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Sample records for plato programmed logic

  1. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  2. Plato's Anti-Kohlbergian Program for Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Following Lawrence Kohlberg it has been commonplace to regard Plato's moral theory as "intellectualist", where Plato supposedly believes that becoming virtuous requires nothing other than "philosophical knowledge or intuition of the ideal form of the good". This is a radical misunderstanding of Plato's educational programme,…

  3. Logic programming extensions of Horn clause logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Sigal

    1988-11-01

    Full Text Available Logic programming is now firmly established as an alternative programming paradigm, distinct and arguably superior to the still dominant imperative style of, for instance, the Algol family of languages. The concept of a logic programming language is not precisely defined, but it is generally understood to be characterized buy: a declarative nature; foundation in some well understood logical system, e.g., first order logic.

  4. Logic Programming: PROLOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Provides background material on logic programing and presents PROLOG as a high-level artificial intelligence programing language that borrows its basic constructs from logic. Suggests the language is one which will help the educator to achieve various goals, particularly the promotion of problem solving ability. (MVL)

  5. Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two well-known texts that respectively describe learning and teaching, drawn from the work of Freud and Plato. These texts are considered in psychoanalytic terms using a methodology drawn from the philosophy of Luce Irigaray. In particular the article addresses Irigaray's approach to the analysis of speech and utterance as a…

  6. Logic Programming for Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...

  7. Logic Programming with Requests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Schreye, Danny; Etalle, Sandro; van Raamsdonk, Femke

    1999-01-01

    We propose an extension of logic programming where the user can specify, together with the initial query, the information he is interested in by means of a request. This allows one to extract a result from an incomplete computation, such as the prefix of an infinite derivation. The classical

  8. Semantic theory for logic programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, F M

    1981-01-01

    The author axiomatizes a number of meta theoretic concepts which have been used in logic programming, including: meaning, logical truth, nonentailment, assertion and erasure, thus showing that these concepts are logical in nature and need not be defined as they have previously been defined in terms of the operations of any particular interpreter for logic programs. 10 references.

  9. Logic Programming in LISP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Rapport, Groupe Intelligence Pasero, R., Artificielle , Universite d’Aix-Marseille, Roussel, P. Luminy, France, 1973. [Kowalski 1974] Kowalski, R. A...THIS PAGZ(Whan Doee Es tMord) Item 20 (Cont’d) ------ work in the area of artificial intelligence and those used in general program development into a...logic programming with LISP for implementing intelligent data base query systems. Continued developments will allow for enhancements to be made to the

  10. Quantum probabilistic logic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2015-05-01

    We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.

  11. Peers on Socrates and Plato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2014-01-01

    There is more to be said about two of the topics Chris Peers addresses in his article "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A morpho-logic of teaching and learning" (2012, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44, 760-774), namely the Socratic method of teaching and Plato's stance with regard to women and feminism. My purpose in this article is…

  12. Some relationships between logic programming and multiple-valued logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rine, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    There have been suggestions in the artificial intelligence literature that investigations into relationships between logic programming and multiple-valued logic may be helpful. This paper presents some of these relationships through equivalent algebraic evaluations

  13. Logic programming and metadata specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Saacks, Marguerite E.

    1992-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) ideas and techniques are critical to the development of intelligent information systems that will be used to collect, manipulate, and retrieve the vast amounts of space data produced by 'Missions to Planet Earth.' Natural language processing, inference, and expert systems are at the core of this space application of AI. This paper presents logic programming as an AI tool that can support inference (the ability to draw conclusions from a set of complicated and interrelated facts). It reports on the use of logic programming in the study of metadata specifications for a small problem domain of airborne sensors, and the dataset characteristics and pointers that are needed for data access.

  14. Coinductive Logic Programming with Negation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Richard; Gupta, Gopal

    We introduce negation into coinductive logic programming (co-LP) via what we term Coinductive SLDNF (co-SLDNF) resolution. We present declarative and operational semantics of co-SLDNF resolution and present their equivalence under the restriction of rationality. Co-LP with co-SLDNF resolution provides a powerful, practical and efficient operational semantics for Fitting's Kripke-Kleene three-valued logic with restriction of rationality. Further, applications of co-SLDNF resolution are also discussed and illustrated where Co-SLDNF resolution allows one to develop elegant implementations of modal logics. Moreover it provides the capability of non-monotonic inference (e.g., predicate Answer Set Programming) that can be used to develop novel and effective first-order modal non-monotonic inference engines.

  15. Phonotactics in inductive logic programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nerbonne, J.; Konstantopoulos, S.; Klopotek, M.A.; Wierzchon, S.T.; Trojanowski, K.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the results of applying inductive logic programming (ILP) to a relatively simple linguistic task, that of recognizing monosyllables in one language. ILP is suited to linguistic problems given linguists' preference for formulating their theories in discrete rules, and because of ILP's

  16. Programming Games for Logical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tsalapatas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Analytical thinking is a transversal skill that helps learners synthesize knowledge across subject areas; from mathematics, science, and technology to critical reading, critical examination, and evaluation of lessons. While most would not doubt the importance of analytical capacity in academic settings and its growing demand for the skill in professional environments, school curricula do not comprehensively address its development. As a result, the responsibility for structuring related learning activities falls to teachers. This work examines learning paradigms that can be integrated into mathematics and science school education for developing logical thinking through game-based exercises based on programming. The proposed learning design promotes structured algorithmic mindsets, is based on inclusive universal logic present in all cultures, and promotes constructivism educational approaches encouraging learners to drive knowledge building by composing past and emerging experiences.

  17. Enhancing programming logic thinking using analogy mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukamto, R. A.; Megasari, R.

    2018-05-01

    Programming logic thinking is the most important competence for computer science students. However, programming is one of the difficult subject in computer science program. This paper reports our work about enhancing students' programming logic thinking using Analogy Mapping for basic programming subject. Analogy Mapping is a computer application which converts source code into analogies images. This research used time series evaluation and the result showed that Analogy Mapping can enhance students' programming logic thinking.

  18. A History of Probabilistic Inductive Logic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio eRiguzzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of Probabilistic Logic Programming (PLP has seen significant advances in the last 20 years, with many proposals for languages that combine probability with logic programming. Since the start, the problem of learning probabilistic logic programs has been the focus of much attention. Learning these programs represents a whole subfield of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP. In Probabilistic ILP (PILP two problems are considered: learning the parameters of a program given the structure (the rules and learning both the structure and the parameters. Usually structure learning systems use parameter learning as a subroutine. In this article we present an overview of PILP and discuss the main results.

  19. A Denotational Semantics for Logic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg

    A fully abstract denotational semantics for logic programming has not been constructed yet. In this paper we present a denotational semantics that is almost fully abstract. We take the meaning of a logic program to be an element in a Plotkin power domain of substitutions. In this way our result...... shows that standard domain constructions suffice, when giving a semantics for logic programming. Using the well-known fixpoint semantics of logic programming we have to consider two different fixpoints in order to obtain information about both successful and failed computations. In contrast, our...... semantics is uniform in that the (single) meaning of a logic program contains information about both successful, failed and infinite computations. Finally, based on the full abstractness result, we argue that the detail level of substitutions is needed in any denotational semantics for logic programming....

  20. Procedural and Logic Programming: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Will; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examines the similarities and fundamental differences between procedural programing and logic programing by comparing LogoWriter and PROLOG. Suggests that PROLOG may be a good first programing language for students to learn. (MVL)

  1. Abduction, ASP and Open Logic Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Bonatti, Piero A.

    2002-01-01

    Open logic programs and open entailment have been recently proposed as an abstract framework for the verification of incomplete specifications based upon normal logic programs and the stable model semantics. There are obvious analogies between open predicates and abducible predicates. However, despite superficial similarities, there are features of open programs that have no immediate counterpart in the framework of abduction and viceversa. Similarly, open programs cannot be immediately simul...

  2. Towards automatic verification of ladder logic programs

    OpenAIRE

    Zoubek , Bohumir; Roussel , Jean-Marc; Kwiatkowska , Martha

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Control system programs are usually validated by testing prior to their deployment. Unfortunately, testing is not exhaustive and therefore it is possible that a program which passed all the required tests still contains errors. In this paper we apply techniques of automatic verification to a control program written in ladder logic. A model is constructed mechanically from the ladder logic program and subjected to automatic verification against requirements that include...

  3. The PLATO System: A Study in the Diffusion of an Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Francis D.; Wolf, W. C., Jr.

    This study was designed to ascertain the relationships between the steps of a tool designed to link knowledge production and the needs of knowledge users (the Wolf-Welsh Linkage Methodology or WWLM) with milestones in the evolution of an innovative computer-assisted instructional system called PLATO (Programming Logic for Advanced Teaching…

  4. The lazy functional side of logic programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Lau, K.K.; Mountjoy, Jon

    In this paper we show, among other things, that logical structures such as di erence lists have a natural counterpart in lazy functional programs; i.e. that most programs using di erence-lists are functional in nature. This shows immediately that many common non-well-moded programs are functional in

  5. Logic-programming language enriches design processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitson, B.; Ow-Wing, K.

    1984-03-22

    With the emergence of a set of high-level CAD tools for programmable logic devices, designers can translate logic into functional custom devices simply and efficiently. The core of the package is a blockstructured hardware description language called PLPL, for ''programmable-logic programming language.'' The cheif advantage of PLPL lies in its multiple input formats, which permit different design approaches for a variety of design problems. The higher the level of the approach, the closer PLPL will come to directly specifying the desired function. Intermediate steps in the design process can be eliminated, along with the errors that might have been generated during those steps.

  6. Molecular implementation of simple logic programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Tom; Kaplan, Shai; Shapiro, Ehud

    2009-10-01

    Autonomous programmable computing devices made of biomolecules could interact with a biological environment and be used in future biological and medical applications. Biomolecular implementations of finite automata and logic gates have already been developed. Here, we report an autonomous programmable molecular system based on the manipulation of DNA strands that is capable of performing simple logical deductions. Using molecular representations of facts such as Man(Socrates) and rules such as Mortal(X) logical deductions and delivers the result. This prototype is the first simple programming language with a molecular-scale implementation.

  7. Fast logic modules with programmed functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov, V.G.; Selikov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Modern nuclear-physical experiment procedure requires automated control and adjustment of event selection and recording systems. Nanosecond programmed-control units realizing optional set of combinational logic functions are described. Programmed permanent storage device is the basis of one unit, and on-line storage device, preliminary provided with truth tables, is in the basis of the other units. The resolution time is 40 ns. By means of auxiliary unit the programmed logic devices with sequent storage elements (digital timer and pulse generator; multiple-phase generator; sequential digital controller) are realized. The units are performed in CAMAC standard, the modules size being 1M

  8. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O'Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR)

  9. Logic integer programming models for signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, Utz-Uwe; Niermann, Kathrin; Truemper, Klaus; Weismantel, Robert

    2009-05-01

    We propose a static and a dynamic approach to model biological signaling networks, and show how each can be used to answer relevant biological questions. For this, we use the two different mathematical tools of Propositional Logic and Integer Programming. The power of discrete mathematics for handling qualitative as well as quantitative data has so far not been exploited in molecular biology, which is mostly driven by experimental research, relying on first-order or statistical models. The arising logic statements and integer programs are analyzed and can be solved with standard software. For a restricted class of problems the logic models reduce to a polynomial-time solvable satisfiability algorithm. Additionally, a more dynamic model enables enumeration of possible time resolutions in poly-logarithmic time. Computational experiments are included.

  10. Plato's Theories of Knowledge and Education: an Examination of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plato's Theories of Knowledge and Education: an Examination of the Interpretations of Cloete and Agyemang. ... UJAH: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities ... views, this article reveals some serious logical and factual errors in Cloete's interpretations, and thereby clarifies Plato's epistemology and theories of education.

  11. A Program Transformation for Backwards Analysis of Logic Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, John Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The input to backwards analysis is a program together with properties that are required to hold at given program points. The purpose of the analysis is to derive initial goals or pre-conditions that guarantee that, when the program is executed, the given properties hold. The solution for logic...... programs presented here is based on a transformation of the input program, which makes explicit the dependencies of the given program points on the initial goals. The transformation is derived from the resultants semantics of logic programs. The transformed program is then analysed using a standard...

  12. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O`Brien, M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Rudin, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ferguson, J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McFee, J. [I.T. Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-11-30

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

  13. Efficient dynamic optimization of logic programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Phil

    1992-01-01

    A summary is given of the dynamic optimization approach to speed up learning for logic programs. The problem is to restructure a recursive program into an equivalent program whose expected performance is optimal for an unknown but fixed population of problem instances. We define the term 'optimal' relative to the source of input instances and sketch an algorithm that can come within a logarithmic factor of optimal with high probability. Finally, we show that finding high-utility unfolding operations (such as EBG) can be reduced to clause reordering.

  14. Automated termination proofs for logic programs by term rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider-Kamp, P.; Giesl, J.; Serebrenik, A.; Thiemann, R.

    2009-01-01

    There are two kinds of approaches for termination analysis of logic programs: "transformational" and "direct" ones. Direct approaches prove termination directly on the basis of the logic program. Transformational approaches transform a logic program into a Term Rewrite System (TRS) and then analyze

  15. Abstract Interpretation of PIC programs through Logic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Kim Steen; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2006-01-01

    , are applied to the logic based model of the machine. A small PIC microcontroller is used as a case study. An emulator for this microcontroller is written in Prolog, and standard programming transformations and analysis techniques are used to specialise this emulator with respect to a given PIC program....... The specialised emulator can now be further analysed to gain insight into the given program for the PIC microcontroller. The method describes a general framework for applying abstractions, illustrated here by linear constraints and convex hull analysis, to logic programs. Using these techniques on the specialised...

  16. Logic of non-interacting programs and reactive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shelekhov, Vladimir; Tumurov, Erdem

    2012-01-01

    The notion of a program logic is introduced to denote a set of predicates which are true in different program points. The program logic can be easily constructed for different kinds of statements of an imperative or a functional language with data types except pointers. For a non-interacting program, a total correctness formula based on the program logic is defined. The rules of program correctness proof have been developed for proving the statements of various kinds. For a reactive system, t...

  17. Permission-Based Separation Logic for Multithreaded Java Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haack, Christian; Huisman, Marieke; Hurlin, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper motivates and presents a program logic for reasoning about multithreaded Java-like programs with concurrency primitives such as dynamic thread creation, thread joining and reentrant object monitors. The logic is based on concurrent separation logic. It is the first detailed adaptation of

  18. Realization of logical functions by vector programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapkin, L Ya

    1983-03-01

    Recent computing and control applications often require program realization of finite automata in general and of an important particular class of memoryless automata specified by systems of Boolean functions. Logical control and computing machines which receive sequences of discrete signals on the input and convert them into sequences of discrete output signals using finite memory may be described by a finite automation model. However, in distinction from the circuit interpretation of finite automata, the automaton algorithm represents the structure of the automaton program and not the structure of the machine itself. Therefore, the complexity of the computer realization of an automaton is the complexity of the computer program, and not the complexity of the hardware. Two classes of programs currently used to evalute boolean functions are operator programs and binary programs. However, computing machines, including microcomputers, are equipped with additional possibilities for evaluation of Boolean functions, which are not utilized in programs of these two basic classes. In this article, we consider the design of vector programs for program realization of systems of Boolean functions. 3 references.

  19. Finding Ernst Mayr's Plato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jack

    2013-12-01

    Many biologists have accepted Ernst Mayr's claim that evolutionary biology undermined an essentialist or typological view of species that had its roots in Platonic philosophy. However, Mayr has been accused of failing to support with textual evidence his attributions to Plato of these sorts of views about biology. Contemporary work in history and philosophy of biology often seems to take onboard Mayr's account of Plato's view of species. This paper seeks to provide a critical account of putative inconsistencies between an evolutionary view of species and Platonic philosophy with renewed attention to the Platonic texts in light of recent Plato scholarship; I argue that claims that Plato held an essentialist view of species inconsistent with evolutionary biology are inadequately supported by textual evidence. If Mayr's essentialist thesis fails, one might think that the intuition that Platonic philosophy is in tension with Darwinian evolution could nonetheless be accounted for by Plato's apparent privileging of a certain sort of teleological explanation, a thesis that Mayr suggests in his 1959 paper on Louis Agassiz. However, this thesis also faces difficulties. Ernst Mayr's Plato is more likely to be found in the writings of anti-evolutionary 19th century biologists like Mayr's frequent target, Agassiz, than in a cautious reading of the Platonic dialogues themselves. Interlocutors in discussions of the history of biological thought and classificatory methods in biology should be cautious in ascribing views about biology to Plato and using terms like "Platonic essentialism." Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Improvements to the adaptive maneuvering logic program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, George H.

    1986-01-01

    The Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) computer program simulates close-in, one-on-one air-to-air combat between two fighter aircraft. Three important improvements are described. First, the previously available versions of AML were examined for their suitability as a baseline program. The selected program was then revised to eliminate some programming bugs which were uncovered over the years. A listing of this baseline program is included. Second, the equations governing the motion of the aircraft were completely revised. This resulted in a model with substantially higher fidelity than the original equations of motion provided. It also completely eliminated the over-the-top problem, which occurred in the older versions when the AML-driven aircraft attempted a vertical or near vertical loop. Third, the requirements for a versatile generic, yet realistic, aircraft model were studied and implemented in the program. The report contains detailed tables which make the generic aircraft to be either a modern, high performance aircraft, an older high performance aircraft, or a previous generation jet fighter.

  1. [Plato psychiatrist, Foucault platonic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathov, Nicolás

    2016-05-01

    This work explores the links between the concepts of "soul", "law" and "word" in Plato's work, in order to highlight the importance and the centrality of the philosophical-therapeutic dimension in the Greek philosopher's thought. In that way, this work pretends to show that "contemporary" problems usually discussed within "Human Sciences" in general, and Psychiatry in particular, should confront their knowledge with Plato's work, mainly due to the profound influence his ideas have had in our Greco-Christian culture. In that sense, and with that objective, this work also explores Michel Foucault's lucid and controversial interpretation of Plato.

  2. Proving termination of logic programs with delay declarations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Marchiori; F. Teusink (Frank)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we propose a method for proving termination of logic programs with delay declarations. The method is based on the notion of recurrent logic program, which is used to prove programs terminating wrt an arbitrary selection rule. Most importantly, we use the notion of bound

  3. High Speed Simulation Framework for Reliable Logic Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wan-Bok; Kim, Seog-Ju

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows a case study of designing a PLC logic simulator that was developed to simulate and verify PLC control programs for nuclear plant systems. The nuclear control system requires strict restrictions rather than normal process control system does, since it works with nuclear power plants requiring high reliability under severe environment. One restriction is the safeness of the control programs which can be assured by exploiting severe testing. Another restriction is the simulation speed of the control programs, that should be fast enough to control multi devices concurrently in real-time. To cope with these restrictions, we devised a logic compiler which generates C-code programs from given PLC logic programs. Once the logic program was translated into C-code, the program could be analyzed by conventional software analysis tools and could be used to construct a fast logic simulator after cross-compiling, in fact, that is a kind of compiled-code simulation

  4. The Haskell Road to Logic, Maths and Programming, Second Edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. Doets; D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this book is to teach logic and mathematical reasoning in practice, and to connect logical reasoning with computer programming. The programming language that will be our tool for this is Haskell, a member of the Lisp family. Haskell emerged in the last decade as a

  5. Functional and Logic Programming - 14th International Symposium (FLOPS 2018)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Functional and Logic Programming - FLOPS 2018 - held in Nagoya, Japan, May 9 - 11, 2018......This volume contains the proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Functional and Logic Programming - FLOPS 2018 - held in Nagoya, Japan, May 9 - 11, 2018...

  6. A Logic Programming Testbed for Inductive Thought and Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Norman D.

    This paper describes applications of logic programming technology to the teaching of the inductive method in computer science and mathematics. It discusses the nature of inductive thought and its place in those fields of inquiry, arguing that a complete logic programming system for supporting inductive inference is not only feasible but necessary.…

  7. Core TuLiP - Logic Programming for Trust Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czenko, M.R.; Etalle, Sandro; Dahl, V.; Niemelä, I.

    2007-01-01

    We propose CoreTuLiP - the core of a trust management language based on Logic Programming. CoreTuLiP is based on a subset of moded logic programming, but enjoys the features of TM languages such as RT; in particular clauses are issued by different authorities and stored in a distributed manner. We

  8. Deciding Full Branching Time Logic by Program Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, Alberto; Proietti, Maurizio; Senni, Valerio

    We present a method based on logic program transformation, for verifying Computation Tree Logic (CTL*) properties of finite state reactive systems. The finite state systems and the CTL* properties we want to verify, are encoded as logic programs on infinite lists. Our verification method consists of two steps. In the first step we transform the logic program that encodes the given system and the given property, into a monadic ω -program, that is, a stratified program defining nullary or unary predicates on infinite lists. This transformation is performed by applying unfold/fold rules that preserve the perfect model of the initial program. In the second step we verify the property of interest by using a proof method for monadic ω-programs.

  9. Testing Automation of Context-Oriented Programs Using Separation Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Zawawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for programming that enables switching among contexts of commands during program execution is context-oriented programming (COP. This technique is more structured and modular than object-oriented and aspect-oriented programming and hence more flexible. For context-oriented programming, as implemented in COP languages such as ContextJ* and ContextL, this paper introduces accurate operational semantics. The language model of this paper uses Java concepts and is equipped with layer techniques for activation/deactivation of layer contexts. This paper also presents a logical system for COP programs. This logic is necessary for the automation of testing, developing, and validating of partial correctness specifications for COP programs and is an extension of separation logic. A mathematical soundness proof for the logical system against the proposed operational semantics is presented in the paper.

  10. The Application of Logic Programming to Communication Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, David L.

    Recommending that communication students be required to learn to use computers not merely as number crunchers, word processors, data bases, and graphics generators, but also as logical inference makers, this paper examines the recently developed technology of logical programing in computer languages. It presents two syllogisms and shows how they…

  11. PLATO Esperanto Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Judith

    1981-01-01

    A summary is presented of types of Esperanto materials available on PLATO--a general overview section, a picture introduction, lessons that accompany a textbook, vocabulary drills, crossword puzzles, dictation drills, reading practice, and a concentration game. The general overview lesson gives a comprehensive summary of the history and…

  12. Logic Models for Program Design, Implementation, and Evaluation: Workshop Toolkit. REL 2015-057

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakman, Karen; Rodriguez, Sheila M.

    2015-01-01

    The Logic Model Workshop Toolkit is designed to help practitioners learn the purpose of logic models, the different elements of a logic model, and the appropriate steps for developing and using a logic model for program evaluation. Topics covered in the sessions include an overview of logic models, the elements of a logic model, an introduction to…

  13. Verification of Imperative Programs by Constraint Logic Program Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele De Angelis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for verifying partial correctness properties of imperative programs that manipulate integers and arrays by using techniques based on the transformation of constraint logic programs (CLP. We use CLP as a metalanguage for representing imperative programs, their executions, and their properties. First, we encode the correctness of an imperative program, say prog, as the negation of a predicate 'incorrect' defined by a CLP program T. By construction, 'incorrect' holds in the least model of T if and only if the execution of prog from an initial configuration eventually halts in an error configuration. Then, we apply to program T a sequence of transformations that preserve its least model semantics. These transformations are based on well-known transformation rules, such as unfolding and folding, guided by suitable transformation strategies, such as specialization and generalization. The objective of the transformations is to derive a new CLP program TransfT where the predicate 'incorrect' is defined either by (i the fact 'incorrect.' (and in this case prog is not correct, or by (ii the empty set of clauses (and in this case prog is correct. In the case where we derive a CLP program such that neither (i nor (ii holds, we iterate the transformation. Since the problem is undecidable, this process may not terminate. We show through examples that our method can be applied in a rather systematic way, and is amenable to automation by transferring to the field of program verification many techniques developed in the field of program transformation.

  14. From Pericles to Plato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2012-01-01

    Plato is normally taken as one of the founders of Western political philosophy, not at least with his Republic. Here, he constructs a hierarchy of forms of governments, beginning with aristocracy at the top as a critical standard for the other forms of governments, and proceeding through timocracy......’ funeral oration is used to show that Pericles presented a democratic political philosophy that can serve as a counterpoint to Plato’s political philosophy in the Republic....

  15. NWTS waste package program plan. Volume II. Program logic networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This document describes the work planned for developing the technology to design, test and produce packages used for the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in deep geologic repositories. Waste forms considered include spent fuel and high-level waste. The testing and selection effort for barrier materials for radionuclide containment is described. The NWTS waste package program is a design-driven effort; waste package conceptual designs are used as input for preliminary designs, which are upgraded to a final design as materials and testing data become available. Performance assessment models are developed and validated. Milestones and a detailed schedule are given for the waste package development effort. Program logic networks defining work flow, interfaces among the NWTS Projects, and interrelationships of specific activities are presented. Detailed work elements are provided for the Waste Package Program Plan subtasks - design and development, waste form, barrier materials, and performance evaluation - for salt and basalt, host rocks for which the state of waste package knowledge and the corresponding data base are advanced

  16. Proving deadlock freedom of logic programs with dynamic scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Marchiori; F. Teusink (Frank)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn increasingly many logic programming systems, the Prolog left to right selection rule has been replaced with dynamic selection rules, that select an atom of a query among those satisfying suitable conditions. These conditions describe the form of the arguments of every program

  17. Programming Programmable Logic Controller. High-Technology Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Kevin

    This training module on programming programmable logic controllers (PLC) is part of the memory structure and programming unit used in a packaging systems equipment control course. In the course, students assemble, install, maintain, and repair industrial machinery used in industry. The module contains description, objectives, content outline,…

  18. Modular Logic Programming for Web Data, Inheritance and Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karali, Isambo

    The Semantic Web provides a framework and a set of technologies enabling an effective machine processable information. However, most of the problems that are addressed in the Semantic Web were tackled by the artificial intelligence community, in the past. Within this period, Logic Programming emerged as a complete framework ranging from a sound formal theory, based on Horn clauses, to a declarative description language and an operational behavior that can be executed. Logic programming and its extensions have been already used in various approaches in the Semantic Web or the traditional Web context. In this work, we investigate the use of Modular Logic Programming, i.e. Logic Programming extended with modules, to address issues of the Semantic Web ranging from the ontology layer to reasoning and agents. These techniques provide a uniform framework ranging from the data layer to the higher layers of logic, avoiding the problem of incompatibilities of technologies related with different Semantic Web layers. What is more is that it can operate directly on top of existent World Wide Web sources.

  19. Post optimization paradigm in maximum 3-satisfiability logic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Mohd. Asyraf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Kasihmuddin, Mohd Shareduwan Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Maximum 3-Satisfiability (MAX-3SAT) is a counterpart of the Boolean satisfiability problem that can be treated as a constraint optimization problem. It deals with a conundrum of searching the maximum number of satisfied clauses in a particular 3-SAT formula. This paper presents the implementation of enhanced Hopfield network in hastening the Maximum 3-Satisfiability (MAX-3SAT) logic programming. Four post optimization techniques are investigated, including the Elliot symmetric activation function, Gaussian activation function, Wavelet activation function and Hyperbolic tangent activation function. The performances of these post optimization techniques in accelerating MAX-3SAT logic programming will be discussed in terms of the ratio of maximum satisfied clauses, Hamming distance and the computation time. Dev-C++ was used as the platform for training, testing and validating our proposed techniques. The results depict the Hyperbolic tangent activation function and Elliot symmetric activation function can be used in doing MAX-3SAT logic programming.

  20. tactusLogic: programming using physical objects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new programming language that is based on physical elements and especially developed to test the hypothesis that a physical computer programming language is possible. This imperative language is deliberately limited to a few operators...

  1. A Semantics for Modular General Logic Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro

    1998-01-01

    Modular programs are built as a combination of separate modules, which may be developed and verified separately. Therefore, in order to reason over such programs, compositionality plays a crucial role: the semantics of the whole program must be obtainable as a simple function from the semantics of

  2. A semantics for modular general logic programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, S.

    1998-01-01

    Modular programs are built as a combination of separate modules, which may be developed and verified separately. Therefore, in order to reason over such programs, compositionality plays a crucial role: the semantics of the whole program must be obtainable as a simple function from the semantics of

  3. Analysis of Logic Programs Using Regular Tree Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, John Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The eld of nite tree automata provides fundamental notations and tools for reasoning about set of terms called regular or recognizable tree languages. We consider two kinds of analysis using regular tree languages, applied to logic programs. The rst approach is to try to discover automatically...... a tree automaton from a logic program, approximating its minimal Herbrand model. In this case the input for the analysis is a program, and the output is a tree automaton. The second approach is to expose or check properties of the program that can be expressed by a given tree automaton. The input...... to the analysis is a program and a tree automaton, and the output is an abstract model of the program. These two contrasting abstract interpretations can be used in a wide range of analysis and verication problems....

  4. Constraint Logic Programming approach to protein structure prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogolari Federico

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The protein structure prediction problem is one of the most challenging problems in biological sciences. Many approaches have been proposed using database information and/or simplified protein models. The protein structure prediction problem can be cast in the form of an optimization problem. Notwithstanding its importance, the problem has very seldom been tackled by Constraint Logic Programming, a declarative programming paradigm suitable for solving combinatorial optimization problems. Results Constraint Logic Programming techniques have been applied to the protein structure prediction problem on the face-centered cube lattice model. Molecular dynamics techniques, endowed with the notion of constraint, have been also exploited. Even using a very simplified model, Constraint Logic Programming on the face-centered cube lattice model allowed us to obtain acceptable results for a few small proteins. As a test implementation their (known secondary structure and the presence of disulfide bridges are used as constraints. Simplified structures obtained in this way have been converted to all atom models with plausible structure. Results have been compared with a similar approach using a well-established technique as molecular dynamics. Conclusions The results obtained on small proteins show that Constraint Logic Programming techniques can be employed for studying protein simplified models, which can be converted into realistic all atom models. The advantage of Constraint Logic Programming over other, much more explored, methodologies, resides in the rapid software prototyping, in the easy way of encoding heuristics, and in exploiting all the advances made in this research area, e.g. in constraint propagation and its use for pruning the huge search space.

  5. Constraint Logic Programming approach to protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Palù, Alessandro; Dovier, Agostino; Fogolari, Federico

    2004-11-30

    The protein structure prediction problem is one of the most challenging problems in biological sciences. Many approaches have been proposed using database information and/or simplified protein models. The protein structure prediction problem can be cast in the form of an optimization problem. Notwithstanding its importance, the problem has very seldom been tackled by Constraint Logic Programming, a declarative programming paradigm suitable for solving combinatorial optimization problems. Constraint Logic Programming techniques have been applied to the protein structure prediction problem on the face-centered cube lattice model. Molecular dynamics techniques, endowed with the notion of constraint, have been also exploited. Even using a very simplified model, Constraint Logic Programming on the face-centered cube lattice model allowed us to obtain acceptable results for a few small proteins. As a test implementation their (known) secondary structure and the presence of disulfide bridges are used as constraints. Simplified structures obtained in this way have been converted to all atom models with plausible structure. Results have been compared with a similar approach using a well-established technique as molecular dynamics. The results obtained on small proteins show that Constraint Logic Programming techniques can be employed for studying protein simplified models, which can be converted into realistic all atom models. The advantage of Constraint Logic Programming over other, much more explored, methodologies, resides in the rapid software prototyping, in the easy way of encoding heuristics, and in exploiting all the advances made in this research area, e.g. in constraint propagation and its use for pruning the huge search space.

  6. Implementing Probabilistic Abductive Logic Programming with Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2008-01-01

    A class of Probabilistic Abductive Logic Programs (PALPs) is introduced and an implementation is developed in CHR for solving abductive problems, providing minimal explanations with their probabilities. Both all-explanations and most-probable-explanations versions are given. Compared with other...

  7. Probabilistic Abductive Logic Programming in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    A class of Probabilistic Abductive Logic Programs (PALPs) is introduced and an implementation is developed in CHR for solving abductive problems, providing minimal explanations with their probabilities. Both all-explanations and most-probable-explanations versions are given. % Compared with other...

  8. Agent Programming Languages and Logics in Agent-Based Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John

    2018-01-01

    and social behavior, and work on verification. Agent-based simulation is an approach for simulation that also uses the notion of agents. Although agent programming languages and logics are much less used in agent-based simulation, there are successful examples with agents designed according to the BDI...

  9. Contour tracking and corner detection in a logic programming environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, Benjamin; Pau, L. F.

    1990-01-01

    The added functionality such as contour tracking and corner detection which logic programming lends to standard image operators is described. An environment for implementing low-level imaging operations with Prolog predicates is considered. Within this environment, higher-level image predicates (...

  10. Application of Logic Models in a Large Scientific Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Christine M.; Head, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It conducts…

  11. How Learning Logic Programming Affects Recursion Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Bruria

    2004-01-01

    Recursion is a central concept in computer science, yet it is difficult for beginners to comprehend. Israeli high-school students learn recursion in the framework of a special modular program in computer science (Gal-Ezer & Harel, 1999). Some of them are introduced to the concept of recursion in two different paradigms: the procedural…

  12. Purification through Emotions: The Role of Shame in Plato's "Sophist" 230B4-E5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candiotto, Laura

    2018-01-01

    This article proposes an analysis of Plato's "Sophist" (230b4--e5) that underlines the bond between the logical and the emotional components of the Socratic "elenchus", with the aim of depicting the social valence of this philosophical practice. The use of emotions characterizing the 'elenctic' method described by Plato is…

  13. Plato's patricide in the sophist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Irina J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author attempts to elucidate validity of Plato's criticism of Parmenides' simplified monistic ontology, as well as his concept of non-being. In contrast to Parmenides, Plato introduces a more complex ontology of the megista gene and redefines Parmenides' concept of non-being as something absolutely different from being. According to Plato, not all things are in the same sense, i. e. they have the different ontological status. Additionally, he redefines Parmenides' concept of absolute non-being as 'difference' or 'otherness.' .

  14. The CIFF proof procedure for abductive logic programming with constraints: Theory, implementation and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancarella, P.; Terreni, G.; Sadri, F.; Toni, F.; Endriss, U.

    2009-01-01

    We present the CIFF proof procedure for abductive logic programming with constraints, and we prove its correctness. CIFF is an extension of the IFF proof procedure for abductive logic programming, relaxing the original restrictions over variable quantification (allowedness conditions) and

  15. Constraints and Logic Programming in Grammars and Language Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Constraints are an important notion in grammars and language analysis, and constraint programming techniques have been developed concurrently for solving a variety of complex problems. In this chapter we consider the synthesis of these branches into practical and effective methods for language...... methods that combine constraints with logic grammars such as Definite Clause Grammars and CHR Grammars, and show also a direct relationship to abductive reasoning....

  16. Verification and Planning Based on Coinductive Logic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ajay; Min, Richard; Simon, Luke; Mallya, Ajay; Gupta, Gopal

    2008-01-01

    Coinduction is a powerful technique for reasoning about unfounded sets, unbounded structures, infinite automata, and interactive computations [6]. Where induction corresponds to least fixed point's semantics, coinduction corresponds to greatest fixed point semantics. Recently coinduction has been incorporated into logic programming and an elegant operational semantics developed for it [11, 12]. This operational semantics is the greatest fix point counterpart of SLD resolution (SLD resolution imparts operational semantics to least fix point based computations) and is termed co- SLD resolution. In co-SLD resolution, a predicate goal p( t) succeeds if it unifies with one of its ancestor calls. In addition, rational infinite terms are allowed as arguments of predicates. Infinite terms are represented as solutions to unification equations and the occurs check is omitted during the unification process. Coinductive Logic Programming (Co-LP) and Co-SLD resolution can be used to elegantly perform model checking and planning. A combined SLD and Co-SLD resolution based LP system forms the common basis for planning, scheduling, verification, model checking, and constraint solving [9, 4]. This is achieved by amalgamating SLD resolution, co-SLD resolution, and constraint logic programming [13] in a single logic programming system. Given that parallelism in logic programs can be implicitly exploited [8], complex, compute-intensive applications (planning, scheduling, model checking, etc.) can be executed in parallel on multi-core machines. Parallel execution can result in speed-ups as well as in larger instances of the problems being solved. In the remainder we elaborate on (i) how planning can be elegantly and efficiently performed under real-time constraints, (ii) how real-time systems can be elegantly and efficiently model- checked, as well as (iii) how hybrid systems can be verified in a combined system with both co-SLD and SLD resolution. Implementations of co-SLD resolution

  17. A Comparison of Fuzzy and Annotated Logic Programming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krajči, S.; Lencses, R.; Vojtáš, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 144, - (2004), s. 173-192 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1489 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/7557/20; VEGA(SK) 1/7555/20; VEGA(SK) 1/0385/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic programming * generalized annotated programs * declarative and procedural semantics * continuous semantics and computable fixpoint * soundness and completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.734, year: 2004

  18. Synthesizing Dynamic Programming Algorithms from Linear Temporal Logic Formulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Grigore; Havelund, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    The problem of testing a linear temporal logic (LTL) formula on a finite execution trace of events, generated by an executing program, occurs naturally in runtime analysis of software. We present an algorithm which takes an LTL formula and generates an efficient dynamic programming algorithm. The generated algorithm tests whether the LTL formula is satisfied by a finite trace of events given as input. The generated algorithm runs in linear time, its constant depending on the size of the LTL formula. The memory needed is constant, also depending on the size of the formula.

  19. Permission-based separation logic for multi-threaded Java programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amighi, A.; Haack, Christian; Huisman, Marieke; Hurlin, C.

    This paper presents a program logic for reasoning about multithreaded Java-like programs with concurrency primitives such as dynamic thread creation, thread joining and reentrant object monitors. The logic is based on concurrent separation logic. It is the first detailed adaptation of concurrent

  20. Phusis and Nomos in Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nouri Sanghdehi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems in Plato that appears in different forms in his works is the relation of nomos and phusis. This thesis has been in fifth century B.C as the contradiction of phusis and nomos among big thinkers. In this essay, we tried to investigate the relation of phusis and nomos in Plato’s thoughts according to current theories of the contradiction of these in dialogues Gorgias, Republic and Protagoras. Plato tries to minimize consequences of belief to contradiction of phusis and nomos in social and political life by assertion large scale relation between phusis and nomos. Plato depicts the ultimate solution of this problem in Law. There he accounts nomos as raised from phusis that is sub sovereignty of divine. Indeed union of phusis and gods in Plato’s thought is sanction for the identity of phusis and nomos.

  1. Knowledge discovery from structured mammography reports using inductive logic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Elizabeth S; Davis, Jesse; Costa, Victor Santos; Dutra, Inês de Castro; Kahn, Charles E; Fine, Jason; Page, David

    2005-01-01

    The development of large mammography databases provides an opportunity for knowledge discovery and data mining techniques to recognize patterns not previously appreciated. Using a database from a breast imaging practice containing patient risk factors, imaging findings, and biopsy results, we tested whether inductive logic programming (ILP) could discover interesting hypotheses that could subsequently be tested and validated. The ILP algorithm discovered two hypotheses from the data that were 1) judged as interesting by a subspecialty trained mammographer and 2) validated by analysis of the data itself.

  2. Four Educators in Plato's "Theaetetus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Avi I.

    2011-01-01

    Scholars who have taken interest in "Theaetetus'" educational theme argue that Plato contrasts an inferior, even dangerous, sophistic education to a superior, philosophical, Socratic education. I explore the contrasting exhortations, methods, ideals and epistemological foundations of Socratic and Protagorean education and suggest that Socrates'…

  3. Devil is in the details: Using logic models to investigate program process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton, David J; Scicchitano, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Theory-based logic models are commonly developed as part of requirements for grant funding. As a tool to communicate complex social programs, theory based logic models are an effective visual communication. However, after initial development, theory based logic models are often abandoned and remain in their initial form despite changes in the program process. This paper examines the potential benefits of committing time and resources to revising the initial theory driven logic model and developing detailed logic models that describe key activities to accurately reflect the program and assist in effective program management. The authors use a funded special education teacher preparation program to exemplify the utility of drill down logic models. The paper concludes with lessons learned from the iterative revision process and suggests how the process can lead to more flexible and calibrated program management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Logic models as a tool for sexual violence prevention program development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Stephanie R; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Irvin, Neil; Hart, Laurie; Russell, Sarah Jane

    2009-01-01

    Sexual violence is a growing public health problem, and there is an urgent need to develop sexual violence prevention programs. Logic models have emerged as a vital tool in program development. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded an empowerment evaluation designed to work with programs focused on the prevention of first-time male perpetration of sexual violence, and it included as one of its goals, the development of program logic models. Two case studies are presented that describe how significant positive changes can be made to programs as a result of their developing logic models that accurately describe desired outcomes. The first case study describes how the logic model development process made an organization aware of the importance of a program's environmental context for program success; the second case study demonstrates how developing a program logic model can elucidate gaps in organizational programming and suggest ways to close those gaps.

  5. Purwarupa Sistem Kontrol Elevator Berbasis Programable Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathahillah Fathahillah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Various methods / types of controls developed in accordance with industry needs one of them in the field of building automation system. One of the controls in the field of building automation system is the elevator control system (elevator. Early elevator control systems that transport humans or goods as vertical transportation vehicles are still conventional using human power, then evolved using steam engines, until now the elevators use AC motors equipped with control systems. The purpose of this research is to design the prototype of elevator control system using programmable logic control (PLC. The type of PLC controller used in the study using Omron PLC. The results show the design of prototype of elevator control system using PLC successfully and can control eleveator in accordance with its function, besides its programming form can be more simple.

  6. Knowledge discovery in variant databases using inductive logic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoan; Luu, Tien-Dao; Poch, Olivier; Thompson, Julie D

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of genetic variation on the phenotype of an individual is a major goal of biomedical research, especially for the development of diagnostics and effective therapeutic solutions. In this work, we describe the use of a recent knowledge discovery from database (KDD) approach using inductive logic programming (ILP) to automatically extract knowledge about human monogenic diseases. We extracted background knowledge from MSV3d, a database of all human missense variants mapped to 3D protein structure. In this study, we identified 8,117 mutations in 805 proteins with known three-dimensional structures that were known to be involved in human monogenic disease. Our results help to improve our understanding of the relationships between structural, functional or evolutionary features and deleterious mutations. Our inferred rules can also be applied to predict the impact of any single amino acid replacement on the function of a protein. The interpretable rules are available at http://decrypthon.igbmc.fr/kd4v/.

  7. A logic programming approach to medical errors in imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Susana; Brandão, Paulo; Nelas, Luís; Neves, José; Alves, Victor

    2011-09-01

    In 2000, the Institute of Medicine reported disturbing numbers on the scope it covers and the impact of medical error in the process of health delivery. Nevertheless, a solution to this problem may lie on the adoption of adverse event reporting and learning systems that can help to identify hazards and risks. It is crucial to apply models to identify the adverse events root causes, enhance the sharing of knowledge and experience. The efficiency of the efforts to improve patient safety has been frustratingly slow. Some of this insufficiency of progress may be assigned to the lack of systems that take into account the characteristic of the information about the real world. In our daily lives, we formulate most of our decisions normally based on incomplete, uncertain and even forbidden or contradictory information. One's knowledge is less based on exact facts and more on hypothesis, perceptions or indications. From the data collected on our adverse event treatment and learning system on medical imaging, and through the use of Extended Logic Programming to knowledge representation and reasoning, and the exploitation of new methodologies for problem solving, namely those based on the perception of what is an agent and/or multi-agent systems, we intend to generate reports that identify the most relevant causes of error and define improvement strategies, concluding about the impact, place of occurrence, form or type of event recorded in the healthcare institutions. The Eindhoven Classification Model was extended and adapted to the medical imaging field and used to classify adverse events root causes. Extended Logic Programming was used for knowledge representation with defective information, allowing for the modelling of the universe of discourse in terms of data and knowledge default. A systematization of the evolution of the body of knowledge about Quality of Information embedded in the Root Cause Analysis was accomplished. An adverse event reporting and learning system

  8. Comparison of Anti-Virus Programs using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Bezdek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work follows the previous author´s paper: Possible use of Fuzzy Logic in Database. It tries to show application of Fuzzy Logic in selecting the best anti-virus software based on testing made by AV-Comparatives.

  9. Knowledge discovery for pancreatic cancer using inductive logic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yushan; Shimada, Kazuaki; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Maeshiro, Kensei; Ching, Wai-Ki; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; Furuta, Koh

    2014-08-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease and predicting the status of the patients becomes an important and urgent issue. The authors explore the applicability of inductive logic programming (ILP) method in the disease and show that the accumulated clinical laboratory data can be used to predict disease characteristics, and this will contribute to the selection of therapeutic modalities of pancreatic cancer. The availability of a large amount of clinical laboratory data provides clues to aid in the knowledge discovery of diseases. In predicting the differentiation of tumour and the status of lymph node metastasis in pancreatic cancer, using the ILP model, three rules are developed that are consistent with descriptions in the literature. The rules that are identified are useful to detect the differentiation of tumour and the status of lymph node metastasis in pancreatic cancer and therefore contributed significantly to the decision of therapeutic strategies. In addition, the proposed method is compared with the other typical classification techniques and the results further confirm the superiority and merit of the proposed method.

  10. Defining, illustrating and reflecting on logic analysis with an example from a professional development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Brousselle, Astrid; Richard, Lucie; Beaudet, Nicole

    2013-10-01

    Program designers and evaluators should make a point of testing the validity of a program's intervention theory before investing either in implementation or in any type of evaluation. In this context, logic analysis can be a particularly useful option, since it can be used to test the plausibility of a program's intervention theory using scientific knowledge. Professional development in public health is one field among several that would truly benefit from logic analysis, as it appears to be generally lacking in theorization and evaluation. This article presents the application of this analysis method to an innovative public health professional development program, the Health Promotion Laboratory. More specifically, this paper aims to (1) define the logic analysis approach and differentiate it from similar evaluative methods; (2) illustrate the application of this method by a concrete example (logic analysis of a professional development program); and (3) reflect on the requirements of each phase of logic analysis, as well as on the advantages and disadvantages of such an evaluation method. Using logic analysis to evaluate the Health Promotion Laboratory showed that, generally speaking, the program's intervention theory appeared to have been well designed. By testing and critically discussing logic analysis, this article also contributes to further improving and clarifying the method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Scaffold hopping in drug discovery using inductive logic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoyama, Kazuhisa; Amini, Ata; Sternberg, Michael J E; Muggleton, Stephen H

    2008-05-01

    In chemoinformatics, searching for compounds which are structurally diverse and share a biological activity is called scaffold hopping. Scaffold hopping is important since it can be used to obtain alternative structures when the compound under development has unexpected side-effects. Pharmaceutical companies use scaffold hopping when they wish to circumvent prior patents for targets of interest. We propose a new method for scaffold hopping using inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP uses the observed spatial relationships between pharmacophore types in pretested active and inactive compounds and learns human-readable rules describing the diverse structures of active compounds. The ILP-based scaffold hopping method is compared to two previous algorithms (chemically advanced template search, CATS, and CATS3D) on 10 data sets with diverse scaffolds. The comparison shows that the ILP-based method is significantly better than random selection while the other two algorithms are not. In addition, the ILP-based method retrieves new active scaffolds which were not found by CATS and CATS3D. The results show that the ILP-based method is at least as good as the other methods in this study. ILP produces human-readable rules, which makes it possible to identify the three-dimensional features that lead to scaffold hopping. A minor variant of a rule learnt by ILP for scaffold hopping was subsequently found to cover an inhibitor identified by an independent study. This provides a successful result in a blind trial of the effectiveness of ILP to generate rules for scaffold hopping. We conclude that ILP provides a valuable new approach for scaffold hopping.

  12. Development of a Program Logic Model and Evaluation Plan for a Participatory Ergonomics Intervention in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaegers, Lisa; Dale, Ann Marie; Weaver, Nancy; Buchholz, Bryan; Welch, Laura; Evanoff, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Background Intervention studies in participatory ergonomics (PE) are often difficult to interpret due to limited descriptions of program planning and evaluation. Methods In an ongoing PE program with floor layers, we developed a logic model to describe our program plan, and process and summative evaluations designed to describe the efficacy of the program. Results The logic model was a useful tool for describing the program elements and subsequent modifications. The process evaluation measured how well the program was delivered as intended, and revealed the need for program modifications. The summative evaluation provided early measures of the efficacy of the program as delivered. Conclusions Inadequate information on program delivery may lead to erroneous conclusions about intervention efficacy due to Type III error. A logic model guided the delivery and evaluation of our intervention and provides useful information to aid interpretation of results. PMID:24006097

  13. Development of a program logic model and evaluation plan for a participatory ergonomics intervention in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaegers, Lisa; Dale, Ann Marie; Weaver, Nancy; Buchholz, Bryan; Welch, Laura; Evanoff, Bradley

    2014-03-01

    Intervention studies in participatory ergonomics (PE) are often difficult to interpret due to limited descriptions of program planning and evaluation. In an ongoing PE program with floor layers, we developed a logic model to describe our program plan, and process and summative evaluations designed to describe the efficacy of the program. The logic model was a useful tool for describing the program elements and subsequent modifications. The process evaluation measured how well the program was delivered as intended, and revealed the need for program modifications. The summative evaluation provided early measures of the efficacy of the program as delivered. Inadequate information on program delivery may lead to erroneous conclusions about intervention efficacy due to Type III error. A logic model guided the delivery and evaluation of our intervention and provides useful information to aid interpretation of results. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A hybrid nanomemristor/transistor logic circuit capable of self-programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghetti, Julien; Li, Zhiyong; Straznicky, Joseph; Li, Xuema; Ohlberg, Douglas A A; Wu, Wei; Stewart, Duncan R; Williams, R Stanley

    2009-02-10

    Memristor crossbars were fabricated at 40 nm half-pitch, using nanoimprint lithography on the same substrate with Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOS FET) arrays to form fully integrated hybrid memory resistor (memristor)/transistor circuits. The digitally configured memristor crossbars were used to perform logic functions, to serve as a routing fabric for interconnecting the FETs and as the target for storing information. As an illustrative demonstration, the compound Boolean logic operation (A AND B) OR (C AND D) was performed with kilohertz frequency inputs, using resistor-based logic in a memristor crossbar with FET inverter/amplifier outputs. By routing the output signal of a logic operation back onto a target memristor inside the array, the crossbar was conditionally configured by setting the state of a nonvolatile switch. Such conditional programming illuminates the way for a variety of self-programmed logic arrays, and for electronic synaptic computing.

  15. Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (T{sub p}:I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks.

  16. Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong

    2014-07-01

    Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (Tp:I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks.

  17. Computing single step operators of logic programming in radial basis function neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Choon, Ong Hong

    2014-01-01

    Logic programming is the process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable programs. A normal logic program consists of a finite set of clauses. A valuation I of logic programming is a mapping from ground atoms to false or true. The single step operator of any logic programming is defined as a function (T p :I→I). Logic programming is well-suited to building the artificial intelligence systems. In this study, we established a new technique to compute the single step operators of logic programming in the radial basis function neural networks. To do that, we proposed a new technique to generate the training data sets of single step operators. The training data sets are used to build the neural networks. We used the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to get to the steady state (the fixed point of the operators). To improve the performance of the neural networks, we used the particle swarm optimization algorithm to train the networks

  18. Relations as Plural-Predications in Plato

    OpenAIRE

    Scaltsas, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Plato was the first philosopher to discover the metaphysical phenomenon of plural-subjects and plural-predication; e.g. you and I are two, but neither you, nor I are two. I argue that Plato devised an ontology for plural-predication through his Theory of Forms, namely, plural-partaking in a Form. Furthermore, I argue that Plato used plural-partaking to offer an ontology of related individuals without reifying relations. My contention is that Plato’s theory of plural-relatives has evaded detec...

  19. Using program logic model analysis to evaluate and better deliver what works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megdal, Lori; Engle, Victoria; Pakenas, Larry; Albert, Scott; Peters, Jane; Jordan, Gretchen

    2005-01-01

    There is a rich history in using program theories and logic models (PT/LM) for evaluation, monitoring, and program refinement in a variety of fields, such as health care, social and education programs. The use of these tools to evaluate and improve energy efficiency programs has been growing over the last 5-7 years. This paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art methods of logic model development, with analysis that significantly contributed to: Assessing the logic behind how the program expects to be able to meets its ultimate goals, including the 'who', the 'how', and through what mechanism. In doing so, gaps and questions that still need to be addressed can be identified. Identifying and prioritize the indicators that should be measured to evaluate the program and program theory. Determining key researchable questions that need to be answered by evaluation/research, to assess whether the mechanism assumed to cause the changes in actions, attitudes, behaviours, and business practices is workable and efficient. Also will assess the validity in the program logic and the likelihood that the program can accomplish its ultimate goals. Incorporating analysis of prior like programs and social science theories in a framework to identify opportunities for potential program refinements. The paper provides an overview of the tools, techniques and references, and uses as example the energy efficiency program analysis conducted for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority's (NYSERDA) New York ENERGY $MART SM programs

  20. HYPROLOG: A New Logic Programming Language with Assumptions and Abduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    We present HYPROLOG, a novel integration of Prolog with assumptions and abduction which is implemented in and partly borrows syntax from Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) for integrity constraints. Assumptions are a mechanism inspired by linear logic and taken over from Assumption Grammars. The lan......We present HYPROLOG, a novel integration of Prolog with assumptions and abduction which is implemented in and partly borrows syntax from Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) for integrity constraints. Assumptions are a mechanism inspired by linear logic and taken over from Assumption Grammars....... The language shows a novel flexibility in the interaction between the different paradigms, including all additional built-in predicates and constraints solvers that may be available. Assumptions and abduction are especially useful for language processing, and we can show how HYPROLOG works seamlessly together...

  1. Symbolic Evaluation Graphs and Term Rewriting — A General Methodology for Analyzing Logic Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giesl, J.; Ströder, T.; Schneider-Kamp, P.

    2013-01-01

    There exist many powerful techniques to analyze termination and complexity of term rewrite systems (TRSs). Our goal is to use these techniques for the analysis of other programming languages as well. For instance, approaches to prove termination of definite logic programs by a transformation...... to TRSs have been studied for decades. However, a challenge is to handle languages with more complex evaluation strategies (such as Prolog, where predicates like the cut influence the control flow). We present a general methodology for the analysis of such programs. Here, the logic program is first...... information on the termination or complexity of the original logic program. More information can be found in the full paper [1]. © 2013 Springer-Verlag....

  2. Constraint Logic Programming for Resolution of Relative Time Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Translating time expression into absolute time points or durations is a challenge for natural languages processing such as text mining and text understanding in general. We present a constraint logic language CLP(Time) tailored to text usages concerned with time and calendar. It provides a simple...... and flexible formalism to express relationships between different time expressions in a text, thereby giving a recipe for resolving them into absolute time. A constraint solver is developed which, as opposed to some earlier approaches, is independent of the order in which temporal information is introduced...

  3. Verifying object-oriented programs with higher-order separation logic in Coq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtson, Jesper; Jensen, Jonas Braband; Sieczkowski, Filip

    2011-01-01

    We present a shallow Coq embedding of a higher-order separation logic with nested triples for an object-oriented programming language. Moreover, we develop novel specification and proof patterns for reasoning in higher-order separation logic with nested triples about programs that use interfaces...... and interface inheritance. In particular, we show how to use the higher-order features of the Coq formalisation to specify and reason modularly about programs that (1) depend on some unknown code satisfying a specification or that (2) return objects conforming to a certain specification. All of our results have...

  4. Student Perceptions of Instructional Tools in Programming Logic: A Comparison of Traditional versus Alice Teaching Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Leah

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the implementation of the programming language Alice to teach computer programming logic to computer information systems students. Alice has been implemented in other university settings and has been reported to have many benefits including object-oriented concepts and an engaging and fun learning environment. In this…

  5. Reasoning about Java programs in higher order logic using PVS and Isabelle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes the first steps of a project aimed at formal verification of Java programs. The work presented here is part of a larger project called LOOP, for Logic of Object Oriented Programming. A semantics for Java is described in type theory and it is shown how this semantics forms the

  6. IT0: Discrete Math and Programming Logic Topics as a Hybrid Alternative to CS0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a hybrid introductory course for students in their first or second year of an information systems technologies degree program at a large Midwestern university. The course combines topics from discrete mathematics and programming logic and design, a unique twist on most introductory courses. The objective of…

  7. Logic Models: A Tool for Effective Program Planning, Collaboration, and Monitoring. REL 2014-025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekahio, Wendy; Lawton, Brian; Cicchinelli, Louis; Brandon, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    A logic model is a visual representation of the assumptions and theory of action that underlie the structure of an education program. A program can be a strategy for instruction in a classroom, a training session for a group of teachers, a grade-level curriculum, a building-level intervention, or a district-or statewide initiative. This guide, an…

  8. Teaching and Learning Logic Programming in Virtual Worlds Using Interactive Microworld Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosinakis, Spyros; Anastassakis, George; Koutsabasis, Panayiotis

    2018-01-01

    Logic Programming (LP) follows the declarative programming paradigm, which novice students often find hard to grasp. The limited availability of visual teaching aids for LP can lead to low motivation for learning. In this paper, we present a platform for teaching and learning Prolog in Virtual Worlds, which enables the visual interpretation and…

  9. How Young Children Learn to Program with Sensor, Action, and Logic Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyeth, Peta

    2008-01-01

    Electronic Blocks are a new programming environment designed specifically for children aged between 3 and 8 years. These physical, stackable blocks include sensor blocks, action blocks, and logic blocks. By connecting these blocks, children can program a wide variety of structures that interact with one another and the environment. Electronic…

  10. Research on uranium resource models. Part IV. Logic: a computer graphics program to construct integrated logic circuits for genetic-geologic models. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.A.; Turner, R.M.; McCammon, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Integrated logic circuits were described as a means of formally representing genetic-geologic models for estimating undiscovered uranium resources. The logic circuits are logical combinations of selected geologic characteristics judged to be associated with particular types of uranium deposits. Each combination takes on a value which corresponds to the combined presence, absence, or don't know states of the selected characteristic within a specified geographic cell. Within each cell, the output of the logic circuit is taken as a measure of the favorability of occurrence of an undiscovered deposit of the type being considered. In this way, geological, geochemical, and geophysical data are incorporated explicitly into potential uranium resource estimates. The present report describes how integrated logic circuits are constructed by use of a computer graphics program. A user's guide is also included

  11. Horn逻辑程序和形式文法之间的对应关系%The Correspondence between Horn Logic Programs and Formal Grammars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文彬; 王驹

    2003-01-01

    The paper researches Horn logic programs with grammatical view. The correspondence between Horn logic programs and grammars is found. The method by which type-0 grammars generate the least Herbrand models of logic programs is found. The method by which Horn logic programs generate the languages of type-0 grammars is found.The characterization of Horn Logic programs that are semantically equavanent to type-2 grammars and type-3 grammars is found.

  12. Equivalence of two Fixed-Point Semantics for Definitional Higher-Order Logic Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Charalambidis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two distinct research approaches have been proposed for assigning a purely extensional semantics to higher-order logic programming. The former approach uses classical domain theoretic tools while the latter builds on a fixed-point construction defined on a syntactic instantiation of the source program. The relationships between these two approaches had not been investigated until now. In this paper we demonstrate that for a very broad class of programs, namely the class of definitional programs introduced by W. W. Wadge, the two approaches coincide (with respect to ground atoms that involve symbols of the program. On the other hand, we argue that if existential higher-order variables are allowed to appear in the bodies of program rules, the two approaches are in general different. The results of the paper contribute to a better understanding of the semantics of higher-order logic programming.

  13. The Method of Hypothesis in Plato's Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Aboie Mehrizi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the examination of method of hypothesis in Plato's philosophy. This method, respectively, will be examined in three dialogues of Meno, Phaedon and Republic in which it is explicitly indicated. It will be shown the process of change of Plato’s attitude towards the position and usage of the method of hypothesis in his realm of philosophy. In Meno, considering the geometry, Plato attempts to introduce a method that can be used in the realm of philosophy. But, ultimately in Republic, Plato’s special attention to the method and its importance in the philosophical investigations, leads him to revise it. Here, finally Plato introduces the particular method of philosophy, i.e., the dialectic

  14. From Logic Programming Semantics to the Consistency of Syntactical Treatments of Knowledge and Belief

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    that we can keep the predicate approach if we make suitable restrictions to our set of epistemic axioms. Their results are proved by careful translations from corresponding modal formalisms. In the present paper we show that their results fit nicely into the framework of logic programming semantics......, in that we show their results to be corollaries of well-known results in this field. This does not only allow us to demonstrate a close connection between consistency problems in the syntactic treatment of propositional attitudes and problems in semantics for logic programs, but it also allows us......This paper concerns formal theories for reasoning about the knowledge and belief of agents. It has seemed attractive to researchers in artificial intelligence to formalise these propositional attitudes as predicates of first-order predicate logic. This allows the agents to express stronger...

  15. AiGERM: A logic programming front end for GERM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Safaa H.

    1990-01-01

    AiGerm (Artificially Intelligent Graphical Entity Relation Modeler) is a relational data base query and programming language front end for MCC (Mission Control Center)/STP's (Space Test Program) Germ (Graphical Entity Relational Modeling) system. It is intended as an add-on component of the Germ system to be used for navigating very large networks of information. It can also function as an expert system shell for prototyping knowledge-based systems. AiGerm provides an interface between the programming language and Germ.

  16. A Different Kind of Language: Prolog, Programming in Logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, D.

    1986-01-01

    Prolog is one of the most successful "very high level languages." Describes this programming language (a product of artificial intelligence research) and attempts to show how it functions by using some short examples to illustrate its essential features. (JN)

  17. Program Verification with Monadic Second-Order Logic & Languages for Web Service Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders

    applications, this implementation forms the basis of a verification technique for imperative programs that perform data-type operations using pointers. To achieve this, the basic logic is extended with layers of language abstractions. Also, a language for expressing data structures and operations along...

  18. A system at the cross-roads of functional and logic programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamareddine, F.

    1992-01-01

    The type-free ¿-calculus is powerful enough to contain all the polymorphic and higher-order nature of functional programming and furthermore types could be constructed inside it. However, mixing the type-free ¿-calculus with logic is not very straightforward (see Aczel [1] and Scott [15]). In this

  19. A Foundation for Flow-Based Program Matching Using Temporal Logic and Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Doligez, Damien; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    an extension of the temporal logic CTL has been applied to the problem of specifying and verifying the transformations commonly performed by optimizing compilers. Nevertheless, in developing the Coccinelle program transformation tool for performing Linux collateral evolutions in systems code, we have found......, using a transformation rule that fixes several reference count bugs in Linux code....

  20. Drawing Analogies between Logic Programming and Natural Language Argumentation Texts to Scaffold Learners' Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragonis, Noa; Shilo, Gila

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical investigational study of the potential advantages that secondary school learners may gain from learning two different subjects, namely, logic programming within computer science studies and argumentation texts within linguistics studies. The study suggests drawing an analogy between the two subjects since they both…

  1. Epistemic logic and explicit knowledge in distributed programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witzel, A.; Zvesper, J.A.; Padgham, L.; Parkes, D.; Müller, J.; Parsons, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose an explicit form of knowledge-based programming. Our initial motivation is the distributed implementation of game-theoretical algorithms, but we abstract away from the game-theoretical details and describe a general scenario, where a group of agents each have some initially

  2. Normative multi-agent programs and their logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.; Grossi, D.; Meyer, J.-J.C.; Tinnemeier, N.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-agent systems are viewed as consisting of individual agents whose behaviors are regulated by an organization artefact. This paper presents a simplified version of a programming language that is designed to implement norm-based artefacts. Such artefacts are specified in terms of norms being

  3. Development of a Logic Model to Guide Evaluations of the ASCA National Model for School Counseling Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ian; Carey, John

    2014-01-01

    A logic model was developed based on an analysis of the 2012 American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model in order to provide direction for program evaluation initiatives. The logic model identified three outcomes (increased student achievement/gap reduction, increased school counseling program resources, and systemic change and…

  4. Plato's problem an introduction to mathematical platonism

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, M

    2013-01-01

    What is mathematics about? And how can we have access to the reality it is supposed to describe? The book tells the story of this problem, first raised by Plato, through the views of Aristotle, Proclus, Kant, Frege, Gödel, Benacerraf, up to the most recent debate on mathematical platonism.

  5. The PLATO 2.0 mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauer, H.; et al., [Unknown; Hekker, S.

    2014-01-01

    PLATO 2.0 has recently been selected for ESA’s M3 launch opportunity (2022/24). Providing accurate key planet parameters (radius, mass, density and age) in statistical numbers, it addresses fundamental questions such as: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Are there other systems with planets

  6. Quoting Plato in Porphyrius' Cuestiones homericas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Rodríguez‑Noriega Guillén

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the quotations of Plato in Porphyry’s Homeric Questions,including their typology (literal quotation, allusion, paraphrase, etc., their beingor not direct citations, their function in the work, and their possible parallels inother authors.

  7. A Logic Programming Based Approach to Applying Abstract Interpretation to Embedded Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Kim Steen

    anvendt til at analysere programmer udviklet til indlejrede systemer. Et givet indlejret system modelleres som en emulator skrevet i en variant af logikprogrammering kaldet constraint logic programming (CLP). Emulatoren specialiseres med hensyn til et givet program, hvilket resulterer i et nyt program i...... programmeringsparadigme der har et solidt matematisk fundament. Et af dets karakteristika er adskillelsen af logik (betydningen af et program) og kontrol (hvordan programmet udføres), hvilket gør logikprogrammering til et meget anvendeligt sprog hvad angår programanalyse. I denne afhandling bliver logikprogrammering...... skrevet i sproget CLP der samtidig er isomorft med programmet skrevet til det indlejrede system. Anvendes abstract interpretation baserede analysatorer på det specialiserede program, kan resultater fra denne analyse direkte overføres til den indlejrede program, da dette program og den specialiserede...

  8. SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS, BAY CITY, MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SITE Program funded a field demonstration to evaluate the Eco Logic Gas-Phase Chemical Reduction Process developed by ELI Eco Logic International Inc. (ELI), Ontario, Canada. The Demonstration took place at the Middleground Landfill in Bay City, Michigan using landfill wa...

  9. Boolean network identification from perturbation time series data combining dynamics abstraction and logic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, M; Paulevé, L; Schaub, T; Siegel, A; Guziolowski, C

    2016-11-01

    Boolean networks (and more general logic models) are useful frameworks to study signal transduction across multiple pathways. Logic models can be learned from a prior knowledge network structure and multiplex phosphoproteomics data. However, most efficient and scalable training methods focus on the comparison of two time-points and assume that the system has reached an early steady state. In this paper, we generalize such a learning procedure to take into account the time series traces of phosphoproteomics data in order to discriminate Boolean networks according to their transient dynamics. To that end, we identify a necessary condition that must be satisfied by the dynamics of a Boolean network to be consistent with a discretized time series trace. Based on this condition, we use Answer Set Programming to compute an over-approximation of the set of Boolean networks which fit best with experimental data and provide the corresponding encodings. Combined with model-checking approaches, we end up with a global learning algorithm. Our approach is able to learn logic models with a true positive rate higher than 78% in two case studies of mammalian signaling networks; for a larger case study, our method provides optimal answers after 7min of computation. We quantified the gain in our method predictions precision compared to learning approaches based on static data. Finally, as an application, our method proposes erroneous time-points in the time series data with respect to the optimal learned logic models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating bacterial gene-finding HMM structures as probabilistic logic programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørk, Søren; Holmes, Ian

    2012-03-01

    Probabilistic logic programming offers a powerful way to describe and evaluate structured statistical models. To investigate the practicality of probabilistic logic programming for structure learning in bioinformatics, we undertook a simplified bacterial gene-finding benchmark in PRISM, a probabilistic dialect of Prolog. We evaluate Hidden Markov Model structures for bacterial protein-coding gene potential, including a simple null model structure, three structures based on existing bacterial gene finders and two novel model structures. We test standard versions as well as ADPH length modeling and three-state versions of the five model structures. The models are all represented as probabilistic logic programs and evaluated using the PRISM machine learning system in terms of statistical information criteria and gene-finding prediction accuracy, in two bacterial genomes. Neither of our implementations of the two currently most used model structures are best performing in terms of statistical information criteria or prediction performances, suggesting that better-fitting models might be achievable. The source code of all PRISM models, data and additional scripts are freely available for download at: http://github.com/somork/codonhmm. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. Socrates the Pythagorean: an Invention of Plato?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Shichalin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the image of Socrates as found in the Works of Plato and Aristophanes. The author discovers Pythagorean traits in the image of Socrates as portrayed by these two ancient authors. The author also discusses the Pythagoreans and their role in the creation of stable schools of Philosophy. He likewise shows that the sophists were not the only ones contributing to the creation of centres of education and learning in the ancient world

  12. Pemikiran Epistemologi Barat: dari Plato Sampai Gonseth

    OpenAIRE

    Nunu Burhanuddin

    2015-01-01

    This paper riviewing the Western epistemology thought. The theme focuses on Plato to Gonseth. The Epistemology that referred in this article, is to think about "how humans acquire knowledge?". From this then appear four types of sect modern western epistemology thought, namely: sect of empiricism, rationalism sect, kantinian sect, sect of positivism. Furthermore, the social positivism sciences developed by Comte leaves serious problems associated with the loss of the role of the subject. This...

  13. Ancient Doctrines of Passions: Plato and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskra-Paczkowska Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this essay is a discussion of the doctrines of emotions of Plato and Aristotle. According to both them it is impossible to oust the passions from the good, i.e. happy life. On the contrary, emotions are an important component of human excellence. We investigate this question with reference to Plato’s doctrine of the soul and his concept of a perfect life, and Aristotle’s ethics, poetics and rhetoric.

  14. Evaluating PLATO: postgraduate teaching and learning online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Menna; Bullock, Alison

    2014-02-01

      The use of the Internet as a teaching medium has increased rapidly over the last decade. PLATO (postgraduate learning and teaching online) was launched in 2008 by the e-learning unit (ELU) of Wales Deanery. Located within Learning@NHSWales, a Moodle virtual learning environment (VLE), it hosts a wide range of freely available courses and resources tailored to support the education, training and continuing professional development (CPD) needs of health care professionals working across the National Health Service (NHS) Wales. The evaluation aimed to identify the costs and benefits of PLATO, report its value as attributed by users, identify potential cost savings and make recommendations.   Five courses (case studies) were selected, representing the range of available e-learning resources: e-induction; fetal heart monitoring; cervical screening; GP prospective trainers; and tools for trainers. Mixed methods were used: one-to-one qualitative interviews, focus group discussions and surveys explored user views, and identified individual and organisational value.   Qualitative findings identified six key areas of value for users: ELU support and guidance; avoidance of duplication and standardisation; central reference; local control; flexibility for learners; and specific features. Survey results (n=72) indicated 72 per cent of consultants reported that PLATO was easy to access and user friendly. E-learning was rated as 'very/important' for CPD by 79 per cent of respondents. Key challenges were: access, navigation, user concerns, awareness and support.   PLATO supports education and helps deliver UK General Medical Council standards. Future plans should address the suggested recommendations to realise cost savings for NHS Wales and the Wales Deanery. The findings have wider applicability to others developing or using VLEs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Standardising the Lay: Logics of Change in Programs of Disease Self-management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annegrete Juul Nielsen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The health political discourse on self-care is dominated by the view that the selfmanaging patient represents a more democratic and patient-centric perspective, as he or she is believed to renegotiate the terms on which patient participation in health care has hitherto taken place. The self-managing patient is intended as a challenge to traditional medical authority by introducing lay methods of knowing disease. Rather than a meeting between authoritative professionals and vulnerable patients, the self-managing patient seeks to open up new spaces for a meeting between experts. The present paper questions these assumptions through an ethnographic exploration of a patient-led self-management program called the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program. The program is concerned with what its developers call the social and mental aspects of living with a chronic disease and uses trained patients as role models and program leaders. Drawing inspiration from Annemarie Mol’s term ‘logic’, we explore the rationale of ‘situations of selfmanagement’ and identify what we call a ‘logic of change’, which involves very specific ideas on how life with a chronic condition should be dealt with and directs attention towards particular manageable aspects of life with a chronic condition. This logic of change entails, we argue, a clash not between ‘medical’ and ‘lay’ forms of knowledge but between different logics or perceptions of how transformation can be achieved: through open-ended and ongoing reflection and experimentation in social settings or through standardised trajectories of change. Returning to the literature on lay forms of knowledge and illness perspectives, we question whether programs such as the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program – despite its apparent patient-centric perspective – reproduces classical hierarchical relations between lay and expert knowledge, albeit in new forms.

  16. The Father Friendly Initiative within Families: Using a logic model to develop program theory for a father support program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Christine; de Montigny, Francine; Lacharité, Carl; Dubeau, Diane

    2015-10-01

    The transition to fatherhood, with its numerous challenges, has been well documented. Likewise, fathers' relationships with health and social services have also begun to be explored. Yet despite the problems fathers experience in interactions with healthcare services, few programs have been developed for them. To explain this, some authors point to the difficulty practitioners encounter in developing and structuring the theory of programs they are trying to create to promote and support father involvement (Savaya, R., & Waysman, M. (2005). Administration in Social Work, 29(2), 85), even when such theory is key to a program's effectiveness (Chen, H.-T. (2005). Practical program evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications). The objective of the present paper is to present a tool, the logic model, to bridge this gap and to equip practitioners for structuring program theory. This paper addresses two questions: (1) What would be a useful instrument for structuring the development of program theory in interventions for fathers? (2) How would the concepts of a father involvement program best be organized? The case of the Father Friendly Initiative within Families (FFIF) program is used to present and illustrate six simple steps for developing a logic model that are based on program theory and demonstrate its relevance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Support vector inductive logic programming outperforms the naive Bayes classifier and inductive logic programming for the classification of bioactive chemical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Edward O; Amini, Ata; Bender, Andreas; Sternberg, Michael J E; Muggleton, Stephen H; Glen, Robert C; Mitchell, John B O

    2007-05-01

    We investigate the classification performance of circular fingerprints in combination with the Naive Bayes Classifier (MP2D), Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) and Support Vector Inductive Logic Programming (SVILP) on a standard molecular benchmark dataset comprising 11 activity classes and about 102,000 structures. The Naive Bayes Classifier treats features independently while ILP combines structural fragments, and then creates new features with higher predictive power. SVILP is a very recently presented method which adds a support vector machine after common ILP procedures. The performance of the methods is evaluated via a number of statistical measures, namely recall, specificity, precision, F-measure, Matthews Correlation Coefficient, area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve and enrichment factor (EF). According to the F-measure, which takes both recall and precision into account, SVILP is for seven out of the 11 classes the superior method. The results show that the Bayes Classifier gives the best recall performance for eight of the 11 targets, but has a much lower precision, specificity and F-measure. The SVILP model on the other hand has the highest recall for only three of the 11 classes, but generally far superior specificity and precision. To evaluate the statistical significance of the SVILP superiority, we employ McNemar's test which shows that SVILP performs significantly (p < 5%) better than both other methods for six out of 11 activity classes, while being superior with less significance for three of the remaining classes. While previously the Bayes Classifier was shown to perform very well in molecular classification studies, these results suggest that SVILP is able to extract additional knowledge from the data, thus improving classification results further.

  18. Logic programming to infer complex RNA expression patterns from RNA-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirick, Tyler; Militello, Giuseppe; Ponomareva, Yuliya; John, David; Döring, Claudia; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Uchida, Shizuka

    2018-03-01

    To meet the increasing demand in the field, numerous long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) databases are available. Given many lncRNAs are specifically expressed in certain cell types and/or time-dependent manners, most lncRNA databases fall short of providing such profiles. We developed a strategy using logic programming to handle the complex organization of organs, their tissues and cell types as well as gender and developmental time points. To showcase this strategy, we introduce 'RenalDB' (http://renaldb.uni-frankfurt.de), a database providing expression profiles of RNAs in major organs focusing on kidney tissues and cells. RenalDB uses logic programming to describe complex anatomy, sample metadata and logical relationships defining expression, enrichment or specificity. We validated the content of RenalDB with biological experiments and functionally characterized two long intergenic noncoding RNAs: LOC440173 is important for cell growth or cell survival, whereas PAXIP1-AS1 is a regulator of cell death. We anticipate RenalDB will be used as a first step toward functional studies of lncRNAs in the kidney.

  19. Logic Programs as a Specification and Description Tool in the Design Process of an Intelligent Tutoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Möbus, Claus

    1987-01-01

    We propose the use of logic programs when designing intelligent tutoring systems. With their help we specified the small-step semantics of the learning curriculum, designed the graphical user interface, derived instructions and modelled students' knowledge.

  20. Satisfiability of logic programming based on radial basis function neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Tilahun, Surafel Luleseged; Choon, Ong Hong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new technique to test the Satisfiability of propositional logic programming and quantified Boolean formula problem in radial basis function neural networks. For this purpose, we built radial basis function neural networks to represent the proportional logic which has exactly three variables in each clause. We used the Prey-predator algorithm to calculate the output weights of the neural networks, while the K-means clustering algorithm is used to determine the hidden parameters (the centers and the widths). Mean of the sum squared error function is used to measure the activity of the two algorithms. We applied the developed technique with the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to represent the quantified Boolean formulas. The new technique can be applied to solve many applications such as electronic circuits and NP-complete problems

  1. Satisfiability of logic programming based on radial basis function neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Tilahun, Surafel Luleseged; Choon, Ong Hong [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    In this paper, we propose a new technique to test the Satisfiability of propositional logic programming and quantified Boolean formula problem in radial basis function neural networks. For this purpose, we built radial basis function neural networks to represent the proportional logic which has exactly three variables in each clause. We used the Prey-predator algorithm to calculate the output weights of the neural networks, while the K-means clustering algorithm is used to determine the hidden parameters (the centers and the widths). Mean of the sum squared error function is used to measure the activity of the two algorithms. We applied the developed technique with the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to represent the quantified Boolean formulas. The new technique can be applied to solve many applications such as electronic circuits and NP-complete problems.

  2. Programming Cell Adhesion for On-Chip Sequential Boolean Logic Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiangmeng; Wang, Shaopeng; Ge, Zhilei; Wang, Jianbang; Yao, Guangbao; Li, Jiang; Zuo, Xiaolei; Shi, Jiye; Song, Shiping; Wang, Lihua; Li, Li; Pei, Hao; Fan, Chunhai

    2017-08-02

    Programmable remodelling of cell surfaces enables high-precision regulation of cell behavior. In this work, we developed in vitro constructed DNA-based chemical reaction networks (CRNs) to program on-chip cell adhesion. We found that the RGD-functionalized DNA CRNs are entirely noninvasive when interfaced with the fluidic mosaic membrane of living cells. DNA toehold with different lengths could tunably alter the release kinetics of cells, which shows rapid release in minutes with the use of a 6-base toehold. We further demonstrated the realization of Boolean logic functions by using DNA strand displacement reactions, which include multi-input and sequential cell logic gates (AND, OR, XOR, and AND-OR). This study provides a highly generic tool for self-organization of biological systems.

  3. Exhaustively characterizing feasible logic models of a signaling network using Answer Set Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guziolowski, Carito; Videla, Santiago; Eduati, Federica; Thiele, Sven; Cokelaer, Thomas; Siegel, Anne; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2013-09-15

    Logic modeling is a useful tool to study signal transduction across multiple pathways. Logic models can be generated by training a network containing the prior knowledge to phospho-proteomics data. The training can be performed using stochastic optimization procedures, but these are unable to guarantee a global optima or to report the complete family of feasible models. This, however, is essential to provide precise insight in the mechanisms underlaying signal transduction and generate reliable predictions. We propose the use of Answer Set Programming to explore exhaustively the space of feasible logic models. Toward this end, we have developed caspo, an open-source Python package that provides a powerful platform to learn and characterize logic models by leveraging the rich modeling language and solving technologies of Answer Set Programming. We illustrate the usefulness of caspo by revisiting a model of pro-growth and inflammatory pathways in liver cells. We show that, if experimental error is taken into account, there are thousands (11 700) of models compatible with the data. Despite the large number, we can extract structural features from the models, such as links that are always (or never) present or modules that appear in a mutual exclusive fashion. To further characterize this family of models, we investigate the input-output behavior of the models. We find 91 behaviors across the 11 700 models and we suggest new experiments to discriminate among them. Our results underscore the importance of characterizing in a global and exhaustive manner the family of feasible models, with important implications for experimental design. caspo is freely available for download (license GPLv3) and as a web service at http://caspo.genouest.org/. Supplementary materials are available at Bioinformatics online. santiago.videla@irisa.fr.

  4. What is "the patient perspective" in patient engagement programs? Implicit logics and parallels to feminist theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Paula; McMillan, Sarah; McGillicuddy, Patti; Richards, Joy

    2017-01-01

    Public and patient involvement (PPI) in health care may refer to many different processes, ranging from participating in decision-making about one's own care to participating in health services research, health policy development, or organizational reforms. Across these many forms of public and patient involvement, the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings remain poorly articulated. Instead, most public and patient involvement programs rely on policy initiatives as their conceptual frameworks. This lack of conceptual clarity participates in dilemmas of program design, implementation, and evaluation. This study contributes to the development of theoretical understandings of public and patient involvement. In particular, we focus on the deployment of patient engagement programs within health service organizations. To develop a deeper understanding of the conceptual underpinnings of these programs, we examined the concept of "the patient perspective" as used by patient engagement practitioners and participants. Specifically, we focused on the way this phrase was used in the singular: "the" patient perspective or "the" patient voice. From qualitative analysis of interviews with 20 patient advisers and 6 staff members within a large urban health network in Canada, we argue that "the patient perspective" is referred to as a particular kind of situated knowledge, specifically an embodied knowledge of vulnerability. We draw parallels between this logic of patient perspective and the logic of early feminist theory, including the concepts of standpoint theory and strong objectivity. We suggest that champions of patient engagement may learn much from the way feminist theorists have constructed their arguments and addressed critique.

  5. Mitigation of adverse interactions in pairs of clinical practice guidelines using constraint logic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Szymon; Michalowski, Wojtek; Michalowski, Martin; Farion, Ken; Hing, Marisela Mainegra; Mohapatra, Subhra

    2013-04-01

    We propose a new method to mitigate (identify and address) adverse interactions (drug-drug or drug-disease) that occur when a patient with comorbid diseases is managed according to two concurrently applied clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). A lack of methods to facilitate the concurrent application of CPGs severely limits their use in clinical practice and the development of such methods is one of the grand challenges for clinical decision support. The proposed method responds to this challenge. We introduce and formally define logical models of CPGs and other related concepts, and develop the mitigation algorithm that operates on these concepts. In the algorithm we combine domain knowledge encoded as interaction and revision operators using the constraint logic programming (CLP) paradigm. The operators characterize adverse interactions and describe revisions to logical models required to address these interactions, while CLP allows us to efficiently solve the logical models - a solution represents a feasible therapy that may be safely applied to a patient. The mitigation algorithm accepts two CPGs and available (likely incomplete) patient information. It reports whether mitigation has been successful or not, and on success it gives a feasible therapy and points at identified interactions (if any) together with the revisions that address them. Thus, we consider the mitigation algorithm as an alerting tool to support a physician in the concurrent application of CPGs that can be implemented as a component of a clinical decision support system. We illustrate our method in the context of two clinical scenarios involving a patient with duodenal ulcer who experiences an episode of transient ischemic attack. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pemikiran Epistemologi Barat: dari Plato Sampai Gonseth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunu Burhanuddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper riviewing the Western epistemology thought. The theme focuses on Plato to Gonseth. The Epistemology that referred in this article, is to think about "how humans acquire knowledge?". From this then appear four types of sect modern western epistemology thought, namely: sect of empiricism, rationalism sect, kantinian sect, sect of positivism. Furthermore, the social positivism sciences developed by Comte leaves serious problems associated with the loss of the role of the subject. This problem being the background of epistemology philosophy appears that by Emund Husserl developed through the phenomenology, Habermas through hermeneutics, and Ferdinand Gonseth through critical theory.

  7. Plato's ghost the modernist transformation of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Plato's Ghost is the first book to examine the development of mathematics from 1880 to 1920 as a modernist transformation similar to those in art, literature, and music. Jeremy Gray traces the growth of mathematical modernism from its roots in problem solving and theory to its interactions with physics, philosophy, theology, psychology, and ideas about real and artificial languages. He shows how mathematics was popularized, and explains how mathematical modernism not only gave expression to the work of mathematicians and the professional image they sought to create for themselves, but how modernism also introduced deeper and ultimately unanswerable questions

  8. Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, John C.

    2002-01-01

    In joint work with Peter O'Hearn and others, based on early ideas of Burstall, we have developed an extension of Hoare logic that permits reasoning about low-level imperative programs that use shared mutable data structure. The simple imperative programming language is extended with commands (not...... with the inductive definition of predicates on abstract data structures, this extension permits the concise and flexible description of structures with controlled sharing. In this paper, we will survey the current development of this program logic, including extensions that permit unrestricted address arithmetic...

  9. Plato the Pederast: Rhetoric and Cultural Procreation in the Dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Examines Plato's Dialogues by reading them through two cultural lenses: the role of eros in classical Greece and its analogous relationship to language and rhetoric; and the educational function of eros within the ancient institution of pederasty. Shows how the cultural values of ancient Greece manifested themselves in Plato's erotic educational…

  10. Plato and the teaching of entrepreneurship studies as general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondly to use Plato's model of education to stress the importance of the practical aspect of entrepreneurial studies so as to avoid the old syndrome of breeding certificate Laden, theory filled entrepreneurial studies. For Plato, education should be tailored to suit the learner specialization; that is a carpenter should be taught ...

  11. Plato: from Socrates to Pre-Socratics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU. SHICHALIN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view on the chronology of the Corpus Platonicum (CP texts turns out to be anachronistic from several, especially formal and historical, points of view. From the formal point of view all the CP texts can be divided into speeches, framed dialogues and dialogues in dramatic form; there are serious reasons for correlating these groups of dialogues with different chronological periods. Historically, to view Plato’s works as modern philosophical and scholarly literature is incorrect; instead, it would seem expedient to correlate the three groups of dialogues mentioned with their changing audiences for which Plato wrote before the establishment of the Academy, during the first stage of its existence (before the second trip to Sicily and in the later period. The evolution of Plato’s philosophy is to be correlated with the evolution of the school created by him. Lack of attention to these methods can lead to incorrect assumptions concerning Plato’s evolution which found their way, among others, into the book “Plato and the Post-Socratic Dialogue” by Prof. Ch. Kahn where he speaks of a transition from Socratic to Pre-Socratic problems in Plato’s works; the book is critically examined by the author of the present article.

  12. Plato: A localised orbital based density functional theory code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, S. D.; Horsfield, A. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Plato package allows both orthogonal and non-orthogonal tight-binding as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations to be performed within a single framework. The package also provides extensive tools for analysing the results of simulations as well as a number of tools for creating input files. The code is based upon the ideas first discussed in Sankey and Niklewski (1989) [1] with extensions to allow high-quality DFT calculations to be performed. DFT calculations can utilise either the local density approximation or the generalised gradient approximation. Basis sets from minimal basis through to ones containing multiple radial functions per angular momenta and polarisation functions can be used. Illustrations of how the package has been employed are given along with instructions for its utilisation. Program summaryProgram title: Plato Catalogue identifier: AEFC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFC_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 219 974 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 821 493 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C/MPI and PERL Computer: Apple Macintosh, PC, Unix machines Operating system: Unix, Linux and Mac OS X Has the code been vectorised or parallelised?: Yes, up to 256 processors tested RAM: Up to 2 Gbytes per processor Classification: 7.3 External routines: LAPACK, BLAS and optionally ScaLAPACK, BLACS, PBLAS, FFTW Nature of problem: Density functional theory study of electronic structure and total energies of molecules, crystals and surfaces. Solution method: Localised orbital based density functional theory. Restrictions: Tight-binding and density functional theory only, no exact exchange. Unusual features: Both atom centred and uniform meshes available

  13. Inference of Well-Typings for Logic Programs with Application to Termination Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruynooghe, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick; Humbeeck, W. Van

    2005-01-01

    A method is developed to infer a polymorphic well-typing for a logic program. Our motivation is to improve the automation of termination analysis by deriving types from which norms can automatically be constructed. Previous work on type-based termination analysis used either types declared...... by the user, or automatically generated monomorphic types describing the success set of predicates. The latter types are less precise and result in weaker termination conditions than those obtained from declared types. Our type inference procedure involves solving set constraints generated from the program...... and derives a well-typing in contrast to a success-set approximation. Experiments so far show that our automatically inferred well-typings are close to the declared types and result in termination conditions that are as strong as those obtained with declared types. We describe the method, its implementation...

  14. Developing and Using a Logic Model for Evaluation and Assessment of University Student Affairs Programming: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation addresses theory and practice of evaluation and assessment in university student affairs, by applying logic modeling/program theory to a case study. I intend to add knowledge to ongoing dialogue among evaluation scholars and practitioners on student affairs program planning and improvement as integral considerations that serve…

  15. THRESHOLD LOGIC IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMPUTER LOGIC, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , BIONICS, GEOMETRY, INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES, LINEAR PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, NETWORKS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROBABILITY, SWITCHING CIRCUITS, SYNTHESIS

  16. Representation of molecular structure using quantum topology with inductive logic programming in structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttingsrud, Bård; Ryeng, Einar; King, Ross D; Alsberg, Bjørn K

    2006-06-01

    The requirement of aligning each individual molecule in a data set severely limits the type of molecules which can be analysed with traditional structure activity relationship (SAR) methods. A method which solves this problem by using relations between objects is inductive logic programming (ILP). Another advantage of this methodology is its ability to include background knowledge as 1st-order logic. However, previous molecular ILP representations have not been effective in describing the electronic structure of molecules. We present a more unified and comprehensive representation based on Richard Bader's quantum topological atoms in molecules (AIM) theory where critical points in the electron density are connected through a network. AIM theory provides a wealth of chemical information about individual atoms and their bond connections enabling a more flexible and chemically relevant representation. To obtain even more relevant rules with higher coverage, we apply manual postprocessing and interpretation of ILP rules. We have tested the usefulness of the new representation in SAR modelling on classifying compounds of low/high mutagenicity and on a set of factor Xa inhibitors of high and low affinity.

  17. A Continuous Formulation for Logical Decisions in Differential Algebraic Systems using Mathematical Programs with Complementarity Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kody M. Powell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a methodology to represent logical decisions in differential algebraic equation simulation and constrained optimization problems using a set of continuous algebraic equations. The formulations may be used when state variables trigger a change in process dynamics, and introduces a pseudo-binary decision variable, which is continuous, but should only have valid solutions at values of either zero or one within a finite time horizon. This formulation enables dynamic optimization problems with logical disjunctions to be solved by simultaneous solution methods without using methods such as mixed integer programming. Several case studies are given to illustrate the value of this methodology including nonlinear model predictive control of a chemical reactor using a surge tank with overflow to buffer disturbances in feed flow rate. Although this work contains novel methodologies for solving dynamic algebraic equation (DAE constrained problems where the system may experience an abrupt change in dynamics that may otherwise require a conditional statement, there remain substantial limitations to this methodology, including a limited domain where problems may converge and the possibility for ill-conditioning. Although the problems presented use only continuous algebraic equations, the formulation has inherent non-smoothness. Hence, these problems must be solved with care and only in select circumstances, such as in simulation or situations when the solution is expected to be near the solver’s initial point.

  18. Anticoincidence logic using PALs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanos, L.; Arista Romeu, E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the functioning principle of an anticoincidence logic and a design of this based on programing logic. The circuit was included in a discriminator of an equipment for single-photon absorptiometry

  19. A scientific approach to Plato's Atlantis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Rapisarda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The myth of Atlantis is hard to die. This attempt to use scientific evidence to give it the final smash ends up with the doubt that it might not be totally unsubstantiated. The time of the supposed existence of Atlantis (around twelve thousand years ago was, in fact, characterized by technological revolutions, acknowledged by archaeology, and abrupt climate changes, documented by geology. In principle, it cannot therefore be ruled out that some of those dramatic events left a memory, later used by Plato as a basis for its tale. The climate changes involved the majority of the northern hemisphere, thus all the ancient civilizations (Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Indian and Chinese could have preserved reminiscence, but it is clear that the events occurring closer to Greece would have been more accessible to Plato. Among the Mediterranean sites that experienced the cataclysms of the beginning of the Holocene, a good candidate to host a primordial civilization might have been the archipelago then existing in the Strait of Sicily, a natural maritime link between Tunisia and Italy, prized by the presence of an obsidian source at Pantelleria. Eleven thousand five hundred years ago, a sudden sea level rise erased the archipelago, submerging the possible settlements, but Pantelleria obsidian ores are still there and could provide a significant clue. In fact, the potential discovery of artefacts, originating from a source now submerged by the sea level rise, would imply that the collection of the mineral took place when it was still emerged, namely at the time of Atlantis. Even if such discovery would not be sufficient to prove the existence of the mythical island, it would be enough to shake up the timeline of the human occupation in the region.

  20. What Plato and Murdoch Think About Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Shakouri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many interpretations of love and lots of scholars write and talk on love; however, what exactly is the meaning of love? Iris Murdoch’s works are an accumulation of emotional relationships and feelings of love. Her great subject is love, both sexual and non-sexual, and her characters are the portrayal of a small group of people caught up in convoluted ties of love and hate, with Eros ruling over them (Cohen 22. Murdoch was one of the most respected British writers and philosophers of the second half of the twentieth century and, of course, the postwar period. In Murdoch’s novels, love is one of the central themes—marriage, as the institution of love, more often binds than frees. Her characters are mainly ego-centric people who struggle to love and are often overwhelmed by the factor of self-obsession, jealousy, ambition, fascination with suffering and charismatic power. They are absolutely ordinary people with a consuming demand for love, and mental and physical exile. Murdoch was inspired by Plato’s ideas in many ways. Like art, here again Plato’s idea of love is more skeptical than Murdoch’s, whereas Murdoch kept it only as a way to the Good, creation, and happiness. Murdoch and Plato saw love more as a Freudian concept, the Eros, the word that comes from the name of the first Greek god of love. Both the philosophers, Plato and Murdoch, believed that this erotic longing and desires revived by Eros can led to a new direction, a way toward virtue and truth. Her protagonist or marginalized characters are usually tackling it with either vulgarity or the heavenly, which results in creation, art or salvation. Murdoch, as a major moral philosopher, usually grasps the chances to encapsulate her moral visions in her works, and created novels that should be counted as meditations on human love and goodness.

  1. A Web Based Educational Programming Logic Controller Training Set Based on Vocational High School Students' Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alper Efe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and develop aProgramming Logic Controller Training Set according to vocational high school students’ educational needs. In this regard, by using the properties of distance education the proposed system supported “hands-on” PLC programming laboratory exercises in industrial automation area. The system allowed students to access and control the PLC training set remotely. For this purpose, researcher designed a web site to facilitate students’ interactivity and support PLC programming. In the training set, Induction Motor, Frequency Converter and Encoder tripart controlled by Siemens Simatic S7-200 PLC controller by the help of SIMATIC Step 7 Programming Software were used to make the system more effective and efficient. Moreover, training set included an IP camera system allowing to monitor devices and pilot application. By working with this novel remote accessible training set, students and researchers recieved a chance to inhere self paced learning experiences. Also, The PLC training set offered an effective learning enviroenment for distance education, which is based on presenting the content on the web and opening it to the online users and provided a safe and economical solution for multiple users in a workplace to enhance the quality of education with less overall cost.

  2. A Practical Study of Control in Objected-Oriented–Functional–Logic Programming with Paisley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltasar Trancón y Widemann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paisley is an extensible lightweight embedded domain-specific language for nondeterministic pattern matching in Java. Using simple APIs and programming idioms, it brings the power of functional-logic processing of arbitrary data objects to the Java platform, without constraining the underlying object-oriented semantics. Here we present an extension to the Paisley framework that adds pattern-based control flow. It exploits recent additions to the Java language, namely functional interfaces and lambda expressions, for an explicit and transparent continuation-passing style approach to control. We evaluate the practical impact of the novel features on a real-world case study that reengineers a third-party open-source project to use Paisley in place of conventional object-oriented data query idioms. We find the approach viable for incremental refactoring of legacy code, with significant qualitative improvements regarding separation of concerns, clarity and intentionality, thus making for easier code understanding, testing and debugging.

  3. Identification of tumor evolution patterns by means of inductive logic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio; Chiarappa, Patrizia; Mastronardi, Giuseppe; Menolascina, Filippo; Paradiso, Angelo; Tommasi, Stefania

    2008-06-01

    In considering key events of genomic disorders in the development and progression of cancer, the correlation between genomic instability and carcinogenesis is currently under investigation. In this work, we propose an inductive logic programming approach to the problem of modeling evolution patterns for breast cancer. Using this approach, it is possible to extract fingerprints of stages of the disease that can be used in order to develop and deliver the most adequate therapies to patients. Furthermore, such a model can help physicians and biologists in the elucidation of molecular dynamics underlying the aberrations-waterfall model behind carcinogenesis. By showing results obtained on a real-world dataset, we try to give some hints about further approach to the knowledge-driven validations of such hypotheses.

  4. Reconciling pairs of concurrently used clinical practice guidelines using Constraint Logic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Szymon; Michalowski, Martin; Michalowski, Wojtek; Hing, Marisela Mainegra; Farion, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new methodological approach to reconciling adverse and contradictory activities (called points of contention) occurring when a patient is managed according to two or more concurrently used clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The need to address these inconsistencies occurs when a patient with more than one disease, each of which is a comorbid condition, has to be managed according to different treatment regimens. We propose an automatic procedure that constructs a mathematical guideline model using the Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) methodology, uses this model to identify and mitigate encountered points of contention, and revises the considered CPGs accordingly. The proposed procedure is used as an alerting mechanism and coupled with a guideline execution engine warns the physician about potential problems with the concurrent application of two or more guidelines. We illustrate the operation of our procedure in a clinical scenario describing simultaneous use of CPGs for duodenal ulcer and transient ischemic attack.

  5. An Inductive Logic Programming Approach to Validate Hexose Binding Biochemical Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Houssam; Al-Ali, Hassan; Khuri, Sawsan; Keirouz, Walid; Page, David

    2010-01-01

    Hexoses are simple sugars that play a key role in many cellular pathways, and in the regulation of development and disease mechanisms. Current protein-sugar computational models are based, at least partially, on prior biochemical findings and knowledge. They incorporate different parts of these findings in predictive black-box models. We investigate the empirical support for biochemical findings by comparing Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) induced rules to actual biochemical results. We mine the Protein Data Bank for a representative data set of hexose binding sites, non-hexose binding sites and surface grooves. We build an ILP model of hexose-binding sites and evaluate our results against several baseline machine learning classifiers. Our method achieves an accuracy similar to that of other black-box classifiers while providing insight into the discriminating process. In addition, it confirms wet-lab findings and reveals a previously unreported Trp-Glu amino acids dependency.

  6. Using RUFDATA to guide a logic model for a quality assurance process in an undergraduate university program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Paul David

    2016-04-01

    This article presents a framework to identify key mechanisms for developing a logic model blueprint that can be used for an impending comprehensive evaluation of an undergraduate degree program in a Canadian university. The evaluation is a requirement of a comprehensive quality assurance process mandated by the university. A modified RUFDATA (Saunders, 2000) evaluation model is applied as an initiating framework to assist in decision making to provide a guide for conceptualizing a logic model for the quality assurance process. This article will show how an educational evaluation is strengthened by employing a RUFDATA reflective process in exploring key elements of the evaluation process, and then translating this information into a logic model format that could serve to offer a more focussed pathway for the quality assurance activities. Using preliminary program evaluation data from two key stakeholders of the undergraduate program as well as an audit of the curriculum's course syllabi, a case is made for, (1) the importance of inclusivity of key stakeholders participation in the design of the evaluation process to enrich the authenticity and accuracy of program participants' feedback, and (2) the diversification of data collection methods to ensure that stakeholders' narrative feedback is given ample exposure. It is suggested that the modified RUFDATA/logic model framework be applied to all academic programs at the university undergoing the quality assurance process at the same time so that economies of scale may be realized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A retrospective review of the Honduras AIN-C program guided by a community health worker performance logic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Peterson, Lauren A

    2016-05-06

    Factors that influence performance of community health workers (CHWs) delivering health services are not well understood. A recent logic model proposed categories of support from both health sector and communities that influence CHW performance and program outcomes. This logic model has been used to review a growth monitoring program delivered by CHWs in Honduras, known as Atención Integral a la Niñez en la Comunidad (AIN-C). A retrospective review of AIN-C was conducted through a document desk review and supplemented with in-depth interviews. Documents were systematically coded using the categories from the logic model, and gaps were addressed through interviews. Authors reviewed coded data for each category to analyze program details and outcomes as well as identify potential issues and gaps in the logic model. Categories from the logic model were inconsistently represented, with more information available for health sector than community. Context and input activities were not well documented. Information on health sector systems-level activities was available for governance but limited for other categories, while not much was found for community systems-level activities. Most available information focused on program-level activities with substantial data on technical support. Output, outcome, and impact data were drawn from various resources and suggest mixed results of AIN-C on indicators of interest. Assessing CHW performance through a desk review left gaps that could not be addressed about the relationship of activities and performance. There were critical characteristics of program design that made it contextually appropriate; however, it was difficult to identify clear links between AIN-C and malnutrition indicators. Regarding the logic model, several categories were too broad (e.g., technical support, context) and some aspects of AIN-C did not fit neatly in logic model categories (e.g., political commitment, equity, flexibility in implementation). The

  8. Anamnesis and the Silent Narrator in Plato and John

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George L. Parsenios

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Gospel of John is often compared to the dialogues of Plato by those who connect Johannine theology and Platonic philosophy. The comparison operates on the level of ideas. The present paper does not ignore issues of theology and philosophy but grounds a comparison of John and Plato first and foremost on the literary level. In several key places in John 1, 3, and 14, the Johannine narrator recedes from view and is unexpectedly silent where one would expect a narrator’s comment to organize the conversations and interactions between characters in John. Plato also renders the voice of the narrator silent in a dialogue like the Theaetetus. This paper argues that John and Plato both suppress the narrator’s voice in order to further their anamnetic efforts and to make later generations not only readers but participants in their original conversations.

  9. 1 Plato's Theories of Knowledge and Education: an Examination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ngozi Ezenwa-Ohaeto

    doing introduced some of the most insightful theories of knowledge that ..... major deductions he makes from that quotation (but does not explain), are: (i). That Plato 'assumes' that there is 'a pre- linguistic realm whose representation either.

  10. Isocrates and Plato on Rhetoric and Rhetorical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    1991-01-01

    Compares the views of Isocrates and Plato on rhetoric and rhetorical education. Elucidates their criticisms of the sophists, their general assumptions about the nature and function of rhetoric, and their views on rhetorical education. (PRA)

  11. A Case Study on Cyber-security Program for the Programmable Logic Controller of Modern NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, S. H.; Lee, M. S.; Kim, T. H.; Park, C. H.; Park, S. P.; Kim, H. S.

    2014-01-01

    As instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for modern Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been digitalized to cope with their growing complexity, the cyber-security has become an important issue. To protect the I and C systems adequately from cyber threats, such as Stuxnet that attacked Iran's nuclear facilities, regulations of many countries require a cyber-security program covering all the life cycle phases of the system development, from the concept to the retirement. This paper presents a case study of cyber-security program that has been performed during the development of the programmable logic controller (PLC) for modern NPPs of Korea. In the case study, a cyber-security plan, including technical, management, and operational controls, was established through a security risk assessment. Cyber-security activities, such as development of security functions and periodic inspections, were conducted according to the plan: the security functions were applied to the PLC as the technical controls, and periodic inspections and audits were held to check the security of the development environment, as the management and operational controls. A final penetration test was conducted to inspect all the security problems that had been issued during the development. The case study has shown that the systematic cyber-security program detected and removed the vulnerabilities of the target system, which could not be found otherwise, enhancing the cyber-security of the system

  12. A Case Study on Cyber-security Program for the Programmable Logic Controller of Modern NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, S. H. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. S.; Kim, T. H. [Formal Work Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, C. H. [LINE Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Park, S. P. [Ahnlab Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H. S. [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    As instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for modern Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been digitalized to cope with their growing complexity, the cyber-security has become an important issue. To protect the I and C systems adequately from cyber threats, such as Stuxnet that attacked Iran's nuclear facilities, regulations of many countries require a cyber-security program covering all the life cycle phases of the system development, from the concept to the retirement. This paper presents a case study of cyber-security program that has been performed during the development of the programmable logic controller (PLC) for modern NPPs of Korea. In the case study, a cyber-security plan, including technical, management, and operational controls, was established through a security risk assessment. Cyber-security activities, such as development of security functions and periodic inspections, were conducted according to the plan: the security functions were applied to the PLC as the technical controls, and periodic inspections and audits were held to check the security of the development environment, as the management and operational controls. A final penetration test was conducted to inspect all the security problems that had been issued during the development. The case study has shown that the systematic cyber-security program detected and removed the vulnerabilities of the target system, which could not be found otherwise, enhancing the cyber-security of the system.

  13. A backtracking algorithm for the stream AND-parallel execution of logic programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, Z.; Ramamohanarao, K.; Vaghani, J. (Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia))

    1988-06-01

    The authors present the first backtracking algorithm for stream AND-parallel logic programs. It relies on compile-time knowledge of the data flow graph of each clause to let it figure out efficiently which goals to kill or restart when a goal fails. This crucial information, which they derive from mode declarations, was not available at compile-time in any previous stream AND-parallel system. They show that modes can increase the precision of the backtracking algorithm, though their algorithm allows this precision to be traded off against overhead on a procedure-by-procedure and call-by-call basis. The modes also allow their algorithm to handle efficiently programs that manipulate partially instantiated data structures and an important class of programs with circular dependency graphs. On code that does not need backtracking, the efficiency of their algorithm approaches that of the committed-choice languages; on code that does need backtracking its overhead is comparable to that of the independent AND-parallel backtracking algorithms.

  14. Rationality and Motivation: Moral Psychology in Plato's Socratic Dialogues

    OpenAIRE

    Neiders, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    "Rationality and Motivation: Moral Psychology in Plato's Socratic Dialogues" Annotation The dissertation "Rationality and Motivation: Moral Psychology in Plato's Socratic Dialogues" is a philosophical study of Socratic views in moral psychology. Particular attention is paid to what the author calls (1) Doxastic competence and (2) Orectic competence. It is argued that according to Socrates these two different epistemic relations are important aspects of our self-understanding. The doxast...

  15. Using Weighted Constraints to Diagnose Errors in Logic Programming--The Case of an Ill-Defined Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nguyen-Thinh; Menzel, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce logic programming as a domain that exhibits some characteristics of being ill-defined. In order to diagnose student errors in such a domain, we need a means to hypothesise the student's intention, that is the strategy underlying her solution. This is achieved by weighting constraints, so that hypotheses about solution…

  16. Choreographies, Logically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Montesi, Fabrizio; Schürmann, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    In Choreographic Programming, a distributed system is programmed by giving a choreography, a global description of its interactions, instead of separately specifying the behaviour of each of its processes. Process implementations in terms of a distributed language can then be automatically...... projected from a choreography. We present Linear Compositional Choreographies (LCC), a proof theory for reasoning about programs that modularly combine choreographies with processes. Using LCC, we logically reconstruct a semantics and a projection procedure for programs. For the first time, we also obtain...... a procedure for extracting choreographies from process terms....

  17. Relational Parametricity and Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Yang, Hongseok

    2008-01-01

    Separation logic is a recent extension of Hoare logic for reasoning about programs with references to shared mutable data structures. In this paper, we provide a new interpretation of the logic for a programming language with higher types. Our interpretation is based on Reynolds's relational...... parametricity, and it provides a formal connection between separation logic and data abstraction. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  18. A logic programming and statistical systems approach for tissue characterization in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, G.C.; Dudewicz, E.J.; Harner, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The main research goal has been to evalute significant factors affecting the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters R 1 , T 2 , and 1 H density. This approach differs significantly from other such projects in that the experimental data analysis is being performed while concurrently developing automated, computer-aided analysis software for such MRI tissue parameters. In the experimental portion of the project, statistical analyses, and a heuristic minimum/maximum discriminant analysis algorithm have been explored. Both methods have been used to classify tissue types from 1.5 Tesla transaxial MR images of the human brain. The developing program, written in the logic programming language Prolog, similar in a number of ways to many existing expert systems now in use for other medical applications; inclusion of the underlying statistical data base and advanced statistical analyses is the main differentiating feature of the current approach. First results indicate promising classification accuracy of various brain tissues such as gray and white matter, as well as differentiation of different types of gray matter and white matter (e.g.: caudate-nucleus vs. thalamus, both representatives of gray matter; and, cortical white matter vs. internal capsule as representative of white matter). Taking all four tissue types together, the percentage of correct classifications ranges from 73 to 87%. (author)

  19. An approach to profiling for run-time checking of computational properties and performance debugging in logic programs.

    OpenAIRE

    Mera, E.; Trigo, Teresa; López García, Pedro; Hermenegildo, Manuel V.

    2010-01-01

    Although several profiling techniques for identifying performance bottlenecks in logic programs have been developed, they are generally not automatic and in most cases they do not provide enough information for identifying the root causes of such bottlenecks. This complicates using their results for guiding performance improvement. We present a profiling method and tool that provides such explanations. Our profiler associates cost centers to certain program elements and can measure different ...

  20. Development of a Logic Model for a Physical Activity–Based Employee Wellness Program for Mass Transit Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Bhibha M.; Petruzzello, Steven J.; Ryan, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation workers, who constitute a large sector of the workforce, have worksite factors that harm their health. Worksite wellness programs must target this at-risk population. Although physical activity is often a component of worksite wellness logic models, we consider it the cornerstone for improving the health of mass transit employees. Program theory was based on in-person interviews and focus groups of employees. We identified 4 short-term outcome categories, which provided a chain...

  1. Data Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students......A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students...

  2. Plato, Nightingale, and Nursing: Can You Hear Me Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Jacqueline Michele; Fitzsimons, Virginia

    2015-10-01

    A historical perspective on how the writings of Plato influenced Florence Nightingale in the formation of nursing as a respected profession for women. Comparing Nightingale's life and legacy to Platonic philosophy demonstrates how philosophy continues to speak to the profession of nursing practice as guardians of society in the 21st century. A review of the literature using EBSCO, SAGEpub, MEDLINE, and CINAHL databases and hand searches of literature were initiated for the years 1990-2014 using the terms "Plato," "Nightingale," and "nursing" restricted to English. Florence Nightingale, known as the mother of modern-day nursing, embodied her life and work after the philosophic tenets of Plato. Plato's Allegory of the Cave influenced Nightingale's attitudes with regard to the value of education, knowledge of the good, and the importance of imparting learned knowledge to others. Plato's work spoke of educating both men and women to seek the truth, affording both sexes to become competent as future leaders in the role of guardians to society. Nightingale's emphasis of education for women as a conduit for their usefulness to society mirrored Plato's philosophy. Over 100 years after her death, the impact Florence Nightingale still has on professional nursing practice remains. Scholarship in nursing education today is infused with a liberal arts background in philosophy, ethics, and the sciences. Nightingale's holistic concepts of person, health, and environment in the practice of nursing coalesced with her statistical analyses in validating nursing actions foreshadowed the development of universal nursing knowledge and language base and meta-paradigm concepts in nursing. Further classification and categorization of Nightingale's concepts of assessing, implementing, and evaluating delivery of care became the linguistic precursors for the identification of nursing process, nursing actions, and nursing diagnoses. Plato's and Nightingale's holistic, scientific, and

  3. Public health program planning logic model for community engaged type 2 diabetes management and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joseph F

    2014-02-01

    Diabetes remains a growing epidemic with widening health inequity gaps in disease management, self-management knowledge, access to care and outcomes. Yet there is a paucity of evaluation tools for community engaged interventions aimed at closing the gaps and improving health. The Guide to Community Preventive Services (the Community Guide) developed by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services (the Task Force) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends two healthcare system level interventions, case management interventions and disease management programs, to improve glycemic control. However, as a public health resource guide for diabetes interventions a model for community engagement is a glaringly absent component of the Community Guide recommendations. In large part there are few evidence-based interventions featuring community engagement as a practice and system-level focus of chronic disease and Type 2 diabetes management. The central argument presented in this paper is that the absence of these types of interventions is due to the lack of tools for modeling and evaluating such interventions, especially among disparate and poor populations. A conceptual model emphasizing action-oriented micro-level community engagement is needed to complement the Community Guide and serve as the basis for testing and evaluation of these kinds of interventions. A unique logic model advancing the Community Guide diabetes recommendations toward measureable and sustainable community engagement for improved Type 2 diabetes outcomes is presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Discovering H-bonding rules in crystals with inductive logic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Howard Y; Dehaspe, Luc; Luyten, Walter; Van Craenenbroeck, Elke; Vandecasteele, Henk; Van Meervelt, Luc

    2006-01-01

    In the domain of crystal engineering, various schemes have been proposed for the classification of hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) patterns observed in 3D crystal structures. In this study, the aim is to complement these schemes with rules that predict H-bonding in crystals from 2D structural information only. Modern computational power and the advances in inductive logic programming (ILP) can now provide computational chemistry with the opportunity for extracting structure-specific rules from large databases that can be incorporated into expert systems. ILP technology is here applied to H-bonding in crystals to develop a self-extracting expert system utilizing data in the Cambridge Structural Database of small molecule crystal structures. A clear increase in performance was observed when the ILP system DMax was allowed to refer to the local structural environment of the possible H-bond donor/acceptor pairs. This ability distinguishes ILP from more traditional approaches that build rules on the basis of global molecular properties.

  5. Temporal abstraction and inductive logic programming for arrhythmia recognition from electrocardiograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrault, G; Cordier, M-O; Quiniou, R; Wang, F

    2003-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to cardiac arrhythmia recognition from electrocardiograms (ECGs). ECGs record the electrical activity of the heart and are used to diagnose many heart disorders. The numerical ECG is first temporally abstracted into series of time-stamped events. Temporal abstraction makes use of artificial neural networks to extract interesting waves and their features from the input signals. A temporal reasoner called a chronicle recogniser processes such series in order to discover temporal patterns called chronicles which can be related to cardiac arrhythmias. Generally, it is difficult to elicit an accurate set of chronicles from a doctor. Thus, we propose to learn automatically from symbolic ECG examples the chronicles discriminating the arrhythmias belonging to some specific subset. Since temporal relationships are of major importance, inductive logic programming (ILP) is the tool of choice as it enables first-order relational learning. The approach has been evaluated on real ECGs taken from the MIT-BIH database. The performance of the different modules as well as the efficiency of the whole system is presented. The results are rather good and demonstrate that integrating numerical techniques for low level perception and symbolic techniques for high level classification is very valuable.

  6. Logic programming to predict cell fate patterns and retrodict genotypes in organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Benjamin A; Jackson, Ethan; Hajnal, Alex; Fisher, Jasmin

    2014-09-06

    Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development is a paradigm system for understanding cell differentiation in the process of organogenesis. Through temporal and spatial controls, the fate pattern of six cells is determined by the competition of the LET-23 and the Notch signalling pathways. Modelling cell fate determination in vulval development using state-based models, coupled with formal analysis techniques, has been established as a powerful approach in predicting the outcome of combinations of mutations. However, computing the outcomes of complex and highly concurrent models can become prohibitive. Here, we show how logic programs derived from state machines describing the differentiation of C. elegans vulval precursor cells can increase the speed of prediction by four orders of magnitude relative to previous approaches. Moreover, this increase in speed allows us to infer, or 'retrodict', compatible genomes from cell fate patterns. We exploit this technique to predict highly variable cell fate patterns resulting from dig-1 reduced-function mutations and let-23 mosaics. In addition to the new insights offered, we propose our technique as a platform for aiding the design and analysis of experimental data. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Discovering rules for protein-ligand specificity using support vector inductive logic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Lawrence A; Shrimpton, Paul J; Muggleton, Stephen H; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2009-09-01

    Structural genomics initiatives are rapidly generating vast numbers of protein structures. Comparative modelling is also capable of producing accurate structural models for many protein sequences. However, for many of the known structures, functions are not yet determined, and in many modelling tasks, an accurate structural model does not necessarily tell us about function. Thus, there is a pressing need for high-throughput methods for determining function from structure. The spatial arrangement of key amino acids in a folded protein, on the surface or buried in clefts, is often the determinants of its biological function. A central aim of molecular biology is to understand the relationship between such substructures or surfaces and biological function, leading both to function prediction and to function design. We present a new general method for discovering the features of binding pockets that confer specificity for particular ligands. Using a recently developed machine-learning technique which couples the rule-discovery approach of inductive logic programming with the statistical learning power of support vector machines, we are able to discriminate, with high precision (90%) and recall (86%) between pockets that bind FAD and those that bind NAD on a large benchmark set given only the geometry and composition of the backbone of the binding pocket without the use of docking. In addition, we learn rules governing this specificity which can feed into protein functional design protocols. An analysis of the rules found suggests that key features of the binding pocket may be tied to conformational freedom in the ligand. The representation is sufficiently general to be applicable to any discriminatory binding problem. All programs and data sets are freely available to non-commercial users at http://www.sbg.bio.ic.ac.uk/svilp_ligand/.

  8. Fuzzy Logic vs. Neutrosophic Logic: Operations Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Bouzina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is first to show how different, thorough, widespread and effective are the operations logic of the neutrosophic logic compared to the fuzzy logic’s operations logical. The second aim is to observe how a fully new logic, the neutrosophic logic, is established starting by changing the previous logical perspective fuzzy logic, and by changing that, we mean changing changing the truth values from the truth and falsity degrees membership in fuzzy logic, to the truth, falsity and indeterminacy degrees membership in neutrosophic logic; and thirdly, to observe that there is no limit to the logical discoveries - we only change the principle, then the system changes completely.

  9. Book of Abstracts, Logic Colloquium 󈨦, the ASL European Summer Meeting, August 9-15, 1998, Prague, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-23

    the First Hypothesis of Plato’s Parmenides and the Undecidable Sentence of Kurt Godel 155 D. Drai Concepts of validity 156 M. L Zelbert, Logical...account of mathematics in the "Tractatus". -154- LC 󈨦 Book of Abstracts A Comparison Between the First Hypothesis of Plato’s Parmenides and the...42)(05)43129386 svandova@jumbo.ped.muni.cz in the second half of the twentieth century there has been a revival of interest in Plato’s Parmenides

  10. Eugenics concept: from Plato to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvercin, C H; Arda, B

    2008-01-01

    All prospective studies and purposes to improve cure and create a race that would be exempt of various diseases and disabilities are generally defined as eugenic procedures. They aim to create the "perfect" and "higher" human being by eliminating the "unhealthy" prospective persons. All of the supporting actions taken in order to enable the desired properties are called positive eugenic actions; the elimination of undesired properties are defined as negative eugenics. In addition, if such applications and approaches target the public as a whole, they are defined as macro-eugenics. On the other hand, if they only aim at individuals and/or families, they are called micro-eugenics. As generally acknowledged, Galton re-introduced eugenic proposals, but their roots stretch as far back as Plato. Eugenic thoughts and developments were widely accepted in many different countries beginning with the end of the 19th to the first half of the 20th centuries. Initially, the view of negative eugenics that included compulsory sterilizations of handicapped, diseased and "lower" classes, resulted in tens of thousands being exterminated especially in the period of Nazi Germany. In the 1930s, the type of micro positive eugenics movement found a place within the pro-natalist policies of a number of countries. However, it was unsuccessful since the policy was not able to become effective enough and totally disappeared in the 1960s. It was no longer a fashionable movement and left a deep impression on public opinion after the long years of war. However, developments in genetics and its related fields have now enabled eugenic thoughts to reappear under the spotlight and this is creating new moral dilemmas from an ethical perspective.

  11. A discriminative method for family-based protein remote homology detection that combines inductive logic programming and propositional models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Juliana S; Carbone, Alessandra; Zaverucha, Gerson

    2011-03-23

    Remote homology detection is a hard computational problem. Most approaches have trained computational models by using either full protein sequences or multiple sequence alignments (MSA), including all positions. However, when we deal with proteins in the "twilight zone" we can observe that only some segments of sequences (motifs) are conserved. We introduce a novel logical representation that allows us to represent physico-chemical properties of sequences, conserved amino acid positions and conserved physico-chemical positions in the MSA. From this, Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) finds the most frequent patterns (motifs) and uses them to train propositional models, such as decision trees and support vector machines (SVM). We use the SCOP database to perform our experiments by evaluating protein recognition within the same superfamily. Our results show that our methodology when using SVM performs significantly better than some of the state of the art methods, and comparable to other. However, our method provides a comprehensible set of logical rules that can help to understand what determines a protein function. The strategy of selecting only the most frequent patterns is effective for the remote homology detection. This is possible through a suitable first-order logical representation of homologous properties, and through a set of frequent patterns, found by an ILP system, that summarizes essential features of protein functions.

  12. An adaptive maneuvering logic computer program for the simulation of one-on-one air-to-air combat. Volume 1: General description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, G. H.; Fogel, L. J.; Phelps, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for computer simulation of air combat is described. Volume 1 decribes the computer program and its development in general terms. Two versions of the program exist. Both incorporate a logic for selecting and executing air combat maneuvers with performance models of specific fighter aircraft. In the batch processing version the flight paths of two aircraft engaged in interactive aerial combat and controlled by the same logic are computed. The realtime version permits human pilots to fly air-to-air combat against the adaptive maneuvering logic (AML) in Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS). Volume 2 consists of a detailed description of the computer programs.

  13. Plato, Aristotle and the phytagorean influence on Plutarch's De Musica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosevelt Rocha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In his treatise On Music, Plutarch cites and discusses excerpts from works of Plato and Aristotle in which these authors deal with issues relevant to the harmonic theory. In these passages, we see that the sources used by Plutarch have a strong influence of the Pythagorean school, under which the study of musical scales was developed focusing on the mathematical relationships that exist between the notes and intervals. This indicates that Plutarch or not directly read the texts of Plato and Aristotle, or read, but using some other source, a commentator of Pythagorean extraction, who we can not identify.

  14. Plato's Cosmic Theology: A Rationale for a Polytheistic Astrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, André

    2015-05-01

    Plato's cosmology influenced classical astronomy and religion, but was in turn influenced by the polytheistic context of its time. Throughout his texts, including the cosmological treatise Timaeus, and the discussions on the soul in the Phaedrus, Plato (c.428-c.348 BC) established what can be generalised as Platonic cosmological thought. An understanding of the philosophical and mythical levels of Platonic thought can provide a rationale for polytheistic and astrological worldviews, pointing to some cosmological continuity, alongside major shifts, from ancient Greek religion to the astrological thought of ancient astronomers such as Claudius Ptolemy.

  15. Expected asteroseismic performances with the space project PLATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goupil Mariejo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The PLATO (PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of star space project will observe about fifty percents of the sky with the main purpose of detecting, confirming and characterizing transiting exoplanets of (superEarth sizes in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. Determining masses, radii and ages of exoplanets require the knowledge the masses, radii and ages of the host stars. We give a brief presentation of the main features of the mission. We then discuss some expected seismic performances of PLATO for characterizing bright solar-like stars, focusing on the challenging determination of accurate/precise stellar ages.

  16. The effectiveness of web-programming module based on scientific approach to train logical thinking ability for students in vocational high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiroh, Putri Khoirin; Kamdi, Waras; Elmunsyah, Hakkun

    2017-09-01

    Web programming is a basic subject in Computer and Informatics Engineering, a program study in a vocational high school. It requires logical thinking ability in its learning activities. The purposes of this research were (1) to develop a web programming module that implement scientific approach that can improve logical thinking ability for students in vocational high school; and (2) to test the effectiveness of web programming module based on scientific approach to train students' logical thinking ability. The results of this research was a web-programming module that apply scientific approach for learning activities to improve logical thinking ability of students in the vocational high school. The results of the effectiveness test of web-programming module give conclusion that it was very effective to train logical thinking ability and to improve learning result, this conclusion was supported by: (1) the average of posttest result of students exceeds the minimum criterion value, it was 79.91; (2) the average percentage of students' logical thinking score is 82,98; and (3) the average percentage of students' responses to the web programming module was 81.86%.

  17. Using a logic model to evaluate the Kids Together early education inclusion program for children with disabilities and additional needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Kathleen; Manning, Claire; Williams, Kathryn; O'Brien, Ginger; Sutherland, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    Despite clear evidence that learning and social opportunities for children with disabilities and special needs are more effective in inclusive not segregated settings, there are few known effective inclusion programs available to children with disabilities, their families or teachers in the early years within Australia. The Kids Together program was developed to support children with disabilities/additional needs aged 0-8 years attending mainstream early learning environments. Using a key worker transdisciplinary team model, the program aligns with the individualised package approach of the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS). This paper reports on the use of a logic model to underpin the process, outcomes and impact evaluation of the Kids Together program. The research team worked across 15 Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) centres and in home and community settings. A realist evaluation using mixed methods was undertaken to understand what works, for whom and in what contexts. The development of a logic model provided a structured way to explore how the program was implemented and achieved short, medium and long term outcomes within a complex community setting. Kids Together was shown to be a highly effective and innovative model for supporting the inclusion of children with disabilities/additional needs in a range of environments central for early childhood learning and development. The use of a logic model provided a visual representation of the Kids Together model and its component parts and enabled a theory of change to be inferred, showing how a coordinated and collaborative approached can work across multiple environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coping with Logical Fallacies: A Developmental Training Program for Learning to Reason

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforides, Michael; Spanoudis, George; Demetriou, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This study trained children to master logical fallacies and examined how learning is related to processing efficiency and fluid intelligence (gf). A total of one hundred and eighty 8- and 11-year-old children living in Cyprus were allocated to a control, a limited (LI), and a full instruction (FI) group. The LI group learned the notion of logical…

  19. A DNAzyme-mediated logic gate for programming molecular capture and release on DNA origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feiran; Chen, Haorong; Pan, Jing; Cha, Tae-Gon; Medintz, Igor L; Choi, Jong Hyun

    2016-06-28

    Here we design a DNA origami-based site-specific molecular capture and release platform operated by a DNAzyme-mediated logic gate process. We show the programmability and versatility of this platform with small molecules, proteins, and nanoparticles, which may also be controlled by external light signals.

  20. The necessity of dialectics according to Plato and Adorno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne-Marie Eggert

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the notion of philosophy as, on the one hand, an academic or scientific discipline and, on the other, something perhaps superior to the disciplines and in any case dealing with what is not a 'disciplinary' matter. Through an interpretation of Plato's concept of dialectics and...

  1. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angour, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development of…

  2. Plato, Freud and Marx on Human Nature: A Comparative Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the conceptions of human nature by Plato, Sigmund Freud and Karl Marx, with a view to revealing and explaining the convergence and divergence between these conceptions. It shows that agreement or disagreement on the distinguishing characteristics of human individuals can be situated on ...

  3. Three Misunderstandings of Plato's Theory of Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, Mark Jonas argues that there are three broadly held misconceptions of Plato's philosophy that work against his relevance for contemporary moral education. The first is that he is an intellectualist who is concerned only with the cognitive aspect of moral development and does not sufficiently emphasize the affective and conative…

  4. PLATO[R] Achieve Now. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "PLATO[R] Achieve Now" is a software-based curriculum for the elementary and middle school grades. Instructional content is delivered via the PlayStation Portable (PSP[R]) system, allowing students to access learning materials in various settings. Software-based assessments are used to customize individual instruction, allowing students…

  5. Go Tell Alcibiades: Tragedy, Comedy, and Rhetoric in Plato's "Symposium"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Nathan; Poulakos, John

    2008-01-01

    Plato's "Symposium" is a significant but neglected part of his elaborate and complex attitude toward rhetoric. Unlike the intellectual discussion of the "Gorgias" or the unscripted conversation of the "Phaedrus," the "Symposium" stages a feast celebrating and driven by the forces of "Eros." A luxuriously stylish performance rather than a rational…

  6. Future development of the PLATO Observatory for Antarctic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Michael C. B.; Bonner, Colin S.; Everett, Jon R.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Luong-Van, Daniel; McDaid, Scott; McLaren, Campbell; Storey, John W. V.

    2010-07-01

    PLATO is a self-contained robotic observatory built into two 10-foot shipping containers. It has been successfully deployed at Dome A on the Antarctic plateau since January 2008, and has accumulated over 730 days of uptime at the time of writing. PLATO provides 0.5{1kW of continuous electrical power for a year from diesel engines running on Jet-A1, supplemented during the summertime with solar panels. One of the 10-foot shipping containers houses the power system and fuel, the other provides a warm environment for instruments. Two Iridium satellite modems allow 45 MB/day of data to be transferred across the internet. Future enhancements to PLATO, currently in development, include a more modular design, using lithium iron-phosphate batteries, higher power output, and a light-weight low-power version for eld deployment from a Twin Otter aircraft. Technologies used in PLATO include a CAN (Controller Area Network) bus, high-reliability PC/104 com- puters, ultracapacitors for starting the engines, and fault-tolerant redundant design.

  7. Conditioning of high voltage radio frequency cavities by using fuzzy logic in connection with rule based programming

    CERN Document Server

    Perréard, S

    1993-01-01

    Many processes are controlled by experts using some kind of mental model to decide actions and make conclusions. This model, based on heuristic knowledge, can often be conveniently represented in rules and has not to be particularly accurate. This is the case for the problem of conditioning high voltage radio-frequency cavities: the expert has to decide, by observing some criteria, if he can increase or if he has to decrease the voltage and by how much. A program has been implemented which can be applied to a class of similar problems. The kernel of the program is a small rule base, which is independent of the kind of cavity. To model a specific cavity, we use fuzzy logic which is implemented as a separate routine called by the rule base. We use fuzzy logic to translate from numeric to symbolic information. The example we chose for applying this kind of technique can be implemented by sequential programming. The two versions exist for comparison. However, we believe that this kind of programming can be powerf...

  8. Logical Characterisation of Ontology Construction using Fuzzy Description Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans

    had the extension of ontologies with Fuzzy Logic capabilities which plan to make proper backgrounds for ontology driven reasoning and argumentation on vague and imprecise domains. This presentation conceptualises learning from fuzzy classes using the Inductive Logic Programming framework. Then......, employs Description Logics in characterising and analysing fuzzy statements. And finally, provides a conceptual framework describing fuzzy concept learning in ontologies using the Inductive Logic Programming....

  9. Quantum Logic and Quantum Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Stairs, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Quantum logic understood as a reconstruction program had real successes and genuine limitations. This paper offers a synopsis of both and suggests a way of seeing quantum logic in a larger, still thriving context.

  10. Embedding Logics into Product Logic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baaz, M.; Hájek, Petr; Krajíček, Jan; Švejda, David

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (1998), s. 35-47 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030601 Grant - others:COST(XE) Action 15 Keywords : fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Gödel logic * product logic * computational complexity * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. A constraint logic programming approach to associate 1D and 3D structural components for large protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Palù, Alessandro; Pontelli, Enrico; He, Jing; Lu, Yonggang

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes a novel framework, constructed using Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) and parallelism, to determine the association between parts of the primary sequence of a protein and alpha-helices extracted from 3D low-resolution descriptions of large protein complexes. The association is determined by extracting constraints from the 3D information, regarding length, relative position and connectivity of helices, and solving these constraints with the guidance of a secondary structure prediction algorithm. Parallelism is employed to enhance performance on large proteins. The framework provides a fast, inexpensive alternative to determine the exact tertiary structure of unknown proteins.

  12. Logical labyrinths

    CERN Document Server

    Smullyan, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    This book features a unique approach to the teaching of mathematical logic by putting it in the context of the puzzles and paradoxes of common language and rational thought. It serves as a bridge from the author's puzzle books to his technical writing in the fascinating field of mathematical logic. Using the logic of lying and truth-telling, the author introduces the readers to informal reasoning preparing them for the formal study of symbolic logic, from propositional logic to first-order logic, a subject that has many important applications to philosophy, mathematics, and computer science. T

  13. The Logic of the Method of Agent-Based Simulation in the Social Sciences: Empirical and Intentional Adequacy of Computer Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno David; Jaime Simão Sichman; Helder Coelho

    2005-01-01

    WOS:000235217900009 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) The classical theory of computation does not represent an adequate model of reality for simulation in the social sciences. The aim of this paper is to construct a methodological perspective that is able to conciliate the formal and empirical logic of program verification in computer science, with the interpretative and multiparadigmatic logic of the social sciences. We attempt to evaluate whether social simulation implies an additional pers...

  14. On Continuous Distributions and Parameter Estimation in Probabilistic Logic Programs (Over continue verdelingen en het schatten van parameters in probabilistische logische programma's)

    OpenAIRE

    Gutmann, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade remarkable progress has been made on combining statistical machine learning techniques, reasoning under uncertainty, and relational representations. The branch of Artificial Intelligence working on the synthesis of these three areas is known as statistical relational learning or probabilistic logic learning.ProbLog, one of the probabilistic frameworks developed, is an extension of the logic programming language Prolog with independent random variables that are defined by an...

  15. Program for generating tests for the detection of failures in combinatorial logic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, Mounir

    1972-01-01

    A method for generating test sequences for detecting failures in combinatorial logic systems, is described. It relies on: the splitting of these systems into elements of NOR and NAND circuits, the propagation of the failure state from the input to the output. Test sequences generation is achieved in two steps: a first one called chaining during which are investigated the propagation paths of an input state able to show off failures, a second one called consistency during which the global state of the circuit related to this input configuration is held to the wanted state so that the propagation takes place. (author) [fr

  16. Automated identification of protein-ligand interaction features using Inductive Logic Programming: a hexose binding case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Santos Jose C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for automated methods to learn general features of the interactions of a ligand class with its diverse set of protein receptors. An appropriate machine learning approach is Inductive Logic Programming (ILP, which automatically generates comprehensible rules in addition to prediction. The development of ILP systems which can learn rules of the complexity required for studies on protein structure remains a challenge. In this work we use a new ILP system, ProGolem, and demonstrate its performance on learning features of hexose-protein interactions. Results The rules induced by ProGolem detect interactions mediated by aromatics and by planar-polar residues, in addition to less common features such as the aromatic sandwich. The rules also reveal a previously unreported dependency for residues cys and leu. They also specify interactions involving aromatic and hydrogen bonding residues. This paper shows that Inductive Logic Programming implemented in ProGolem can derive rules giving structural features of protein/ligand interactions. Several of these rules are consistent with descriptions in the literature. Conclusions In addition to confirming literature results, ProGolem’s model has a 10-fold cross-validated predictive accuracy that is superior, at the 95% confidence level, to another ILP system previously used to study protein/hexose interactions and is comparable with state-of-the-art statistical learners.

  17. Automated identification of protein-ligand interaction features using Inductive Logic Programming: a hexose binding case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Santos, Jose C; Nassif, Houssam; Page, David; Muggleton, Stephen H; E Sternberg, Michael J

    2012-07-11

    There is a need for automated methods to learn general features of the interactions of a ligand class with its diverse set of protein receptors. An appropriate machine learning approach is Inductive Logic Programming (ILP), which automatically generates comprehensible rules in addition to prediction. The development of ILP systems which can learn rules of the complexity required for studies on protein structure remains a challenge. In this work we use a new ILP system, ProGolem, and demonstrate its performance on learning features of hexose-protein interactions. The rules induced by ProGolem detect interactions mediated by aromatics and by planar-polar residues, in addition to less common features such as the aromatic sandwich. The rules also reveal a previously unreported dependency for residues cys and leu. They also specify interactions involving aromatic and hydrogen bonding residues. This paper shows that Inductive Logic Programming implemented in ProGolem can derive rules giving structural features of protein/ligand interactions. Several of these rules are consistent with descriptions in the literature. In addition to confirming literature results, ProGolem's model has a 10-fold cross-validated predictive accuracy that is superior, at the 95% confidence level, to another ILP system previously used to study protein/hexose interactions and is comparable with state-of-the-art statistical learners.

  18. THE JOURNEY OF TRUTH: FROM PLATO TO ZOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribut Basuki

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Western theater theory and criticism is generally considered to be set forth by the Greeks. Plato was "the first theater critic" with his negative comments about theater owing to his idealistic views about "the truth." Then came Aristotle who used a different viewpoint from that of Plato, saying that there is "truth" in theater. However, hostile criticism on theater came back in the Middle Ages, championed by Tertulian before Aristotelian theory was revived by the neo-classicists such as Scaliger and Castelvetro. Theater theory and criticism discourse was then made more alive by the romanticists who disagreed with the neo-classicists' rigid rules on theater. As the influence of science became dominant in the theater world, naturalism and realism emerged and became the mainstream of theater theory and criticism until well into the twentieth century.

  19. Mathematical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Kleene, Stephen Cole

    1967-01-01

    Undergraduate students with no prior instruction in mathematical logic will benefit from this multi-part text. Part I offers an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order. Part II introduces some of the newer ideas and the more profound results of logical research in the 20th century. 1967 edition.

  20. BDI Logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.J.Ch.; Broersen, J.M.; Herzig, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of so-called BDI logics, logics where the notion of Beliefs, Desires and Intentions play a central role. Starting out from the basic ideas about BDI by Bratman, we consider various formalizations in logic, such as the approach of Cohen and Levesque, slightly

  1. GOAL Agents Instantiate Intention Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Hindriks, Koen; van der Hoek, Wiebe

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly believed there is a big gap between agent logics and computational agent frameworks. In this paper, we show that this gap is not as big as believed by showing that GOAL agents instantiate Intention Logic of Cohen and Levesque. That is, we show that GOAL agent programs can be formally related to Intention Logic.We do so by proving that the GOAL Verification Logic can be embedded into Intention Logic. It follows that (a fragment of) Intention Logic can be used t...

  2. Approach to the problem of motion in Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio García Peña

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the first philosophers began to reflect about the idea of nature, the problem of motion became a crucial topic in their discussions. The entire pre-Socratic tradition was gathered by Plato, whose reflections are often triggered by fragments of Parmenides and Heraclitus. The Athenian philosopher analyzed motion in relation to the visible and intelligible regions that he distinguishes in the sphere of reality, as well as the fine line that links it to the soul

  3. Plato and Aristotle on the Problem of Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Santa Cruz, María Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This paper purports toshow that it is not necessary to read the early Platonic dialogues starting from the "classic" theory of Forms. It argues, instead, that it is possibleto analyze them and, above all, to explain the use of the vocabulary of "presence" starting from the more general and prior possibility of distinguishing a subject from its accidental predicates, especially quality. The relation of "present in" or "being in" to which Plato recurs. is inherited by Aristotle. The distinction...

  4. The Effect of Scratch- and Lego Mindstorms Ev3-Based Programming Activities on Academic Achievement, Problem-Solving Skills and Logical-Mathematical Thinking Skills of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Özgen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Scratch and Lego Mindstorms Ev3 programming activities on academic achievement with respect to computer programming, and on the problem-solving and logical-mathematical thinking skills of students. This study was a semi-experimental, pretest-posttest study with two experimental groups and…

  5. Implementation of dataflow programming based Fuzzy Logic algorithm for gas concentration index in around of Sidoarjo mudflow, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widasari Edita Rosana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sidoarjo mudflow or known as Lapindo mudflow erupted since 2006. The Sidoarjo mudflow is located in Sidoarjo City, East Java, Indonesia. The mudflow-affected area has high air pollution level and high health risk. Therefore, in this paper was implemented a system that can categorize the level of air pollution into several categories. The air quality index can be categorized using fuzzy logic algorithm based on the concentration of air pollutant parameters in the mudflow-affected area. Furthermore, Dataflow programming is used to process the fuzzy logic algorithm. Based on the result, the measurement accuracy of the air quality index in the mudflow-affected area has an accuracy rate of 93.92% in Siring Barat, 93.34% in Mindi, and 95.96% in Jatirejo. The methane concentration is passes the standard quality even though the air quality index is safe. Hence, the area is indicated into Hazardous level. In addition, Mindi has highest and stable methane concentration. It means that Mindi has high-risk air pollution.

  6. Programming the diagnosis logic by means of the conversational graphic input to the CRT display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, A.; Tsuji, H.; Okamoto, Y.

    1984-01-01

    A plant diagnostic method using Cause Consequence Tree (CCT) has been recognized as a powerful means to identify and analyze plant fault events. The off-line support program called the 'CCT diagram editor' was developed and it could generate the computer object program by inputting the CCT diagram itself using the CRT display, tablet and key-board just as the computer aided design (CAD). The CCT diagram editor has improved the problems of the programming error, difficulty of correction or modification and productivity of the program. The system can be used also for safety analysis of nuclear power plants. (author)

  7. Logic programming reveals alteration of key transcription factors in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miannay, Bertrand; Minvielle, Stéphane; Roux, Olivier; Drouin, Pierre; Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Guérin-Charbonnel, Catherine; Gouraud, Wilfried; Attal, Michel; Facon, Thierry; Munshi, Nikhil C; Moreau, Philippe; Campion, Loïc; Magrangeas, Florence; Guziolowski, Carito

    2017-08-23

    Innovative approaches combining regulatory networks (RN) and genomic data are needed to extract biological information for a better understanding of diseases, such as cancer, by improving the identification of entities and thereby leading to potential new therapeutic avenues. In this study, we confronted an automatically generated RN with gene expression profiles (GEP) from a cohort of multiple myeloma (MM) patients and normal individuals using global reasoning on the RN causality to identify key-nodes. We modeled each patient by his or her GEP, the RN and the possible automatically detected repairs needed to establish a coherent flow of the information that explains the logic of the GEP. These repairs could represent cancer mutations leading to GEP variability. With this reasoning, unmeasured protein states can be inferred, and we can simulate the impact of a protein perturbation on the RN behavior to identify therapeutic targets. We showed that JUN/FOS and FOXM1 activities are altered in almost all MM patients and identified two survival markers for MM patients. Our results suggest that JUN/FOS-activation has a strong impact on the RN in view of the whole GEP, whereas FOXM1-activation could be an interesting way to perturb an MM subgroup identified by our method.

  8. Dispositional logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Balleur, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived.

  9. Scheduler-specific Confidentiality for Multi-Threaded Programs and Its Logic-Based Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Ngo, Minh Tri

    2011-01-01

    Observational determinism has been proposed in the literature as a way to ensure confidentiality for multi-threaded programs. Intuitively, a program is observationally deterministic if the behavior of the public variables is deterministic, i.e., independent of the private variables and the

  10. Scheduler-Specific Confidentiality for Multi-Threaded Programs and Its Logic-Based Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Ngo, Minh Tri; Beckert, B.; Damiani, F.; Gurov, D.

    2012-01-01

    Observational determinism has been proposed in the literature as a way to ensure condentiality for multi-threaded programs. Intuitively, a program is observationally deterministic if the behavior of the public variables is deterministic, i.e., independent of the private variables and the scheduling

  11. A logical approach to determine a waste segregation/volume reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, G.D.; Carmel, P.G.; Shimmura, H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses advantages and disadvantages of hand sorting versus use of automated radioactive waste segregation monitors and makes an analysis of costs/versus benefits based on volume with time. Many programs to be employed to prevent unnecessary waste generation with little or no additional cost to the power plant. Parameters needed to perform a cost analysis and methods used to obtain them are discussed. Recommendations on use of vendor-supplied services for segregation, volume reduction, and decontamination are given. The data provided will enable the selection of a program(s) to benefit the individual user's requirements

  12. Efficient methods for solving discrete topology design problems in the PLATO-N project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canh, Nam Nguyen; Stolpe, Mathias

    This paper considers the general multiple load structural topology design problems in the framework of the PLATO-N project. The problems involve a large number of discrete design variables and were modeled as a non-convex mixed 0–1 program. For the class of problems considered, a global...... optimization method based on the branch-and-cut concept was developed and implemented. In the method a large number of continuous relaxations were solved. We also present an algorithm for generating cuts to strengthen the quality of the relaxations. Several heuristics were also investigated to obtain efficient...... algorithms. The branch and cut method is used to solve benchmark examples which can be used to validate other methods and heuristics....

  13. On social justice: Comparing Paul with Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Strijdom

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available n “In search of Paul” (2004 Crossan and Reed argue that Paul’s vision and program were essentially in continuity with Jesus’: both opposed, be it in Galilean villages or Roman cities, an unjust imperial system by means of an alternative project of egalitarian, distributive justice. Although Crossan elsewhere demonstrates the deep roots of this concern in the Jewish tradition, he tends to downplay the importance of Greek contributions in this regard. The purpose of this essay will be to offer, in constant dialogue with Crossan (and Reed, a more refined comparison of social justice in Paul on the one hand and Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics on the other. If Paul tried to establish egalitarian and sharing Christian communities under the Roman empire, how do this vision and program compare and contrast with Plato's hierarchical but communal concept of justice, Aristotle’s distributive notion according to merit, and most importantly the Stoics’ argument of “oikeiosis” (i.e., other-concern by concentrical familiarization with the other? Imagine, say Crossan and Reed (CR hereafter in their recent book on Paul, the following dialogue between ourselves and Paul: Do you think, Paul, that all men are created equal and endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights? I am not speaking about all men, but about all Christians. But do you think, Paul, that all people should be Christians? Yes, of course,. And do you think, Paul, that all Christians should be equal with one another?Yes, of course. Then do you think, Paul, that it is God’s will for all people to be equal with one another? Well, let me think about that one for a while and, in the meantime, you think about equality in Christ. (CR 2004:234

  14. Discourse, Dialectic and Intrapersonal Rhetoric: A Reinterpretation of Plato's Rhetorical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikins, James W.

    The idea that rhetoric might operate in epistemologically significant ways was first presented by Plato. This paper argues that the heart of Plato's conception of epistemic discourse is a recognition of the centrality of intrapersonal rhetoric. Through a careful study of Platonic writing, particularly the "Phaedrus," three principal…

  15. Worldly and Otherworldly Virtue: Likeness to God as Educational Ideal in Plato, Plotinus, and Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovko, Marie-Élise

    2018-01-01

    In Plato, 'Becoming like God' constitutes the "telos" of the philosophical life. Our 'likeness to God' is rooted in the relationship of the divine paradeigma to its image established in the generation of the Cosmos. This relationship makes knowledge and virtue possible, and informs Plato's theory of education. Related concepts preexist…

  16. Plato and the Modern American "Right": Agendas, Assumptions, and the Culture of Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interpretation of Plato's "Republic" that has many striking similarities to the social agenda of modern educational conservatives in the United States, which is particularly timely because George W. Bush's administration is, at this writing, coming to an end. Plato's ideal city is best seen as one that promoted an…

  17. Logic Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Tugué, Tosiyuki; Slaman, Theodore

    1989-01-01

    These proceedings include the papers presented at the logic meeting held at the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, in the summer of 1987. The meeting mainly covered the current research in various areas of mathematical logic and its applications in Japan. Several lectures were also presented by logicians from other countries, who visited Japan in the summer of 1987.

  18. Reversing Plato’s Anti-Democratism: Castoriadis’ “Quirky” Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamblet, Wendy C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the conflicting "loves" of Cornelius Castoriadis--his love for the ancients, and especially Plato, and for the common person of the demos. A detailed study of Castoriadis' analysis of Plato's Statesman exposes that Castoriadis attempts to resolve the paradox by rereading Plato as a radical democrat. I argue that this unorthodox reading is at best "quirky, " (a charge Castoriadis levels at Plato at worst a groundless sophism. However, I conjecture that Castoriadis' reading may not constitute a serious attempt to describe a Platonic politics, so much as a prescriptive reading of what otherwise might have been, given certain strands of political generosity evident elsewhere in Plato's corpus.

  19. Sports training program at school – Athlete at School: logical fundamentals and historical circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadson Santana Reis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is an initial attempt to assess the "Sports Training Program at School - Athlete at School" and is structured according to its wide three "lines of action", namely: encouragement and democratization of sports practices at school; development and dissemination of the Olympic and Paralympic values among students of basic education; and identification and guidance of young talents. In the case of the first two lines, the results show weaknesses, mismatches, and inaccuracies between the theoretical conceptual framework and the technical operational design. On the other hand, the last line confers identity and compliancy to the program, (redirecting the school and physical education to the old "game" of sports massification, and identification and selection of talents. Therefore, the considerations indicate the need to counteract the renewed risk of using the school, physical education, and educational sports policies in accordance with the desires and prerogatives of the sports sector stricto sensu.

  20. Improving the human readability of Arden Syntax medical logic modules using a concept-oriented terminology and object-oriented programming expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeeyae; Bakken, Suzanne; Lussier, Yves A; Mendonça, Eneida A

    2006-01-01

    Medical logic modules are a procedural representation for sharing task-specific knowledge for decision support systems. Based on the premise that clinicians may perceive object-oriented expressions as easier to read than procedural rules in Arden Syntax-based medical logic modules, we developed a method for improving the readability of medical logic modules. Two approaches were applied: exploiting the concept-oriented features of the Medical Entities Dictionary and building an executable Java program to replace Arden Syntax procedural expressions. The usability evaluation showed that 66% of participants successfully mapped all Arden Syntax rules to Java methods. These findings suggest that these approaches can play an essential role in the creation of human readable medical logic modules and can potentially increase the number of clinical experts who are able to participate in the creation of medical logic modules. Although our approaches are broadly applicable, we specifically discuss the relevance to concept-oriented nursing terminologies and automated processing of task-specific nursing knowledge.

  1. Advances in temporal logic

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham

    2000-01-01

    Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...

  2. PROBABILISTIC COST ANALYSIS OF LOGIC PROGRAMS ANÁLISIS DE COSTO PROBABILÍSTICO DE PROGRAMAS LÓGICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Juan Soza Pollman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cost analyses of logic programs have been developed which make it possible to obtain automatically lower and upper bounds of runtime cost of computations. This information is very useful for a variety of purposes, including granularity control, query optimization in databases, and program transformation and synthesis. However, current techniques suffer a loss of accuracy in some cases which are quite representative (i.e., some divide-and-conquer programs as QuickSort. This paper describes an alternative probabilistic approach which makes it possible to figure out an estimate of the execution cost. One of its advantages is that it needs only a few changes over previously proposed schemes.Se han desarrollado análisis de costos de programas lógicos para obtener automáticamente cotas superiores e inferiores del costo del tiempo de ejecución de dicho tipo de programas. Esta información es muy útil para una variedad de propósitos, incluyendo control de granularidad, optimización de consultas en bases de datos, y transformación de programas y síntesis. Sin embargo, las técnicas actuales carecen de exactitud en algunos casos que son bastante representativos (por ejemplo, algunos programas de dividir para reinar como Quicksort. Este artículo describe un enfoque probabilístico alternativo que hace posible obtener una estimación más precisa del costo de ejecución. Una de sus ventajas es que plantea sólo unos pocos cambios sobre los esquemas propuestos previamente.

  3. MANUAL LOGIC CONTROLLER (MLC)

    OpenAIRE

    Claude Ziad Bayeh

    2015-01-01

    The “Manual Logic Controller” also called MLC, is an electronic circuit invented and designed by the author in 2008, in order to replace the well known PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) in many applications for its advantages and its low cost of fabrication. The function of the MLC is somewhat similar to the well known PLC, but instead of doing it by inserting a written program into the PLC using a computer or specific software inside the PLC, it will be manually programmed in a manner to h...

  4. Development of a software tool using deterministic logic for the optimization of cochlear implant processor programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, Paul J; Vaerenberg, Bart; De Ceulaer, Geert; Daemers, Kristin; De Beukelaer, Carina; Schauwers, Karen

    2010-08-01

    An intelligent agent, Fitting to Outcomes eXpert, was developed to optimize and automate Cochlear implant (CI) programming. The current article describes the rationale, development, and features of this tool. Cochlear implant fitting is a time-consuming procedure to define the value of a subset of the available electric parameters based primarily on behavioral responses. It is comfort-driven with high intraindividual and interindividual variability both with respect to the patient and to the clinician. Its validity in terms of process control can be questioned. Good clinical practice would require an outcome-driven approach. An intelligent agent may help solve the complexity of addressing more electric parameters based on a range of outcome measures. A software application was developed that consists of deterministic rules that analyze the map settings in the processor together with psychoacoustic test results (audiogram, A(section sign)E phoneme discrimination, A(section sign)E loudness scaling, speech audiogram) obtained with that map. The rules were based on the daily clinical practice and the expertise of the CI programmers. The data transfer to and from this agent is either manual or through seamless digital communication with the CI fitting database and the psychoacoustic test suite. It recommends and executes modifications to the map settings to improve the outcome. Fitting to Outcomes eXpert is an operational intelligent agent, the principles of which are described. Its development and modes of operation are outlined, and a case example is given. Fitting to Outcomes eXpert is in use for more than a year now and seems to be capable to improve the measured outcome. It is argued that this novel tool allows a systematic approach focusing on outcome, reducing the fitting time, and improving the quality of fitting. It introduces principles of artificial intelligence in the process of CI fitting.

  5. Propositional Logics of Dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, F.; Väänänen, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study logics of dependence on the propositional level. We prove that several interesting propositional logics of dependence, including propositional dependence logic, propositional intuitionistic dependence logic as well as propositional inquisitive logic, are expressively complete

  6. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  7. Flow Logic for Process Calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally...... developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the π-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction......, and finally, we extend it to a relational analysis. A Flow Logic is a program logic---in the same sense that a Hoare’s logic is. We conclude with an executive summary presenting the highlights of the approach from this perspective including a discussion of theoretical properties as well as implementation...

  8. A Verification Logic for GOAL Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, K. V.

    Although there has been a growing body of literature on verification of agents programs, it has been difficult to design a verification logic for agent programs that fully characterizes such programs and to connect agent programs to agent theory. The challenge is to define an agent programming language that defines a computational framework but also allows for a logical characterization useful for verification. The agent programming language GOAL has been originally designed to connect agent programming to agent theory and we present additional results here that GOAL agents can be fully represented by a logical theory. GOAL agents can thus be said to execute the corresponding logical theory.

  9. Fuzzy logic

    CERN Document Server

    Smets, P

    1995-01-01

    We start by describing the nature of imperfect data, and giving an overview of the various models that have been proposed. Fuzzy sets theory is shown to be an extension of classical set theory, and as such has a proeminent role or modelling imperfect data. The mathematic of fuzzy sets theory is detailled, in particular the role of the triangular norms. The use of fuzzy sets theory in fuzzy logic and possibility theory,the nature of the generalized modus ponens and of the implication operator for approximate reasoning are analysed. The use of fuzzy logic is detailled for application oriented towards process control and database problems.

  10. Modular Logic Metaprogramming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Karl; Ostermann, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    In logic metaprogramming, programs are not stored as plain textfiles but rather derived from a deductive database. While the benefits of this approach for metaprogramming are obvious, its incompatibility with separate checking limits its applicability to large-scale projects. We analyze the probl...

  11. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  12. Prospects for detecting decreasing exoplanet frequency with main-sequence age using PLATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, D.; Brown, D. J. A.; Mustill, A. J.; Pollacco, D.

    2017-09-01

    The space mission PLATO will usher in a new era of exoplanetary science by expanding our current inventory of transiting systems and constraining host star ages, which are currently highly uncertain. This capability might allow PLATO to detect changes in planetary system architecture with time, particularly because planetary scattering due to Lagrange instability may be triggered long after the system was formed. Here, we utilize previously published instability time-scale prescriptions to determine PLATO's capability to detect a trend of decreasing planet frequency with age for systems with equal- mass planets. For two-planet systems, our results demonstrate that PLATO may detect a trend for planet masses which are at least as massive as super-Earths. For systems with three or more planets, we link their initial compactness to potentially detectable frequency trends in order to aid future investigations when these populations will be better characterized.

  13. First-order modal logic theorem proving and standard PROLOG

    OpenAIRE

    Nonnengart, A.

    1992-01-01

    Many attempts have been started to combine logic programming and modal logics. Most of them however, do not use classical PROLOG, but extend the PROLOG idea in order to cope with modal logic formulae directly. These approaches have the disadvantage that for each logic new logic programming systems are to be developed and the knowledge and experience gathered from PROLOG can hardly be utilized. Modal logics based on Kripke-style relational semantics, however, allow a direct translation from mo...

  14. Democratic institutions: the spell of Plato and the return to the classics

    OpenAIRE

    Colen, José

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper, that reflects an ongoing research, is to suggest the usefulness of an analysis of the readings of Karl Popper and Leo Strauss on Plato's political philosophy. Very different as they are, both thinkers saw in the Republic one of the most powerful critics of democracy and built interpretations and polemic arguments by contrast with Plato's arguments. There are currently two arguments questioning liberal or constitutional democracy. The first originates in the social s...

  15. The role of the poet in Plato's ideal cities of Callipolis and Magnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Naddaf

    2008-01-01

    Plato's attitude toward the poets and poetry has always been a flashpoint of debate, controversy and notoriety, but most scholars have failed to see their central role in the ideal cities of the Republic and the Laws, that is, Callipolis and Magnesia. In this paper, I argue that in neither dialogue does Plato "exile" the poets, but, instead, believes they must, like all citizens, exercise the expertise proper to their profession, allowing them the right to become full-fledged participants in ...

  16. Programmable Array Logic Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demon Handoyo; Djen Djen Djainal

    2007-01-01

    Good digital circuit design that part of a complex system, often becoming a separate problem. To produce finishing design according to wanted performance is often given on to considerations which each other confuse, hence thereby analyse optimization become important in this case. To realization is made design logic program, the first are determined global diagram block, then are decided contents of these block diagram, and then determined its interconnection in the form of logic expression, continued with election of component. These steps are done to be obtained the design with low price, easy in its interconnection, minimal volume, low power and certainty god work. (author)

  17. Optimal operating rules definition in complex water resource systems combining fuzzy logic, expert criteria and stochastic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    This contribution presents a methodology for defining optimal seasonal operating rules in multireservoir systems coupling expert criteria and stochastic optimization. Both sources of information are combined using fuzzy logic. The structure of the operating rules is defined based on expert criteria, via a joint expert-technician framework consisting in a series of meetings, workshops and surveys carried out between reservoir managers and modelers. As a result, the decision-making process used by managers can be assessed and expressed using fuzzy logic: fuzzy rule-based systems are employed to represent the operating rules and fuzzy regression procedures are used for forecasting future inflows. Once done that, a stochastic optimization algorithm can be used to define optimal decisions and transform them into fuzzy rules. Finally, the optimal fuzzy rules and the inflow prediction scheme are combined into a Decision Support System for making seasonal forecasts and simulate the effect of different alternatives in response to the initial system state and the foreseen inflows. The approach presented has been applied to the Jucar River Basin (Spain). Reservoir managers explained how the system is operated, taking into account the reservoirs' states at the beginning of the irrigation season and the inflows previewed during that season. According to the information given by them, the Jucar River Basin operating policies were expressed via two fuzzy rule-based (FRB) systems that estimate the amount of water to be allocated to the users and how the reservoir storages should be balanced to guarantee those deliveries. A stochastic optimization model using Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) was developed to define optimal decisions, which are transformed into optimal operating rules embedding them into the two FRBs previously created. As a benchmark, historical records are used to develop alternative operating rules. A fuzzy linear regression procedure was employed to

  18. Diagnosable structured logic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.

  19. A Brief History of Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The problems of uncertainty, imprecision and vagueness have been discussed for many years. These problems have been major topics in philosophical circles with much debate, in particular, about the nature of vagueness and the ability of traditional Boolean logic to cope with concepts and perceptions that are imprecise or vague. The Fuzzy Logic (which is usually translated into Castilian by “Lógica Borrosa”, or “Lógica Difusa”, but also by “Lógica Heurística” can be considered a bypass-valued logics (Multi-valued Logic, MVL, its acronym in English. It is founded on, and is closely related to-Fuzzy Sets Theory, and successfully applied on Fuzzy Systems. You might think that fuzzy logic is quite recent and what has worked for a short time, but its origins date back at least to the Greek philosophers and especially Plato (428-347 B.C.. It even seems plausible
    to trace their origins in China and India. Because it seems that they were the first to consider that all things need not be of a certain type or quit, but there are a stopover between. That is, be the pioneers in considering that there may be varying degrees of truth and falsehood. In case of colors, for example, between white and black there is a whole infinite scale: the shades of gray. Some recent theorems show that in principle fuzzy logic can be used to model any continuous system, be it based
    in AI, or physics, or biology, or economics, etc. Investigators in many fields may find that fuzzy, commonsense models are more useful, and many more accurate than are standard mathematical ones. We analyze here the history and development of this problem: Fuzziness, or “Borrosidad” (in Castilian, essential to work with Uncertainty.

  20. Programming the quorum sensing-based AND gate in Shewanella oneidensis for logic gated-microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yidan; Yang, Yun; Katz, Evgeny; Song, Hao

    2015-03-11

    An AND logic gate based on a synthetic quorum-sensing (QS) module was constructed in a Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 mtrA knockout mutant. The presence of two input signals activated the expression of a periplasmic decaheme cytochrome MtrA to regenerate the extracellular electron transfer conduit, enabling the construction of AND-gated microbial fuel cells.

  1. FORMATION OF ANTIQUE RHETORIC: CHRONOLOGY OF RHETORICAL METHODS AND STYLES (PLATO, ARISTOTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Pantelyeyeva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: to analyze the basic points of philosophical concepts of rhetoric of Plato and Aristotle, to prove that from Plato the rhetoric in the true sense starts being approved, and Aristotle is an ancestor of real theory of speech of the new genre, the new form, the new purposes and tasks of the description of verbal art. Problem statement: development of the ancient principles of rhetorical style’s creating is reached by efforts of outstanding speakers, each of them were differed not only by the ideological sympathies or antipathies, but also by nature of works, the concepts put in their basis. Two Ancient Greek philosophers: Plato and Aristotle are considered as founders of ancient rhetorical science. Methodology. Author has used system method, methods of content and comparative analysis. Scientific novelty is displayed in the received results from the comparative analysis of two concepts of public speech of Plato and Aristotle from a position of philosophical justification of rhetoric’s rules with orientation on ancient "popular" declamation practices. Practical value of article consists in development of insufficiently studied object "Antique declamation discourse" where Plato and Aristotle's two central rhetorical concepts appear as the intermediate stage in development of a declamation discourse of Ancient Greece and, subsequently, and Ancient Rome. Conclusions. The conclusions can be given by the following facts: from Plato the rhetoric in the true sense is approved: true rhetorical art isn’t based only on argument technique, the true rhethor appears as the philosopher. Plato raises the problem of an ambiguity of two opposite rhetorics presented in "Gorgias" and "Phaedrus ". Rhetoric as scientific discipline, as the present theory of speech is first considered by Aristotle. The rhetoric is presented as the science "about speech and about thoughts", about the relation of thinking to the word.

  2. Optical programmable Boolean logic unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2011-11-10

    Logic units are the building blocks of many important computational operations likes arithmetic, multiplexer-demultiplexer, radix conversion, parity checker cum generator, etc. Multifunctional logic operation is very much essential in this respect. Here a programmable Boolean logic unit is proposed that can perform 16 Boolean logical operations from a single optical input according to the programming input without changing the circuit design. This circuit has two outputs. One output is complementary to the other. Hence no loss of data can occur. The circuit is basically designed by a 2×2 polarization independent optical cross bar switch. Performance of the proposed circuit has been achieved by doing numerical simulations. The binary logical states (0,1) are represented by the absence of light (null) and presence of light, respectively.

  3. On the Automatic Evolution of an OS Kernel Using Temporal Logic and AOP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Rickard; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Sudholt, Mario

    2003-01-01

    aspect-oriented programing, temporal logic, process scheduling, Linux, domain-specific languages......aspect-oriented programing, temporal logic, process scheduling, Linux, domain-specific languages...

  4. The music of morality and logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesz, Bruno; Rodriguez Zivic, Pablo H; Cecchi, Guillermo A; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A

    2015-01-01

    Musical theory has built on the premise that musical structures can refer to something different from themselves (Nattiez and Abbate, 1990). The aim of this work is to statistically corroborate the intuitions of musical thinkers and practitioners starting at least with Plato, that music can express complex human concepts beyond merely "happy" and "sad" (Mattheson and Lenneberg, 1958). To do so, we ask whether musical improvisations can be used to classify the semantic category of the word that triggers them. We investigated two specific domains of semantics: morality and logic. While morality has been historically associated with music, logic concepts, which involve more abstract forms of thought, are more rarely associated with music. We examined musical improvisations inspired by positive and negative morality (e.g., good and evil) and logic concepts (true and false), analyzing the associations between these words and their musical representations in terms of acoustic and perceptual features. We found that music conveys information about valence (good and true vs. evil and false) with remarkable consistency across individuals. This information is carried by several musical dimensions which act in synergy to achieve very high classification accuracy. Positive concepts are represented by music with more ordered pitch structure and lower harmonic and sensorial dissonance than negative concepts. Music also conveys information indicating whether the word which triggered it belongs to the domains of logic or morality (true vs. good), principally through musical articulation. In summary, improvisations consistently map logic and morality information to specific musical dimensions, testifying the capacity of music to accurately convey semantic information in domains related to abstract forms of thought.

  5. The music of morality and logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesz, Bruno; Rodriguez Zivic, Pablo H.; Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2015-01-01

    Musical theory has built on the premise that musical structures can refer to something different from themselves (Nattiez and Abbate, 1990). The aim of this work is to statistically corroborate the intuitions of musical thinkers and practitioners starting at least with Plato, that music can express complex human concepts beyond merely “happy” and “sad” (Mattheson and Lenneberg, 1958). To do so, we ask whether musical improvisations can be used to classify the semantic category of the word that triggers them. We investigated two specific domains of semantics: morality and logic. While morality has been historically associated with music, logic concepts, which involve more abstract forms of thought, are more rarely associated with music. We examined musical improvisations inspired by positive and negative morality (e.g., good and evil) and logic concepts (true and false), analyzing the associations between these words and their musical representations in terms of acoustic and perceptual features. We found that music conveys information about valence (good and true vs. evil and false) with remarkable consistency across individuals. This information is carried by several musical dimensions which act in synergy to achieve very high classification accuracy. Positive concepts are represented by music with more ordered pitch structure and lower harmonic and sensorial dissonance than negative concepts. Music also conveys information indicating whether the word which triggered it belongs to the domains of logic or morality (true vs. good), principally through musical articulation. In summary, improvisations consistently map logic and morality information to specific musical dimensions, testifying the capacity of music to accurately convey semantic information in domains related to abstract forms of thought. PMID:26191020

  6. The music of morality and logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eMesz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Musical theory has built on the premise that musical structures can refer to something different from themselves (1. The aim of this work is to statistically corroborate the intuitions of musical thinkers and practitioners from Plato to Boethius to the purveyors of the Baroque Doctrine of Affections that music can express complex human concepts beyond merely happy and sad (2. To do so, we ask whether musical improvisations can be used to classify the semantic category of the word that triggers them. We investigated two specific domains of semantics: morality and logic. While morality has been historically associated with music, logic concepts, which involve more abstract forms of thought, are more rarely associated with music. We examined musical improvisations inspired by positive and negative morality (e.g. good and evil and logic concepts (true and false, analyzing the associations between these words and their musical representations in terms of acoustic and perceptual features. We found that music conveys information about valence (good and true vs. evil and false with remarkable consistency across individuals. This information is carried by several musical dimensions which act in synergy to achieve very high classification accuracy. Positive concepts are represented by music with more ordered pitch structure and lower harmonic and sensorial dissonance than negative concepts. Music also conveys information indicating whether the word which triggered it belongs to the domains of logic or morality (true vs. good, principally through musical articulation. In summary, improvisations consistently map logic and morality information to specific musical dimensions, testifying the capacity of music to accurately convey semantic information in domains related to abstract forms of thought.

  7. Four logics of governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friche, Nanna; Normann Andersen, Vibeke

    unintended consequences. Theoretically, we draw on different management and governance theories, e.g. performance management. Empirically, the study is based on surveys to teachers and students at all Danish vocational colleges and interviews with school leaders, teachers and students at six colleges (cases...... and well-being of students enrolled in the VETs must be strengthened. We focus on target 1, 2 and 4. The reform is being implemented in a field of VET that can be characterized by four logics of governance. Firstly, a governance logic characterized by institutional independence of vocational colleges......For the last fifteen years completion rates in Danish vocational education and training (VET) has stayed on a rather low level. In 2014, only half of the students enrolled in a vocational program on upper secondary level, graduated from the program (Flarup et al 2016). In Denmark, like in other...

  8. The PLATO Dome A site-testing observatory: Power generation and control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. S.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Hengst, S.; Luong-van, D. M.; Storey, J. W. V.; Yang, H.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, Z.

    2009-06-01

    The atmospheric conditions above Dome A, a currently unmanned location at the highest point on the Antarctic plateau, are uniquely suited to astronomy. For certain types of astronomy Dome A is likely to be the best location on the planet, and this has motivated the development of the Plateau Observatory (PLATO). PLATO was deployed to Dome A in early 2008. It houses a suite of purpose-built site-testing instruments designed to quantify the benefits of Dome A site for astronomy, and science instruments designed to take advantage of the observing conditions. The PLATO power generation and control system is designed to provide continuous power and heat, and a high-reliability command and communications platform for these instruments. PLATO has run and collected data throughout the winter 2008 season completely unattended. Here we present a detailed description of the power generation, power control, thermal management, instrument interface, and communications systems for PLATO, and an overview of the system performance for 2008.

  9. Quantum logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittelstaedt, P.

    1979-01-01

    The subspaces of Hilbert space constitute an orthocomplemented quasimodular lattice Lsub(q) for which neither a two-valued function nor generalized truth function exist. A generalisation of the dialogic method can be used as an interpretation of a lattice Lsub(qi), which may be considered as the intuitionistic part of Lsub(q). Some obvious modifications of the dialogic method are introduced which come from the possible incommensurability of propositions about quantum mechanical systems. With the aid of this generalized dialogic method a propositional calculus Qsub(eff) is derived which is similar to the calculus of effective (intuitionistic) logic, but contains a few restrictions which are based on the incommensurability of quantum mechanical propositions. It can be shown within the framework of the calculus Qsub(eff) that the value-definiteness of the elementary propositions which are proved by quantum mechanical propositions is inherited by all finite compund propositions. In this way one arrives at the calculus Q of full quantum logic which incorporates the principle of excluded middle for all propositions and which is a model for the lattice Lsub(q). (Auth.)

  10. The role of the poet in Plato's ideal cities of Callipolis and Magnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Naddaf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plato's attitude toward the poets and poetry has always been a flashpoint of debate, controversy and notoriety, but most scholars have failed to see their central role in the ideal cities of the Republic and the Laws, that is, Callipolis and Magnesia. In this paper, I argue that in neither dialogue does Plato "exile" the poets, but, instead, believes they must, like all citizens, exercise the expertise proper to their profession, allowing them the right to become full-fledged participants in the productive class. Moreover, attention to certain details reveals that Plato harnesses both positive and negative factors in poetry to bring his ideal cities closer to a practical realization. The status of the poet and his craft in this context has rarely to my knowledge been addressed.

  11. Plato's Critique of Rhetoric in the "Gorgias" (447a-466a): Epistemology, Methodology, and the Lyotardian Differend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComiskey, Bruce

    The uncritical acceptance of Plato's treatment of sophistic doctrines (specifically in Plato's dialogue the "Gorgias") in the university has resulted in an impoverished contemporary view of sophistic rhetoric. Since Socrates' foundational epistemology allows for the knowledge of immutable truth and Gorgias' relativistic epistemology does…

  12. Nanomagnetic Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, David Bryan

    The exponential improvements in speed, energy efficiency, and cost that the computer industry has relied on for growth during the last 50 years are in danger of ending within the decade. These improvements all have relied on scaling the size of the silicon-based transistor that is at the heart of every modern CPU down to smaller and smaller length scales. However, as the size of the transistor reaches scales that are measured in the number of atoms that make it up, it is clear that this scaling cannot continue forever. As a result of this, there has been a great deal of research effort directed at the search for the next device that will continue to power the growth of the computer industry. However, due to the billions of dollars of investment that conventional silicon transistors have received over the years, it is unlikely that a technology will emerge that will be able to beat it outright in every performance category. More likely, different devices will possess advantages over conventional transistors for certain applications and uses. One of these emerging computing platforms is nanomagnetic logic (NML). NML-based circuits process information by manipulating the magnetization states of single-domain nanomagnets coupled to their nearest neighbors through magnetic dipole interactions. The state variable is magnetization direction and computations can take place without passing an electric current. This makes them extremely attractive as a replacement for conventional transistor-based computing architectures for certain ultra-low power applications. In most work to date, nanomagnetic logic circuits have used an external magnetic clocking field to reset the system between computations. The clocking field is then subsequently removed very slowly relative to the magnetization dynamics, guiding the nanomagnetic logic circuit adiabatically into its magnetic ground state. In this dissertation, I will discuss the dynamics behind this process and show that it is greatly

  13. Advances in Modal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume...... is the proceedings of the conference of record in its fi eld, Advances in Modal Logic. Its contributions are state-of-the-art papers. The topics include decidability and complexity results for specifi c modal logics, proof theory of modal logic, logics for reasoning about time and space, provability logic, dynamic...... epistemic logic, and the logic of evidence....

  14. Flow Logics and Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1998-01-01

    Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analys...... correct. Our main conclusion is that environment based semantics is more flexible than either substitution based semantics or semantics making use of structural congruences (like alpha-renaming)....

  15. PDL as a multi-agent strategy logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); B.C. Schipper

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPropositional Dynamic Logic or PDL was invented as a logic for reasoning about regular programming constructs. We propose a new perspective on PDL as a multi-agent strategic logic (MASL). This logic for strategic reasoning has group strategies as first class citizens, and

  16. Modern Logical Frameworks Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murawska, Agata Anna

    2017-01-01

    lack support for reasoning about, or programming with, the mechanised systems. Our main motivation is to eventually make it possible to model and reason about complex concurrent systems and protocols. No matter the application, be it the development of a logic for multiparty session types...... or a cryptographic protocol used in a voting system, we need the ability to model and reason about both the building blocks of these systems and the intricate connections between them. To this end, this dissertation is an investigation into LF-based formalisms that might help address the aforementioned issues. We...... design and provide the meta-theory of two new frameworks, HyLF and Lincx. The former aims to extend the expressiveness of LF to include proof irrelevance and some user-defined behaviours, using ideas from hybrid logics. The latter is a showcase for an easier to implement framework, while also allowing...

  17. Paraconsistent Computational Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    In classical logic everything follows from inconsistency and this makes classical logic problematic in areas of computer science where contradictions seem unavoidable. We describe a many-valued paraconsistent logic, discuss the truth tables and include a small case study....

  18. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Kosuru, Lakshmoji; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance

  19. Stochastic coalgebraic logic

    CERN Document Server

    Doberkat, Ernst-Erich

    2009-01-01

    Combining coalgebraic reasoning, stochastic systems and logic, this volume presents the principles of coalgebraic logic from a categorical perspective. Modal logics are also discussed, including probabilistic interpretations and an analysis of Kripke models.

  20. Classical logic and logicism in human thought

    OpenAIRE

    Elqayam, Shira

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores the role of classical logic as a theory of human reasoning. I distinguish between classical logic as a normative, computational and algorithmic system, and review its role is theories of human reasoning since the 1960s. The thesis I defend is that psychological theories have been moving further and further away from classical logic on all three levels. I examine some prominent example of logicist theories, which incorporate logic in their psychological account, includin...

  1. Three-valued logics in modal logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Barteld; Tamminga, Allard

    2013-01-01

    Every truth-functional three-valued propositional logic can be conservatively translated into the modal logic S5. We prove this claim constructively in two steps. First, we define a Translation Manual that converts any propositional formula of any three-valued logic into a modal formula. Second, we

  2. Introduction to fuzzy logic using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Sivanandam, SN; Deepa, S N

    2006-01-01

    Fuzzy Logic, at present is a hot topic, among academicians as well various programmers. This book is provided to give a broad, in-depth overview of the field of Fuzzy Logic. The basic principles of Fuzzy Logic are discussed in detail with various solved examples. The different approaches and solutions to the problems given in the book are well balanced and pertinent to the Fuzzy Logic research projects. The applications of Fuzzy Logic are also dealt to make the readers understand the concept of Fuzzy Logic. The solutions to the problems are programmed using MATLAB 6.0 and the simulated results are given. The MATLAB Fuzzy Logic toolbox is provided for easy reference.

  3. ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Paul W; Siha, Hany; Fu, Yuling

    2012-01-01

    Ticagrelor, when compared with clopidogrel, reduced the 12-month risk of vascular death/myocardial infarction and stroke in patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes intended to undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO...

  4. Genesis 2–3 and Alcibiades's speech in Plato's Symposium : A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genesis 2–3 and Alcibiades's speech in Plato's Symposium : A cultural critical reading. ... Abstract. The purpose of this article is to discuss some basic problems and methodological steps concerning the encounter between Hebrews and Greeks in the Classical period and its impact on the Hellenistic era. The relationship ...

  5. From Plato to Erikson: How the War on "Bad Play" Has Impoverished Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, the titans of educational reform--Plato, Rousseau, Dewey, Piaget, Erikson, Csikszentmihalyi and others--have championed the educational benefits of play. Yet many professors and administrators are boggled by the idea of playing academic games in college. They instantly dismiss faculty initiatives like "Reacting to the…

  6. Can Prior Knowledge Hurt Text Comprehension? An Answer Borrowed from Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lawrence B.

    Taking a philosophical approach based on what Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes said about knowledge, this paper addresses some of the murkiness in the conceptual space surrounding the issue of whether prior knowledge does or does not facilitate text comprehension. Specifically, the paper first develops a non-exhaustive typology of cases in which…

  7. From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied to the lam......Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  8. From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied to the lam......Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  9. From Interpreter to logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied to the lam......Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  10. God as Intellect in the philosophical Theology of Plato, Aristotle and Plotinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Volkova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the main stages in the development of philosophical theology in Plato, Aristotle and Plotinus, as well as its central concept - Active Intellect or God. It is shown, firstly, that Plato was the first who formulated the concept of a One omnibenevolent God. Plato opposed this doctrine to the gods of traditional mythology. In the "Timaeus" talking about the creation of the world, Plato represents God as an artisan, i. e. Demiurge, who arranges the World soul and matter with the help of the numbers. Therefore, God is introduced as an Intellect, because looking at an intelligible paradigm, he created the cosmos as its likeness. Secondly, it was shown that Aristotle made theology demonstrative theoretical knowledge. God as a subject of such knowledge is the pure actuality of thinking. Third, it is shown that Plotinus, continuing the line of Plato and Aristotle, gave philosophical theology a new, much more personal character. Theology for Plotinus is not only an demonstrative knowledge of the omnibenevolent God, but also a personal experience of reunion with him. A special attention in the article is paid for Plotinus' interpretation of the Platonic Demiurge. It is shown that Plotinus first connected the two aspects of the divine, namely the Demiurge-creator and the intelligible paradigm that are described in the "Timaeus," into the single hypostasis of Intellect. The main reason for this assertion was the necessity to postulate the unity of the intellect and the intelligible object as a necessary condition for the possibility of all cognitions. As a result, instead of the traditional idea of the two gods, Plotinus elaborates the doctrine of a single divine Intellect, combining both these aspects.

  11. Enabling Concise and Modular Specifications in Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal

    2014-01-01

    logics and examples of using these logics to verify challenging programs. The article Modular Verification of Linked Lists with Views via Separation Logic reports on verification of a practical data structure with separation logic. The challenges identified in this work has served as motivation for later...... unstructured control flow and the lack of basic facilities in the language such as memory allocation and procedure calls. Finally, the chapter Techniques for Model Construction in Separation Logic surveys the mathematical techniques used to develop the previous separation logics and many other logics...

  12. A general approach for developing system-specific functions to score protein-ligand docked complexes using support vector inductive logic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Ata; Shrimpton, Paul J; Muggleton, Stephen H; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2007-12-01

    Despite the increased recent use of protein-ligand and protein-protein docking in the drug discovery process due to the increases in computational power, the difficulty of accurately ranking the binding affinities of a series of ligands or a series of proteins docked to a protein receptor remains largely unsolved. This problem is of major concern in lead optimization procedures and has lead to the development of scoring functions tailored to rank the binding affinities of a series of ligands to a specific system. However, such methods can take a long time to develop and their transferability to other systems remains open to question. Here we demonstrate that given a suitable amount of background information a new approach using support vector inductive logic programming (SVILP) can be used to produce system-specific scoring functions. Inductive logic programming (ILP) learns logic-based rules for a given dataset that can be used to describe properties of each member of the set in a qualitative manner. By combining ILP with support vector machine regression, a quantitative set of rules can be obtained. SVILP has previously been used in a biological context to examine datasets containing a series of singular molecular structures and properties. Here we describe the use of SVILP to produce binding affinity predictions of a series of ligands to a particular protein. We also for the first time examine the applicability of SVILP techniques to datasets consisting of protein-ligand complexes. Our results show that SVILP performs comparably with other state-of-the-art methods on five protein-ligand systems as judged by similar cross-validated squares of their correlation coefficients. A McNemar test comparing SVILP to CoMFA and CoMSIA across the five systems indicates our method to be significantly better on one occasion. The ability to graphically display and understand the SVILP-produced rules is demonstrated and this feature of ILP can be used to derive hypothesis for

  13. Using logic programming for modeling the one-carbon metabolism network to study the impact of folate deficiency on methylation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnimpieba, Etienne Z; Eveillard, Damien; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Chango, Abalo

    2011-08-01

    Dynamical modeling is an accurate tool for describing the dynamic regulation of one-carbon metabolism (1CM) with emphasis on the alteration of DNA methylation and/or dUMP methylation into dTMP. Using logic programming we present a comprehensive and adaptative mathematical model to study the impact of folate deficiency, including folate transport and enzymes activities. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate (5mTHF) uptake and DNA and dUMP methylation were studied by simulating nutritional 5mTHF deficiency and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene defects. Both conditions had distinct effects on 1CM metabolite synthesis. Simulating severe 5mTHF deficiency (25% of normal levels) modulated 11 metabolites. However, simulating a severe decrease in MTHFR activity (25% of normal activity) modulated another set of metabolites. Two oscillations of varying amplitude were observed at the steady state for DNA methylation with severe 5mTHF deficiency, and the dUMP/dTMP ratio reached a steady state after 2 h, compared to 2.5 h for 100% 5mTHF. MTHFR activity with 25% of V(max) resulted in an increased methylated DNA pool after half an hour. We observed a deviation earlier in the profile compared to 50% and 100% V(max). For dUMP methylation, the highest level was observed with 25%, suggesting a low rate of dUMP methylation into dTMP with 25% of MTHFR activity. In conclusion, using logic programming we were able to construct the 1CM for analyzing the dynamic system behavior. This model may be used to refine biological interpretations of data or as a tool that can provide new hypotheses for pathogenesis.

  14. Method and program for decay scheme reconstruction based on formal logical analysis of gamma-gamma coincidence matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, J.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    A new, rigorously substantiated approach to construction of decay schemes on the basis of γ-γ coincidence data is described. Complete decay modes (concrete cascades of transitions from excited to the ground-state of a nucleus excited in a decay or a reaction) and continuity regions in complete modes (regions of successive transitions) are isolated by logical operations with rows (columns) of a symmetrical coincidence matrix where rows (columns) correspond to energies of coinciding transitions and matrix elements are unities and zeros, depending on the presence or absence of the given coincidence. To reject false complete modes and continuity regions arising from incompleteness of the coincidence data and errors in them, energy selection is introduced for complete modes and continuity regions, which demands that total energy of their constituent transitions should be equal to total energy of some other complete modes and continuity regions and to the energies of singles. With the continuity regions found, it is possible to order transitions in the selected complete modes and to algorithmize matching of complete modes into a decay scheme. 10 refs., 3 figs

  15. A Concurrent Logical Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Sieczkowski, Filip; Thamsborg, Jacob Junker

    2012-01-01

    We present a logical relation for showing the correctness of program transformations based on a new type-and-effect system for a concurrent extension of an ML-like language with higher-order functions, higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation. We show how to use our model to verify a number....... To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such result for a concurrent higher-order language with higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation....

  16. Quantifiers for quantum logic

    OpenAIRE

    Heunen, Chris

    2008-01-01

    We consider categorical logic on the category of Hilbert spaces. More generally, in fact, any pre-Hilbert category suffices. We characterise closed subobjects, and prove that they form orthomodular lattices. This shows that quantum logic is just an incarnation of categorical logic, enabling us to establish an existential quantifier for quantum logic, and conclude that there cannot be a universal quantifier.

  17. Encapsulating Software Platform Logic by Aspect-Oriented Programming : A Case Study in Using Aspects for Language Portability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, L.C.; Visser, E.

    2010-01-01

    Software platforms such as the Java Virtual Machine or the CLR .NET virtual machine have their own ecosystem of a core programming language or instruction set, libraries, and developer community. Programming languages can target multiple software platforms to increase interoperability or to boost

  18. Metamathematics of fuzzy logic

    CERN Document Server

    Hájek, Petr

    1998-01-01

    This book presents a systematic treatment of deductive aspects and structures of fuzzy logic understood as many valued logic sui generis. Some important systems of real-valued propositional and predicate calculus are defined and investigated. The aim is to show that fuzzy logic as a logic of imprecise (vague) propositions does have well-developed formal foundations and that most things usually named `fuzzy inference' can be naturally understood as logical deduction.

  19. What are Institutional Logics

    OpenAIRE

    Berg Johansen, Christina; Bock Waldorff, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guided by institutional logics, as well as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to...

  20. Logic Learning in Hopfield Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sathasivam, Saratha; Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin Wan

    2008-01-01

    Synaptic weights for neurons in logic programming can be calculated either by using Hebbian learning or by Wan Abdullah's method. In other words, Hebbian learning for governing events corresponding to some respective program clauses is equivalent with learning using Wan Abdullah's method for the same respective program clauses. In this paper we will evaluate experimentally the equivalence between these two types of learning through computer simulations.

  1. Ontology learning from interpretations in lightweight description logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available International Conference on Inductive Logic programming (ILP), Kyoto, Japan, 20-22 August 2015 Ontology Learning from Interpretations in Lightweight Description Logics Szymon Klarman1 and Katarina Britz2 1 Department of Computer Science, Brunel...

  2. Plato crater, first observative session: not any "hook" but a shark fin? (Italian Title: La 1° Campagna Osservativa del cratere Plato: non un "uncino" ma una "pinna di squalo"?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercatali, A.

    2018-01-01

    On 1st March 2012 an observative session of Moon's Plato crater was made. The purpose of these observations was to check the presence of one shadow with "hook" form at the inner of Plato crater already reported by H. Percy Wilkins, 3th April 21:30 UT, 1952. The results obtained by us have not shown any shadow with an hook form, but a shadow like a shark fin.

  3. Connections among quantum logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, P.F.; Hardegree, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, a theory of quantum logics is proposed which is general enough to enable us to reexamine a previous work on quantum logics in the context of this theory. It is then easy to assess the differences between the different systems studied. The quantum logical systems which are incorporated are divided into two groups which we call ''quantum propositional logics'' and ''quantum event logics''. The work of Kochen and Specker (partial Boolean algebras) is included and so is that of Greechie and Gudder (orthomodular partially ordered sets), Domotar (quantum mechanical systems), and Foulis and Randall (operational logics) in quantum propositional logics; and Abbott (semi-Boolean algebras) and Foulis and Randall (manuals) in quantum event logics, In this part of the paper, an axiom system for quantum propositional logics is developed and the above structures in the context of this system examined. (author)

  4. From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  5. From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  6. Structural Logical Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Tait's method (a.k.a. proof by logical relations) is a powerful proof technique frequently used for showing foundational properties of languages based on typed lambda-calculi. Historically, these proofs have been extremely difficult to formalize in proof assistants with weak meta-logics......, such as Twelf, and yet they are often straightforward in proof assistants with stronger meta-logics. In this paper, we propose structural logical relations as a technique for conducting these proofs in systems with limited meta-logical strength by explicitly representing and reasoning about an auxiliary logic...

  7. What are Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch

    This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guides by institutional logics, as well...... as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to institutional theory at large, and which social matters institutional logics can and cannot explore...

  8. Indeterministic Temporal Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzęsicki Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The questions od determinism, causality, and freedom have been the main philosophical problems debated since the beginning of temporal logic. The issue of the logical value of sentences about the future was stated by Aristotle in the famous tomorrow sea-battle passage. The question has inspired Łukasiewicz’s idea of many-valued logics and was a motive of A. N. Prior’s considerations about the logic of tenses. In the scheme of temporal logic there are different solutions to the problem. In the paper we consider indeterministic temporal logic based on the idea of temporal worlds and the relation of accessibility between them.

  9. Good and Bad: Love and Intimacy From Plato to Melanie Klein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, David

    2018-06-01

    Melanie Klein's theories on love outline a complex system of relations-an oscillating dynamic of psychical and emotional tendencies following from both actual experience and fantasies produced by the mind. Her insights are often discussed and applied in psychoanalytical contexts, but the philosophical implications of her theory-especially in relation to Platonic thought-have rarely been discussed. In this article, I will attempt to address this gap by setting out some preliminary yet core considerations shared by both Plato and Klein. First, I will describe some structural parallels between Kleinian and Platonic thought, especially in dialectical terms. Second, I will outline Plato's covert influence on Freud as passing through the teachings of philosopher Franz Brentano. And last, I will discuss intimacy as a struggle between the forces of good and bad, creativity and destruction, and love and hate-suggesting that Klein's conception of love emerges as a moral exigency.

  10. Quantum Logic as a Dynamic Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltag, A.; Smets, S.

    We address the old question whether a logical understanding of Quantum Mechanics requires abandoning some of the principles of classical logic. Against Putnam and others (Among whom we may count or not E. W. Beth, depending on how we interpret some of his statements), our answer is a clear “no”.

  11. Quantum logic as a dynamic logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltag, Alexandru; Smets, Sonja

    We address the old question whether a logical understanding of Quantum Mechanics requires abandoning some of the principles of classical logic. Against Putnam and others (Among whom we may count or not E. W. Beth, depending on how we interpret some of his statements), our answer is a clear "no".

  12. Transforming equality logic to propositional logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; Groote, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract We investigate and compare various ways of transforming equality formulas to propositional formulas, in order to be able to solve satisfiability in equality logic by means of satisfiability in propositional logic. We propose equality substitution as a new approach combining desirable

  13. Classical Syllogisms in Logic Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Sandborg-Petersen, Ulrik; Thorvaldsen, Steinar

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the challenges of introducing classical syllogisms in university courses in elementary logic and human reasoning. Using a program written in Prolog+CG, some empirical studies have been carried out involving three groups of students in Denmark; one group of philosophy students...... have a tendency correctly to assess valid syllogisms as such more often than correctly assessing invalid syllogisms as such. It is also investigated to what extent the students have improved their skills in practical reasoning by attending the logic courses. Finally, some open questions regarding...

  14. One aspect of the methodology of cognition in Plato and Dionysius the Areopagite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev, Petr

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Petr Moiseev (Perm State Institute of Arts and Cultureshows how the concept of ascension to truth, first formulated by Plato, was later reworked and reevaluated in new cognitive context by such later thinkers, as Plutarch, Iamblichus and, finally, Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite. Special attention is given to the concept of knowledge beyond human cognition and the role symbolism played in the process of its development.

  15. Los platos de los peces y el más allá

    OpenAIRE

    Aranegui Gascó, Carmen

    1996-01-01

    - Interpretación de la decoración de los platos de peces ibéticos como expresión de una determinada concepción del orden del universo y del tránsito a la otra vida. Flores, estrellas y espirales son la expresion de los tres elementos, mientras que el pez muestra el camino hacia el más allá.

  16. The Role of Logic Modeling in a Collaborative and Iterative Research Process: Lessons from Research and Analysis Conducted with the Federal Voting Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    NIOSH, 2009. As of July 21, 2015: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG809.html W. K. Kellogg Foundation, Logic Model Development Guide, Battle...RAND Corporation, MG-809-NIOSH, 2009. As of July 21, 2015: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG809.html W. K. Kellogg Foundation, Logic Model

  17. [History and reception of the translations of Plato's Dialogues by Antoni Bronikowski].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mróz, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the history of translations of Plato's dialogues as made by A. Bronikowski (1817-1884), their assessment formulated by the contemporary for the translator recipients and today's opinions on them. Bronikowski began his translation work on the legacy of Plato in the '50s of the 19th century and carried them out systematically, despite the many adversities, until his death. The article presents the most important criticisms of the reviewers of Bronikowski's translations, which focused on the flaws of his style. The critics pointed out numerous shortcomings, archaisms, which hindered and prevented smooth reading of the text by readers unfamiliar with the language of the original. Most of the criticisms came from the Warsaw environment, especially from K. Kozłowski, the son of the first Polish translator of Plato, FA. Kozłowski. Among the defenders of Bronikowski there were K. Libelt and J.I. Kraszewski. They raised the subject of difficulty which the translator had to deal with and the lack of literary taste of the audience. It seems that both parties were partially right. Bronikowski's text was indeed not suitable for smooth reading in many places, however, it could serve as a useful tool for students who acquainted themselves with the Greek originals of the dialogues.

  18. Many-valued logics

    CERN Document Server

    Bolc, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    Many-valued logics were developed as an attempt to handle philosophical doubts about the "law of excluded middle" in classical logic. The first many-valued formal systems were developed by J. Lukasiewicz in Poland and E.Post in the U.S.A. in the 1920s, and since then the field has expanded dramatically as the applicability of the systems to other philosophical and semantic problems was recognized. Intuitionisticlogic, for example, arose from deep problems in the foundations of mathematics. Fuzzy logics, approximation logics, and probability logics all address questions that classical logic alone cannot answer. All these interpretations of many-valued calculi motivate specific formal systems thatallow detailed mathematical treatment. In this volume, the authors are concerned with finite-valued logics, and especially with three-valued logical calculi. Matrix constructions, axiomatizations of propositional and predicate calculi, syntax, semantic structures, and methodology are discussed. Separate chapters deal w...

  19. Against Logical Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P N Johnson-Laird

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An old view in logic going back to Aristotle is that an inference is valid in virtue of its logical form. Many psychologists have adopted the same point of view about human reasoning: the first step is to recover the logical form of an inference, and the second step is to apply rules of inference that match these forms in order to prove that the conclusion follows from the premises. The present paper argues against this idea. The logical form of an inference transcends the grammatical forms of the sentences used to express it, because logical form also depends on context. Context is not readily expressed in additional premises. And the recovery of logical form leads ineluctably to the need for infinitely many axioms to capture the logical properties of relations. An alternative theory is that reasoning depends on mental models, and this theory obviates the need to recover logical form.

  20. Logic an introductory course

    CERN Document Server

    Newton-Smith, WH

    2003-01-01

    A complete introduction to logic for first-year university students with no background in logic, philosophy or mathematics. In easily understood steps it shows the mechanics of the formal analysis of arguments.

  1. Contribution of Warsaw Logicians to Computational Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Niwiński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The newly emerging branch of research of Computer Science received encouragement from the successors of the Warsaw mathematical school: Kuratowski, Mazur, Mostowski, Grzegorczyk, and Rasiowa. Rasiowa realized very early that the spectrum of computer programs should be incorporated into the realm of mathematical logic in order to make a rigorous treatment of program correctness. This gave rise to the concept of algorithmic logic developed since the 1970s by Rasiowa, Salwicki, Mirkowska, and their followers. Together with Pratt’s dynamic logic, algorithmic logic evolved into a mainstream branch of research: logic of programs. In the late 1980s, Warsaw logicians Tiuryn and Urzyczyn categorized various logics of programs, depending on the class of programs involved. Quite unexpectedly, they discovered that some persistent open questions about the expressive power of logics are equivalent to famous open problems in complexity theory. This, along with parallel discoveries by Harel, Immerman and Vardi, contributed to the creation of an important area of theoretical computer science: descriptive complexity. By that time, the modal μ-calculus was recognized as a sort of a universal logic of programs. The mid 1990s saw a landmark result by Walukiewicz, who showed completeness of a natural axiomatization for the μ-calculus proposed by Kozen. The difficult proof of this result, based on automata theory, opened a path to further investigations. Later, Bojanczyk opened a new chapter by introducing an unboundedness quantifier, which allowed for expressing some quantitative properties of programs. Yet another topic, linking the past with the future, is the subject of automata founded in the Fraenkel-Mostowski set theory. The studies on intuitionism found their continuation in the studies of Curry-Howard isomorphism. ukasiewicz’s landmark idea of many-valued logic found its continuation in various approaches to incompleteness and uncertainty.

  2. Connections among quantum logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, P.F.; Hardegree, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the major areas of work in quantum event logics: manuals (Foulis and Randall) and semi-Boolean algebras (Abbott). The two theories are compared, and the connection between quantum event logics and quantum propositional logics is made explicit. In addition, the work on manuals provides us with many examples of results stated in Part I. (author)

  3. Equational type logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manca, V.; Salibra, A.; Scollo, Giuseppe

    1990-01-01

    Equational type logic is an extension of (conditional) equational logic, that enables one to deal in a single, unified framework with diverse phenomena such as partiality, type polymorphism and dependent types. In this logic, terms may denote types as well as elements, and atomic formulae are either

  4. Concurrent weighted logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Concurrent Weighted Logic (CWL), a multimodal logic for concurrent labeled weighted transition systems (LWSs). The synchronization of LWSs is described using dedicated functions that, in various concurrency paradigms, allow us to encode the compositionality of LWSs. To reflect these......-completeness results for this logic. To complete these proofs we involve advanced topological techniques from Model Theory....

  5. Real Islamic Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Four options for assigning a meaning to Islamic Logic are surveyed including a new proposal for an option named "Real Islamic Logic" (RIL). That approach to Islamic Logic should serve modern Islamic objectives in a way comparable to the functionality of Islamic Finance. The prospective role of RIL

  6. A new approach for investigating protein flexibility based on Constraint Logic Programming. The first application in the case of the estrogen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Palú, Alessandro; Spyrakis, Francesca; Cozzini, Pietro

    2012-03-01

    We describe the potential of a novel method, based on Constraint Logic Programming (CLP), developed for an exhaustive sampling of protein conformational space. The CLP framework proposed here has been tested and applied to the estrogen receptor, whose activity and function is strictly related to its intrinsic, and well known, dynamics. We have investigated in particular the flexibility of H12, focusing on the pathways followed by the helix when moving from one stable crystallographic conformation to the others. Millions of geometrically feasible conformations were generated, selected and the traces connecting the different forms were determined by using a shortest path algorithm. The preliminary analyses showed a marked agreement between the crystallographic agonist-like, antagonist-like and hypothetical apo forms, and the corresponding conformations identified by the CLP framework. These promising results, together with the short computational time required to perform the analyses, make this constraint-based approach a valuable tool for the study of protein folding prediction. The CLP framework enables one to consider various structural and energetic scenarious, without changing the core algorithm. To show the feasibility of the method, we intentionally choose a pure geometric setting, neglecting the energetic evaluation of the poses, in order to be independent from a specific force field and to provide the possibility of comparing different behaviours associated with various energy models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Reconfigurable Magnetic Logic Combined with Nonvolatile Memory Writing

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Zhaochu

    2016-11-16

    In the magnetic logic, four basic Boolean logic operations can be programmed by a magnetic bit at room temperature with a high output ratio (>103%). In the same clock cycle, benefiting from the built-in spin Hall effect, logic results can be directly written into magnetic bits using an all-electric method.

  8. Reconfigurable Magnetic Logic Combined with Nonvolatile Memory Writing

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Zhaochu; Lu, Ziyao; Xiong, Chengyue; Zhu, Tao; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Huaqiang; Zhang, Xixiang; Zhang, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    In the magnetic logic, four basic Boolean logic operations can be programmed by a magnetic bit at room temperature with a high output ratio (>103%). In the same clock cycle, benefiting from the built-in spin Hall effect, logic results can be directly written into magnetic bits using an all-electric method.

  9. Abductive Logic Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    By extending logic grammars with constraint logic, we give them the ability to create knowledge bases that represent the meaning of an input string. Semantic information is thus defined through extra-grammatical means, and a sentence's meaning logically follows as a by-product of string rewriting....... We formalize these ideas, and exemplify them both within and outside first-order logic, and for both fixed and dynamic knowledge bases. Within the latter variety, we consider the usual left-to-right derivations that are traditional in logic grammars, but also -- in a significant departure from...

  10. Action Type Deontic Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning...... are evaluated with respect to the benchmark cases. After that follows an informal introduction to the ideas behind the formal semantics, focussing on the distinction between action types and action tokens. Then the syntax and semantics of Action Type Deontic Logic is presented and it is shown to meet...

  11. Product Lukasiewicz Logic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horčík, Rostislav; Cintula, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 43, - (2004), s. 477-503 ISSN 1432-0665 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004; GA ČR GA201/02/1540 Grant - others:GA CTU(CZ) project 0208613; net CEEPUS(SK) SK-042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * many-valued logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Lpi logic * Takeuti-Titani logic * MV-algebras * product MV-algebras Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.295, year: 2004

  12. A Logical Analysis of Quantum Voting Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Soroush Rafiee; Shirinkalam, Elahe; Smets, Sonja

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we provide a logical analysis of the Quantum Voting Protocol for Anonymous Surveying as developed by Horoshko and Kilin in (Phys. Lett. A 375, 1172-1175 2011). In particular we make use of the probabilistic logic of quantum programs as developed in (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 53, 3628-3647 2014) to provide a formal specification of the protocol and to derive its correctness. Our analysis is part of a wider program on the application of quantum logics to the formal verification of protocols in quantum communication and quantum computation.

  13. High-reliability logic system evaluation of a programmed multiprocessor solution. Application in the nuclear reactor safety field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallement, Dominique.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are monitored by several systems combined. The hydraulic and mechanical limitations on the equipment and the heat transfer requirements in the core set a reliable working range for the boiler defined with certain safety margins. The control system tends to keep the power plant within this working range. The protection system covers all the electrical and mechanical equipment needed to safeguard the boiler in the event of abnormal transients or accidents accounted for in the design of the plant. On units in service protection is handled by cabled automatic systems. For better reliability and safety operation, greater flexibility of use (modularity, adaptability) and improved start-up criteria by data processing the tendency is to use digital programmed systems. Computers are already present in control systems but their introduction into protection systems meets with some reticence on the part of the nuclear safety authorities. A study on the replacement of conventional by digital protection systems is presented. From choices partly made on the principles which should govern the hardware and software of a protection system the reliability of different structures and elements was examined and an experimental model built with its simulator and test facilities. A prototype based on these options and studies is being built and is to be set up on one of the CEN-G reactors for tests [fr

  14. Symbolic logic and mechanical theorem proving

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chin-Liang

    1969-01-01

    This book contains an introduction to symbolic logic and a thorough discussion of mechanical theorem proving and its applications. The book consists of three major parts. Chapters 2 and 3 constitute an introduction to symbolic logic. Chapters 4-9 introduce several techniques in mechanical theorem proving, and Chapters 10 an 11 show how theorem proving can be applied to various areas such as question answering, problem solving, program analysis, and program synthesis.

  15. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  16. Logic and Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton C. A. da Costa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In view of the present state of development of non classical logic, especially of paraconsistent logic, a new stand regarding the relations between logic and ontology is defended In a parody of a dictum of Quine, my stand May be summarized as follows. To be is to be the value of a variable a specific language with a given underlying logic Yet my stand differs from Quine’s, because, among other reasons, I accept some first order heterodox logics as genuine alternatives to classical logic I also discuss some questions of non classical logic to substantiate my argument, and suggest that may position complements and extends some ideas advanced by L Apostel.

  17. Institutional Logics in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage...... institutional logics in the course of their organizational practice. We introduce an exciting line of new works on the meta-theoretical foundations of logics, institutional logic processes, and institutional complexity and organizational responses. Collectively, the papers in this volume advance the very...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....

  18. plato and the teaching of entrepreneurship studies as general

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    2016-08-22

    Aug 22, 2016 ... curriculum and teaching of entrepreneurial studies in Universities? .... EMPLOYMENT: the public sector is still is still the largest employer of ..... This care of the body in the case of those who are to be guardians of the .... sponsors for such program. In ... Oguejiofor (eds) African Philosophy and Public Affairs.

  19. A logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, Robert J.; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    We present a logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines. This correspondence enables the mechanical and fully-correct construction of an abstract machine from a natural semantics. Our logical correspondence mirrors the Reynolds functional correspondence, but we...... manipulate semantic specifications encoded in a logical framework instead of manipulating functional programs. Natural semantics and abstract machines are instances of substructural operational semantics. As a byproduct, using a substructural logical framework, we bring concurrent and stateful models...

  20. FTAP, Minimal Cut Sets of Arbitrary Fault Trees. FRTPLT, Fault Tree Structure and Logical Gates Plot for Program FTAP. FRTGEN, Fault Trees by Sub-tree Generator from Parent Tree for Program FTAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willie, Randall R.; Rabien, U.

    1997-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: FTAP is a general-purpose program for deriving minimal reliability cut and path set families from the fault tree for a complex system. The program has a number of useful features that make it well-suited to nearly all fault tree applications. An input fault tree may specify the system state as any logical function of subsystem or component state variables or complements of these variables; thus, for instance, 'exclusive-or' type relations may be formed. When fault tree logical relations involve complements of state variables, the analyst may instruct FTAP to produce a family of prime implicants, a generalization of the minimal cut set concept. The program offers the flexibility of several distinct methods of generating cut set families. FTAP can also identify certain subsystems as system modules and provide a collection of minimal cut set families that essentially expresses the system state as a function of these module state variables. Another feature allows a useful subfamily to be obtained when the family of minimal cut sets or prime implicants is too large to be found in its entirety; this subfamily may consist of only those sets not containing more than some fixed number of elements or only those sets 'interesting' to the analyst in some special sense. Finally, the analyst can modify the input fault tree in various ways by declaring state variables identically true or false. 2 - Method of solution: Fault tree methods are based on the observation that the system state, either working or failed, can usually be expressed as a Boolean relation between states of several large, readily identifiable subsystems. The state of each subsystem in turn depends on states of simpler subsystems and components which compose it, so that the state of the system itself is determined by a hierarchy of logical relationships between states of subsystems. A fault tree is a graphical representation of these relationships. 3 - Restrictions on the

  1. Logic and structure

    CERN Document Server

    Dalen, Dirk

    1983-01-01

    A book which efficiently presents the basics of propositional and predicate logic, van Dalen’s popular textbook contains a complete treatment of elementary classical logic, using Gentzen’s Natural Deduction. Propositional and predicate logic are treated in separate chapters in a leisured but precise way. Chapter Three presents the basic facts of model theory, e.g. compactness, Skolem-Löwenheim, elementary equivalence, non-standard models, quantifier elimination, and Skolem functions. The discussion of classical logic is rounded off with a concise exposition of second-order logic. In view of the growing recognition of constructive methods and principles, one chapter is devoted to intuitionistic logic. Completeness is established for Kripke semantics. A number of specific constructive features, such as apartness and equality, the Gödel translation, the disjunction and existence property have been incorporated. The power and elegance of natural deduction is demonstrated best in the part of proof theory cal...

  2. The Football of Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schang Fabien

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An analogy is made between two rather different domains, namely: logic, and football (or soccer. Starting from a comparative table between the two activities, an alternative explanation of logic is given in terms of players, ball, goal, and the like. Our main thesis is that, just as the task of logic is preserving truth from premises to the conclusion, footballers strive to keep the ball as far as possible until the opposite goal. Assuming this analogy may help think about logic in the same way as in dialogical logic, but it should also present truth-values in an alternative sense of speech-acts occurring in a dialogue. The relativity of truth-values is focused by this way, thereby leading to an additional way of logical pluralism.

  3. Session Types in Abelian Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Hirai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There was a PhD student who says "I found a pair of wooden shoes. I put a coin in the left and a key in the right. Next morning, I found those objects in the opposite shoes." We do not claim existence of such shoes, but propose a similar programming abstraction in the context of typed lambda calculi. The result, which we call the Amida calculus, extends Abramsky's linear lambda calculus LF and characterizes Abelian logic.

  4. Logic of likelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, M.J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The notion of open-quotes probabilityclose quotes is generalized to that of open-quotes likelihood,close quotes and a natural logical structure is shown to exist for any physical theory which predicts likelihoods. Two physically based axioms are given for this logical structure to form an orthomodular poset, with an order-determining set of states. The results strengthen the basis of the quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum theory. 25 refs

  5. Logical database design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garmany, John; Clark, Terry

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGNUnderstanding a Database Database Architectures Relational Databases Creating the Database System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)Systems Planning: Assessment and Feasibility System Analysis: RequirementsSystem Analysis: Requirements Checklist Models Tracking and Schedules Design Modeling Functional Decomposition DiagramData Flow Diagrams Data Dictionary Logical Structures and Decision Trees System Design: LogicalSYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The ER ApproachEntities and Entity Types Attribute Domains AttributesSet-Valued AttributesWeak Entities Constraint

  6. Erotetic epistemic logic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peliš, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2017), s. 357-381 ISSN 1425-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC16-07954J Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : epistemic logic * erotetic implication * erotetic logic * logic of questions Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology http://apcz.umk.pl/czasopisma/index.php/LLP/article/view/LLP.2017.007

  7. Logic for Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Nicolas A.

    2018-06-01

    This book gives a rigorous yet 'physics-focused' introduction to mathematical logic that is geared towards natural science majors. We present the science major with a robust introduction to logic, focusing on the specific knowledge and skills that will unavoidably be needed in calculus topics and natural science topics in general (rather than taking a philosophical-math-fundamental oriented approach that is commonly found in mathematical logic textbooks).

  8. The role of the poet in Plato's ideal cities of Callipolis and Magnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Naddaf

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plato's attitude toward the poets and poetry has always been a flashpoint of debate, controversy and notoriety, but most scholars have failed to see their central role in the ideal cities of the Republic and the Laws, that is, Callipolis and Magnesia. In this paper, I argue that in neither dialogue does Plato "exile" the poets, but, instead, believes they must, like all citizens, exercise the expertise proper to their profession, allowing them the right to become full-fledged participants in the productive class. Moreover, attention to certain details reveals that Plato harnesses both positive and negative factors in poetry to bring his ideal cities closer to a practical realization. The status of the poet and his craft in this context has rarely to my knowledge been addressed.A atitude de Platão com relação aos poetas e à poesia tem sempre sido um ponto de debate, controvérsia e notoriedade, mas a maioria dos estudiosos não consegue ver seu papel central nas cidades ideais da República e das Leis, ou seja, Callipolis e Magnésia. Neste artigo, defendo que em nenhum dos dois diálogos Platão exila os poetas, mas, ao contrário, acredita que eles devem, como todos os cidadãos, exercitar a competência própria à sua profissão, permitindo-lhes o direito de se tornarem participantes com todos os direitos da classe produtora. Principalmente, se prestarmos a atenção devida em certos detalhes, veremos que Platão controla tanto os fatores positivos, como os negativos na poesia, para aproximar mais suas cidades ideais da realização prática. A meu ver, o estatuto do poeta e de sua habilidade, nesse contexto, foram raramente estudados.

  9. On-ground and in-orbit characterisation plan for the PLATO CCD normal cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J. P. D.; Walton, D.; Smith, A.; Hailey, M.; Curry, P.; Kennedy, T.

    2017-11-01

    PLAnetary Transits and Ocillations (PLATO) is the third European Space Agency (ESA) medium class mission in ESA's cosmic vision programme due for launch in 2026. PLATO will carry out high precision un-interrupted photometric monitoring in the visible band of large samples of bright solar-type stars. The primary mission goal is to detect and characterise terrestrial exoplanets and their systems with emphasis on planets orbiting in the habitable zone, this will be achieved using light curves to detect planetary transits. PLATO uses a novel multi- instrument concept consisting of 26 small wide field cameras The 26 cameras are made up of a telescope optical unit, four Teledyne e2v CCD270s mounted on a focal plane array and connected to a set of Front End Electronics (FEE) which provide CCD control and readout. There are 2 fast cameras with high read-out cadence (2.5 s) for magnitude ~ 4-8 stars, being developed by the German Aerospace Centre and 24 normal (N) cameras with a cadence of 25 s to monitor stars with a magnitude greater than 8. The N-FEEs are being developed at University College London's Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL) and will be characterised along with the associated CCDs. The CCDs and N-FEEs will undergo rigorous on-ground characterisation and the performance of the CCDs will continue to be monitored in-orbit. This paper discusses the initial development of the experimental arrangement, test procedures and current status of the N-FEE. The parameters explored will include gain, quantum efficiency, pixel response non-uniformity, dark current and Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI). The current in-orbit characterisation plan is also discussed which will enable the performance of the CCDs and their associated N-FEE to be monitored during the mission, this will include measurements of CTI giving an indication of the impact of radiation damage in the CCDs.

  10. Conceptual Modeling via Logic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    is routed through several for popup windows callable from the form. processes before reaching its destination. We identified three solutions to the...confuse atacking forms and to Description: Sensor Type: increase survivability. The type of sensor rders to the bond of the electro- mag- Instance

  11. What is mathematical logic?

    CERN Document Server

    Crossley, J N; Brickhill, CJ; Stillwell, JC

    2010-01-01

    Although mathematical logic can be a formidably abstruse topic, even for mathematicians, this concise book presents the subject in a lively and approachable fashion. It deals with the very important ideas in modern mathematical logic without the detailed mathematical work required of those with a professional interest in logic.The book begins with a historical survey of the development of mathematical logic from two parallel streams: formal deduction, which originated with Aristotle, Euclid, and others; and mathematical analysis, which dates back to Archimedes in the same era. The streams beg

  12. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...... operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....

  13. A Logic for Choreographies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Hugo Andres; Carbone, Marco; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for specification and verification of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL...... ), a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service specifications. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a significant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof...

  14. Superconductor fluxoid logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronov, A.A.; Kurin, V.V.; Levichev, M.Yu.; Ryndyk, D.A.; Vostokov, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years there has been much interest in superconductor logical devices. Our paper is devoted to the analysis of some new possibilities in this field. The main problems here are: minimization of time of logical operations and reducing of device scale. Josephson systems are quite appropriate for this purpose because of small size, short characteristic time and also small energy losses. Two different types of Josephson logic have been investigated during last years. The first type is based on hysteretic V-A characteristic of a single Josephson junction. Superconducting and resistive (with nonzero voltage) states are considered as logical zero and logical unit. The second one - rapid single flux quantum logic, has been developed recently and is based on SQUID-like bistability. Different logical states are the states with different number of magnetic flux quanta inside closed superconducting contour. Information is represented by voltage pulses with fixed ''area'' (∫ V(t)/dt). This pulses are generated when logical state of SQUID-like elementary cell changes. The fundamental role of magnetic flux quantization in this type of logic leads to the necessity of large enough self-inductance of superconductor contour and thus to limitations on minimal device dimensions. (orig.)

  15. A Logic for Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carbone

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for specification and verification of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL, a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service specifications. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a significant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof system for checking validity of formulae.

  16. Introduction to mathematical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Mendelson, Elliott

    2015-01-01

    The new edition of this classic textbook, Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Sixth Edition explores the principal topics of mathematical logic. It covers propositional logic, first-order logic, first-order number theory, axiomatic set theory, and the theory of computability. The text also discusses the major results of Gödel, Church, Kleene, Rosser, and Turing.The sixth edition incorporates recent work on Gödel's second incompleteness theorem as well as restoring an appendix on consistency proofs for first-order arithmetic. This appendix last appeared in the first edition. It is offered in th

  17. Dialectic of Eros and Myth of the Soul in Plato's Phaedrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I question a widespread reading of a passage in the last part of the Phaedrus dealing with the science of dialectic. According to this reading, the passage announces a new method peculiar to the later Plato aiming at defining natural kinds. I show that the Phaedrus itself does not ...... not support such a reading. As an alternative reading, I suggest that the science of dialectic, as discussed in the passage, must be seen as dealing primarily with philosophical rhetoric and knowledge of human souls....

  18. Numbers Rule The Vexing Mathematics of Democracy, from Plato to the Present

    CERN Document Server

    Szpiro, George G

    2010-01-01

    Since the very birth of democracy in ancient Greece, the simple act of voting has given rise to mathematical paradoxes that have puzzled some of the greatest philosophers, statesmen, and mathematicians. Numbers Rule traces the epic quest by these thinkers to create a more perfect democracy and adapt to the ever-changing demands that each new generation places on our democratic institutions. In a sweeping narrative that combines history, biography, and mathematics, George Szpiro details the fascinating lives and big ideas of great minds such as Plato, Pliny the Younger, Ramon Llull, Pierre Simo

  19. [Plato's philosophy and the bioethical debate on the end of life: intersections in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses bioethical aspects of medical futility, focusing on some of its intersections in public health. Starting from a demarcation of finitude in the core of the philosophical and bioethical debate on the end of life, we confront the contemporary criticism regarding medical futility with the ideas of Plato (427-347 B.C.), a philosopher who proposed significant considerations on numerous features of the medicine of his time. We thus explore novel theoretic references to guide the disputes related to this essential problem, the implications of which are decisive to health and life.

  20. Slovenian test case Vrbanski Plato aquifer in the EU HORIZON 2020 FREEWAT project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kopač

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian case study in the EU HORIZON 2020 FREEWAT project was Vrbanski Plato aquifer. Slovenia is divided into two river basin districts: the Danube and the North Adriatic. The Vrbanski Plato aquifer, which he presents both natural and artificial bank filtration from the river Drava, is a part of the Danube river basin district and is the most important water source for 14 municipalities in the northeastern part of Slovenia. We investigated the groundwatersurface water interaction between river Drava and the porous aquifer in the geological old riverbed and possible reduction of city impact. This site is the oldest managed artificial groundwater recharge with riverbank filtration and has more than thirty years of successful operation. It is something special, very abundant in a small space, independent of drought and climate changes, but vulnerable due to the impact of the city. Under the city there is watershed dividing, which is shifting with different water management condition and we would like to have the least possible impact of the city. For optimal water management we decided to use FREEWAT plug-in within QGIS platform. With new developed FREEWAT plug-in in project FREEWAT, we made steady-state and transient groundwater model for presenting this shift of the watershed dividing under the city and optimal water management for this area. The model was designed in a way that it identifies and describes all major aspects of the physical hydrogeological system and water management. During the running of a project, there was an accident with heating oil spillage in city area, right on the watershed dividing. So we oriented with the transient groundwater model as well on heating oil spillage and pumping with additional wells at the place of the accident to present successful rehabilitation and the importance of the managed groundwater recharge. Our experience with FREEWAT platform during the Vrbanski Plato aquifer case study was very

  1. Mapping Modular SOS to Rewriting Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Christiano de Oliveira; Haeusler, Edward Hermann; Meseguer, José

    2003-01-01

    and verification of MSOS specifications, we have defined a mapping, named , from MSOS to rewriting logic (RWL), a logic which has been proposed as a logical and semantic framework. We have proven the correctness of and implemented it as a prototype, the MSOS-SL Interpreter, in the Maude system, a high......Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution...

  2. Abductive Inference using Array-Based Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Peter; Møller, Gert L.

    The notion of abduction has found its usage within a wide variety of AI fields. Computing abductive solutions has, however, shown to be highly intractable in logic programming. To avoid this intractability we present a new approach to logicbased abduction; through the geometrical view of data...... employed in array-based logic we embrace abduction in a simple structural operation. We argue that a theory of abduction on this form allows for an implementation which, at runtime, can perform abductive inference quite efficiently on arbitrary rules of logic representing knowledge of finite domains....

  3. Philosophical, logical and scientific perspectives in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Zekâi

    2013-01-01

    This book highlights and explains the significance of philosophical, logical, and scientific principles for engineering education/training and engineering works. In so doing, it aims to help to rectify the neglect of philosophy and logic in current education and training programs, which emphasize analytical and numerical methods at the expense of the innovative practical and creative abilities so important for engineering in the past. Individual chapters examine the relation of philosophy, logic, and science to engineering, drawing attention to, for example, the significance of ethics, the rel

  4. Understanding Social Media Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José van Dijck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpin­ning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass me­dia logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmabil­ity, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increas­ingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance ex­isting mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relat­ively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between plat­forms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that

  5. Weakly Intuitionistic Quantum Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, Ronnie

    2013-01-01

    In this article von Neumann's proposal that in quantum mechanics projections can be seen as propositions is followed. However, the quantum logic derived by Birkhoff and von Neumann is rejected due to the failure of the law of distributivity. The options for constructing a distributive logic while

  6. Modal Logics and Definability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusisto, Antti

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, research into the mathematical foundations of modal logic has become increasingly popular. One of the main reasons for this is the fact that modal logic seems to adapt well to the requirements of a wide range of different fields of application. This paper is a summary of some of the author’s contributions to the understanding of modal definability theory.

  7. Modal logics are coalgebraic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cirstea, C.; Kurz, A.; Pattinson, D.; Schröder, L.; Venema, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Applications of modal logics are abundant in computer science, and a large number of structurally different modal logics have been successfully employed in a diverse spectrum of application contexts. Coalgebraic semantics, on the other hand, provides a uniform and encompassing view on the large

  8. Description logics of context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  9. Criteria for logical formalization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 14 (2013), s. 2897-2924 ISSN 0039-7857 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logic * logical form * formalization * reflective equilibrium Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.637, year: 2013

  10. Automata, Logic, and XML

    OpenAIRE

    NEVEN, Frank

    2002-01-01

    We survey some recent developments in the broad area of automata and logic which are motivated by the advent of XML. In particular, we consider unranked tree automata, tree-walking automata, and automata over infinite alphabets. We focus on their connection with logic and on questions imposed by XML.

  11. One reason, several logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Agazzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.

  12. The logic of ACP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ponse (Alban); M.B. van der Zwaag

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe distinguish two interpretations for the truth value `undefined' in Kleene's three-valued logic. Combining these two interpretations leads to a four-valued propositional logic that characterizes two particular ingredients of process algebra: ``choice' and ``inaction'. We study two

  13. Anselm's logic of agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uckelman, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    The origins of treating agency as a modal concept go back at least to the 11th century when Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, provided a modal explication of the Latin facere ‘to do’, which can be formalized within the context of modern modal logic and neighborhood semantics. The agentive logic

  14. Temporalized Epistemic Default Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoek, W.; Meyer, J.J.; Treur, J.; Gabbay, D.

    2001-01-01

    The nonmonotonic logic Epistemic Default Logic (EDL) [Meyer and van der Hoek, 1993] is based on the metaphore of a meta-level architecture. It has already been established [Meyer and van der Hoek, 1993] how upward reflection can be formalized by a nonmonotonic entailment based on epistemic states,

  15. Honesty in partial logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Hoek (Wiebe); J.O.M. Jaspars; E. Thijsse

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the

  16. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme. PMID:27021295

  17. Amplifying genetic logic gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Jerome; Yin, Peter; Ortiz, Monica E; Subsoontorn, Pakpoom; Endy, Drew

    2013-05-03

    Organisms must process information encoded via developmental and environmental signals to survive and reproduce. Researchers have also engineered synthetic genetic logic to realize simpler, independent control of biological processes. We developed a three-terminal device architecture, termed the transcriptor, that uses bacteriophage serine integrases to control the flow of RNA polymerase along DNA. Integrase-mediated inversion or deletion of DNA encoding transcription terminators or a promoter modulates transcription rates. We realized permanent amplifying AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, and XNOR gates actuated across common control signal ranges and sequential logic supporting autonomous cell-cell communication of DNA encoding distinct logic-gate states. The single-layer digital logic architecture developed here enables engineering of amplifying logic gates to control transcription rates within and across diverse organisms.

  18. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...... of a presumed logic of competition within EU law, whereas the second part focuses on particular legal logics. In this respect, the so-called ‘real link criterion’ (determining the access to transnational social rights for certain groups of unemployed people) is given special attention. What is particularly...

  19. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2016-03-29

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.

  20. Logic in the curricula of Computer Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Quindeless

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the programs in Computer Science is to educate and train students to understand the problems and build systems that solve them. This process involves applying a special reasoning to model interactions, capabilities, and limitations of the components involved. A good curriculum must involve the use of tools to assist in these tasks, and one that could be considered as a fundamental is the logic, because with it students develop the necessary reasoning. Besides, software developers analyze the behavior of the program during the designed, the depuration, and testing; hardware designers perform minimization and equivalence verification of circuits; designers of operating systems validate routing protocols, programing, and synchronization; and formal logic underlying all these activities. Therefore, a strong background in applied logic would help students to develop or potentiate their ability to reason about complex systems. Unfortunately, few curricula formed and properly trained in logic. Most includes only one or two courses of Discrete Mathematics, which in a few weeks covered truth tables and the propositional calculus, and nothing more. This is not enough, and higher level courses in which they are applied and many other logical concepts are needed. In addition, students will not see the importance of logic in their careers and need to modify the curriculum committees or adapt the curriculum to reverse this situation.

  1. An Embedded Reconfigurable Logic Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Klenke, Robert H.; Shams, Qamar A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A Miniature Embedded Reconfigurable Computer and Logic (MERCAL) module has been developed and verified. MERCAL was designed to be a general-purpose, universal module that that can provide significant hardware and software resources to meet the requirements of many of today's complex embedded applications. This is accomplished in the MERCAL module by combining a sub credit card size PC in a DIMM form factor with a XILINX Spartan I1 FPGA. The PC has the ability to download program files to the FPGA to configure it for different hardware functions and to transfer data to and from the FPGA via the PC's ISA bus during run time. The MERCAL module combines, in a compact package, the computational power of a 133 MHz PC with up to 150,000 gate equivalents of digital logic that can be reconfigured by software. The general architecture and functionality of the MERCAL hardware and system software are described.

  2. Model Checking Is Static Analysis of Modal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2010-01-01

    Flow Logic is an approach to the static analysis of programs that has been developed for functional, imperative and object-oriented programming languages and for concurrent, distributed, mobile and cryptographic process calculi. In this paper we extend it; to deal with modal logics and prove...

  3. Relativistic quantum logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittelstaedt, P.

    1983-01-01

    on the basis of the well-known quantum logic and quantum probability a formal language of relativistic quantum physics is developed. This language incorporates quantum logical as well as relativistic restrictions. It is shown that relativity imposes serious restrictions on the validity regions of propositions in space-time. By an additional postulate this relativistic quantum logic can be made consistent. The results of this paper are derived exclusively within the formal quantum language; they are, however, in accordance with well-known facts of relativistic quantum physics in Hilbert space. (author)

  4. Coherent quantum logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, D.

    1987-01-01

    The von Neumann quantum logic lacks two basic symmetries of classical logic, that between sets and classes, and that between lower and higher order predicates. Similarly, the structural parallel between the set algebra and linear algebra of Grassmann and Peano was left incomplete by them in two respects. In this work a linear algebra is constructed that completes this correspondence and is interpreted as a new quantum logic that restores these invariances, and as a quantum set theory. It applies to experiments with coherent quantum phase relations between the quantum and the apparatus. The quantum set theory is applied to model a Lorentz-invariant quantum time-space complex

  5. Logical inference and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perey, F.G.

    1981-01-01

    Most methodologies of evaluation currently used are based upon the theory of statistical inference. It is generally perceived that this theory is not capable of dealing satisfactorily with what are called systematic errors. Theories of logical inference should be capable of treating all of the information available, including that not involving frequency data. A theory of logical inference is presented as an extension of deductive logic via the concept of plausibility and the application of group theory. Some conclusions, based upon the application of this theory to evaluation of data, are also given

  6. Layered Fixed Point Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filipiuk, Piotr; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2012-01-01

    We present a logic for the specification of static analysis problems that goes beyond the logics traditionally used. Its most prominent feature is the direct support for both inductive computations of behaviors as well as co-inductive specifications of properties. Two main theoretical contributions...... are a Moore Family result and a parametrized worst case time complexity result. We show that the logic and the associated solver can be used for rapid prototyping of analyses and illustrate a wide variety of applications within Static Analysis, Constraint Satisfaction Problems and Model Checking. In all cases...

  7. A multiplicity logic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialkowski, J.; Moszynski, M.; Zagorski, A.

    1981-01-01

    The logic diagram principle of operation and some details of the design of the multiplicity logic unit are presented. This unit was specially designed to fulfil the requirements of a multidetector arrangement for gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The unit is equipped with 16 inputs controlled by a common coincidence gate. It delivers a linear output pulse with the height proportional to the multiplicity of coincidences and logic pulses corresponding to 0, 1, ... up to >= 5-fold coincidences. These last outputs are used to steer the routing unit working with the multichannel analyser. (orig.)

  8. Social developmnet of ecologically sensitive rural areas: Case studies of the Moravian Karst (Czech Republic) and the Devetashko Plato (Bulgaria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletalová, Jana; Stefanová, D.; Vaishar, Antonín; Stefanov, P.; Dvořák, Petr; Tcherkezova, E.

    3-4, 3-4 (2016), s. 65-84 ISSN 0204-7209 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : social development * rural sensitive areas * Devetashko Plato * Bulgaria * Moravian karst - Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Cultural and economic geography http://geoproblems.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2016_34/4_zapletalova.pdf

  9. Three Aspects of PLATO Use at Chanute AFB: CBE Production Techniques, Computer-Aided Management, Formative Development of CBE Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecka, Joseph A.

    This report describes various aspects of lesson production and use of the PLATO system at Chanute Air Force Base. The first chapter considers four major factors influencing lesson production: (1) implementation of the "lean approach," (2) the Instructional Systems Development (ISD) role in lesson production, (3) the transfer of…

  10. A logical treatment of secondary storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, I.T.; Kusalik, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Existing logic programming environments usually rely on highly imperative primitives and side-effects to achieve I/O with peripheral devices such as disks. This paper describes an alternate approach where the concepts of information input and output are described declarativley. Using a model of a logic-based open system, independent logic systems communicate their beliefs by means of ground logic clauses. The interface to a physical disk is defined as a node in such a system. The contents of the disk are treated as a knowledge base. The model provides the disk with a simple inference mechanism that allows it to assimilate (or reject) assertions made to it by other nodes of the logic system. This disk can also process queries about its contents. An executable specification for such a storage model is given in the parallel logic programming language PARLOG, as well as an actual implementation that uses very low-level term I/O primitives. It is also shown how this model can be extended so that the disk records entity histories, rather than simple clauses. This enables file systems to be constructed very naturally, and allows garbage collection of ''old'' knowledge

  11. Optical reversible programmable Boolean logic unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2012-07-20

    Computing with reversibility is the only way to avoid dissipation of energy associated with bit erase. So, a reversible microprocessor is required for future computing. In this paper, a design of a simple all-optical reversible programmable processor is proposed using a polarizing beam splitter, liquid crystal-phase spatial light modulators, a half-wave plate, and plane mirrors. This circuit can perform 16 logical operations according to three programming inputs. Also, inputs can be easily recovered from the outputs. It is named the "reversible programmable Boolean logic unit (RPBLU)." The logic unit is the basic building block of many complex computational operations. Hence the design is important in sense. Two orthogonally polarized lights are defined here as two logical states, respectively.

  12. Synergies Between the Kepler, K2 and TESS Missions with the PLATO Mission (Revised)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon M.

    2017-01-01

    Two transit survey missions will have been flown by NASA prior to the launch of ESA's PLATO Mission in 2026, laying the groundwork for exoplanet discovery via the transit method. The Kepler Mission, which launched in 2009, collected data on its 100+ square degree field of view for four years before failure of a reaction wheel ended its primary mission. The results from Kepler include 2300+ confirmed or validated exoplanets, 2200+ planetary candidates, 2100+ eclipsing binaries. Kepler also revolutionized the field of asteroseismology by measuring the pressure mode oscillations of over 15000 solar-like stars spanning the lifecycle of such stars from hydrogen-burning dwarfs to helium-burning red giants. The re-purposed Kepler Mission, dubbed K2, continues to observe fields of view in and near the ecliptic plane for 80 days each, significantly broadening the scope of the astrophysical investigations as well as discovering an additional 156 exoplanets to date. The TESS mission will launch in 2017 to conduct an all-sky survey for small exoplanets orbiting stars 10X closer and 100X brighter than Kepler exoplanet host stars, allowing for far greater follow-up and characterization of their masses as well as their sizes for at least 50 small planets. Future assets such as James Webb Space Telescope, and ground-based assets such as ESOs Very Large Telescope (VLT) array, the Exremely Large Telescope (ELT), and the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be able to characterize the atmospheric composition and properties of these small planets. TESS will observe each 24 X 96 field of view for 30 days and thereby cover first the southern and then the northern hemisphere over 13 pointings during each year of the primary mission. The pole-most camera will observe the James Webb continuous viewing zone for one year in each hemisphere, permitting much longer period planets to be detected in this region. The PLATO mission will seek to detect habitable Earth-like planets with an instrument

  13. Answer Sets in a Fuzzy Equilibrium Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schockaert, Steven; Janssen, Jeroen; Vermeir, Dirk; de Cock, Martine

    Since its introduction, answer set programming has been generalized in many directions, to cater to the needs of real-world applications. As one of the most general “classical” approaches, answer sets of arbitrary propositional theories can be defined as models in the equilibrium logic of Pearce. Fuzzy answer set programming, on the other hand, extends answer set programming with the capability of modeling continuous systems. In this paper, we combine the expressiveness of both approaches, and define answer sets of arbitrary fuzzy propositional theories as models in a fuzzification of equilibrium logic. We show that the resulting notion of answer set is compatible with existing definitions, when the syntactic restrictions of the corresponding approaches are met. We furthermore locate the complexity of the main reasoning tasks at the second level of the polynomial hierarchy. Finally, as an illustration of its modeling power, we show how fuzzy equilibrium logic can be used to find strong Nash equilibria.

  14. Logic and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Gierasimczuk, Nina; de Jong, Dick

    2014-01-01

    Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study of inform......Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study...... of information processing, but likewise helped bring logic and learning in close proximity. This proximity relation is examined with respect to learning and belief revision, updating and efficiency, and with respect to how learnability fits in the greater scheme of dynamic epistemic logic and scientific method....

  15. Magnonic logic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitun, Alexander; Bao Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L

    2010-01-01

    We describe and analyse possible approaches to magnonic logic circuits and basic elements required for circuit construction. A distinctive feature of the magnonic circuitry is that information is transmitted by spin waves propagating in the magnetic waveguides without the use of electric current. The latter makes it possible to exploit spin wave phenomena for more efficient data transfer and enhanced logic functionality. We describe possible schemes for general computing and special task data processing. The functional throughput of the magnonic logic gates is estimated and compared with the conventional transistor-based approach. Magnonic logic circuits allow scaling down to the deep submicrometre range and THz frequency operation. The scaling is in favour of the magnonic circuits offering a significant functional advantage over the traditional approach. The disadvantages and problems of the spin wave devices are also discussed.

  16. Characterization of quantum logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum mechanics is used to analyze the conceptual foundations of the traditional quantum theory. The universal quantum of action h>0 is incorporated into the theory by introducing the uncertainty principle, the complementarity principle, and the superposition principle into the framework. A characterization of those quantum logics (L,S) which may provide quantum descriptions is then given. (author)

  17. A Conceptual Space Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    1999-01-01

    Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....

  18. Logic, Probability, and Human Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    accordingly suggest a way to integrate probability and deduction. The nature of deductive reasoning To be rational is to be able to make deductions...3–6] and they underlie mathematics, science, and tech- nology [7–10]. Plato claimed that emotions upset reason- ing. However, individuals in the grip...fundamental to human rationality . So, if counterexamples to its principal predictions occur, the theory will at least explain its own refutation

  19. Extending Value Logic Thinking to Value Logic Portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Ritter, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Based on value creation logic theory (Stabell & Fjeldstad, 1998), this paper suggests an extension of the original Stabell & Fjeldstad model by an additional fourth value logic, the value system logic. Furthermore, instead of only allowing one dominant value creation logic for a given firm...... or transaction, an understanding of firms and transactions as a portfolio of value logics (i.e. an interconnected coexistence of different value creation logics) is proposed. These additions to the original value creation logic theory imply interesting avenues for both, strategic decision making in firms...

  20. Life Cycle V and V Process for Hardware Description Language Programs of Programmable Logic Device-based Instrumentation and Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, K. H.; Lee, D. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Programmable Logic Device (PLD), especially Complex PLD (CPLD) or Field Programmable Logic Array (FPGA), has been growing in interest in nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I and C) applications. PLD has been applied to replace an obsolete analog device or old-fashioned microprocessor, or to develop digital controller, subsystem or overall system on hardware aspects. This is the main reason why the PLD-based I and C design provides higher flexibility than the analog-based one, and the PLD-based I and C systems shows better real-time performance than the processor-based I and C systems. Due to the development of the PLD-based I and C systems, their nuclear qualification has been issued in the nuclear industry. Verification and Validation (V and V) is one of necessary qualification activities when a Hardware Description Language (HDL) is used to implement functions of the PLD-based I and C systems. The life cycle V and V process, described in this paper, has been defined as satisfying the nuclear V and V requirements, and it has been applied to verify Correctness, Completeness, and Consistency (3C) among design outputs in a safety-grade programmable logic controller and a safety-critical data communication system. Especially, software engineering techniques such as the Fagan Inspection, formal verification, simulated verification and automated testing have been defined for the life cycle V and V tasks of behavioral, structural, and physical design in VHDL

  1. Towards a Formal Occurrence Logic based on Predicate Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans

    2015-01-01

    In this discussion we will concentrate on the main characteristics of an alternative kind of logic invented by Hans Götzsche: Occurrence Logic, which is not based on truth functionality. Our approach is based on temporal logic developed and elaborated by A. N. Prior. We will focus on characterising...... argumentation based on formal Occurrence Logic concerning events and occurrences, and illustrate the relations between Predicate Logic and Occurrence Logic. The relationships (and dependencies) is conducive to an approach that can analyse the occurrences of ”logical statements based on different logical...... principles” in different moments. We will also conclude that the elaborated Götzsche’s Occurrence Logic could be able to direct us to a truth-functional independent computer-based logic for analysing argumentation based on events and occurrences....

  2. PLATO: a computer code for the analysis of fission product plateout in HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuo; Morimoto, Toshio.

    1981-01-01

    The computer code PLATO for estimating plateout activities on surfaces of primary cooling system of HTGRs has been developed, and in this report, analytical model and digital calculation method incorporated in the code are described. The code utilizes the mass transfer model analogous to heat transfer coupled with an expression for adsorption-desorption phenomenon, and is able to analyze plateout behaviours in a closed circuit, like a reactor cooling system, which is constructed from a various kind of components, as well as in an open-ended tube. With the code, fission product concentration in the coolant and plateout amount on the surfaces are calculated along the coolant stream, and total removal rate by the plateout process is also obtained. Comparison of the analytical results with the experimental results, including checks of the effects of some calculation conditions on the results, and preliminary analysis on the VHTR plant have been made. (author)

  3. Modern logic and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garden, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The book applies the methods of modern logic and probabilities to ''interpreting'' quantum mechanics. The subject is described and discussed under the chapter headings: classical and quantum mechanics, modern logic, the propositional logic of mechanics, states and measurement in mechanics, the traditional analysis of probabilities, the probabilities of mechanics and the model logic of predictions. (U.K.)

  4. Non-logic devices in logic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yanjun

    2017-01-01

    This book shows readers how to design semiconductor devices using the most common and lowest cost logic CMOS processes.  Readers will benefit from the author’s extensive, industrial experience and the practical approach he describes for designing efficiently semiconductor devices that typically have to be implemented using specialized processes that are expensive, time-consuming, and low-yield. The author presents an integrated picture of semiconductor device physics and manufacturing techniques, as well as numerous practical examples of device designs that are tried and true.

  5. INTEGRATED PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENT OF THE DEPARTMENTAL OF MATHEMATICAL LOGIC OF «MATLOG»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurii I. Sinko

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the introduction of new information technologies into the process of mathematical logic learning at the Kherson State University. The basic components of program system of mathematical logic learning are considered.

  6. Simulation results for PLATO: a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector with a low energy threshold for fusion plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, A.; Menouni, M.; Pangaud, P.; Morel, C.; Fenzi, C.; Colledani, G.; Moureau, G.; Escarguel, A.

    2017-01-01

    PLATO is a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector that has been designed to meet the specifications for plasma diagnostics for the WEST tokamak platform (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) in southern France, with potential perspectives for ITER. PLATO represents a customized solution that fulfills high sensitivity, low dispersion and high photon counting rate. The PLATO prototype matrix is composed of 16 × 18 pixels with a 70 μm pixel pitch. New techniques have been used in analog sensitive blocks to minimize noise coupling through supply rails and substrate, and to suppress threshold dispersion across the matrix. The PLATO ASIC is designed in CMOS 0.13 μm technology and was submitted for a fabrication run in June 2016. The chip is designed to be bump-bonded to a silicon sensor. This paper presents pixel architecture as well as simulation results while highlighting novel solutions.

  7. Modal Logics with Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areces, Carlos; Hoffmann, Guillaume; Denis, Alexandre

    We present a modal language that includes explicit operators to count the number of elements that a model might include in the extension of a formula, and we discuss how this logic has been previously investigated under different guises. We show that the language is related to graded modalities and to hybrid logics. We illustrate a possible application of the language to the treatment of plural objects and queries in natural language. We investigate the expressive power of this logic via bisimulations, discuss the complexity of its satisfiability problem, define a new reasoning task that retrieves the cardinality bound of the extension of a given input formula, and provide an algorithm to solve it.

  8. VHDL for logic synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rushton, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Many engineers encountering VHDL (very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language) for the first time can feel overwhelmed by it. This book bridges the gap between the VHDL language and the hardware that results from logic synthesis with clear organisation, progressing from the basics of combinational logic, types, and operators; through special structures such as tristate buses, register banks and memories, to advanced themes such as developing your own packages, writing test benches and using the full range of synthesis types. This third edition has been substantially rewritten to include the new VHDL-2008 features that enable synthesis of fixed-point and floating-point hardware. Extensively updated throughout to reflect modern logic synthesis usage, it also contains a complete case study to demonstrate the updated features. Features to this edition include: * a common VHDL subset which will work across a range of different synthesis systems, targeting a very wide range of technologies...

  9. Fuzzy logic in management

    CERN Document Server

    Carlsson, Christer; Fullér, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Fuzzy Logic in Management demonstrates that difficult problems and changes in the management environment can be more easily handled by bringing fuzzy logic into the practice of management. This explicit theme is developed through the book as follows: Chapter 1, "Management and Intelligent Support Technologies", is a short survey of management leadership and what can be gained from support technologies. Chapter 2, "Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic", provides a short introduction to fuzzy sets, fuzzy relations, the extension principle, fuzzy implications and linguistic variables. Chapter 3, "Group Decision Support Systems", deals with group decision making, and discusses methods for supporting the consensus reaching processes. Chapter 4, "Fuzzy Real Options for Strategic Planning", summarizes research where the fuzzy real options theory was implemented as a series of models. These models were thoroughly tested on a number of real life investments, and validated in 2001. Chapter 5, "Soft Computing Methods for Reducing...

  10. Continuous Markovian Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates...... of the exponentially distributed random variables that characterize the duration of the labeled transitions of a CMP. In this paper we present weak and strong complete axiomatizations for CML and prove a series of metaproperties, including the finite model property and the construction of canonical models. CML...... characterizes stochastic bisimilarity and it supports the definition of a quantified extension of the satisfiability relation that measures the "compatibility" between a model and a property. In this context, the metaproperties allows us to prove two robustness theorems for the logic stating that one can...

  11. Verification of the calculation program for brachytherapy planning system of high dose rate (PLATO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almansa, J.; Alaman, C.; Perez-Alija, J.; Herrero, C.; Real, R. del; Ososrio, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    In our treatments are performed brachytherapy high dose rate since 2007. The procedures performed include gynecological intracavitary treatment and interstitial. The treatments are performed with a source of Ir-192 activity between 5 and 10 Ci such that small variations in treatment times can cause damage to the patient. In addition the Royal Decree 1566/1998 on Quality Criteria in radiotherapy establishes the need to verify the monitor units or treatment time in radiotherapy and brachytherapy. All this justifies the existence of a redundant system for brachytherapy dose calculation that can reveal any abnormality is present.

  12. Set theory and logic

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, Robert R

    1979-01-01

    Set Theory and Logic is the result of a course of lectures for advanced undergraduates, developed at Oberlin College for the purpose of introducing students to the conceptual foundations of mathematics. Mathematics, specifically the real number system, is approached as a unity whose operations can be logically ordered through axioms. One of the most complex and essential of modern mathematical innovations, the theory of sets (crucial to quantum mechanics and other sciences), is introduced in a most careful concept manner, aiming for the maximum in clarity and stimulation for further study in

  13. Introduction to mathematical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Mendelson, Elliott

    2009-01-01

    The Propositional CalculusPropositional Connectives. Truth TablesTautologies Adequate Sets of Connectives An Axiom System for the Propositional Calculus Independence. Many-Valued LogicsOther AxiomatizationsFirst-Order Logic and Model TheoryQuantifiersFirst-Order Languages and Their Interpretations. Satisfiability and Truth. ModelsFirst-Order TheoriesProperties of First-Order Theories Additional Metatheorems and Derived Rules Rule C Completeness Theorems First-Order Theories with EqualityDefinitions of New Function Letters and Individual Constants Prenex Normal Forms Isomorphism of Interpretati

  14. The Logic of XACML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML....... To guard against modelling artefacts we provide an alternative way of characterizing the policy combining algorithms and we formally prove the equivalence of these approaches. This allows us to pinpoint the shortcoming of previous approaches to formalization based either on Belnap logic or on D -algebra....

  15. Digital logic circuit test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Gil Jung; Yang, Hong Young

    2011-03-15

    This book is about digital logic circuit test, which lists the digital basic theory, basic gate like and, or And Not gate, NAND/NOR gate such as NAND gate, NOR gate, AND and OR, logic function, EX-OR gate, adder and subtractor, decoder and encoder, multiplexer, demultiplexer, flip-flop, counter such as up/down counter modulus N counter and Reset type counter, shift register, D/A and A/D converter and two supplements list of using components and TTL manual and CMOS manual.

  16. Electronic logic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, J

    2013-01-01

    Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate

  17. Logic of the digital

    CERN Document Server

    Evens, Aden

    2015-01-01

    Building a foundational understanding of the digital, Logic of the Digital reveals a unique digital ontology. Beginning from formal and technical characteristics, especially the binary code at the core of all digital technologies, Aden Evens traces the pathways along which the digital domain of abstract logic encounters the material, human world. How does a code using only 0s and 1s give rise to the vast range of applications and information that constitutes a great and growing portion of our world? Evens' analysis shows how any encounter between the actual and the digital must cross an ontolo

  18. Modifications to River Protection Project (RPP) Level -0 Logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEEMAN, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The following modifications were made to the River Protection Project Level-0 logic in going from Rev. I to Rev. 2. The first change was the change to the heading at the top of the drawing: ''TWRS Program Logic'' to ''River Protection Project Mission Logic''. Note that purely format changes (e.g., fonts, location of boxes, date format, addition of numbers to ''ghost'' boxes) are not discussed. However, the major format change was to show DOE-BNFL Inc. Interface Control Documents (ICDs) on the logic

  19. Integration of functions in logic database systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambrichts, E.; Nees, P.; Paredaens, J.; Peelman, P.; Tanca, L.

    1990-01-01

    We extend Datalog, a logic programming language for rule-based systems, by respectively integrating types, negation and functions. This extention of Datalog is called MilAnt. Furthermore, MilAnt consistency is defined as a stronger form of consistency for functions. It is known that consistency for

  20. Neutrosophic Probability, Set, And Logic (first version)

    OpenAIRE

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2000-01-01

    This project is a part of a National Science Foundation interdisciplinary project proposal. Starting from a new viewpoint in philosophy, the neutrosophy, one extends the classical "probability theory", "fuzzy set" and "fuzzy logic" to , and respectively. They are useful in artificial intelligence, neural networks, evolutionary programming, neutrosophic dynamic systems, and quantum mechanics.

  1. Universal Programmable Logic Controller Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Arif Hamzah; Azhar Shamsudin; Fadil Ismail; Muhammad Nor Atan; Anwar Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is an electronic hardware which is widely used in manufacturing or processing industries. It is also serve as the main control system hardware to run the production and manufacturing process. There are more than ten (10) well known company producing PLC hardware, with their own specialties, including the method of programming and language used. Malaysia Nuclear Agency have various plant and equipment, runs and control by PLC, such as Mintex Sinagama Plant, Alurtron Plant, and few laboratory equipment. Since all the equipment and plant are equipped with various brand or different manufacture of PLC, it creates difficulties to the supporting staff to master the control program. The same problems occur for new application of this hardware, since there no policies to purchase only one specific brand of PLC. (author)

  2. Quantum logics with existence property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, C.

    1991-01-01

    A quantum logic (σ-orthocomplete orthomodular poset L with a convex, unital, and separating set Δ of states) is said to have the existence property if the expectation functionals on lin(Δ) associated with the bounded observables of L form a vector space. Classical quantum logics as well as the Hilbert space logics of traditional quantum mechanics have this property. The author shows that, if a quantum logic satisfies certain conditions in addition to having property E, then the number of its blocks (maximal classical subsystems) must either be one (classical logics) or uncountable (as in Hilbert space logics)

  3. Querying Natural Logic Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Jensen, Per Anker

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the principles of a system applying natural logic as a knowledge base language. Natural logics are regimented fragments of natural language employing high level inference rules. We advocate the use of natural logic for knowledge bases dealing with querying of classes...... in ontologies and class-relationships such as are common in life-science descriptions. The paper adopts a version of natural logic with recursive restrictive clauses such as relative clauses and adnominal prepositional phrases. It includes passive as well as active voice sentences. We outline a prototype...... for partial translation of natural language into natural logic, featuring further querying and conceptual path finding in natural logic knowledge bases....

  4. Viewpoint: Central adjudication of myocardial infarction in outcome-driven clinical trials--common patterns in TRITON, RECORD, and PLATO?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebruany, Victor L; Atar, Dan

    2012-09-01

    Central adjudication in randomised controlled outcome-driven trials represents a traditional approach to maintain data integrity by applying uniformed rules for assessment of clinical events. It was the purpose of this investigation to determine the patterns of myocardial infarction (MI) adjudication in the TRITON, RECORD, and PLATO trials. We were matching centrally-adjudicated MI's (CAMI's) from the official trial publication with the site-reported MI (SRMI's) count from the Food and Drug Administration's secondary analyses for the investigational compounds prasugrel (TRITON), rosiglitazone (RECORD), and ticagrelor (PLATO). CAMI numbers showed a remarkable discrepancy to SRMI's by more than a doubling of the difference: from 72 to 145 events in TRITON favoring prasugrel (from a hazard ratio [HR]=0.76, p=0.08; to a HR=0.76, p<0.001), and from 44 to 89 events in favour of ticagrelor in PLATO (from a HR=0.94, p=0.095; to a HR=0.84, p<0.001). In contrast, in the RECORD trial, the CAMI count was less than the SRMI count (from 24 to 8 events, from a HR=1.42, p=0.93; to a HR=1.14, p=0.96), in this case diminishing cardiovascular hazards in favour of rosiglitazone. In conclusion, central adjudication in the TRITON, the RECORD, and the PLATO trial turned out to have a critical impact on study outcomes. Trial publications should in the future include site-reported major efficacy and safety endpoints to preserve data integrity. The regulatory authorities should consider independent audits when there is a major disagreement between centrally adjudicated and site reported events influencing the results of a major clinical trial.

  5. Functions and generality of logic reflections on Dedekind's and Frege's logicisms

    CERN Document Server

    Benis-Sinaceur, Hourya; Sandu, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    This book examines three connected aspects of Frege's logicism: the differences between Dedekind's and Frege's interpretation of the term 'logic' and related terms and reflects on Frege's notion of function, comparing its understanding and the role it played in Frege's and Lagrange's foundational programs. It concludes with an examination of the notion of arbitrary function, taking into account Frege's, Ramsey's and Russell's view on the subject. Composed of three chapters, this book sheds light on important aspects of Dedekind's and Frege's logicisms. The first chapter explains how, although he shares Frege's aim at substituting logical standards of rigor to intuitive imports from spatio-temporal experience into the deductive presentation of arithmetic, Dedekind had a different goal and used or invented different tools. The chapter highlights basic dissimilarities between Dedekind's and Frege's actual ways of doing and thinking. The second chapter reflects on Frege's notion of a function, in comparison with ...

  6. The logic of XACML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policies in a compositional way. Our main contributions are (i) to derive a logic that precisely captures the intentions of the standard, (ii) to formally define a semantics for the XACML 3.0 component evaluation...

  7. The Logic of XACML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML...

  8. Categories and logical syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klev, Ansten Morch

    2014-01-01

    The notions of category and type are here studied through the lens of logical syntax: Aristotle's as well as Kant's categories through the traditional form of proposition `S is P', and modern doctrines of type through the Fregean form of proposition `F(a)', function applied to argument. Topics

  9. Structures for Epistemic Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, N.; Hoek, W. van der

    2013-01-01

    Epistemic modal logic in a narrow sense studies and formalises reasoning about knowledge. In a wider sense, it gives a formal account of the informational attitude that agents may have, and covers notions like knowledge, belief, uncertainty, and hence incomplete or partial information. As is so

  10. Time and Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2009-01-01

    's notion of branching time is analysed. It is argued that Prior can be criticized for identifying 'plain future'. Finally, Prior's four grades of tense-logical involvement are introduced and discussed. It is argued that the third grade is the most attractive form a philosophical point of view....

  11. Expressivist Perspective on Logicality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arazim, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2017), s. 409-419 ISSN 1661-8297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-15645S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logical constant * expressivism * topic-neutrality * proof- theory * conservativity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology

  12. Fictional Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    , separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...

  13. Dedekind’s logicism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klev, Ansten

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2017), s. 341-368 ISSN 0031-8019 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Philosophy of mathematics * logicism * Richard Dedekind Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology Impact factor: 0.419, year: 2016

  14. LOGICAL SEMANTICS OF MODULARIZATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DELAVALETTE, GRR

    1992-01-01

    An algebra of theories, signatures, renamings and the operations import and export is investigated. A normal form theorem for terms of this algebra is proved. Another algebraic approach and the relation with a fragment of second order logic are also considered.

  15. Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou

    1997-01-01

    The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...

  16. Logicism, intuitionism, and formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Symons, John

    2008-01-01

    Aims to review the programmes in the foundations of mathematics from the classical period and to assess their possible relevance for contemporary philosophy of mathematics. This work is suitable for researchers and graduate students of philosophy, logic, mathematics and theoretical computer science.

  17. Foundations of mathematical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Curry, Haskell B

    2010-01-01

    Written by a pioneer of mathematical logic, this comprehensive graduate-level text explores the constructive theory of first-order predicate calculus. It covers formal methods, including algorithms and epitheory, and offers a brief treatment of Markov's approach to algorithms, explains elementary facts about lattices and similar algebraic systems, and more. 1963 edition.

  18. Logically Incorrect Arguments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Vladimír; Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 263-287 ISSN 0920-427X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : argumentation * logical form * incorrect argument * correct arguments Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.689, year: 2016

  19. Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Faymonville

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic (PLDL, which extends Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. LDL was proposed as an extension of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that is able to express all ω-regular specifications while still maintaining many of LTL's desirable properties like an intuitive syntax and a translation into non-deterministic Büchi automata of exponential size. But LDL lacks capabilities to express timing constraints. By adding parameterized operators to LDL, we obtain a logic that is able to express all ω-regular properties and that subsumes parameterized extensions of LTL like Parametric LTL and PROMPT-LTL. Our main technical contribution is a translation of PLDL formulas into non-deterministic Büchi word automata of exponential size via alternating automata. This yields a PSPACE model checking algorithm and a realizability algorithm with doubly-exponential running time. Furthermore, we give tight upper and lower bounds on optimal parameter values for both problems. These results show that PLDL model checking and realizability are not harder than LTL model checking and realizability.

  20. Temporal logic motion planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  1. Logic and Natural selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2010), s. 207-223 ISSN 1661-8297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9009908 Keywords : logic * natural selection * modus potens * inferentialism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  2. Temporalizing Epistemic Default Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoek, Wiebe; Meyer, John Jules; Treur, Jan

    1998-01-01

    We present an epistemic default logic, based on the metaphore of a meta-level architecture. Upward reflection is formalized by a nonmonotonic entailment relation, based on the objective facts that are either known or unknown at the object level. Then, the meta (monotonic) reasoning process generates

  3. Nonlinear dynamics based digital logic and circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John F; Ditto, William L

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the role and importance of dynamics in the brain and biological neural networks and argue that dynamics is one of the main missing elements in conventional Boolean logic and circuits. We summarize a simple dynamics based computing method, and categorize different techniques that we have introduced to realize logic, functionality, and programmability. We discuss the role and importance of coupled dynamics in networks of biological excitable cells, and then review our simple coupled dynamics based method for computing. In this paper, for the first time, we show how dynamics can be used and programmed to implement computation in any given base, including but not limited to base two.

  4. Greek, Indian and Arabic logic

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2004-01-01

    Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic marks the initial appearance of the multi-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. Additional volumes will be published when ready, rather than in strict chronological order. Soon to appear are The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege. Also in preparation are Logic From Russell to Gödel, Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century, and The Many-Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic. Further volumes will follow, including Mediaeval and Renaissance Logic and Logic: A History of its Central. In designing the Handbook of the History of Logic, the Editors have taken the view that the history of logic holds more than an antiquarian interest, and that a knowledge of logic's rich and sophisticated development is, in various respects, relevant to the research programmes of the present day. Ancient logic is no exception. The present volume attests to the distant origins of some of modern logic's most important features, such as can be found in the claim by the authors of t...

  5. Radiation tolerant combinational logic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Gary R. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system has a reduced sensitivity to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transient(s) compared to traditional logic devices. In a particular embodiment, the system includes an input, a logic block, a bias stage, a state machine, and an output. The logic block is coupled to the input. The logic block is for implementing a logic function, receiving a data set via the input, and generating a result f by applying the data set to the logic function. The bias stage is coupled to the logic block. The bias stage is for receiving the result from the logic block and presenting it to the state machine. The state machine is coupled to the bias stage. The state machine is for receiving, via the bias stage, the result generated by the logic block. The state machine is configured to retain a state value for the system. The state value is typically based on the result generated by the logic block. The output is coupled to the state machine. The output is for providing the value stored by the state machine. Some embodiments of the invention produce dual rail outputs Q and Q'. The logic block typically contains combinational logic and is similar, in size and transistor configuration, to a conventional CMOS combinational logic design. However, only a very small portion of the circuits of these embodiments, is sensitive to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transients.

  6. Plato (power load analysis tool) - a module of west wall monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, Sutapa; Travere, Jean-marcel; Moreau, P.

    2015-01-01

    The mandate of the WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamak) project, is to upgrade the medium- sized superconducting Tokamak, Tore Supra in a major scale. One of it's objectives, is to also act as a test-bed for ITER divertor components, to be procured and used in ITER. WEST would be installing actively cooled Tungsten divertor elements, like the ones to be used in ITER. These components would be tested under two experimental scenarios: high power (Ip = 0.8MA, lasting 30s with 15MW injected power) and high fluence (Ip = 0.6 MA, lasting 1000s with 12 MW injected power). Heat load on the divertor target will range from a few MW/m 2 up to 20 MW/m 2 depending on the X point location and the heat flux decay length. The tungsten Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are less tolerant to overheating than their Carbon counterparts and prevention of their burnout is a major concern. It is in this context that the Wall Monitoring System (WMS) - a software framework aimed at monitoring the health of the Wall components, was conceived. WMS has been divided into three parts: a) a pre-discharge power load analysis tool to check compatibility between plasma scenario and PFC's operational limits in terms of heat flux b) a real-time system during discharge, to take into account all necessary measurements involved in the PFCs protection c) a set of analysis tools that would be used post-discharge, that would access WEST database and compare predicted and experimental results. This paper presents an overview of PLATo - the pre-pulse module of WMS that has been recently developed under IPR-IRFM research collaboration. PLAto has two major components - one that produces heat flux information of the PFCS and the other that produces energy graphs depending on shot profile defined by time variant magnetic equilibrium and injected power profiles. Preliminary results will be presented based on foreseen WEST plasma reference scenarios. (author)

  7. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  8. Logical analysis of biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2005-01-01

    R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005.......R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005....

  9. Probabilistic logics and probabilistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Haenni, Rolf; Wheeler, Gregory; Williamson, Jon; Andrews, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic Logic and Probabilistic Networks presents a groundbreaking framework within which various approaches to probabilistic logic naturally fit. Additionally, the text shows how to develop computationally feasible methods to mesh with this framework.

  10. Conference Trends in Logic XI

    CERN Document Server

    Wansing, Heinrich; Willkommen, Caroline; Recent Trends in Philosophical Logic

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents recent advances in philosophical logic with chapters focusing on non-classical logics, including paraconsistent logics, substructural logics, modal logics of agency and other modal logics. The authors cover themes such as the knowability paradox, tableaux and sequent calculi, natural deduction, definite descriptions, identity, truth, dialetheism, and possible worlds semantics.   The developments presented here focus on challenging problems in the specification of fundamental philosophical notions, as well as presenting new techniques and tools, thereby contributing to the development of the field. Each chapter contains a bibliography, to assist the reader in making connections in the specific areas covered. Thus this work provides both a starting point for further investigations into philosophical logic and an update on advances, techniques and applications in a dynamic field.   The chapters originate from papers presented during the Trends in Logic XI conference at the Ruhr University ...

  11. Preferential reasoning for modal logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Modal logic is the foundation for a versatile and well-established class of knowledge representation formalisms in artificial intelligence. Enriching modal logics with non-monotonic reasoning capabilities such as preferential reasoning as developed...

  12. Automatic Function Annotations for Hoare Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Matichuk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In systems verification we are often concerned with multiple, inter-dependent properties that a program must satisfy. To prove that a program satisfies a given property, the correctness of intermediate states of the program must be characterized. However, this intermediate reasoning is not always phrased such that it can be easily re-used in the proofs of subsequent properties. We introduce a function annotation logic that extends Hoare logic in two important ways: (1 when proving that a function satisfies a Hoare triple, intermediate reasoning is automatically stored as function annotations, and (2 these function annotations can be exploited in future Hoare logic proofs. This reduces duplication of reasoning between the proofs of different properties, whilst serving as a drop-in replacement for traditional Hoare logic to avoid the costly process of proof refactoring. We explain how this was implemented in Isabelle/HOL and applied to an experimental branch of the seL4 microkernel to significantly reduce the size and complexity of existing proofs.

  13. Learning Probabilistic Logic Models from Probabilistic Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Muggleton, Stephen; Santos, José

    2008-10-01

    We revisit an application developed originally using abductive Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) for modeling inhibition in metabolic networks. The example data was derived from studies of the effects of toxins on rats using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) time-trace analysis of their biofluids together with background knowledge representing a subset of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). We now apply two Probabilistic ILP (PILP) approaches - abductive Stochastic Logic Programs (SLPs) and PRogramming In Statistical modeling (PRISM) to the application. Both approaches support abductive learning and probability predictions. Abductive SLPs are a PILP framework that provides possible worlds semantics to SLPs through abduction. Instead of learning logic models from non-probabilistic examples as done in ILP, the PILP approach applied in this paper is based on a general technique for introducing probability labels within a standard scientific experimental setting involving control and treated data. Our results demonstrate that the PILP approach provides a way of learning probabilistic logic models from probabilistic examples, and the PILP models learned from probabilistic examples lead to a significant decrease in error accompanied by improved insight from the learned results compared with the PILP models learned from non-probabilistic examples.

  14. From Logical to Distributional Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Preller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper relates two variants of semantic models for natural language, logical functional models and compositional distributional vector space models, by transferring the logic and reasoning from the logical to the distributional models. The geometrical operations of quantum logic are reformulated as algebraic operations on vectors. A map from functional models to vector space models makes it possible to compare the meaning of sentences word by word.

  15. Modal Logics for Cryptographic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frendrup, U.; Huttel, Hans; Jensen, N. J.

    2002-01-01

    We present three modal logics for the spi-calculus and show that they capture strong versions of the environment sensitive bisimulation introduced by Boreale et al. Our logics differ from conventional modal logics for process calculi in that they allow us to describe the knowledge of an attacker ...

  16. Combining Paraconsistent Logic with Argumentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grooters, Diana; Prakken, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    One tradition in the logical study of argumentation is to allow for arguments that combine strict and defeasible inference rules, and to derive the strict inference rules from a logic at least as strong as classical logic. An unsolved problem in this tradition is how the trivialising effect of the

  17. Lectures on Logic and Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information (ESSLLI) is organized every year by the Association for Logic, Language and Information (FoLLI) in different sites around Europe. The main focus of ESSLLI is on the interface between linguistics, logic and computation. ESSLLI offers fo...

  18. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  19. Strong Completeness for Markovian Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozen, Dexter; Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present Hilbert-style axiomatizations for three logics for reasoning about continuous-space Markov processes (MPs): (i) a logic for MPs defined for probability distributions on measurable state spaces, (ii) a logic for MPs defined for sub-probability distributions and (iii) a log...

  20. From Pericles to Plato – from democratic political praxis to totalitarian political philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øjvind Larsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Plato is normally taken as one of the founders of Western political philosophy, not at least with his Republic. Here, he constructs a hierarchy of forms of governments, beginning with aristocracy at the top as a critical standard for the other forms of governments, and proceeding through timocracy and oligarchy to democracy and tyranny at the bottom. Following Karl Popper, the paper argues that Plato’s is a totalitarian philosophy that emphasizes the similarities between democracy and tyranny, which it considers to be the two worst forms of government. Plato’s denigration of democracy has dominated the tradition of political philosophy until recent times. This paper, however, shows that political philosophy in fact originates in democracy, especially as developed by the sophists and that philosophy is only a form of sophism with a similar origin in ancient Greek democracy. A discussion of Pericles’ funeral oration is used to show that Pericles presented a democratic political philosophy that can serve as a counterpoint to Plato’s political philosophy in the Republic.

  1. Saved from the cellar Gerhard Gentzen’s shorthand notes on logic and foundations of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    von Plato, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Gerhard Gentzen is best known for his development of the proof systems of natural deduction and sequent calculus, central in many areas of logic and computer science today. Another noteworthy achievement is his resolution of the embarrassing situation created by Gödel's incompleteness results, especially the second one about the unprovability of consistency of elementary arithmetic. After these successes, Gentzen dedicated the rest of his short life to the main problem of Hilbert's proof theory, the question of the consistency of analysis. He was arrested in the summer of 1945 with other professors of the German University of Prague and died soon afterward of starvation in a prison cell. Attempts at locating his lost manuscripts failed at the time, but several decades later, two slim folders of shorthand notes were found. In this volume, Jan von Plato gives an overview of Gentzen's life and scientific achievements, based on detailed archival and systematic studies, and essential for placing the translations ...

  2. Magnetic Logic Circuits for Extreme Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program aims to demonstrate a new genre of all-magnetic logic circuits which are radiation-tolerant and capable of reliable operation in extreme environmental...

  3. Competing Logics and Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Mike

    2018-01-01

    This paper offers a short commentary on the editorial by Mannion and Exworthy. The paper highlights the positive insights offered by their analysis into the tensions between the competing institutional logics of standardization and customization in healthcare, in part manifested in the conflict between managers and professionals, and endorses the plea of the authors for further research in this field. However, the editorial is criticized for its lack of a strong societal reference point, the comparative absence of focus on hybridization, and its failure to highlight structural factors impinging on the opposing logics in a broader neo-institutional framework. With reference to the Procrustean metaphor, it is argued that greater stress should be placed on the healthcare user in future health policy. Finally, the case of complementary and alternative medicine is set out which – while not explicitly mentioned in the editorial – most effectively concretizes the tensions at the heart of this analysis of healthcare. PMID:29626406

  4. Conventions and Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... of creating a space for dialog. Both approaches were developed in the mid-1980s as a reaction to rational-choice economic theory and collectivistic sociological theory. These two theories were oversimplifying social life as being founded either in actor-micro level analyses or in structure-macro level...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...

  5. Formalizing Informal Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Walton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a formalization of informal logic using the Carneades Argumentation System (CAS, a formal, computational model of argument that consists of a formal model of argument graphs and audiences. Conflicts between pro and con arguments are resolved using proof standards, such as preponderance of the evidence. CAS also formalizes argumentation schemes. Schemes can be used to check whether a given argument instantiates the types of argument deemed normatively appropriate for the type of dialogue.

  6. Probabilistic Logical Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanns, Holger; Parma, Augusto; Segala, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Probabilistic automata exhibit both probabilistic and non-deterministic choice. They are therefore a powerful semantic foundation for modeling concurrent systems with random phenomena arising in many applications ranging from artificial intelligence, security, systems biology to performance...... modeling. Several variations of bisimulation and simulation relations have proved to be useful as means to abstract and compare different automata. This paper develops a taxonomy of logical characterizations of these relations on image-finite and image-infinite probabilistic automata....

  7. Bisimulations, games, and logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Clausen, Christian

    1994-01-01

    In a recent paper by Joyal, Nielsen, and Winskel, bisimulation is defined in an abstract and uniform way across a wide range of different models for concurrency. In this paper, following a recent trend in theoretical computer science, we characterize their abstract definition game-theoretically a......-theoretically and logically in a non-interleaving model. Our characterizations appear as surprisingly simple extensions of corresponding characterizations of interleaving bisimulation....

  8. Stereotypical Reasoning: Logical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Stereotypical reasoning assumes that the situation at hand is one of a kind and that it enjoys the properties generally associated with that kind of situation. It is one of the most basic forms of nonmonotonic reasoning. A formal model for stereotypical reasoning is proposed and the logical properties of this form of reasoning are studied. Stereotypical reasoning is shown to be cumulative under weak assumptions.

  9. RSFQ logic arithmetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhanov, O.A.; Rylov, S.V.; Semenov, V.K.; Vyshenskii, S.V.

    1989-01-01

    Several ways of local timing of the Josephson-junction RSFQ (Rapid Single Flux Quantum) logic elements are proposed, and their peculiarities are discussed. Several examples of serial and parallel pipelined arithmetic blocks using various types of timing are suggested and their possible performance is discussed. Serial devices enable one to perform n-bit functions relatively slowly but using integrated circuits of a moderate integration scale, while parallel pipelined devices are more hardware-wasteful but promise extremely high productivity

  10. Magnetoresistive logic and biochip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckl, Hubert; Brzeska, Monika; Brinkmann, Dirk; Schotter, J.Joerg; Reiss, Guenter; Schepper, Willi; Kamp, P.-B.; Becker, Anke

    2004-01-01

    While some magnetoresistive devices based on giant magnetoresistance or spin-dependent tunneling are already commercialized, a new branch of development is evolving towards magnetoresistive logic with magnetic tunnel junctions. Furthermore, the new magnetoelectronic effects show promising properties in magnetoresistive biochips, which are capable of detecting even single molecules (e.g. DNA) by functionalized magnetic markers. The unclear limits of this approach are discussed with two model systems

  11. Proceedings of the sixteenth international symposium on multiple-valued logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the mathematical logic behind artificial intelligence and expert systems. Topics considered at the conference included logic programming, probability, memory processing, electro-optical effects, fuzzy logic, set theory, a fuzzy expert system based on relations, sequential machines, computerized simulation, and algorithms

  12. A Paraconsistent Higher Order Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    of paraconsistent logics in knowledge-based systems, logical semantics of natural language, etc. Higher order logics have the advantages of being expressive and with several automated theorem provers available. Also the type system can be helpful. We present a concise description of a paraconsistent higher order...... of the logic is examined by a case study in the domain of medicine. Thus we try to build a bridge between the HOL and MVL communities. A sequent calculus is proposed based on recent work by Muskens. Many non-classical logics are, at the propositional level, funny toys which work quite good, but when one wants...

  13. UTP and Temporal Logic Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Hugh; Ciobanu, Gabriel; Freitas, Leo

    In this paper we give an additional perspective to the formal verification of programs through temporal logic model checking, which uses Hoare and He Unifying Theories of Programming (UTP). Our perspective emphasizes the use of UTP designs, an alphabetised relational calculus expressed as a pre/post condition pair of relations, to verify state or temporal assertions about programs. The temporal model checking relation is derived from a satisfaction relation between the model and its properties. The contribution of this paper is that it shows a UTP perspective to temporal logic model checking. The approach includes the notion of efficiency found in traditional model checkers, which reduced a state explosion problem through the use of efficient data structures

  14. A feasibility Study: The Succinct Solver v2.0, XSB Prolog v2.6, and Flow-Logic Based Program Analysis for Carmel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    We perform a direct comparison of the {Succinct Solver v2.0} and {XSB Prolog v2.6} based on experiments with {Control Flow Analyses} of scalable {Discretionary Ambient programs} and {Carmel programs}. To facilitate this comparison we expand ALFP clauses accepted by the Succinct Solver into more g...

  15. Platform Theoretical Referential of the Process of Teaching Learning of the Programming Logic in the Formation of Technologists in Analysis of Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Iván D. Tutillo-Arcentales

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of the ability of programming for computers, begins in the ability to transform the algorithms of the daily activities in programming algorithms and he/she responds to the student's necessity in designing solutions based on previously learned topics, combining the solutions that give result in other contexts with topics that they are analyzed like parts of an everything and that they are programmed in that way. From this perspective to deepen in the Sciences of the Education and inside her, in the Didactics, as well as the analysis of their category: teaching learning, which has full relationship inside the process of didactic in the class and where it is necessary us a methodology that achieves a learning starting from a conversion mechanism that then you can connect with the process of learning of the programming foundations and of the subjects of programming of more complexity. Keywords:  technological formation, technological knowledge, formation of the technological knowledge

  16. Computability, complexity, logic

    CERN Document Server

    Börger, Egon

    1989-01-01

    The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, and to the theory of formal languages and complexity theory. Apart from considering the fundamental themes an

  17. Intuitionistic fuzzy logics

    CERN Document Server

    T Atanassov, Krassimir

    2017-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive survey of intuitionistic fuzzy logics. By reporting on both the author’s research and others’ findings, it provides readers with a complete overview of the field and highlights key issues and open problems, thus suggesting new research directions. Starting with an introduction to the basic elements of intuitionistic fuzzy propositional calculus, it then provides a guide to the use of intuitionistic fuzzy operators and quantifiers, and lastly presents state-of-the-art applications of intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The book is a valuable reference resource for graduate students and researchers alike.

  18. Legume Logic & Green Manuring

    OpenAIRE

    Basavanagowda Nagabhushana, Nandeesh

    2014-01-01

    Brown plant hopper showed me the way into organic farming. In 2001, I started my practice with logic of legumes just to cut down the 45 percent expenses of my paddy on fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Later as I realized each and every plant carries it’s own nutrients, medicinal values and characters. Plants like millets, oil seeds, spices, di-cots, monocots and weeds all being used as a green manure. For all my agriculture problems and crop demands, I look for the answers only thro...

  19. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  20. Logical empiricists on race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Liam Kofi

    2017-10-01

    The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Flexible programmable logic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  2. Classical Mathematical Logic The Semantic Foundations of Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    In Classical Mathematical Logic, Richard L. Epstein relates the systems of mathematical logic to their original motivations to formalize reasoning in mathematics. The book also shows how mathematical logic can be used to formalize particular systems of mathematics. It sets out the formalization not only of arithmetic, but also of group theory, field theory, and linear orderings. These lead to the formalization of the real numbers and Euclidean plane geometry. The scope and limitations of modern logic are made clear in these formalizations. The book provides detailed explanations of all proo

  3. The REGENT-PLR-precompiler, execution logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enderle, G.; Steil, A.

    1976-11-01

    The REGENT-PLR-Precompiler is part of the integrated CAD-system REGENT. The algorithms of REGENT-subsystems are contained in modular program units, modules. Beyond the possibilities of the base language PL/1 the programmer of the moduls can be use the REGENT-facilities; dynamic program linkage, dynamic data management and error message handling. For easy and safe use of these facilities they are realized as PL/1-extensions. The PLR-Precompiler is able to translate the extensions into PL/1. This report contains a description of the internal program logic of the REGENT-PLR-Precompiler. (orig.) [de

  4. Dosimetric evaluation of PLATO and Oncentra treatment planning systems for High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy gynecological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Hardev; De La Fuente Herman, Tania; Showalter, Barry; Thompson, Spencer J.; Syzek, Elizabeth J.; Herman, Terence; Ahmad, Salahuddin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peggy and Charles Stephenson Oklahoma Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States)

    2012-10-23

    This study compares the dosimetric differences in HDR brachytherapy treatment plans calculated with Nucletron's PLATO and Oncentra MasterPlan treatment planning systems (TPS). Ten patients (1 T1b, 1 T2a, 6 T2b, 2 T4) having cervical carcinoma, median age of 43.5 years (range, 34-79 years) treated with tandem and ring applicator in our institution were selected retrospectively for this study. For both Plato and Oncentra TPS, the same orthogonal films anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral were used to manually draw the prescription and anatomical points using definitions from the Manchester system and recommendations from the ICRU report 38. Data input for PLATO was done using a digitizer and Epson Expression 10000XL scanner was used for Oncentra where the points were selected on the images in the screen. The prescription doses for these patients were 30 Gy to points right A (RA) and left A (LA) delivered in 5 fractions with Ir-192 HDR source. Two arrangements: one dwell position and two dwell positions on the tandem were used for dose calculation. The doses to the patient points right B (RB) and left B (LB), and to the organs at risk (OAR), bladder and rectum for each patient were calculated. The mean dose and the mean percentage difference in dose calculated by the two treatment planning systems were compared. Paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. No significant differences in mean RB, LB, bladder and rectum doses were found with p-values > 0.14. The mean percent difference of doses in RB, LB, bladder and rectum are found to be less than 2.2%, 1.8%, 1.3% and 2.2%, respectively. Dose calculations based on the two different treatment planning systems were found to be consistent and the treatment plans can be made with either system in our department without any concern.

  5. Love and/in psychoanalysis: a commentary on Lacan's reading of Plato's Symposium in Seminar VIII: Transference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bruce

    2015-02-01

    What is love and what part does it play in psychoanalysis? Where are the analyst and the analysand situated in relation to the roles defined as those of the "lover" and the "beloved"? Jacques Lacan explores these and other questions in his soon-to-be-published Seminar VIII: Transference by providing an extensive commentary on Plato's most famous dialogue on love, the Symposium. This paper outlines some of the major points about love that grow out of Lacan's reading of the dialogue and examines their relevance to the analytic setting. Can the analyst be characterized as a sort of modern-day Socrates?

  6. Ancient philosophical ideas of the soul (Plato-Aristotelian tradition and Stoicism as a source of Patristic Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitsev Cornelius

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the ancient idea of the soul that in the patristic era has been enriched by the perception of the methodology of ancient philosophy. Greek and Roman thinkers considered some properties of the soul, its immortality, revealed its “levels and strata” (Plato, Aristotle, expressed first guesses about the nature of sinful passions (the Stoics. But some aspects still remained unresolved so far. This is the issue of materiality or immateriality, of the soul, which "raised" in the Russian Empire in the 19th century (the dispute saints Theophan the Recluse and Ignatius Brianchaninov and remains relevant today.

  7. Superconducting digital logic amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybysz, J.X.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a superconducting digital logic amplifier for interfacing between a Josephson junction logic circuit having output current and a higher voltage semiconductor circuit input. The amplifier comprising: an input terminal for connection to a; an output terminal for connection to a semiconductor circuit input; an input, lower critical current, Josephson junction having first and second terminals; a first series string of at least three lower critical current Josephson junctions. The first series string being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction such that the first series string is in series with the input Josephson junction to provide a series combination. The input terminal being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction, and with the critical current of the lower critical current Josephson junctions of the input Josephson junction and the first series Josephson junctions being less than the output current of the low voltage Josephson junction circuit; a second series string of at least four higher critical current Josephson junctions. The second string being connected in parallel with the series combination to provide parallel strings having an upper common connection and a lower common connection. The lower common connection being connected to the second terminal of the input Josephson junction and the upper common connection being connected to the output terminal; and a pulsed DC current source connected the parallel strings at the upper common connection. The DC current source having a current at least equal to the critical current of the higher critical current Josephson junctions

  8. Integrated plant automation using programmable logic controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the world of automation the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) has became for control. It now not only replaces the earlier relay logic controls but also has taken over many additional control functions. Initially the PLC was used to replace relay logic, but is ever-increasing range of functions means that it is found in many and more complex applications. As the structure of the PLC is based on the same principles as those employed in computer architecture, it is capable of performance not only relay switching tasks, but also other applications such as counting, calculating, comparing and the processing of analogue signals. Due to the simplicity of entering and modifying the programmed instructions to suit the requirements of the process under control, the PLC is truly a versatile and flexible device that can be employed easily and efficiently to repeatedly control tasks that vary in nature and complexes. A photograph of the Siemens S-5 95U. To illustrate the advantage of using a PLC over a traditional relay logic system, consider a control system with 20 input/output points. This assembly could comprise 60-80 relays, some counter/timers and a great deal of wiring. This assembly would be cumbersome with a power consumption of 30-40VA. A considerable time would be required to design, test and commission the assembly and once it is in full working order any desired modification, even of minor nature, could require major hardware changes. (author)

  9. Quantum logics and convex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunce, L.J.; Wright, J.D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The main result is a representation theorem which shows that, for a large class of quantum logics, a quantum logic, Q, is isomorphic to the lattice of projective faces in a suitable convex set K. As an application we extend our earlier results, which, subject to countability conditions, gave a geometric characterization of those quantum logics which are isomorphic to the projection lattice of a von Neumann algebra or a JBW-algebra. (orig.)

  10. Safety logic systems of PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambasivan, S. Ilango

    2004-01-01

    Full text : PFBR is provided with two independent, fast acting and diverse shutdown systems to detect any abnormalities and to initiate safety action. Each system consists of sensors, signal processing systems, logics, drive mechanisms and absorber rods. The absorber rods of the first system are Control and Safety Rods (CSR) and that of the second are called as Diverse Safety Rods (DSR). There are nine CSR and three DSR. While CSR are used for startup, control of reactor power, controlled shutdown and SCRAM, the DSR are used only for SCRAM. The respective drive mechanisms are called as CSRDM and DSRDM. Each of these two systems is capable of executing the shutdown satisfactorily with single failure criteria. Two independent safety logic systems based on diverse principles have been designed for the two shut down systems. The analog outputs of the sensors of Core Monitoring Systems comprising of reactor flux monitoring, core temperature monitoring, failed fuel detection and core flow monitoring systems are processed and converted into binary signals depending on their instantaneous values. Safety logic systems receive the binary signals from these core-monitoring systems and process them logically to protect the reactor against postulated initiating events. Neutronic and power to flow (P/Q) signals form the inputs to safety logic system-I and temperature signals are inputs to the safety logic system II. Failed fuel detection signals are processed by both the shut down systems. The two logic systems to actuate the safety rods are also based on two diverse designs and implemented with solid-state devices to meet all the requirements of safety systems. Safety logic system I that caters to neutronic and P/Q signals is designed around combinational logic and has an on-line test facility to detect struck at faults. The second logic system is based on dynamic logic and hence is inherently safe. This paper gives an overview of the two logic systems that have been

  11. PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer

    CERN Multimedia

    A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.

  12. Popular lectures on mathematical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    A noted logician and philosopher addresses various forms of mathematical logic, discussing both theoretical underpinnings and practical applications. Author Hao Wang surveys the central concepts and theories of the discipline in a historical and developmental context, and then focuses on the four principal domains of contemporary mathematical logic: set theory, model theory, recursion theory and constructivism, and proof theory.Topics include the place of problems in the development of theories of logic and logic's relation to computer science. Specific attention is given to Gödel's incomplete

  13. Contextual logic for quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenech, Graciela; Freytes, Hector

    2005-01-01

    In this work we build a quantum logic that allows us to refer to physical magnitudes pertaining to different contexts from a fixed one without the contradictions with quantum mechanics expressed in no-go theorems. This logic arises from considering a sheaf over a topological space associated with the Boolean sublattices of the ortholattice of closed subspaces of the Hilbert space of the physical system. Different from standard quantum logics, the contextual logic maintains a distributive lattice structure and a good definition of implication as a residue of the conjunction

  14. Tensor product of quantum logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmannová, Sylvia

    1985-01-01

    A quantum logic is the couple (L,M) where L is an orthomodular σ-lattice and M is a strong set of states on L. The Jauch-Piron property in the σ-form is also supposed for any state of M. A ``tensor product'' of quantum logics is defined. This definition is compared with the definition of a free orthodistributive product of orthomodular σ-lattices. The existence and uniqueness of the tensor product in special cases of Hilbert space quantum logics and one quantum and one classical logic are studied.

  15. Logic and Philosophy of Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A.N. Prior (1914-69) in the course of the 1950s and 1960s founded a new and revolutionary paradigm in philosophy and logic. Its most central feature is the preoccupation with time and the development of the logic of time. However, this was inseparably interwoven with fundamental questions about h...... human freedom, ethics, and existence. This remarkable integration of themes also embodies an original and in fact revolutionary conception of logic. The book series, Logic and Philosophy of Time, is dedicated to a deep investigation and also the further development of Prior’s paradigm. ...

  16. Optimization methods for logical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Chandru, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Merging logic and mathematics in deductive inference-an innovative, cutting-edge approach. Optimization methods for logical inference? Absolutely, say Vijay Chandru and John Hooker, two major contributors to this rapidly expanding field. And even though ""solving logical inference problems with optimization methods may seem a bit like eating sauerkraut with chopsticks. . . it is the mathematical structure of a problem that determines whether an optimization model can help solve it, not the context in which the problem occurs."" Presenting powerful, proven optimization techniques for logic in

  17. Logic and Philosophy of Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    By blending historical research with current research, this collection (loosely inspired by themes from the work of Arthur Prior) demonstrates the importance of Prior's writings and helps us to gain a deeper understanding of time, its logic(s), and its language(s).......By blending historical research with current research, this collection (loosely inspired by themes from the work of Arthur Prior) demonstrates the importance of Prior's writings and helps us to gain a deeper understanding of time, its logic(s), and its language(s)....

  18. [Plato's conceptions of disorders of the soul (Ta peri psuchên nosêmata). Timaeus as the beginning of a dynamic and ethic psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godderis, J

    1998-01-01

    This contribution to the study of the evolution of fundamental concepts in psychiatry, and in particular of the interpretative models of mental disease, focuses on Plato's conceptions concerning the "disorders of the soul". Plato's "psychopathological" work suggests the decline of an hereditary conglomeration of interpretative arrangements of the irrational phenomena related to mental disease which, corresponding to the social needs of that time, had been united by the belief in myth and its therapeutic value. These archaic religious conceptions have most certainly been reversed by Plato, especially in his Timaeus, one of the three most influential of his dialogues. In a notable passage in this cosmological dialogue (86b ff.) Plato treats of those diseases of the soul which are caused by things physical, whether this be a "defective bodily constitution" or "faulty education". The diseases of the soul are thus no longer considered having a divine origin. Mental diseases to which man is unwittingly subject by defects in birth or education concern himself and his inner life and they cannot be dismissed with simplistic allegories. According to Plato they originate from a conflict, supported by a secret, hidden, irrational "self" that has its roots in the sôma, the rational "self" being only able to recuperate its total integrity if it manages, through self-discipline and knowledge, to check the somatic impulses, the folly of the body. Also, Plato offers a series of remedies to correct the undue influence of body on soul and soul on body, with a view to instituting a right balance and proportion between them. This, together with a stress on "care of the soul", particularly of the divine and immortal element, implicitly assumes that it is in man's power to apply the necessary remedies to himself and effect some sort of readjustment.

  19. Meta-Logical Reasoning in Higher-Order Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Hess, Andreas Viktor

    The semantics of first-order logic (FOL) can be described in the meta-language of higher-order logic (HOL). Using HOL one can prove key properties of FOL such as soundness and completeness. Furthermore, one can prove sentences in FOL valid using the formalized FOL semantics. To aid...

  20. Neighborhood semantics for modal many-valued logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles

    online 18 October 2017 (2018) ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GF15-34650L EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) JSPS-16-08; Austrian Science Fund(AT) I1897-N25 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : mathematical fuzzy logic * modal fuzzy logics * neighborhood frames * Kripke semantics * many-valued logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016