strong, dorsally sinuous, with ventral hooks close to the apex. Meloe baamarani can be only confused on the western regions of northern Africa with Meloe mediterraneus Müller, 1925. This species shares a general appearance with M. baamarani, but differs in many morphological traits. Among those, tegument micro-reticulation, absence of median groove along the head, pronotum morphology and macrosculpture, and configuration of the male genitalia, are included.Las colecciones científicas del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC, Madrid albergan un extenso material entomológico recogido en Marruecos a principios del siglo XX por el insigne naturalista M. Mart

  16. 文蛤肉水解液的致突变性%Mutagenicity evaluation of the hydrolysate of Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus soft tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高梅; 曹冲; 王功霞; 汤连升; 贾庆文

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the mutagenicity of hydrolysate of Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus soft tissue, so as to provide experimental basis for its exploitation.Methods Three mutagenicity tests were used to evaluate the mutagenic effects, including Ames test, CHL chromosome aberration assay and bone marrow micronucleus assay in mice.Results In Ames test, the revertant colonies numbers in each group were twice less than the numbers of spontaneous revertant colo-nies, five bacterial strains showed negative results with or without S9 activation, and the result of Ames test was negative. The CHL chromosome aberration assay and bone marrow micronucleus assay showed that the chromosome aberration rate and micronucleus rate of each dose group showed no significant difference compared with the negative control group, respec-tively ( P>0.05) .Conclusions Under this condition, the results show that all of the Ames test, chromosome aberration assay and bone marrow micronucleus assay are negative, and no mutagenicity is observed in the hydrolysate of Meretrix mer-etrix Linnaeus soft tissue.%目的:评价文蛤肉水解液的致突变性,为文蛤的开发利用提供实验数据。方法采用Ames试验、小鼠嗜多染红细胞骨髓微核试验和CHL细胞体外染色体畸变试验3项致突变性试验,检测文蛤肉水解液有无致突变作用。结果 Ames试验中文蛤肉水解液各剂量组回变菌落数均在正常范围内,均未超过自发回变菌落数的2倍,在加与不加S9时5株试验菌株结果为阴性。 CHL细胞体外染色体畸变试验,文蛤肉水解液各剂量组的染色体畸变率与阴性对照组比较,差异无显著性(P>0.05),结果为阴性。小鼠骨髓微核试验,各剂量组的微核率与阴性对照组比较,差异无显著性(P>0.05),结果为阴性。结论在本试验条件和范围下,文蛤肉水解液未见潜在的致突变作用。

  17. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanivarsanthe Leelesh Ramya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n = 13 and adults (n = 12 of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%, followed by bacilli (15.4%. Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%, bacilli (16.7% and flavobacteria (16.7%. Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32 µmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus – KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans – KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26 µmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM.

  18. Cestodes of the blue shark, Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758), (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae), off the west coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Oscar; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2016-03-03

    The cestode species recovered from the spiral intestines of 27 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported from the western coast of Baja California Sur (BCS). The sampling was undertaken on a monthly basis from January 2003 to January 2004. The helminthological examination indicated the presence of four species of cestodes: Platybothrium auriculatum Yamaguti, 1952; Prosobothrium japonicum Yamaguti, 1934; Anthobothrium caseyi (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke & Caira, 2009; and Paraorygmatobothrium prionacis (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke, 1994. Of all the 27 sharks examined, 88.8% were infected with at least one cestode species. The most frequent species was P. auriculatum infecting 85% of the spiral intestines examined. In contrast the species with the highest mean intensity was P. prionacis (80.4 200). The species richness of cestodes in P. glauca is very similar in other regions of the world despite its wide distribution; however, this richness is low compared with other species of sharks within the same family. The feeding and host-specific are important factors that influence the parameters of infection of cestodes in this shark. On the west coast of BCS, Prionace glauca feeds mainly on red crab Pleuroncodes planipes Stimpson, 1860; squids Gonatus californiensis Young, 1972, Ancistrocheirus lesueurii (D'Orbigny, 1842), Haliphron atlanticus Steenstrup, 1861, and low proportion of fish teleosts as Merluccius productus (Ayres, 1855), Sardinops sp. Hubbs, 1929 and Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1872. We speculate that these prey could be involved as the second intermediate hosts of these cestodes, as in other members of these genera, although the life cycles of none are known.

  19. Population analysis of the javan green peafowl (Pavo muticus muticus Linnaeus 1758 in Baluran and Alas Purwo National Parks, East Java

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    JARWADI BUDI HERNOWO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hernowo JB, Alikodra HS, Mardiastuti A, Kusmana C (2011 Population analysis of the javan green peafowl (Pavo muticus muticus Linnaeus 1758 in Baluran and Alas Purwo National Parks, East Java. Biodiversitas 12: 99-106. The javan green peafowl (Pavo muticus muticus have high pressure to the population and the habitat. The distribution of the bird at Java Island is clumped randomly at several types in condition of fragmented and isolated habitat and it has small individual number every unit population. Baluran and Alas Purwo National Parks are one of distribution javan green peafowl; it was chosen for study on the population analysis. The research was aimed to gain data and information on demographic population of javan green peafowl. The individual number of the bird was counted by call count transect method and councentration count. The population demographic parameter (individual number, age structure and sex ratio of javan green peafowl was analyzed. The result shown that individual number of the javan green peafowl at Baluran National Park (BNP was 69.1 birds (in 2006 and 70.5 birds (in 2007 not much differ, but it compared with the observation in1995 approximately was 117.7 birds had significant different. The green peafowl population at BNP declined around 47.50% during 12 years. Meanwhile the population at Alas Purwo National Park (APNP was 80.7 birds (in 2006 and 73.5 birds (in 2007, if compared to observation in 1998 only 43 birds and in 2006 was 80.0 birds, the population grow up 86.05% during 8 years. The age structure of population indicated that both population (BNP and APNP tend to unbalance pyramidal, where adult birds more abundance than sub adult or juvenile. The birds sex ratio at both (APNP and BNP indicated that the peafowl life in polygyny system 1 male: 4 female > 1 male: 2.5 female. Key words: .

  20. Notes on the feeding of Blennius cristatus Linnaeus from a rocky pool of Itanhaém, São Paulo State

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    Airton Santo Tararam

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study analyzes the feeding habit of the fish Blennius cristatus inhabiting a rocky pool, in Itanhaém, south littoral of São Paulo State - Brazil. The main food items found were: Alga, Decapoda Reptantia, Mollusca and Amphipoda. The results showed that B. cristatus is an omnivorous species and probably also a trophic specialist preying on Gammaridea, but on Hyale media only, although twelve other species of the group were recorded in the sampling local.O presente estudo constitui-se numa análise preliminar do hábito alimentar do peixe Blennius cristatus Linnaeus, comum nas poças da zona entre-marés do litoral de São Paulo. As coletas foram realizadas na Praia do Poço, Itanhaém (24º12'S -48º47'W, litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo. A poça é rasa e mede 5,0-6,0 m de diâmetro, aproximadamente. O peixe foi capturado com anzol, usando-se, como isca, pedaços de camarão. Os resultados mostraram que B. cristatus utilizou sete ítens alimentares: Alga, Decapoda-Reptantia, Mollusca, Amphipoda, Isopoda, Polychaeta e Bryozoa. Além desses ítens, foram encontrados ainda nos estômagos examinados, areia, muco e fragmentos calcários. B. cristatus mostrou ser uma espécie omnívora, especializada em consumir Hyale media, apesar de, no local de coleta, ocorrerem muitas outras espécies de Gammaridea.

  1. PCR-RFLP Analysis of 28 SrDNA for Specification of Fasciola gigantica (Cobbold, 1855 in the Infected Lymnaea auricularia (Linnaeus, 1785 Snails from Northwestern Iran.

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    Mohammad Yakhchali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis in livestock is a crucial concern in the globe, mainly due to its impact on human health. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of infection with Fasciola gigantica (Cobbold, 1855 larvae in the field-collected snails of Lymnaea auricularia (Linnaeus, 1785 from northwestern Iran using a molecular approach.A total of 6,759 pond snails were collected from 28 freshwater bodies in West Azarbaijan. PCR was performed to amplify a 618-bp fragment of the nuclear 28 SrRNA gene of Fasciola. The PCR products were digested by AvaII restriction enzyme to create restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP patterns specific for the detection of F. gigantica.Of the total collected snails 496 (7.34 % were L. auricularia, among which 4.64% (23 out of 496 were infected with a Fasciola species according to the PCR analysis. Only 2.22% (11 out of 496 of the infected snails were from the mountainous areas. The highest Fasciola infection rate recorded in the snails of a single site was 1.81% (9 out of 496 snails. Based on the RFLP pattern, F. gigantica accounted for 2.42% of the infection rates in the study sites.Application of PCR-RFLP was proven to be a useful approach for valid and robust detection of the infection with F. gigantica in its intermediate host snails. These findings may therefore be applicable for establishment of the control programs against dissemination of the infection in different regions.

  2. Comparative biology of Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763 and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae focusing on the control of Cinara spp. (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Josiane Teresinha Cardoso

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant conifer aphids Cinara pinivora (Wilson, 1919 and Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera, Aphididae have been observed attacking Pinus spp. in Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The coccinellids, on the other hand, were found feeding on these aphids in the field, which can be regarded as potential biological control agents. The biological cycle and mortality rate of larvae of Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763 and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae were evaluated using twenty larvae of each predator species fed with nymphs of Cinara. The vials with the insects were kept under 15 ºC, 20 ºC and 25 ºC, with 12h photophase and 70 ± 10% relative humidity. The consumption was evaluated every 24 hours and the nymphs replaced. For C. sanguinea, the egg incubation time was 10.5, 5.0 and 4.0 days; the average larval development period was 33.3, 15.8 and 8.6 days and the larval mortality rate 20%,0% and 15%, respectively at 15 ºC, 20 ºC and 25 ºC. For H. convergens, the larval development time was 41.9, 19.3 and 10.9 days at 15 ºC, 20 ºC and 25 ºC, respectively. The larval mortality rate was 35%, 15% and 0% under the three temperatures. Both species developed adequately when fed nymphs of Cinara, however, C. sanguinea performed better than H. convergens, even at 15 ºC, at which temperature the biological cycles of the coccinellids are prolonged, but the temperature is favorable for the development of Cinara populations in the field.

  3. A morphohistological and histochemical study of hatchery-reared European hake, Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758, during the lecitho-exotrophic larval phase

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    Juan B. Ortiz-Delgado

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The larval development of reared European hake, Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758, during the lecithotrophic phase, from hatching until 5 days post-hatching (dph, and throughout the endo-exotrophic feeding phase (6-10 dph was studied by histology and histochemistry. Many crucial morphological, cellular and tissular changes were observed during both feeding phases, mostly those related to digestive and visual ontogenetic events, such as differentiation of buccopharyngeal cavity and eye development (at hatching; pigmentation and differentiation of cone-photoreceptors (4 dph; opening of the mouth and anus, appearance of intestinal valves (5-6 dph; presence of buccopharyngo-esophageal (5-6 dph and intestinal (9 dph mucous cells; folding of intestinal mucosa (6 dph; development of regional specific digestive musculature (6 dph; typical structure and functionality of the liver (sinusoids, biliary and pancreatic ducts, glycogen, protein and lipid reserves (4-6 dph; and characteristic acinar distribution pattern of eosinophilic zymogen granules of the exocrine pancreas (6 dph. Between 9 and 10 dph, the hake larvae showed evident signs of lipid absorption within enterocytes of the anterior intestinal region and a remarkable process of pynocitosis and intracellular digestion was detected in the posterior intestine (supranuclear inclusions or acidophilic protein vesicles. In hake larvae at 10 dph, a proliferation of renal tubules, spleen differentiation and gill development, as well as the presence of the first thyroid follicle, were clearly distinguished. At this time, stomach gastric gland differentiation was not detected and endocrine pancreas and gill lamellae were not evidenced. However, and interestingly, swim bladder and eyes (developing rods were well differentiated in larval development from 9 dph onwards. In summary, in European hake larval development during the endo-exogenous feeding phase and especially at 9 to 10 dph, most systems, organs

  4. Alterações patológicas do sistema genital de cutias (Dasyprocta aguti Linnaeus, 1758 fêmeas criadas em cativeiro

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    Jael S. Batista

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo apresenta relatos de sete distintas patologias de origem reprodutiva ainda não descritas em cutias (Dasyprocta aguti Linnaeus, 1758 fêmeas, que afetaram a fertilidade ou resultaram na morte do animal. Descreveu-se a natureza, a localização e a frequência das alterações patológicas macroscópicas e histológicas dos órgãos que compõem o sistema reprodutivo de cutias fêmeas, criadas sob condições de cativeiro no semiárido do Brasil. Foram avaliados através do exame anatomopatológico o aparelho reprodutivo de trinta e nove cutias mortas naturalmente e encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, no período de fevereiro de 2010 a maio de 2015. Destas, constatou-se alterações patológicas no sistema reprodutivo de 10 (25,6 %. No total, 13 alterações foram observadas, sendo que, em alguns animais haviam a coexistência de mais de uma alteração. Assim, as alterações patológicas encontradas foram: endometrite (n=4; 30,8%, piometra (n=3; 23%, retenção de placenta (n=2; 15,4%, maceração fetal (n=1; 7,7%, mumificação fetal (n=1; 7,7%, parto distócico (n=1; 7,7% e ovários afuncionais (n=1; 7,7%.

  5. Metazoan gill parasites of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the Mediterranean and their possible use as biological tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culurgioni, Jacopo; Mele, Salvatore; Merella, Paolo; Addis, Piero; Figus, Vincenza; Cau, Angelo; Karakulak, Firdes Saadet; Garippa, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The gills of 63 specimens of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from three localities of the Mediterranean (Sardinian, Tyrrhenian and Levantine Seas) were examined for metazoan parasites. The parasite fauna of T. thynnus from the Sea of Sardinia included 11 species: five didymozoid trematodes, three capsalid and one hexostomid monogeneans, and one caligid and one pseudocycnid copepods. Four didymozoids were found in fish from the Levantine Sea and only one didymozoid was recorded in fish from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Dividing the hosts into four size-groups (small, medium-sized, large and extra large), the pairwise comparison of prevalence and mean abundance of the new and literary data) showed differences according to host size. The differences in the composition of the parasitic faunas and in the prevalence of parasites, observed between the small tunas from the Tyrrhenian Sea and the medium-sized tunas from the Adriatic Sea, Levantine Sea and the North-East (NE) Atlantic Ocean, indicated that these groups form discrete units. The parasite fauna of the large tunas from the Sea of Sardinia is the richest among the bluefin tuna populations of the Mediterranean and the NE Atlantic, due to the presence of species not found elsewhere in bluefin tunas, such as Caligus coryphaenae Steenstrup et Lütken, 1861, Capsala magronum (Ishii, 1936) and C. paucispinosa (Mamaev, 1968). This fact and the prevalence of some parasites of this group (lower than those of medium-sized fish from the NE Atlantic and higher than the small and medium-sized tunas from the Mediterranean) suggest that the large-sized tuna group in the western Mediterranean is formed by Mediterranean resident tunas (poorly infected), and by tunas migrating from the Atlantic Ocean (heavily infected).

  6. Pre-soaking of the feed pellets: a trick for successful feed utilization in juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanghae, H; Thongprajukaew, K; Phromkunthong, W; Plangsri, S; Jatupornpitukchat, S; Kittiwattanawong, K

    2017-04-01

    Pre-soaking of the feed pellets in water can improve feed utilization in juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758), but the pre-soaking has not previously been optimized. This study aimed to optimize the water amount used for pre-soaking the pellets. The experiments followed a completely randomized design with three replications of each dietary treatment group. Initially 10-day-old green turtles (20-22 g body weight) were treated in an indoor aquaculture system for 3 months. The dietary treatment pellets were pre-soaked with 0.3, 0.5 or 0.7 (v/w) relative amounts of water that are here termed soaking ratios. At the end of experiment, there were no significant differences in survival (96% on average) and growth (average body weight 75.34 g and specific growth rate 2%/day, on average) of turtles in three dietary treatments (p > 0.05). Feed utilization was the best in turtles fed with 0.7 pre-soaked ratio, as indicated by significant reductions (p < 0.05) in the feeding rate (7.44% body weight/day) and the feed conversion ratio (1.12 g feed/g gain). Digestion was also improved by the induction of faecal digestive enzymes as well as the faecal thermal properties. The rapid growth did not negatively affect the general haematological parameters of reared turtles. These findings indicate that the pre-soaking of feed pellets at the optimal soaking ratio (1:0.7 w/v of pellet to water) can contribute through improved feed utilization of green turtles.

  7. Anatomia do coração de fetos de Guinea pig em final de gestação (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758

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    Mariangela Toledo Barbino

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n3p91 Desenvolveu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de descrever a anatomia do coração de fetos de Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758] em final de gestação e obter caracterizações anatômicas que possam fundamentar e auxiliar na compreensão da fisiologia da circulação fetal. Coletou-se os fetos de 3 fêmeas em final de gestação, os quais foram descritos e fotodocumentados macroscopicamente, por microscopia de luz em coloração HE e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O coração do feto é dividido em quatro cavidades, envolvido pelo pericárdio, e possui três camadas: epicárdio, miocárdio e endocárdio. O forame oval possui grande importância na circulação fetal, porém não foi visualizado nos cortes realizados neste estudo. Através desses resultados concluímos que os corações de fetos de Guinea pig diferem dos de outras espécies em estruturas como a veia cava cranial, que não se divide em esquerda e direita, e que a espessura das paredes dos ventrículos direito e esquerdo não diferem significativamente.

  8. Anatomia do fígado de fetos de Guinea pig em final de gestação (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758

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    Mariangela Toledo Barbino

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n3p97 Desenvolveu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de descrever a anatomia do fígado de fetos de Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758] em final de gestação e obter caracterizações anatômicas que possam fundamentar e auxiliar na compreensão da fisiologia da circulação fetal. Coletou-se os fetos de 3 fêmeas em final de gestação, os quais foram dissecados e retirado o fígado. Estes foram analisados, descritos e fotodocumentados macroscopicamente, por microscopia de luz em coloração HE e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O fígado dos fetos apresenta coloração castanho avermelhada e sua divisão em lobos é nitidamente observada, assim como a presença da vesícula biliar.  O fígado divide-se em lobo lateral esquerdo, lobo medial esquerdo, lobo lateral direito, lobo medial direito, lobo quadrado e lobo caudado com processos papilar e caudado Através da microscopia de luz, observa-se o tecido intensamente vascularizado sendo que, a porção esquerda do fígado recebe o sangue oriundo da placenta pela veia umbilical, e a porção direita é irrigada pela veia porta. Através desses resultados pode-se concluir que os fetos de Guinea pig possuem estruturas semelhantes anatomicamente aos de outras espécies de mamíferos.

  9. Padrão de atividade e comportamento de forrageamento do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Activity pattern and foraging behavior of bulldog-bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae in Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, Brazil

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    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre 18 de janeiro a 16 de dezembro de 1999 foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento e o padrão de atividade do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, em uma área de manguezal na Baía de Guaratuba, Sul do Brasil. Os grupos de N. leporinus observados permaneceram em atividade ao longo de todo o período noturno, mas com um aparente padrão bimodal. Durante os meses de abril a setembro, N. leporinus inicia a sua atividade geralmente às 18:00 h, uma hora mais cedo do que durante os meses de outubro a março, quando inicia sua atividade geralmente às 19:00 h. O comportamento de predação sobre os cardumes de peixes mostrou variações quanto ao local de forrageamento ao longo do período de atividade. Em baixos níveis de maré, os grupos de morcegos pescaram longe da margem em águas mais profundas, mas nos níveis de maré alta os grupos de morcegos permaneceram pescando sempre junto à margem, em águas mais rasas. Este padrão de comportamento em N. leporinus parece ser determinado pelo padrão de deslocamento dos cardumes de peixes na área de estudo.From January 18 to December 16 of 1999 the foraging behavior and activity pattern of fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied in mangrove ecosystem of Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil. The groups of N. leporinus observed remained active during all nightly period but showed an apparent bimodal pattern. During April and September N. leporinus generally begin their activity at 18:00h, one hour earlier than October to March months, when their activity started at 19:00 h. The foraging behavior on fish shoal varied spatially along all the activity period. During low tide level the bat groups remained fishing distant from margin on deeper water, but during high tide level the bats were always observed fishing close to the margin on flat water. This pattern in foraging behavior of N. leporinus appears to be determined by the fish shoal displacement pattern in

  10. Synthèses enzymatiques de néoglucoconjugués catalysées par l'alpha-glucosidase purifiée de la blatte Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus

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    Kamenan A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic synthesis of neoglucoconjugates by purified α-glucosidase from cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus. Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus contains in his digestive tract an acid (pH 5,0 and mesophile (50°C α-glucosidase. This enzyme, purified to homogeneity, hydrolyses highly maltose, sucrose and p-nitrophenyl-α-Dglucopyranoside. The ability of α-glucosidase from cockroach purified to homogeneity to catalyse transglucosylation reactions was tested using maltose and saccharose as glucosyl donors and 2-phenylethanol and phenol as acceptors. The experimental conditions were optimized in relation to the time course of the reaction, pH and concentrations of glucosyl donors and acceptors. The yields in transglucosylation reactions at 37 °C were very high and could attain 67% and 48% with 2-phenylethanol and phenol respectively as glucosyl acceptors. This α-glucosidase hydrolyzed the products formed. It seems that the products formed were the phenylethyl-α-D-glucoside and phenyl-α-D-glucoside. These results suggest that α- glucosidase from cockroach is an exoglucosidase which catalyse the splitting of the α-glucosyl residue from the non reducing terminal of the substrate to liberate α-glucose. This comportment indicates that this enzyme operated by a mechanism involving the retention of the anomeric configuration. On the basis of this work, α-glucosidase from P. americana appears to be a valuable tool for the preparation of α-neoglucoconjugates.

  11. Estudo de uma população relictual de veado-campeiro, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Cervidae no municipio da Lapa, Paraná, Brasil A relictual population study of pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Cervidae at Lapa, Paraná State, Brazil

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    Fernanda Góss Braga Mauro de Moura-Britto

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was studied between August 1996 and September 1997 at Fazenda Santa Maria (25º34' and 25º36'S, 49º46'and 49º49'W at Lapa, Paraná State. During that period we have collected information on feeding habits, group composition, time of the year for birth of youngsters and time for antlers change. The presence of the animal in the area was confirmed by the finding of vestiges and visual occurrences. Animais were observed feeding on young leaves of soya been (Glicine max, oat (Avenasaliva, ryegrass (Lolium mulliflorum and barley (Hordeum vulgare. Only one female was observed feeding on dry leaves. A stag was observed feeding on a barley ear. Group's average size was 1.5 individual. Stags/female proportion was 1: 0.96. Animais displaying velvet coated antlers were observed in June and July which is in accordance with literature about antlers change in a definite period restricted to winter. Only one youngster was observed in September 1996. It is believed that the species survive in the region despite human activities through adaptation of feeding habits with the introduction of agricultura! species. This population could disappear in a few years because of the small number of individuais and their isolation.

  12. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae: physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences

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    Priscilla Scacchetti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3 and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (G. sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, G. inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, G. pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758 from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. G. sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st, G. pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st, while G. inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a and G. cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of G. inaequilabiatus, G. cf. carapo, and G. pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in G. inaequilabiatus, G. cf. carapo, and G. pantherinus, and on pair 2 in G. sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in G. sylvius and G. pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in G. sylvius and two pairs in G. pantherinus; G. inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and G. cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of G. inaequilabiatus and G. cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of G. sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGGn indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present study reveals valuable cytotaxonomic markers for this group and allows a more precise evaluation of the processes involved in the

  13. Influence of Starvation on Predation by Adult Orius minutus (Linnaeus)%饥饿对微小花蝽成虫捕食作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢永宏; 杨群芳

    2011-01-01

    To make clear the influence on predatory functional response and predation rate of Orius minitus adult to Tetranychus cinnabarinus, the starvation tolerance of Orius minitus adult was examined by leaf disc test. Based on this, the influence on functional response and predation rate by Orius minitus adult to Tetranychus cinnabarinus at various levels of starvation were studied. The results showed that the adults of Orius minitus can endure starvation for 80 hours. The functional responses of adults of Orius minitus on various ranges of starvation to adult mites of Tetranychus cinnabarinus were fitted to Holling Ⅱ -types. The predation in 24hours of Orius minitus starved for 72 hours was concentrated in the first 12hours of the test, especially in the first 4 hours. While the predation of Orius minitus with no starvation allotted in the whole period of test. The functional response types of adults of Orius minitus were not altered by starvation duration within a certain range, but the predation rates in the specific period were affected obviously.%摸清不同饥饿处理对微小花蝽成虫捕食朱砂叶螨的功能反应和捕食速度的影响.采用叶碟法测定了微小花蝽Orius minutus(Linnaeus)成虫的耐饥饿能力,并研究了不同饥饿程度对其捕食朱砂叶螨Tetranychus cinnabarinus(Boisduval)成螨的功能反应和捕食速度的影响.微小花蝽成虫可忍受80 h的饥饿处理;不同饥饿程度的微小花蝽成虫捕食朱砂叶螨成螨的功能反应均可拟合为HollingⅡ型;饥饿72 h的微小花蝽成虫24 h内对朱砂叶螨的捕食作用主要集中在开始捕食的12 h,尤其是前4 h内,而未经饥饿处理的微小花蝽成虫的捕食作用则平均分布于整个测试时段.一定程度的饥饿处理不能改变微小花蝽成虫捕食功能反应的类型,但对其特定时段内的捕食速度有明显影响.

  14. Copepods associated with scleractinian corals: a worldwide checklist and a case study of their impact on the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pocilloporidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu Rong; Mayfield, Anderson B; Meng, Pei Jie; Dai, Chang Feng; Huys, Rony

    2016-10-11

    The Cnidaria have more symbiotic copepods than any other group of invertebrates, and the greatest numbers of these associates occur on hard corals. A review of the scattered literature on the diversity and taxonomic composition of scleractinian-associated copepods and their hosts revealed a total of 148 coral species, representing 66 genera and 15 families that serve as hosts to copepods. At present, 363 copepod species, representing 99 genera, 19 families and three orders, have been recorded as associates of scleractinian corals. The total included 288 cyclopoids, 68 siphonostomatoids and seven harpacticoids. Within the Cyclopoida the representation of species varied greatly among the 13 families, with a disproportionate number of species belonging to the Anchimolgidae (141 species) and Xarifiidae (92 species). Data on host utilization and geographical distribution of all copepods living symbiotically with hard corals is synthesized and host specificity patterns are highlighted.The prevalence, intensity, density, and biodiversity of copepod infection of 480 colonies of the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) from Nanwan Bay, southern Taiwan were documented between July 2007 and November 2008. It was hypothesized that certain environmental factors and physiological coral traits, such as the density of Symbiodinium, could influence these infection parameters. Analysis revealed that ectoparasitic copepods were the most likely to infect P. damicornis, and that Asteropontius minutus Kim, 2003 accounted for more than 50% of total copepod density in July-September 2007 when temperatures were high and bleaching occurred in ~75% of the sampled colonies. The data further showed that copepod virulence may be related to their life history strategies, as well as to Symbiodinium density, surface area of the host coral colonies, and concentration of nitrate and chlorophyll-a in the surrounding seawater. By tracking the abundance, diversity, and

  15. Controle de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 e Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 através de formulados contendo Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis em temperaturas controladas

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    João Zequi

    2011-11-01

    Abstract. Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus and Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Say are important pathogen vectors in urban environments. This study was designed to evaluate commercial formulations containing Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis de Barjac for the control of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus and to assess their efficiency as compared to manufacturers´ claims. The tested products were the liquid formulation of Aquabac® XT 1200 ITU/mg, Teknar® 3000AAU/mg, and Vectobac® AS 1200 ITU/mg, and the solid products Vectobac® WDG 3000 ITU/mg, Vectobac® Tablet 2200 ITU/mg, and the trial formulation of Biouel 500 ITU/mg. All products were tested at 25±2°C temperature and the liquid formulations were also tested at 15±2°C, 35±2°C, and at room temperature (25.37 to 28.73ºC. The experiments were conducted with 25 larvae at the early 4th stage, in 150 mL of distilled water; the dead larvae were counted 24 hours after product application. Results were analyzed using Probit to calculate CL50. The 25±2°C temperature, Vectobac WDG, and Vectobac Tablet were the most efficient in controlling Ae. aegypti, with CL50 of 0.10 (0.08 – 0.11 mg/L and 0.10 (0.09 – 0.11 mg/L, respectively. The most efficient products for Cx. quinquefasciatus were Vectobac WDG, Vectobac AS, Biouel, and Vectobac T. When the potency claimed by manufacturers was compared to our laboratory results, Biouel had the best performance for both species. Vectobac AS was the most efficient for both species of Culicidae tested at 15±2°C, 35±2°C and at room temperature (25.37 to 28.37°C. Lower product concentrations were required at 35±2°C room temperature to control Cx. quinquefasciatus than for Ae. aegypti.

  16. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae): physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3) and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences) cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (Gymnotus sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, Gymnotus inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, Gymnotus pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758) from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. Gymnotus sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st), Gymnotus pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st), while Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a)and Gymnotus cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st) presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus, and on pair 2 in Gymnotus sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in Gymnotus sylvius and Gymnotus pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in Gymnotus sylvius and two pairs in Gymnotus pantherinus; Gymnotus inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and Gymnotus cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus and Gymnotus cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of Gymnotus sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGG)n indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present

  17. 东北地区亚洲飞蝗的生物学特性%Biological Characteristics of Locusta migratoria migratoria Linnaeus in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 吕耀星; 王雪松; 陈新; 张雪; 任炳忠

    2012-01-01

    In order to find out the life cycle and the main biological characteristics of Locusta migratoria migratoria Linnaeus in Northeast China, raising and investigation were conducted during 2010-2011 in Jilin province. The results show that one generation of Locusta migratoria migratoria occurs annually in Northeast China, and the eggs are laid in soil to overwinter. The overwintering eggs begin to hatch in early or middle June and reach the hatching peak in middle June. The developmental duration of nymphs are 28 ~ 35 days, each spends 5 - 7days. The adult emergence time is in early July, and reaches the eclosin peak period in middle July. After about a week the adult male and female begin to copulate, and reach the copulation peak in late July. The adult begin to oviposit in early August after copulation for two weeks,and the oviposition activity has been extended to the early October. The environmental conditions have important influences on the growth and breeding activities of Locusta migratoria migratoria.%采用室内饲养与野外调查相结合的方法对东北地区亚洲飞蝗的生活史及主要的生物学特性进行了研究.结果表明:亚洲飞蝗在东北地区1年发生1代,以卵在土中越冬,越冬蝗卵6月上中旬开始孵化,6月中旬为孵化盛期,蝗蝻发育历期为28~35 d,每个龄期历时5~7d,7月上旬末期开始羽化为成虫,7月中旬为羽化盛期,成虫羽化后约7d雌雄两性开始交尾,7月下旬为交尾盛期,交尾约14 d后雌性开始产卵,产卵一直延续到9月末.生态环境条件对亚洲飞蝗的取食、蜕皮、羽化、交尾、产卵等生长发育及繁殖活动具有重要影响.

  18. Hipokritisme Tokoh Orientalis Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje

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    Budi Ichwayudi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Western thoughts have discredited Islamic teaching. Orientalism never gives up in spreading issues in relation with their objectives in distancing Muslim from Islam. The idea of orientalism becomes a point of discussion that appears as opposition of Islam in many ways. Unfortunately, this kind of situation has not been realized by most Muslim in Indonesia that is contemporarily bothered by their debated teaching of Islam which comes from orientalist ideas in order to disintegrate Islam. For instance, is the orientalism in Indonesia. The history of orientalism in Indonesia becomes unforgettable part of Indonesia colonialism. It was known that the orientalist activities have supplied many objectives for the colonialism, especially in Aceh Darussalam. Hurgronje analyzed and observed that the struggle from the Acehness will be suppressed by the politics of split within the local leader between Ulama (religious leader and Uleebalang (formal leader. This paper aims to explore the activities of Christian Snouck Hurgronje in relation with his effort in helping colonial to disintegrate Indonesia people. His mission is to crack the principal sources of Islam: Qur’an and Hadith by pretending to be a Muslim and went to Mecca for learning Islam. But his affiliation to Islam is only a mask to cover his actual purposes as a missionary.

  19. Hipokritisme Tokoh Orientalis Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Ichwayudi

    2016-01-01

    Western thoughts have discredited Islamic teaching. Orientalism never gives up in spreading issues in relation with their objectives in distancing Muslim from Islam. The idea of orientalism becomes a point of discussion that appears as opposition of Islam in many ways. Unfortunately, this kind of situation has not been realized by most Muslim in Indonesia that is contemporarily bothered by their debated teaching of Islam which comes from orientalist ideas in order to disintegrate Islam. For i...

  20. Pengaruh Orientalis terhadap Liberalisasi Pemikiran Islam

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    Abbas Mansur Tammam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization of Islamic thought, which is considered and proclaimed as “renewal of Islamic thought,” did not come from the core concepts of Islam, it came from the outside of Islamic concepts (read: Western. Initially, the Western-Christian liberalism is an extension of the sophism, with ever implicated in Greece. Among the important figures is Heraclitus, Democritos and Protagoras. Although they received fierce opposition from Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, but liberalism got a new fresh air in the heyday of the Roman. This sophism trend, later gave birth to the relativism of truth, which is also the spirit of liberalism itself. Worse, liberalism was brought to Islam, the emergence of which can be traced to the Arabian Peninsula, Albania, and Syria. While in Egypt, Sultan Abdul Hamid II gave a note that a few Egyptian stunned with Western ideas, taking liberalism as a way of salvation. By using justifications of Qur’anic verses and hadiths, interpreted unilaterally, the liberalist thought was a tajdid to Islamic thought. The spirit (power of liberalism is in the distribution process of using old methods, that is the tradition of orientalism, misionarism, and imperialism. The basis of liberalist support can be traced to some of the states concerned with it, such as the United States, Britain and France. Finally, this simple article will briefly try to uncover how this all happened.

  1. Quadro citológico vaginal, concentração plasmática de progesterona durante a gestação e medidas fetais em paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 Vaginal citology, serum progesterone concentration during pregnancy and fetal measurements in paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

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    Vânia Maria França Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Em 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 objetivou-se descrever aos 30, 60 e 90 dias (D de prenhez diagnosticada por ultrassonografia (US, os tipos celulares do epitélio vaginal em esfregaços vaginais, relatar as condições de abertura da vulva e as características do muco vaginal, determinar a concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 por radioimunoensaio, e ainda, mensurar por ultrassonografia (US o diâmetro biparietal (DBP fetal aos 60 e 90 dias de prenhez. No D30, 40% das amostras exibiram células (com características estrogênicas superficiais e presença de núcleos nus. Nos D60 e D90, células parabasais, intermediárias, superficiais e naviculares estavam presentes nas mesmas proporções, mas células endocervicais foram descritas em apenas 73,9% e 69% das amostras daqueles dias, respectivamente. No D30 a maior proporção de células naviculares e superficiais diferiu (p The objective of this work was to describe in 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 at 30, 60 and 90 days (D of pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasonography (U.S. the cell types of the vaginal epithelium by vaginal smears, to report the vulva opening condition and the characteristics of vaginal mucus, to determine the progesterone (P4 serum concentration by radioimmunoassay, and also measure by ultrasound (U.S. the fetuses biparietal diameter (BPD at 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. At D30, 40% of the smears exhibited surface cells (with estrogenic characteristics and of naked nuclei. At D60 and D90, parabasal, intermediate, superficial, and navicular cells were present in the same proportions, but endocervical cells were described in only 73.9% and 69% of those day's smears, respectively. At D30 the highest proportion of navicular and surface cells differed (p < 0.05 compared with other cell types. The vaginal mucus was crystalline and fluid in 100% and 70% of females at D30 and D60, respectively. It was observed the vaginal vestibule open in around 50% of

  2. Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana de extrato de folhas de goiabeira, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, sobre bactérias entéricas diarreiogênicas, isoladas de camarão sete-barbas, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller

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    Flávia A. Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds.O chá de folhas de goiaba Psidium guajava Linnaeus é comumente usado como remédio nas gastrenterites e diarréias infantis por aqueles que não têm acesso a antibióticos. Esta pesquisa estudou o efeito antibacteriano sobre bactérias causadoras de diarréias, do óleo essencial e do extrato de folhas de goiabeira usando como diluente: metanol, hexano e acetato de etila. Os extratos foram testados sobre Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. e Escherichia coli. As bactérias testadas foram isoladas de camarão sete-barbas Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller usando-se como controle cepas padrão, de cada espécie. Das bactérias testadas, o melhor efeito inibitório foi

  3. Shyness and boldness in greater rheas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae: the effects of antipredator training on the personality of the birds Timidez e coragem em emas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae: os efeitos do treinamento anti-predação na personalidade das aves

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    Cristiano S. de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The shy-bold continuum is an axis of behavioural variation for some species, but the consequences of shyness and boldness in antipredatory behaviour is unknown. Bold animals have the tendency to be predated first after release in comparison to shy animals, who naturally avoid the predators. Antipredatory training has been used to enhance the defence behaviours of naive animals by various researchers around the world. For greater rheas, Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758, this kind of study is pioneer. In this study we have investigated if there are relationships between personality and performance of greater rheas in antipredatory training. We also investigated if the training procedures influenced the behaviour of the birds when presented to novel objects. Fifteen zoo-borne greater rheas were studied and 16 personality tests were run, being eight before the application of antipredator training, and eight after the training. We presented to the birds four novel objects (ball, box, bag and person and recorded their behaviour and the distance of the birds in relation to the objects. Results showed that the birds behave boldly before training and shyly after it. The antipredator training modified significantly the behaviour of the rheas, making them more careful about novel situations. Personalities affected the behaviour of the birds during antipredator training. The study of the animal personalities can be an useful tool in reintroduction programs since it helps to choose the animals with the highest chance of survival to reintroduce.O contínuo timidez-coragem é um eixo de variação comportamental para algumas espécies, mas as conseqüências da timidez e coragem no comportamento anti-predação não são conhecidas. Animais corajosos tendem a ser predados primeiramente após a reintrodução em comparação com os animais tímidos, que naturalmente evitam os predadores. O treinamento anti-predação tem sido usado para aumentar os comportamentos

  4. Flutuação populacional e previsão de gerações de Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch = Populational fluctuation and generation prediction of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch

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    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa-oriental, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, encontra-se distribuída em quase todas as partes do mundo, constituindo importante praga do pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. Este estudo foi desenvolvido em pomar comercial de pessegueiro localizado em Taiúva, São Paulo, durante os anos 1997 a 2003, visando obter a flutuação populacional de adultos de G. molesta relacionando-a com fatores meteorológicos. O estudo também visou determinar uma data biofix adequada para prever a ocorrência de gerações da praga por meio de um modelo de graus-dia. A amostragem da mariposa-oriental e de insetos predadores foi efetuada com armadilha plástica com suco de pêssego e armadilha adesiva amarela, respectivamente. A influência de fatores físicos e biológicos foi avaliada por análise de correlação linear simples. Os maiores picos populacionais de G. molesta ocorreram nos meses de maio, julho e outubro. As correlações obtidas sugerem que a baixa umidade ambiental pode ter sido fator de mortalidade para G. molesta. O elevado número de pulverizações de inseticida pode ter causado impacto negativo sobre inimigos naturais contribuindo para a elevada densidade do inseto-praga no período de 1998 a 1999. A data de constatação dapresença de gemas vegetativas e de flor diferenciadas no pessegueiro mostrou-se adequada para se iniciar a contagem de graus-dia para prever gerações de G. molesta. Esses resultados devem ajudar aimplementação de programas para prever picos populacionais de adultos de G. molesta visando à aplicação de inseticidas. Recomenda-se a validação do modelo de graus-dia em outras localidades para comprovar os resultados obtidos.The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, is spread around the world and is considered an important pest on peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. This work was carried out at a commercial peach orchard located in Taiúva, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1997 to

  5. Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae and birds in the Lami Biological Reserve, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Associações alimentares entre capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Ana C. Tomazzoni

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 and some bird species were registered in the Lami Biological Reserve, southern Brazil, through observations in a set of transects established in the five major vegetation types of the study area: shrubby and herbaceous swamps, wet grasslands, sandy grasslands and forests. Data included: date and time, vegetation type, bird species, number of individuals (birds and capybaras, type of prey consumed, foraging strategy of the birds and the behavior of the capybaras in relation to the presence of birds. Five species of birds were registered: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777, Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788, Machetornis rixosus (Vieillot, 1819, Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816 and Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789. The interactions were observed in the shrubby swamp (M. bonariensis, forest (C. plancus and wet grassland (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. chimachima. The foraging strategies were: (1 use of the capybara as a perch, hunting from its back (M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (2 use of the capybara as a beater, hunting in the ground (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (3 foraging in the skin of the capybara, by picking the ectoparasites (C. plancus, F. rufus, M. chimachima. Strategies (1 and (2 were employed to catch arthropods flushed from the vegetation. Sometimes, capybaras lay down and exposed the abdomen and lateral areas of their bodies to facilitate cleaning by M. chimachima, but the presence of other bird species seemed to be neutral to capybaras.Foram registradas associações alimentares entre capivaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, sul do Brasil, por meio de observações em um conjunto de transecções estabelecidas nos cinco principais tipos de vegetação existentes na área: banhado arbustivo, banhado herbáceo, campo úmido, campo arenoso e mata. As informações coletadas foram: data, horário, tipo de vegeta

  6. Preferência alimentar de adultos de Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae por diferentes híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae = Feeding preference of adults of Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae for different hybrids of Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae

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    Daniel Gandolfo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Metriona elatior Klug é potencial candidato para o controle biológico de Solanum viarum Dunal (joá-bravo, pois as larvas e adultos se alimentam de suas folhas e têm baixa taxa de dispersão. A especificidade é um forte requisito para a adequabilidade de umorganismo como agente de controle biológico, especialmente pela estratégia inundativa. Desse modo, a preferência alimentar do adulto desse inseto em laboratório foi avaliada em 14 híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (berinjela. A criação estoque foi mantida emlaboratório, com os indivíduos se alimentando de folhas do joá-bravo. O estudo foi realizado utilizando-se testes de dupla e múltipla escolha, em períodos de alimentação de 24 e 48h, oferecendo-se discos de tecido foliar, em condições de placas de Petri. As avaliaçõesda sobrevivência e consumo foliar dos insetos adultos recém-emergidos foram realizadas em folhas de joá-bravo e dos híbridos de berinjela, mantidas túrgidas pela imersão do pecíolo em água. A área foliar foi medida antes e após quatro dias de exposição ao inseto. M. elatiorapresentou preferência para alimentação, sobrevivência e consumo na planta daninha. A preferência do crisomelídeo foi maior para o híbrido ‘Minikuro Kowishiki’ de berinjela.Metriona elatior Klug is a potential biocontrol agent for Solanum viarum Dunal (tropical soda apple, because larvae and adults feed on its leaves and this species shows a low dispersion rate. Specificity plays a major role in the feasibility of an organism as abiological control agent, especially in the inundative strategy. The feeding preference of M. elatior adults was evaluated to 14 eggplant (Solanum melogena Linnaeus hybrids. Mass rearing was carried out under lab conditions, with the insect feeding directly on S. viarum leaves. The study started with dual and multiple choice tests in 24 and 48 hour feeding times, by offering leaf disks in Petri dish conditions. Survival and leaf

  7. Eficiência do Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner, 1915 no controle da traça da cera Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae Efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner, 1915 for control of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Deodoro Magno Brighenti

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência do Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner no controle de Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos do Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, a 28±2ºC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Aplicou-se formulação comercial de B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki por meio de pulverização, imersão dos favos e também foi incorporada à dieta artificial fornecida às lagartas de terceiro ínstar da traça da cera. A aplicação do produto fitossanitário por meio da pulverização dos favos mostrou-se eficiente no controle de lagartas, atingindo níveis iguais ou superiores a 85% de mortalidade quando foram utilizados 5 g/100 mL de água. Na aplicação por imersão dos favos, todas as dosagens testadas foram eficientes atingindo até 100% de mortalidade. Adicionada à dieta artificial, a concentração com maior porcentagem de mortalidade foi de 10g/60g de dieta. Sintomas de infecção pelo B. thuringiensis foram identificados nas lagartas e o isolamento da bactéria, por meio de uma cultura de Bacillus, comprovou a causa da morte desses insetos em todas as dosagens da formulação comercial do B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki utilizadas.This research aim at evaluating the efficiency of Bacillus thruringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner in the control of Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus.The experiments were conducted in the Insect Biology Laboratory of the Entomology Department of the Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brazil, at 28±2ºC, RH 70±10% and 12-hour photophase. Commercial formulation of B. thuringiensis. var. kurstaki was applied through spraying, comb soaking and also incorporated into the artificial diet fed to third instar caterpillars of the greater wax moth. Application of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki through the spraying of the combs was efficient for control, reaching levels

  8. Dieta e dispersão de sementes por Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnívora, Canidae, em um fragmento florestal no Paraná, Brasil Diet and seed dispersal by Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus in a forest fragment in Paraná (Carnivora, Canidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlamir J. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora o cachorro-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1706, seja um Canidae relativamente comum, não há muita informação sobre sua dieta e seu papel como dispersor de sementes nos diferentes habitats onde ocorre. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de reportar a dieta de C. thous e sua importância como dispersor e/ou predador de sementes, e ainda testar a taxa de germinação de sementes após passar pelo trato digestório do animal. O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento (680 ha de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, o Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, localizado na cidade de Londrina, Paraná, sul do Brasil. A metodologia consistiu de coletas de fezes de C. thous, as quais foram analisadas em laboratório para identificar os itens consumidos. Nos testes de germinação, as sementes foram dispostas para germinar em placas de Petri com algodão umedecido em água. Noventa e três amostras fecais com 219 itens de origem vegetal e animal foram registradas, sendo 36,52% contendo restos de pequenos roedores, 24,19% de gramíneas, 13,24% de aves, 10,47% de insetos, 6,39% de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassm., 4,6% de outros itens de origem animal e 4,54% de outros itens de origem vegetal. Ainda, C. thous dispersou nove espécies de plantas, com relevante importância para a germinação de algumas sementes que passaram pelo trato digestório do animal, exceto para S. romanzoffiana, cujas sementes não germinaram nas condições de laboratório. Conclui-se que, C. thous apresentou uma dieta generalista e oportunista, sobrevivendo em áreas degradadas e antrópicas, e agindo como dispersor de sementes nestes locais.Although the crab eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1706, is a relatively common Canidae, there isn't much information about its diet and its role as a seed disperser in the different habitats where it occurs. The aim of this work was to report the diet of the C. thous and its importance as a seed disperser and / or a seed predator and

  9. Processamento, caracterização quimica e avaliação nutricional da despesca da Tilapia no Nilo (Oreochromis (Oreochromis) niloticus, Linnaeus) em dietas experimentais com ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Oliveira Sales

    1995-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar propriedades nutricionais da silagem de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis (Oreochromis)niloticus, Linnaeus), através da sua caracterização química e avaliação nutricional com ensaios biológicos em ratos. A silagem foi preparada com 100% da despesca pela trituração dos peixes inteiros, sem a retirada das escamas, barbatanas, guelras e vísceras, pela adição de 3 % do peso do triturado de ácido fórmico a 90%" até a completa liquefação da mistura....

  10. Estimación de los principales parámetros reproductivos y productivos del Pecari tajacu, Linnaeus, 1758 pecari de collar o sajino en cautiverio (Loreto, Perú)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Producción Animal El presente estudio estimación de los parámetros reproductivos y productivos de Pecari tajacu, Linnaeus, 1758 “pecari de collar” o “sajino” en cautiverio (Loreto, Perú), se llevó a cabo en el Centro Piloto de Zoocria para la Amazonía – UNAP, ubicado en la Región Loreto, Provincia de Maynas, Perú. La investigación es básica descriptiva ex post facto, que consistió en obtener información de los registr...

  11. ÓLEO ESSENCIAL DOS BOTÕES FLORAIS DO CRAVO-DA-ÍNDIA (Syzygium aromaticum): EXTRAÇÃO, CARACTERIZAÇÃO E ATIVIDADE LARVICIDA FRENTE AO Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762)

    OpenAIRE

    ALEXANDRE ALBUQUERQUE DO NASCIMENTO

    2012-01-01

    Neste trabalho a partir da extração e do estudo analítico do óleo essencial dos botões florais da espécie Syzygium aromaticum L., foi analisado o efeito larvicida do óleo contra larvas em terceiro estágio do mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762). Extraiu-se quantitavamente o óleo essencial por hidrodestilação. Determinaram-se as propriedades físico-químicas do óleo essencial (densidade, índice de refração, solubilidade, cor e aparência). Caracterizou-se quimicamente o óleo, quantificando se...

  12. Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first non-native marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic. The chronology of the invasion is reported here using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. Currently, lionfish are established off the Atlantic coast of the USA from the Florida Keys to Cape Hatteras (North Carolina), the Great Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos. The species have been reported from only one island in the Lesser Antilles (St. Croix), but it is not yet established there. Lionfish are established in Mexico, Honduras and Costa Rica. Reports have come from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida), Belize, Panama and Colombia; although lionfish are not considered established in these localities at this time (August 2009), invasion is likely imminent.

  13. Significance of the Oviposition Records of Three Western Ghats Endemics, the Malabar Raven, Papilio dravidarum Wood-Mason, Malabar Rose, Atrophaneura pandiyana Moore and Crimson Rose, Atrophaneura hector Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Revathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made on the biology and bionomics of the three Western Ghats Endemics, the Malabar Raven (Papilio dravidarum Wood-Mason, Malabar Rose (Atrophaneura pandiyana Moore and Crimson Rose (A. hector Linnaeus. The size of the caterpillar (length and breadth, mode of feeding, pupation and emergence were recorded. The biology took 36-40 days for completion in Malabar Raven, 35-37 days in A. pandiyana and A. hector. Butterflies found in different habitats tend to show marked differences in their general appearance and biology as evidenced by the "Ecological races" reported in several species of butterflies. Thorough understanding of the life history and their behavioural patterns of immature stages will help in recognizing geographical and ecological races.

  14. Ovitrampas para Avaliação da Presença de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus e Aedes albopictus (Skuse no Município de Vassouras, Estado do Rio de Janeiro

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    Alexandre Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus (Skuse are vectors of many arboviruses including urban yellow fever and dengue, the latter being one of the biggest problems in the world in cities that have hot and humid climate. Having the consecutive cases of dengue in Vassouras, RJ it was important to ascertain the presence and behavior of the vector in different seasons of year and their predominance in the city. In this study we observed the presence of 10.44% Ae. aegypti and 89.56% Ae. albopictus of the 364 viable eggs and being the Matadouro neighborhood (point 4, the local with the largest presence of these culicids. These data showed that Ae. albopictus is ever more present in urban areas.

  15. Avaliação da cultura de células-tronco do epitélio olfatório de cães sem raça definida (Canis familiaris Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Ribeiro Alves

    2009-01-01

    As células provenientes do epitélio olfatório apresentam capacidade regenerativa durante toda a vida, embora este mecanismo ainda não esteja completamente elucidado. O potencial de diferenciação de células-tronco provenientes do epitélio olfatório de cães sem raça definida (Canis familiaris Linnaeus, 1758) foi avaliado utilizando-se 12 cães adultos e 12 cães com 60 dias de vida intra-uterina, oriundos do Hospital Veterinário da FMVZ-USP. Após coletado, o epitélio olfatório foi submetido a pro...

  16. Ecologia da comunidade de metazoários parasitos da anchova Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus (Osteichthyes, Pomatomidae do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Community ecology of metazoan parasites of bluefish Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus (Osteichthyes, Pomatomidae from the littoral of State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    José Luis Luque

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-five specimens of bluefish, Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus, 1766, collected at Cabo Frio (23ºS, 42ºW, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between March 1995 and November 1995, were necropsied to study their infracommunities of metazoan parasites. Sixteen species of metazoan parasites were collected. All fish were parasitized by one or more metazoan. The digeneans were the majority of the parasite specimens collected, with 44.2%, followed by the helminth larval stages (cestodes, acanthocephalans, and nematodes with 40.6%. The Simpson index for all parasite species was 0.097, indicating lack of dominance by any species in the parasite community. Microcotyle pomatomi Goto, 1899 showed the higher frequency of dominance and mean relative dominance. The parasite species of P. saltator showed the typical overdispersed pattern of distribution. The majority of parasite species showed positive correlation between the host's total body length and prevalence or parasite abundance. Two species, Brachyphallus parvus (Manter, 1947 and Phocanema sp. have differences in their prevalences and abundances in relation to sex of the hosts. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of P. saltator was H'=1.243±0.521, with correlation with the host's total length and without difference between male and female fish. The components of the parasite community of P. saltator showed overall positive association. All pairs confonned by ectoparasites and adult endoparasites species showed signiticant positive association or covariation between their abundances. Five pairs of endoparasites larval species showed positive association or covariation, and two pairs, showed negative association and covariation. The parasite community of P. saltator was dominated by species with high prevalence values, that composed a high number of associations, thus, is considered closer to the interactive type.