WorldWideScience

Sample records for platforms offshore requires

  1. Sinking offshore platform. Nedsenkbar fralandsplatform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einstabland, T.B.; Olsen, O.

    1988-12-19

    The invention deals with a sinking offshore platform of the gravitational type designed for being installed on the sea bed on great depths. The platform consists of at least three inclining pillars placed on a foundation unit. The pillars are at the upper end connected to a tower structure by means of a rigid construction. The tower supports the platform deck. The rigid construction comprises a centre-positioned cylinder connected to the foundation. 11 figs.

  2. Radiographic inspection on offshore platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Sergio Damasceno; Sperandio, Augusto Gasparoni

    1994-01-01

    One of the great challenges for non-destructive inspection is on offshore platforms, where safety is a critical issue. Inspection by gammagraphy is practically forbidden on the platform deck due to problems to personnel safety and radiological protection. Ir-192 sources are used and the risk of an accident with loss of radioisotope must be considered. It is unfeasible to use gammagraphy, because in case of an accident the rapid evacuation from the platform would be impossible. This problem does not occur when X-ray equipment is used as the radiation source. The limited practicality and portability of the X-ray equipment have prevented its use as a replacement for the gammagraphy. This paper presents the preliminary tests to see the viable use of radiographic tests with constant potential on offshore platforms. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs, 3 photos

  3. DESIGN OF OFFSHORE CONCRETE GRAVITY PLATFORMS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gas industry. Manufacturing and construction methods are discussed. Current ... Keywords: concrete gravity platform, offshore, foundation design, manufacturing, ... forms are used to support production drilling ... Manufacture and Construction.

  4. New offshore platform in the Mexican Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beisel, T.

    1982-04-01

    After a construction period of only 10 months, the second steel Offshore platform was recently completed in the Mexican Gulf. The pattern for this structure was the Cognac platform. The erection of the new platform, called the 'Cerveza' platform, is described in the article.

  5. An Experimental Study of an Offshore Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Asmussen, John Christian; Andersen, Palle

    of the multi-pile offshore platform is investigated by using a vibration based damage detection scheme. Changes in structural integrity are assumed to be reflected in the modal parameters estimated from only output data using an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model. Before the calibration of the ARMA...... model the quality of the measured data have been investigated. The estimated modal parameters and their corresponding variances are used as input to a probability based damage indicator. This indicator indicates, that since the construction of the platform, minor structural changes have taken place....

  6. Waste heat recovery technologies for offshore platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Benato, Alberto; Scolari, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at finding the most suitable waste heat recovery technology for existing and future offshore facilities. The technologies considered in this work are the steam Rankine cycle, the air bottoming cycle and the organic Rankine cycle. A multi-objective optimization approach is employed...... to attain optimal designs for each bottoming unit by selecting specific functions tailored to the oil and gas sector, i.e. yearly CO2 emissions, weight and economic revenue. The test case is the gas turbine-based power system serving an offshore platform in the North Sea. Results indicate that the organic...... and of the primary heat exchanger, organic Rankine cycle turbogenerators appear thus to be the preferred solution to abate CO2 emissions and pollutants on oil and gas facilities. As a practical consequence, this paper provides guidelines for the design of high-efficiency, cost-competitive and low-weight power...

  7. Offshore platform integration and floatover technology

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Gengshen

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses offshore platform integration technology, focusing on the floatover methodology and its applications. It also addresses topics related to safety and cost-effectiveness, as well as ensuring the success of a project through careful planning and established detailed operation procedure/working manuals, which are rarely found in the published literature. Unlike other publications in this area, the book not only includes details of technology development, but also presents real project cases in the discussion to make it more comprehensible. Each topic is illustrated with carefully created sketches to show the complex operation procedures. .

  8. Using decommissioned offshore oil/gas platforms for nuclear/RO desalination: the ONDP (Offshore Nuclear Desalination Platform)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagar, Ankesh

    2010-01-01

    Oil platforms are manmade concrete and steel giant structures standing high on ocean floor weighing anywhere between 10,000 tonnes and 150,000 tonnes or more and designed to withstand cruel forces of nature, having an average life of 70 years. With the declining petrol reserves within next 30 years, hundreds of platforms will be scheduled for decommissioning. This issue is a hot topic as oil companies tussle with environmentalists and state lawmakers over the future. The cash strapped oil companies have a legal obligation to remove each rig entirely, returning the ocean floor to its original condition. Lean times in oil industry mean a tight cash flow. Safely removing massive structures from deep waters and shipping the pile to the shores for reuse and recycling presents a technological challenge for operators. Some conceptual applications investigated to reuse them are the conversion of offshore structures into fish farms, prisons, military outposts, hotels, for Search and Rescue operations or Centers for Waste Processing and Disposal. Decommissioning oil and gas installation is exorbitantly expensive. On an average, removing a complete platform with or without pipeline in sea waters with 'clean sea approach' costs $15 million to $ 6 billion depending on location. Global warming has adversely affected world climate. Water levels in ground and reservoirs have shown drastic decrement. In future there will be need for more and more water all over the world. Fossil fuel energy based desalination is expensive and not eco-friendly so is dismantling of oil platform with its pipeline. The oil platforms are far located from population, have sufficient tank capacity and pipeline structure to store and pump water to shore. When found economically unviable these mammoth structures with modifications can be installed with 02 or more small or medium sized nuclear reactors such as KLT 40S with required module to desalinate water and co generate electricity which can be sent to

  9. Methodology for development of risk indicators for offshore platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeien, K.; Sklet, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a generic methodology for development of risk indicators for petroleum installations and a specific set of risk indicators established for one offshore platform. The risk indicators should be used to control the risk during operation of platforms. The methodology is purely risk-based and the basis for development of risk indicators is the platform specific quantitative risk analysis (QRA). In order to identify high risk contributing factors, platform personnel are asked to assess whether and how much the risk influencing factors will change. A brief comparison of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for nuclear power plants and quantitative risk analysis (QRA) for petroleum platforms is also given. (au)

  10. Analysis of offshore platforms lifting with fixed pile structure type (fixed platform) based on ASD89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugianto, Agus; Indriani, Andi Marini

    2017-11-01

    Platform construction GTS (Gathering Testing Sattelite) is offshore construction platform with fix pile structure type/fixed platform functioning to support the mining of petroleum exploitation. After construction fabrication process platform was moved to barges, then shipped to the installation site. Moving process is generally done by pull or push based on construction design determined when planning. But at the time of lifting equipment/cranes available in the work area then the moving process can be done by lifting so that moving activity can be implemented more quickly of work. This analysis moving process of GTS platform in a different way that is generally done to GTS platform types by lifting using problem is construction reinforcement required, so the construction can be moved by lifting with analyzing and checking structure working stress that occurs due to construction moving process by lifting AISC code standard and analysis using the SAP2000 structure analysis program. The analysis result showed that existing condition cannot be moved by lifting because stress ratio is above maximum allowable value that is 0.950 (AISC-ASD89). Overstress occurs on the member 295 and 324 with stress ratio value 0.97 and 0.95 so that it is required structural reinforcement. Box plate aplication at both members so that it produces stress ratio values 0.78 at the member 295 and stress ratio of 0.77 at the member 324. These results indicate that the construction have qualified structural reinforcement for being moved by lifting.

  11. System evaluation of offshore platforms with gas liquefaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; de Oliveira Júnior, Silvio

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Floating, production, storage and offloading plants are facilities used for offshore processing of hydrocarbons in remote locations. At present, the produced gas is injected back into the reservoir instead of being exported. The implementation of refrigeration processes offshore for liqu......Abstract Floating, production, storage and offloading plants are facilities used for offshore processing of hydrocarbons in remote locations. At present, the produced gas is injected back into the reservoir instead of being exported. The implementation of refrigeration processes offshore...... improvements are discussed based on an energy and exergy analysis. Compared to a standard platform where gas is directly injected into the reservoir, the total power consumption increases by up to 50%, and the exergy destruction within the processing plant doubles when a liquefaction system is installed....... It is therefore essential to conduct a careful analysis of the trade-off between the capital costs and operating revenues for such options....

  12. Structural Integrity Management for Fixed Offshore Platforms in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan Sambu Potty; Mohammad Kabir B. Mohd Akram

    2009-01-01

    Structural Integrity Management (SIM) is important for the protection of offshore crew, environment, business assets and company and industry reputation. API RP 2A contained guidelines for assessment of existing platforms mostly for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). ISO 19902 SIM framework also does not specifically cater for Malaysia. There are about 200 platforms in Malaysia with 90 exceeding their design life. The Petronas Carigali Sdn Bhd (PCSB) uses the Asset Integrity Management ...

  13. Use of offshore mooring platform for sea wave motion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicconi, G.; Dagnino, I.; Papa, L.

    1979-01-01

    An offshore mooring platform for supertankers may often turn out to be an ideal solution for the problem of installing a meteorological station. Its location may be particularly desirable for the purpose of recording and analysing sea wave motion in deep water or in the intermediate zone between shallow and deep water. The preliminary results obtained through the operation of a subsurface sensor at the mooring platform off the harbour of Genova are reported. (author)

  14. Use of offshore mooring platform for sea wave motion analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicconi, G.; Dagnino, I.; Papa, L. (Genova Univ. (Italy). Ist. Geofisica e Geodetico); Basano, L.; Ottonello, P. (Genoa Univ. (Italy))

    An offshore mooring platform for supertankers may often turn out to be an ideal solution for the problem of installing a meteorological station. Its location may be particularly desirable for the purpose of recording and analysing sea wave motion in deep water or in the intermediate zone between shallow and deep water. The preliminary results obtained through the operation of a subsurface sensor at the mooring platform off the harbour of Genova are reported.

  15. Issues in offshore platform research - Part 1: Semi-submersibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R.; Kim, Tae-Wan; Sha, O. P.; Misra, S. C.

    2010-09-01

    Availability of economic and efficient energy resources is crucial to a nation's development. Because of their low cost and advancement in drilling and exploration technologies, oil and gas based energy systems are the most widely used energy source throughout the world. The inexpensive oil and gas based energy systems are used for everything, i.e., from transportation of goods and people to the harvesting of crops for food. As the energy demand continues to rise, there is strong need for inexpensive energy solutions. An offshore platform is a large structure that is used to house workers and machinery needed to drill wells in the ocean bed, extract oil and/or natural gas, process the produced fluids, and ship or pipe them to shore. Depending on the circumstances, the offshore platform can be fixed (to the ocean floor) or can consist of an artificial island or can float. Semi-submersibles are used for various purposes in offshore and marine engineering, e.g. crane vessels, drilling vessels, tourist vessels, production platforms and accommodation facilities, etc. The challenges of deepwater drilling have further motivated the researchers to design optimum choices for semi-submersibles for a chosen operating depth. In our series of eight papers, we discuss the design and production aspects of all the types of offshore platforms. In the present part I, we present an introduction and critical analysis of semi-submersibles.

  16. Electric power supply in an offshore oil production platform | Ibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    powered UPS system with a rotary engine UPS which can provide long-term power supply back-up as well as the benefits of rotating machines. KEY WORDS: Offshore, Platform, Power Supply, Gas turbine, Rotary Diesel UPS. [Global Jnl ...

  17. Issues in offshore platform research - Part 1: Semi-submersibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sharma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Availability of economic and efficient energy resources is crucial to a nation's development. Because of their low cost and advancement in drilling and exploration technologies, oil and gas based energy systems are the most widely used energy source throughout the world. The inexpensive oil and gas based energy systems are used for everything, i.e., from transportation of goods and people to the harvesting of crops for food. As the energy demand continues to rise, there is strong need for inexpensive energy solutions. An offshore platform is a large structure that is used to house workers and machinery needed to drill wells in the ocean bed, extract oil and/or natural gas, process the produced fluids, and ship or pipe them to shore. Depending on the circumstances, the offshore platform can be fixed (to the ocean floor or can consist of an artificial island or can float. Semi-submersibles are used for various purposes in offshore and marine engineering, e.g. crane vessels, drilling vessels, tourist vessels, production platforms and accommodation facilities, etc. The challenges of deepwater drilling have further motivated the researchers to design optimum choices for semi-submersibles for a chosen operating depth. In our series of eight papers, we discuss the design and production aspects of all the types of offshore platforms. In the present part I, we present an introduction and critical analysis of semi-submersibles.

  18. Offshore Platform Hydrocarbon Risk Assessment – OPHRA: Feasibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan; Kozine, Igor; Markert, Frank

    This report describes the feasibility demonstration of a new method to perform risk assessments for offshore platforms. This method simulates the following phenomena as concurrent sequences of events using the Arena® Discrete Event Simulation (DES) software (version 14.50.00): • Release, ignition...

  19. Development of fast wireless detection system for fixed offshore platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Yu, Yan; Jiao, Dong; Wang, Jie; Li, Zhirui; Ou, Jinping

    2011-04-01

    Offshore platforms' security is concerned since in 1950s and 1960s, and in the early 1980s some important specifications and standards are built, and all these provide technical basis of fixed platform design, construction, installation and evaluation. With the condition that more and more platforms are in serving over age, the research about the evaluation and detection technology of offshore platform has been a hotspot, especially underwater detection, and assessment method based on the finite element calculation. For fixed platform structure detection, conventional NDT methods, such as eddy current, magnetic powder, permeate, X-ray and ultrasonic, etc, are generally used. These techniques are more mature, intuitive, but underwater detection needs underwater robot, the necessary supporting tools of auxiliary equipment, and trained professional team, thus resources and cost used are considerable, installation time of test equipment is long. This project presents a new kind of fast wireless detection and damage diagnosis system for fixed offshore platform using wireless sensor networks, that is, wireless sensor nodes can be put quickly on the offshore platform, detect offshore platform structure global status by wireless communication, and then make diagnosis. This system is operated simply, suitable for offshore platform integrity states rapid assessment. The designed system consists in intelligence acquisition equipment and 8 wireless collection nodes, the whole system has 64 collection channels, namely every wireless collection node has eight 16-bit accuracy of A/D channels. Wireless collection node, integrated with vibration sensing unit, embedded low-power micro-processing unit, wireless transceiver unit, large-capacity power unit, and GPS time synchronization unit, can finish the functions such as vibration data collection, initial analysis, data storage, data wireless transmission. Intelligence acquisition equipment, integrated with high

  20. Application of GNSS Methods for Monitoring Offshore Platform Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Khin Cho; Nasir Matori, Abd; Gohari, Adel

    2018-03-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has become a powerful tool for high-precision deformation monitoring application. Monitoring of deformation and subsidence of offshore platform due to factors such as shallow gas phenomena. GNSS is the technical interoperability and compatibility between various satellite navigation systems such as modernized GPS, Galileo, reconstructed GLONASS to be used by civilian users. It has been known that excessive deformation affects platform structurally, causing loss of production and affects the efficiency of the machinery on board the platform. GNSS have been proven to be one of the most precise positioning methods where by users can get accuracy to the nearest centimeter of a given position from carrier phase measurement processing of GPS signals. This research is aimed at using GNSS technique, which is one of the most standard methods to monitor the deformation of offshore platforms. Therefore, station modeling, which accounts for the spatial correlated errors, and hence speeds up the ambiguity resolution process is employed. It was found that GNSS combines the high accuracy of the results monitoring the offshore platforms deformation with the possibility of survey.

  1. MUDMAP: Simulation model for releases from offshore platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The present article deals with a Norwegian developed simulation model dubbed MUDMAP. MUDMAP is a numerical model that simulates releases of drill muds and cuttings, produced water and other substances from offshore platforms. The model is envisioned as an advanced tool to assist in the rapid design and placement of intakes and release pipes on platforms, as well as in evaluating potential long-term impacts in the water and on the sea floor. MUDMAP allows rapid visual/graphical analysis of potential alternative solutions under various realistic environmental conditions, and for planning and executing platform monitoring projects. 4 figs

  2. Voltage margin control for offshore multi-use platform integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mier, V.; Casielles, P.G.; Koto, J.

    This paper discusses a multiterminal direct current (MTDC) connection proposed for integration of offshore multi-use platforms into continental grids. Voltage source converters (VSC) were selected for their suitability for multiterminal dc systems and for their flexibility in control. A five...... terminal VSC-MTDC which includes offshore generation, storage, loads and ac connection, was modeled and simulated in DigSILENT Power Factory software. Voltage margin method has been used for reliable operation of the MTDC system without the need of fast communication. Simulation results show......, sell or store energy attending to the price in the electricity market....

  3. Offshore Minerals Management Platforms for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Geographic NAD83, MMS (2006) [platforms_mms_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Platforms for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Identifies the location of platforms in GOM. All platforms existing in the database are included.

  4. Access Platforms for Offshore Wind Turbines Using Gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with forces generated by a stationary jet on different types of gratings and a solid plate. The force reduction factors for the different gratings compared to the solid plate mainly depend on the porosity of the gratings, but the geometry of the grating is also of some importance........ The derived reduction factors are expected to be applicable to design of offshore wind turbine access platforms with gratings where slamming also is an important factor....

  5. Load Identification of Offshore Platform for Fatigue Life Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Tygesen, Ulf T.

    2014-01-01

    of the structure and the discrete Kalman filter which recursively estimates unknown states of the system in real time. As a test-case, the algorithm is designed to estimate the equivalent total loading forces of the structure. The loads are estimated from noised displacement measurements of a single location...... on the topside of the offshore structure. The method is validated using simulated data for two wave loading cases: regular and irregular wave loadings.......The lifetime of an offshore platform is typically governed by accumulated fatigue damage. Thus, the load time history is an essential parameter for prediction of the lifetime of the structure and its components. Consequently, monitoring of structural loads is of special importance in relation to re...

  6. Modelling, analysis and optimisation of energy systems on offshore platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van

    of oil and gas facilities, (ii) the means to reduce their performance losses, and (iii) the systematic design of future plants. This work builds upon a combination of modelling tools, performance evaluation methods and multi-objective optimisation routines to reproduce the behaviour of five offshore......Nowadays, the offshore production of oil and gas requires on-site processing, which includes operations such as separation, compression and purification. The offshore system undergoes variations of the petroleum production rates over the field life – it is therefore operated far from its nominal...... with the combustion, pressure-change and cooling operations, but these processes are ranked differently depending on the plant layout and on the field production stage. The most promising improvements consist of introducing a multi-level production manifold, avoiding anti-surge gas recirculation, installing a waste...

  7. Minimising life cycle costs of automated valves in offshore platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yli-Petays, Juha [Metso Automation do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Niemela, Ismo [Metso Automation, Imatra (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    Automated process valves play an essential role in offshore platforms operation. If you are able to optimize their operation and maintenance activities you can receive extensive operational savings with minimal investment. Valves used in offshore platforms doesn't differentiate that much from the valves used in downstream but there are certain specialties, which makes the operations more challenging in offshore: Process valves are more difficult to access and maintain because of space limitations. Also spare part inventories and deliveries are challenging because of offshore platform's remote location. To overcome these challenges usage of digital positioners with diagnostic features has become more common because predictive maintenance capabilities enable possibilities to plan the maintenance activities and this way optimise the spare part orders regarding to valves. There are intelligent controllers available for control valves, automated on/off valves as well as ESD-valves and whole network of automated valves on platforms can be controlled by intelligent valve controllers. This creates many new opportunities in regards of optimized process performance or predictive maintenance point-of-view. By means of intelligent valve controllers and predictive diagnostics, condition monitoring and maintenance planning can also be performed remotely from an onshore location. Thus, intelligent valve controllers provide good way to minimize spending related to total cost of ownership of automated process valves. When purchase value of control valve represent 20% of TCO, intelligent positioner and predictive maintenance methods can enable as high as 30% savings over the life cycle of asset so basically it benefit savings higher than whole investment of monitored asset over its life cycle. This is mainly achieved through the optimized maintenance activities since real life examples has shown that with time based maintenance (preventive maintenance) approach 70% of

  8. Digital-Control-Based Approximation of Optimal Wave Disturbances Attenuation for Nonlinear Offshore Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Fang Zhong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The irregular wave disturbance attenuation problem for jacket-type offshore platforms involving the nonlinear characteristics is studied. The main contribution is that a digital-control-based approximation of optimal wave disturbances attenuation controller (AOWDAC is proposed based on iteration control theory, which consists of a feedback item of offshore state, a feedforward item of wave force and a nonlinear compensated component with iterative sequences. More specifically, by discussing the discrete model of nonlinear offshore platform subject to wave forces generated from the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP wave spectrum and linearized wave theory, the original wave disturbances attenuation problem is formulated as the nonlinear two-point-boundary-value (TPBV problem. By introducing two vector sequences of system states and nonlinear compensated item, the solution of introduced nonlinear TPBV problem is obtained. Then, a numerical algorithm is designed to realize the feasibility of AOWDAC based on the deviation of performance index between the adjacent iteration processes. Finally, applied the proposed AOWDAC to a jacket-type offshore platform in Bohai Bay, the vibration amplitudes of the displacement and the velocity, and the required energy consumption can be reduced significantly.

  9. IRET: requirements for service platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Baresi, Luciano; Ripa, Gianluca; Pasquale, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed This paper describes IRENE (Indenica Requirements ElicitatioN mEthod), a methodology to elicit and model the requirements of service platforms, and IRET (IREne Tool), the Eclipse-based modeling framework we developed for IRENE

  10. Bird interactions with offshore oil and gas platforms: review of impacts and monitoring techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronconi, Robert A; Allard, Karel A; Taylor, Philip D

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of oil and gas platforms are currently operating in offshore waters globally, and this industry is expected to expand in coming decades. Although the potential environmental impacts of offshore oil and gas activities are widely recognized, there is limited understanding of their impacts on migratory and resident birds. A literature review identified 24 studies and reports of bird-platform interactions, most being qualitative and half having been peer-reviewed. The most frequently observed effect, for seabirds and landbirds, is attraction and sometimes collisions associated with lights and flares; episodic events have caused the deaths of hundreds or even thousands of birds. Though typically unpredictable, anecdotally, it is known that poor weather, such as fog, precipitation and low cloud cover, can exacerbate the effect of nocturnal attraction to lights, especially when coincidental with bird migrations. Other effects include provision of foraging and roosting opportunities, increased exposure to oil and hazardous environments, increased exposure to predators, or repulsion from feeding sites. Current approaches to monitoring birds at offshore platforms have focused on observer-based methods which can offer species-level bird identification, quantify seasonal patterns of relative abundance and distribution, and document avian mortality events and underlying factors. Observer-based monitoring is time-intensive, limited in spatial and temporal coverage, and suffers without clear protocols and when not conducted by trained, independent observers. These difficulties are exacerbated because deleterious bird-platform interaction is episodic and likely requires the coincidence of multiple factors (e.g., darkness, cloud, fog, rain conditions, occurrence of birds in vicinity). Collectively, these considerations suggest a need to implement supplemental systems for monitoring bird activities around offshore platforms. Instrument-based approaches, such as radar

  11. Dynamic performance of power generation systems for off-shore oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Breuhaus, Peter; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    %) arises on the prediction of the rotational speed of the high pressure shaft, while the largest deviation (average relative error ~20%) occurs in the evaluation of the pressure at the outlet of the low pressure turbine. As waste heat recovery units (e.g. organic Rankine cycles) are likely...... to be implemented in future off-shore platforms, the proposed model may serve in the design phase for a preliminary assessment of the dynamic response of the power generation system and to evaluate if requirements such as minimum and maximum frequency during transient operation and the recovery time are satisfied......On off-shore oil and gas platforms two or more gas turbines typically support the electrical demand on site by operating as a stand-alone (island) power system. As reliability and availability are major concerns during operation, the dynamic performance of the power generation system becomes...

  12. Marine fouling assemblages on offshore gas platforms in the southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stap, van der Tim; Coolen, J.W.P.; Lindeboom, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Offshore platforms are known to act as artificial reefs, though there is on-going debate on whether this effect is beneficial or harmful for the life in the surrounding marine environment. Knowing what species exist on and around the offshore platforms and what environmental variables influence this

  13. Abundance of Corals on Offshore Oil and Gas Platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolian, Stephan R.; Sammarco, Paul W.; Porter, Scott A.

    2017-08-01

    Scleractinian, octocoral, and antipatharian corals have colonized many of the offshore oil and gas platforms in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We surveyed 25 offshore oil and gas platforms for these cnidarians. Few to no corals were detected on inshore, shallow-water structures at data suggest that the offshore platforms located in waters of >25-30 m in the study area are often colonized by these corals. We recommend that structures located in deeper waters should be surveyed for coral and, if the populations are substantial, consider alternate uses for the retired platforms, and leaving them in place, when feasible.

  14. Energy efficiency measures for offshore oil and gas platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas platforms are energy-intensive systems – each facility uses from a few to several hundreds MW of energy, depending on the petroleum properties, export specifications and field lifetime. Several technologies for increasing the energy efficiency of these plants are investigated in this work. They include: (i) the installation of multiple pressure levels in production manifolds, (ii) the implementation of multiphase expanders, (iii) the promotion of energy and process integration, (iv) the limitation of gas recirculation around the compressors, (v) the exploitation of low-temperature heat from the gas cooling steps, (vi) the downsizing or replacement of the existing gas turbines, and (vii) the use of the waste heat from the power plant. The present study builds on four actual cases located in the North and Norwegian Seas, which differ by the type of oil processed, operating conditions and strategies. The benefits and practical limitations of each measure are discussed based on thermodynamic, economic and environmental factors. Significant energy savings and reductions in CO_2-emissions are depicted, reaching up to 15–20%. However, they strongly differ from one facility to another, which suggests that generic improvements can hardly be proposed, and that thorough techno-economic analyses should be conducted for each plant. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency measures for offshore platforms are assessed. • Energy savings and reductions in CO_2-emissions can reach up to 15-20%. • They differ strongly depending on the oil type, operating conditions and strategies.

  15. PRA-1 offshore platform start-up within seven days; Operacionalizacao da plataforma offshore PRA-1 em sete dias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Fernando; Mitidieri, Jorge; Faria, Jose Luis Coutinho de; Ribeiro, Juan Carlos; Moura, Mario Arthur [Construtora Norberto Oderbrecht S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The technologic innovations are very hard features with regards to Offshore Engineering and Construction over the worldwide. The innovations only make sense since they are focus on the high productivity, safe job and cost reduction compared with the current technologies. Inside the scenario mentioned above is Construtora Norberto Odebrecht S.A. concept for the PRA-1 platform Engineering and Construction. Through a very advanced and innovation concept, it was defined as the Main Strategic Planning of the undertaking not use a temporary platform support (named in Brazil as 'Flotel') during the 'Hook-up', commissioning and star-up offshore phase. The success of the strategic made possible through the implementation of new engineering tools, and, besides this, through a very careful offshore planning focused on minimizing and make easier as much as possible the offshore activities. The planning can be basically spitted on the following parts: A- Onshore preparations (Assembly, Integration and Commissioning of the Utilities and Accommodation Modules) B- Offshore detailed planning of the critical activities concerning the start-up of the systems responsible for leaving the platform ready for 'live'. This operation was defined as 'seven days of platform live support' (main target of this paper). (author)

  16. An Advanced Control Technique for Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Based on More Compact Barge Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joannes Olondriz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (FOWT platform specifications are typically dominated by seaworthiness and maximum operating platform-pitch angle-related requirements. However, such specifications directly impact the challenge posed by an FOWT in terms of control design. The conventional FOWT systems are typically based on large, heavy floating platforms, which are less likely to suffer from the negative damping effect caused by the excessive coupling between blade-pitch control and platform-pitch motion. An advanced control technique is presented here to increase system stability for barge type platforms. Such a technique mitigates platform-pitch motions and improves the generator speed regulation, while maintaining blade-pitch activity and reducing blade and tower loads. The NREL’s 5MW + ITI Energy barge reference model is taken as a basis for this work. Furthermore, the capabilities of the proposed controller for performing with a more compact and less hydrodynamically stable barge platform is analysed, with encouraging results.

  17. Offshore Energy Mapping for Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean: MARINA PLATFORM project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallos, G.; Galanis, G.; Spyrou, C.; Kalogeri, C.; Adam, A.; Athanasiadis, P.

    2012-04-01

    Deep offshore ocean energy mapping requires detailed modeling of the wind, wave, tidal and ocean circulation estimations. It requires also detailed mapping of the associated extremes. An important issue in such work is the co-generation of energy (generation of wind, wave, tides, currents) in order to design platforms on an efficient way. For example wind and wave fields exhibit significant phase differences and therefore the produced energy from both sources together requires special analysis. The other two sources namely tides and currents have different temporal scales from the previous two. Another important issue is related to the estimation of the environmental frequencies in order to avoid structural problems. These are issues studied at the framework of the FP7 project MARINA PLATFORM. The main objective of the project is to develop deep water structures that can exploit the energy from wind, wave, tidal and ocean current energy sources. In particular, a primary goal will be the establishment of a set of equitable and transparent criteria for the evaluation of multi-purpose platforms for marine renewable energy. Using these criteria, a novel system set of design and optimisation tools will be produced addressing new platform design, component engineering, risk assessment, spatial planning, platform-related grid connection concepts, all focussed on system integration and reducing costs. The University of Athens group is in charge for estimation and mapping of wind, wave, tidal and ocean current resources, estimate available energy potential, map extreme event characteristics and provide any additional environmental parameter required.

  18. Modeling and Simulation of Offshore Wind Power Platform for 5 MW Baseline NREL Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Roni Sahroni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling and simulation of offshore wind power platform for oil and gas companies. Wind energy has become the fastest growing renewable energy in the world and major gains in terms of energy generation are achievable when turbines are moved offshore. The objective of this project is to propose new design of an offshore wind power platform. Offshore wind turbine (OWT is composed of three main structures comprising the rotor/blades, the tower nacelle, and the supporting structure. The modeling analysis was focused on the nacelle and supporting structure. The completed final design was analyzed using finite element modeling tool ANSYS to obtain the structure’s response towards loading conditions and to ensure it complies with guidelines laid out by classification authority Det Norske Veritas. As a result, a new model of the offshore wind power platform for 5 MW Baseline NREL turbine was proposed.

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Offshore Wind Power Platform for 5 MW Baseline NREL Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roni Sahroni, Taufik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and simulation of offshore wind power platform for oil and gas companies. Wind energy has become the fastest growing renewable energy in the world and major gains in terms of energy generation are achievable when turbines are moved offshore. The objective of this project is to propose new design of an offshore wind power platform. Offshore wind turbine (OWT) is composed of three main structures comprising the rotor/blades, the tower nacelle, and the supporting structure. The modeling analysis was focused on the nacelle and supporting structure. The completed final design was analyzed using finite element modeling tool ANSYS to obtain the structure's response towards loading conditions and to ensure it complies with guidelines laid out by classification authority Det Norske Veritas. As a result, a new model of the offshore wind power platform for 5 MW Baseline NREL turbine was proposed. PMID:26550605

  20. UV disinfection of injection and drinking water - an accepted method on offshore oil platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, H.; Klein, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    Ultraviolet disinfection packages have been developed for the treatment of drinking water and injection water on offshore oil platforms. Large-scale tests with sulphate reducing bacteria out outlined. (Auth.)

  1. Evaluation of stress resultant of offshore jacket platform using neural network

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Hegde, G.; Gupta, K.G.

    The safety of an offshore platform depends on the predicting environmental phenomena such as wind, current, wave, seismic loadings and accurate calculation of responses of the structure to these loads and determining the strength of the structure...

  2. Thermo-economic assessment of the integration of steam cycles on offshore platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Tock, Laurence; Breuhaus, Peter

    2014-01-01

    thermodynamic and economic performance indicators. The results illustrate the benefits of converting the gas turbines into a combined cycle. Using seawater results in smaller power generation and greater CO2-emissions than using process water, as the additional power generation in the combined cycle......The integration of steam bottoming cycles on oil platforms is often seen as a possible route to mitigate the CO2-emissions offshore. In this paper, a North Sea platform and its energy requirements are systematically analysed. The site-scale integration of steam networks is assessed by using...... is compensated by the significant pumping demand. This work emphasises that energy improvement efforts should be analysed at the scale of the overall site and not solely at the level of the combined cycle....

  3. H∞ memory feedback control with input limitation minimization for offshore jacket platform stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia Sheng

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate a H∞ memory controller with input limitation minimization (HMCIM) for offshore jacket platforms stabilization. The main objective of this study is to reduce the control consumption as well as protect the actuator when satisfying the requirement of the system performance. First, we introduce a dynamic model of offshore platform with low order main modes based on mode reduction method in numerical analysis. Then, based on H∞ control theory and matrix inequality techniques, we develop a novel H∞ memory controller with input limitation. Furthermore, a non-convex optimization model to minimize input energy consumption is proposed. Since it is difficult to solve this non-convex optimization model by optimization algorithm, we use a relaxation method with matrix operations to transform this non-convex optimization model to be a convex optimization model. Thus, it could be solved by a standard convex optimization solver in MATLAB or CPLEX. Finally, several numerical examples are given to validate the proposed models and methods.

  4. Environmental load factors and system strength evaluation of offshore jacket platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Nizamani, Zafarullah

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a study for the determination of environmental load factors for Jacket Platforms in Malaysia and a methodology to determine the life extension of aging platforms. The simplified methods described here could be used for determining not only structural reliability but also safety factors. Its content is particularly interesting to design and maintenance engineers who are working in offshore or onshore industry.

  5. Load out and offshore lifting of the PRA-1 platform modules; Embarque e icamento offshore dos modulos de PRA-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Fernando; Raigorodsky, Jacques; Mitidieri, Jorge L.U.; Ricardi, Paulo S. [Construtora Norberto Odebrecht S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The technology innovations are characteristics of offshore Engineering around the world. These technologies just make sense when they aim the productivity, security and costs gains compared to ordinary methods. It is in this context that the proposal of the Consorcio PRA-1 (Odebrecht e UTC) team makes sense, in the definition of basic methodology for the PRA-1 platform construction and installation. Through the innovative concept, It was defined (still in the proposal phase) the basic premise that the modules construction and assembly were onshore ending up that just few hours after the offshore installation the modules should be operational in minimal habitability conditions. This innovative method allowed the lack of Flotel, that is a platform which provide support to the offshore construction and assembly (Flotel represents a high costs to the project) and, as consequence, the contract signature by CONSORCIO PRA-1. This work aims to describe the method used for the LOUD-OUT of the PRA-1 modules and the installation of them on the jacket through a vessel provide with cranes the has performed the lifting. Theses operations became unique in Brazil due its challengers characteristics: Module 12 weight = 7203 tf and Module 35 = 5725 tf. For the accomplishment of the Load-out and offshore lifting, was performed a detailed planning and a high level of subcontract interface management. The operations mentioned above were filmed/photographed and published in the specialized media. (author)

  6. The ARGO Project: assessing NA-TECH risks on off-shore oil platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Paolo; Basco, Anna; Di Ruocco, Angela; Esposito, Simona; Fusco, Giannetta; Garcia-Aristizabal, Alexander; Mercogliano, Paola; Salzano, Ernesto; Solaro, Giuseppe; Teofilo, Gianvito; Scandone, Paolo; Gasparini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    ARGO (Analysis of natural and anthropogenic risks on off-shore oil platforms) is a 2 years project, funded by the DGS-UNMIG (Directorate General for Safety of Mining and Energy Activities - National Mining Office for Hydrocarbons and Georesources) of Italian Ministry of Economic Development. The project, coordinated by AMRA (Center for the Analysis and Monitoring of Environmental Risk), aims at providing technical support for the analysis of natural and anthropogenic risks on offshore oil platforms. In order to achieve this challenging objective, ARGO brings together climate experts, risk management experts, seismologists, geologists, chemical engineers, earth and coastal observation experts. ARGO has developed methodologies for the probabilistic analysis of industrial accidents triggered by natural events (NA-TECH) on offshore oil platforms in the Italian seas, including extreme events related to climate changes. Furthermore the environmental effect of offshore activities has been investigated, including: changes on seismicity and on the evolution of coastal areas close to offshore platforms. Then a probabilistic multi-risk framework has been developed for the analysis of NA-TECH events on offshore installations for hydrocarbon extraction.

  7. Design of self-contained sensor for monitoring of deep-sea offshore platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Yu, Yan; Zhang, Chunwei; Dong, Weijie; Ou, Jinping

    2013-04-01

    Offshore platform, which is the base of the production and living in the sea, is the most important infrastructure for developing oil and gas resources. At present, there are almost 6500 offshore platforms servicing in the 53 countries' sea areas around the world, creating great wealth for the world. In general, offshore platforms may work for 20 years, however, offshore platforms are expensive, complex, bulky, and so many of them are on extended active duty. Because of offshore platforms servicing in the harsh marine environment for a long time, the marine environment have a great impact on the offshore platforms. Besides, with the impact and erosion of seawater, and material aging, the offshore platform is possible to be in unexpected situations when a badly sudden situation happens. Therefore, it is of great significance to monitor the marine environment and offshore platforms. The self-contained sensor for deep-sea offshore platform with its unique design, can not only effectively extend the working time of the sensor with the capability of converting vibration energy to electrical energy, but also simultaneously collect the data of acceleration, inclination, temperature and humidity of the deep sea, so that we can achieve the purpose of monitoring offshore platforms through analyzing the collected data. The self-contained sensor for monitoring of deep-sea offshore platform includes sensing unit, data collecting and storage unit, the energy supply unit. The sensing unit with multi-variables, consists of an accelerometer LIS344ALH, an inclinometer SCA103T and a temperature and humidity sensor SHT11; the data collecting and storage unit includes the MSP430 low-power MCU, large capacity memory, clock circuit and the communication interface, the communication interface includes USB interface, serial ports and wireless interface; in addition, the energy supply unit, converting vibration to electrical energy to power the overall system, includes the electromagnetic

  8. Study of a new hydraulic pumping unit based on the offshore platform

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yanqun; Chang, Zongyu; Qi, Yaoguang; Xue, Xin; Zhao, Jiannan

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a new technology about a rod pumping in the offshore platform according to the demand of offshore heavy oil thermal recovery and the production of stripper well, analyzes the research status of hydraulic pumping unit at home and abroad, and designs a new kind of miniature hydraulic pumping unit with long-stroke, low pumping speed and compact structure to resolve the problem of space limitation. The article also describes the whole structure and the working principle of...

  9. [Relationship between occupational stress and mental health in offshore oil platform workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongtao; Xiao, Taiqin; Zou, Jianfang; Shan, Yongle; Li, Zijian

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between occupational stress and mental health in offshore oil platform workers and to provide a scientific basis for protection of their mental health. A total of 768 workers on offshore oil platform were surveyed with the Occupational Stress Inventory Revised Edition and Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90). The total score of Occupational Role Questionnaire (ORQ) for the workers (160.27±24.63) was significantly lower than the national norm (166.52±27.01) (P 0.05), but the items of recreation, social support, and rational/cognitive found significant difference (P work seniority, education background, drinking, role overload, role insufficiency, role ambiguity, responsibility, physical environment, and rational/cognitive conduct impacted the score of SCL-90 (P mental health of workers on offshore oil platform is related to occupational stress, and role overload, role ambiguity, physical environment, and rational/cognitive conduct, etc, are closely associated with the workers' mental health.

  10. Carbonate platform growth and demise offshore Central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael B.W.; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Nielsen, Lars H.

    2013-01-01

    Fault Zone, the Tuy Hoa Carbonate Platform fringes the continental margin between Da Nang and Nha Trang. Here, platform growth initiated during the Early Miocene and continued until Middle Miocene time when regional uplift led to subaerial exposure, termination of platform growth and karstification...... continues on isolated platforms hosting the Paracel Islands farther seawards. The onset of widespread carbonate deposition largely reflects the Early Miocene transgression of the area linked with early post-rift subsidence and the opening of the South China Sea. The mid-Neogene shift in carbonate deposition...

  11. Vertical Wave Impacts on Offshore Wind Turbine Inspection Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl

    2011-01-01

    Breaking wave impacts on a monopile at 20 m depth are computed with a VOF (Volume Of Fluid) method. The impacting waves are generated by the second-order focused wave group technique, to obtain waves that break at the position of the monopile. The subsequent impact from the vertical run-up flow...... on a horizontal inspection platform is computed for five different platform levels. The computational results show details of monopile impact such as slamming pressures from the overturning wave front and the formation of run-up flow. The results show that vertical platform impacts can occur at 20 m water depth....... The dependence of the vertical platform load to the platform level is discussed. Attention is given to the significant downward force that occur after the upward force associated with the vertical impact. The effect of the numerical resolution on the results is assessed. The position of wave overturning is found...

  12. 33 CFR 165.155 - Northville Industries Offshore Platform, Riverhead, Long Island, New York-safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... York, 1 mile North of the Riverhead shoreline at 41°00″ N, 072°38″ W, while a Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) vessel is moored at the Offshore Platform. The safety zone remains in effect until the LPG vessel... Offshore Platform of LPG vessels via Marine Safety Information Radio Broadcast. [CGD3 85-86, 51 FR 37181...

  13. Investigation of the effects of platform motion on the aerodynamics of a floating offshore wind turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万德成

    2016-01-01

    Along with the flourishing of the wind energy industry, floating offshore wind turbines have aroused much interest among the academia as well as enterprises. In this paper, the effects of the supporting platform motion on the aerodynamics of a floating wind turbine are studied using the open source CFD framework OpenFOAM. The platform motion responses, including surge, heave and pitch, are superimposed onto the rotation of the wind turbine. Thrust and torque on the wind turbine are compared and analysed for the cases of different platform motion patterns together with the flow field. It is shown that the movement of the supporting platform can have large influences on a floating offshore wind turbine and thus needs to be considered carefully during the design process.

  14. Energetic aspects and opportunities for reusing water on offshore platforms in Campos Basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Victor Magalhães; Queiroz, Luciano Matos; Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Kiperstok, Asher

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In the drilling and production of oil at sea, a large quantity of potable water used is most commonly transported to oil platforms using offshore supply vessels (OSVs). Sea water desalination is used as well, but only in a few oil platforms. To minimize energy consumption, water supply options were studied. The desalination of seawater and the reusing of streams of grey water and black water were evaluated and compared with the characteristics of the current supply via OSVs. In both ...

  15. Diesel supply planning for offshore platforms by a mathematical model based on the vehicle routing problem with replenishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorot Astoures, H.; Alvarenga Rosa, R. de; Silva Rosa, A.

    2016-07-01

    Oil exploration in Brazil is mainly held by offshore platforms which require the supply of several products, including diesel to maintain its engines. One strategy to supply diesel to the platforms is to keep a vessel filled with diesel nearby the exploration basin. An empty boat leaves the port and goes directly to this vessel, then it is loaded with diesel. After that, it makes a trip to supply the platforms and when the boat is empty, it returns to the vessel to be reloaded with more diesel going to another trip. Based on this description, this paper proposes a mathematical model based on the Vehicle Routing Problem with Intermediate Replenishment Facilities (VRPIRF) to solve the problem. The purpose of the model is to plan the routes for the boats to meet the diesel requests of the platform. Given the fact that in the literature, papers about the VRPIRF are scarce and papers about the VRPIRF applied to offshore platforms were not found in the published papers, this paper is important to contribute with the evolution of this class of problem, bringing also a solution for a real application that is very important for the oil and gas business. The mathematical model was tested using the CPLEX 12.6. In order to assess the mathematical model, tests were done with data from the major Brazilian oil and gas company and several strategies were tested. (Author)

  16. Satellite data lift the veil on offshore platforms in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongxue; Sun, Chao; Sun, Jiaqi; Li, Hongyi; Zhan, Wenfeng; Yang, Yuhao; Zhang, Siyu

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration in the South China Sea (SCS) has garnered global attention recently; however, uncertainty regarding the accurate number of offshore platforms in the SCS, let alone their detailed spatial distribution and dynamic change, may lead to significant misjudgment of the true status of offshore hydrocarbon production in the region. Using both fresh and archived space-borne images with multiple resolutions, we enumerated the number, distribution, and annual rate of increase of offshore platforms across the SCS. Our results show that: (1) a total of 1082 platforms are present in the SCS, mainly located in shallow-water; and (2) offshore oil/gas exploitation in the SCS is increasing in intensity and advancing from shallow to deep water, and even to ultra-deep-water. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that oil and gas exploration in the SCS may have been over-estimated by one-third in previous reports. However, this overestimation does not imply any amelioration of the potential for future maritime disputes, since the rate of increase of platforms in disputed waters is twice that in undisputed waters. PMID:27641542

  17. Modal Analysis of an Offshore Platform using Two Different ARMA Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.; Martinez, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, multi-channel response measurements on an offshore platform subjected to wave loads is analysed using Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) models. Two different estimation schemes are used and the results are compared. In the first approach, a scalar ARMA model...

  18. Modal Analysis of an Offshore Platform Using Two Different ARMA Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.; Martinez, M. E.

    In the present investigation, multi-channel response measurements on an offshore platform subjected to wave loads is analysed using Auto regressive Moving Average(ARMA) models. two different estimation schemes are used and the results are compared. In the first approach, a scalar ARMA model is us...

  19. Satellite data lift the veil on offshore platforms in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongxue; Sun, Chao; Sun, Jiaqi; Li, Hongyi; Zhan, Wenfeng; Yang, Yuhao; Zhang, Siyu

    2016-09-01

    Oil and gas exploration in the South China Sea (SCS) has garnered global attention recently; however, uncertainty regarding the accurate number of offshore platforms in the SCS, let alone their detailed spatial distribution and dynamic change, may lead to significant misjudgment of the true status of offshore hydrocarbon production in the region. Using both fresh and archived space-borne images with multiple resolutions, we enumerated the number, distribution, and annual rate of increase of offshore platforms across the SCS. Our results show that: (1) a total of 1082 platforms are present in the SCS, mainly located in shallow-water; and (2) offshore oil/gas exploitation in the SCS is increasing in intensity and advancing from shallow to deep water, and even to ultra-deep-water. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that oil and gas exploration in the SCS may have been over-estimated by one-third in previous reports. However, this overestimation does not imply any amelioration of the potential for future maritime disputes, since the rate of increase of platforms in disputed waters is twice that in undisputed waters.

  20. Loads on Entrance Platforms for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of the performed large scale tests in GWK, Hannover for studying wave run-up generated forces on wind turbine entrance platforms. The run-up height and velocity was measured by use of high speed video recordings supplemented by some wave gauges mounted at the p...

  1. Discussion paper : offshore wind facilities renewable energy approval requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-06-01

    This paper discussed a proposed shoreline exclusion zone for offshore wind projects in Ontario. Considerations relevant to offshore wind projects and the protection of human health, cultural heritage, and the environment were also discussed. The paper was prepared in order to provide greater clarity to renewable energy developers and to Ontario residents about the offshore wind policy that is currently being considered by the Ontario Government. Feedback received from the discussion paper will be used to propose policy and associated regulatory amendments. A 5 km shoreline exclusion zone for all offshore wind facilities was proposed. Some projects may be required to be located beyond the proposed exclusion zone. Proposed developments within the exclusion zone must meet all applicable requirements, including those related to cultural and natural heritage. The zone will establish a distance between drinking water intakes, and ensure that sediment dredging and other construction-related activities do not impact drinking water quality, and ensure that potential noise levels are within acceptable levels. The zone will establish a distance between near-shore activities and wind facilities, and also help to maintain the ecological health of inland waters. Guidelines and technical requirements for wind facility operators were also included.

  2. Energetic aspects and opportunities for reusing water on offshore platforms in Campos Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Magalhães Duarte

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the drilling and production of oil at sea, a large quantity of potable water used is most commonly transported to oil platforms using offshore supply vessels (OSVs. Sea water desalination is used as well, but only in a few oil platforms. To minimize energy consumption, water supply options were studied. The desalination of seawater and the reusing of streams of grey water and black water were evaluated and compared with the characteristics of the current supply via OSVs. In both desalination and OSV water supply options an electrolytic wastewater treatment plant is used. The objective of this study was to analyze the current situation regarding water supply on offshore platforms located in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to propose measures to take advantage of opportunities to reuse water and reduce energy expenditure. Two alternative scenarios were developed that involved the reuse of water that comes from the effluent of a biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. Information on the logistics of supplying water to platforms was obtained through direct consultation with companies and sources in the literature. The results show that annual energy consumption (uptake, treatment, transportation, use and waste water treatment of water on offshore platforms is currently 1.89 GWh, and that a reduction of 1.8 GWh of the energy consumed can be achieved using advanced reuse treatments. Energy consumption in the water reuse treatment is more competitive than those of transport by OSVs or seawater desalination.

  3. Research progress of anti-icing/deicing technologies for polar ships and offshore platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The polar regions present adverse circumstances of high humidity and strong air-sea exchange. As such, the surfaces of ships and platforms (oil exploiting and drilling platforms serving in polar regions can easily be frozen by ice accretion, which not only affects the operation of the equipment but also threatens safety. This paper summarizes the status of the anti-icing/deicing technologies of both China and abroad for polar ships and offshore platforms, and introduces the various effects of ice accretion on polar ships and offshore platforms, and the resulting safety impacts. It then reviews existing anti-icing/deicing technologies and methods of both China and abroad, including such active deicing methods as electric heating, infrared heating and ultrasonic guided wave deicing, as well as such passive deicing methods as super hydrophobic coating, sacrificial coating, aqueous lubricating layer coating and low cross-link density (with interfacial slippage coating, summarizes their applicability to polar ships and offshore platforms, and finally discusses their advantages/disadvantages.

  4. Cetacean occurrence near an offshore oil platform in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Jussara Cremer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Information about cetaceans in offshore Brazilian waters is scarce, and oil-rigs could provide an important opportunity to obtain new data. The present work was conducted on the P-XIV oil-rig (Petrobrás (26o46’02.2”S; 46o47’02.15”W, located on the border of the continental slope, in an area of 200m depth. In the period between July 2000 and August 2002, 75 sightings of cetaceans were recorded during 38 days of effort. Among the species identified, Tursiops truncatus was the most common, corresponding to 53.3% of the records. Among the misticets, only Balaenoptera acutorostrata was identified with accuracy, with 4 records (5.3%. These were the only species that approached and stayed close to the oil-rig. Many records were made at night, when the gas burner illuminated the area around the oil-rig. We recorded an aggressive interaction involving T. truncatus and B. acutorostrata.

  5. Cetacean occurrence near an offshore oil platform in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Jussara Cremer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p247 Information about cetaceans in offshore Brazilian waters is scarce, and oil-rigs could provide an important opportunity to obtain new data. The present work was conducted on the P-XIV oil-rig (Petrobrás (26o46’02.2”S; 46o47’02.15”W, located on the border of the continental slope, in an area of 200m depth. In the period between July 2000 and August 2002, 75 sightings of cetaceans were recorded during 38 days of effort. Among the species identified, Tursiops truncatus was the most common, corresponding to 53.3% of the records. Among the misticets, only Balaenoptera acutorostrata was identified with accuracy, with 4 records (5.3%. These were the only species that approached and stayed close to the oil-rig. Many records were made at night, when the gas burner illuminated the area around the oil-rig. We recorded an aggressive interaction involving T. truncatus and B. acutorostrata.

  6. Development of jacket platform tsunami risk rating system in waters offshore North Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. E.; Liew, M. S.; Mardi, N. H.; Na, K. L.; Toloue, Iraj; Wong, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    This work details the simulation of tsunami waves generated by seaquakes in the Manila Trench and their effect on fixed oil and gas jacket platforms in waters offshore North Borneo. For this study, a four-leg living quarter jacket platform located in a water depth of 63m is modelled in SACS v5.3. Malaysia has traditionally been perceived to be safe from the hazards of earthquakes and tsunamis. Local design practices tend to neglect tsunami waves and include no such provisions. In 2004, a 9.3 M w seaquake occurred off the northwest coast of Aceh, which generated tsunami waves that caused destruction in Malaysia totalling US 25 million and 68 deaths. This event prompted an awareness of the need to study the reliability of fixed offshore platforms scattered throughout Malaysian waters. In this paper, we present a review of research on the seismicity of the Manila Trench, which is perceived to be high risk for Southeast Asia. From the tsunami numerical model TUNA-M2, we extract computer-simulated tsunami waves at prescribed grid points in the vicinity of the platforms in the region. Using wave heights as input, we simulate the tsunami using SACS v5.3 structural analysis software of offshore platforms, which is widely accepted by the industry. We employ the nonlinear solitary wave theory in our tsunami loading calculations for the platforms, and formulate a platform-specific risk quantification system. We then perform an intensive structural sensitivity analysis and derive a corresponding platform-specific risk rating model.

  7. Design and optimization of air bottoming cycles for waste heat recovery in off-shore platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at comparing two methodologies to design an air bottoming cycle recovering the waste heat from the power generation system on the Draugen off-shore oil and gas platform. Firstly, the design is determined using the theory of the power maximization. Subsequently, the multi-objective......This paper aims at comparing two methodologies to design an air bottoming cycle recovering the waste heat from the power generation system on the Draugen off-shore oil and gas platform. Firstly, the design is determined using the theory of the power maximization. Subsequently, the multi....... Findings indicate that using the power production, the volume of the recuperator and the net present value as objective functions the optimal pressure ratio (2.52) and the exhaust gas temperature (178.8 °C) differ from the values (2.80 and 145.5 °C) calculated using the theory of the power maximization...

  8. Grid Simulator for Testing a Wind Turbine on Offshore Floating Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, V.

    2012-02-01

    An important aspect of such offshore testing of a wind turbine floating platform is electrical loading of the wind turbine generator. An option of interconnecting the floating wind turbine with the onshore grid via submarine power cable is limited by many factors such as costs and associated environmental aspects (i.e., an expensive and lengthy sea floor study is needed for cable routing, burial, etc). It appears to be a more cost effective solution to implement a standalone grid simulator on a floating platform itself for electrical loading of the test wind turbine. Such a grid simulator must create a stable fault-resilient voltage and frequency bus (a micro grid) for continuous operation of the test wind turbine. In this report, several electrical topologies for an offshore grid simulator were analyzed and modeled.

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Experiencing Platform Pitching Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanhtoan Tran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to illustrate the unsteady aerodynamic effects of a floating offshore wind turbine experiencing the prescribed pitching motion of a supporting floating platform as a sine function. The three-dimensional, unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear-stress transport (SST k-ω turbulence model were applied. Moreover, an overset grid approach was used to model the rigid body motion of a wind turbine blade. The current simulation results are compared to various approaches from previous studies. The unsteady aerodynamic loads of the blade were demonstrated to change drastically with respect to the frequency and amplitude of platform motion.

  10. Helicopter flight simulation motion platform requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jeffery Allyn

    Flight simulators attempt to reproduce in-flight pilot-vehicle behavior on the ground. This reproduction is challenging for helicopter simulators, as the pilot is often inextricably dependent on external cues for pilot-vehicle stabilization. One important simulator cue is platform motion; however, its required fidelity is unknown. To determine the required motion fidelity, several unique experiments were performed. A large displacement motion platform was used that allowed pilots to fly tasks with matched motion and visual cues. Then, the platform motion was modified to give cues varying from full motion to no motion. Several key results were found. First, lateral and vertical translational platform cues had significant effects on fidelity. Their presence improved performance and reduced pilot workload. Second, yaw and roll rotational platform cues were not as important as the translational platform cues. In particular, the yaw rotational motion platform cue did not appear at all useful in improving performance or reducing workload. Third, when the lateral translational platform cue was combined with visual yaw rotational cues, pilots believed the platform was rotating when it was not. Thus, simulator systems can be made more efficient by proper combination of platform and visual cues. Fourth, motion fidelity specifications were revised that now provide simulator users with a better prediction of motion fidelity based upon the frequency responses of their motion control laws. Fifth, vertical platform motion affected pilot estimates of steady-state altitude during altitude repositionings. This refutes the view that pilots estimate altitude and altitude rate in simulation solely from visual cues. Finally, the combined results led to a general method for configuring helicopter motion systems and for developing simulator tasks that more likely represent actual flight. The overall results can serve as a guide to future simulator designers and to today's operators.

  11. Proceedings: An international workshop on offshore lease abandonment and platform disposal: Technology, regulation, and environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulsipher, A. [ed.] [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Center for Energy Studies

    1997-03-01

    This Proceedings volume includes papers prepared for an international workshop on lease abandonment and offshore platform disposal. The workshop was held April 15, 16, and 17, 1996, in New Orleans, Louisiana. Included in the volume are several plenary speeches and issue papers. prepared by six working groups, who discussed: Abandoning Wells; Abandoning Pipelines; Removing Facilities; Site Clearance; Habitat Management, Maintenance, and Planning; and Regulation and Policy. Also included are an introduction, an afterword (reprinted with the permission of its author, John Lohrenz), and, as Appendix C, the complete report of the National Research Council Marine Boards An Assessment of Techniques for Removing Fixed Offshore Structures, around which much of the discussion at the workshop was organized. Short biographies of many speakers, organizers, and chairpersons are included as Appendix A. Appendix B is a list of conference participants. Selected papers have been processes separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  12. Bacterial diversity in water injection systems of Brazilian offshore oil platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenblum, Elisa; Valoni, Erika; Penna, Mônica; Seldin, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic souring and microbial-influenced corrosion is a common scenario in water-flooded petroleum reservoirs. Water injection systems are continuously treated to control bacterial contamination, but some bacteria that cause souring and corrosion can persist even after different treatments have been applied. Our aim was to increase our knowledge of the bacterial communities that persist in the water injection systems of three offshore oil platforms in Brazil. To achieve this goal, we used a culture-independent molecular approach (16S ribosomal RNA gene clone libraries) to analyze seawater samples that had been subjected to different treatments. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the bacterial communities from the different platforms were taxonomically different. A predominance of bacterial clones affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria, mostly belonging to the genus Marinobacter (60.7%), were observed in the platform A samples. Clones from platform B were mainly related to the genera Colwellia (37.9%) and Achromobacter (24.6%), whereas clones obtained from platform C were all related to unclassified bacteria. Canonical correspondence analyses showed that different treatments such as chlorination, deoxygenation, and biocide addition did not significantly influence the bacterial diversity in the platforms studied. Our results demonstrated that the injection water used in secondary oil recovery procedures contained potentially hazardous bacteria, which may ultimately cause souring and corrosion.

  13. Architecture and growth history of a Miocene carbonate platform from 3D seismic reflection data; Luconia province, offshore Sarawak, Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zampetti, V.; Schlager, W.; van Konijnenburg, J.H; Everts, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Using 3D seismic reflection data and wireline logs we reconstruct in detail the architecture and growth history of a Miocene carbonate platform in the Luconia province, offshore Sarawak, Malaysia. Platform growth started in the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene, by coalescence of isolated patch reefs.

  14. P-{Delta} effects on the reliability of oil offshore jacket platforms in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon-Escobedo, D. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: daviddeleonescobedo@yahoo.com.mx; Campos, D. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico)]. E-mail: dcampos@imp.mx

    2012-07-15

    Given the important economic consequences of an oil platform failure, all the aspects of its structural behavior and safety issues need to be carefully considered. In particular, P-{Delta} effects on the deck legs of marine offshore jacket platforms may be relevant when the deck height and the vertical load are significant. In this paper, the impact of the moment amplification, due to slenderness of the deck legs, on the platform safety is examined and appraised from the viewpoint of the structural reliability. The formulation is applied to a typical tall deck marine platform under the environmental loading at the Bay of Campeche, Mexico, and its reliability index is calculated with and without the P-{Delta} effect. The results presented herein may be used to improve the current practice in the design and assessment of offshore marine platforms in Mexico and to update the current version of the code. [Spanish] Dadas las importantes consecuencias economicas de la falla de una plataforma petrolera, todos los aspectos de su comportamiento estructural y aspectos de seguridad necesitan considerarse cuidadosamente. En particular, los efectos P-{Delta} en las piernas de la cubierta de plataformas marinas costa fuera petroleras tipo jacket pueden ser relevantes cuando la altura de la cubierta y la intensidad de cargas verticales son significativas. En este articulo se examina el impacto que sobre la seguridad de la plataforma tiene la amplificacion de momentos, debido a la esbeltez de las piernas de la cubierta, y se evalua este impacto desde el punto de vista de confiabilidad estructural. La formulacion se aplica a una plataforma marina tipica, con cubierta alta, bajo la carga ambiental de la Bahia de Campeche, Mexico y se calcula su indice de confiabilidad con y sin el efecto P-{Delta}. Los resultados presentados aqui pueden usarse para mejorar las practicas actuales de diseno y evaluacion de plataformas marinas costa fuera en Mexico y para actualizar la version actual

  15. Offshore Resource Assessment and Design Conditions: A Data Requirements and Gaps Analysis for Offshore Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Dennis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frame, Caitlin [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Gill, Carrie [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Hanson, Howard [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Moriarty, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Powell, Mark [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilczak, Jim [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Wynne, Jason [Energetics, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The offshore renewable energy industry requires accurate meteorological and oceanographic (“metocean”) data for evaluating the energy potential, economic viability, and engineering requirements of offshore renewable energy projects. It is generally recognized that currently available metocean data, instrumentation, and models are not adequate to meet all of the stakeholder needs on a national scale. Conducting wind and wave resource assessments and establishing load design conditions requires both interagency collaboration as well as valuable input from experts in industry and academia. Under the Department of Energy and Department of Interior Memorandum of Understanding, the Resource Assessment and Design Condition initiative supports collaborative national efforts by adding to core atmospheric and marine science knowledge relevant to offshore energy development. Such efforts include a more thorough understanding and data collection of key metocean phenomena such as wind velocity and shear; low-level jets; ocean, tidal, and current velocities; wave characteristics; geotechnical data relating to surface and subsurface characteristics; seasonal and diurnal variations; and the interaction among these conditions. Figure 1 presents a graphical representation of some metocean phenomena that can impact offshore energy systems. This document outlines the metocean observations currently available; those that are not available; and those that require additional temporal-spatial coverage, resolution, or processing for offshore energy in an effort to gather agreed-upon, needed observations.

  16. Design features of offshore oil production platforms influence their susceptibility to biocorrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kathleen E; Davidova, Irene A; Nunn, Heather S; Stamps, Blake W; Stevenson, Bradley S; Souquet, Pierre J; Suflita, Joseph M

    2017-08-01

    Offshore oil-producing platforms are designed for efficient and cost-effective separation of oil from water. However, design features and operating practices may create conditions that promote the proliferation and spread of biocorrosive microorganisms. The microbial communities and their potential for metal corrosion were characterized for three oil production platforms that varied in their oil-water separation processes, fluid recycling practices, and history of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC). Microbial diversity was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and numbers of total bacteria, archaea, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were estimated by qPCR. The rates of 35 S sulfate reduction assay (SRA) were measured as a proxy for metal biocorrosion potential. A variety of microorganisms common to oil production facilities were found, but distinct communities were associated with the design of the platform and varied with different locations in the processing stream. Stagnant, lower temperature (production platforms can be used to identify operational practices that inadvertently promote the proliferation, distribution, and activity of biocorrosive microorganisms.

  17. Structural steels for fixed offshore platforms: technical challenges at the Brazilian national supply chain; Acos estruturais para plataformas fixas offshore: desafios tecnicos junto a cadeia de suprimentos nacional brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Fabio Modesti Orsini de [Promon Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the main technical requirements for structural steel applied to the construction of bottom fixed offshore platforms, based on the most widely adopted and recognized actual standards. The mechanical properties and lab tests necessary to fulfill the Risk Management and E and P companies requirements are presented aiming to build the theoretical bases necessary for the engineering design of projects of this kind. The main types of steel available in the national market are presented at the end, giving an overall look at the Brazilian steel supply chain. (author)

  18. Gravitational and submersible offshore platform, and construction method. Nedsenkbar fralandsplattform av gravitasjonstypen og fremgangsmaate for fremstilling av samme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, T.; Olsen, O.

    1985-06-17

    The invention concerns a submersible offshore platform of the gravitational type designed for great depths. The platform is made of concrete or the like comprising a sea-bed foundation, and a number of at least 3 cantilevered pillars connected to the prop section carrying the load-bearing structure and the platform deck. In addition, the platform consists of a cellular floating section, and the central part of it is lengthened upwards. The central column supports the prop section. There is a considerable space between the floating section and the bed foundation. The various steps of the construction methods are presented. 11 drawings.

  19. Monitoring and evaluation of Blyth Offshore Wind Farm. NAVAID (Navigational Aid) requirements for UK offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, L.

    2001-07-01

    The principle aim of this report is to review and evaluate the Navigational Aid (NAVAID) requirements for the Blyth Offshore Wind Farms as specified by Trinity House. The effectiveness of the NAVAIDs was monitored and reviewed by the project team with the assistance of the harbour master and the local vessel operators regularly using Blyth Harbour. This report particularly looks at the reasons for the NAVAID specification and the practicalities of using a similar system on larger offshore wind farms. The document not only describes the specification, but also reviews its effectiveness including any difficulties that were encountered during the installation. (author)

  20. Effects of offshore platforms on soft-bottom macro-benthic assemblages: a case study in a Mediterranean gas field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlizzi, Antonio; Bevilacqua, Stanislao; Scuderi, Danilo; Fiorentino, Dario; Guarnieri, Giuseppe; Giangrande, Adriana; Licciano, Margherita; Felline, Serena; Fraschetti, Simonetta

    2008-07-01

    The exploitation of fossil fuels in the Mediterranean Sea will likely lead to an increase in the number of offshore platforms, a recognized threat for marine biodiversity. To date, in this basin, few attempts have been made to assess the impact of offshore gas and oil platforms on the biodiversity of benthic assemblages. Here, we adopted a structured experimental design coupled with high taxonomic resolution to outline putative effects of gas platforms on soft-bottom macrofauna assemblages in the North Ionian Sea. The analysis was based on a total of 20,295 specimens of 405 taxa, almost entirely identified at species level. Multivariate and univariate analyses showed idiosyncratic patterns of assemblage change with increasing distance from the platforms. Potential reasons underlying such inconsistency are analyzed and the view that structured experimental monitoring is a crucial tool to quantify the extent and magnitude of potential threats and to provide sound baseline information on biodiversity patterns is supported.

  1. Investigation on tempering of granular bainite in an offshore platform steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yanlei; Jia, Tao; Zhang, Xiangjun [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, No. 11, Lane 3, Wenhua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Zhenyu, E-mail: zyliu@mail.neu.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, No. 11, Lane 3, Wenhua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968-0521 (United States)

    2015-02-25

    Granular bainite, where M-A constituents dispersed in bainitic ferrite matrix usually presents at the half thickness region in thermo-mechanically processed heavy gauge offshore platform steel. In the present work, the decomposition of M-A constituents during tempering at 600 °C was firstly revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, which primarily involves the precipitation of cementite, recovery and recrystallization of highly dislocated ferrite matrix. Then, the effect of tempering on mechanical properties was investigated by tempering at different temperature for 60 min. Results indicated that, at tempering temperature of 500–600 °C, large quantity of micro-alloying carbides precipitated and partially compensated the loss of strength mainly due to the decomposition of M-A constituents. Compared with the as-rolled state, the decomposition of M-A constituents and softening of bainitic ferrite matrix after tempering have resulted in higher density of microvoids and substantial plastic deformation before impact failure.

  2. Effect of Friction-Induced Nonlinearity on OMA-Identified Dynamic Characteristics of Offshore Platform Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Tobias; Orfanos, Antonios; Katsanos, Evangelos

    The identification of the modal characteristics of engineering systems under operational conditions is commonly conducted with the use of the Operational Modal Analysis (OMA), being a class of useful tools employed within various fields of structural, mechanical as well as marine and naval...... engineering. The current OMA methods have been advanced on the basis of two fundamental, though, restrictive assumptions: (i) linearity and (ii) stationarity. Nevertheless, there are several applications that are inherently related to various nonlinear mechanisms, which, in turn, violate the two cornerstones...... of OMA and hence, question its robustness and efficiency. Along these lines, the current study addresses the effect of friction-induced nonlinearity on OMA-identified dynamic characteristics of an experimental set up consisting of a pair of reduced scale offshore platform models that are connected...

  3. Geotechnical conditions and ice loading for an offshore drilling platform in the Canadian Beaufort Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, S.; Eshraghian, A.; Rogers, B. [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper addressed the geotechnical aspects of the deployment of the steel drilling caisson (SDC) at the Paktoa site in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. The SDC is a bottom founded mobile offshore drilling platform that can operate in 8 to 25 m of water in an Arctic environment. It is mated to a submersible barge in order to resist large ice forces on the structure at sites with relatively weak soils, without the need for site preparation. To date, the SDC has been deployed at 8 sites in the Canadian and Alaskan Beaufort Sea. This paper focused on the Paktoa location, where the SDC was deployed 50 km offshore in a water depth of 14 m during the winter of 2005-2006. Geotechnical investigations were conducted from the landfast ice prior to deployment and from the SDC deck. This paper described the soil properties and design loading; design stability; and deformation analysis. The environmental loads considered for the SDC design included ice push, waves and earthquakes. The ice loading was the dominant loading case. The instrumentation installed in the seabed included 2 push-in piezometers and an inclinometer. An ice loading event in February 2006 resulted in considerable displacements in the in-place inclinometer string below the SDC. Several analysis methods were used to estimate the magnitude of the ice load during this event in order to better understand the magnitude of ice loading for future Arctic deployments of gravity based drilling platforms. It was concluded that further deployments should have a minimum of 2 and preferably 4 in-place inclinometer strings to measure real-time deformation of the seabed to enable measurement of rotation of the structure that may occur due to asymmetrical ice loading. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  4. Absorption refrigeration cycle applied to offshore platforms; Refrigeracao por absorcao aplicada a plataformas de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maximino Joaquim Pina [KROMAV Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinto, Luiz Antonio Vaz; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2004-07-01

    To produce cold from the heat seems a task unlikely or even impossible. However, absorption systems produce cooling from heat sources and it exist since the century XIX. In industrial places is very important to improve the energy use, even more in places where the activities involve great costs and incomes. Traditionally the alternatives conflict in the aspects of initial and operational costs. This paper describes the absorption systems operation and its main advantages and disadvantages, when compared to the traditional systems with compressor. The known fact that a vapor compressor system presents larger efficiency is not enough to validate it for all of the applications. In this sense, the initial and operational analysis of the costs of the absorption systems becomes interesting. In spite of, double effect absorption systems are demonstrating the evolution of the absorption cycle in order to obtain better performance. Turbo-generators and Turbo-compressors of the offshore platforms are thermal machines that reject great amount of heat in the exhaust gases. This heat is used for heating of water used in the Process Plant. The processes of separation of the mixture water-oil-gas from the well, for instance, use that heat. Even after the passage of the water in the Plant of Process, the residual heat is still enough for the use in absorption systems. A simulation is done using real data of an offshore platform. Two possible alternatives are compared under technical and economical aspects. Sensibility analysis is also performed in order to verify possible impacts of variations of electric power cost. (author)

  5. Design and optimization of air bottoming cycles for waste heat recovery in off-shore platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Theory of power maximization used to design an air bottoming cycle. • Theory of power maximization extended by a multi-objective optimization method. • Three objective functions considered: net power output, recuperator volume and net present value. • Comparison between the theory of power maximization and the multi-objective optimization method. • Case study: a methodology applied to recover exhaust heat on off-shore platforms. - Abstract: This paper aims at comparing two methodologies to design an air bottoming cycle recovering the waste heat from the power generation system on the Draugen off-shore oil and gas platform. Firstly, the design is determined using the theory of the power maximization. Subsequently, the multi-objective optimization approach is employed to maximize the economic revenue, the compactness and the power production of the air bottoming cycle. The system compactness is assessed by introducing a detailed model of the shell and tube recuperator and including geometric quantities in the set of optimization variables. Findings indicate that using the power production, the volume of the recuperator and the net present value as objective functions the optimal pressure ratio (2.52) and the exhaust gas temperature (178.8 °C) differ from the values (2.80 and 145.5 °C) calculated using the theory of the power maximization. The highest net present value (2.8 M$) is found for a volume of the recuperator of 128 m 3 . Thus, it can be concluded that the multi-objective optimization approach enables extending the theory of power maximization bridging the gap between a mere optimization of the thermodynamic cycle and the practical feasibility of a power generation system

  6. [Relationship of job stress with job burnout and quality of work life in workers for offshore oil platforms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Liu, X L; Wei, T D; Lan, Y J

    2017-03-20

    Objective: To evaluate the current status of job burnout and qual ity of work life (QWL) in workers for offshore oil platforms, and to analyze the relationship of job stress with job burnout and QWL and the direct and indirect effects of job stress on QWL. Methods: Cluster random sampling was used to select 382 work-ers for 8 oil platforms of China National Offshore Oil Corporation in October 2015. A self - designed questionnaire was used to collect the individual characteristics of subjects. The Quality of Work Life Scale (QWL7 - 32) , Occupa-tional Stress Inventory - Revised Edition (OSI - R) , and Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey (MBI - GS) were used to investigate the QWL, job stress, and job burnout of subjects. Results: Among all the workers for offshore oil platforms, 87.2% had mild job burnout. The total QWL score was 116.01 ± 16.73; 8.3% of the workers had poor QWL, and 68.5% had moderate QWL. QWL was reduced with heavier task, vaguer task, and increasing mental stress and physical stress ( P stress had di-rect and indirect effects on QWL; stress reaction had the most effect on QWL (total effect size - 0.509) , followed by social support (total effect size 0.444) . Conclusion: Most workers for offshore oil platforms have mild job burn-out and moderate QWL. Job stress is associated with job burnout and QWL, and stress reaction and social support have relatively high influence on QWL.

  7. Rarefaction Shock Wave Cutter for Offshore Oil-Gas Platform Removal Final Report CRADA No. TC02009.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, L. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barker, J. [Halliburton Energy Services, Alvarado, TX (United States)

    2017-09-06

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (formerly the University of California) and Jet Research Center, a wholly owned division of Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. to design and prototype an improved explosive cutter for cutting the support legs of offshore oil and gas platforms.

  8. A study of wave forces on an offshore platform by direct CFD and Morison equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang D.

    2015-01-01

    The next step is the presentation of 3D multiphase RANS simulation of the wind-turbine platform in single-harmonic regular waves. Simulation results from full 3D simulation will be compared to the results from Morison’s equation. We are motivated by the challenges of a floating platform which has complex underwater geometry (e.g. tethered semi-submersible. In cases like this, our hypothesis is that Morison’s equation will result in inaccurate prediction of forces, due to the limitations of 2D coefficients of simple geometries, and that 3D multiphase RANS CFD will be required to generate reliable predictions of platform loads and motions.

  9. The Feasibility of Wind and Solar Energy Application for Oil and Gas Offshore Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiong, Y K; Zahari, M A; Wong, S F; Dol, S S

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is an energy which is freely available in nature such as winds and solar energy. It plays a critical role in greening the energy sector as these sources of energy produce little or no pollution to environment. This paper will focus on capability of renewable energy (wind and solar) in generating power for offshore application. Data of wind speeds and solar irradiation that are available around SHELL Sabah Water Platform for every 10 minutes, 24 hours a day, for a period of one year are provided by SHELL Sarawak Sdn. Bhd. The suitable wind turbine and photovoltaic panel that are able to give a high output and higher reliability during operation period are selected by using the tabulated data. The highest power output generated using single wind energy application is equal to 492 kW while for solar energy application is equal to 20 kW. Using the calculated data, the feasibility of renewable energy is then determined based on the platform energy demand. (paper)

  10. Spar-type platform design for the offshore floating nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurewicz, Jacob; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Todreas, Neil; Golay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There exists the potential for substantial gains in safety, physical security, and economics for nuclear electricity supply through the development of an Offshore Floating Nuclear Plant (OFNP). Utilizing the most reliable and efficient construction techniques, this plant can be built from modular components in a shipyard as a partially submerged floating spar platform. The plant can then be floated to a site between 5 and 10 miles off the coast, moored in approximately 100-meter deep water, and connected to the grid via an underwater transmission line. The OFNP is designed to take full advantage of its environment to include passive cooling systems that eliminate the loss of ultimate heat sink accident, thereby decreasing the likelihood of severe accidents. The platform’s structural design, mooring system, and siting protect it against severe weather systems and render it immune to tsunamis and seismic activity. Furthermore, the OFNP containment design and venting procedures effectively eliminate the threat of serious land contamination, should a severe accident actually occur. The OFNP overall design builds on decades of offshore oil drilling experience and is derived from a shortened cylindrical spar platform. The platform has a skirt diameter of 75 m, a waterline diameter of 45 m, an operational draft of 48.5 m, and a total weight of about 38,200 tons when the skirt is empty. The spar design maximizes hydrodynamic stability, has been tested in various locations around the world in oil extraction, and offers significant protection to critical systems from external threats. The reactor containment is located below sea level and centered in a hull surrounded by seawater. This positioning offers both considerable physical security as well as unique opportunities in passive cooling. Watertight levels house safety critical systems (e.g. reactor, spent fuel pool, control room, battery room), the steam cycle, the condensate storage tank, and the desalination plant

  11. Sediment porewater toxicity assessment studies in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.; Presley, B.J.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Robertson, L.; Boothe, P.; Kilada, R.; Wade, T.; Montagna, P.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary program to assess the potential long-term impacts of offshore oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Gulf of Mexico, sediment chemical analyses and porewater toxicity tests were conducted in the vicinity of five offshore platforms. Based on data from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development assays, toxicity was observed near four of the five platforms sampled; the majority of the toxic samples were collected within 150 m of a platform. There was excellent agreement among the results of porewater tests with three different species (sea urchin embryological development, polychaete reproduction, and copepod nauplii survival). The sediment concentrations of several metals were well in excess of sediment quality assessment guidelines at a number of stations, and good agreement was observed between predicted and observed toxicity. Porewater metal concentrations compared with EC50, LOEC, and NOEC values generated for water-only exposures indicated that the porewater concentrations for several metals were high enough to account for the observed toxicity. Results of these studies utilizing highly sensitive toxicity tests suggest that the contaminant-induced impacts from offshore platforms are limited to a localized area in the immediate vicinity of the platforms

  12. Design Loads on Platforms on Offshore wind Turbine Foundations with Respect to Vertical Wave Run-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Mathilde L.; Gravesen, Helge; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2007-01-01

    reduction in the loads by up to 75%. Furthermore it is indicated, that the fact that offshore wind turbines often are placed on limited water depths thereby increasing the amount of (nearly) breaking waves, seems to increase the run-up height and thereby the pressures on the structure.......Experiences have shown that the vertical run-up generated by waves meeting the offshore wind turbine foundations, can result in rather vigorous loads on appurtenances and platform structures. This study aims to provide a qualitative method of determining run-up height and the following loads...

  13. Comparison of API & IEC Standards for Offshore Wind Turbine Applications in the U.S. Atlantic Ocean: Phase II; March 9, 2009 - September 9, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, A.; Dolan, D.; Gur, T.; Soyoz, S.; Alpdogan, C.

    2013-01-01

    This report compares two design guidelines for offshore wind turbines: Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing, and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platform Structures and the International Electrotechnical Commission 61400-3 Design Requirements for Offshore Wind Turbines.

  14. Exergy destruction and losses on four North Sea offshore platforms: A comparative study of the oil and gas processing plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsund, Mari; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The oil and gas processing plants of four North Sea offshore platforms are analysed and compared, based on the exergy analysis method. Sources of exergy destruction and losses are identified and the findings for the different platforms are compared. Different platforms have different working...... conditions, which implies that some platforms need less heat and power than others. Reservoir properties and composition vary over the lifetime of an oil field, and therefore maintaining a high efficiency of the processing plant is challenging. The results of the analysis show that 27%-57% of the exergy...... destruction take place in the gas treatment sections, 13%-29% take place in the gas recompression sections and 10%-24% occur in the production manifolds. The exergy losses with flared gas are significant for two of the platforms. The exact potential for energy savings and for enhancing system performances...

  15. Determination and environmental estimation of NORMs in marine sediment environment of offshore platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegueria, Sergio F. Jerez

    2013-01-01

    The natural radioactive materials (NORM known as) are found in the earth's crust, and during the process of production of oil and gas are concentrated in the produced water and the fouling (scale) pipes used for extraction. The production of oil and gas from produced water comes, comprising: forming water (water naturally present in the well ); injection water , usually sea water previously injected into the well to maintaining the pressure while the oil is removed; and water condensed in some cases of gas production. A high radioactivity of 226 Ra (natural grade of 238 U) and 228 Ra (from the natural series of 232 Th) is detected in produced water due to the high solubility of radio in formation water as uranium and thorium, which are insoluble in this medium, remain the rock matrix. The study was conducted in the area of offshore oil production in the state of Rio de January and included the determination of uranium, 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 228 Ra in marine sediment near the points of discharge of produced water from oil platforms. After the pre-treatment and digestion of samples, the determination of the natural uranium was performed on a mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP -MS). The activities of 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined by high resolution gamma spectrometry through 214 Bi and 228 Ac , respectively. And in the case of 210 Pb, a correction was made for self-absorption employing an external source of this radionuclide. The results showed that there is no impact in sediments in the vicinity of the studied platforms

  16. A multi-disciplinary European approach to developing technologies for the removal of offshore platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebdon, R.W.; Surle, R.; Minardi, P.

    1991-01-01

    Three companies, AME from the UK, Comex from France and Tecnomare from Italy proposed to EC Directorate General for Energy to perform research and development studies of technology for the removal of offshore platforms. At the suggestion of the EC a co-operation was initiated between the three companies and this paper presents a brief outline of the projects and some results from the co-operative work. The results reported included those from a review of the possible removal techniques, the type of structures and the market potential for industry. The specific technologies studied by the individual companies were safe and reliable application of explosive shaped charges to the cutting of large steel jacket tubulars and the effect of underwater shock; establishing the performance of high pressure abrasive water jet cutting by means of extensive testing under hyperbaric conditions; and the design of a driverless underwater cutting system that can be integrated with advanced cutting techniques and provide a commercially viable facility. (author)

  17. Device for retaining oil gushing out in an uncontrolled fashion from offshore platforms. [German patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hambrock, H J

    1978-11-23

    The spread of oil which emerges on a water surface in case of a fault is to be prevented and its removal is to be made possible by a sort of floating fence. This type of oil barrier is formed by a blown up, floating hose on the water surface which may be filled with plastic foam. It surrounds the centrally placed possible place of emergence of the oil in a circle, this may be an offshore platform or a stationary tanker. The concentric position is ensured by radially tensioned ropes. The protective ring can normally be pulled in (above all during bad weather) and need only be expanded for a short time in case of a fault. In order to prevent oil collected inside the protective ring being washed under or over it by the wind or waves, a circular attachment in the form of a collar can be blown up in the upward direction, and a similar apron hanging downwards loaded with weights may be provided.

  18. Comparison of Simulations and Offshore Measurement Data of a Combined Floating Wind and Wave Energy Demonstration Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Anders; Larsen, Torben J.; Hansen, Anders Melchior

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, results from comparisons of simulations and measured offshore data from a floating combined wind and wave energy conversion system are presented. The numerical model of the platform is based on the aeroelastic code, HAWC2, developed by DTU Wind Energy, which is coupled with a special...... external system that reads the output generated directly by the wave analysis software WAMIT. The main focus of the comparison is on the statistical trends of the platform motion, mooring loads, and turbine loads in measurements and simulations during different operational conditions. Finally, challenges...

  19. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Characterizing and quantifying California sea lion and Pacific harbor seal use of offshore oil and gas platforms in California, 2013-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) use offshore oil and gas platforms as resting and foraging areas. Both...

  20. Soil non-linearity and its effect on the dynamic behaviour of offshore platform foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madshus, Christian

    1997-07-01

    This thesis focuses on non-linear soil response to the type of cyclic loading experienced under offshore gravity base platform foundations. These loads are dominated by a cyclic component around the main wave frequency, which may well mobilize soil non-linearity under severe sea-states. Superimposed on this main component are lower level higher frequency loads caused by resonant oscillations of the platform. The thesis presents results of specially designed triaxial tests to simulate this loading condition. The tests simultaneously applied two cyclic load components at different frequencies and amplitudes. The measured soil response to each component has been isolated through a frequency domain separation. It was found that the soil responds to the superimposed high frequency low level component as if the soil had a cyclically time-varying stiffness. If the superimposed component does not lead to load reversals, this stiffness variation is controlled by the frequency and amplitude of the main load component and by the hysteretic non-linearity of the soil. If the superimposed component causes reversals, the influence of the hysteretic non-linearity on the stiffness variation is reduced. The higher the degree of reversal, the more this influence it taken over by the variation in the instantaneous unloading-reloading stiffness of the soil. It was also found that this type of two-frequency cyclic soil testing is generally superior over conventional single-frequency testing in the way it enforces the soil to reveal several of its inherent properties not deducible from ordinary tests. Benefits of analyzing non-linear response in the frequency domain is demonstrated throughout this thesis. The ability of various theoretical soil models to simulate the observed soil behaviour under two-frequency cyclic loading has, been investigated through numerical analyses. It was found that only those models that are based on kinematic hardening are able to reproduce what was observed

  1. Social impact assessment: identification, management and follow-up of community concerns associated with construction of the Hibernia offshore platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storey, K.

    2003-01-01

    Social impact Assessment (SIA) is the systematic analysis, in advance of the likely impacts of a proposed action, that considers 'all social and cultural consequences to human populations of any public or private actions that alter the ways in which people live, work, play, relate to one another, organize to meet their needs, and generally cope as members of society' (US Department of Commerce 1994). Through the SIA for the construction of the Hibernia offshore oil platform concern, and values of local area residents were identified and a management strategy designed to minimise social disruption associated with the project. Monitoring studies showed that the strategy was effective and that few negative social impacts occurred. The Hibernia offshore oil field, was discovered on the Grand Banks, east of the island of Newfoundland, in 1979. The distance from shore (315 km), its isolation, the periodic presence of sea ice, icebergs and fog, and frequently severe wave and wind conditions, make these waters an extremely hostile work environment. Primarily to maximize human safety, the final engineering design chosen for the project was a fixed, gravity base system (GBS). The platform functions as the main drilling and production unit, the first stage processing facility, oil storage and accommodations base for the offshore crews. The concrete base of the platform, one of the five super-modules that make up the top-sides of the platform and eight of tile smaller top-sides-mounted modules, were fabricated in Newfoundland and the entire platform assembled at Bull Arm, Trinity Bay. (author)

  2. Offshore platform sourced pollution monitoring using space-borne fully polarimetric C and X band synthetic aperture radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Suman; Ressel, Rudolf

    2016-11-15

    Use of polarimetric SAR data for offshore pollution monitoring is relatively new and shows great potential for operational offshore platform monitoring. This paper describes the development of an automated oil spill detection chain for operational purposes based on C-band (RADARSAT-2) and X-band (TerraSAR-X) fully polarimetric images, wherein we use polarimetric features to characterize oil spills and look-alikes. Numbers of near coincident TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT-2 images have been acquired over offshore platforms. Ten polarimetric feature parameters were extracted from different types of oil and 'look-alike' spots and divided into training and validation dataset. Extracted features were then used to develop a pixel based Artificial Neural Network classifier. Mutual information contents among extracted features were assessed and feature parameters were ranked according to their ability to discriminate between oil spill and look-alike spots. Polarimetric features such as Scattering Diversity, Surface Scattering Fraction and Span proved to be most suitable for operational services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High-resolution onshore-offshore morpho-bathymetric records of modern chalk and granitic shore platforms in NW France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duperret, Anne; Raimbault, Céline; Le Gall, Bernard; Authemayou, Christine; van Vliet-Lanoë, Brigitte; Regard, Vincent; Dromelet, Elsa; Vandycke, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Modern shore platforms developed on rocky coasts are key areas for understanding coastal erosion processes during the Holocene. This contribution offers a detailed picture of two contrasted shore-platform systems, based on new high-resolution shallow-water bathymetry, further coupled with aerial LiDAR topography. Merged land-sea digital elevation models were achieved on two distinct types of rocky coasts along the eastern English Channel in France (Picardy and Upper-Normandy: PUN) and in a NE Atlantic area (SW Brittany: SWB) in NW France. About the PUN case, submarine steps, identified as paleo-shorelines, parallel the actual coastline. Coastal erosive processes appear to be continuous and regular through time, since mid-Holocene at least. In SWB, there is a discrepancy between contemporary coastline orientation and a continuous step extending from inland to offshore, identified as a paleo-shoreline. This illustrates a polyphased and inherited shore platform edification, mainly controlled by tectonic processes.

  4. Toe-of-slope of a Cretaceous carbonate platform in outcrop, seismic model and offshore seismic data (Apulia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco Gartner, Guido; Morsilli, Michele; Schlager, Wolfgang; Bosellini, Alfonso

    Synthetic seismic models of outcrops in the Early Cretaceous slope of a carbonate platform on the Gargano Promontory (southern Italy) were compared to an offshore seismic section south of the Promontory. Outcrops of the same age on the promontory have the same sequence stratigraphic characteristics as their offshore equivalent, and are the only areas where the transition from platform to basin of Early Cretaceous is exposed on land. Two adjacent outcrop areas were combined into one seismic-scale lithologic model with the aid of photo mosaics, measured sections, and biostratigraphic data. Velocity, density, and porosity measurements on spot samples were used to construct the impedance model. Seismic models were generated by vertical incidence and finite difference programs. The results indicate that the reflections in the seismic model are controlled by the impedance contrast between low porous intervals rich in debris from the platform and highly porous intervals of pelagic lime mudstone, nearly devoid of debris. Finite difference seismic display showed best resemblance with the real seismic data, especially by mapping a drowning unconformity.

  5. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Wave Impact underneath Decks of Offshore Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baarholm, Rolf Jarle

    2001-07-01

    The main objective of this thesis has been to study the phenomenon of water impact underneath the decks of offshore platforms due to propagating waves. The emphasis has been on the impact loads. Two theoretical methods based on two-dimensional potential theory have been developed, a Wagner based method (WBM) and a nonlinear boundary element method (BEM). A procedure to account for three-dimensional effects is suggested. The deck is assumed to be rigid. Initial studies of the importance of hydroelasticity for wave loads on an existing deck structure have been performed. For a given design wave, the local structural responses were found to behave quasi-static. Global structural response has not been studied. In the Wagner based method gravity is neglected and a linear spatial distribution of the relative impact velocity along the deck is assumed. The resulting boundary value problem is solved analytically for each time step. A numerical scheme for stepping the wetted deck area in time is presented. The nonlinear boundary element method includes gravity, and the exact impact velocity is considered. The incident wave velocity potential is given a priori, and a boundary value problem for the perturbation velocity potential associated with the impact is defined. The boundary value problem is solved for each time step by applying Green's second identity. The exact boundary conditions are imposed on the exact boundaries. A Kutta condition is introduced as the fluid flow reaches the downstream end of the deck. At present, the BEM is only applicable for fixed platform decks. To validate the theories, experiments have been carried out in a wave flume. The experiments were performed in two-dimensional flow condition with a fixed horizontal deck at different vertical levels above the mean free surface. The vertical force on the deck and the wetting of the deck were the primary parameters measured. Only regular propagating waves were applied. When a wave hits the deck, the

  6. Marine Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Gas Platforms in the Southern North Sea: Effects of Depth and Distance from Shore on Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Stap, Tim; Coolen, Joop W P; Lindeboom, Han J

    2016-01-01

    Offshore platforms are known to act as artificial reefs, though there is on-going debate on whether this effect is beneficial or harmful for the life in the surrounding marine environment. Knowing what species exist on and around the offshore platforms and what environmental variables influence this species assemblage is crucial for a better understanding of the impact of offshore platforms on marine life. Information on this is limited for offshore platforms in the southern North Sea. This study aims to fill this gap in our knowledge and to determine how the composition and the abundance of species assemblages changes with depth and along a distance-from-shore gradient. The species assemblages on five offshore gas platforms in the southern North Sea have been inventoried using Remotely Operated Vehicles inspection footage. A total of 30 taxa were identified. A Generalised Additive Model of the species richness showed a significant non-linear relation with water depth (p = 0.001): from a low richness in shallow waters it increases with depth until 15-20 m, after which richness decreases again. Using PERMANOVA, water depth (p≤0.001), community age (p≤0.001) and the interaction between distance from shore and community age (p≤0.001) showed a significant effect on the species assemblages. Future research should focus on the effect additional environmental variables have on the species assemblages.

  7. Marine Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Gas Platforms in the Southern North Sea: Effects of Depth and Distance from Shore on Biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim van der Stap

    Full Text Available Offshore platforms are known to act as artificial reefs, though there is on-going debate on whether this effect is beneficial or harmful for the life in the surrounding marine environment. Knowing what species exist on and around the offshore platforms and what environmental variables influence this species assemblage is crucial for a better understanding of the impact of offshore platforms on marine life. Information on this is limited for offshore platforms in the southern North Sea. This study aims to fill this gap in our knowledge and to determine how the composition and the abundance of species assemblages changes with depth and along a distance-from-shore gradient. The species assemblages on five offshore gas platforms in the southern North Sea have been inventoried using Remotely Operated Vehicles inspection footage. A total of 30 taxa were identified. A Generalised Additive Model of the species richness showed a significant non-linear relation with water depth (p = 0.001: from a low richness in shallow waters it increases with depth until 15-20 m, after which richness decreases again. Using PERMANOVA, water depth (p≤0.001, community age (p≤0.001 and the interaction between distance from shore and community age (p≤0.001 showed a significant effect on the species assemblages. Future research should focus on the effect additional environmental variables have on the species assemblages.

  8. Marine Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Gas Platforms in the Southern North Sea: Effects of Depth and Distance from Shore on Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Stap, Tim; Coolen, Joop W. P.; Lindeboom, Han J.

    2016-01-01

    Offshore platforms are known to act as artificial reefs, though there is on-going debate on whether this effect is beneficial or harmful for the life in the surrounding marine environment. Knowing what species exist on and around the offshore platforms and what environmental variables influence this species assemblage is crucial for a better understanding of the impact of offshore platforms on marine life. Information on this is limited for offshore platforms in the southern North Sea. This study aims to fill this gap in our knowledge and to determine how the composition and the abundance of species assemblages changes with depth and along a distance-from-shore gradient. The species assemblages on five offshore gas platforms in the southern North Sea have been inventoried using Remotely Operated Vehicles inspection footage. A total of 30 taxa were identified. A Generalised Additive Model of the species richness showed a significant non-linear relation with water depth (p = 0.001): from a low richness in shallow waters it increases with depth until 15–20 m, after which richness decreases again. Using PERMANOVA, water depth (p≤0.001), community age (p≤0.001) and the interaction between distance from shore and community age (p≤0.001) showed a significant effect on the species assemblages. Future research should focus on the effect additional environmental variables have on the species assemblages. PMID:26745870

  9. Toxicity of sediment pore water associated with offshore oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of a multidisciplinary program to assess the long-term impacts of offshore petroleum production in the Gulf of Mexico, a series of sediment porewater toxicity tests were conducted. Sediments were samples from five petroleum production platforms along five radial transects. Pore water was extracted from the sediment using a pressure extraction device, centrifuged, and frozen for later toxicity testing and chemical analysis. The sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) embryological development assay and fertilization assay were used to assess porewater toxicity. Significant decreases in normal development of embryos was observed at 14 stations and fertilization was reduced at three stations. All stations with reduced fertilization also showed impaired development in the embryological development assay. All but three toxic sites were within 150 m of the platform. The six most toxic stations were at one platform near the Flower Garden reef, occurring near the platform along three radii; toxicity was always greater at the first site on a radium than at the second. Toxicity is discussed in relation to metal and hydrocarbon concentrations in whole sediment and in pore water

  10. Preliminary Design of a Multi-Column TLP Foundation for a 5-MW Offshore Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Yongsheng Zhao; Jianmin Yang; Yanping He

    2012-01-01

    Currently, floating wind turbines (FWTs) may be the more economical and suitable systems with which to exploit offshore wind energy in deep waters. Among the various types of floating foundations for offshore wind farms, a tension leg platform (TLP) foundation can provide a relatively stable platform for currently available offshore wind turbines without requiring major modifications. In this study, a new multi-column TLP foundation (WindStar TLP) was developed for the NREL 5-MW offshore wind...

  11. Assessment of economic impact of offshore and coastal discharge requirements on present and future operations in the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, R.

    1996-06-01

    The high potential costs of compliance associated with new effluent guidelines for offshore and coastal oil and gas operations could significantly affect the economics of finding, developing, and producing oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico. This report characterizes the potential economic impacts of alternative treatment and discharge regulations for produced water on reserves and production in Gulf of Mexico coastal, territorial and outer continental shelf (OCS) waters, quantifying the impacts of both recent regulatory changes and possible more stringent requirements. The treatment technologies capable of meeting these requirements are characterized in terms of cost, performance, and applicability to coastal and offshore situations. As part of this analysis, an extensive database was constructed that includes oil and gas production forecasts by field, data on existing platforms, and the current treatment methods in place for produced water treatment and disposal on offshore facilities. This work provides the first comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of alternative regulatory requirements for produced water management and disposal in coastal and offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico

  12. Determination and environmental estimation of NORMs in marine sediment environment of offshore platforms; Determinacao e avaliacao ambiental de NORMs em sedimento marinho entorno de plataformas offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegueria, Sergio F. Jerez, E-mail: sfjerez@vm.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Analitica; Godoy, Jose M., E-mail: rccampos@puc-rio.br, E-mail: jmgodoy@puc-rio.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The natural radioactive materials (NORM known as) are found in the earth's crust, and during the process of production of oil and gas are concentrated in the produced water and the fouling (scale) pipes used for extraction. The production of oil and gas from produced water comes, comprising: forming water (water naturally present in the well ); injection water , usually sea water previously injected into the well to maintaining the pressure while the oil is removed; and water condensed in some cases of gas production. A high radioactivity of {sup 226}Ra (natural grade of {sup 238}U) and {sup 228}Ra (from the natural series of {sup 232}Th) is detected in produced water due to the high solubility of radio in formation water as uranium and thorium, which are insoluble in this medium, remain the rock matrix. The study was conducted in the area of offshore oil production in the state of Rio de January and included the determination of uranium, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 228}Ra in marine sediment near the points of discharge of produced water from oil platforms. After the pre-treatment and digestion of samples, the determination of the natural uranium was performed on a mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP -MS). The activities of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra were determined by high resolution gamma spectrometry through {sup 214}Bi and {sup 228}Ac , respectively. And in the case of {sup 210}Pb, a correction was made for self-absorption employing an external source of this radionuclide. The results showed that there is no impact in sediments in the vicinity of the studied platforms.

  13. Operation and maintenance costs of offshore wind farms and potential multi-use platforms in the Dutch North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rockmann, C.; Lagerveld, S.; Stavenuiter, J.

    2017-01-01

    Aquaculture within offshore wind farms has been identified as one of the many possibilities of smart use of marine space, leading to opportunities for innovative entrepreneurship. Offshore areas potentially pose less conflict with co-users than onshore. At the same time, offshore areas and offshore

  14. PROVANN: Model System for Chronic Exposure of Larval and Adult Fish to Releases from Offshore Petroleum Platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, M.; Rye, H.; Melbye, A.; Johnsen, S.

    1996-01-01

    Produced water from offshore oil and gas production platforms contains a variety of hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and production chemicals. Vertical and horizontal mixing generally brings concentrations in discharge plumes below level associated with acute effects within 500 or 1000 m of the source. Chronic effects outside this region remain a potential problem. The purpose of PROVANN, the system of models described in this paper, is to assess the potential for chronic effects from produced water. The preliminary focus is on potential bioaccumulation and boimagnification of produced water constituents in the marine food web. Other possible types of chronic effects, such as reduced fecundity, or pheromone response interference, can also be assessed to the extent that such effects may be correlated with exposure. PROVANN simulates 3-dimensional transport, dilution, and degradation of chemicals released into the water, from one or more simultaneous sources. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Troll and Heidrun: A day of superlatives. The latest word in platform technology for Norway`s offshore industry; Troll und Heidrun: Tag der Superlative. Modernste Plattformtechnologie fuer Norwegens Offshore-Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpch, J U

    1995-09-01

    May 10, 1995, was a milestone in the history of the European power industry. This was the day when the construction of `Troll A` platform was finished in Vatsfjord, north of Stavanger, and the five-day haul to the world`s biggest gas reserves was started. At the same time, energy politicians from all over the world took part in the christening of `Heidrun` platform, in Gandsfjord south of Stavanger. From August onwards, this platform will extract oil from the Haltenbank, the world`s northernmost offshore field. `Troll` and `Heidrun` are the latest word in platform technology and, at the same time, also indicate a turning point in the Norwegian offshore industry. Experts and politicians agree that `Troll A` is the `last of the dinosaurs`, and there will be no platforms bigger than `Heidrun`. Oil fields are getting smaller, and the advancements in production technology permit smaller and less complex installations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der 10. Mai 1995 ist ein Meilenstein in der Geschichte der europaeischen Energiewirtschaft. An diesem Tag wurde im Vatsfjord noerdlich von Stavanger der Bau der Plattform Troll A abgeschlossen und mit dem fuenftaegigen Schlepp zu den weltgroessten Gasvorkommen begonnen. Im Gandsfjord etwas suedlich der norwegischen Oelhauptstadt waren Energiepolitiker aus aller Welt zu Gast, als zu gleicher Zeit die Heidrun-Plattform getauft wurde. Diese Anlage wird ab August das Oel von der Haltenbank, dem noerdlichsten Offshore-Feld ueberhaupt, foerdern. Troll und Heidrun sind modernste Plattformtechnologie und gleichzeitige Wendepunkt in der norwegischen Offshore-Industrie. Experten und Politiker sind sich einig: Die Troll A-Plattform ist `der letzte Dinosaurier`, die Groesse von Heidrun wird nicht mehr uebertroffen. Die Felder werden kleiner, und die Foerdertechnologie erlaubt bescheidenere Installationen. (orig.)

  16. Modelling and analysis of offshore energy systems on North Sea oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    export, and power generation. In this paper, a generic model of a North Sea oil and gas platform is described and the most thermodynamically inefficient processes are identified by performing an exergy analysis. Models and simulations are built and run with the tools Aspen Plus R, DNA and Aspen HYSYS R...

  17. Numerical Prediction of Experimentally Observed Behavior of a Scale Model of an Offshore Wind Turbine Supported by a Tension-Leg Platform: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowell, I.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Stewart, G. M.; Goupee, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Realizing the critical importance the role physical experimental tests play in understanding the dynamics of floating offshore wind turbines, the DeepCwind consortium conducted a one-fiftieth-scale model test program where several floating wind platforms were subjected to a variety of wind and wave loading condition at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands wave basin. This paper describes the observed behavior of a tension-leg platform, one of three platforms tested, and the systematic effort to predict the measured response with the FAST simulation tool using a model primarily based on consensus geometric and mass properties of the test specimen.

  18. Offshore platforms and deterministic ice actions: Kashagan phase 2 development: North Caspian Sea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croasdale, Ken [KRCA, Calgary (Canada); Jordaan, Ian [Ian Jordaan and Associates, St John' s (Canada); Verlaan, Paul [Shell Development Kashagan, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    The Kashagan development has to face the difficult conditions of the northern Caspian Sea. This paper investigated ice interaction scenarios and deterministic methods used on platform designs for the Kashagan development. The study presents first a review of the types of platforms in use and being designed for the Kashagan development. The various ice load scenarios and the structures used in each case are discussed. Vertical faced barriers, mobile drilling barges and sheet pile islands were used for the ice loads on vertical structures. Sloping faced barriers and islands of rock were used for the ice loads on sloping structures. Deterministic models such as the model in ISO 19906 were used to calculate the loads occurring with or without ice rubble in front of the structure. The results showed the importance of rubble build-up in front of wide structures in shallow water. Recommendations were provided for building efficient vertical and sloping faced barriers.

  19. Sublethal detoxification responses to contaminant exposure associated with offshore production platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S. J.; Willett, K. L.; Thomsen, J.; Beatty, K. B.; Connor, K.; Narasimhan, T. R.; Erickson, C. M.; Safe, S. H. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Several fish and invertebrate species were evaluated for their responses to contamination associated with petroleum and gas development and production in the Gulf of Mexico. Sampling was done at 100 and 3000 m from the center of three platforms. No significant near/far station differences were observed in aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity for invertebrate species. Similarly, no AHH activity, or cytochrome P450 mRNA levels, or biliary polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolite concentrations were detected in 16 fish species. There were, however, some species-specific differences in AHH and biliary PAH metabolite levels. 78 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  20. Neuro-fuzzy control strategy for an offshore steel jacket platform subjected to wave-induced forces using magneto rheological dampers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrafan, Atabak; Zareh, Seiyed Hamid; Khayyat, Amir Ali Akbar; Zabihollah, Abolghassem

    2012-01-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) damper is a prominent semi-active control device to vibrate mitigation of structures. Due to the inherent non-linear nature of MR damper, an intelligent non-linear neuro-fuzzy control strategy is designed to control wave-induced vibration of an offshore steel jacket platform equipped with MR dampers. In the proposed control system, a dynamic-feedback neural network is adapted to model non-linear dynamic system, and the fuzzy logic controller is used to determine the control forces of MR dampers. By use of two feed forward neural networks required voltages and actual MR damper forces are obtained, in which the first neural network and the second one acts as the inverse dynamics model, and the forward dynamics model of the MR dampers, respectively. The most important characteristic of the proposed intelligent control strategy is its inherent robustness and its ability to handle the non-linear behavior of the system. Besides, no mathematical model needed to calculate forces produced by MR dampers. According to linearized Morison equation, wave-induced forces are determined. The performance of the proposed neuro-fuzzy control system is compared with that of a traditional semi-active control strategy, i.e., clipped optimal control system with LQG-target controller, through computer simulations, while the uncontrolled system response is used as the baseline. It is demonstrated that the design of proposed control system framework is more effective than that of the clipped optimal control scheme with LQG-target controller to reduce the vibration of offshore structure. Furthermore, the control strategy is very important for semi-active control

  1. Pressure surge free fire water systems increase safety on offshore oil- and gas drilling platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Randi

    2001-01-01

    The article describes a new fire water system for use on the oil- and gas drilling platforms that is characterized by improved start-up time and reduced energy consumption. Deluge valves are commonly used in fast large-flow fire water systems all over the world. During the test of a new fire water system on a platform a few years ago, a pipe near the living quarter suddenly ruptured due to an unexpected pressure surge thought to be impossible. It was caused by a weakness of the deluge valve. A better valve was needed and the 'UniqValve' was designed and manufactured. The UniqValve operates in cooperation with the fire pumps during start-up as it 'reads' the pressure variations of the water flow and corrects the water flow to the fire areas in less than a tenth of a second. The valve is now integrated in a modular system. The fire water unit is mounted in a container, which reduces cost and simplifies the placement of the fire water installation

  2. A novel ultrasonic phased array inspection system to NDT for offshore platform structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Shan, Baohua; Wang, Xin; Ou, Jinping

    2007-01-01

    A novel ultrasonic phased array detection system is developed for nondestructive testing (NDT). The purpose of the system is to make acquisition of data in real-time from 64-element ultrasonic phased array transducer, and to enable real- time processing of the acquired data. The system is composed of five main parts: master unit, main board, eight transmit/receive units, a 64-element transducer and an external PC. The system can be used with 64 element transducers, excite 32 elements, receive and sample echo signals form 32 elements simultaneously at 62.5MHz with 8 bit precision. The external PC is used as the user interface showing the real time images and controls overall operation of the system through USB serial link. The use of Universal Serial Bus (USB) improves the transform speed and reduces hardware interface complexity. The program of the system is written in Visual C++.NET and is platform independent.

  3. Protective equipment against explosions for offshore oil and gas production; Explosionsgeschuetzte Ausruestung fuer den maritimen Oel- und Gassektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, Tobias [R. STAHL AG, Waldenburg (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Offshore oil and gas production requires a multitude of explosion-proof components, systems and solutions both offshore and onshore. They serve different functions, from extraction and separation of fossil fuels to the production and storage of transportable products, sometimes on floating offshore platforms. There are also offshore cranes and pipelines to the onshore terminals. All this requires explostion-proof control cabinets, power distribution units and other equipment. The many different requirements are illustrated by the example of the world's biggest offshore production platform FPSO in the China Sea.

  4. Conducting research in the middle of the ocean. Platforms FINO 1-3 supply planning data for utilising offshore wind energy in the North and Baltic Seas; Forschen mitten im Meer. Plattformen FINO 1-3 liefern Planungsdaten fuer die Offshore-Windenergienutzung in Nord- und Ostsee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milles, Uwe

    2011-07-01

    In the future, a large part of Germany's electricity requirement is intended to come from offshore wind farms in order to utilise the favourable wind conditions there. This represents unknown territory in both technical and ecological terms, and is taking place in sensitive biotopes. Three largely remote-controlled research platforms have therefore been constructed in the North and Baltic Seas (FINO). In particular it is being investigated into how the wind actually behaves above the sea and how much electricity can be generated. The data will be incorporated into the planning, design and certification of future farms. (orig.)

  5. Characterizing pinniped use of offshore oil and gas platforms as haulouts and foraging areas in waters off southern California from 2013-01-01 to 2015-01-31 (NCEI Accession 0138984)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) use offshore oil and gas platforms as resting and foraging areas. Both...

  6. Review of offshore oil-spill prevention and remediation requirements and practices in Newfoundland and Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.; Skinner, J.; Roberts, J.; Harvey, R.; Ross, S.L

    2010-12-01

    The report studies aspects of the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador's requirements for oil-spill prevention, response and remediation. The Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board (C-NLOPB) is responsible and accountable for the industry's meeting its commitments in terms of monitoring, auditing and management. Comparisons with requirements in different regions, such as Norway, the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States demonstrate C-NLOPB practices are sound and comprehensive and meet international standards. Even though the standard established by the Board is high, further improvement is nevertheless needed and the report makes detailed recommendations for bringing this about. The four-tiered industry response system of safe practices:, safety culture, designs, standards and training and competency assurance programs is also augmented and enhanced by the C-NLOPB approval process.

  7. Inadequate environmental monitoring around offshore oil and gas platforms on the Grand Bank of Eastern Canada: are risks to marine birds known?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, C M; Montevecchi, W A; Wiese, F K

    2012-08-15

    Petroleum exploration and production on the Grand Bank of eastern Canada overlaps with productive marine habitat that supports over 40 million marine birds annually. Environmental assessments for oil and gas projects in the region predict insignificant adverse effects on marine birds from oil spills, incineration in platform flares and collisions. Limited baseline data on seasonal occupancies and a failure to quantify the nature and extent of marine bird attraction to platforms and related mortality undermines these assessments. We conducted 22 surveys to offshore platforms on the Grand Bank during 1999-2003 to measure avian associations with platforms and to determine the level of monitoring needed to assess the risks to marine birds. We document seasonal shifts in marine bird occurrences and higher densities of auks (fall) and shearwaters (summer) around platforms relative to surrounding areas. The limited temporal and spatial coverage of our surveys is more robust than existing industry monitoring efforts, yet it is still inadequate to quantify the scale of marine bird associations with platforms or their associated mortality risks. Systematic observations by independent biologists on vessels and platforms are needed to generate reliable assessments of risks to marine birds. Instead, the regulatory body for offshore oil and gas in eastern Canada (Canada - Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board; C-NLOPB) supports industry self-reporting as the accepted form of environmental monitoring. Conflicting responsibilities of oil and gas regulatory agencies for both energy development and environmental monitoring are major barriers to transparency, unbiased scientific inquiry and adequate environmental protection. Similar conflicts with the oil and gas regulatory body in the United States, the former Minerals and Management Service (MMS) were identified by the U.S. President as a major contributor to the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. The

  8. Geriatric infrastructure, BRAC, and ecosystem service markets? End-of-life decisions for dams, roads, and offshore platforms (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    US infrastructure expanded dramatically in the mid-20th century, and now includes more than 79,000 dams, 15,000 miles of levees, 3.7 million miles of roads, 600,000 miles of sewer pipe, 500,000 onshore oil wells, and over 4,000 offshore oil platforms. Many structures have been in place for 50 years or more, and an increasing portion of national infrastructure is approaching or exceeding its originally intended design life. Bringing national infrastructure to acceptable levels would cost nearly 10% of the US annual GDP. Decommissioning infrastructure can decrease public spending and increase public safety while facilitating economic expansion and ecological restoration. While most infrastructure remains critical to the national economy, a substantial amount is obsolete or declining in importance. Over 11,000 dams are abandoned, and of nearly 400,000 miles of road on its lands, the U.S. Forest Service considers one-fourth non-essential and often non-functional. Removing obsolete infrastructure allows greater focus and funding on maintaining or improving infrastructure most critical to society. Moreover, a concerted program of infrastructure decommissioning promises significant long-term cost savings, and is a necessary step before more substantial, systematic changes are possible, like those needed to address the new energy sources and shifting climate. One key challenge for infrastructure reform is how to prioritize and implement such a widespread and politically-charged series of decisions. Two approaches are proposed for different scales. For small, private infrastructure, emerging state and federal ecosystem service markets can provide an economic impetus to push infrastructure removal. Ecosystem market mechanisms may also be most effective at identifying those projects with the greatest ecological bang for the buck. Examples where this approach has proved successful include dam removal for stream mitigation under the Clean Water Act, and levee decommissioning on

  9. Measurement and Analysis of Extreme Wave and Ice Actions in the Great Lakes for Offshore Wind Platform Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Tony [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; van Nieuwstadt, Lin [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; De Roo, Roger [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Karr, Dale [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Lozenge, David [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Meadows, Guy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering

    2016-05-30

    This project, funded by the Department of Energy as DE-EE0005376, successfully measured wind-driven lake ice forces on an offshore structure in Lake Superior through one of the coldest winters in recent history. While offshore regions of the Great Lakes offer promising opportunities for harvesting wind energy, these massive bodies of freshwater also offer extreme and unique challenges. Among these challenges is the need to anticipate forces exerted on offshore structures by lake ice. The parameters of interest include the frequency, extent, and movement of lake ice, parameters that are routinely monitored via satellite, and ice thickness, a parameter that has been monitored at discrete locations over many years and is routinely modeled. Essential relationships for these data to be of use in the design of offshore structures and the primary objective of this project are measurements of maximum forces that lake ice of known thicknesses might exert on an offshore structure.

  10. Quality Control of Installation and Commissioning of Offshore Platform Instrument System%海上平台仪表安装调试质量控制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永辉

    2016-01-01

    The instrument installation and commissioning work is a very important work in offshore oil platform construction and renovation process, the overall quality control is to ensure the intelligent control instrument play a role. This paper is based on the basic situation of offshore oil engineering automation instrument, analysis of the quality control factors of automation instrumentation engineering, finally discusses the technical measures of quality control of offshore oil platform automation instrument engineering.%仪表安装调试是海上石油平台建设、改造中一项非常重要的工作,全面的质量控制是自动化仪表设备发挥智能控制作用的保证。本文立足于海洋石油自动化仪表工程基本情况,分析自动化仪表工程质量控制因素,最后讨论了海上石油平台自动化仪表工程质量控制的技术措施。

  11. Growth and demise of a Paleogene isolated carbonate platform of the Offshore Indus Basin, Pakistan: effects of regional and local controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Khurram; Betzler, Christian; Ahmed, Nadeem; Qayyum, Farrukh; Spezzaferri, Silvia; Qadir, Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Based on high-resolution seismic and well datasets, this paper examines the evolution and drowning history of a Paleocene-Eocene carbonate platform in the Offshore Indus Basin of Pakistan. This study uses the internal seismic architecture, well log data as well as the microfauna to reconstruct factors that governed the carbonate platform growth and demise. Carbonates dominated by larger benthic foraminifera assemblages permit constraining the ages of the major evolutionary steps and show that the depositional environment was tropical within oligotrophic conditions. With the aid of seismic stratigraphy, the carbonate platform edifice is resolved into seven seismic units which in turn are grouped into three packages that reflect its evolution from platform initiation, aggradation with escarpment formation and platform drowning. The carbonate factory initiated as mounds and patches on a Cretaceous-Paleocene volcanic complex. Further, the growth history of the platform includes distinct phases of intraplatform progradation, aggradation, backstepping and partial drownings. The youngest succession as late-stage buildup records a shift from benthic to pelagic deposition and marks the final drowning in the Early Eocene. The depositional trend of the platform, controlled by the continuing thermal subsidence associated with the cooling of volcanic margin lithosphere, was the major contributor of the accommodation space which supported the vertical accumulation of shallow water carbonate succession. Other factors such as eustatic changes and changes in the carbonate producers as a response to the Paleogene climatic perturbations played secondary roles in the development and drowning of these buildups.

  12. Model Development and Loads Analysis of an Offshore Wind Turbine on a Tension Leg Platform with a Comparison to Other Floating Turbine Concepts: April 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matha, D.

    2010-02-01

    This report presents results of the analysis of a 5-MW wind turbine located on a floating offshore tension leg platform (TLP) that was conducted using the fully coupled time-domain aero-hydro-servo-elastic design code FAST with AeroDyn and HydroDyn. The report also provides a description of the development process of the TLP model. The model has been verified via comparisons to frequency-domain calculations. Important differences have been identified between the frequency-domain and time-domain simulations, and have generated implications for the conceptual design process. An extensive loads and stability analysis for ultimate and fatigue loads according to the procedure of the IEC 61400-3 offshore wind turbine design standard was performed with the verified TLP model. This report compares the loads for the wind turbine on the TLP to those of an equivalent land-based turbine. Major instabilities for the TLP are identified and described.

  13. Atmospheric metallic and arsenic pollution at an offshore drilling platform in the Bo Sea: A health risk assessment for the workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Han, Suqin; Bi, Xiaohui; Zhao, Zhijing; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Wenjie; Zhang, Min; Chen, Jing; Wu, Jianhui; Zhang, Yufen; Feng, Yinchang

    2016-03-05

    To investigate the ambient metal pollution at the offshore drilling platform in the Bo Sea, which few studies have focused on, PM2.5 samples were collected and ten heavy metals, as well as As, were analyzed. High concentration levels of metals were observed, and the heavy metal pollution was quite serious compared to air quality standards and other marine areas. Back trajectories and wind dependent and PCA analyses showed that the marine sources included ship traffic emissions and corrosive stainless steels from the equipment at the platform as well as industrial emissions from stainless steel production and coal combustion sources, which were transported from the surrounding mainland. Both contributed greatly to the ambient metallic particles at the offshore platform. The Hazard Index values of the metals, which were much less than 1, the Carcinogenic Risk data, which were lower than the EPA's acceptable range, and the fact that the metal concentrations did not the exceed the permissible exposure limits of OSHA, indicated that the health risks from the ambient metallic particles for the oil-drilling workers were not significant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Building method (concreting) for an offshore platform equipped with several cantilevered pillars. Fremgangsmaate for fremstilling (stoeping) av en fralandsplattform som har flere mot hverandre hellende stoetteben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, O.

    1985-07-29

    The invention deals with a building method for an offshore platform made of concrete comprising several cantilevered pillars. In accordance with the invention, the building work is to be started in a dry dock, and can be completed in the same place or in deep water. The pillars and the foundation are made as separate structures. The foundation can also be made as separate structures for each of the pillars. The vertical positioned pillars are made by means of moving forms, and finally put into cantilevered position and permanently connected to the foundation and the upper end arrangement. The structure then is to be completed in the normal way. 7 drawings.

  15. ESTIMATION OF AGING EFFECTS OF PILES IN MALAYSIAN OFFSHORE LOCATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JERIN M. GEORGE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An increasing demand for extending life and subsequently higher loading requirements of offshore jacket platforms are among the key problems faced by the offshore industry. The Aging effect has been proved to increase the axial capacity of piles, but proper methods to estimate and quantify these effects have not been developed. Borehole data from ten different Malaysian offshore locations have been analysed and they were employed to estimate the setup factor for different locations using AAU method. The setup factors found were used in the Skov and Denver equation to calculate capacity ratios of the offshore piles. The study showed that there will be an average improvement in the axial capacity of offshore piles by 42.2% and 34.9% for clayey and mixed soils respectively after a time equal to the normal design life (25 years of a jacket platform.

  16. The universal modular platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    A new and patented design for offshore wellhead platforms has been developed to meet a 'fast track' requirement for increased offshore production, from field locations not yet identified. The new design uses modular construction to allow for radical changes in the water depth of the final location and assembly line efficiency in fabrication. By utilizing high strength steels and structural support from the well conductors the new design accommodates all planned production requirements on a support structure significantly lighter and less expensive than the conventional design it replaces. Twenty two platforms based on the new design were ready for installation within 18 months of the project start. Installation of the new platforms began in 1992 for drilling support and 1993 for production support. The new design has become the Company standard for all future production platforms. Large saving and construction costs have been realized through its light weight, flexibility in both positioning and water depth, and its modular construction

  17. Comparison of concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in bile of fishes from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the environmental consequences of decommissioning offshore oil platforms on local and regional fish populations, contaminant loads in reproducing adults were investigated at seven platform sites and adjacent, natural sites. Specimens of three species (Pacific sanddab, Citharichthys sordidus; kelp rockfish, Sebastes atrovirens; and kelp bass, Paralabrax clathratus) residing at platforms and representing the regional background within the Santa Barbara Channel and within the San Pedro Basin were collected. Some of the most important contaminant classes related to oil operations are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) because of their potential toxicity and carcinogenicity. However, acute exposure cannot be related directly to PAH tissue concentrations because of rapid metabolism of the parent chemicals in fish; therefore, PAH metabolites in bile were measured, targeting free hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) liberated by enzymatic hydrolysis of the bound PAH glucuronides and sulfates. An ion-pairing method was developed for confirmatory analysis that targeted PAH glucuronides and sulfates. Concentrations of hydroxylated PAHs in all samples (76 fish from platforms and 64 fish from natural sites) were low, ranging from less than the limits of detection (5 to 120 nanograms per milliliter bile; 0.03 to 42 nanograms per milligram protein) to a maximum of 320 nanograms per milliliter bile (32 nanograms per milligram protein). A previously proposed dosimeter of PAH exposure in fish, 1-hydroxypyrene, was not detected at any platform site. Low concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene were detected in 3 of 12 kelp rockfish collected from a natural reef site off Santa Barbara. The most prevalent OH-PAH, 2-hydroxyfluorene, was detected at low concentrations in seven fish of various species; of these, four were from two of the seven platform sites. The greatest concentrations of 2-hydroxyfluorene were found in three fish of various species from Platform Holly and were only

  18. The U.S. Department of Energy's Reference Facility for Offshore Renewable Energy (RFORE): A New Platform for Research and Development (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Offshore renewable energy represents a significant but essentially untapped electricity resource for the U.S. Offshore wind energy is attractive for a number of reasons, including the feasibility of using much larger and more efficient wind turbines than is possible on land. In many offshore regions near large population centers, the diurnal maximum in wind energy production is also closely matched to the diurnal maximum in electricity demand, easing the balancing of generation and load. Currently, however, the cost of offshore wind energy is not competitive with other energy sources, including terrestrial wind. Two significant contributing reasons for this are the cost of offshore wind resource assessment and fundamental gaps in knowledge of the behavior of winds and turbulence in the layer of the atmosphere spanned by the sweep of the turbine rotor. Resource assessment, a necessary step in securing financing for a wind project, is conventionally carried out on land using meteorological towers erected for a year or more. Comparable towers offshore are an order of magnitude more expensive to install. New technologies that promise to reduce these costs, such as Doppler lidars mounted on buoys, are being developed, but these need to be validated in the environment in which they will be used. There is currently no facility in the U.S. that can carry out such validations offshore. Research needs include evaluation and improvement of hub-height wind forecasts from regional forecast models in the marine boundary layer, understanding of turbulence characteristics that affect turbine loads and wind plant efficiency, and development of accurate representations of sea surface roughness and atmospheric thermodynamic stability on hub height winds. In response to these needs for validation and research, the U.S. Department of Energy is developing the Reference Facility for Offshore Renewable Energy (RFORE). The RFORE will feature a meteorological tower with wind, temperature

  19. Research on systematization and advancement of shipbuilding production management for flexible and agile response for high value offshore platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Joo; Woo, Jong-Hun; Shin, Jong-Gye

    2011-09-01

    Recently, the speed of change related with enterprise management is getting faster than ever owing to the competition among companies, technique diffusion, shortening of product lifecycle, excessive supply of market. For the example, the compliance condition (such as delivery date, product quality, etc.) from the ship owner is getting complicated and the needs for the new product such as FPSO, FSRU are coming to fore. This paradigm shift emphasize the rapid response rather than the competitive price, flexibility and agility rather than effective and optimal perspective for the domestic shipbuilding company. So, domestic shipbuilding companies have to secure agile and flexible ship production environment that could respond change of market and requirements of customers in order to continue a competitive edge in the world market. In this paper, I'm going to define a standard shipbuilding production management system by investigating the environment of domestic major shipbuilding companies. Also, I'm going to propose a unified ship production management and system for the operation of unified management through detail analysis of the activities and the data flow of ship production management. And, the system functions for the strategic approach of ship production management are investigated through the business administration tools such as performance pyramid, VDT and BSC. Lastly, the research of applying strategic KPI to the digital shipyard as virtual execution platform is conducted.

  20. Technical requirements of a social networking platform for senior citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Hans; Hildebrand, Claudia; López Bolós, José; Tiedge, Winfried; Wengel, Stefanie; O Broin, Daire; Palmer, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Feeling an integrative part of a social community adds to the quality of life. Elderly people who find it more difficult to actively join activities are often threatened by isolation. Social networking can enable communication and sharing activities makes it easier to set up and maintain contacts. This paper describes the development of a social networking platform and activities like gaming and exergaming all of which aim to facilitate social interaction. It reports on the particular challenges that need to be addressed when creating a social networking platform specially designed to meet the needs of the elderly.

  1. Environmental data for the planning of off-shore wind parks from the EnerGEO Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelle, Hein; Mika, Agnes; Calkoen, Charles; Santbergen, Peter [BMT ARGOSS, Marknesse (Netherlands); Blanc, Isabelle; Guermont, Catherine; Menard, Lionel; Gschwind, Benoit [MINES ParisTech, Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2013-07-01

    The EU-sponsored EnerGEO project aims at providing decision makers with a modelling platform to assess the environmental impacts of different sources of renewable energy. One of the pillars of the project is the Wind Energy Pilot, addressing the effects of offshore wind parks on air pollution and energy use. The methods used in the pilot and the underlying environmental databases are integrated into a WebGIS client tool and made available to the public. This paper is dedicated to describing the environmental databases and supporting data incorporated in the client tool. A 27-km resolution, 11-year wind database is created using the WRF model. The wind database is used to assess the wind climate in the north-west Atlantic region and to derive the potential power output from offshore wind parks. Auxiliary data concerning water depth, distance to shore and distance to the nearest suitable port are created to aid the planning and maintenance phases. Seasonal workability conditions are assessed using a 20-year wave database. The distance at which future wind parks should be placed to exhibit different wind climates is investigated. (orig.)

  2. Environmental data for the planning of off-shore wind parks from the EnerGEO Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelle, Hein; Mika, Agnes; Calkoen, Charles; Santbergen, Peter; Blanc, Isabelle; Guermont, Catherine; Menard, Lionel; Gschwind, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    The EU-sponsored EnerGEO project aims at providing decision makers with a modelling platform to assess the environmental impacts of different sources of renewable energy. One of the pillars of the project is the Wind Energy Pilot, addressing the effects of offshore wind parks on air pollution and energy use. The methods used in the pilot and the underlying environmental databases are integrated into a WebGIS client tool and made available to the public. This paper is dedicated to describing the environmental databases and supporting data incorporated in the client tool. A 27-km resolution, 11-year wind database is created using the WRF model. The wind database is used to assess the wind climate in the north-west Atlantic region and to derive the potential power output from offshore wind parks. Auxiliary data concerning water depth, distance to shore and distance to the nearest suitable port are created to aid the planning and maintenance phases. Seasonal workability conditions are assessed using a 20-year wave database. The distance at which future wind parks should be placed to exhibit different wind climates is investigated. (orig.)

  3. Do South African universities provide the required training platforms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Concern exists about the quality of specialist training platforms at South African universities and teaching hospitals. Method. We conducted an audit of the quality of training at South African otolaryngology (ENT) training institutions from the perspective of the registrars. Results. Some institutions were deficient in ...

  4. Transaction-based building controls framework, Volume 2: Platform descriptive model and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haack, Jereme N. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Brandon J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hernandez, George [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Transaction-based Building Controls (TBC) offer a control systems platform that provides an agent execution environment that meets the growing requirements for security, resource utilization, and reliability. This report outlines the requirements for a platform to meet these needs and describes an illustrative/exemplary implementation.

  5. Distinguishing between contaminant and reef effects on meiofauna near offshore hydrocarbon platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagna, P. A.; Jarvis, S. C. [Univ. of Texas at Austin, Marine Science Institute, Port Aransas, TX (United States); Kennicutt, M. C. [Texas A and M Univ., Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, College Station, TX (United States)

    2002-10-01

    The GEOMEX study which was initiated in 1993 successfully investigated the long-term effects of hydrocarbon production on macro- and meiobenthos at the community, population, organismic and suborganismic levels. It concluded that adverse effects were localized to within 100-200 m of production platforms. The current study was designed to distinguish between reef and contaminant effects on meiofaunal communities by comparing communities at production platforms, artificial reefs, platform removal sites and appropriate controls. The focus was on highly abundant and diverse meiobenthic harpacticoid copepods which exhibited negative effects in the GEOMEX study. The removal sites were found to have higher concentrations of many contaminants than reef or control sites, but lower concentrations than platform sites. Reduced meiobenthic abundance and altered Harpacticoida community structure were primarily a function of reef effects, not contaminant effects. The reef effect appeared to be important in controlling microfauna near platforms where contaminants were low because of drilling and production techniques in the Gulf of Mexico. The significant habitat influence was attributed to a variety of possible causes, such as increased food web activity related to primary production of hard-bottom algae, secondary production of fouling organisms or attraction of mobile fish and invertebrates. 23 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. Bridging operation and design. The encounter between practical and discipline-based knowledge in offshore platform design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husemoen, Mette Suzanne

    1998-12-31

    This thesis investigates the relationship between operations and design and the design process, taking as case studies the two new platforms of Phillips Petroleum Company Norway on Ekofisk II, the Ekofisk 2/4 X drilling and wellhead platform and the Ekofisk 2/4 J processing and transportation platform. The emphasis has been on how to take into account operational experience in design. The two research questions are: (1) Are operations and design two communities-of-practice based on different kinds of knowledge?, and (2) What are the conditions for bridging knowledge in operations and design? From the theory reviewed and the field data presented the study concludes that physical closeness and integration of operations and design personnel, experience from the other community-of-practice, and mutual sympathy, trust, and respect, are important factors in bridging knowledge of the operations and design communities-of-practice and creating innovative solutions in design which transcend the existing knowledge in operations and design. 66 refs., 28 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Bridging operation and design. The encounter between practical and discipline-based knowledge in offshore platform design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husemoen, Mette Suzanne

    1997-12-31

    This thesis investigates the relationship between operations and design and the design process, taking as case studies the two new platforms of Phillips Petroleum Company Norway on Ekofisk II, the Ekofisk 2/4 X drilling and wellhead platform and the Ekofisk 2/4 J processing and transportation platform. The emphasis has been on how to take into account operational experience in design. The two research questions are: (1) Are operations and design two communities-of-practice based on different kinds of knowledge?, and (2) What are the conditions for bridging knowledge in operations and design? From the theory reviewed and the field data presented the study concludes that physical closeness and integration of operations and design personnel, experience from the other community-of-practice, and mutual sympathy, trust, and respect, are important factors in bridging knowledge of the operations and design communities-of-practice and creating innovative solutions in design which transcend the existing knowledge in operations and design. 66 refs., 28 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Research on systematization and advancement of shipbuilding production management for flexible and agile response for high value offshore platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Song

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, I'm going to define a standard shipbuilding production management system by investigating the environment of domestic major shipbuilding companies. Also, I'm going to propose a unified ship production management and system for the operation of unified management through detail analysis of the activities and the data flow of ship production management. And, the system functions for the strategic approach of ship production management are investigated through the business administration tools such as performance pyramid, VDT and BSC. Lastly, the research of applying strategic KPI to the digital shipyard as virtual execution platform is conducted.

  9. Putting it all together: Requirements for a CSCW platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, K.; Rodden, T.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter examines the requirements for a computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW). CSCW systems have generally failed to meet the requirements of users in actual cooperative work settings. They do not adequately support fluent transitions between formal and informal interaction and the inex......This chapter examines the requirements for a computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW). CSCW systems have generally failed to meet the requirements of users in actual cooperative work settings. They do not adequately support fluent transitions between formal and informal interaction...... and the inextricable interweaving of individual and cooperative work that characterizes everyday work practice. CSCW facilities should be categorized in terms of requirements rather than the characteristics of the medium. The degree and nature of interdependence among the members of the cooperating ensemble...... as determined by the field of work. The dimensions of cooperative work can be translated into requirements for the techniques of communication in terms of bandwidth and turnaround time. The membership of cooperative ensembles is not stable and often even nondeterminable. The pattern of interaction...

  10. Emergency response in the Newfoundland offshore industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation reviewed current offshore oil activities with respect to safety issues regarding year-round marine operations in a harsh environment. Considerable logistics support is required for all offshore activities, including seismic and geotechnical surveys; exploration and production drilling; well testing; subsea construction; on-site production; and, delivery to market. Response to an offshore emergency must address the urgency of the incident along with stakeholder concerns. This presentation described the different types of emergencies and addressed issues regarding contingency planning; preventative measures; response philosophy; response scope; response at site; emergency management; communications links; and, oil spill response. The following current operations were highlighted: ExxonMobil's production drilling from the gravity-based concrete platform at Hibernia; Petro-Canada's production drilling at the Terra Nova FPSO; Husky Energy's production drilling at White Rose; and Chevron Canada's exploration drilling at the Orphan Basin. It was noted that in an emergency situation, the focus is on the welfare of offshore personnel. On an average day, the total offshore population is in the order of 1000 workers, all registered in the Personnel Logistics System which is updated with the departure of every helicopter from St. John's, Newfoundland or from the offshore platform. It is possible to prepare for foreseeable emergency incidents such as fire, explosion or gas leaks; spills to the marine environment; structural damage or collisions; persons lost at sea; helicopter or support vessel accidents; vessel sinking; sabotage; serious injuries or loss of life; severe ice events; and, loss of well control. The establishment of permanent safety zones at the Hibernia, White Rose and Terra Nova production fields are among the preventative measures, along with standby vessels that provide a rescue service for offshore installations. Supply vessels are also

  11. Offshore Transmission Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this document is to give an overview of offshore electricity transmission technologies. In particular this document is concerned with the use of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) systems and more specifically with the development of Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technology. This report outlines the current state of the main technology groups required for offshore HVDC transmission as well as giving examples of offshore projects (both current and future). Finally some indications of likely unit costs for HV assets are given.

  12. Gela offshore field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliughi, G

    1965-06-01

    The field of Gela, off the southern shore of Sicily, is the only producing offshore field in the Mediterranean. It produces from Triassic dolimite limestones of 434-m thickness, water level at -3517 m. It is a water-drive reservoir producing 10/sup 0/F API oil and has 79 wells, some of them on shore. Most offshore wells are directional wells from shore; there are also 2 fixed platforms and a special mobile platform. The wells are on pump (stroke, 72 in.; capacity 200 tons per day). The crude goes directly to a combination refinery-petrochemical complex at Gela.

  13. Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josko, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The advent of DNA sequencing technologies and the various applications that can be performed will have a dramatic effect on medicine and healthcare in the near future. There are several DNA sequencing platforms available on the market for research and clinical use. Based on the medical laboratory scientist or researcher's needs and taking into consideration laboratory space and budget, one can chose which platform will be beneficial to their institution and their patient population. Although some of the instrument costs seem high, diagnosing a patient quickly and accurately will save hospitals money with fewer hospital stays and targeted treatment based on an individual's genetic make-up. By determining the type of disease an individual has, based on the mutations present or having the ability to prescribe the appropriate antimicrobials based on the knowledge of the organism's resistance patterns, the clinician will be better able to treat and diagnose a patient which ultimately will improve patient outcomes and prognosis.

  14. Offshore industry: medical emergency response in the offshore oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsonby, Will; Mika, Frano; Irons, Greg

    2009-08-01

    The hunt for oil and gas has taken workers into new more distant locations including those offshore. The remoteness of the offshore platforms and vessels coupled with the potential risk of being cut off by bad weather presents particular challenges for medical emergency response (MER). Firstly to define the challenges for MER in terms of locations, population and epidemiology of injuries and illnesses in the offshore environment. Secondly to give examples of legal requirements and industry standards to manage MER. Thirdly to look at existing and emerging practice to manage these challenges. A review of published literature was supplemented with a summary of current practice in the industry. Medical professionals (medics) working offshore on installations and vessels are primarily responsible for the medical care of the workers. The medics have clinics with suitable medical equipment for managing emergencies as well as providing limited primary care. Some countries have legislation that stipulate minimum requirements. Where there is no national legislation, industry and company guidance is used to define the MER standards. Supervision of the offshore medics is often provided by doctors on shore via radio and phone links. These methods of communication are now being augmented with more sophisticated telemedicine solutions such as the Internet and live video links. These newer solutions allow for prompt high-quality care and provide the scope for a variety of new treatment options to be available for the offshore workforce.

  15. Deep Panuke offshore gas development comprehensive study report : Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    A project was proposed by EnCana Corporation (EnCana) for the development of the Deep Panuke Offshore Gas Development Project. Located offshore the Scotian Shelf, approximately 175 kilometres southeast of Goldboro, Nova Scotia and 250 kilometres southeast of Halifax, the development of this natural gas reservoir would allow EnCana to derive economic benefit from licences issued under the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation Act and the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation (Nova Scotia) Act. The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act required that a comprehensive study report be prepared, and the results were presented in this document. Consisting of three bottom-founded platforms in a water depth of approximately 40 metres, the wellhead platform would be used for dry wellheads, wellhead control system, and production manifolds. All power generation and processing equipment would be located on the production platform, and the accommodations platform would consist of the utilities, helicopter landing pad, refueling station and crew accommodations. It was determined that the Deep Panuke project was unlikely to result in adverse environmental effects. The offshore oil and gas industry in Atlantic Canada would benefit from this development as a result of the establishment of a viable facility and operation

  16. Screening Criteria and Considerations of Offshore Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Sang Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR in offshore oil fields has received significant attention due to the potentially enormous amount of recoverable oil. However, EOR application offshore is in its very early stage due to conditions that are more complex than onshore oil fields, owing to the unique parameters present offshore. Therefore, successful EOR applications in offshore oil fields require different screening criteria than those for conventional onshore applications. A comprehensive database for onshore applications of EOR processes together with a limited offshore EOR application database are analyzed in this paper, and the important parameters for successful offshore application are incorporated into the new EOR screening criteria. In this paper, screening criteria to determine acceptable EOR processes for offshore fields, including hydrocarbon gas miscible, CO2 miscible, and polymer processes, are presented. Suggested screening criteria for these EOR processes comprise quantitative boundaries and qualitative considerations. Quantitative screening criteria are predominantly based on quantifiable data, such as oil and reservoir properties. Qualitative screening considerations mainly focus on the operational issues present offshore, including platform space constraints, limited disposal options, injectant availability, and flow assurance matters (including hydrate formation and difficulties in emulsion separation.

  17. Pig lift applications in offshore dry completion wells; Aplicacao do pig lift em pocos offshore de completacao seca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Paulo C.R.; Faria, Rogerio Costa; Almeida, Alcino Resende [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Production increases of 10% to 130% have been obtained with pig lift installations on offshore oil wells in the Cacao Field, southeast Brazil. At the present time 3 wells out of 5 are being produced with pig lift. These deep, highly deviated wells with little space on the platform to the required surface equipment presented a challenge to pig lift technology. However, these difficulties were overcame and the benefits obtained helped to maintain the economical attractiveness of the platform. (author)

  18. 30 CFR 250.920 - What are the MMS requirements for assessment of fixed platforms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the MMS requirements for assessment of... Structures Inspection, Maintenance, and Assessment of Platforms § 250.920 What are the MMS requirements for... in API RP 2A-WSD, Section 17.3. If MMS objects to the assessment category you used for your...

  19. Multi-objective optimization of organic Rankine cycles for waste heat recovery: Application in an offshore platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at finding the optimal design of MW-size organic Rankine cycles by employing the multi-objective optimization with the genetic algorithm as the optimizer. We consider three objective functions: thermal efficiency, total volume of the system and net present value. The optimization...... for acetone. Other promising working fluids are cyclohexane, hexane and isohexane. The present methodology can be utilized in waste heat recovery applications where a compromise between performance, compactness and economic revenue is required. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Data Collection for Mental Health Studies Through Digital Platforms: Requirements and Design of a Prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Triana Hoyos, Ana Maria; Alakörkkö, Tuomas; Kaski, Kimmo; Saramäki, Jari; Isometsä, Erkki; Darst, Richard K

    2017-06-09

    described why each of these features are important for digital data collection for psychiatry, gave examples of projects where Niima was used or is going to be used in the future, and demonstrated how incorporating these design principles opens new possibilities for studies. The new methods of digital psychiatry are still immature and need further research. The design features we suggested are a first step to design platforms which can adapt to the upcoming requirements of digital psychiatry. ©Talayeh Aledavood, Ana Maria Triana Hoyos, Tuomas Alakörkkö, Kimmo Kaski, Jari Saramäki, Erkki Isometsä, Richard K Darst. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 09.06.2017.

  1. 40 CFR 112.11 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and... equipped with dump valves which predominantly fail in the closed position and where pollution risk is high...

  2. Analysis of offshore jacket platform

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harish, N.; Mandal, S.; Shanthala, B.; Rao, S.

    than 0.05 hence we can calculate the wave load using Morrison’s Formula. Wave load per unit length is F = () dt duD CuuDC MD 4 5.0 2 π ρρ + (3...) Where, C M and C D are the hydrodynamic inertia and drag coefficients, ρ = Water density, D = Pile diameter, u = Water velocity dt du = water acceleration The expression for the horizontal components of the velocity and acceleration...

  3. Investigation on Requirements of Robotic Platforms to Teach Social Skills to Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Chris; Kuester, Deitra; Sheehan, Mark; Dhanya, Sneha

    This paper reports on some of the robotic platforms used in the project AUROSO which investigates the use of robots as educationally useful interventions to improve social interactions for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Our approach to treatment uses an educational intervention based on Socially Assistive Robotics (SAR), the DIR/Floortime intervention model and social script/stories. Requirements are established and a variety of robotic models/platforms were investigated as to the feasibility of an economical, practical and efficient means of helping teach social skills to individuals with ASD for use by teachers, families, service providers and other community organizations.

  4. Microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip Platforms: Requirements, Characteristics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, D.; Haeberle, S.; Roth, G.; von Stetten, F.; Zengerle, R.

    This review summarizes recent developments in microfluidic platform approaches. In contrast to isolated application-specific solutions, a microfluidic platform provides a set of fluidic unit operations, which are designed for easy combination within a well-defined fabrication technology. This allows the implementation of different application-specific (bio-) chemical processes, automated by microfluidic process integration [1]. A brief introduction into technical advances, major market segments and promising applications is followed by a detailed characterization of different microfluidic platforms, comprising a short definition, the functional principle, microfluidic unit operations, application examples as well as strengths and limitations. The microfluidic platforms in focus are lateral flow tests, linear actuated devices, pressure driven laminar flow, microfluidic large scale integration, segmented flow microfluidics, centrifugal microfluidics, electro-kinetics, electrowetting, surface acoustic waves, and systems for massively parallel analysis. The review concludes with the attempt to provide a selection scheme for microfluidic platforms which is based on their characteristics according to key requirements of different applications and market segments. Applied selection criteria comprise portability, costs of instrument and disposable, sample throughput, number of parameters per sample, reagent consumption, precision, diversity of microfluidic unit operations and the flexibility in programming different liquid handling protocols.

  5. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    This report is part of the research project “The competitive challenges and strategic development possibilities for The Blue Denmark”, which was launched in 2014. The project is funded by the Danish Maritime Fund and carried out by researchers at CBS Maritime which is a Business in Society Platform...... with companies in the maritime sector. This report “Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics – Business strategies in the offshore supply industry” is the second report in mapping project D. It examines the markets and business strategies of various suppliers and furthermore presents an analysis of the challenges...... at Copenhagen Business School with a focus on value creation in the maritime industries. The project embraces various maritime segments from shipping and offshore to ports and suppliers. The research questions for the individual projects have been formulated by researchers at CBS Maritime in cooperation...

  6. Task 1: Whole-body concentrations of elements in kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus), kelp rockfish (Sebastes atrovirens), and Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from offshore oil platforms and natural areas in the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Milton S.

    2009-01-01

    Resource managers are concerned that offshore oil platforms in the Southern California Bight may be contributing to environmental contaminants accumulated by marine fishes. To examine this possibility, 18 kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus), 80 kelp rockfish (Sebastes atrovirens), and 98 Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) were collected from five offshore oil platforms and 10 natural areas during 2005-2006 for whole-body analysis of 63 elements. The natural areas, which served as reference sites, were assumed to be relatively uninfluenced by contaminants originating from platforms. Forty-two elements were excluded from statistical comparisons for one of three reasons: they consisted of major cations that were unlikely to accumulate to potentially toxic concentrations under ambient exposure conditions; they were not detected by the analytical procedures; or they were detected at concentrations too low to yield reliable quantitative measurements. The remaining 21 elements consisted of aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, nickel, rubidium, selenium, strontium, tin, titanium, vanadium, and zinc. Statistical comparisons of these 21 elements indicated that none consistently exhibited higher concentrations at oil platforms than at natural areas. Eight comparisons yielded significant interaction effects between total length (TL) of the fish and the two habitat types (oil platforms and natural areas). This indicated that relations between certain elemental concentrations (i.e., copper, rubidium, selenium, tin, titanium, and vanadium) and habitat type varied by TL of affected fish species. To better understand these interactions, we examined elemental concentrations in very small and very large individuals of affected species. Although significant interactions were detected for rubidium, tin, and selenium in kelp rockfish, the concentrations of these elements did not differ significantly between

  7. The SPOT Project (Potentially Triggerable Offshore Seismicity and Tsunamis): a First Appraisal of the Possible Impact of Oil and Gas Platforms on the Seismic and Tsunami Risks along the Italian Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, R.; Di Bucci, D.; Antoncecchi, I.; Ciccone, F.; Teofilo, G.; Argnani, A.; Rovere, M.; Ligi, M.; Coltelli, M.; Lorito, S.; Borzi, B.; Germagnoli, F.; Di Ludovico, M.; Lignola, G. P.; Prota, A.

    2017-12-01

    The majority of oil and gas production in Europe takes place offshore and Italy is one of the European countries with the longest coastlines facing these operations. Given the generally growing energy demand, and the increasing concern toward human-driven hazards, scientists are called to provide background information for helping ensure a safe energy supply. We here present the activities of the project SPOT, which is aimed to help Italian authorities comply with the application of the Safety of Offshore Oil and Gas Operations European Directive (2013/30/EU) and the ensuing Italian codes. We carry out a reconstruction of offshore geological structures to assess the existence of potentially seismogenic faults in the surroundings of off-shore platforms. This study is a propaedeutic step for the assessment of potentially triggered seismicity connected with operations on such platforms. The descriptive parameters (3D geometry and behavior) of the identified faults will be used to estimate their natural earthquake rates. The impact of these natural earthquakes along the coasts will then be modeled in terms of expected ground shaking and tsunamis. The tsunamis potentially generated by submarine landslides induced by earthquake shaking will also be analyzed. In turn, these models will be used to estimate potential human and economic losses in a multi-hazard approach to risk assessment. Wherever the combined earthquake and tsunami modeling indicates a relevant impact along the coasts, a more detailed analysis will be carried out, also involving the operators of the related platforms, to perform specific models which also take into account production and/or storage data. Activities with a consolidated background, such as those concerning the impact scenarios of earthquakes, and more innovative activities, such as those dedicated to build up the first vulnerability/fragility curves related to tsunamis for the Italian building stock, will be integrated within the project

  8. Fresh water generators onboard a floating platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.K.; Verma, R.K.; Misra, B.M.; Sadhulkan, H.K.

    1997-01-01

    A dependable supply of fresh water is essential for any ocean going vessel. The operating and maintenance personnel on offshore platforms and marine structures also require a constant and regular supply of fresh water to meet their essential daily needs. A seawater thermal desalination unit onboard delivers good quality fresh water from seawater. The desalination units developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) suitable for ocean going vessels and offshore platforms have been discussed. Design considerations of such units with reference to floating platforms and corrosive environments have been presented. The feasibility of coupling a low temperature vacuum evaporation (LTVE) desalination plant suitable for an onboard floating platform to a PHWR nuclear power plant has also been discussed. (author). 1 ref., 3 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Site selection for offshore wind farms along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Vidya, P.J.; Modi, P.; JayaKumar, S.

    This study deals with locating the potential sites for offshore wind farms and also deals with feasibility of installing offshore wind farms through scientific examination of the requirements along the coast of India Offshore wind energy is almost...

  10. Emergency response in the Newfoundland offshore industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, J. [Cormorant Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation reviewed current offshore oil activities with respect to safety issues regarding year-round marine operations in a harsh environment. Considerable logistics support is required for all offshore activities, including seismic and geotechnical surveys; exploration and production drilling; well testing; subsea construction; on-site production; and, delivery to market. Response to an offshore emergency must address the urgency of the incident along with stakeholder concerns. This presentation described the different types of emergencies and addressed issues regarding contingency planning; preventative measures; response philosophy; response scope; response at site; emergency management; communications links; and, oil spill response. The following current operations were highlighted: ExxonMobil's production drilling from the gravity-based concrete platform at Hibernia; Petro-Canada's production drilling at the Terra Nova FPSO; Husky Energy's production drilling at White Rose; and Chevron Canada's exploration drilling at the Orphan Basin. It was noted that in an emergency situation, the focus is on the welfare of offshore personnel. On an average day, the total offshore population is in the order of 1000 workers, all registered in the Personnel Logistics System which is updated with the departure of every helicopter from St. John's, Newfoundland or from the offshore platform. It is possible to prepare for foreseeable emergency incidents such as fire, explosion or gas leaks; spills to the marine environment; structural damage or collisions; persons lost at sea; helicopter or support vessel accidents; vessel sinking; sabotage; serious injuries or loss of life; severe ice events; and, loss of well control. The establishment of permanent safety zones at the Hibernia, White Rose and Terra Nova production fields are among the preventative measures, along with standby vessels that provide a rescue service for offshore installations

  11. Offshoring Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...... of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform...... technical-rational calculation of the most efficient organisation of activities across national borders, but it is rather specific to the parent companies’ national contexts....

  12. Methodology for evaluation of the stability of electric systems of offshore oil platforms in interconnected operations; Metodologia para a avaliacao dos sistemas eletricos das plataformas de petroleo offshore em operacao interligada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Dalmo Junior; Mendes, Pedro Paulo de Carvalho [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The electric system of the platforms usually operates in an isolated way, requesting therefore a redundancy in the generating units so that a can have a reliable and uninterrupted system of their loads. A way to improve the quality in operation in terms of safety, reliability and economy can be the connection of the platforms of petroleum that are close, since it is viable. The objective of this work is to show the methodology for the stability study of the electric system in interlinked operation in way to detail the data of the equipment that are necessary, as: One line Diagram; Transmission lines; Transformers; Power system compensator; Generating; Speed regulators; Voltage regulators; Turbines and other. Another focus of the work is to show some control models and regulation of the electric system to maintain it stable and to show models for the interconnection of two or more platforms. (author)

  13. Offshore concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamas Pardo, M.; Carral Couce, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    In the offshore industry there are two possible materials for the construction of the hull of a structure; the steel and concrete, with the first one widely used until now, as in the rest of the shiphuidling industry of merchant ships, warships, etc. Materials such as aluminum, GRP or timber areused in small units with lengths lower than 100 m, and in less adverse conditions than in the offshore industry. Nevertheless, some ships/barges have been built of concrete in the past, but have been rather isolated cases which have not changed the practice in the industry. In the First and Second World War were built by the scarcity of materials, while the series of barges by Alfred A. Yee was a rare exception. Other units were also made in concrete, but almost anecdotal. Still, the behaviour of these concrete structures, especially in terms of maintenance, has been excellent. Therefore, the fact that the concrete has not had an adequate reception so far in shipbuilding, does not mean that in will not be the material best suited for the offshore industry in the future. The extra displacement and associated fuel costs in concrete ships have been found prohibitive in the past. But the loss of mobility of a concrete hull in relation to a steel hull can be perfectly offset by the advantages offered by the concrete, as the shipping and offshore industry have very different priorities. One of the main differences in these priorities is in terms of maintenance and resistance to fatigue, precisely where the concrete performs better. ships can easily be dry docked for maintenance and repair, while in the offshore platforms these works have to be done in situ so maintenance and fatigue are crucial to them. Besides these, the concrete has other advantages according to findings of several studies. And although they are interested in the conclusions that the makes as they came from people in the concrete industry, the fact that in recent years concrete offshore unit shave been built

  14. Offshore Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Dovgan, Olesya

    While the extant literature on offshore outsourcing deals with this operation mode in isolation, and typically with a focus on cost effects, we address the broader question of how companies choose and use outsourcing as part of foreign operation mode development and as a contributor to internatio...... that outsourcing can be used proactively to promote expanded international operations.......While the extant literature on offshore outsourcing deals with this operation mode in isolation, and typically with a focus on cost effects, we address the broader question of how companies choose and use outsourcing as part of foreign operation mode development and as a contributor...

  15. Offshore Wind Turbine Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten; Hansen, Erik Asp; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    Current offshore wind turbine design methods have matured to a 1st generation state, manifested in the draft of a possible standard, IEC 61400-3 (2005). It is now time to investigate the possibilities of improving existing methods. To do so in an efficient manner a clear identification of the most...... important uncertainty drivers specific for offshore wind turbine design loads is required. Describing the initial efforts in a Danish research project, the paper points to focal points for research and development. These are mainly: soil-structure interaction, improved modelling of wave loads from deep...

  16. Optimization of surface network and platform location using a next generation reservoir simulator coupled with an integrated asset optimizer application to an offshore deep water oil field in Brazil; Otimizacao de redes de superficie e locacao da plataforma atraves do acoplamento de um simulador de reservatorios de nova geracao e um otmizador global de ativo: aplicacao em um campo offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campozana, Fernando P.; Almeida, Renato L. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Madeira, Marcelo G.; Sousa, Sergio H.G. de; Spinola, Marcio [Halliburton Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    To design, modify, and expand surface facilities is a multidisciplinary task which involves substantial financial resources. It can take months or years to complete, depending on the size and level of detail of the project. Nowadays, the use of Next Generation Reservoir Simulators (NGRS) is the most sophisticated and reliable way of obtaining field performance evaluation since they can couple surface and subsurface equations, thus eliminating the need of lengthy multiphase flow tables. Furthermore, coupling a NGRS with an optimizer is the best way to accomplish a large number of simulation runs on the search for optimized solutions when facilities are being modified and/or expanded. The suggested workflow is applied to a synthetic field which reproduces typical Brazilian offshore deep water scenarios. Hundreds of coupled simulation runs were performed and the results show that it is possible to find optimal diameters for the production lines as well as the ideal location for the production / injection platform. (author)

  17. The fatigue and corrosion fatigue behavior of welded Inconel 625 alloy employed in off-shore platforms; Avaliacao do comportamento a fadiga e a corrosao-fadiga de juntas soldadas da liga Inconel 625 testada para uso em plaaformas off-shore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfingstag, M.E.; Schroeder, R.M.; Mueller, I.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LAPEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia. Lab. de Pesquisa em Corrosao], e-mail: maiquel10@walla.com

    2006-07-01

    The fatigue and corrosion fatigue behavior of welded Inconel 625 employed live like risers in off-shore platforms was studied. These risers may be employed integrally of this alloy, or combined with API 52 X60 steel in the form of 'Clads'. One of the most susceptible points in .these structures is the circumferential weld that joint the pipes together. In these regions, stresses and defects are generated by the welding process, and these material remind in contact with aggressive species like, chlorides and Co{sub 2} . Polarization curves, slow strain rate fatigue and corrosion fatigue tests were used to characterize the Inconel alloy behavior. In the welded deposit condition, this alloy shows an excellent resistance corrosion and a good fatigue and corrosion-fatigue behavior.(author)

  18. Corrosion protection of Arctic offshore structures: Final report. [Effects of temperature and salinity on required cathodic protection current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Rogers, J.C.; Feyk, C.; Theuveny, B.

    1985-10-01

    Results are presented for a research program on corrosion prevention for Arctic offshore structures which are in contact with sea ice for a significant portion of the year. The electrical method most adaptable for structure protection involves the injection of impressed current from several remote anodes buried just beneath the sea floor. The electrical resistivity of annual sea ice as a function of temperature and salinity is presented. Details of the interface layers formed between sea ice and steel in the presence of current injection are shown. A computer program was developed to enable the calculation of protective current density into the structure, in the presence of ice rubble and ridges around the structure. The program and the results of an example calculation are given for a caisson- retained island structure. 81 refs., 103 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Dutch offshore suppliers in confident mood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beudel, M.

    1998-01-01

    A series of linked articles discusses the current state of the Netherland's offshore industry. Reduced taxes, and availability of exploration licenses has meant that explorers and producers are drawn to the small size, but frequent yield explorations on Holland's continental shelf. The excellent operation record of Rotterdam's Verolme Botlek yard; for repair and maintenance of offshore platforms and associated plant, is explored as the facility plans to diversify into newbuilding. The construction of an offshore basin designed for the hydrodynamic testing of offshore plant intended for deepwater use is described. The Netherlands maritime research institute (Marin) aims to stay at the forefront of offshore research and development with this new facility. Other articles cover pipe tensioning, new large linear winches and innovations in offshore drilling and production. (UK)

  20. Offshore atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

  1. Pricing offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, Andrew C.; Kempton, Willett; Smith, Aaron P.; Musial, Walt; Firestone, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Offshore wind offers a very large clean power resource, but electricity from the first US offshore wind contracts is costlier than current regional wholesale electricity prices. To better understand the factors that drive these costs, we develop a pro-forma cash flow model to calculate two results: the levelized cost of energy, and the breakeven price required for financial viability. We then determine input values based on our analysis of capital markets and of 35 operating and planned projects in Europe, China, and the United States. The model is run for a range of inputs appropriate to US policies, electricity markets, and capital markets to assess how changes in policy incentives, project inputs, and financial structure affect the breakeven price of offshore wind power. The model and documentation are made publicly available. - Highlights: → We calculate the Breakeven Price (BP) required to deploy offshore wind plants. → We determine values for cost drivers and review incentives structures in the US. → We develop 3 scenarios using today's technology but varying in industry experience. → BP differs widely by Cost Scenario; relative policy effectiveness varies by stage. → The low-range BP is below regional market values in the Northeast United States.

  2. Application of the Aero-Hydro-Elastic Model, HAWC2-WAMIT, to Offshore Data from Floating Power Plants Hybrid Wind- and Wave-Energy Test Platform, P37

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellew, Sarah; Yde, Anders; Verelst, David Robert

    2014-01-01

    numerical models, which can combine the aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, structural exibility and mooring components. Very little oshore data exists, however, in order to validate these numerical models. Floating Power Plant are the developers of a oating, hybrid wind- and wave-energy device. The device uses...... the pitching wave energy devices, not only to increase and smooth the power output from the platform, but also to take the energy from the waves in a controlled manner, resulting in a stable platform for the wind turbine and a safe harbour for O&M. They are currently developing the nal design for their rst...... full-scale prototype, the P80, which has a width of 80 m. As part of the development, Floating Power Plant have completed 4 oshore test-phases (totalling over 2 years oshore operation) on a 37 m wide scaled test device, the P37. This paper focuses on the comparison of one of the leading numerical...

  3. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Platform Requirements - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, Justin David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frazier, Christopher Rawls [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bandlow, Alisa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is in Phase 3 Sustainment of development of a prototype tool, currently referred to as the Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype (CCOTP), under the direction of OSD Program Support. CCOT-P is intended to help provide senior Department of Defense (DoD) leaders with comprehensive insight into the global availability, readiness and capabilities of the Total Force Mix. The CCOT-P will allow senior decision makers to quickly and accurately assess the impacts, risks and mitigating strategies for proposed changes to force/capabilities assignments, apportionments and allocations options, focusing specifically on contingency contractor planning. During Phase 2 of the program, conducted during fiscal year 2012, Sandia developed an electronic storyboard prototype of the Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool that can be used for communication with senior decision makers and other Operational Contract Support (OCS) stakeholders. Phase 3 used feedback from demonstrations of the electronic storyboard prototype to develop an engineering prototype for planners to evaluate. Sandia worked with the DoD and Joint Chiefs of Staff strategic planning community to get feedback and input to ensure that the engineering prototype was developed to closely align with future planning needs. The intended deployment environment was also a key consideration as this prototype was developed. Initial release of the engineering prototype was done on servers at Sandia in the middle of Phase 3. In 2013, the tool was installed on a production pilot server managed by the OUSD(AT&L) eBusiness Center. The purpose of this document is to specify the CCOT-P engineering prototype platform requirements as of May 2016. Sandia developed the CCOT-P engineering prototype using common technologies to minimize the likelihood of deployment issues. CCOT-P engineering prototype was architected and designed to be as independent as possible of the major deployment

  4. Offshore system for integration of the wind energy; Sistema offshore para integracao de energia eolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Jan de [3E, Brussels (Belgium); Tambke, Jens [Universidade de Oldemburg (Germany). ForWind; Voelker, J. [Dena - Agencia Alema de Energia (Germany); Michalowska-Knap, Katarzyna [Instituto de Energia Renovavel (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The Offshore Grid project aims to analyze the conditions required for the development of an offshore transmission network to integrate renewable energy (wind) to the national electrical systems, securely and efficiently. Regulatory aspects, technical, economic and political are considered, that will help the various players in the industry to have a common view on the offshore power grids in Europe.

  5. Accessing offshoring advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Motika, Agnes; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    . Assuming that different levels of synergy may exist between particular offshoring strategic decisions (choosing offshore outsourcing or captive offshoring and the type of function) and different offshoring advantages, this work advocates that the actual fact of realization of certain offshoring advantages...

  6. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 15.520 Section 15.520... REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels § 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) The requirements in this section for mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) supplement other requirements in this...

  7. Topologies of multiterminal HVDC-VSC transmission for large offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya UPC, Av. Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2. 08028 Barcelona (Spain); IREC Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, Barcelona (Spain); Liang, Jun; Ekanayake, Janaka; King, Rosemary; Jenkins, Nicholas [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Topologies of multiterminal HVDC-VSC transmission systems for large offshore wind farms are investigated. System requirements for multiterminal HVDC are described, particularly the maximum power loss allowed in the event of a fault. Alternative control schemes and HVDC circuit topologies are reviewed, including the need for HVDC circuit breakers. Various topologies are analyzed and compared according to a number of criteria: number and capacity of HVDC circuits, number of HVDC circuit breakers, maximum power loss, flexibility, redundancy, lines utilization, need for offshore switching platforms and fast communications. (author)

  8. The technical standard IBAMA (NT01/11) and its applications in waste water treatment in offshore platforms; A NT/ 01/11 do IBAMA e suas aplicacoes no tratamento de efluentes nas plataformas offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paravidino, Thadeu Crespo; Miocque, Andre; Oliveira, Cristiane Lopes de [Vicel Comercio e Industria e Servico Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims to present the technical standard IBAMA (NT01/11) as it applies to wastewater treatment projects in maritime exploration and production of oil and gas, and the solutions proposed by the company VICEL to meet with this standard and the other existing laws in force in Brazil. To meet these objectives, the paper covers the following topics: environmental legislation applicable to maritime enterprises of exploration and production of oil and gas operating in Brazil: concepts and definitions of MARPOL and CONAMA Resolution 357 (amended by CONAMA 430), Law 9966/2000 and NT01/11; PCP - Pollution Control Project required by IBAMA; the solutions proposed by VICEL - Gray Water Policy Management and Treatment System (GWTS). Throughout its development, this paper presents in detail the analysis of the gray water effluents generated on board of a drilling rig, and the results obtained with the installation of a prototype system for treating gray water (GWTS). Finally, this paper demonstrates that IBAMA NT01/11 regulation is intended to guide and create means for monitoring all maritime enterprises of exploration and production of oil and gas operating in Brazil, in order to promote the reduction of the pollution caused by their operation (ecological footprint), concludes as compulsory the treatment for the gray water generated on board, and presents VICEL solutions for the implementation of a waste management policy and the installation of a Gray Water Treatment System (GWTS). (author)

  9. Estimation of cost development of offshore wind energy in the Netherlands and required governmental contribution to realize 6,000 MW in 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, H.J.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.

    2004-04-01

    The development of the cost of the production of electricity from offshore wind sources is explored. These cost developments are used to estimate the cost of the Dutch Government to fulfil its self-set target of 6,000 MW offshore wind energy capacity in 2020 [nl

  10. Assessing Fatigue and Ultimate Load Uncertainty in Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Due to Varying Simulation Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Haid, L.; Matha, D.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2013-07-01

    With the push towards siting wind turbines farther offshore due to higher wind quality and less visibility, floating offshore wind turbines, which can be located in deep water, are becoming an economically attractive option. The International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) 61400-3 design standard covers fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines, but there are a number of new research questions that need to be answered to modify these standards so that they are applicable to floating wind turbines. One issue is the appropriate simulation length needed for floating turbines. This paper will discuss the results from a study assessing the impact of simulation length on the ultimate and fatigue loads of the structure, and will address uncertainties associated with changing the simulation length for the analyzed floating platform. Recommendations of required simulation length based on load uncertainty will be made and compared to current simulation length requirements.

  11. OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Subsystem Dynamic Interaction Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Robert [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Manassas, VA (United States); Halkyard, John [John Halkyard and Associates, Houston, TX (United States); Johnson, Peter [BMT Scientific Marine Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Shi, Shan [Houston Offshore Engineering, Houston, TX (United States); Marinho, Thiago [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). LabOceano

    2014-05-09

    A commercial floating 100-megawatt (MW) ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plant will require a cold water pipe (CWP) with a diameter of 10-meter (m) and length of up to 1,000 m. The mass of the cold water pipe, including entrained water, can exceed the mass of the platform supporting it. The offshore industry uses software-modeling tools to develop platform and riser (pipe) designs to survive the offshore environment. These tools are typically validated by scale model tests in facilities able to replicate real at-sea meteorological and ocean (metocean) conditions to provide the understanding and confidence to proceed to final design and full-scale fabrication. However, today’s offshore platforms (similar to and usually larger than those needed for OTEC applications) incorporate risers (or pipes) with diameters well under one meter. Secondly, the preferred construction method for large diameter OTEC CWPs is the use of composite materials, primarily a form of fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP). The use of these material results in relatively low pipe stiffness and large strains compared to steel construction. These factors suggest the need for further validation of offshore industry software tools. The purpose of this project was to validate the ability to model numerically the dynamic interaction between a large cold water-filled fiberglass pipe and a floating OTEC platform excited by metocean weather conditions using measurements from a scale model tested in an ocean basin test facility.

  12. Offshore concrete structures; Estructuras Offshore (mar adentro) de Hormigon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamas Pardo, M.; Carral Couce, L. M.

    2011-07-01

    In the offshore industry there are two possible materials for the construction of the hull of a structure; the steel and concrete, with the first one widely used until now, as in the rest of the shipbuilding industry of merchant ships, warships, etc. Materials such as aluminum, GRP or timber areused in small units with lengths lower than 100 m, and in less adverse conditions than in the offshore industry. Nevertheless, some ships/barges have been built of concrete in the past, but have been rather isolated cases which have not changed the practice in the industry. In the First and Second World War were built by the scarcity of materials, while the series of barges by Alfred A. Yee was a rare exception. Other units were also made in concrete, but almost anecdotal. Still, the behaviour of these concrete structures, especially in terms of maintenance, has been excellent. Therefore, the fact that the concrete has not had an adequate reception so far in shipbuilding, does not mean that in will not be the material best suited for the offshore industry in the future. The extra displacement and associated fuel costs in concrete ships have been found prohibitive in the past. But the loss of mobility of a concrete hull in relation to a steel hull can be perfectly offset by the advantages offered by the concrete, as the shipping and offshore industry have very different priorities. One of the main differences in these priorities is in terms of maintenance and resistance to fatigue, precisely where the concrete performs better. ships can easily be dry docked for maintenance and repair, while in the offshore platforms these works have to be done in situ so maintenance and fatigue are crucial to them. Besides these, the concrete has other advantages according to findings of several studies. And although they are interested in the conclusions that the makes as they came from people in the concrete industry, the fact that in recent years concrete offshore unit shave been built

  13. Preliminary Design of a Multi-Column TLP Foundation for a 5-MW Offshore Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping He

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, floating wind turbines (FWTs may be the more economical and suitable systems with which to exploit offshore wind energy in deep waters. Among the various types of floating foundations for offshore wind farms, a tension leg platform (TLP foundation can provide a relatively stable platform for currently available offshore wind turbines without requiring major modifications. In this study, a new multi-column TLP foundation (WindStar TLP was developed for the NREL 5-MW offshore wind turbine according to site-specific environmental conditions, which are the same as the OC3-Hywind (NREL conditions. The general arrangement, main structure and mooring system were also designed and investigated through hydrodynamic and natural frequency analyses. The complete system avoids resonance through the rotor excitations. An aero-hydro-servo-elastic coupled analysis was carried out in the time domain with the numerical tool FAST. Statistics of the key parameters were obtained and analysed and comparisons to MIT/NREL TLP are made. As a result, the design requirements were shown to be satisfied, and the proposed WindStar TLP was shown to have favourable motion characteristics under extreme wind and wave conditions with a lighter and smaller structure. The new concept holds great potential for further development.

  14. Wave run-up on offshore wind turbine foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baden, Elisabeth; Skourup, Jesper; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2012-01-01

    Wave run-up on appurtenances like boat landings, ladders, platforms and J-tubes of Offshore Wind Turbine foundations have in some cases caused severe and costly damage to these installations. A well-known example of large run-up was registered at the foundations of Horns Reef Offshore Wind Farm, ...

  15. Lightweight Efficient Offshore Fenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1996-01-01

    At offshore platforms the purpose of fenders is to protect the oil-risers against minor accidental collisions from supply vessels.Normally the fender is designed by use of thin-walled tubes. However, the tube itself is not normally capable of resisting the impact load from of the boat. Therefore...... alternative designs are searched for the fender.Today, an often-used improvement of the fender is to fill it with grout or concrete. However, this improvement is not optimal since the fillingsincrease the weight of the finder beyond the crane capacity of the platform. This causes the need of crane boats...... for installation of the fender and eventually for removing it if new oil-risers are to be installed. The use of crane oats is expensive and weather dependent.Having these effects in mind a study of the energy absorption in the fender system, i.e. the fender itself and the frame, is needed for a furtherdevelopment...

  16. Platform decommissioning costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, David

    1998-01-01

    There are over 6500 platforms worldwide contributing to the offshore oil and gas production industry. In the North Sea there are around 500 platforms in place. There are many factors to be considered in planning for platform decommissioning and the evaluation of options for removal and disposal. The environmental impact, technical feasibility, safety and cost factors all have to be considered. This presentation considers what information is available about the overall decommissioning costs for the North Sea and the costs of different removal and disposal options for individual platforms. 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Decommissioning of offshore oil and gas installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, M.D.; Marks, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    A task facing the offshore oil and gas industry is the removal of about 7000 platforms. In this chapter, the legal framework for offshore platform decommissioning is first discussed. The various phases of abandonment are then described. The first and most critical of these is the planning phase which should be initiated years in advance when depletion plans for a field are recommended. Seven discrete activities are identified in the abandonment process itself and briefly discussed. These are: the permanent plugging and abandonment of non-productive well bores; pre-abandonment surveys and data gathering to gain knowledge about the platform and its condition; decommissioning; structure removal; disposal, recycle or reuse of platform components on or off shore; site clearance. (13 figures; 13 references) (UK)

  18. Dynamic analysis and design of offshore structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekaran, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This book  attempts to provide readers with an overall idea of various types of offshore platform geometries. It covers the various environmental loads encountered by these structures, a detailed description of the fundamentals of structural dynamics in a class-room style, estimate of damping in offshore structures and their applications in the preliminary analysis and design. Basic concepts of structural dynamics are emphasized through simple illustrative examples and exercises. Design methodologies and guidelines, which are FORM based concepts are explained through a few applied example structures. Each chapter also has tutorials and exercises for self-learning. A dedicated chapter on stochastic dynamics will help the students to extend the basic concepts of structural dynamics to this advanced domain of research. Hydrodynamic response of offshore structures with perforated members is one of the recent research applications, which is found to be one of the effective manner of retrofitting offshore structur...

  19. Damage Detection in an Offshore Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.

    The structural integrity of a multi-pile offshore platform is investigated by using a vibration based damage detection scheme. Changes in structural integrity are assumed to be reflected in the modal parameters estimated from only output data using an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model....... By use of the estimates of the modal parameters and their corresponding variances a probability based damage indicator is formulated. This approach indicates, that since the construction of the platform, minor structural changes have taken place....

  20. Damage Detection in an Offshore Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Palle

    1995-01-01

    The structural integrity of a multi-pile offshore platform is investigated by using a vibration based damage detection scheme. Changes in structural integrity are assumed to be reflected in the modal parameters estimated from only output data using an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model....... By use of the estimates of the modal parameters and their corresponding variances a probability based damage indicator is formulated. This approach indicates, that since the construction of the platform, minor structural changes have taken place....

  1. Modeling and analysis of offshore jacket platform

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mohan, P.; Sidhaarth, K.R.A.; SanilKumar, V.

    analysis is also able to replicate the details of observed behavior of the designed structure. Based on the axial tension/compression and the bending stresses obtained through simulation, the tubular members are designed and the code unity check is done...

  2. Catamaran type semisubmersible platform for offshore drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouget, G; Chevallier, J; Hampton, G

    1988-06-10

    A semi-submersible oil rig which allows the vertical storage of drilling tubes and drill pipes is presented. The structure which links the floaters to the bridge consists of hollow columns forming caissons and containing means for storing tubes.

  3. Requirements for data integration platforms in biomedical research networks: a reference model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzinger, Matthias; Knaup, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research networks need to integrate research data among their members and with external partners. To support such data sharing activities, an adequate information technology infrastructure is necessary. To facilitate the establishment of such an infrastructure, we developed a reference model for the requirements. The reference model consists of five reference goals and 15 reference requirements. Using the Unified Modeling Language, the goals and requirements are set into relation to each other. In addition, all goals and requirements are described textually in tables. This reference model can be used by research networks as a basis for a resource efficient acquisition of their project specific requirements. Furthermore, a concrete instance of the reference model is described for a research network on liver cancer. The reference model is transferred into a requirements model of the specific network. Based on this concrete requirements model, a service-oriented information technology architecture is derived and also described in this paper.

  4. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 111.105-33 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) Applicability. This section applies to each mobile offshore drilling unit. (b) Definitions. As used in this...

  5. Fishing activity near offshore pipelines, 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    On the North Sea bottom lie numerous pipelines to link oil- or gas offshore drilling units, - platforms and processing stations on land. Although pipeline tubes are coated and covered with protective layers, the pipelines risk being damaged through man-made hazards like anchor dropping and fishing

  6. Overall Optimization for Offshore Wind Farm Electrical System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong

    2017-01-01

    Based on particle swarm optimization (PSO), an optimization platform for offshore wind farm electrical system (OWFES) is proposed in this paper, where the main components of an offshore wind farm and key technical constraints are considered as input parameters. The offshore wind farm electrical...... system is optimized in accordance with initial investment by considering three aspects: the number and siting of offshore substations (OS), the cable connection layout of both collection system (CS) and transmission system (TS) as well as the selection of electrical components in terms of voltage level...... that save 3.01% total cost compared with the industrial layout, and can be a useful tool for OWFES design and evaluation....

  7. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

    2010-07-01

    New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures

  8. Offshore wind energy developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services....

  9. Offshoring and International Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, offshoring has become an established business practice. Yet it is still more common to offshore less advanced tasks compared with offshoring more advanced tasks, i.e., tasks closer to the core activities of the firm. The latter is a new phenomenon which raises many new iss...

  10. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-01-01

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  11. Nod2 is required for antigen-specific humoral responses against antigens orally delivered using a recombinant Lactobacillus vaccine platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A Bumgardner

    Full Text Available Safe and efficacious orally-delivered mucosal vaccine platforms are desperately needed to combat the plethora of mucosally transmitted pathogens. Lactobacillus spp. have emerged as attractive candidates to meet this need and are known to activate the host innate immune response in a species- and strain-specific manner. For selected bacterial isolates and mutants, we investigated the role of key innate immune pathways required for induction of innate and subsequent adaptive immune responses. Co-culture of murine macrophages with L. gasseri (strain NCK1785, L. acidophilus (strain NCFM, or NCFM-derived mutants-NCK2025 and NCK2031-elicited an M2b-like phenotype associated with TH2 skewing and immune regulatory function. For NCFM, this M2b phenotype was dependent on expression of lipoteichoic acid and S layer proteins. Through the use of macrophage genetic knockouts, we identified Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2, the cytosolic nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2 receptor, and the inflammasome-associated caspase-1 as contributors to macrophage activation, with NOD2 cooperating with caspase-1 to induce inflammasome derived interleukin (IL-1β in a pyroptosis-independent fashion. Finally, utilizing an NCFM-based mucosal vaccine platform with surface expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 Gag or membrane proximal external region (MPER, we demonstrated that NOD2 signaling is required for antigen-specific mucosal and systemic humoral responses. We show that lactobacilli differentially utilize innate immune pathways and highlight NOD2 as a key mediator of macrophage function and antigen-specific humoral responses to a Lactobacillus acidophilus mucosal vaccine platform.

  12. From Offshoring to Backshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of offshoring over time. The paper employs qualitative methodology and on the basis of two case studies of Danish companies, it develops a framework conceptualizing the stages of offshoring and highlights the factors driving the transition...... between these stages. The framework challenges the linear nature of offshoring and proposes the existence of ‘the pendulum effect’. The pendulum effect suggests that the modes of offshoring (i.e. captive and non-captive) and geographies of offshoring (i.e. home and abroad) are not static; rather...

  13. OpenICE medical device interoperability platform overview and requirement analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, David; Plourde, Jeffrey; Goldman, Julian M

    2018-02-23

    We give an overview of OpenICE, an open source implementation of the ASTM standard F2761 for the Integrated Clinical Environment (ICE) that leverages medical device interoperability, together with an analysis of the clinical and non-functional requirements and community process that inspired its design.

  14. Offshore wind transport and installation vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The initial objective of the project was to complete a feasibility study to determine the viability of an innovative transportation vessel to be deployed in the installation of offshore wind farms. This included the feasibility of providing a stable-working platform that can be used in harsh offshore environments. A study of current installation contractors and their installation equipment was used to provide a preliminary specification for the installation vessel. A typical barge was selected and a number of hydrodynamic analyses were carried out in order to establish it's on course and operational stability. The analysis proved the stability of the vessel during operation was critical and that in order to utilise the crane's full potential a stabilisation system must be employed. The main aim of the work to date was to establish whether it was feasible to use a stabilisation system on the installation vessel. The spud leg FEED study established that it was feasible to use spud legs to stabilise the vessel. In order to achieve the degree of stability required it is necessary to lift the vessel completely out of the water. This was not the original aim of the study but due to the external loads on the hull it was the only viable option. Lifting the vessel out of the water results in the legs and leg casings becoming very large. This has a number of consequences for the final design. Due to large loads on the legs spud cans must be used to avoid bottom penetration, the spud cans increase the draft of the vessel by 2m. The large loads require larger winches and more reeving to be used, this results in larger pumps and motors, all of which have to be housed. The stabilisation system has been proved to be feasible for a large installation vessel, the cost and physical size are however more excessive than first anticipated. (Author)

  15. RAMSI management model and evaluation criteria for Nordic offshore wind asset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiusanen, R.; Jaennes, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Liyanage, J. P. [Univ. of Stavanger, Center for Industrial Asset Management (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    The offshore wind energy sector is in the early stages of development, but it is growing fast. Due to the European Union's renewable-energy and climate goals along with national legislation, the offshore wind sector will develop strongly over the coming years in Europe. In the offshore wind energy sector, there are many different wind-turbine designs ranging from traditional mono pile structures to floating platforms, depending on the water depth. Today, most offshore turbines are based on onshore turbine designs, and turbine technology continues to develop incrementally. At the same time, there is strong demand in the market for new, innovative designs for offshore wind turbines whose main focus is reliability and cost efficiency. For floating offshore wind turbine designs, there may be new types of uncertainty and system risks compared with onshore wind turbines. Wind turbines in cold climates, such as those experienced in the Nordic countries, may be exposed to extreme conditions, such as formation of ice or very low temperatures that are outside the design limits of standard wind turbines. In the offshore wind energy sector, specification, implementation and verification of the so-called R&M's (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety and Inspect ability) requirements during development work are important for companies delivering wind turbines, from the perspective of system integrity. Decisions made before the formal design phase strongly determine the costs and benefits gained during the whole life cycle of a wind turbine. The benefits of implementing the R&M's program include support with investment decisions, cost management, improved management of resource requirements, systematic support with development and implementation of products, and integration of dependability and safety requirements. This publication outlines a model for managing R&M's factors during the conceptual design phase of an offshore wind turbine. The model

  16. Motion performance and mooring system of a floating offshore wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Haitao

    2012-09-01

    The development of offshore wind farms was originally carried out in shallow water areas with fixed (seabed mounted) structures. However, countries with limited shallow water areas require innovative floating platforms to deploy wind turbines offshore in order to harness wind energy to generate electricity in deep seas. The performances of motion and mooring system dynamics are vital to designing a cost effective and durable floating platform. This paper describes a numerical model to simulate dynamic behavior of a new semi-submersible type floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) system. The wind turbine was modeled as a wind block with a certain thrust coefficient, and the hydrodynamics and mooring system dynamics of the platform were calculated by SESAM software. The effect of change in environmental conditions on the dynamic response of the system under wave and wind loading was examined. The results indicate that the semi-submersible concept has excellent performance and SESAM could be an effective tool for floating wind turbine design and analysis.

  17. Motion Performance and Mooring System of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhao; Liang Zhang; Haitao Wu

    2012-01-01

    The development of offshore wind farms was originally carried out in shallow water areas with fixed (seabed mounted) structures.However,countries with limited shallow water areas require innovative floating platforms to deploy wind turbines offshore in order to harness wind energy to generate electricity in deep seas.The performances of motion and mooring system dynamics are vital to designing a cost effective and durable floating platform.This paper describes a numerical model to simulate dynamic behavior of a new semi-submersible type floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) system.The wind turbine was modeled as a wind block with a certain thrust coefficient,and the hydrodynamics and mooring system dynamics of the platform were calculated by SESAM software.The effect of change in environmental conditions on the dynamic response of the system under wave and wind loading was examined.The results indicate that the semi-submersible concept has excellent performance and SESAM could be an effective tool for floating wind turbine design and analysis.

  18. Reusable platform concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudmestad, O.T.; Sparby, B.K.; Stead, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    There is an increasing need to reduce costs of offshore production facilities in order to make development of offshore fields profitable. For small fields with short production time there is in particular a need to investigate ways to reduce costs. The idea of platform reuse is for such fields particularly attractive. This paper will review reusable platform concepts and will discuss their range of application. Particular emphasis will be placed on technical limitations. Traditional concepts as jackups and floating production facilities will be discussed by major attention will be given to newly developed ideas for reuse of steel jackets and concrete structures. It will be shown how the operator for several fields can obtain considerable savings by applying such reusable platform concepts

  19. NREL Offshore Balance-of-System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maness, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maples, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has investigated the potential for 20% of nationwide electricity demand to be generated from wind by 2030 and, more recently, 35% by 2050. Achieving this level of wind power generation may require the development and deployment of offshore wind technologies. DOE (2008) has indicated that reaching these 2030 and 2050 scenarios could result in approximately 10% and 20%, respectively, of wind energy generation to come from offshore resources. By the end of 2013, 6.5 gigawatts of offshore wind were installed globally. The first U.S. project, the Block Island Wind Farm off the coast of Rhode Island, has recently begun operations. One of the major reasons that offshore wind development in the United States is lagging behind global trends is the high capital expenditures required. An understanding of the costs and associated drivers of building a commercial-scale offshore wind plant in the United States will inform future research and help U.S. investors feel more confident in offshore wind development. In an effort to explain these costs, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed the Offshore Balance-of-System model.

  20. Routing helicopters for crew exchanges on off-shore locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, G.; Tijssen, G.A.

    This paper deals with a vehicle routing problem with split demands, namely the problem of determining a flight schedule for helicopters to off-shore platform locations for exchanging crew people employed on these platforms. The problem is formulated as an LP model and solved by means of a

  1. Conference on offshore wind power in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Ronny; Furois, Timothee; Nolte, Nico; Lanoe, Frederic; Lehmann-Matthaei, Bjoern; Ifflaender, Andree; Courcambeck, Alexandre; Giese, Norbert; Kavafyan, Philippe; Bjaert, Niels; Wagner, Andreas; Guillet, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on offshore wind power in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 120 participants exchanged views on the planning and authorisation procedures implemented in both countries and on the installation, connection to the grid and maintenance of offshore wind turbines. environmental impacts and usage conflicts linked with offshore wind farms exploitation were addressed as well. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Update: Offshore Wind In Germany (Ronny Meyer); 2 - Offshore wind development in France (Timothee Furois); 3 - The Licensing Procedure for Offshore Wind Farms in the German EEZ (Nico Nolte); 4 - Spatial Planning and Permitting in France: What leverage for more efficiency? (Frederic Lanoe); 5 - Results of 10 years environmental research on FINO-platforms (Bjoern Lehmann-Matthaei); 6 - Offshore Grid Connection - Status Quo and Overview (Andree Ifflaender); 7 - Grid connection of Offshore Wind in France: Situation, perspectives and recommendations (Alexandre Courcambeck); 8 - Controlling risks and warranting safety: Best practices for the installation, exploitation and maintenance of offshore wind turbines (Norbert Giese); 9 - Offshore wind Bremerhaven experience: An essential asset for the development of a complete Wind Offshore industry in France (Philippe Kavafyan); 10 - Standardizing and Cost Reduction -Lessons Learned from London Array (Niels Bjaert); 11 - Offshore Wind energy in Germany: System Benefits and Cost Reduction Potentials. Presentation of study results from prognos/fichtner and Fraunhofer-IWeS (Andreas Wagner); 12 - Offshore Wind energy financing - opportunities and risks (Jerome Guillet)

  2. Learning from professionals: Exploring cognitive rehabilitation strategies for the definition of the functional requirements of a telerehabilitation platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Giovanni; Frisiello, Antonella; Trizio, Marco; Mosso, Cristina O; Bazzani, Marco

    2018-04-01

    In the past few years, the advances in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) led to the development of platforms and applications that aim to support cognitive rehabilitation therapy that contributes to extend patients' treatment at home. In our research we adopted the Human Centered Approach to design a cognitive rehabilitation platform that is able to provide tools and features tailored to the professional needs and strategies and also able to engage patients in their treatment process. In order to explore the clinicians' point of view on the neuropsychological intervention strategies, we applied two different techniques often used in human factors research: the Critical Decision Method to study professionals' strategies with a descriptive perspective, and the Hierarchical Task Analysis to analyze the processes with a normative view. The results of our research showed that the hybrid approach adopted allowed us to have a better focus on the cognitive rehabilitation process and on the professionals' decision making mechanism. This led to a better understanding of functional requirements for supporting clinician's strategic decision making, in terms of personalization of treatments, cognitive exercises settings and feedback customization. In conclusion, our research highlights the value of the CDM to focus deeply on which functionalities professionals require from a cognitive telerehabilitation system and allowed us to design more precisely clinician-patients interactions inside the system compared to prescriptive methods currently used. Our study offers contribution to the comprehension of the rehabilitation processes, suggesting the positive impacts of an "extended" clinic treatment by adopting a flexible and adaptable tool. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Panorama 2012 - Offshore hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serbutoviez, Sylvain

    2011-12-01

    Technological progress is enabling production from offshore oil and gas fields at increasingly ambitious depths (3, 000 metres). Investment in offshore production is running at around $100 billion per year, accounting for one-fifth of all investment in oil exploration and development worldwide. However, the global economic crisis that broke at the end of 2008 and the accident involving the Macondo well temporarily disrupted the race to deep offshore technology. (author)

  4. Occupational health offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosbie, A.; Davies, F.

    2002-07-01

    The proceedings contain the 29 papers presented at the conference plus the opening address from the chair of the Health and Safety Commission. The papers in the first session were concerned with policy, strategy and leadership and included a perspective from the offshore industry advisory committee, details of a health planning tool for occupational health assurance and lessons from occupational health management in the offshore sector. The two sessions on the second day dealt with occupational health in the offshore design process and case studies involving physical, chemical and biological agents. Topics included the need to consider occupational health when designing offshore installations, the development of a human factors engineering strategy in petrochemical engineering projects, measuring occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals, implementation of the noise at work regulations, hand arm vibration syndrome and issues with potable water maintenance. The two sessions on the third day were concerned with human factors and psychological health, and well-being and fitness for duty. Topics covered included circadian adaption to shift change in offshore shift workers, managing stress in the offshore environment, the role of employee assistance programmes in organisational stress management, health care and first aid (the revised ACOP), well-being at work, the medical and physical fitness of offshore emergency response rescue team members, the impact of health surveillance and promotion of offshore accident rates, and the implication of safety and heath of the aging of the workforce ion the Norwegian offshore industry.

  5. Baltic 2 offshore wind farm. Challenges and solutions during design and erection of a 288 MW offshore wind power plant; Baltic 2 Offshore Windpark. Herausforderungen und Loesungen waehrend der Design- und Errichtungsphase eines 288 MW Offshore-Windkraftwerks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatelopoulos, Georg-Nikolaus; Kansy, Stefan [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Hannibal, John Michael [Siemens AG, Hamburg (Germany). Wind Power and Renewables Div.; Frettloehr, Bjoern [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Hamburg (Germany). Wind und Maritime Technik

    2015-05-01

    Offshore wind offers a great potential for reliable power supply with markedly less future costs. However, offshore also means special requirements related to transport and installation at sea. Even if these requirements alone are very stringent, they are not the only ones that apply. Meeting these challenges requires project organisation comparable to other major projects.

  6. Hibernia platform is a home away from home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Facilities for everyday living on the Hibernia offshore platform were described. Hibernia offshore employees will typically work three weeks on, three weeks off, serving 12 hours a day, seven days a week. Coordinators of the living quarters made quality of life their major priority. The facilities are equal to or better than any offshore installation in the world. The platform will generally accommodate 180 personnel, but can have a maximum occupancy of up to 360 people

  7. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling Installation and Decommissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind energy is one of the most promising and fastest growing alternative energy sources in the world. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a methodological framework to assess installation and decommissioning costs, and using examples from the European experience, provides a broad review of existing processes and systems used in the offshore wind industry. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a step-by-step guide to modeling costs over four sections. These sections cover: ·Background and introductory material, ·Installation processes and vessel requirements, ·Installation cost estimation, and ·Decommissioning methods and cost estimation.  This self-contained and detailed treatment of the key principles in offshore wind development is supported throughout by visual aids and data tables. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling is a key resource for anyone interested in the offshore wind industry, particularly those interested in the technical and economic aspects of installation and decom...

  8. Offshoring research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuijsen, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Outsourcing and offshoring provide companies with ways to achieve their business objectives better or more cost effectively or despite a shortage of specific resources. From a research point of view, outsourcing and offshoring have mostly been studied as something that large companies do, not small

  9. Organizational Adaptation in Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Offshoring offers managers the promise of substantial economic benefits, but also comes with the risk of increased complexity and coordination challenges. We argue that offshoring firms must accumulate architectural knowledge to keep the cost of coordination of the geographically separated activi...

  10. Offshore Investment Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Jin Wei

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Offshore investment funds are alleged to have engaged in trading behavior that is different from their onshore counterparts because they may be subject to less supervision and regulation. In particular, they may trade more intensely. They could also pursue more aggressively certain trading strategies such as positive feedback trading or herding that could contribute to a greater volatility in the market. Using a unique data set, this chapter compares the trading behavior in the Korean stock market between offshore investment funds with their onshore counterparts registered in the US and UK. There are a number of interesting findings. First, there is indeed evidence suggesting that the offshore funds trade more intensely than their onshore counterparts. Second, however, there is no evidence that the offshore funds engage in positive feedback trading. In contrast, there is strong evidence that the funds from the U.S. and U.K. do. Third, while offshore funds do herd, they do so far less than onshore funds in the U.S. or UK. Fourth, offshore funds hold less glamour stocks (e.g. stocks with high P/E in their portfolio than funds in the U.S. or U.K. do. Moreover, flight to glamour stocks during the in-crisis period is less evident in the case of offshore funds. In sum, offshore funds are no especially worrisome monsters.

  11. Offshore wind development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Offshore wind (OSW) development is a new undertaking in the US. This project is a response to : New Jerseys 2011 Energy Master Plan that envisions procuring 22.5% of the states power : originating from renewable sources by 2021. The Offshore Wi...

  12. 77 FR 33740 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Health Data Platform Simple Sign-On Challenge”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... creativity of entrepreneurs and productivity of developers. The ``Health Data Platform Simple Sign-On... interacting across multiple HDP technology components, making it easier for community collaborators to...

  13. Global offshore pipeline markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.; Parsons, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, two experts forecast a recovery in the offshore pipeline market followed by accelerating growth. A number of clearly definable macro trends are affecting the world offshore oil and gas industry and will be of considerable significance to the offshore pipelines industry. The authors' view is of markets that show every chance of enjoying long-term growth prospects driven by the fundamentals of a continuing increase in demand for offshore oil and gas. The offshore industry however has a highly cyclical nature, due to the impact of variations in oil and gas prices and the differing state of maturity of individual regions. Therefore those companies that are able to offer the widest range of pipe types and diameters and methods of installation across the greatest range of geographic markets are likely to prosper most. Thus, this continues to be a market best suited to those able to operate on a global scale and make a corporate commitment measured in decades

  14. Offshore risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinnem, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

      Offshore Risk Assessment was the first book to deal with quantified risk assessment (QRA) as applied specifically to offshore installations and operations. Risk assessment techniques have been used for more than three decades in the offshore oil and gas industry, and their use is set to expand increasingly as the industry moves into new areas and faces new challenges in older regions.   This updated and expanded third edition has been informed by a major R&D program on offshore risk assessment in Norway and summarizes research from 2006 to the present day. Rooted with a thorough discussion of risk metrics and risk analysis methodology,  subsequent chapters are devoted to analytical approaches to escalation, escape, evacuation and rescue analysis of safety and emergency systems.   Separate chapters analyze the main hazards of offshore structures: fire, explosion, collision, and falling objects as well as structural and marine hazards. Risk mitigation and control are discussed, as well as an illustrat...

  15. Waste heat recovery for offshore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Kandepu, Rambabu; Haglind, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    vary in the range 20-30%. There are several technologies available for onshore gas turbines (and low/medium heat sources) to convert the waste heat into electricity. For offshore applications it is not economical and practical to have a steam bottoming cycle to increase the efficiency of electricity...... production, due to low gas turbine outlet temperature, space and weight restrictions and the need for make-up water. A more promising option for use offshore is organic Rankine cycles (ORC). Moreover, several oil and gas platforms are equipped with waste heat recovery units to recover a part of the thermal...... energy in the gas turbine off-gas using heat exchangers, and the recovered thermal energy acts as heat source for some of the heat loads on the platform. The amount of the recovered thermal energy depends on the heat loads and thus the full potential of waste heat recovery units may not be utilized...

  16. Offshore Wind Energy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Hong, Lixuan; Hvelplund, Frede

    for Denmark and invites to reconsider the technological and institutional choices made. Based on a continuous resource-economic model operating in a geographical information systems (GIS) environment, which describes resources, costs and area constraints in a spatially explicit way, the relation between......Offshore wind energy has developed in terms of turbine and project size, and currently undergoes a significant up-scaling to turbines and parks at greater distance to shore and deeper waters. Expectations to the positive effect of economies of scale on power production costs, however, have...... availability of locations, driven by accelerating requirements of environmental concern, park size and public acceptance, is one important driver. Mounting risk of mega-projects and the infinite demand for renewable energy is another likely cause. The present paper addresses the scale of offshore wind parks...

  17. Assessing offshore wind potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelaja, Adesoji; McKeown, Charles; Calnin, Benjamin; Hailu, Yohannes

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying wind potential is a pivotal initial step in developing and articulating a state’s policies and strategies for offshore wind industry development. This is particularly important in the Great Lakes States where lessons from other offshore environments are not directly applicable. This paper presents the framework developed for conducting a preliminary assessment of offshore wind potential. Information on lake bathymetry and wind resources were combined in simulating alternative scenarios of technically feasible turbine construction depths and distance concerns by stakeholders. These yielded estimates of developable offshore wind areas and potential power generation. While concerns about the visibility of turbines from shore reduce the power that can be generated, engineering solutions that increase the depths at which turbines can be sited increase such potential power output. This paper discusses the costs associated with technical limitations on depth and the social costs related to public sentiments about distance from the shoreline, as well as the possible tradeoffs. The results point to a very large untapped energy resource in the Michigan’s Great Lakes, large enough to prompt policy action from the state government. - Highlights: ▶ We build a theoretical framework for modeling offshore wind power production. ▶ Illustration of the impact of technology and social limitations on offshore wind energy development. ▶ Geospatial modeling of the offshore wind potential of the Great Lakes.

  18. Offshore wind energy prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, Gaetano

    1999-01-01

    In last two years offshore wind energy is becoming a focal point of national and non national organisations particularly after the limitations of fossil fuel consumption, adopted by many developed countries after Kyoto conference at the end of 1997 on global climate change. North Europe is particularly interested in offshore for the limited land areas still available, due to the intensive use of its territory and its today high wind capacity. Really the total wind capacity in Europe could increase from the 1997 value of 4450 MW up to 40 000 MW within 2010, according the White Paper 1997 of the European Commission; a significant percentage (25%) could be sited offshore up to 10 000 MW, because of close saturation of the land sites at that time. World wind capacity could increase from the 1997 value of 7200 MW up to 60 000 MW within 2010 with a good percentage (20%) offshore 12 000 MW. In last seven years wind capacity in shallow water of coastal areas has reached 34 MW. Five wind farms are functioning in the internal seas of Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden; however such siting is mostly to be considered as semi-offshore condition. Wind farms in real offshore sites, open seas with waves and water depth over 10 m, are now proposed in North Sea at 10-20 km off the coasts of Netherlands, Denmark using large size wind turbine (1-2 MW). In 1997 an offshore proposal was supported in Netherlands by Greenpeace after the OWEMES '97 seminar, held in Italy on offshore wind in the spring 1997. A review is presented in the paper of European offshore wind programs with trends in technology, economics and siting effects. (Author)

  19. Import, Offshoring and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Maitra, Madhura

    Offshoring firms are found to pay higher average wages than purely domestic firms. We provide a unifying empirical approach by capturing the different channels through which offshoring may explain this wage difference: (i) due to change in the composition of workers (skill composition effect) (ii......) because all existing workers get higher pay (rent sharing effect). Using Danish worker-firm data we explain how much each channel contributes to higher wages. To estimate the causal effect of offshoring on wages we use China’s accession to the WTO in December 2001 - and the soon after boom in Chinese...

  20. Efficient preliminary floating offshore wind turbine design and testing methodologies and application to a concrete spar design

    OpenAIRE

    Matha, Denis; Sandner, Frank; Molins i Borrell, Climent; Campos Hortigüela, Alexis; Cheng, Po Wen

    2015-01-01

    The current key challenge in the floating offshore wind turbine industry and research is on designing economic floating systems that can compete with fixed-bottom offshore turbines in terms of levelized cost of energy. The preliminary platform design, as well as early experimental design assessments, are critical elements in the overall design process. In this contribution, a brief review of current floating offshore wind turbine platform pre-design and scaled testing methodologies is provide...

  1. Image processing in offshore engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.V.R.; A. Oliveira, M. de; Almeida, M.E.T. de; Lorenzoni, C.; Ferrante, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The technological progress which has taken place during the last decade introduced a totally new outlook regarding the professional computational environment in general, and regarding the engineering profession in particular. During many years engineering computing was performed based on large computer centers, getting bigger and bigger all the time, going from mainframes to super computers, essentially producing numerical results on paper media. Lately, however, it has been realized that a much more productive computational environment can be implemented using an open architecture of client/server type, based on smaller lower cost equipment including workstations and PC's, and considering engineering information in a broader sense. This papers reports briefly the experience of the Production Department of Petrobras in transforming its centralized, mainframe based, computational environment into a open distributed client/server computational environment, focusing on the problem of handling technical graphics information regarding its more than 70 fixed offshore platforms

  2. Current meter components and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS in support of the Physical Oceanography Field Program Offshore North Carolina from 1992-02-22 to 1993-02-18 (NODC Accession 9300089)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS from 22 February 1992 to 18 February 1993. Data were collected by the Science Applications, Inc....

  3. Whether and What to Offshore?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ørberg; Pedersen, Torben

    In this article, we explore the idea that offshoring of services and technical work should be regarded as a dynamic process that evolves over time. Firms gradually move from offshoring of simple, standardized activities towards offshoring of advanced activities when they accumulate experience...... with offshoring, and this type of offshoring comes with an entirely different set of characteristics compared to traditional, cost-seeking offshoring. Based on a unique survey among the total population of firms in the eastern region of Denmark, we analyze some of the dynamics of this process through a model...... that incorporates two different aspects of the process of offshoring. First, we approach the question of whether to offshore and establish a baseline that investigates the determinants of firms’ participation—or lack thereof—in offshoring. Secondly, we approach the question of what to offshore and the subsequent...

  4. Offshore Q & A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AmberStohr

    2003-01-01

    Equity International, Asia, is a leading financial service provider in China, offering planning expertise for expatriates on investing their income and savings. I recently sat down with four senior wealth managers in Shanghai to discuss Equity's approach to offshore investing.

  5. Offshore petroleum engineering task force report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruelokke, M.

    1999-05-01

    The Offshore Petroleum Engineering Task Force was established in July 1998 in response to concerns about Newfoundland and Labrador's share of offshore petroleum engineering activity, with the aim of determining the current capability of the local sector, the demand for such companies and individuals until the year 2010, their capability to grow over that time-frame, and requirements in order to achieve that growth. The report summarizes the analysis undertaken by the Task Force as well as the conclusions it reached and associated recommendations. Section two provides an overview of the offshore engineering activity, including its origins, structure, and key success factors, and its also provides a profile of the industry, internationally, in Canada and in Newfoundland. Section three presents an analysis of the future demand for offshore engineering in Newfoundland until 2010, based on three development scenarios. Section four based on a Consulting Engineers of Newfoundland and Labrador (CENL) survey, establishes the present offshore engineering capacity and capabilities within the province. Section five examines current education and training programs and their ability to respond to future demands. Section six summarizes the conclusions of the analysis and presents recommendations designed to facilitate and promote the development of the local offshore engineering industry. 6 figs

  6. Offshoring in textile industry

    OpenAIRE

    MONTÓN GARCÍA, JORGE

    2015-01-01

    [ EN] This project is about offshoring in the textile industry, focusing in the rights violated in this process, this concept can be defined as the moving of various operations of a company to another country for reasons such as lower labor costs or more favorable economic conditions in that other country. The project describes the evolution of offshoring, which started in 1960’s and has continued since then; it was characterized primarily by the transferring of factories from the develope...

  7. Industrial opportunities - offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrits, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Industrial opportunities available in the Canadian offshore petroleum industry are discussed. Oil has been produced offshore from Nova Scotia since 1992, and offshore from Newfoundland since 1997. Special needs that must be addressed in offshore operations in eastern Canada such as the cold North Atlantic environment, isolation, logistics, safety, and quality assurance, are examined. The most obvious opportunities lie with the designing, building and installing the facilities needed to extract oil and gas from beneath the sea floor and transport it to market. However, there are also opportunities in designing and fabricating clothing, customized food containers and other equipment for offshore needs. Short term opportunities also exist in the decommissioning of depleted production fields and their facilities. One of the greatest obstacles facing new entrants into the offshore oil and gas industry is the lack of a track record. To meet this challenge, the ability to seek out partners to pursue local and international opportunities through joint ventures, strategic alliances and technology sharing partnering arrangements is of great importance. It may be the difference between success and failure. 6 figs

  8. Offshore in depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebdon, J F

    1968-08-01

    The world-wide scope of offshore areas is discussed. Offshore areas of the U.S. and the world are where one of the ''hottest'' hydrocarbon booms--drilling, production, and pipelining--are in action today. Most of the current activity in offshore exploration and drilling is crude oil directed. However, big non-associated natural gas finds have been made. Additionally, for every barrel of crude oil produced, either or both associated natural gas and dissolved natural gas are produced in some varying ratio as casinghead gas. Thus, with worldwide production of some 2.5-million bbl of crude oil per day from offshore areas of Free-World countries, there are vast volumes of casinghead natural gas produced, over and above that produced from non-associated natural gas wells to the seaward of land masses. If offshore gas of any classification is produced in commercial volumes close to onshore population centers, then the possibility of marketing is fairly good. If remote from population centers, it is usually flared or shut-in. The development of gas liquefaction and cryogenic tankers has started, but international ocean traffic in LNG is still in its infancy. Current offshore gas pipelines are described.

  9. Technology keeps ice away from offshore oil and gas installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2003-05-01

    Ice management services provided to oil and natural gas operators off Canada's North Atlantic coast by Provincial Airlines is described. Provincial Airlines performs iceberg reconnaissance for both the offshore oil and natural gas operators as well as for the Canadian Ice Centre, using its specially equipped B-200 aircraft. The special equipment includes a complete electronic sensor package with 360-degree anti-submarine warfare radar, a thermal imaging system, high powered gyro-stabilized TV camera system, and a computerized data collection and management system. The Ice Data Network System (IDNS) is a fifth generation computer software package designed to monitor ice, provide drift analysis and forecast future trajectories, assess potential threats or risks associated with each piece of ice, and monitor and evaluate towing operations if required. The IDNS is backed up by a fully staffed ice operations centre from which Provincial Airline ice specialists can access satellite data and reports on ice conditions from around the world. Using a process of data fusion and careful analysis, staff of the Ice Centre can produce near-real time reports that depict ice conditions specific to individual operational requirements. Since drilling platforms cannot move, or require a great deal of time to move, to avoid any risk of an iceberg colliding with an oil platform it is important to know where exactly an iceberg is at any given time, hence the enormous importance of iceberg location information.

  10. Offshore production flares: a PETROBRAS review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagot, Paulo R.; Burmann, Clovis P.; Araujo, Paulo Bento de; Motomura, Tsukasa [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the present work is to briefly present the offshore flare system technological evolution and the main design criteria for flare and its supporting structure. In order to perform the aimed task, this work was divided into two parts: the first part presents the technological evolution of the offshore production flares and the second one discusses the flare system designing criteria. The evolution of the technology associated to the offshore production flares is organized by the authors just dividing the history in four chronological phases. Each phase is defined by the predominant use of the, by the time, most up-to-date technological alternative and it will be described with the help of sketches, drawings, photographs, data and information about the platforms where such technologies were applied. The second part of the present work discusses the dimensional criteria, interesting aspects and flaws of the offshore flare systems in two different fields, which are: definition of the flare system capacity; and flow and thermal design of the flare system. (author)

  11. Fatigue Reliability and Calibration of Fatigue Design Factors for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez, Sergio Marquez; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    Consequences of failure of offshore wind turbines (OWTs) are in general lower than consequences of failure of, e.g., oil & gas platforms. It is reasonable that lower fatigue design factors can be applied for fatigue design of OWTs when compared to other fixed offshore structures. Calibration...

  12. Comparison of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenylethers, and organochlorine pesticides in Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the relative exposure of Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at oil-production platforms was reported, indicating negligible exposure to PAHs and no discernible differences between exposures at platforms and nearby natural areas sites. In this report, the potential for chronic PAH exposure in fish is reported, by measurement of recalcitrant, higher molecular weight PAHs in tissues of fish previously investigated for PAH metabolites in bile. A total of 34 PAHs (20 PAHs, 11 alkylated PAHs, and 3 polycyclic aromatic thiophenes) were targeted. In addition, legacy contaminants—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs),—and current contaminants, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) linked to endocrine disruption, were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture or mass spectrometric detection, to form a more complete picture of the contaminant-related status of fishes at oil production platforms in the Southern California Bight. No hydrocarbon profiles or unresolved complex hydrocarbon background were found in fish from platforms and from natural areas, and concentrations of aliphatics were low less than 100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) per component]. Total-PAH concentrations in fish ranged from 15 to 37 ng/g at natural areas and from 8.7 to 22 ng/g at platforms. Profiles of PAHs were similar at all natural and platform sites, consisting mainly of naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Total-PCB concentrations (excluding non-ortho-chloro-substituted congeners) in fish were low, ranging from 7 to 22 ng/g at natural areas and from 10 to 35 ng/g at platforms. About 50 percent of the total-PCBs at all sites consisted of 11 congeners: 153 > 138/163/164 > 110 > 118 > 15 > 99 > 187 > 149 > 180. Most OCPs, except dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-related compounds, were not detectable or were at concentrations of less than 1 ng/g in fish. p

  13. The EU Offshore Safety Directive and its potential effects. Opportunity or handicap?; Die EU Offshore Safety Directive und ihre moeglichen Auswirkungen. Chance oder Handicap?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwiederowski, Claudia [RWE Dea AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the EU Offshore Safety Directive, which took effect on 18 July 2013, is to define minimum requirements for the prevention of severe accidents in connection with offshore crude oil or natural gas activities of any kind and the containment of the follow-on effects of such accidents. This is without question a logical consequence of the offshore incidents seen around the globe over the past decades. An interesting question in this context is for whom the EU Offshore Safety Directive has become an opportunity and for whom a handicap. [German] Ziel der am 18. Juli 2013 in Kraft getretenen EU Offshore Safety Direktive ist die Festlegung von Mindestanforderungen fuer die Verhinderung schwerer Unfaelle bei Offshore-Erdoel- bzw. - Erdgasaktivitaeten und die Begrenzung etwaiger Unfallfolgen. Nach den weltweiten Offshore- Ereignissen der vergangenen Jahrzehnte ist dies ohne Zweifel eine logische Entwicklung. Nun stellt sich die Frage: Fuer wen entwickelt sich die EU Offshore Safety Directive zur Chance, fuer wen zum Handicap?.

  14. Thermodynamic Performance Indicators for Offshore Oil and Gas Processing: Application to Four North Sea Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsund, Mari; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Well-defined performance indicators can motivate optimal operation of offshore oil and gas platforms. We evaluate several thermodynamic performance indicators presented in the literature according to three criteria: Thermodynamic performance indicators should evaluate the use of technically...

  15. EU-NORSEWInD - Investigation of Flow Distoration Effects on Offshore Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stickland, Matt; Scanlon, Tom; Fabre, Sylvie

    of which is the availability of good quality data to facilitate better project planning, accurate yield prediction, and a fundamentally better understanding of the working environment and local climatology. To address this issue the common convention is to mount instrumentation in offshore locations...... to assess the local wind conditions. Part of the overall NORSEWInD project is the use of LiDAR remote sensing (RS) systems mounted on offshore platforms to measure wind velocity profiles at a number of locations offshore. The data acquired from the offshore RS measurements will be fed into a large and novel....... It was obvious that the airflow data measured above the mounting platforms would be distorted by the presence of the platform. However; the extent to which the flow field above the various mounting platforms would be distorted was unknown. Therefore, part of the fundamental research incorporated...

  16. Performance indicators for evaluation of North Sea oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsund, Mari; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Well-defined performance indicators can motivate optimal operation of offshore oil and gas platforms. This paper aims to develop such parameters, indicating possibilities for reducing power consumption and emissions of pollutants. Different platforms have different oilfield conditions and process...... specifications. Such conditions determine the theoretical minimum work required to operate the platforms, and can have a high impact on the power consumption. We introduce performance indicators based on energy and exergy. The specific energy use and specific exergy consumption evaluate the resources spent...... required under ideal conditions (i.e. reversible operation), and specific exergy destruction illustrates the amount of resources lost due to irreversibilities. We use these indicators to evaluate the oil and gas processing at four different North Sea platforms that differ by the field lifetime, system...

  17. Modern earthquake engineering offshore and land-based structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Junbo

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses applications of earthquake engineering for both offshore and land-based structures. It is self-contained as a reference work and covers a wide range of topics, including topics related to engineering seismology, geotechnical earthquake engineering, structural engineering, as well as special contents dedicated to design philosophy, determination of ground motions, shock waves, tsunamis, earthquake damage, seismic response of offshore and arctic structures, spatial varied ground motions, simplified and advanced seismic analysis methods, sudden subsidence of offshore platforms, tank liquid impacts during earthquakes, seismic resistance of non-structural elements, and various types of mitigation measures, etc. The target readership includes professionals in offshore and civil engineering, officials and regulators, as well as researchers and students in this field.

  18. Offshoring R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2010-01-01

    Companies are increasingly offshoring R&D activities. Many firms, however, experience difficulties related to virtual teamwork across cultures and time zones. The research question is: How does increasing R&D offshoring impact transparency of communication structures and knowledge sharing? Using...... case studies from Danish multinational corporations with R&D activities in China, India or Eastern Europe this paper analyses the impact observed in these companies in regard to communication structures and knowledge sharing in management of offshored R&D activities. The findings show that companies...... attempt to increase transparency through formalisation of knowledge and clear communication structures. However, the influence of tacit knowledge, horizontal communication and culture seem largely overlooked. Therefore the authors suggest a context based approach to transparency accustomed...

  19. Energy Usage of Residents on Offshore Islands in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Cheng Lu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted through interviews on offshore islands in Taiwan to investigate the energy usage of local residents. A comparison of household appliance usage in mainland Taiwan with that on the offshore islands revealed that, overall, the most commonly used household appliances are steam cookers/rice cookers, water dispensers, and washing machines. For other household appliances, Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles have lower use penetration rates compared with those in mainland Taiwan and on Level 1 offshore isles, particularly for the use of computers. By contrast, the use penetration rate for chest freezers on Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles is high, and each household has one or more freezers on average. This appliance is not a commonly observed household product in mainland Taiwan or on Level 1 offshore isles. Furthermore, because of the government policy, every household on parts of Level 2 offshore isles and on all Level 3 offshore isles has a fixed monthly charge of electricity. The transportation of liquefied petroleum gas is also inconvenient, and the gas price is slightly higher, leading to the tendency of residents to consume excessive amounts of electrical energy, which does not correspond with the aim of the government to conserve energy and reduce carbon emissions; thus, the relevant authorities’ review and improvement on energy consumption on Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles are required.

  20. Offshore rectenna feasbility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J. W.; Hervey, D.; Glaser, P.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary study of the feasibility and cost of an offshore rectenna to serve the upper metropolitan east coast was performed. A candidate site at which to build a 5 GW rectenna was selected on the basis of proximity to load centers, avoidance of shipping lanes, sea floor terrain, and relocated conditions. Several types of support structures were selected for study based initially on the reference system rectenna concept of a wire mesh ground screen and dipoles each with its own rectifier and filter circuits. Possible secondary uses of an offshore rectenna were examined and are evaluated.

  1. Offshoring and financial markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Battisti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the nature and extent of the offshore world, a grey area that is playing a major role in present-day economy. The main institutions moulding this peculiar environment are discussed: preferential tax regimes, tax havens and offshore financial centers. Their role in the globalised world is outlined after a scrutiny of the specialized literature, reports by non-governmental bodies and companies’ advertisings. Finally, we present a tentative reconstruction of its geographical organization, inclusive of cartographic representations of the main international networks.

  2. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    The value chains for offshore oil and gas and offshore wind are both basically driven by the demand for energy. This is heavily dependent on a number of factors including the price of various energy sources and the policy making of the states which influence legislation, indirect subsidies...... of services including includes legal advice, financing, insurance etc. The two value chains have a number of activities in common. Both include (1) a tender and concession phase where the energy company obtains the right to explore and produce energy from the authorities. (2) An exploration phase where...

  3. Energy from Offshore Wind: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Ram, B.

    2006-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the nascent offshore wind energy industry including a status of the commercial offshore industry and the technologies that will be needed for full market development.

  4. 2016 Offshore Wind Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwabe, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Spitsen, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The 2016 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report is intended to provide stakeholders with quantitative information about the offshore wind market, technology, and cost trends in the United States and worldwide.

  5. Abandonment (field decommissioning): The legal requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    1994-01-01

    The main areas to be considered in relation to the abandonment of offshore installations are: (1) the legal requirements to be imposed in relation to abandonment, this will include consideration of English, Norwegian and Dutch law as well as international law; (2) how licensees may protect themselves against joint and several liability for performance of their legal obligations in relation to abandonment by the provision of security; and (3) consideration of practical examples of abandonment such as the abandonment of the Piper Alpha platform on the UK continental shelf and the K13-D platform on the Dutch continental shelf. This paper considers only abandonment of offshore installations as very different considerations apply onshore and applies only to Europe, though the international treaties will also apply elsewhere

  6. Centralized electricity generation in offshore wind farms using hydraulic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarquin Laguna, A.

    2017-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis explores a new way of generation, collection and transmission of wind energy inside a wind farm, in which the electrical conversion does not occur during any intermediate conversion step before the energy has reached the offshore central platform. A centralized

  7. Reliability Analysis of Tubular Joints in Offshore Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1987-01-01

    Reliability analysis of single tubular joints and offshore platforms with tubular joints is" presented. The failure modes considered are yielding, punching, buckling and fatigue failure. Element reliability as well as systems reliability approaches are used and illustrated by several examples....... Finally, optimal design of tubular.joints with reliability constraints is discussed and illustrated by an example....

  8. Developing a Shared Patient-Centered, Web-Based Medication Platform for Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Their Health Care Providers: Qualitative Study on User Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Gerda; Mahler, Cornelia; Seidling, Hanna Marita; Stützle, Marion; Ose, Dominik; Baudendistel, Ines; Wensing, Michel; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2018-03-27

    Information technology tools such as shared patient-centered, Web-based medication platforms hold promise to support safe medication use by strengthening patient participation, enhancing patients' knowledge, helping patients to improve self-management of their medications, and improving communication on medications among patients and health care professionals (HCPs). However, the uptake of such platforms remains a challenge also due to inadequate user involvement in the development process. Employing a user-centered design (UCD) approach is therefore critical to ensure that user' adoption is optimal. The purpose of this study was to identify what patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and their HCPs regard necessary requirements in terms of functionalities and usability of a shared patient-centered, Web-based medication platform for patients with T2DM. This qualitative study included focus groups with purposeful samples of patients with T2DM (n=25), general practitioners (n=13), and health care assistants (n=10) recruited from regional health care settings in southwestern Germany. In total, 8 semistructured focus groups were conducted. Sessions were audio- and video-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to a computer-aided qualitative content analysis. Appropriate security and access methods, supported data entry, printing, and sending information electronically, and tracking medication history were perceived as the essential functionalities. Although patients wanted automatic interaction checks and safety alerts, HCPs on the contrary were concerned that unspecific alerts confuse patients and lead to nonadherence. Furthermore, HCPs were opposed to patients' ability to withhold or restrict access to information in the platform. To optimize usability, there was consensus among participants to display information in a structured, chronological format, to provide information in lay language, to use visual aids and customize information content, and align

  9. Development application guidelines : Newfoundland offshore area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    The Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board has created a set of guidelines which describe the information needed by the Board to process a development application by a proponent of an offshore hydrocarbon development project. The guidelines also describe the review process that will be followed in considering a proponent`s application. Proponents must also refer to the Canada-Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation Act and the Canada-Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation (Newfoundland) Act. These guidelines also describe the requirements for the Canada-Newfoundland benefits plan, the environmental impact statement, the socio-economic impact statement, the safety plan, and the environmental protection plan.

  10. Offshore pipelaying dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Gullik Anthon

    2010-02-15

    This thesis considers three issues regarding modeling of of offshore pipe laying dynamics. These are: (i) the formulation of an offshore pipeline installation operation as a control problem, (ii) the development and passivity analysis of a robotic pipe model for a submerged pipe string, suitable for real-time applications in closed- loop control systems, and (iii) the development and validation of a nonlinear FEM model for simulation and control of the elastic pipeline dynamics, including FEM dynamics of a pipeline combined with vessel dynamics, for simulation and control of pipe lay operations under dynamic positioning Pipeline installation is defined as the operation of positioning a pipeline along a reference path on the seabed from a surface vessel. In control terms, this can be stated as a path-following control problem, where the pipe touchdown point tracks the reference path. However, the only controllers for the touchdown point are the pay-out of pipe into the water, and the motion of the surface vessel. Considering that the pipe is an elastic body, and that both the pipe and the vessel are subject to environmental loads, the control problem that must be considered is a dynamic target-tracking problem, where the surface vessel must track a moving target position on the surface in order to control the position of the touchdown point. A target-tracking controller may be implemented as a guidance system, by extending the dynamic positioning system that is common for pipe lay vessels. An important component in the guidance system is the dynamic pipe model mapping touchdown and surface vessel position. Motivated by robotics, a compact system formulation is derived for the suspended pipeline by considering it as a hyper-redundant manipulator with an arbitrary number of links. This model captures the main dynamics of the pipe, including its geometric configuration and top tension. The model is in the state- space, and on a vectorial form using minimal coordinates

  11. Caracterização de tubo e adesivo utilizados em tubulações de plástico reforçado com fibras de vidro aplicados em plataformas marítimas Characterization of pipes and adhesives of glassfiber reinforced plastics used in offshore platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikon C. R. Pessanha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Na indústria de exploração e produção de petróleo, principalmente no setor offshore, os plásticos reforçados por fibras de vidro (PRFV têm apresentado grande destaque. Isso se deve à intrínseca capacidade destes de resistir à corrosão em ambientes salinos, bem como serem materiais que apresentam elevada resistência mecânica específica. O presente trabalho buscou caracterizar tubo e adesivo utilizados em plataformas marítimas. Para tanto, as técnicas utilizadas foram: espectroscopia na região do infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR, análise termogravimétrica (TGA, análise termodinâmico-mecânica (DMTA e temperatura de amolecimento de Vicat. Amostras do tubo de PRFV e dos componentes do adesivo (denominados de A e B foram estudadas individualmente. Além disso, foram confeccionadas misturas, em massa, nas seguintes proporções: 40%A-60%B, 50%A-50%B e 60%A-40%B. Foi possível determinar a composição e a estrutura química dos materiais, além do comportamento mecânico à degradação térmica. Foi verificado que adesivo e tubo apresentaram desempenho satisfatório à temperatura ambiente quanto à degradação e à rigidez. Por outro lado, quando submetido ao calor, principalmente os adesivos, apresentaram queda brusca de desempenho.Glassfiber reinforced plastics (GFRP have been applied in the offshore industry owing to their high resistance to corrosion and high specific mechanical strength. The present work aimed at characterizing pipes and adhesives used in offshore platforms in order to evaluate the thermo-mechanical performance of these materials. The techniques used were: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and Vicat softening temperature. Specimens of GFRP pipe and adhesive components (referred to as A and B were evaluated individually. The adhesive samples were made in the following ratios (% weight: 40%A-60%B, 50%A-50

  12. Offshore environmental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, H.J.; Degraer, S.

    2016-01-01

    The number of offshore wind farms (OWFs) is increasing rapidly, leading to questions about the cumulative environmental impact of such farms. The major impacts are caused by the noise produced in the building phase, the new hard substratum, the moving rotor blades, possible underwater noise in

  13. Floating offshore turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, John Olav Giæver; Merz, Karl; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    metric of energy production per unit steel mass. Floating offshore wind turbines represent a promising technology. The successful operation of HyWind and WindFloat in full scale demonstrates a well advanced technology readiness level, where further development will go into refining the concepts, cost...

  14. Nearshore versus Offshore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hevia Koch, Pablo Alejandro; Wolter, Christoph

    Currently there exist high expectations for the development of wind energy, particularly in Europe, out of whichoffshore wind turbine developments will be central as tools to achieve current energy targets. The question betweennearshore and (far)-offshore is particularly relevant, both because of...

  15. Advanced Service Offshore Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jensen, Peter D. Ørberg; Lind, Manya Jaura

    2018-01-01

    the capabilities, where the deficient development of one capability can be mitigated by the development of another capability (firm-internal determinants). Grounded in organization and service production theory, the paper contributes to the thematic literature on service offshoring and literature on organizational...

  16. Floating Offshore Wind in Hawaii: Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Three Future Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Tony; Keyser, David; Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-04-18

    Construction of the first offshore wind power plant in the United States began in 2015, off the coast of Rhode Island, using fixed platform structures that are appropriate for shallow seafloors, like those located off the East Coast and mid-Atlantic. However, floating platforms, which have yet to be deployed commercially, will likely need to be anchored to the deeper seafloor if deployed in Hawaiian waters. To analyze the employment and economic potential for floating offshore wind off Hawaii's coasts, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to analyze two hypothetical deployment scenarios for Hawaii: 400 MW of offshore wind by 2050 and 800 MW of offshore wind by 2050. The results of this analysis can be used to better understand the general scale of economic opportunities that could result from offshore wind development.

  17. "Nonlinear coupled dynamic response of offshore spar platforms under regular sea waves" by A.K. Agarwal and A.K. Jain. Ocean Engineering 30; 2003; 517-555

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    have to be taken care to withstand worse weather conditions. Some assumptions carried out by the authors may hold good for the sake Fig 1. Three prominent motions of Spar platform 792 Letter to the editor / Ocean Engineering 31 (2004) 791... also be considered. And these forces add mainly to surge and pitch as per Fig. 1. It is noticed that the work reported by Agarwal and Jain (2003), which was carried out by the authors, is mostly repeated in the present paper. If one looks carefully...

  18. Offshore 2010. Final report; Offshore 2010. Sluttrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    An overview of the accomplishments of the various projects that have received support from the Norwegian Research Council's program 'Offshore 2010'. The following projects are presented, some have English and some Norwegian project names: 'Critical parameters influencing inhibitor performance in multiphase flow', 'Development of the drilling optimization simulator (DDS) and a totally integrated drilling optimization system', 'Produksjonsoptimalisering og automatisk styring av broenner og roerledninger (PETRONICS)', 'Termisk isolerte undervannsroer for sikring av broenntransport over store avstander', 'Utvikling av magnetisk frekvensformer for styring av store subsea pumper paa havdyp ned mot 4000 meter', 'Flerfase stroemningsmaaler for permanent nedihulls installasjon', 'Hastighetsmaaling i flerfase stroemning ved passiv akustikk', 'Oil/water seperation offshore: optimized flow- and seperation behavior', 'Stroemningshastighet', 'A rock mechanics based reservoir simulation', 'MultiTool fase 2 - et flerbruksverktoey for nedihulls applikasjoner', 'Utvikling av undervanns olje-i-vann monitor for kontinuerlig maaling av lave oljekonsentrasjoner basert paa TR-LIFS', 'Subsea multipath ultrasonic liquid flow meter', 'Fluid characterization at elevated pressures and temperatures (Flucha II)'. The two main goals for the research program are 1. The development of new technology and competency in the field of downhole- and subsea processing and multiphase transportation, and 2. Innovation and commercialisation in small and medium sized companies (less than 100 employees). Some details on the financing and results are included (ml)

  19. Numerical Study of Piping Limits for Suction Installation of Offshore Skirted Foundations an Anchors in Layered Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Thilsted, C. L.

    2010-01-01

    Skirted foundations and anchors have proved to be competitive solutions for various types of fixed offshore platforms, subsea systems and an attractive foundation alternative for offshore wind turbines. One main design challenge for skirted structures in sand is to penetrate the skirted deep enough...... to obtain the required capacity. In order to overcome the high penetration resistance in sand suction assisted penetration is needed. Suction installation may cause the formation of piping channels, which break down the hydraulic seal and prevent further installation. This paper presents a numerical study...... of failure limits during suction installation in respect to both homogenous and layered soil profile. A numerical flow analysis is performed to determine the hydraulic gradients developing in response to the suction applied, and the results are presented as simple closed form solutions useful for evaluation...

  20. Acoustic Impedance Inversion To Identify Oligo-Miocene Carbonate Facies As Reservoir At Kangean Offshore Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuli Purnama, Arif; Ariyani Machmud, Pritta; Eka Nurcahya, Budi; Yusro, Miftahul; Gunawan, Agung; Rahmadi, Dicky

    2018-03-01

    Model based inversion was applied to inversion process of 2D seismic data in Kangean Offshore Area. Integration acoustic impedance from wells and seismic data was expected showing physical property, facies separation and reservoir quality of carbonate rock, particularly in Kangean Offshore Area. Quantitative and qualitative analysis has been conducted on the inversion results to characterize the carbonate reservoir part of Kujung and correlate it to depositional facies type. Main target exploration in Kangean Offshore Area is Kujung Formation (Oligo-Miocene Carbonate). The type of reservoir in this area generate from reef growing on the platform. Carbonate rock is a reservoir which has various type and scale of porosity. Facies determination is required to to predict reservoir quality, because each facies has its own porosity value. Acoustic impedance is used to identify and characterize Kujung carbonate facies, also could be used to predict the distribution of porosity. Low acoustic impedance correlated with packstone facies that has acoustic impedance value below 7400 gr/cc*m/s. In other situation, high acoustic impedance characterized by wackestone facies above 7400 gr/cc*m/s. The interpretation result indicated that Kujung carbonate rock dominated by packstone facies in the upper part of build-up and it has ideal porosity for hydrocarbon reservoir.

  1. Stress state reassessment of Romanian offshore structures taking into account corrosion influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joavină, R.; Zăgan, S.; Zăgan, R.; Popa, M.

    2017-08-01

    Progressive degradation analysis for extraction or exploration offshore structure, with appraisal of failure potential and the causes that can be correlated with the service age, depends on the various sources of uncertainty that require particular attention in design, construction and exploitation phases. Romanian self erecting platforms are spatial lattice structures consist of tubular steel joints, forming a continuous system with an infinite number of dynamic degrees of freedom. Reassessment of a structure at fixed intervals of time, recorrelation of initial design elements with the actual situation encountered in location and with structural behaviour represents a major asset in lowering vulnerabilities of offshore structure. This paper proposes a comparative reassessment of the stress state for an offshore structure Gloria type, when leaving the shipyard and at the end of that interval corresponding to capital revision, taking into account sectional changes due to marine environment corrosion. The calculation was done using Newmark integration method on a 3D model, asses of the dynamic loads was made through probabilistic spectral method.

  2. [Orange Platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Kenji

    2017-07-01

    The Organized Registration for the Assessment of dementia on Nationwide General consortium toward Effective treatment in Japan (ORANGE platform) is a recently established nationwide clinical registry for dementia. This platform consists of multiple registries of patients with dementia stratified by the following clinical stages: preclinical, mild cognitive impairment, early-stage, and advanced-stage dementia. Patients will be examined in a super-longitudinal fashion, and their lifestyle, social background, genetic risk factors, and required care process will be assessed. This project is also notable because the care registry includes information on the successful, comprehensive management of patients with dementia. Therefore, this multicenter prospective cohort study will contribute participants to all clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease as well as improve the understanding of individuals with dementia.

  3. Oil exploration and production offshore Sakhalin Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, I.C. [Sakhalin Energy Investment Company, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-11-15

    The offshore oil and gas exploration that is currently taking place on Sakhalin Island was discussed, with particular reference to the status of Sakhalin Energy and the challenges facing oil and exportation from the ice covered waters of Russia's Sea of Okhotsk. Sakhalin Energy, an incorporated joint venture of a consortium of companies, completed a feasibility study for oil production off the east coast of Sakhalin Island in December 1992. Sakhalin Energy has two fields, namely the Piltun Astokhskoye and Lunskoye fields. The Piltun Astokhskoye field is currently under production via the Molikpaq platform and the Lunskoye field and northern part of Piltun Astokhskoye field are currently being developed under the Phase 2 project. Since 1999, Sakhalin Energy has been producing oil from a caisson structure drilling rig which was fitted with ice protection shielding around the waterline in order to comply with Russian requirements. Production is via an undersea pipeline to a Single Anchor Leg Mooring (SALM) unit and then to a Floating Storage and Offloading unit (FSO). A brief outline of the structure was presented along with current ice management procedures and arrangements. In order to maximize the length of the production season, ice management is used to enable an early start and a late end to production. It was noted that great care is taken to ensure that the operations in ice are carried out with consideration of the environmentally sensitive area that is home to the endangered Western Gray Whale and Stellar Sea Eagle. 3 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  4. Current trends in offshore technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsgaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    Although this is a technical symposium concerning advances in the technology of producing oil and gas offshore, a keynote address would not be complete without mentioning non-technical factors which are extremely important for the business of producing oil and gas offshore. These are political factors and economic factors. Offshore operations are an easy target for political forces that are opposed to marine operations involving the production and transfer of hydrocarbons. For example, the oil pollution act of 1990 was a reaction to the Exxon Valdez grounding in Alaska and this act has added significantly to the risk and cost of operating offshore. Another example of this is that it is becoming more and more difficult to dispose of produced water offshore. Producing oil and gas offshore is a business that competes with other energy sources such as coal and oil and gas from wells on land. The offshore oil can only compete with these other resources by providing the same product at a competitive price. Since offshore operations are inherently more costly than land operations, the offshore oil field or gas field must be significantly larger than a land field in order to be produced. Also the offshore oil field or gas field is more susceptible to environmental risks from weather. On a more positive note, there are technical developments which are taking place and have continuously taken place to make offshore oil and gas both more economic and safer to produce. These developments are briefly discussed

  5. Offshore oil and gas and offshore wind power - different in terms of safety.?; Offshore Oel and Gas und Offshore Wind - mit Sicherheit ''anders''.?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, F.; Tatulinski, M. [DNV GL - Oil and Gas Germany, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Safety standards in the oil and gas industry have risen to a high level over the past decades, driven in part by momentous accidents. Furthermore, an expanded framework has recently been defined through the new EU Offshore Safety Directive, which in Germany is still in the process of its transposition into national law. The installation of offshore wind farms in the North and Baltic Sea has within the shortest of time brought forth an entirely new branch of industry, most of whose players have no significant experience with offshore operations. One of the greatest challenges is the working environment, which is being approached in different ways by those involved. The supervisory authorities responsible are only just beginning to develop the competence required for their tasks, with the effect that regulations pertaining to onshore operations are often simply adopted as they are. This is in some cases impacting on the oil and gas industry, as is discussed in the present lecture. [German] Die Oel und Gas Industrie hat in den vergangen Jahrzehnten einen hohen Sicherheitsstandard entwickelt, teilweise getrieben durch signifikante Unfallereignisse. Aktuell wurde zudem mit der neuen EU-Offshore Richtlinie ein erweiterter Rahmen definiert, der sich in Deutschland noch in der gesetzgeberischen Umsetzung befindet. Durch die Installation von Offshore-Windparks in der Nord- und Ostsee ist innerhalb kuerzester Zeit zusaetzlich ein neuer Industriebereich entstanden, dessen Marktteilnehmer mehrheitlich nicht ueber signifikante Offshore-Erfahrung verfuegen. Insbesondere das Arbeitsumfeld stellt dabei eine Herausforderung dar, die von den Beteiligten unterschiedlich geloest wird. Ferner beginnen auch die verantwortlichen Aufsichtsbehoerden erst mit dem Aufbau entsprechender Kompetenzen, so dass vielfach auch Regelungen aus dem Onshore-Bereich uebertragen werden. Dies fuehrt teilweise zu Auswirkungen auf die Oel- und Gasindustrie, die im Rahmen dieses Vortrages diskutiert werden.

  6. MMSReefish Study Databases from 1993-1999 field collections (SEC7-95-11 Fish Mortalities From Explosive Removal of Petroleum Platforms)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Impacts of the Explosive Removal of Offshore Oil and Gas Structureson Fish Stocks in the Gulf of MexicoOffshore oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM)...

  7. Subsea prizes : companies pushing the envelope offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, R.

    2009-06-15

    In order to make projects economic, companies are going farther offshore and deeper to find oil and gas or to use existing offshore platforms and longer horizontals. Companies such as StatoilHydro are reworking strategies on how to approach future oil finds. This article discussed examples of ultra deep and long horizontal oil finds such as Statoil's complicated but highly successful Gulltopp project. Although drilling ultra-deep wells or long horizontal wells is risky, they can also be very lucrative. The article also discussed McMoRan Exploration Company of New Orleans' high-risk deeper targets in the Gulf of Mexico and its exploration strategy. The longest well in the world, drilled by Maersk Oil Qatar AS was also described. The article noted that the Danish company reported that the entire horizontal section of the well was placed within a reservoir target which was only 20 feet thick. Schlumberger helped Maersk Oil Qatar break several records with extended reach drilling (ERD) offshore well. This well set 10 records, including the longest well ever drilled; longest along-hole departure; longest 8 and a half inch section; highest ERD ratio; highest directional drilling difficulty index; deepest directional control; deepest downlink, MWD transmission and LWD geosteering; deepest battery-less operation; longest reservoir contact; and longest open hole. Last, the article discussed an unsuccessful well drilled by Murphy Oil Corporation known as the Manhattan well. 8 figs.

  8. Offshore Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, Nicola Barberis

    reliability models, and a new model that accounts for all relevant factors that influence the evaluations is developed. According to this representation, some simulations are performed and both the points of view of the wind farm owner and the system operator are evaluated and compared. A sequential Monte...... Carlo simulation is used for these calculations: this method, in spite of an extended computation time, has shown flexibility in performing reliability studies, especially in case of wind generation, and a broad range of results which can be evaluated. The modelling is then extended to the entire power......The aim of the project is to investigate the influence of wind farms on the reliability of power systems. This task is particularly important for large offshore wind farms, because failure of a large wind farm might have significant influence on the balance of the power system, and because offshore...

  9. Offshore wind generators: realization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The author discusses the French legal context for the different aspects of the development of offshore wind farms in France: procedures related to electricity production installations (authorization or tender like what has been done for six sites), other administrative authorizations, and connection to the grid. Then, she addresses the various constraints: environmental, social and technical constraints (protected marine areas, constraints related to the tendering process), coast planning documents, tax policy. She finally discusses the installation dismantling

  10. Specificity of Geotechnical Measurements and Practice of Polish Offshore Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumil Laczynski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As offshore market in Europe grows faster and faster, new sea areas are being managed and new ideas on how to use the sea potential are being developed. In North Sea, where offshore industry conducts intensive expansion since late 1960s, numerous wind farms, oil and gas platforms and pipelines have been put into operation following extensive research, including geotechnical measurement. Recently, a great number of similar projects is under development in Baltic Sea, inter alia in Polish EEZ, natural conditions of which vary from the North Sea significantly. In this paper, those differences are described together with some solutions to problems thereby arising.

  11. [The Design Requirements for an E-Health Management Platform: Addressing the Needs of Adolescent Girls at High Risk of Metabolic Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mei-Chen; Chen, Wen-Chin; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Jou, Hei-Jen; Hsiao, Ya-Chu; Tsao, Lee-Ing

    2015-10-01

    The rising prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adolescents has not been effectively addressed by current campus-based health promotions. Using the Internet in these promotions may help health professionals achieve better healthcare management. The purpose of the present study was to explore the design requirements of an e-health management platform from the subjective perspective of adolescent girls who were at a high risk of metabolic syndrome. The findings may provide a reference for designing nursing interventions that more effectively promote healthly lifestyle habits to adolescents. This qualitative study employed a snowball approach and used a semi-structured interview guide to collect data. A total of 20 Taiwanese adolescent females who were at a high risk of metabolic syndrome, aged 16-20 years, able to speak Mandarin or Taiwanese, and willing to participate and to have their sessions tape-recorded were enrolled as participants and engaged individually in in-depth interviews. The constant comparative method was used to inductively analyze the interview data. Five main themes related to the e-health management platform emerged from the data. These themes included: an attractive and user-friendly website interface, access to reliable information and resources, provision of tailored health information, access to peer support, and self-monitoring and learning tools. The findings highlight the key design needs of an e-Health management platform from the perspective of adolescent girls who are at a high risk of metabolic syndrome. The identified themes may be addressed in future revisions / developments of these platforms in order to better address the needs of this vulnerable population and to effectively reduce the incidence of metabolic syndrome. The authors hope that the results of the present study may be used to provide better healthcare and support for adolescent girls with metabolic syndrome.

  12. Outsourcing software development offshore making IT work

    CERN Document Server

    Gold, Tandy

    2004-01-01

    THE OFFSHORE IMPERATIVECrunching the Offshore Numbers: What the Financials PortendWelcome to the Definitive Guide on Offshore OutsourcingSetting the Stage: The Compelling Offshore StoryOffshore Outsourcing versus Traditional IT OutsourcingChallenges of Offshore OutsourcingChapter SummaryGetting Started in OffshoreExecutive Support and Communications: The Key to SuccessA Look at an Example of Enlightened Leadership: Handling Employee Impact at a Northeast Utilities CompanyWell-Planned and Executed Communications: A Critical Success Factor for Offshore Program InitiationEstablishing the Offshore

  13. Wind energy in offshore grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    special characteristics of offshore grids. With an operational real options approach, it is furthermore illustrated how different support schemes and connections to additional countries affect the investment case of an offshore wind farm and the income of the transmission system operator. The investment...... and investment implications under different regulatory frameworks are a hitherto underrepresented research field. They are addressed by this thesis. Offshore grids between several countries combine the absorption of wind energy with international power trading. However, the inclusion into an offshore grid......This cumulative PhD thesis deals with wind integration in offshore grids from an economic point of view. It is composed of a generic part and eight papers. As the topic has mostly been analysed with a focus on topology and technical issues until now, market-operational questions in offshore grids...

  14. The Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    of offshoring. Specifically, we propose that hidden costs can be explained by the combination of increasing structural, operational and social complexity of offshoring activities. In addition, we suggest that firm orientation towards organizational design as part of an offshoring strategy and offshoring......This study seeks to explain hidden costs of offshoring, i.e. unexpected costs resulting from the relocation of business tasks and activities outside the home country. We develop a model that highlights the role of complexity, design orientation and experience in explaining hidden costs...... experience moderate the relationship between complexity and hidden costs negatively i.e. reduces the cost generating impact of complexity. We develop three hypotheses and test them on comprehensive data from the Offshoring Research Network (ORN). In general, we find support for our hypotheses. A key result...

  15. Reconstruction of burial history, temperature, source rock maturity and hydrocarbon generation in the northwestern Dutch offshore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Fattah, R.; Verweij, J.M.; Witmans, N.; Veen, J.H. ten

    2012-01-01

    3D basin modelling is used to investigate the history of maturation and hydrocarbon generation on the main platforms in the northwestern part of the offshore area of the Netherlands. The study area covers the Cleaverbank and Elbow Spit Platforms. Recently compiled maps and data are used to build the

  16. Design and analysis of liquefaction process for offshore associated gas resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q.Y.; Ju, Y.L.

    2010-01-01

    Liquefaction is the key section on floating platform. Some experts and designers selected mixed refrigerant process for floating platform, while some recommended expander cycle. However, few of them compared the two types of processes systemically before making a choice. In this paper, the liquefaction processes of propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant cycle (C 3 /MRC), mixed refrigerant cycle (MRC) and nitrogen expander cycle (N 2 expander) for the special offshore associated gases in South China Sea have been designed and studied. These processes have been analyzed and compared systematically considering the main factors including the performance parameters, economic performance, layout, sensitivity to motion, suitability to different gas resources, safety and operability, accounting for the features of the floating production, storage and offloading unit for liquefied natural gas (LNG-FPSO) in marine environment. The results indicated that N 2 expander has higher energy consumption and poorer economic performance, while it has much more advantages than C 3 /MRC and MRC for offshore application because it is simpler and more compact and thus requiring less deck area, less sensitive to LNG-FPSO motion, has better suitability for other gas resources, has higher safety and is easier to operate. Therefore, N 2 expander is the most suitable offshore liquefaction process. In addition, the exergy analysis is conducted for N 2 expander and the results indicate that the compression equipments and after coolers, expanders and LNG heat exchangers are the main contribution to the total exergy losses. The measures to decrease the losses for these equipments are then discussed.

  17. The Economic Geography of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    when distinguishing between standardized and advanced activities. Asia attracts as many advanced activities as Western Europe while North America attracts more advanced activities even in manufacturing. Central and Eastern Europe attract offshoring in manufacturing and IT, but the activities...... that are offshored to these regions are typically not advanced. One important theoretical implication of this study is that a more detailed understanding of the nature of offshored activities is needed, since such attributes appear to be an important determinant of location choice....

  18. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    It was found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. The result is a nonground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane and icing conditions for a one time cost of 5.7 billion dollars. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. The east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna, such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

  19. Decommissioning and abandonment of offshore installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Side, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    To the onlooker surprising little thought was given at the project planning stage to the fate of offshore facilities once their production lifetimes had come to an end. Throughout the 1970s at least, international law required the complete removal of all structures and installations one disused or abandoned. Fishermen's organisations were led to believe that such installations would be entirely removed yet many of the designs of these show that removal was not much in the minds of the engineers or project management during the design stages. Changes in the text of the United Nations' Convention on the Law of the Sea and (by their widespread legal adoption) in customary international law may now permit partial removal of installations subject to important safeguards for navigation, the environment and other users of the sea. Of the North Sea states at least one has adopted policies that will minimise the cost associated with offshore decommissioning and abandonment and both the UK and Norway are adopting legislation which will provide for a case by case approach to the decommissioning and abandonment of offshore facilities and allow partial removal options. There has thus been a recent and significant change in approach to the abandonment of offshore oil and gas installations. This chapter reviews the development of abandonment laws and policies, outlines the available removal options, and provides a consideration of the environmental and fishery implications of these for the North Sea. (Author)

  20. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirnivas, Senu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bailey, Bruce [AWS Trupower LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Filippelli, Matthew [AWS Trupower LLC, Albany, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  1. Utilizing offshore potentials for wind power generation; Nutzung der Offshore-Potentiale fuer die Windenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, H. [Neptun Industrie GmbH, Rostock (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The contribution discusses the importance of the offshore market and recommends measures to develop it. A turnkey offer is required for exports, which means that all organisations cooperating in the pilot project must prove their competence. The status of a pilot project in the Baltic Sea and the further plans for the park (20 systems, 40 MW, more than 10 km off the coast, water depth about 20 m) are reviewed. [German] Zur Erschliessung des Offshore - Marktes fuer Windenergieanlagen ist es erforderlich, die Technologie ''vor der eigenen Haustuer'' demonstrieren zu koennen. Nach einer Betrachtung der europaeischen Offshore - Windenergie - Potentiale und der davon moeglicherweise nutzbaren Anteile wird die Bedeutung des Offshore - Marktes deutlich. Besonders fuer die Hersteller ist der Offshore - Markt fuer den langfristigen Export von besonderer Bedeutung. Um den Export zu realisieren, ist ein Turnkey - Angebot erforderlich, so dass im Pilotprojekt alle an der gesamten Realisation beteiligten Organisationen ihre Kompetenz beweisen muessen und koennen. Der Stand eines Pilotprojektes in der Ostsee und die weitere Planung fuer den Park (20 Anlagen, 40 MW, >10 km Kuestenentfernung, ca. 20 m Wassertiefe) wird dargestellt. (orig.)

  2. Offshore: nations needing our help to exploit oil and gas. [British offshore supply industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, R

    1978-02-23

    The opportunities around the world for Great Britian to sell companies its expertise on petroleum and natural gas drilling are surveyed. Hydrocarbon reserves; development plans, especially offshore drilling plans; needed equipment and technology; and investment requirements are a few of the factors discussed for Venezuela, Brazil, Mexico, India, Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Singapore. (MCW)

  3. Offshore floating windmills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The aim was to produce a general survey of the profitability of establishing floating offshore wind turbine arrays and to compare this with the cost and profitability of constructing offshore arrays with fixed foundations and arrays located on land sites. Aspects of design in all cases are described, also into relation to the special demands placed on dimensioning in relation to the types of location and foundation. The costs of the offshore arrays are evaluated in relation to capacity under conditions in Danish waters. The advantage of floating arrays is that they can be placed far out to sea where they can not be seen from the coast and thus not be considered to spoil the marine view. But as the water gets deeper the cost of floating foundations rises. It was found that it would not be technologically profitable to establish floating arrays at a depth of less than 30 - 40 meters which means that only the outer Danish waters can be taken into consideration. For depths of up to 70 meters, individual floating bases are more expensive than fixed ones but would be cheaper if a number of windmills could share the same anchor. For depths of more than 70 meters floating foundations would be the cheapest. The cost is dependent on the depth and distance from the coast and also on wind conditions. The main conclusion is that currently the cost of establishing wind turbine arrays in deeper outer waters on floating foundations is comparable to that of arrays sited at inner waters on solid foundations placed on the sea bed. (AB) (20 refs.)

  4. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    : the rotor, the nacelle, the tower, and the foundation. Further the determinations of the essential environmental conditions are treated: the wind field, the wave field, the sea current, and the soil conditions. The various options for grid connections, advantages, and disadvantages are discussed. Of special...... concern are the problems associated with locating the turbines close together in a wind farm and the problems of placing several large wind farms in a confined area. The environmental impacts of offshore wind farms are also treated, but not the supply chain, that is, the harbors, the installation vessels...

  5. The effect of corrosion on the structural reliability of steel offshore structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchers, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers essential theoretical concepts and data requirements for engineering structural reliability assessment suitable for the estimation of the safety and reliability of corroding ships, offshore structures and pipelines. Such infrastructure operates in a harsh environment. Allowance must be made for structural deterioration since protective measures such as paint coatings, galvanizing or cathodic protection may be ineffective. Reliability analysis requires accurate engineering models for the description and prediction of material corrosion loss and for the maximum depth of pitting. New probability-based models for both these forms of corrosion have been proposed recently and calibrated against a wide range of data. The effects of water velocity and of water pollution are reviewed and compared with recently reported field data for a corrosion at an offshore oil platform. The data interpreted according to the model show good correlation when allowance is made for the season of first immersion and the adverse effects of seawater velocity and of water pollution. An example is given to illustrate the application of reliability analysis to a pipeline subject to pitting corrosion. An important outcome is that good quality estimation of the longer-term probability of loss of structural integrity requires good modelling of the longer-term corrosion behaviour. This is usually associated with anaerobic corrosion. As a result, it cannot be extrapolated from data for short-term corrosion as this is associated with aerobic corrosion conditions

  6. The effect of corrosion on the structural reliability of steel offshore structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchers, Robert E. [Centre for Infrastructure Performance and Reliability, Department of Civil, Surveying and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan NSW 2300 (Australia)]. E-mail: rob.melchers@newcastle.edu.au

    2005-10-01

    This paper considers essential theoretical concepts and data requirements for engineering structural reliability assessment suitable for the estimation of the safety and reliability of corroding ships, offshore structures and pipelines. Such infrastructure operates in a harsh environment. Allowance must be made for structural deterioration since protective measures such as paint coatings, galvanizing or cathodic protection may be ineffective. Reliability analysis requires accurate engineering models for the description and prediction of material corrosion loss and for the maximum depth of pitting. New probability-based models for both these forms of corrosion have been proposed recently and calibrated against a wide range of data. The effects of water velocity and of water pollution are reviewed and compared with recently reported field data for a corrosion at an offshore oil platform. The data interpreted according to the model show good correlation when allowance is made for the season of first immersion and the adverse effects of seawater velocity and of water pollution. An example is given to illustrate the application of reliability analysis to a pipeline subject to pitting corrosion. An important outcome is that good quality estimation of the longer-term probability of loss of structural integrity requires good modelling of the longer-term corrosion behaviour. This is usually associated with anaerobic corrosion. As a result, it cannot be extrapolated from data for short-term corrosion as this is associated with aerobic corrosion conditions.

  7. The offshoring challenge strategic design and innovation for tomorrow’s organization

    CERN Document Server

    Bals, Lydia; Jensen, Peter; Larsen, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The continuous search for efficiency gains and the goal of attaining a sustainable competitive advantage have steadily increased the volume of goods and services procured globally from third party vendors. In this context, named as “the next wave of globalization”, the offshoring phenomenon has stimulated research and political debates. With the rise of services offshoring, international value chain disaggregation for services has reached a formerly unknown scale. Also, it is increasingly complex transactions, requiring a higher degree of qualification, which are becoming subject to offshoring as well. The Offshoring Challenge: Strategic Design and Innovation for Tomorrow’s Organization features selected chapters by an international research community on the topic of offshoring. All potential business models from offshore outsourcing to third party providers are covered, from cooperative arrangements to internal organizational set-ups including captive offshore centers. Contributions have significant in...

  8. Quantifying the hurricane catastrophe risk to offshore wind power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J; Apt, Jay

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that over 50 GW of offshore wind power will be required for the United States to generate 20% of its electricity from wind. Developers are actively planning offshore wind farms along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts and several leases have been signed for offshore sites. These planned projects are in areas that are sometimes struck by hurricanes. We present a method to estimate the catastrophe risk to offshore wind power using simulated hurricanes. Using this method, we estimate the fraction of offshore wind power simultaneously offline and the cumulative damage in a region. In Texas, the most vulnerable region we studied, 10% of offshore wind power could be offline simultaneously because of hurricane damage with a 100-year return period and 6% could be destroyed in any 10-year period. We also estimate the risks to single wind farms in four representative locations; we find the risks are significant but lower than those estimated in previously published results. Much of the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines can be mitigated by designing turbines for higher maximum wind speeds, ensuring that turbine nacelles can turn quickly to track the wind direction even when grid power is lost, and building in areas with lower risk. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. The offshore trend: Structural changes in the wind power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markard, Jochen; Petersen, Regula

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the wind power sector has begun to move offshore, i.e. to use space and good wind speeds on the open sea for large scale electricity generation. Offshore wind power, however, is not just technologically challenging but also a capital intensive and risky business that requires particular financial and organizational resources not all potential investors might have. We therefore address the question, what impact offshore wind power may have on ownership and organizational structures in the wind power sector. We compare on- and offshore wind park ownership in Denmark, the UK and Germany. The analysis shows that offshore wind power in all three countries is dominated by large firms, many of which are from the electricity sector. In Denmark and the UK, also investors from the gas and oil industry play an important role in the offshore wind business. This development represents a major shift for countries such as Germany and Denmark, in which the wind power sector has grown and matured on the basis of investments by individuals, farmers, cooperatives and independent project developers. The structural changes by which offshore wind power is accompanied have consequences for turbine manufacturers, project developers, investors, associations and policy makers in the field.

  10. Geomechanical Performance of Hydrate-Bearing Sediment in Offshore Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Holditch; Tad Patzek; Jonny Rutqvist; George Moridis; Richard Plumb

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this multi-year, multi-institutional research project was to develop the knowledge base and quantitative predictive capability for the description of geomechanical performance of hydrate-bearing sediments (hereafter referred to as HBS) in oceanic environments. The focus was on the determination of the envelope of hydrate stability under conditions typical of those related to the construction and operation of offshore platforms. We have developed a robust numerical simulator of hydrate behavior in geologic media by coupling a reservoir model with a commercial geomechanical code. We also investigated the geomechanical behavior of oceanic HBS using pore-scale models (conceptual and mathematical) of fluid flow, stress analysis, and damage propagation. The objective of the UC Berkeley work was to develop a grain-scale model of hydrate-bearing sediments. Hydrate dissociation alters the strength of HBS. In particular, transformation of hydrate clusters into gas and liquid water weakens the skeleton and, simultaneously, reduces the effective stress by increasing the pore pressure. The large-scale objective of the study is evaluation of geomechanical stability of offshore oil and gas production infrastructure. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), we have developed the numerical model TOUGH + Hydrate + FLAC3D to evaluate how the formation and disassociation of hydrates in seafloor sediments affects seafloor stability. Several technical papers were published using results from this model. LBNL also developed laboratory equipment and methods to produce realistic laboratory samples of sediments containing gas hydrates so that mechanical properties could be measured in the laboratory. These properties are required to run TOUGH + Hydrate + FLAC3D to evaluate seafloor stability issues. At Texas A&M University we performed a detailed literature review to determine what gas hydrate formation properties had been measured and reported in the literature. We

  11. Dutch offshore skills assessed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaap, P

    1988-11-01

    The position is described of the different Dutch industries involved in the oil and gas exploitation business in the North Sea. Mentioned are, in the first place, the activities of towing services Smit Tak, and Wijsmuller. A well known drilling contractor is Neddrill. Drilling rigs are often designed in cooperation with consulting engineers firms Protech International, Heerema Engineering, Global Engineering, KTI, Fluor, and Tebodin. Drilling rigs constructors Grootint, Mercon Steel Structures, Heerema Havenbedrijf, HCG, Boele, and IHC have a sound name in the offshore construction scene. Offshore contractors like Heerema, Smit Tak, Volker Stevin and Allseas Engineering should be mentioned too. Special attention is given to the operation of saving drilling rigs in the Ekofisk field. Years of exploitation of oil and gas from this field resulted in subsidence of the sea floor, which endangered the drilling rigs. Hydraudyne designed the hydraulic lifter necessary for this saving operation. Dutch firms in this field have an estimated yearly turnover of Dfl 3 x 10/sup 9/. 6 figs.

  12. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  13. OFFSHORING FOR SUSTAINABLE VALUE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaddeus Oforegbunam Ebiringa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates offshoring as a strategic value management initiative using Cadbury Nigeria Plc as a case study. Through offshoring risks associated with inventory holding are hedged. A comparative analysis of in-house and offshored cost profiles as well as critical risk factors that affect firm value are evaluated. The result shows that offshoring led to immediate costs saving, freeing of funds previously held in inventory for other working capital investments as well as profitability for vendors. However, aside financial benefits to partners, it leads to increased stakeholders awareness, shared values, partnerships, teamwork and risk mitigation. It therefore follows that for sustainability of financial benefits of offshoring, concerted effort must be made by partners to ensure that critical drivers of value management are not compromised.

  14. For the birds : suspected roastings prompt study of offshore flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, W.

    1999-01-01

    A recent research project has revealed that offshore flares can pose a hazard to waterfowl. Two academic environmentalists from Memorial University and the Atlantic Co-operation Wildlife Ecology Research are working with Hibernia, PanCanadian Resources, Terra Nova and the Sable gas group to study the possibility of oil platforms having killed great numbers of birds. The objective is to study the potential problem and try to quantify the number of seabirds and what the impacts might be on the birds. The work involves observing waterfowl from oil platforms and supply vessels and taking a census of various species, the number of casualties and how they die. This project did not start because of any hard facts suggesting the offshore oil industry hurts the ecology of the Grand Banks. It stems from public concerns about Terra Nova, the next big project. 1 fig

  15. Canadian East Coast offshore petroleum industry safe lifting practices respecting offshore pedestal cranes, offshore containers, loose gear, other lifting devices, and operational best practices : standard practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    This document was developed by a working group with representatives from the petroleum industry, the Offshore Petroleum Boards and Certifying Authorities. It outlines industry best practices for operators responsible for the management, planning and execution of offshore lifting operations. Its purpose is to assist in the interpretation of applicable legislation and standards. Considered within the practice are safe design requirements, manufacture, certification, testing, maintenance and inspection requirements for pedestal cranes, offshore containers, loose gear and lifting devices. Operational best practices for lifting operations are also included along with a section that identifies additional requirements for personnel lifting operations, including personnel transfers by crane and man-riding operations. 82 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs., 3 appendices.

  16. Outsourcing/Offshoring Insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tate, Wendy; Bals, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    Findings: Both the geographical and governance dimensions are part of the rightshoring decision which is an important conceptual foundation for this special issue, as it invited insightful pieces on all of these phenomena (e.g. outsourcing, insourcing, offshoring, reshoring), acknowledging...... for future research out of the six papers are summarized in Table III. There is ample opportunity to further shed light on these suggestions as well as to cover parts of the “rightshoring” framework presented, that remain less covered here (e.g. insourcing and/or reshoring). Practical implications: The array...... of potential “rightshoring” options fosters clarity about the phenomena studied and their implications. The main practical implications of the six papers are summarized in Table II. Originality/value: The overall conceptual framework highlights the positioning of the final papers included into the special...

  17. Payment Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    thoroughly and substitute current payment standards in the decades to come. This paper portrays how digital payment platforms evolve in socio-technical niches and how various technological platforms aim for institutional attention in their attempt to challenge earlier platforms and standards. The paper...... applies a co-evolutionary multilevel perspective to model the interplay and processes between technology and society wherein digital payment platforms potentially will substitute other payment platforms just like the credit card negated the check. On this basis this paper formulate a multilevel conceptual...

  18. Effect of Second-Order Hydrodynamics on a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roald, L.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2014-05-01

    The design of offshore floating wind turbines uses design codes that can simulate the entire coupled system behavior. At the present, most codes include only first-order hydrodynamics, which induce forces and motions varying with the same frequency as the incident waves. Effects due to second- and higher-order hydrodynamics are often ignored in the offshore industry, because the forces induced typically are smaller than the first-order forces. In this report, first- and second-order hydrodynamic analysis used in the offshore oil and gas industry is applied to two different wind turbine concepts--a spar and a tension leg platform.

  19. The Effects of Anthropogenic Structures on Habitat Connectivity and the Potential Spread of Non-Native Invertebrate Species in the Offshore Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rachel D; Page, Henry M; Zaleski, Susan; Miller, Robert; Dugan, Jenifer E; Schroeder, Donna M; Doheny, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Offshore structures provide habitat that could facilitate species range expansions and the introduction of non-native species into new geographic areas. Surveys of assemblages of seven offshore oil and gas platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel revealed a change in distribution of the non-native sessile invertebrate Watersipora subtorquata, a bryozoan with a planktonic larval duration (PLD) of 24 hours or less, from one platform in 2001 to four platforms in 2013. We use a three-dimensional biophysical model to assess whether larval dispersal via currents from harbors to platforms and among platforms is a plausible mechanism to explain the change in distribution of Watersipora and to predict potential spread to other platforms in the future. Hull fouling is another possible mechanism to explain the change in distribution of Watersipora. We find that larval dispersal via currents could account for the increase in distribution of Watersipora from one to four platforms and that Watersipora is unlikely to spread from these four platforms to additional platforms through larval dispersal. Our results also suggest that larvae with PLDs of 24 hours or less released from offshore platforms can attain much greater dispersal distances than larvae with PLDs of 24 hours or less released from nearshore habitat. We hypothesize that the enhanced dispersal distance of larvae released from offshore platforms is driven by a combination of the offshore hydrodynamic environment, larval behavior, and larval release above the seafloor.

  20. Collection of offshore human error probability data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basra, Gurpreet; Kirwan, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Accidents such as Piper Alpha have increased concern about the effects of human errors in complex systems. Such accidents can in theory be predicted and prevented by risk assessment, and in particular human reliability assessment (HRA), but HRA ideally requires qualitative and quantitative human error data. A research initiative at the University of Birmingham led to the development of CORE-DATA, a Computerised Human Error Data Base. This system currently contains a reasonably large number of human error data points, collected from a variety of mainly nuclear-power related sources. This article outlines a recent offshore data collection study, concerned with collecting lifeboat evacuation data. Data collection methods are outlined and a selection of human error probabilities generated as a result of the study are provided. These data give insights into the type of errors and human failure rates that could be utilised to support offshore risk analyses

  1. Offshoring practices of Danish and Swedish SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Johansen, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) configure their operations on the global scale and how this affects their home bases in terms of operations requirements and priorities. In order to relate SMEs’ offshoring initiatives with their operations configuration attributes, we...... draw on the operations networks literature and survey responses from 675 Danish and 410 Swedish companies. On the basis of the survey results, we find that although the SMEs are less experienced and less advanced in their offshoring ventures than large companies, they are building dispersed operations...... networks. Although still in their infancy, these networks are, as expected, creating new demands for their home bases in terms of demands for formalisation of work processes, systems development and managerial capability related to orchestrating operations across national borders, but more fundamentally...

  2. Sediment porewater toxicity assessment studies in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R. S.; Chapman, D. C.; Presley, B. J.; Biedenbach, J. M.; Robertson, L.

    1996-01-01

    Sediment chemical analyses and porewater toxicity tests were conducted in the vicinity of five offshore oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico to determine the potential long-term environmental impacts of offshore oil and gas exploration and production. Evidence of toxicity was obtained from four of the five platforms from data on sea urchin fertilization and embryonic development. The majority of toxic samples were collected within 150 m of the platform. Sediment concentrations of several metals were well in excess of sediment quality assessment guidelines at a number of stations. Porewater metal concentrations were found to be high enough to account for the observed toxicity. The general conclusion reached from these toxicity tests was that the contaminant-induced impacts from the offshore platforms were confined to a limited area in the immediate vicinity of the platform. 23 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs

  3. Environmental considerations of offshore wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryckman, A. [Natural Resource Solutions Inc., Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The environmental considerations of offshore wind energy projects in the Great Lakes region were discussed from the viewpoint of an environmental consulting firm. Existing projects and proposals were discussed in relation to site-specific conditions and the environmental studies required at the proposed sites. North American facilities that are now undergoing baseline studies in the Great Lakes include the Cape Wind and Nai Kun wind farms. Impact to fisheries in the lakes is expected to occur largely during the construction phases of the developments. However, additional noise, sedimentation, and lakebed losses have the potential to impact local fish populations. Some turbine foundations create a a reef effect that increases local fish populations. Baseline fisheries data as well as substrate and habitat assessments of the lakebed are required. Impacts on birds include collision and displacement impacts. Migratory birds and staging or wintering waterfowl may be displaced from feeding areas. Radar- and plane-based surveys should be used to identify large rafts of birds in offshore habitats, while boat surveys can be used to confirm species and identify diurnal migrants. The migratory paths of bats over the Great Lakes are not well-understood. It is expected that offshore wind developments will have little impact on terrestrial vegetation. Impacts will be localized at shoreline connection points and construction areas. Shoreline habitats, wetlands, dunes and beach habitats may also be impacted. Post-construction surveys should include avian and bat mortality, waterfowl usage, and fish habitat and substrates. Further studies were recommended, as there are limited guidelines for determining the effects of offshore wind energy developments. tabs., figs.

  4. Noise from offshore wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard, B.; Plovsing, B.

    2005-07-01

    Noise assessment of wind turbines through calculations is based on sound power levels measured according to e.g. IEC 61400-11. With larger wind turbines and distances some of the calculation models give erroneous results. Noise propagation over water is different from propagation over land. For that reason it is important be able to make valid noise assessments for offshore wind farms. A suggestion for an offshore measurement method is described and a survey of models for noise propagation offshore has been made. (au)

  5. Offshore wind power in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The objectives of the project were to estimate the technical offshore wind power potential of the Gulf of Bothnia, with cost assessments, to study icing conditions and ice loads, and to design a foundation suitable for the environmental conditions. The technical offshore potential from Vaasa to Tornio is huge, more than 40 TWh/a, although the cost of offshore wind power is still higher than on land. Wind turbines have not previously been designed for the icing conditions found in Gulf of Bothnia and the recommendations for load cases and siting of megawatt-class turbines are an important result of the project. (orig.)

  6. Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation Design

    OpenAIRE

    Passon, Patrik; Branner, Kim; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Hvenekær Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Offshore vindenergi er i høj grad modnet i det seneste årti med en årligt installeret kapacitet på mere end1 GW. En vigtig faktor for den videre udvikling af offshore vindenergi i stor målestok, er en reduktion af de samlede udgifter til produceret energi. I betragtning af for eksempel faldet i olieprisen siden sommeren 2014 og dens fortsatte fald ind i 2015, er det endnu vigtigere at sænke omkostningerne til etablering af vedvarende energikilder såsom offshore vindenergi, for at nå frem til ...

  7. Gulf of Mexico Helicopter Offshore System Technologies Engineering Needs Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenke, Edmund J.; Carpenter, Elisabeth J.; Williams, Larry; Caiafa, Caesar

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in partnership with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), is conducting a research and development program to modernize the National Airspace System (NAS). The mission of NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) project is to develop advanced Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts and decision support tools for eventual deployment and implementation by the FAA and the private sector. One major objective of the NASA AATT project is to understand and promote the needs of all user classes. The Gulf of Mexico (GoMex) airspace has unique needs. A large number of helicopters operate in this area with only limited surveillance and sometimes-severe environmental conditions. Thunderstorms are the most frequent weather hazard during the spring, summer, and fall. In winter, reduced hours of daylight, low ceilings, strong winds, and icing conditions may restrict operations. Hurricanes impose the most severe weather hazard. The hurricane season, from June through October, normally requires at least one mass evacuation of all offshore platforms.

  8. Domestic R&D and Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Sørensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    survey and register data. No evidence is found for a lower probability of own R&D after offshoring takes place compared to before. Moreover, offshoring does not lead to lower R&D intensity in general. However, firms that offshore R&D activity have larger R&D intensity after offshoring has taken place...

  9. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan [Navigant Consulting, Inc.

    2013-02-22

    The objective of the report is to provide an assessment of the domestic supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure supporting the U.S. offshore wind market. The report provides baseline information and develops a strategy for future development of the supply chain required to support projected offshore wind deployment levels. A brief description of each of the key chapters includes: » Chapter 1: Offshore Wind Plant Costs and Anticipated Technology Advancements. Determines the cost breakdown of offshore wind plants and identifies technical trends and anticipated advancements in offshore wind manufacturing and construction. » Chapter 2: Potential Supply Chain Requirements and Opportunities. Provides an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding the uncertainties associated with a future U.S. offshore wind market. It projects potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios and identifies key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market as well as current suppliers of the nation’s land-based wind market. » Chapter 3: Strategy for Future Development. Evaluates the gap or competitive advantage of adding manufacturing capacity in the U.S. vs. overseas, and evaluates examples of policies that have been successful . » Chapter 4: Pathways for Market Entry. Identifies technical and business pathways for market entry by potential suppliers of large-scale offshore turbine components and technical services. The report is intended for use by the following industry stakeholder groups: (a) Industry participants who seek baseline cost and supplier information for key component segments and the overall U.S. offshore wind market (Chapters 1 and 2). The component-level requirements and opportunities presented in Section 2.3 will be particularly useful in identifying market sizes, competition, and risks for the various component segments. (b) Federal, state, and local policymakers and economic development

  10. Integration of Wave and Offshore Wind Energy in a European Offshore Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Sørensen, H. C.; Korpås, M.

    2010-01-01

    of offshore renewable energy sources. According to this, the paper covers i) public and private initiatives for offshore transmission networks, ii) the synergies between the wave and the offshore wind energy sector within an offshore grid, iii) power transmission options for offshore generation and iv...

  11. Probabilistic Design of Offshore Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1988-01-01

    Probabilistic design of structural systems is considered in this paper. The reliability is estimated using first-order reliability methods (FORM). The design problem is formulated as the optimization problem to minimize a given cost function such that the reliability of the single elements...... satisfies given requirements or such that the systems reliability satisfies a given requirement. Based on a sensitivity analysis optimization procedures to solve the optimization problems are presented. Two of these procedures solve the system reliability-based optimization problem sequentially using quasi......-analytical derivatives. Finally an example of probabilistic design of an offshore structure is considered....

  12. Probabilistic Design of Offshore Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Probabilistic design of structural systems is considered in this paper. The reliability is estimated using first-order reliability methods (FORM). The design problem is formulated as the optimization problem to minimize a given cost function such that the reliability of the single elements...... satisfies given requirements or such that the systems reliability satisfies a given requirement. Based on a sensitivity analysis optimization procedures to solve the optimization problems are presented. Two of these procedures solve the system reliability-based optimization problem sequentially using quasi......-analytical derivatives. Finally an example of probabilistic design of an offshore structure is considered....

  13. Risks to offshore installations in Europe due to natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necci, Amos; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as storms, earthquakes, or lightning are a major threat to industry. In particular, chemical plants, storage facilities, pipelines, and offshore oil and gas facilities are vulnerable to natural events which can cause hazardous materials releases and thereby endanger workers, the population and the environment. These technological accidents are commonly referred to as Natech accidents. Recent events have increased concerns about safety in the offshore oil and gas sector, and the need for improving knowledge on the matter has become evident. With those premises, we analyzed accidents, near misses and accident precursors at offshore facilities in Europe caused by natural events using both a statistical and a qualitative approach. For this purpose, we screened the World Offshore Accident Database (WOAD) to identify all incidents that featured natural events as causes or aggravating factors. A dataset of 1,085 global Natech events was built for the statistical analysis. Among those, a subset composed of 303 European records was selected. The results of the analysis showed that offshore Natech events in Europe are frequent; they resulted, however, in low consequences. The main threat to offshore facilities resulted from bad weather, such as strong winds and heavy seas. Storms can put intense loads on the structural parts of offshore installations, eventually exceeding design resistance specifications. Several incidents triggered by lightning strikes and earthquakes were also recorded. Substantial differences in terms of vulnerability, damage modality and consequences emerged between fixed and floating offshore structures. The main damage mode for floating structures was the failure of station keeping systems due to the rupture of mooring or anchors, mainly caused by adverse meteorological conditions. Most of the incidents at fixed offshore structures in Europe involved falling loads for both metal jacket and concrete base platforms due to storms. In

  14. Exergetic assessment of energy systems on North Sea oil and gas platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Pierobon, Leonardo; Elmegaard, Brian; Haglind, Fredrik; Breuhaus, Peter; Voldsund, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Oil and gas platforms in the North Sea region are associated with high power consumption and large CO 2 -emissions, as the processing and utility plants suffer from significant changes in production rates and performance losses over the field lifespan. In this paper, a generic model of the overall offshore system is described: its thermodynamic performance is assessed by performing an exergy accounting and rules of thumb for oil and gas platforms are derived. Simulations are built and conducted with the tools Aspen Plus ® , Dynamic Network Analysis and Aspen HYSYS ® . 62–65% of the total exergy destruction of an offshore platform is attributable to the power generation and waste heat recovery system, and 35–38% to the oil and gas processing. The variability of the feed composition has little effect on the split of the thermodynamic irreversibilities between both plants. The rejection of high-temperature gases from the utility and flaring systems is the major contributor to the exergy losses. These findings suggest to focus efforts on a better use of the waste heat contained in the exhaust gases and on the ways in which the gas compression performance can be improved. - Highlights: • North Sea oil and gas platforms are investigated and a generic model is developed. • Exergy analysis of these offshore facilities is performed. • Most of the total exergy destruction is attributable to the utility systems producing the electrical power required onsite. • Rejection of the exhaust gases from the utility systems is the major exergy loss of this system. • The highest thermodynamic performance is reached with low well-fluid content of water and gas

  15. Exergetic assessment of energy systems on North Sea oil and gas platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van [Section of Thermal Energy, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 403, Nils Koppels Allé, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Pierobon, Leonardo; Elmegaard, Brian; Haglind, Fredrik [Section of Thermal Energy, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 403, Nils Koppels Allé, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Breuhaus, Peter [Department of Energy, International Research Institute of Stavanger, Professor Olav Hanssens vei 15, 4021 Stavanger (Norway); Voldsund, Mari [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2013-12-01

    Oil and gas platforms in the North Sea region are associated with high power consumption and large CO{sub 2}-emissions, as the processing and utility plants suffer from significant changes in production rates and performance losses over the field lifespan. In this paper, a generic model of the overall offshore system is described: its thermodynamic performance is assessed by performing an exergy accounting and rules of thumb for oil and gas platforms are derived. Simulations are built and conducted with the tools Aspen Plus{sup ®}, Dynamic Network Analysis and Aspen HYSYS{sup ®}. 62–65% of the total exergy destruction of an offshore platform is attributable to the power generation and waste heat recovery system, and 35–38% to the oil and gas processing. The variability of the feed composition has little effect on the split of the thermodynamic irreversibilities between both plants. The rejection of high-temperature gases from the utility and flaring systems is the major contributor to the exergy losses. These findings suggest to focus efforts on a better use of the waste heat contained in the exhaust gases and on the ways in which the gas compression performance can be improved. - Highlights: • North Sea oil and gas platforms are investigated and a generic model is developed. • Exergy analysis of these offshore facilities is performed. • Most of the total exergy destruction is attributable to the utility systems producing the electrical power required onsite. • Rejection of the exhaust gases from the utility systems is the major exergy loss of this system. • The highest thermodynamic performance is reached with low well-fluid content of water and gas.

  16. Review of potential impacts to sea turtles from underwater explosive removal of offshore structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viada, Stephen T.; Hammer, Richard M.; Racca, Roberto; Hannay, David; Thompson, M. John; Balcom, Brian J.; Phillips, Neal W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect and synthesize existing information relevant to the explosive removal of offshore structures (EROS) in aquatic environments. Data sources were organized and summarized by topic - explosive removal methods, physics of underwater explosions, sea turtle resources, documented impacts to sea turtles, and mitigation of effects. Information was gathered via electronic database searches and literature source review. Bulk explosive charges are the most commonly used technique in EROS. While the physical principles of underwater detonations and the propagation of pressure and acoustic waves are well understood, there are significant gaps in the application of this knowledge. Impacts to sea turtles from explosive removal operations may range from non-injurious effects (e.g. acoustic annoyance; mild tactile detection or physical discomfort) to varying levels of injury (i.e. non-lethal and lethal injuries). Very little information exists regarding the impacts of underwater explosions on sea turtles. Effects of explosions on turtles often must be inferred from documented effects to other vertebrates with lungs or other gas-containing organs, such as mammals and most fishes. However, a cautious approach should be used when determining impacts to sea turtles based on extrapolations from other vertebrates. The discovery of beached sea turtles and bottlenose dolphins following an explosive platform removal event in 1986 prompted the initiation of formal consultation between the U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service (MMS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), authorized through the Endangered Species Act Section 7, to determine a mechanism to minimize potential impacts to listed species. The initial consultation resulted in a requirement for oil and gas companies to obtain a permit (through separate consultations on a case-by-case basis) prior to using explosives in Federal waters. Because many offshore

  17. The economics of offshore wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Richard; Vasilakos, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main issues associated with the economics of offshore wind. Investment in offshore wind systems has been growing rapidly throughout Europe, and the technology will be essential in meeting EU targets for renewable energy in 2020. Offshore wind suffers from high installation and connection costs, however, making government support essential. We review various support policies used in Europe, concluding that tender-based feed-in tariff schemes, as used in Denmark, may be best for providing adequate support while minimising developers' rents. It may prove economic to build an international offshore grid connecting wind farms belonging to different countries that are sited close to each other. (author)

  18. Some characteristics of offshore operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Đorđe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore operations are not on the margins of the world economy. They are an integral part of modern business practice. They have become one of the most important instruments in the contemporary globalized financial system. Offshore operations and tax havens are not only conduits for tax avoidance and evasion but belong more broadly to the world of finance, for the business of managing the monetary resources of an organization, country or individuals. Offshore business operating in tax havens is at the heart of a particular type of globalization that is characterized by a growing gap between the very rich and everyone else. Tax havens are financial conduits that, in exchange for a fee, use their one principal asset- their sovereignty to serve a nonresident constituency of accountants and lawyers, bankers and financiers, who bring a demand for offshore operations.

  19. The economics of offshore wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Richard; Vasilakos, Nicholas [Department of Economics, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents an overview of the main issues associated with the economics of offshore wind. Investment in offshore wind systems has been growing rapidly throughout Europe, and the technology will be essential in meeting EU targets for renewable energy in 2020. Offshore wind suffers from high installation and connection costs, however, making government support essential. We review various support policies used in Europe, concluding that tender-based feed-in tariff schemes, as used in Denmark, may be best for providing adequate support while minimising developers' rents. It may prove economic to build an international offshore grid connecting wind farms belonging to different countries that are sited close to each other. (author)

  20. Learning Paths to Offshore Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskell, Peter; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    A corporation’s offshore outsourcing may be seen as the result of a discrete, strategic decision taken in response to an increasing pressure from worldwide competition. However, empirical evidence of a representative cross-sector sample of international Danish firms indicates that offshore sourcing...... in low-cost countries is best described as a learning-by-doing process in which the offshore outsourcing of a corporation goes through a sequence of stages towards sourcing for innovation. Initially, a corporation’s outsourcing is driven by a desire for cost minimization. Over a period of time...... the outsourcing experience lessens the cognitive limitations of decision-makers as to the advantages that can be achieved through outsourcing in low-cost countries: the insourcer/vendor may not only offer cost advantages, but also quality improvement and innovation. The quality improvements that offshore...

  1. Energy efficiency measures for offshore oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter

    2016-01-01

    . They include: (i) the installation of multiple pressure levels in production manifolds, (ii) the implementation of multiphaseexpanders, (iii) the promotion of energy and process integration, (iv) the limitation of gas recirculation around the compressors, (v) the exploitation of low-temperature heat from...... the gas cooling steps, (vi) the downsizing or replacement of the existing gas turbines, and (vii) the use of the waste heat from the powerplant. The present study builds on four actual cases located in the North and Norwegian Seas, which differ by the type of oil processed, operating conditions...... and strategies. The benefits and practical limitations of each measure are discussed based on thermodynamic, economic and environmental factors. Signiffcant energy savings and reductions in CO2-emissions are depicted, reaching up to 15-20 %. However, they strongly differ from one facility to another, which...

  2. Biofouling of an offshore oil platform: faunal composition and biomass

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venugopalan, V.P.; Wagh, A.B

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Indian_J_Mar_Sci_19_53.pdf.txt stream_source_info Indian_J_Mar_Sci_19_53.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  3. Platform Constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina Stefanova; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This research paper presents an initial attempt to introduce and explain the emergence of new phenomenon, which we refer to as platform constellations. Functioning as highly modular systems, the platform constellations are collections of highly connected platforms which co-exist in parallel and a......’ acquisition and users’ engagement rates as well as unlock new sources of value creation and diversify revenue streams....

  4. Offshore regulators focus on incentives for safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W.

    2000-11-27

    Strict safety regulations in effect at offshore drilling sites are discussed. The guiding principle in all existing regulation is that while economic or industrial considerations are important, the value and the concern for human life is paramount. Should some tragic event occur at an offshore drilling site that is shown to have been caused by negligence of an operator, there is no question at all that the regulatory authority, in this case the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board (CNOPB), would take the negligent operator to court. Nevertheless, Canadian authorities remain confident that encouragement of maintaining a safe working environment is likely to be more successful in ensuring workplace safety than threats of punishment. Indeed, Canadian regulators have, in recent times, shown a tendency to move towards performance-based systems, as opposed to the more usual prescriptive or rule-bound regulatory regime. This new approach involves setting targets and giving companies the responsibility to implement measures to reach the targets rather than relying on government instructions. Still, performance-based regulation in Canada is relatively new and some regulations remain prescriptive. Examples are the requirement for two immersion suits and two lifeboat seats for every worker on a drilling unit.

  5. The Organizational Design of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Offshoring can be defined as the relocation of organizational tasks and services to foreign locations. At the same time as the scale and scope of offshoring have reached unprecedented levels in recent years, firms have increasingly been exposed to the challenges relating to managing an organizati...... implies an organizational reconfiguration consisting of three stages: disintegration, relocation and reintegration. We discuss the implications of this perspective and outline a research agenda....

  6. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergseth, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  7. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-08-01

    The technical background briefing report is the first step in the preparation of a plan for engineering research oriented toward Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. A five-year leasing schedule for the ice-prone waters of the Arctic offshore is presented, which also shows the projected dates of the lease sale for each area. The estimated peak production rates for these areas are given. There is considerable uncertainty for all these production estimates, since no exploratory drilling has yet taken place. A flow chart is presented which relates the special Arctic factors, such as ice and permafrost, to the normal petroleum production sequence. Some highlights from the chart and from the technical review are: (1) in many Arctic offshore locations the movement of sea ice causes major lateral forces on offshore structures, which are much greater than wave forces; (2) spray ice buildup on structures, ships and aircraft will be considerable, and must be prevented or accommodated with special designs; (3) the time available for summer exploratory drilling, and for deployment of permanent production structures, is limited by the return of the pack ice. This time may be extended by ice-breaking vessels in some cases; (4) during production, icebreaking workboats will service the offshore platforms in most areas throughout the year; (5) transportation of petroleum by icebreaking tankers from offshore tanker loading points is a highly probable situation, except in the Alaskan Beaufort; and (6) Arctic pipelines must contend with permafrost, making instrumentation necessary to detect subtle changes of the pipe before rupture occurs.

  8. Offshore industry executives meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The future of the Gulf of Mexico is tied to the overall future of oil/gas on the international market as it relates to the US. Conquering this last frontier, possibly only through development of technology, was one of the themes covered in the 21st Annual Meeting of the National Ocean Industries Association held in early April, 1993 in Washington, D.C. Oil is the major source for foreign exchange but there are major uncertainties in predicting the future. The swing (imports vs. exports) is two million barrels per day. The big oil users (heavy industry) have reduced consumption. The last big uncertainty is the environmental policies of the West. Development of resources in the Gulf was the third record year in a row in 1992. The potential for hydrocarbon discoveries is significant, a substantial number of new fields have been made and significant discoveries are likely to continue. More than 100 trillion cubic feet of natural gas lies undiscovered offshore - 35% of undiscovered domestic resources. The oil potential exceeds nine billion barrels, more than any other basin except Alaska

  9. Stratifying the Develoment of Product Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2013-01-01

    companies develop platforms for different aims, purposes, and product scopes. Following on from this, the requirements for platform development resources, the ways of organizing platform development, and the implications for management styles have not been explored and are presumably varying. To start...... influencing the project length, requirements for platform development resources, principles for organizing, and implications for management styles....

  10. Challenges and solutions for installing an intelligent completion in offshore deepwater Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Alfonso R. [WellDynamics, Spring, TX (United States); Arias, Jose Luiz [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes an atypical and challenging Intelligent Well Completion (IWC) installed in ultra deep water (1500-2000 m), offshore Brazil. The well is a water injector designed to selectively control the injection flow rate in to two stacked gravel pack zones. The field is Roncador, approximately 150 kilometers offshore the North-Eastern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This application is an atypical IWC due to the long distance ({approx}15 Km) from the production platform to the well. Intelligent wells have been installed at such distances previously but never with a direct control umbilical. Previous completions used a Subsea Control Module (SCM) or pod located in the wellhead. Reduced intervention costs are the typical driver for IWC in deep water applications, but water management is becoming an increasingly common application. The Roncador field development team has taken a novel approach by using IWC to manage water injection in an ultra deep water development. The challenge for the project team was to design an IWC system, which would accommodate the field infrastructure constraint, require minimal modification to the existing subsea hardware and ensure the necessary flexibility to locate surface equipment without the need for modification to the production facilities. The solution adopted for Roncador 35 is mainly based on an emerging ISO standard for the integration of IWC into Subsea Production Systems. The modular and expandable approach will enable extension of this solution to other wells in the Roncador field. (author)

  11. Probabilistic Calibration of Fatigue Design Factors for Offshore Wind Turbine Support Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, José Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    for the considered offshore wind turbines in such a way that the specific uncertainties for the fatigue life are accounted in a rational manner. Similar approaches have been used for offshore oil & gas sub-structures, but the required reliability level for offshore wind turbines is generally lower and the fatigue......This paper describes a reliability-based approach to determine fatigue design factors (FDF) for offshore wind turbine support structures made of steel. The FDF values are calibrated to a specific reliability level and linked to a specific inspection and maintenance (I&M) strategy used...

  12. Cost reduction potentials of offshore wind power in Germany; Kostensenkungspotenziale der Offshore-Windenergie in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobohm, Jens; Krampe, Leonard; Peter, Frank [Prognos AG, Berlin (Germany). Bereich Energiewirtschaft

    2014-01-15

    Offshore wind power is a major hope for the German energy turnaround. However, it will only be possible to tap its cost reduction potentials if industry, the political leadership and the administrative authorities join forces to create the necessary preconditions. An important requirement for this capital-intensive technology are stable legal and political framework conditions. A recent study on the future shows what needs to be done.

  13. Life cycle assessment of the offshore wind farm alpha ventus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Hermann-Josef; Baack, Christoph; Eickelkamp, Timo; Epe, Alexa; Lohmann, Jessica; Troy, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    Due to better wind conditions at sea, offshore wind farms have the advantage of higher electricity production compared to onshore and inland wind farms. In contrast, a greater material input, leading to increased energy consumptions and emissions during the production phase, is required to build offshore wind farms. These contrary effects are investigated for the first German offshore wind farm alpha ventus in the North Sea. In a life cycle assessment its environmental influence is compared to that of Germany's electricity mix. In comparison to the mix, alpha ventus had better indicators in nearly every investigated impact category. One kilowatt-hour electricity, generated by the wind farm, was burdened with 0.137 kWh Primary Energy-Equivalent and 32 g CO 2 -Equivalent, which represented only a small proportion of the accordant values for the mix. Furthermore, the offshore foundations as well as the submarine cable were the main energy intensive components. The energetic and greenhouse gas payback period was less than one year. Therefore, offshore wind power, even in deep water, is compatible with the switch to sustainable electricity production relying on renewable energies. Additional research, taking backup power plants as well as increasingly required energy storage systems into account, will allow further calculation. -- Highlights: → Offshore wind energy represents an environmentally friendly way of power generation. → The offshore foundations and the submarine cable are energy intensive components. → Alpha ventus emits 30 g CO 2 per kWh electricity over the entire life cycle. → Less specific emissions occur in comparison to the existing German electricity grid. → The energetic and greenhouse gas payback periods are less than one year.

  14. IS OFFSHORING AN INTERNATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Gião

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to analyze the applicability of transaction cost economics - TCE (Coase, 1937; Williamson, 1975, 1979 through its characteristic make-or-buy expression, considering the offshoring pace and emerging economy firms. The make-or-buy decision must be flexible enough to explain offshoring characteristics and developed and emerging economy firms scenarios. As secondary objectives, and to show the trail to the main purpose, two research questions were identified and discussed during the paper: Is offshoring process an international movement only from developed countries to emerging economies? Is the main reason of offshoring the looking for low-cost work / activities? To achieve the proposed objectives, the structure of this paper begins with a reasonable or acceptable definition of offshoring. Some reasons (or “the reason” for the process are also another important starting point. The majority of articles referee the idea that low-cost is the main reason for offshoring, and if it is correct, transaction cost economics seems to be a good basis for our analysis purpose and integrative intention. Also some literature connections between offshoring and TCE are presented and, naturally TCE is presented in highlights for understanding these connections. Ending this section, some different arguments based on newer researches are presented by some authors presenting another perspective as the main reason. After this theoretical approach, a scenario analysis and some discussions are presented based on all possible interactions among firm from developed (DC and emerging economies (EE and examples of international corporations are presented to clarify and improve the understanding of our research questions and to build new contributions to international business theory.

  15. Floating Offshore Wind in Oregon: Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Two Future Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Speer, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Construction of the first offshore wind power plant in the United States began in 2015, off the coast of Rhode Island, using fixed platform structures that are appropriate for shallow seafloors, like those located off of the East Coast and mid-Atlantic. However, floating platforms, which have yet to be deployed commercially, will likely need to anchor to the deeper seafloor if deployed off of the West Coast. To analyze the employment and economic potential for floating offshore wind along the West Coast, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to analyze two hypothetical, large-scale deployment scenarios for Oregon: 5,500 megawatts (MW) of offshore wind deployment in Oregon by 2050 (Scenario A), and 2,900 MW of offshore wind by 2050 (Scenario B). These levels of deployment could power approximately 1,600,000 homes (Scenario A) or 870,000 homes (Scenario B). Offshore wind would contribute to economic development in Oregon in the near future, and more substantially in the long term, especially if equipment and labor are sourced from within the state. According to the analysis, over the 2020-2050 period, Oregon floating offshore wind facilities could support 65,000-97,000 job-years and add $6.8 billion-$9.9 billion to the state GDP (Scenario A).

  16. Cajun Maritime expands gas production platform with help from Liebherr crane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-09-15

    The South Marsh Island (SMI) Block 217 platform is a productive offshore natural gas handling hub in the Gulf of Mexico's Flatrock multiple reservoir deep-gas discovery. This one platform alone could increase natural gas production in the United States by 13 per cent. Louisiana-based Cajun Maritime LLC is the specialized marine subsidiary of the civil and mechanical contracting group Cajun Industries. The company focuses on maintaining a safe working environment at all times. The company purchased a new Liebherr LR 1300 lattice boom crawler crane for the Flatrock project because of its quality, lifting capacity and price. This article described the features of the crane that make it particularly suitable for offshore drilling, such as sealed bearings, big engine, high line pull, and the unique ability to move the main boom and luffing jib simultaneously while under load. The LR 1300 was used for several major installations, including pipelines, a new service crane and a water treatment deck platform. The safety features of the LR 1300 include a reeving winch which is used to install the lifting cables; the small diameter reeving winch cable is much easier to handle than the old method of hand pulling; and riggers are not required to walk the boom of the crane. The cab computer is useful in low overhead clearance work and completely removes the human error factor. The electronic hydraulic controls eliminate the risk of accidental load loss often associated with old-style friction cranes. 3 figs.

  17. 75 FR 17755 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel GULF TIGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel GULF TIGER AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... vessel GULF TIGER as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81.18. DATES: The Certificate of Alternate... for the h offshore supply vessel GULF TIGER. Full compliance with 72 COLREGS and the Inland Rules Act...

  18. 75 FR 29569 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel JANSON R. GRAHAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel JANSON R. GRAHAM AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... supply vessel JANSON R. GRAHAM as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81.18. DATES: The Certificate..., Parts 81 and 89, has been issued for the offshore supply vessel JANSON R. GRAHAM, O.N. 1222117. Full...

  19. 75 FR 32802 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel ROSS CANDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel ROSS CANDIES AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... vessel ROSS CANDIES as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81.18. DATES: The Certificate of... the offshore supply vessel ROSS CANDIES, O.N. 1222260. Full compliance with 72 COLREGS [[Page 32803...

  20. 75 FR 39955 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel MONICA W CALLAIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel MONICA W CALLAIS AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... supply vessel MONICA W CALLAIS as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81.18. DATES: The Certificate..., Parts 81 and 89, has been issued for the offshore supply vessel MONICA W CALLAIS, O.N. 1226851. The...

  1. Influence of Nonlinear Irregular Waves on the Fatigue Loads of an Offshore Wind Turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meulen, M.B.; Ashuri, T.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.; Molenaar, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    In order to make offshore wind power a cost effective solution that can compete with the traditional fossil energy sources, cost reductions on the expensive offshore support structures are required. One way to achieve this, is to reduce the uncertainty in wave load calculations by using a more

  2. Wind energy in offshore grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, S.T.

    2013-01-15

    This cumulative PhD thesis deals with wind integration in offshore grids from an economic point of view. It is composed of a generic part and eight papers. As the topic has mostly been analysed with a focus on topology and technical issues until now, market-operational questions in offshore grids and investment implications under different regulatory frameworks are a hitherto underrepresented research field. They are addressed by this thesis. Offshore grids between several countries combine the absorption of wind energy with international power trading. However, the inclusion into an offshore grid affects the economics of an offshore wind park. It is shown that the spot market income is lower if an offshore wind farm is placed in an interconnector and subject to nodal pricing instead of having a national affiliation. Moreover, congestion in the interconnector can prevent the wind farm from correcting its wind forecast errors in a specific onshore balancing group. An analytical approach with a transmission system operator and a wind farm as stakeholders illustrates resulting incentives for strategic behaviour. Depending on the regulatory regime, they may be inclined to announce more or less generation than expected at the closure of the day-ahead spot market. This can lead to a suboptimal utilisation of the infrastructure and associated socio-economic losses. These and possibly undesired reallocative effects between the parties can be avoided if the regulatory regime is adjusted to reflect special characteristics of offshore grids. With an operational real options approach, it is furthermore illustrated how different support schemes and connections to additional countries affect the investment case of an offshore wind farm and the income of the transmission system operator. The investment framework has also been addressed with a policy study about possible combinations of support schemes and international cooperation mechanisms between countries to achieve their

  3. Offshore Wind Energy Market Overview (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the current international market conditions regarding offshore wind, including the breakdown of installation costs, how to reduce costs, and the physical siting considerations considered when planning offshore wind construction. The presentation offers several examples of international existing and planned offshore wind farm sites and compares existing international offshore resources with U.S. resources. The presentation covers future offshore wind trends and cites some challenges that the United States must overcome before it will be able to fully develop offshore wind sites.

  4. Offshore investments: Denmark shows the way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the use of wind power in Denmark and discusses the tremendous growth in the manufacture of wind turbines since 1981 with Denmark holding some 60% of the worlds' wind turbine market. The move to offshore wind farms is explained in terms of the shortage of land and the quality of the offshore wind, and details of the Tuno Knob pilot offshore wind farm are given. Offshore wind power in Europe, the challenges to offshore operations, the costs involved, environmental effects of the use of offshore wind, and the growing amount of wind power capacity are discussed

  5. Observations of the thermal environment on Red Sea platform reefs: a heat budget analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, K. A.; Lentz, S. J.; Pineda, J.; Farrar, J. T.; Starczak, V. R.; Churchill, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrographic measurements were collected on nine offshore reef platforms in the eastern Red Sea shelf region, north of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The data were analyzed for spatial and temporal patterns of temperature variation, and a simple heat budget

  6. Determination of current loads of floating platform for special purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guang-ying; Yao, Yun-long; Zhao, Chen-yao

    2017-08-01

    This article studied a new floating offshore platform for special purposes, which was assembled by standard floating modules. The environmental load calculation of the platform is an important part of the research of the ocean platform, which has always been paid attention to by engineers. In addition to wave loads, the wind loads and current loads are also important environmental factors that affect the dynamic response of the offshore platform. The current loads on the bottom structure should not be ignored. By Fluent software, the hydrostatic conditions and external current loads of the platform were calculated in this paper. The coefficient which is independent of the current velocity, namely, current force coefficient, can be fitted through current loads, which can be used for the consequent hydrodynamic and mooring analyses.

  7. Offshore wind farm repowering optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Enevoldsen, Peter; Hu, Weihao

    2017-01-01

    is focused on optimization of offshore wind farm repowering, which is one option for the wind farm owner at end of life for the offshore wind farm. The LCoE is used as the evaluation index to identify whether it is economical to invest in such a way. In an optimized repowering strategy, different types...... of wind turbines are selected to replace the original wind turbines to reconstruct the wind farm, which is demonstrated to be better than the refurbishment approach which replaces the old wind turbines with the same type. The simulations performed in this research reveal that the reconstructed wind farm......, which consists of multiple types of wind turbine, has a smaller LCoE (10.43%) than the refurbishment approach, which shows the superiority of the proposed method. This research contributes an optimization tool to the wind industry, which consequently drives down the cost of energy produced by offshore...

  8. Major hazards onshore and offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

  9. Getting the most from offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Johansen, John

    2014-01-01

    Tapping into global resources is supposed to improve performance and contribute to a firm’s competitive advantage. However, a high offshoring quota may also lead to erosion of the firm’s home base capabilities and have wider negative implications for both the home base site position and the firm...... as a whole. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize this scenario and propose how its adverse impacts can be addressed. From previous studies we know that the roles and mandates of home based sites of offshoring companies are changing from broad scoped manufacturing towards innovation and network...... orchestration. On the basis of the findings from the survey, series of workshops and case studies of Danish companies presented in this paper, we seek to determine the longer term effects of offshoring for home based sites. We conceptualize the findings in a framework and close with discussing the need...

  10. Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs....... In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning......-by-doing process, where hidden costs motivate firms and their employees to search for new and better knowledge on how to successfully manage the organisation. We illustrate this thesis based on the case of the LEGO Group....

  11. Project of a Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring (NRTSSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, G.; Calore, D.; Mangano, G.; D'Alessandro, A.; Favali, P.

    2011-12-01

    The INGV seismic network ensures reliable and continuous monitoring of the Italian territory. However, the peculiarity of the Italian peninsula, characterised by an intense offshore geodynamic and seismic activity, requires the extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea. The aim of this project is: - to identify bottleneck is related to the construction, installation and use of underwater seismic station; - to define the most appropriate and low-cost architecture to guarantee the minimum functionality required for a seismic station. In order to obtain reliable seafloor seismic signals integrated to land-based network, the requirements to be fulfill are: - an acceptable coupling with the seabed; - the orientation of the components with respect to the magnetic North and to the verticality; - the correct time stamp of the data; - the data transfer to the land for the integration. Currently, the optimal solution for offshore seismic station is a cable connection to power and real-time data transfer, like the case of Western Ionian Sea cabled observatory, one of the operative node of the EMSO research infrastructure (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory, http://emso-eu.org). But in the Mediterranean many seismic areas are located a few tens-hundreds of miles from the coast and cabled solutions are not feasible essentially for economic reasons. For this kind of installations EMSO research infrastructure foresees no-cabled solution, that requires a surface buoy deployed in the vicinity seafloor modules.This project plans to develop a surface buoy equipped with autonomous power supply system to power also the seafloor platforms and two-way communication system enabling the data transfer through latest generation of broadband radio communication or satellite link (Fig. 1). All the components of the prototype system are described.

  12. Specific radiological monitoring experiences and the challenges at offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mod Omar Hassan

    2005-01-01

    Lately, EASELAB / PROJEK KHAS has performed Specific Radiological Monitoring job at offshore rigs off Terengganu for Syarikat Petronas Carigali [M] Sdn Bhd. In order to perform the job, every worker must attend a Basic Offshore Safety and Emergency Training Course and pass the theory and practical test. Before a license or safety passport is issued, the worker must undergo Medical Checkup and certified physically and mentally fit. The passport is recognized by most of international oil companies. During performing the jobs, MINT staff has faced some difficulties such as weather conditions, to suit with the working environment and life at the oil platform. There were a few staff has withdrew (resigned) from performing the jobs. (Author)

  13. Combatting operational pollution from offshore petroleum activities: international legal regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, S.V.; Wagner, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Existing global and regional rules and regulations, and regulatory trends, aimed at curbing pollution associated with the normal operation of offshore oil and gas installations are assessed. The designation 'operational pollution' is used to cover a variety of discharges including: oil produced in water; contaminated drill cuttings and muds; sewage; garbage; deck drainage; naturally occurring materials such as radionuclides, heavy metals and aromatics; atmospheric emissions, principally CO 2 , SO x , NO x , CH 4 and volatile organic compounds. The main focus of regulatory attention at present is platform drainage, offshore processing drainage, production water discharge, and displacement discharge. The legal framework considered extends to the appropriate global and regional treaties, ''soft law'' instruments and recommendations. (UK)

  14. Wind Loads on Ships and Offshore Structures Estimated by CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Christian; Hvid, S.L.; Hughes, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Wind loads on ships and offshore structures could until recently be determined only by model tests, or by statistical methods based on model tests. By the development of Computational Fluid Dynamics or CFD there is now a realistic computational alternative available. In this paper, wind loads...... on a seagoing ferry and on a semisubmersible offshore platform have been estimated by CFD. The results have been compared with wind tunnel model tests and, for the ferry, a few full-scale measurements, and good agreement is obtained. The CFD method offers the possibility of a computational estimate of scale...... effects related to wind tunnel model testing. An example of such an estimate on the ferry is discussed. Due to the time involved in generating the computational mesh and in computing the solution, the CFD method is not at the moment economically competitive to routine wind tunnel model testing....

  15. Levels of Outsourcing and Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of offshoring and outsourcing over time and highlight strategic considerations underpinning this process in companies. On the basis of four case studies of Danish and German industrial companies, this paper develops a holistic framework...... conceptualizing various levels of outsourcing and offshoring as well as factors driving the transition between these levels. The framework adds to better understanding of the process and challenges the linear nature of it and suggests that ‘backsourcing’ and repatriation of activities should receive more...

  16. Efficient preliminary floating offshore wind turbine design and testing methodologies and application to a concrete spar design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matha, Denis; Sandner, Frank; Molins, Climent; Campos, Alexis; Cheng, Po Wen

    2015-02-28

    The current key challenge in the floating offshore wind turbine industry and research is on designing economic floating systems that can compete with fixed-bottom offshore turbines in terms of levelized cost of energy. The preliminary platform design, as well as early experimental design assessments, are critical elements in the overall design process. In this contribution, a brief review of current floating offshore wind turbine platform pre-design and scaled testing methodologies is provided, with a focus on their ability to accommodate the coupled dynamic behaviour of floating offshore wind systems. The exemplary design and testing methodology for a monolithic concrete spar platform as performed within the European KIC AFOSP project is presented. Results from the experimental tests compared to numerical simulations are presented and analysed and show very good agreement for relevant basic dynamic platform properties. Extreme and fatigue loads and cost analysis of the AFOSP system confirm the viability of the presented design process. In summary, the exemplary application of the reduced design and testing methodology for AFOSP confirms that it represents a viable procedure during pre-design of floating offshore wind turbine platforms. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-04-12

    A report detailing the presentations and topics discussed at the Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop, an event designed to bring together offshore energy industry representatives to share information, best practices, and lessons learned.

  18. The Capabilities of the Offshore Middlemen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Wareham, Jonathan

    preliminary theoretical justification for the emergence of offshore intermediaries; describe how and why they develop intermediation capabilities; and offer initial evidence substantiating their function and processes in intermediating transnational offshoring relationships in software development...

  19. Programmatic implications of implementing the relational algebraic capacitated location (RACL algorithm outcomes on the allocation of laboratory sites, test volumes, platform distribution and space requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Cassim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: CD4 testing in South Africa is based on an integrated tiered service delivery model that matches testing demand with capacity. The National Health Laboratory Service has predominantly implemented laboratory-based CD4 testing. Coverage gaps, over-/under-capacitation and optimal placement of point-of-care (POC testing sites need investigation. Objectives: We assessed the impact of relational algebraic capacitated location (RACL algorithm outcomes on the allocation of laboratory and POC testing sites. Methods: The RACL algorithm was developed to allocate laboratories and POC sites to ensure coverage using a set coverage approach for a defined travel time (T. The algorithm was repeated for three scenarios (A: T = 4; B: T = 3; C: T = 2 hours. Drive times for a representative sample of health facility clusters were used to approximate T. Outcomes included allocation of testing sites, Euclidian distances and test volumes. Additional analysis included platform distribution and space requirement assessment. Scenarios were reported as fusion table maps. Results: Scenario A would offer a fully-centralised approach with 15 CD4 laboratories without any POC testing. A significant increase in volumes would result in a four-fold increase at busier laboratories. CD4 laboratories would increase to 41 in scenario B and 61 in scenario C. POC testing would be offered at two sites in scenario B and 20 sites in scenario C. Conclusion: The RACL algorithm provides an objective methodology to address coverage gaps through the allocation of CD4 laboratories and POC sites for a given T. The algorithm outcomes need to be assessed in the context of local conditions.

  20. Solution Proposals for Japan-Oriented Offshore Software Development in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xuan; Chai, Meiping; Tan, Yibing; Miyake, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Yoji; Hosoya, Jun; Mibe, Ryota

    Surveys on the Japan-oriented vendors in China were conducted twice to find out the existent problems in the Japan-oriented offshore software development. From these survey results, four main problems were found out, which were the frequent requirement changes from the product owner, the misunderstanding of the requirement specification in the vendor side, the heavy overhead of the project management and the low-efficiency communication between the product owner and the vendor. Several solutions are proposed to solve these four problems, which mainly consist of the improvement of the offshore software development process and the development of the offshore development supporting tools. The proposed offshore development process is based on the application of the prototype development, the iteration development and the customer test driven development processes. The proposed offshore development supporting tools include the project management assistant tool and the communication assistant tool.

  1. Go to work or report sick? A focus group study on decisions of sickness presence among offshore catering section workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohne, Kariann; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2011-03-18

    To identify and explore the factors promoting sickness presenteeism among offshore catering section workers. Twenty men and women, working in the offshore catering section onboard three offshore oil and gas production platforms on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, participated in three focus groups. Data from the focus groups were analysed according to a phenomenological approach, and supported by theories on presenteeism. The results show that the decision to attend work despite illness, first and foremost, was based on the severity of the health complaint. Other factors identified were; the individual's location once the health complaint occurred, job satisfaction, the norms of the team, and experiences of how company policies on sickness absenteeism were implemented by the catering section leaders. Offshore working conditions may promote sickness presenteeism. The factors promoting sickness presenteeism onboard the platforms reflected experiences of a healthy work environment.

  2. Go to work or report sick? A focus group study on decisions of sickness presence among offshore catering section workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krohne Kariann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify and explore the factors promoting sickness presenteeism among offshore catering section workers. Methods Twenty men and women, working in the offshore catering section onboard three offshore oil and gas production platforms on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, participated in three focus groups. Data from the focus groups were analysed according to a phenomenological approach, and supported by theories on presenteeism. Results The results show that the decision to attend work despite illness, first and foremost, was based on the severity of the health complaint. Other factors identified were; the individual's location once the health complaint occurred, job satisfaction, the norms of the team, and experiences of how company policies on sickness absenteeism were implemented by the catering section leaders. Conclusions Offshore working conditions may promote sickness presenteeism. The factors promoting sickness presenteeism onboard the platforms reflected experiences of a healthy work environment.

  3. 76 FR 79206 - Commercial Renewable Energy Transmission on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Mid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ...-circuit, high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line that would collect power generated by wind...-voltage alternating current into HVDC using voltage sourced converters. Each offshore converter platform... transmission grid at up to seven locations where AWC terrestrial converter stations would convert the HVDC...

  4. NEW OFFSHORE LOCATIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The offshore activity provides benefits for the host market and has positive effects on services, and on producers that use intermediate services. FDI in services has an important impact on the offshore activity, especially through transfer of technology. Many transnational companies have recognized the advantages of offshoring and the fact that it becomes a key globalization force. Recently, the Central European countries have become popular destinations among offshoring

  5. Reverse logistic applied to offshore operations; A logistica reversa aplicada as operacoes offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Neto, Jorge Raimundo de Almeida [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Mass production development has brought as consequence the necessity of more complexes distributions ways to come to multiple final consumers a big products quantity. Additionally, these same products has support necessities as well, substitution or product residue during or on the end of yours life. From the initial necessity, have the logistic concept and from the additional necessity, have the reverse logistic concept. Oil offshore operations are applying the reverse logistic concept through the residues returning by support vessels that attends Oil platforms and workers through helicopters to work turns. However, the relative cost to this residue destination is lower in comparative to the operation total costs, decreasing the interest by remanufacture and reapplication during planning stage. Adding to this reason, the fact that this kind of operation occurs during a shorts time periods. (author)

  6. Canada's east coast offshore oil and gas industry: a backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    1999-06-01

    Another of the backgrounder series published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, this booklet describes Canada's offshore oil and natural gas operations in the North Atlantic Ocean, specifically in the Hibernia (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Terra Nova (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Cohasset-Panuke (off Nova Scotia, crude oil) and Sable Island (off Nova Scotia, natural gas) fields. Together, these project represent an investment of more than 10 billion dollars and constitute a growing portion of Canada's 400,000 cubic metres of crude oil and natural gas liquids per day production. The booklet explains the importance of the offshore oil and natural gas industry to Canada, the benefits accruing to the maritime provinces locally, prospects for future offshore oil and natural gas development and provides a brief summary of each of the four current major projects. The booklet also provides an overview of the facilities required for offshore energy projects, environmental impacts and safeguards, exploration, drilling, production, processing and transportation aspects of offshore oil and gas projects. 9 refs, photos

  7. Globalization of environmental regulations for offshore E & P operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the enduring legacies of the Rio Environmental Summit of 1992 (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, UNCED) is Agenda 21 (Chapter 17 - Protection of the Oceans), which among other things called for the assessment of the need for a global authority to regulate offshore Exploration & Production (E&P) discharges, emissions and safety. Despite advice to the contrary from the International Maritime Organization (IMO), interest is building within the European community for the standardization of regulations for offshore E&P activities. Several international of regulations for offshore E&P activities. Several international frameworks or forums have been mentioned as possible candidates. These include the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982 (UNCLOS); London Convention 1972 (LC 1972) and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL) 73/78. International offshore oil and gas operators operate within requirements of regional conventions under the United Nations Environmental Program`s (UNEP) - Regional Seas Program. Domestic offshore operations are undertaken under the auspices of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Minerals Management Service.

  8. Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J; Grossmann, Iris; Apt, Jay

    2012-02-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that if the United States is to generate 20% of its electricity from wind, over 50 GW will be required from shallow offshore turbines. Hurricanes are a potential risk to these turbines. Turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons, but no offshore wind turbines have yet been built in the United States. We present a probabilistic model to estimate the number of turbines that would be destroyed by hurricanes in an offshore wind farm. We apply this model to estimate the risk to offshore wind farms in four representative locations in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal waters of the United States. In the most vulnerable areas now being actively considered by developers, nearly half the turbines in a farm are likely to be destroyed in a 20-y period. Reasonable mitigation measures--increasing the design reference wind load, ensuring that the nacelle can be turned into rapidly changing winds, and building most wind plants in the areas with lower risk--can greatly enhance the probability that offshore wind can help to meet the United States' electricity needs.

  9. 76 FR 62817 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... will man and operate large OSVs. (6) Offshore Operators Committee (OOC) update regarding medical... Officer, on evaluating the various requirements for licensing mariners who will man and operate large OSVs, and to make recommendations on same. Dated: October 3, 2011. F. J. Sturm, Deputy Director of...

  10. Coordinating technician allocation and maintenance routing for offshore wind farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrotenboer, Albert H.; uit het Broek, Michiel A. J.; Jargalsaikhan, Bolor; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    2018-01-01

    A maintenance activity at offshore wind farms requires a combination of technicians with different skills. At an operational level, it is important to fully utilize and coordinate technicians in order to increase efficiency of the short-term maintenance planning. In this paper, we investigate

  11. Design and Analysis of Offshore Macroalgae Biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Liberzon, Alexander; Vitkin, Edward; Yakhini, Zohar

    2018-03-15

    Displacing fossil fuels and their derivatives with renewables, and increasing sustainable food production are among the major challenges facing the world in the coming decades. A possible, sustainable direction for addressing this challenge is the production of biomass and the conversion of this biomass to the required products through a complex system coined biorefinery. Terrestrial biomass and microalgae are possible sources; however, concerns over net energy balance, potable water use, environmental hazards, and uncertainty in the processing technologies raise questions regarding their actual potential to meet the anticipated food, feed, and energy challenges in a sustainable way. Alternative sustainable sources for biorefineries are macroalgae grown and processed offshore. However, implementation of the offshore biorefineries requires detailed analysis of their technological, economic, and environmental performance. In this chapter, the basic principles of marine biorefineries design are shown. The methods to integrate thermodynamic efficiency, investment, and environmental aspects are discussed. The performance improvement by development of new cultivation methods that fit macroalgae physiology and development of new fermentation methods that address macroalgae unique chemical composition is shown.

  12. Global Production: The Case of Offshore Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbjerg, Jacob; Havn, Erling; Bansler, Jørgen P.

    1997-01-01

    of software is no exception.In this paper, we present a newly started research project on offshore program-ming, that is the practice of sending software development “offshore,” to India or other low wage areas. The project focuses on the organisation of offshore program-ming and, particularly, on the role...

  13. Grid Integration of Offshore Wind | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Much can be learned from the existing land-based integration research for handling the variability and uncertainty of the wind resource Arklow Bank offshore wind park consists of seven GE Wind 3.6-MW wind turbines. Integration and

  14. Managing Risk Areas in Software Development Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    2015-01-01

    Software companies are increasingly offshoring development to countries with high expertise at lower cost. Offshoring involves particular risk areas that if ignored increase the likelihood of failure. However, the offshoring client’s maturity level may influence the management of these risk areas...

  15. An assessment of the environmental effects of offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report focuses on the development of an approach to the formal environmental assessment of large-scale offshore wind farms around the UK coast which will be required by EU Directives. The legislative background and policy framework are outlined, and key issues to be addressed in the environmental assessment are highlighted. Available information on the manufacture and transportation of wind farm equipment, turbine and cable installation, operation of an offshore wind farm, and wind farm decommissioning is reviewed and recommendations are given. The role of offshore wind power in meeting the UK's commitment to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases and its targets for generating 10% of the UK's electricity from renewable energy sources is discussed.

  16. Accelerating the deployment of offshore renewable energy technologies. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Mott

    2011-02-15

    Offshore wind energy and ocean energy (i.e. wave and tidal) are at different stages of technology development and deployment, and, as such, they require different approaches for successful deployment. However, regardless of their deployment stage, these technologies may face common hurdles in their way to market competitiveness. IEA-RETD has completed a study with the overall objective to assist policy makers and project developers in a better understanding of these barriers and the specifics of offshore renewable energy and to give them practical guidelines. These include an offshore energy deployment framework, substantiated by evidence-based analyses, and recommendations for future policies design, including best practices for allocation of seafloor rights.

  17. The offshore benthic fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantry, Brian F.; Lantry, Jana R.; Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Hoyle, James A.; Schaner, Teodore; Neave, Fraser B.; Keir, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lake Ontario’s offshore benthic fish community includes primarily slimy sculpin, lake whitefish, rainbow smelt, lake trout, burbot, and sea lamprey. Of these, lake trout have been the focus of an international restoration effort for more than three decades (Elrod et al. 1995; Lantry and Lantry 2008). The deepwater sculpin and three species of deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) that were historically important in the offshore benthic zone became rare or were extirpated by the 1960s (Christie 1973; Owens et al. 2003; Lantry et al. 2007b; Roth et al. 2013). Ecosystem changes continue to influence the offshore benthic fish community, including the effects of dreissenid mussels, the near disappearance of burrowing amphipods (Diporeia spp.) (Dermott et al. 2005; Watkins et al. 2007), and the increased abundance and expanded geographic distribution of round goby (see Nearshore Fish Community chapter) (Lantry et al. 2007b). The fish-community objectives for the offshore benthic fish community, as described by Stewart et al. (1999), are:

  18. Scour around an offshore windturbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwersheimer, W.F.; Verhagen, H.J.; Olthof, J.

    2007-01-01

    During the construction of the first Dutch offshore wind farm prototype measurements were performed. These measurements were aimed to monitor the behaviour of the granular filter layer of the scour protection around the mono-piles upon which the wind turbines are founded. These measurements were

  19. The Organizational Design of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.

    2014-01-01

    The general research question guiding this thesis is: What are the organizational consequences of offshoring? Increasingly firms are becoming caught up by the “harsh realities of offshoring” (Aron and Singh, 2005: 135). Many firms have begun to realize that managing an increasingly globally dispe...

  20. Getting the Most from Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    Tapping into global resources is supposed to improve performance and contribute to a firm’s competitive advantage. However, a high offshoring quota may also lead to erosion of the firm’s home base capabilities and have wider negative implications for both the home base site position and the firm...... and network orchestration....

  1. Modelling offshore sand wave evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemeth, Attila; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional vertical (2DV) flow and morphological numerical model describing the behaviour of offshore sand waves. The model contains the 2DV shallow water equations, with a free water surface and a general bed load formula. The water movement is coupled to the sediment transport

  2. Offshore heat dissipation for nuclear energy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, H.F.

    1978-09-01

    The technical, environmental, and economic aspects of utilizing the ocean or other large water bodies for the dissipation of reject heat from Nuclear Energy Centers (NECs) were investigated. An NEC in concept is an aggregate of nuclear power plants of 10 GW(e) capacity or greater on a common site. The use of once-through cooling for large power installations offers advantages including higher thermal efficiencies, especially under summer peak-load conditions, compared to closed-cycle cooling systems. A disadvantage of once-through cooling is the potential for greater adverse impacts on the aquatic environment. A concept is presented for minimizing the impacts of such systems by placing water intake and discharge locations relatively distant from shore in deeper water than has heretofore been the practice. This technique would avoid impacts on relatively biologically productive and ecologically sensitive shallow inshore areas. The NEC itself would be set back from the shoreline so that recreational use of the shore area would not be impaired. The characteristics of a heat-dissipation system of the size required for a NEC were predicted from the known characteristics of a smaller system by applying hydraulic scaling laws. The results showed that adequate heat dissipation can be obtained from NEC-sized systems located in water of appropriate depth. Offshore intake and discharge structures would be connected to the NEC pump house on shore via tunnels or buried pipelines. Tunnels have the advantage that shoreline and beach areas would not be disturbed. The cost of an offshore heat-dissipation system depends on the characteristics of the site, particularly the distance to suitably deep water and the type of soil or rock in which water conduits would be constructed. For a favorable site, the cost of an offshore system is estimated to be less than the cost of a closed-cycle system

  3. Offshore: Economic Deterrent or Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor B. Turuev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The downside of investment's addition rate in Russia, lack of capital investments result from "poor investment attractiveness". As a result, the companies' financial imbalance together with high investments risks lead to capital outflow from the country by virtue of offshores. Along with negative aspects connected with "financial oases" many advantages are given to the business community: lessening of tax payments, monetary privacy and confidentiality of operations. Taking in consideration the above and also the existence of specific international agreements concerning the avoidance of double taxation and offshore zones, the banner of the latter appears to be quite difficult and would divest the global economy of an important segment of global economic growth. The author performed a SWOT analysis of the role and the importance of offshores in international economy. Tolerant coexistence of local and global economic interests seems to be achievable by implementing a distinct circumspect and complex plan of measures aimed at the raise of the investment attractiveness of a country, for which the creation of "Skolkovo" and new Institutes for market development would not be sufficient. Transparent and oriented on business stability and safety provision of monitor and regulatory system, data interflow, improvement of prudential control on financial markets operations - are parts of measures that have to be accomplished in order to solve and exclude the problems associated with offshores. But the author also appeals to not forgetting that besides the offshores exists a number of such issues directly related to the outflow of capital as lowering of inflationary pace, enlargement of direct investment flow-in, support of social peace, which have to be handled for the purposes of improvement of domestic investment climate of countries with developing economy.

  4. Uncovering the Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates estimation errors due to hidden costs—the costs of implementation that are neglected in strategic decision-making processes—in the context of services offshoring. Based on data from the Offshoring Research Network, we find that decision makers are more likely to make cost......-estimation errors given increasing configuration and task complexity in captive offshoring and offshore outsourcing, respectively. Moreover, we show that experience and a strong orientation toward organizational design in the offshoring strategy reduce the cost-estimation errors that follow from complexity. Our...

  5. Co-sourcing in software development offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Persson, John Stouby

    2013-01-01

    Software development projects are increasingly geographical distributed with offshoring, which introduce complex risks that can lead to project failure. Co-sourcing is a highly integrative and cohesive approach, seen successful, to software development offshoring. However, research of how co......-sourcing shapes the perception and alleviation of common offshoring risks is limited. We present a case study of how a certified CMMI-level 5 Danish software supplier approaches these risks in offshore co-sourcing. The paper explains how common offshoring risks are perceived and alleviated when adopting the co...

  6. CFD for wind and tidal offshore turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Montlaur, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    The book encompasses novel CFD techniques to compute offshore wind and tidal applications. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are regarded as the main design tool to explore the new engineering challenges presented by offshore wind and tidal turbines for energy generation. The difficulty and costs of undertaking experimental tests in offshore environments have increased the interest in the field of CFD which is used to design appropriate turbines and blades, understand fluid flow physical phenomena associated with offshore environments, predict power production or characterise offshore environments, amongst other topics.

  7. Ecosystem variability in the offshore northeastern Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Arny L.; Day, Robert H.; Gall, Adrian E.; Aerts, Lisanne A. M.; Delarue, Julien; Dobbins, Elizabeth L.; Hopcroft, Russell R.; Questel, Jennifer M.; Weingartner, Thomas J.; Wisdom, Sheyna S.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding influences of cumulative effects from multiple stressors in marine ecosystems requires an understanding of the sources for and scales of variability. A multidisciplinary ecosystem study in the offshore northeastern Chukchi Sea during 2008-2013 investigated the variability of the study area's two adjacent sub-ecosystems: a pelagic system influenced by interannual and/or seasonal temporal variation at large, oceanographic (regional) scales, and a benthic-associated system more influenced by small-scale spatial variations. Variability in zooplankton communities reflected interannual oceanographic differences in waters advected northward from the Bering Sea, whereas variation in benthic communities was associated with seafloor and bottom-water characteristics. Variations in the planktivorous seabird community were correlated with prey distributions, whereas interaction effects in ANOVA for walruses were related to declines of sea-ice. Long-term shifts in seabird distributions were also related to changes in sea-ice distributions that led to more open water. Although characteristics of the lower trophic-level animals within sub-ecosystems result from oceanographic variations and interactions with seafloor topography, distributions of apex predators were related to sea-ice as a feeding platform (walruses) or to its absence (i.e., open water) for feeding (seabirds). The stability of prey resources appears to be a key factor in mediating predator interactions with other ocean characteristics. Seabirds reliant on highly-variable zooplankton prey show long-term changes as open water increases, whereas walruses taking benthic prey in biomass hotspots respond to sea-ice changes in the short-term. A better understanding of how variability scales up from prey to predators and how prey resource stability (including how critical prey respond to environmental changes over space and time) might be altered by climate and anthropogenic stressors is essential to

  8. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB Inc; Liu, Shu [ABB Inc; Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower; Reed, Greg [University of Pittsburgh; Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  9. Platform computing

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Platform Computing releases first grid-enabled workload management solution for IBM eServer Intel and UNIX high performance computing clusters. This Out-of-the-box solution maximizes the performance and capability of applications on IBM HPC clusters" (1/2 page) .

  10. Floating Offshore Wind in California: Gross Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Two Future Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Construction of the first offshore wind farm in the United States began in 2015, using fixed platform structures that are appropriate for shallow seafloors, like those located off of the East Coast and mid-Atlantic. However, floating platforms, which have yet to be deployed commercially, will likely need to anchor to the deeper seafloor if deployed off of the West Coast. To analyze the employment and economic potential for floating offshore wind along the West Coast, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) has commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to analyze two hypothetical, large-scale deployment scenarios for California: 16 GW of offshore wind by 2050 (Scenario A) and 10 GW of offshore wind by 2050 (Scenario B). The results of this analysis can be used to better understand the general scales of economic opportunities that could result from offshore wind development. Results show total state gross domestic product (GDP) impacts of $16.2 billion in Scenario B or $39.7 billion in Scenario A for construction; and $3.5 billion in Scenario B or $7.9 billion in Scenario A for the operations phases.

  11. Revamp urged for Norway's offshore regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Norwegian government has come under renewed pressure from offshore operators to fine tune its licensing procedures and tax regime. The need for change was emphasized at the Advanced Petroleum Conference in Stavanger attended by senior personnel from companies active in the Norwegian and British sectors of the North Sea. Companies have had some success in the tax front, winning changes in proposals from Norway's Ministry of Finance for offshore tax reform. The changes were required to offset a general reduction in the corporate tax to 28% from 50.8%. Norsk Shell has told the government that in view of uncertainty about taxes it will not take part in the normal industry-government discussions about what acreage should be included in the 14th licensing round to be announced next year. This action does not bar Shell from participating in the licensing round when it gets under way. Shell has the if the tax package is not changed sharply in its passage through Storting it is unlikely to bid for new licenses

  12. 75 FR 20371 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel LEBOUEF TIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel LEBOUEF TIDE AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... vessel LEBOUEF TIDE as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81.18. [[Page 20372

  13. Shot loading platform analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the wind/seismic analysis and evaluation for the shot loading platform. Hand calculations were used for the analysis. AISC and UBC load factors were used in this evaluation. The results show that the actual loads are under the allowable loads and all requirements are met

  14. California study compares natural/drilling discharge contaminants offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, W.G.; Imamura, E.; Barminski, J.R.; Neff, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of drilling fluid and this paper reports that cuttings discharges in the southern Santa Maria basin offshore California indicates that the amount of metal and hydrocarbon contaminants from drilling operations is small relative to that from natural sources. The metal and hydrocarbon discharges were calculated for only one of the three platforms discharging between 1986 and 1989 in the Point Arguello field. However, assuming concentrations are similar on each platform, the combined input of metals and hydrocarbons over the 3-year period was still low (except for barium and lead) compared to the average annual flux from natural sources. The MMS is monitoring the Santa Maria basin to understand possible long-term environmental effects of oil and gas development (California Monitoring Program, Phase II; and Effects of OCS Production Platforms on Rocky Reef Fishes and Fisheries). A site-specific study area was established to determine effects of drilling-related discharges at Chevron U.S.S. Inc.'s platform Hidalgo in the Point Arguello field. Part of the study included review of discharge records for platforms Hidalgo, Hermosa (Chevron), and Harvest (Texaco Exploration and Production Inc.)

  15. Developing an Indicator System for Measuring the Social Sustainability of Offshore Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzay-An Shiau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s government has promoted investment in an offshore wind power farm, and local fishermen have protested. A social impact assessment (SIA has examined the impact of the proposed offshore wind power farm on all stakeholders. The main objective of the present study was to develop an indicator system for measuring the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms; this study also reports on the particular case of Taiwan’s offshore wind power project. This study began by defining 35 social sustainability indicators and selecting 23 representative indicators by using rough set theory. Subsequently, 14 key indicators were constructed using the social construction of technology (SCOT method. Finally, we developed a social impact index for evaluating the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms by using the analytic network process and Dempster-Shafer theory. Our social impact index yields a total score of 0.149 for Taiwan’s pilot offshore wind power project; this result indicates that the pilot project is socially sustainable. A substantial contradiction exists between the fishermen’s protest and the results of the social impact assessment. The findings can assist the government in building a coordination platform for the investors and the fishermen. Government regulation is necessary to set boundaries for fishing areas that protect both the fishermen’s and investors’ rights.

  16. Automated Image Analysis of Offshore Infrastructure Marine Biofouling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Gormley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the UK, some of the oldest oil and gas installations have been in the water for over 40 years and have considerable colonisation by marine organisms, which may lead to both industry challenges and/or potential biodiversity benefits (e.g., artificial reefs. The project objective was to test the use of an automated image analysis software (CoralNet on images of marine biofouling from offshore platforms on the UK continental shelf, with the aim of (i training the software to identify the main marine biofouling organisms on UK platforms; (ii testing the software performance on 3 platforms under 3 different analysis criteria (methods A–C; (iii calculating the percentage cover of marine biofouling organisms and (iv providing recommendations to industry. Following software training with 857 images, and testing of three platforms, results showed that diversity of the three platforms ranged from low (in the central North Sea to moderate (in the northern North Sea. The two central North Sea platforms were dominated by the plumose anemone Metridium dianthus; and the northern North Sea platform showed less obvious species domination. Three different analysis criteria were created, where the method of selection of points, number of points assessed and confidence level thresholds (CT varied: (method A random selection of 20 points with CT 80%, (method B stratified random of 50 points with CT of 90% and (method C a grid approach of 100 points with CT of 90%. Performed across the three platforms, the results showed that there were no significant differences across the majority of species and comparison pairs. No significant difference (across all species was noted between confirmed annotations methods (A, B and C. It was considered that the software performed well for the classification of the main fouling species in the North Sea. Overall, the study showed that the use of automated image analysis software may enable a more efficient and consistent

  17. Tuno Knob Offshore Wind Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 Midtkraft Power Company built Denmark's second offshore wind farm as a demonstration project. The project purpose is first of all to investigate the environmental aspects of offshore wind energy. The two primary objects are to study the impact on bird life and to test different methods for predicting the visual effect. The wind farm consists of 10 pitch-regulated Vestas V39 500 kW wind turbines placed on box caisson foundations in a shallow water area 6 km east of Jutland. The project has been implemented successfully under a very narrow time schedule, and during the first 6 months in operation, the production has been approx. 30% higher than expected. (author)

  18. Panorama 2016 - Offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon

    2015-11-01

    While onshore wind power is a rapidly growing global industry, the offshore wind power market remains in its consolidation and globalization phase. This most mature of renewable marine energies continues to develop and can no longer be considered a niche industry. This fact sheet evaluates the market over the last several years, looking at its potential and its current rank in terms of electricity production costs. (author)

  19. Panorama 2013 - Offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon

    2012-10-01

    While onshore wind power is already a well-developed global industry, offshore wind power is still in the consolidation and globalization phase. The most mature of marine renewable energies is beginning to venture off the European coast and even to other continents, driven by public policies and the ever increasing number of players joining this promising market, which should evolve into deeper waters thanks to floating structures. (author)

  20. Climate and Offshore Energy Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-30

    SECuRITY CL.ASSIPIcaTIoN OF, TIns PA@elm VaeVa CLMATE ANID OFFSHORE ENERGY RESOUACES A distinguished group of government officials, scientists, engineers...about the mech- anisms of climatic systems, and gaining a better understanding of the impact of climatic change on human resources.* He continued by...atmospheric constit- uents, but he particularly emphasized " changes " in C02. He suggested that the atmospheric conditions may be better now than they were half

  1. Offshore oil: Correctness of perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Except for the Gulf of Mexico, the offshore oil industry has been virtually banned from the US Exclusive Economic Zone for ten years. The oil potential in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is also off limits. The Gulf of Mexico is the only place with prospects for future success and a number of companies both large and small are determined to move forward. The depressed price of oil does not encourage development but recently gas prices in the US have increased, making offshore gas development more feasible. Perhaps most significant is development and application of new technology and more intense management to make sure it works. The offshore oil companies and support industries have made significant technological advances, expending over and above the dollars paid in taxes, lease fees, and royalties. The ocean industries harbor a great reservoir of high technology knowledge. They have demonstrated the ability to successfully meet a vast array of challenges in exploring for, drilling, and producing oil and gas in extreme conditions. These facts beg the question as to the rational basis of each and every regulation and the ban on drilling

  2. World offshore energy loss statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Offshore operations present a unique set of environmental conditions and adverse exposure not observed in a land environment taking place in a confined space in a hostile environment under the constant danger of catastrophe and loss. It is possible to engineer some risks to a very low threshold of probability, but losses and unforeseen events can never be entirely eliminated because of cost considerations, the human factor, and environmental uncertainty. Risk events occur infrequently but have the potential of generating large losses, as evident by the 2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico, which was the most destructive and costliest natural disaster in the history of offshore production. The purpose of this paper is to provide a statistical assessment of energy losses in offshore basins using the Willis Energy Loss database. A description of the loss categories and causes of property damage are provided, followed by a statistical assessment of damage and loss broken out by region, cause, and loss category for the time horizon 1970-2004. The impact of the 2004-2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico is summarized

  3. Offshore Blowouts, Causes and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holand, P

    1996-02-01

    The main objective of this doctoral thesis was to establish an improved design basis for offshore installations with respect to blowout risk analyses. The following sub objectives are defined: (1) Establish an offshore blowout database suitable for risk analyses, (2) Compare the blowout risk related to loss of lives with the total offshore risk and risk in other industries, (3) Analyse blowouts with respect to parameters that are important to describe and quantify blowout risk that has been experienced to be able to answer several questions such as under what operations have blowouts occurred, direct causes, frequency of occurrence etc., (4) Analyse blowouts with respect to trends. The research strategy applied includes elements from both survey strategy and case study strategy. The data are systematized in the form of a new database developed from the MARINTEK database. Most blowouts in the analysed period occurred during drilling operations. Shallow gas blowouts were more frequent than deep blowouts and workover blowouts occurred more often than deep development drilling blowouts. Relatively few blowouts occurred during completion, wireline and normal production activities. No significant trend in blowout occurrences as a function of time could be observed, except for completion blowouts that showed a significantly decreasing trend. But there were trends regarding some important parameters for risk analyses, e.g. the ignition probability has decreased and diverter systems have improved. Only 3.5% of the fatalities occurred because of blowouts. 106 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  4. Frequency-domain characteristics of aerodynamic loads of offshore floating vertical axis wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Michael; Collu, M.

    2015-01-01

    The re-emerging interest in vertical axis wind turbines for floating offshore applications has led to a need to investigate the relatively complex dynamics of such floating offshore structures. Through the use of a coupled model of dynamics this article investigates the frequency......-domain characteristics of floating vertical axis wind turbine aerodynamic loads. The impact of platform induced motion on aerodynamic loads is discussed in detail, with results indicating an increase in aerodynamic loads of several orders of magnitude over the range of frequencies usually containing significant wave...

  5. THE USE OF OFFSHORE JURISDICTIONS IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL FITTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA RADU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential legal and financial Structures, sometimes complex, had until recently been small and medium entrepreneurs away from the use of offshore jurisdictions, but the constraints of increasingly heavy taxation of excessive in certain States, you push even those with limited resources to use in these jurisdictions to protect revenue. The purpose of this research is to analyze the offshore jurisdictions in order to determine the possibilities of useof their disadvantages in order to improve measures to combat tax evasion, as well as for the use of their advantages in order to reduce illegal migration and regular employment of capital through the analysis of specific cases of the use of offshore jurisdictions – Case Frabklin Jurado, The Bank of Commerce and Credit InternationalAmerican Express Bank International. Scientific novelty and originality of the investigation consists of:-the identification on the basis of international practice, some offshore jurisdictions specific items in order to reflect their fiscal policies (trade and investment, etc.-analysis of cases of the use of offshore jurisdictions in international financial fittings (such as the Bank of Credit and Commerce International; Franklin Jurado; American Express Bank International,-identification of the impact paradisurilor tax and offshore financial centres of the world economy– revealing secret financial transactions carried out within the framework of ofssore, research instruments jurisdictions and management techniques of cadrulacestor tax jurisdictions.It is interesting to be seen through the prism of analysis of economic-fiscal financiare if a competition is beneficial or not for the welfare of States and to what extent this competition will have a say in future developments and tax paradisurilor finanaciare offshore centres. In conclusion, I appreciate that in order to survive successfully in the global economy of the future, offshoreJurisdictions should promote a

  6. 30 CFR 250.906 - What must I do to obtain approval for the proposed site of my platform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF... proposed site of my platform? (a) Shallow hazards surveys. You must perform a high-resolution or acoustic...

  7. Ecological and political issues surrounding decommissioning of offshore oil facilities in the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Donna M.; Love, Milton S.

    2004-01-01

    To aid legislators, resource managers, and the general public, this paper summarizes and clarifies some of the issues and options that the federal government and the state of California face in decommissioning offshore oil and gas production platforms, particularly as these relate to platform ecology. Both local marine ecology and political climate play a role in decommissioning offshore oil production platforms. Compared to the relatively supportive political climate in the Gulf of Mexico for “rigs-to-reefs” programs, conflicting social values among stakeholders in Southern California increases the need for understanding ecological impacts of various decommissioning alternatives (which range from total removal to allowing some or all of platform structure to remain in the ocean). Additional scientific needs in the decommissioning process include further assessment of platform habitat quality, estimation of regional impacts of decommissioning alternatives to marine populations, and determination of biological effects of any residual contaminants. The principal management need is a ranking of environmental priorities (e.g. species-of-interest and marine habitats). Because considerable numbers of economically important species reside near oil platforms, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries should consider the consequences of decommissioning alternatives in their overall management plans. Management strategies could include designating reefed platforms as marine protected areas. The overarching conclusion from both ecological and political perspectives is that decommissioning decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis.

  8. Offshore Hydrokinetic Energy Conversion for Onshore Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Design comparisons have been performed for a number of different tidal energy systems, including a fully submerged, horizontal-axis electro-turbine system, similar to Verdant Tidal Turbines in New York's East River, a platform-based Marine Current Turbine, now operating in Northern Ireland's Strangford Narrows, and the Rotech Lunar Energy system, to be installed off the South Korean Coast. A fourth type of tidal energy system studied is a novel JPL/Caltech hydraulic energy transfer system that uses submerged turbine blades which are mechanically attached to adjacent high-pressure pumps, instead of to adjacent electrical turbines. The generated highpressure water streams are combined and transferred to an onshore hydroelectric plant by means of a closed-cycle pipeline. The hydraulic energy transfer system was found to be cost competitive, and it allows all electronics to be placed onshore, thus greatly reducing maintenance costs and corrosion problems. It also eliminates the expenses of conditioning and transferring multiple offshore power lines and of building offshore platforms embedded in the sea floor.

  9. Offshore field development. Statfjord - a geologist's dream: an economist's nightmare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    On September 3, 1980, the water injection module was lifted on board the Statfjord A platform. That marks the completion of the platform, a giant 3,000,000 bpd capacity monster of an offshore structure, carrying a price tag of $1.5 billion. Two more such giants are scheduled to follow, each costing approximately $2 billion in the North Sea's largest and most expensive offshore field development ever. Oil wells in the Statfjord field, the largest North Sea field to date, are now producing at up to 30,000 bpd each. The reservoir proves particularly open, and the filling of it is extremely good. Wells have produced up to 40,000 bpd, but with that kind of flow, sand problems occur. Gravel packs have had to be installed in several of the wells. Mobil's Dallas facilities have uncovered the fact that now dominates the Norwegian North Sea scene, i.e., the cut off point for gas reinjection into the Statfjord sand is late 1985. After that point a possible breakthrough of gas could block the oil or even damage the reservoir if reinjection is continued.

  10. Offshoring and Changes in Firms’ Domestic Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram; Østergaard, Christian Richter

    difference on a set of employment characteristics, i.e. employment growth, growth in high skilled employees, and growth in employees with a background in science and engineering, by using a partial propensity score matching approach. The findings of the analyses show that there are clear differences between......In this paper, we investigate, by merging the Danish linked employer-employee database with a Danish offshoring survey, the difference in employment between offshoring and non-offshoring firms that are active in manufacturing industries and business services in Denmark. We measure the mean...... Danish offshoring and non-offshoring firms in how the employee composition changes over time. The change in employment composition differ considerably between manufacturing industries and business services and on whether firms offshore administrative and technical business functions or other types...

  11. Offshore Wind Power Planning in Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seo, Chul Soo; Cha, Seung-Tae; Park, Sang Ho

    2012-01-01

    this possible, Korea has announced the National offshore power roadmap and is now in pursuit. However, large scale offshore wind farms can incur many problems, such as power quality problems, when connecting to a power system.[1][2] Thus, KEPCO is on the process of a research study to evaluate the effects...... that connecting offshore wind power generation to a power system has on the power system. This paper looks over offshore wind power planning in Korea and describes the development of impact assessment technology of offshore wind farms.......Wind power generation is globally recognized as the most universal and reliable form of renewable energy. Korea is currently depending mostly on coal and petroleum to generate electrical power and is now trying to replace them with renewable energy such as offshore wind power generation. To make...

  12. Danish offshore wind - Key environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    Danish experience from the past 15 years shows that offshore wind farms, if placed right, can be engineered and operated without significant damage to the marine environment and vulnerable species. The comprehensive environmental monitoring programmes of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm confirm that, under the rieght conditions, even big wind farms pose low risk to birds, mammals and fish, even though there will be changes in the living conditions of some species by an increase in habitat heterogeneity. The monitoring also shows that appropriate siting of offshore wind farms is an essential precondition for ensuring limited impact on nature and the environment, and that careful spatial planning is necessary to avoid damaging cumulative impacts. Due consideration to limiting the impacts on nature together with positive attitudes towards offshore wind farms in local communities and challenging energy policy objectives at national and international levels mean that prospects look bright for future offshore expansion. (au)

  13. Offshore wind options for 2013; Offshore wind kansen voor 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meij-Kranendonk, J.

    2012-11-15

    In the USA researchers and companies are busy to the make knowledge and experiences gained elsewhere in the world suitable for the American market and to increase new knowledge in their own country. A brief overview is given of the activities in the US with regard to offshore wind energy [Dutch] Amerikaanse onderzoekers en bedrijven zijn druk bezig om de kennis en ervaring die opgedaan is elders in de wereld geschikt te maken voor de Amerikaanse markt en om nieuwe kennis op te doen in eigen land.

  14. Development of Offshore Wind Power Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao

    2011-01-01

    The offshore wind power development target as initially proposed in "The 12=Five-Year" on energy recourses development and renewable energy recourses currently under development is to reach 5m KW by 2015 and 30m KW by 2020. With the unfolding of offshore wind turbine planning from different areas, the curtain of offshore wind power development for our country's "The 12=Five-Year" has been opened.

  15. Asymmetrical Fault Analysis at the Offshore Network of HVDC connected Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goksu, Omer; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Sorensen, Poul

    2017-01-01

    Short-circuit faults for HVDC connected Wind Power Plants (WPPs) have been studied mostly for dc link and onshore ac grid faults, while the offshore ac faults, especially asymmetrical faults, have been mostly omitted in the literature. Requirements related to the offshore asymmetrical faults have...... been kept as future development at national levels in the recent ENTSO-E HVDC network code. In this paper offshore ac faults are studied using the classical power system fault analysis methods. It is shown that suppression of negative sequence current flow is not applicable and negative sequence...

  16. Offshore support vessel developments for deep water oil and gas E and P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dielen, Baldo A.M. [SMIT, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    The worldwide trend to move towards more exposed locations and deeper waters for O and G exploration and production activities resulted in an increased need for larger and more powerful tugs and offshore support vessels. These vessels must meet higher operational requirements under higher wind and sea-state conditions. This market-driven need, together with technological developments, is leading towards a new generation of powerful and sophisticated offshore support vessels (OSV's). This paper will describe the actual and future trends in OSV design for deep water offshore use. (author)

  17. Validated Loads Prediction Models for Offshore Wind Turbines for Enhanced Component Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koukoura, Christina

    To improve the reliability of offshore wind turbines, accurate prediction of their response is required. Therefore, validation of models with site measurements is imperative. In the present thesis a 3.6MW pitch regulated-variable speed offshore wind turbine on a monopole foundation is built...... are used for the modification of the sub-structure/foundation design for possible material savings. First, the background of offshore wind engineering, including wind-wave conditions, support structure, blade loading and wind turbine dynamics are presented. Second, a detailed description of the site...

  18. Attitude and acceptance of offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Möller, B.

    2011-01-01

    farms attributes on attitude towards offshore wind farms. The results point towards that the travel time and the attributes of the nearest offshore wind farm influence the attitude significantly. Travel time has mixed effects on the attitude, whilst offshore wind farms with many turbines generate more...... a novel contribution to this field. First of all, we give a thorough review of the studies that have analysed the relation between experience with wind turbines and attitude. In addition, we supplement the review by analysing the effect of travel distance to the nearest offshore wind farm and the wind...

  19. Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doubrawa Moreira, Paula [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walter D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kilcher, Levi F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This report quantifies Alaska's offshore wind resource capacity while focusing on its unique nature. It is a supplement to the existing U.S. Offshore Wind Resource Assessment, which evaluated the offshore wind resource for all other U.S. states. Together, these reports provide the foundation for the nation's offshore wind value proposition. Both studies were developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The analysis presented herein represents the first quantitative evidence of the offshore wind energy potential of Alaska. The technical offshore wind resource area in Alaska is larger than the technical offshore resource area of all other coastal U.S. states combined. Despite the abundant wind resource available, significant challenges inhibit large-scale offshore wind deployment in Alaska, such as the remoteness of the resource, its distance from load centers, and the wealth of land available for onshore wind development. Throughout this report, the energy landscape of Alaska is reviewed and a resource assessment analysis is performed in terms of gross and technical offshore capacity and energy potential.

  20. Joint excitation synchronization characteristics of fatigue test for offshore wind turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei-an; Yu, Xiang-yong; Wei, Xiu-ting; Liu, Wei-sheng

    2018-02-01

    In the case of the stiffness of offshore wind turbine blade is relatively large, the joint excitation device solves the problem of low accuracy of bending moment distribution, insufficient driving ability and long fatigue test period in single-point loading. In order to study the synchronous characteristics of joint excitation system, avoid blade vibration disturbance. First, on the base of a Lagrange equation, a mathematical model of combined excitation is formulated, and a numerical analysis of vibration synchronization is performed. Then, the model is constructed via MATLAB/Simulink, and the effect of the phase difference on the vibration synchronization characteristics is obtained visually. Finally, a set of joint excitation platform for the fatigue test of offshore wind turbine blades are built. The parameter measurement scheme is given and the correctness of the joint excitation synchronization in the simulation model is verified. The results show that when the rotational speed difference is 2 r/min, 30 r/min, the phase difference is 0, π/20, π/8 and π/4, as the rotational speed difference and the phase difference increase, the time required for the blade to reach a steady state is longer. When the phase difference is too large, the electromechanical coupling can no longer make the joint excitation device appear self-synchronizing phenomenon, so that the value of the phase difference develops toward a fixed value (not equal to 0), and the blade vibration disorder is serious, at this time, the effect of electromechanical coupling must be eliminated. The research results provide theoretical basis for the subsequent decoupling control algorithm and synchronization control strategy, and have good application value.

  1. Joint excitation synchronization characteristics of fatigue test for offshore wind turbine blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei-an Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the case of the stiffness of offshore wind turbine blade is relatively large, the joint excitation device solves the problem of low accuracy of bending moment distribution, insufficient driving ability and long fatigue test period in single-point loading. In order to study the synchronous characteristics of joint excitation system, avoid blade vibration disturbance. First, on the base of a Lagrange equation, a mathematical model of combined excitation is formulated, and a numerical analysis of vibration synchronization is performed. Then, the model is constructed via MATLAB/Simulink, and the effect of the phase difference on the vibration synchronization characteristics is obtained visually. Finally, a set of joint excitation platform for the fatigue test of offshore wind turbine blades are built. The parameter measurement scheme is given and the correctness of the joint excitation synchronization in the simulation model is verified. The results show that when the rotational speed difference is 2 r/min, 30 r/min, the phase difference is 0, π/20, π/8 and π/4, as the rotational speed difference and the phase difference increase, the time required for the blade to reach a steady state is longer. When the phase difference is too large, the electromechanical coupling can no longer make the joint excitation device appear self-synchronizing phenomenon, so that the value of the phase difference develops toward a fixed value (not equal to 0, and the blade vibration disorder is serious, at this time, the effect of electromechanical coupling must be eliminated. The research results provide theoretical basis for the subsequent decoupling control algorithm and synchronization control strategy, and have good application value.

  2. Environmental Impact of Offshore Gas Activities on the Benthic Environment: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzo, E; Gomiero, A; Tassetti, A N; Strafella, P; Santelli, A; Salvalaggio, V; Spagnolo, A; Scarcella, G; De Biasi, A M; Kozinkova, L; Fabi, G

    2017-08-01

    Multidisciplinary monitoring of the impact of offshore gas platforms on northern and central Adriatic marine ecosystems has been conducted since 1998. Beginning in 2006, 4-5 year investigations spanning the period before, during, and after rig installation have explored the effects of its construction and presence on macrozoobenthic communities, sediment, water quality, pollutant bioaccumulation, and fish assemblages. In this study, sediment samples collected at increasing distance from an offshore gas platform before, during and after its construction were subjected to chemical analysis and assessment of benthic communities. Ecological indices were calculated to evaluate the ecological status of the area. Ecotoxicological analysis of sediment was performed to establish whether pollutants are transferred to biota. The study applied a before-after control-impact design to assess the effects of rig construction and presence and provide reference data on the possible impacts of any further expansion of the gas extraction industry in the already heavily exploited Adriatic Sea. Only some of the metals investigated (barium, chromium, cadmium, and zinc) showed a different spatial and/or temporal distribution that may be platform-related. In the early phases, the sediment concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were below the detection limit at all sites; they then became detectable, but without significant spatial differences. The present findings suggest that the environmental effects of offshore gas platforms may be difficult to quantify, interpret, and generalize, because they are influenced by numerous, often local, abiotic, and biotic variables in different and unpredictable ways.

  3. Environmental Impact of Offshore Gas Activities on the Benthic Environment: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzo, E.; Gomiero, A.; Tassetti, A. N.; Strafella, P.; Santelli, A.; Salvalaggio, V.; Spagnolo, A.; Scarcella, G.; De Biasi, A. M.; Kozinkova, L.; Fabi, G.

    2017-08-01

    Multidisciplinary monitoring of the impact of offshore gas platforms on northern and central Adriatic marine ecosystems has been conducted since 1998. Beginning in 2006, 4-5 year investigations spanning the period before, during, and after rig installation have explored the effects of its construction and presence on macrozoobenthic communities, sediment, water quality, pollutant bioaccumulation, and fish assemblages. In this study, sediment samples collected at increasing distance from an offshore gas platform before, during and after its construction were subjected to chemical analysis and assessment of benthic communities. Ecological indices were calculated to evaluate the ecological status of the area. Ecotoxicological analysis of sediment was performed to establish whether pollutants are transferred to biota. The study applied a before-after control-impact design to assess the effects of rig construction and presence and provide reference data on the possible impacts of any further expansion of the gas extraction industry in the already heavily exploited Adriatic Sea. Only some of the metals investigated (barium, chromium, cadmium, and zinc) showed a different spatial and/or temporal distribution that may be platform-related. In the early phases, the sediment concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were below the detection limit at all sites; they then became detectable, but without significant spatial differences. The present findings suggest that the environmental effects of offshore gas platforms may be difficult to quantify, interpret, and generalize, because they are influenced by numerous, often local, abiotic, and biotic variables in different and unpredictable ways.

  4. Safety in offshore engineering an academic course covering safety in offshore wind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerda Salzmann, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Offshore projects are known for their challenging conditions, generally leading to high risks. Therefore no offshore project can go without a continuous and extensive assessment on safety issues. The Delft University of Technology is currently developing a course "Safety in Offshore Engineering"

  5. Tidal influence on offshore wind fields and resource predictions[Efficient Development of Offshore Windfarms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, D. [Entec UK Ltd., Doherty Innovation Centre, Penicuik (United Kingdom); Infield, D. [Loughborough Univ., Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Tecnology, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2002-03-01

    The rise and fall of the sea surface due to tides effectively moves an offshore wind turbine hub through the wind shear profile. This effect is quantified using measured data from 3 offshore UK sites. Statistical evidence of the influence of tide on mean wind speed and turbulence is presented. The implications of this effect for predicting offshore wind resource are outlined. (au)

  6. Offshore newcomer : world-scale megaproject spawns international-calibre skills and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, D.

    1997-01-01

    The development of Hibernia marked the beginning of Newfoundland's booming oil industry. The offshore platform located 300 km offshore in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland has an estimated 615 million barrels of recoverable reserves to be produced at a projected average rate of 135,000 barrels per day. Newfoundland personnel and facilities acquired much expertise during the building of the offshore facility and are ready to enter the world market for oil and gas services and supplies. Newfoundland's biggest operations are the fabrication yards at Bull Arm and Marystown which have the capacity for steel fabrication, concrete construction, outfitting installation, hook-up and commissioning of industrial facilities. Plans are currently underway for the Terra Nova project. Newfoundland also has a strong labor force, with international calibre skills. The capacity is here, and as confidence in that capability increases, Newfoundland firms are beginning to form partnerships with international firms. 6 figs

  7. Dynamics and control of multi-terminal HVDC systems for off-shore wind farm integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciapessoni, E.; Cirio, D.; Gatti, A.; Pitto, A. [Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico SpA (RSE), Milan (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    This paper addresses dynamic modelling aspects concerning the operation of VSC-based MTDC networks connecting large offshore wind farms to mainland AC system. In particular, stability issues of the AC-DC system under severe contingencies such as AC fault on mainland side, DC cable faults, and loss of offshore VSC terminal are analysed, and possible stabilising controls are identified. The propose model includes the basic and control strategies for converters on mainland and offshore side, and an additional global control which simulates the action of SPS-Special Protection System. Simulations are performed on a test system implemented in DIgSILENT Power Factory platform, including the proposed control systems and detailed models of wind turbine DFIGs. The work has been carried out within the FP7 European research project ''TWENTIES''. (orig.)

  8. Sand Needs and Resources Offshore New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, J. M.; Flood, R. D.; White, M.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Hinrichs, C.; Wilson, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    "Superstorm" Sandy (October, 2012) accentuated the persistent problem of coastal erosion on New York's ocean coast. The New York state Department of State in cooperation with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management has initiated further identification and assessment of marine sand reserves required to improve the resiliency of coastal communities and the maintenance of coastal habitats. The historical demand for beach nourishment has been about 1.5 million cubic meters per year, but sea level rise and the occurrence of extreme conditions may increase the demand to over 5 million cubic meters annually. Forty-four historical and proposed borrow sites have been delineated. This inner shelf is both sand rich and data rich. Geophysical and geological data has been compiled and reassessed to support identification, characterization, and delineation of sand resources for potential use in future coastal restoration, beach nourishment, and/or wetland restoration efforts. The South Shore of Long Island is composed in part by the Fire Island National Seashore. Holocene sand ridges extending at an oblique angle to the cross shore in the seaward direction. Borrow pits among the sand ridges, excavated were apparent in the most recent surveys and it appears that natural replenishment of offshore borrow areas has been occurring although the rates need to be determined in order to assess their sustainability. Not only is the area one of intense societal attention, but the use of this resource for coastal resilience must fit into a diverse framework marine spatial planning including not only traditional components, like commercial fishing, but also new factors like the siting of offshore wind-farms. To extend this assessment will include a recent survey, sponsored by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and the New York Department of State, providing approximately 700 km of geophysical survey lines located between 3 and 9 nautical miles offshore, and 46 geotechnical samples

  9. Towards a mature offshore wind energy technology - guidelines from the opti-OWECS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, M.; Bierbooms, W. A. A. M.; van Bussel, G. J. W.; Cockerill, T. T.; Harrison, R.; Ferguson, M. C.; Göransson, B.; Harland, L. A.; Vugts, J. H.; Wiecherink, R.

    1999-01-01

    The article reviews the main results of the recent European research project Opti-OWECS (Structural and Economic Optimisation of Bottom-Mounted Offshore Wind Energy Converters'), which has significantly improved the understanding of the requirements for a large-scale utilization of offshore wind energy. An integrated design approach was demonstrated for a 300 MW offshore wind farm at a demanding North Sea site. Several viable solutions were obtained and one was elaborated to include the design of all major components. Simultaneous structural and economic optimization took place during the different design stages. An offshore wind energy converter founded on a soft-soft monopile was tailored with respect to the distinct characteristics of dynamic wind and wave loading. The operation and maintenance behaviour of the wind farm was analysed by Monte Carlo simulations. With an optimized maintenance strategy and suitable hardware a high availability was achieved. Based upon the experience from the structural design, cost models for offshore wind farms were developed and linked to a European database of the offshore wind energy potential. This enabled the first consistent estimate of cost of offshore wind energy for entire European regions.

  10. Development of Seismic Demand for Chang-Bin Offshore Wind Farm in Taiwan Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is located on the Pacific seismic belt, and the soil conditions of Taiwan’s offshore wind farms are softer than those in Europe. To ensure safety and stability of the offshore wind turbine supporting structures, it is important to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces reasonably. In this paper, the relevant seismic and geological data are obtained for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm in Taiwan Strait, the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA is carried out, and the first uniform hazard response spectrum for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm is achieved. Compared with existing design response spectrum in the local regulation, this site-specific seismic hazard analysis has influence on the seismic force considered in the design of supporting structures and therefore affects the cost of the supporting structures. The results show that a site-specific seismic hazard analysis is required for high seismic area. The paper highlights the importance of seismic hazard analysis to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces. The follow-up recommendations and research directions are given for Taiwan’s offshore wind turbine supporting structures under seismic force considerations.

  11. Job retention in the British offshore sector through greening of the North Sea energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, Miguel; Leary, David; Zhang, Qi; Utama, Agya; Tezuka, Tetsuo; Ishihara, Keiichi N.

    2011-01-01

    For the case of the UK there are currently three ways of obtaining energy from sea areas, namely from wind, tides and waves. A methodology was developed to determine the future size of the offshore renewable industry based on the concept of employment factor, or the number of people required to maintain each unit of electricity production. An assessment was made of the decline in the number of people employed in oil related jobs in the North Sea and the gap that this could create in the UK's economy unless this pool of offshore expertise could find an alternative employment in the renewable sector. The paper will also investigate the effect of gradually transforming the UK's oil and gas sector into offshore renewables. If this was to happen by 2050 the UK offshore renewable industry could produce between 127 and 146 TWh of electricity, equivalent to around 57-66% of the current energy consumption in the country. - Research highlights: → There are three possible sources of energy from sea areas in the UK: wind, tide and waves. → As the number of jobs in the offshore oil industry reduces they should be compensated with jobs in the renewable offshore sector. → By 2050 the UK offshore renewable industry could produce between 127 and 146TWh of electricity. → This would represent around 57-66% of the current energy consumption in the UK.

  12. What can wave energy learn from offshore oil and gas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferys, E R

    2012-01-28

    This title may appear rather presumptuous in the light of the progress made by the leading wave energy devices. However, there may still be some useful lessons to be learnt from current 'offshore' practice, and there are certainly some awful warnings from the past. Wave energy devices and the marine structures used in oil and gas exploration as well as production share a common environment and both are subject to wave, wind and current loads, which may be evaluated with well-validated, albeit imperfect, tools. Both types of structure can be designed, analysed and fabricated using similar tools and technologies. They fulfil very different missions and are subject to different economic and performance requirements; hence 'offshore' design tools must be used appropriately in wave energy project and system design, and 'offshore' cost data should be adapted for 'wave' applications. This article reviews the similarities and differences between the fields and highlights the differing economic environments; offshore structures are typically a small to moderate component of field development cost, while wave power devices will dominate overall system cost. The typical 'offshore' design process is summarized and issues such as reliability-based design and design of not normally manned structures are addressed. Lessons learned from poor design in the past are discussed to highlight areas where care is needed, and wave energy-specific design areas are reviewed. Opportunities for innovation and optimization in wave energy project and device design are discussed; wave energy projects must ultimately compete on a level playing field with other routes to low CO₂ energy and/or energy efficiency. This article is a personal viewpoint and not an expression of a ConocoPhillips position.

  13. Legal-institutional arrangements facilitating offshore wind energy conversion systems (WECS) utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, L.H.

    1977-09-01

    Concern for the continuing sufficiency of energy supplies in the U.S. has tended to direct increasing attention to unconventional sources of supply, including wind energy. Some of the more striking proposals for the utilization of wind energy relate to offshore configurations. The legal-institutional arrangements for facilitating the utilization of offshore wind energy conversion systems (WECS) are examined by positioning three program alternatives and analyzing the institutional support required for the implementation of each.

  14. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  15. Damage to offshore infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico by hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, A. M.; Krausmann, E.

    2009-04-01

    The damage inflicted by hurricanes Katrina and Rita to the Gulf-of-Mexico's (GoM) oil and gas production, both onshore and offshore, has shown the proneness of industry to Natech accidents (natural hazard-triggered hazardous-materials releases). In order to contribute towards a better understanding of Natech events, we assessed the damage to and hazardous-materials releases from offshore oil and natural-gas platforms and pipelines induced by hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Data was obtained through a review of published literature and interviews with government officials and industry representatives from the affected region. We also reviewed over 60,000 records of reported hazardous-materials releases from the National Response Center's (NRC) database to identify and analyze the hazardous-materials releases directly attributed to offshore oil and gas platforms and pipelines affected by the two hurricanes. Our results show that hurricanes Katrina and Rita destroyed at least 113 platforms, and severely damaged at least 53 others. Sixty percent of the facilities destroyed were built 30 years ago or more prior to the adoption of the more stringent design standards that went into effect after 1977. The storms also destroyed 5 drilling rigs and severely damaged 19 mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs). Some 19 MODUs lost their moorings and became adrift during the storms which not only posed a danger to existing facilities but the dragging anchors also damaged pipelines and other infrastructure. Structural damage to platforms included toppling of sections, and tilting or leaning of platforms. Possible causes for failure of structural and non-structural components of platforms included loading caused by wave inundation of the deck. Failure of rigs attached to platforms was also observed resulting in significant damage to the platform or adjacent infrastructure, as well as damage to equipment, living quarters and helipads. The failures are attributable to tie-down components

  16. The impact of water depth on safety and environmental performance in offshore oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlenbachs, Lucija; Cohen, Mark A.; Gerarden, Todd

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical analysis of company-reported incidents on oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico between 1996 and 2010. During these years, there was a dramatic increase in the water depths at which offshore oil and gas is extracted. Controlling for platform characteristics such as age, quantity of oil and gas produced, and number of producing wells, we find that incidents (such as blowouts, injuries, and oil spills) are positively correlated with deeper water. Controlling for these and other characteristics, for an average platform, each 100 feet of added depth increases the probability of a company-reported incident by 8.5%. While further research into the causal connections between water depth and platform risks is warranted, this study highlights the potential value of increased monitoring of deeper water platforms. - Highlights: ► Analysis of performance indicators for oil production platforms in Gulf of Mexico. ► In recent years there have been dramatic increases in the water depths at which offshore oil and gas is extracted. ► Self-reported incidents (e.g. blowouts, injuries, spills) increase with water depth

  17. An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A.; Gallardo, J. C.; López, M. T.; Jurado, R.; Miranda, A.; Aguilar, M.; Melgarejo, L. A.; Palmerín, E.; Vallejo, C. J.; Barchet, W. R.

    An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measure at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO 2, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and upper

  18. The prospects of the Norwegian offshore gas scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sael, E.

    1992-01-01

    It is not unlikely that Norway will become the major offshore gas producer in Europe in the latter part of this decade. This paper reviews the current estimates of the magnitude and geographical distribution of Norwegian gas resources, the prospects for gas supply and exports, the infrastructure such as pipelines and production facilities now in place and required for the future, and the environmental challenge which makes natural gas the most attractive of the fossil fuels for power generation. (UK)

  19. Cost reduction potentials of offshore wind power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobohm, Jens; Krampe, Leonard; Peter, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind power is a major hope for the German energy turnaround. However, it will only be possible to tap its cost reduction potentials if industry, the political leadership and the administrative authorities join forces to create the necessary preconditions. An important requirement for this capital-intensive technology are stable legal and political framework conditions. A recent study on the future shows what needs to be done.

  20. Seabird data collected by the Grand Banks offshore hydrocarbon industry 1999-2002 : results, limitations and suggestions for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillie, S.M.; Robertson, G.J.; Wiese, F.K.

    2005-01-01

    Offshore oil operations attract and concentrate migratory seabirds through an artificially enhanced food supply and lights. In order to understand the vulnerability of seabirds near offshore oil facilities, the degree of association of seabirds with these sites must be determined. Offshore oil and gas exploration on Newfoundland's Grand Banks began in the early 1980s, with first oil produced in 1997 at the Hibernia fixed platform. Additional production followed in 2002 from the Terra Nova Floating Production Storage and Offloading Vessel. As the Grand Banks oil industry grows, seismic surveys continue to be conducted and an estimated 30,000 litres of crude oil and synthetic based drilling fluids have been spilled from exploration drilling, development drilling and production oil operations between 1997 and 2002. Most of the spills occurred in winter when the number of seabirds on the Grand Banks are highest and most vulnerable to oil pollution. This report presents an evaluation of the current Grand Banks offshore oil and gas development seabird monitoring programs. It focuses mostly on seabird monitoring on fixed platforms. The objective was to assess the scientific quality of seabird-related industry programs by compiling and summarizing all available spatial and temporal seabird abundance data and deck stranded birds associated with Grand Banks offshore oil platforms from 1997 to 2002. Data on seabird distributions at sea and stranded bird encounters was collected from 8 offshore hydrocarbon sites on the northeastern Grand Banks. It was recommended that a standardized seabird monitoring and observer training program for the offshore operations in the Grand Banks region be implemented. 43 refs., 5 tabs., 16 figs., 3 appendices

  1. HPC - Platforms Penta Chart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo, Angelina Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-08

    Strategy, Planning, Acquiring- very large scale computing platforms come and go and planning for immensely scalable machines often precedes actual procurement by 3 years. Procurement can be another year or more. Integration- After Acquisition, machines must be integrated into the computing environments at LANL. Connection to scalable storage via large scale storage networking, assuring correct and secure operations. Management and Utilization – Ongoing operations, maintenance, and trouble shooting of the hardware and systems software at massive scale is required.

  2. 31 CFR 543.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 543.406 Section 543.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Interpretations § 543.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 543.201 on transactions or dealings...

  3. 31 CFR 597.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 597.406 Section 597.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 597.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions contained in § 597.201 apply to...

  4. 31 CFR 544.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 544.406 Section 544.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 544.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 544.201 on...

  5. 31 CFR 593.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 593.406 Section 593.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 593.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 593.201 on...

  6. 31 CFR 547.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 547.406 Section 547.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 547.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 547.201 on transactions or...

  7. 31 CFR 541.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 541.406 Section 541.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 541.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 541.201 on transactions involving blocked...

  8. 31 CFR 548.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 548.406 Section 548.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 548.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 548.201 on transactions or dealings involving...

  9. 31 CFR 537.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 537.406 Section 537.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 537.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 537.201 on transactions involving blocked...

  10. 31 CFR 587.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 587.406 Section 587.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... MONTENEGRO) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 587.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions...

  11. 31 CFR 546.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 546.406 Section 546.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 546.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 546.201 on transactions or dealings involving...

  12. 31 CFR 542.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 542.406 Section 542.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 542.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 542.201 on transactions involving blocked...

  13. 31 CFR 588.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 588.406 Section 588.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Interpretations § 588.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 588.201 on transactions involving blocked...

  14. Offshore Vendors’ Software Development Team Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Suranjan; Sarker, Saonee; Rai, Sudhanshu

    2012-01-01

    This research uses configuration theory and data collected from a major IT vendor organization to examine primary configurations of distributed teams in a global off-shoring context. The study indicates that off-shoring vendor organizations typically deploy three different types of configurations...

  15. A novel floating offshore wind turbine concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vita, Luca; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2009-01-01

    This paper will present a novel concept of a floating offshore wind turbine. The new concept is intended for vertical-axis wind turbine technology. The main purpose is to increase simplicity and to reduce total costs of an installed offshore wind farm. The concept is intended for deep water...... and large size turbines....

  16. Optimized power generation in offshore wind parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Filho, J. de; Papp, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Electricity generation on offshore wind parks has an increasing economic importance - the European Commission foresees that 12% of the wind energy will be produced on offshore installations by 2020, and this share is likely to increase further in the following years. However, the continuously

  17. Whether or Not to Prepare for Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    A consequence of offshoring is increased coordination costs. To counter this, firms can strive to identify a cost reducing organizational configuration either ex ante or ex post to the offshoring implementation. In this paper, we investigate the performance implications of these contrasting strat...

  18. Reliability evaluation for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Blåbjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new reliability index - Loss Of Generation Ratio Probability (LOGRP) is proposed for evaluating the reliability of an electrical system for offshore wind farms, which emphasizes the design of wind farms rather than the adequacy for specific load demand. A practical method...... to calculate LOGRP of offshore wind farms is proposed and evaluated....

  19. A fair wind for the offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houot, G.

    2009-01-01

    The wind power future will take into account the sea. But to increase, the offshore channel must manage its organization and create a real cross-border cooperation. The author presents an economic analysis of the market with a special attention to the french sector. A map of the offshore sites in Europe is provided. (A.L.B.)

  20. Project alliancing in the offshore industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, Johannes I.M.; Braks, B.F.M.

    In this paper the shift towards new types of project organisation within the Offshore Industry is explained and discussed. Special focus is given to the organisational concept of Project Alliancing. The principles, structure and culture of a Project Alliance as applied within the Offshore Industry

  1. Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-08-27

    This report is the third annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market. It includes the following major sections: Section 1: key data on developments in the offshore wind technology sector and the global development of offshore wind projects, with a particular focus on progress in the United States; Section 2: analysis of policy developments at the federal and state levels that have been effective in advancing offshore wind deployment in the United States; Section 3: analysis of actual and projected economic impact, including regional development and job creation; Section 4: analysis of developments in relevant sectors of the economy with the potential to affect offshore wind deployment in the United States

  2. Offshore wind resources at Danish measurement sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmie, R J; Courtney, M S; Lange, B; Nielsen, M; Sempreviva, A M [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark); Svenson, J; Olsen, F [SEAS, Haslev (Denmark); Christensen, T [Elsamprojekt, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    In order to characterise wind and turbulence characteristics at prospective offshore wind energy sites, meteorological observations from a number of purpose-built offshore monitoring sites have been analyzed and compared with long wind speed time series. New analyses have been conducted on the data sets focussing on meteorology, turbulence, extreme winds and wind and wave interactions. Relationships between wind speed, turbulence and fetch are highly complex. Minimum turbulence intensity offshore is associated with wind speeds of about 12 m/s. At lower wind speeds, stability effects are important while at higher winds speeds wind and wave interactions appear to dominate. On average, turbulence intensity offshore at 48 m height is approximately 0.08 if no coastal effects are present. However, the effect of the coastal discontinuity persists in wind speed and turbulence characteristics for considerable distances offshore. The majority of the adjustment of appears to occur within 20 km of the coast. (au)

  3. Design off-shore wind climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G C; Joergensen, H E [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Specific recommendations of off-shore turbulence intensities, applicable for design purposes, are lacking in the present IEC-code. The present off-shore wind climate analysis presents the distribution of the turbulence standard deviation around the mean turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the mean wind speed. Measured distributions, based on a huge amount of measuring data from two shallow water off-shore sites, are parameterized by fitting to a three parameter Weibull distribution. Combining a simple heuristic load model with the parameterized probability density functions of the turbulence standard deviations, an empirical off-shore design turbulence intensity is evaluated that in average yields the same fatigue damage as the distributed turbulence intensity. The proposed off-shore design turbulence intensity is, within the IEC code framework, applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue load determination. (au)

  4. 2016 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walter; Beiter, Philipp; Schwabe, Paul; Tian, Tian; Stehly, Tyler; Spitsen, Paul; Robertson, Amy; Gevorgian, Vahan

    2017-08-08

    The 2016 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is intended to provide offshore wind policymakers, regulators, developers, researchers, engineers, financiers, and supply chain participants, with quantitative information about the offshore wind market, technology, and cost trends in the United States and worldwide. In particular, this report is intended to provide detailed information on the domestic offshore wind industry to provide context to help navigate technical and market barriers and opportunities. The scope of the report covers the status of the 111 operating offshore wind projects in the global fleet through December 31, 2016, and provides the status and analysis on a broader pipeline of 593 projects at some stage of development. In addition, this report provides a wider assessment of domestic developments and events through the second quarter of 2017 to provide a more up-to-date discussion of this dynamically evolving industry.

  5. Techno-Economic Comparison of Onshore and Offshore Underground Coal Gasification End-Product Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Christine Nakaten

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Underground Coal Gasification (UCG enables the utilisation of coal reserves that are currently not economically exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. Hereby, UCG produces a high-calorific synthesis gas that can be used for generation of electricity, fuels and chemical feedstock. The present study aims to identify economically competitive, site-specific end-use options for onshore and offshore produced UCG synthesis gas, taking into account the capture and storage (CCS and/or utilisation (CCU of resulting CO 2 . Modelling results show that boundary conditions that favour electricity, methanol and ammonia production expose low costs for air separation, high synthesis gas calorific values and H 2 /N 2 shares as well as low CO 2 portions of max. 10%. Hereby, a gasification agent ratio of more than 30% oxygen by volume is not favourable from economic and environmental viewpoints. Compared to the costs of an offshore platform with its technical equipment, offshore drilling costs are negligible. Thus, uncertainties related to parameters influenced by drilling costs are also negligible. In summary, techno-economic process modelling results reveal that scenarios with high CO 2 emissions are the most cost-intensive ones, offshore UCG-CCS/CCU costs are twice as high as the onshore ones, and yet all investigated scenarios except from offshore ammonia production are competitive on the European market.

  6. Learning control for riser-slug elimination and production-rate optimization for an offshore oil and gas production process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Yang, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    , (ii) maximizing the production rate at the riser of an offshore production platform, by manipulating a topside choke valve through a learning switching model-free PID controller. The results show good steady-state performance, though a long settling time due to the unknown reference for no slugging...

  7. First evaluation of foraminiferal metabarcoding for monitoring environmental impact from an offshore oil drilling site

    KAUST Repository

    Laroche, Olivier

    2016-08-29

    At present, environmental impacts from offshore oil and gas activities are partly determined by measuring changes in macrofauna diversity. Morphological identification of macrofauna is time-consuming, expensive and dependent on taxonomic expertise. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of using foraminiferal-specific metabarcoding for routine monitoring. Sediment samples were collected along distance gradients from two oil platforms off Taranaki (New Zealand) and their physicochemical properties, foraminiferal environmental DNA/RNA, and macrofaunal composition analyzed. Macrofaunal and foraminiferal assemblages showed similar shifts along impact gradients, but responded differently to environmental perturbations. Macrofauna were affected by hypoxia, whereas sediment grain size appeared to drive shifts in foraminifera. We identified eight foraminiferal molecular operational taxonomic units that have potential to be used as bioindicator taxa. Our results show that metabarcoding represents an effective tool for assessing foraminiferal communities near offshore oil and gas platforms, and that it can be used to complement current monitoring techniques. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. First evaluation of foraminiferal metabarcoding for monitoring environmental impact from an offshore oil drilling site

    KAUST Repository

    Laroche, Olivier; Wood, Susanna A.; Tremblay, Louis A.; Ellis, Joanne; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Pawlowski, Jan; Lear, Gavin; Atalah, Javier; Pochon, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    At present, environmental impacts from offshore oil and gas activities are partly determined by measuring changes in macrofauna diversity. Morphological identification of macrofauna is time-consuming, expensive and dependent on taxonomic expertise. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of using foraminiferal-specific metabarcoding for routine monitoring. Sediment samples were collected along distance gradients from two oil platforms off Taranaki (New Zealand) and their physicochemical properties, foraminiferal environmental DNA/RNA, and macrofaunal composition analyzed. Macrofaunal and foraminiferal assemblages showed similar shifts along impact gradients, but responded differently to environmental perturbations. Macrofauna were affected by hypoxia, whereas sediment grain size appeared to drive shifts in foraminifera. We identified eight foraminiferal molecular operational taxonomic units that have potential to be used as bioindicator taxa. Our results show that metabarcoding represents an effective tool for assessing foraminiferal communities near offshore oil and gas platforms, and that it can be used to complement current monitoring techniques. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamic performance of a novel offshore power system integrated with a wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlandini, Valentina; Pierobon, Leonardo; Schløer, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Offshore wind technology is rapidly developing and a wind farm can be integrated with offshore power stations. This paper considers as case study a futuristic platform powered by a wind farm and three combined cycle units consisting of a gas turbine and an ORC (organic Rankine cycle) module....... The first aim of this paper is to identify the maximum amount of wind power that can be integrated into the system, without compromising the electric grid balance. The stability of the grid is tested using a dynamic model of the power system based on first principles. Additionally, the dynamics...... of the system is compared with a simplified plant consisting of three gas turbines and a wind farm, in order to identify benefits of the installation of the ORC system. The maximum allowable wind power is 10 MW for a nominal platform load of 30 MW. The results show that the presence of the ORC system allows...

  10. Model Predictive Control of Offshore Power Stations With Waste Heat Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Chan, Richard; Li, Xiangan

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of waste heat recovery units on oil and gas offshore platforms demands advances in both design methods and control systems. Model-based control algorithms can play an important role in the operation of offshore power stations. A novel regulator based on a linear model predictive...... control (MPC) coupled with a steady-state performance optimizer has been developed in the SIMULINK language and is documented in the paper. The test case is the regulation of a power system serving an oil and gas platform in the Norwegian Sea. One of the three gas turbines is combined with an organic...... Rankine cycle (ORC) turbogenerator to increase the energy conversion efficiency. Results show a potential reduction of frequency drop up to 40%for a step in the load set-point of 4 MW, compared to proportional–integral control systems. Fuel savings in the range of 2–3% are also expected by optimizing on...

  11. Optimisation of electrical system for offshore wind farms via genetic algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Menghua; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    An optimisation platform based on genetic algorithm (GA) is presented, where the main components of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input parameters and the electrical system design of the wind farm is optimised in terms of both production cost and system reliability....... The power losses, wind power production, initial investment and maintenance costs are considered in the production cost. The availability of components and network redundancy are included in the reliability evaluation. The method of coding an electrical system to a binary string, which is processed by GA......, is developed. Different GA techniques are investigated based on a real example offshore wind farm. This optimisation platform has been demonstrated as a powerful tool for offshore wind farm design and evaluation....

  12. Dynamic performance of a novel offshore power system integrated with a wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlandini, Valentina; Pierobon, Leonardo; Schløer, Signe

    2016-01-01

    of the system is compared with a simplified plant consisting of three gas turbines and a wind farm, in order to identify benefits of the installation of the ORC system. The maximum allowable wind power is 10 MW for a nominal platform load of 30 MW. The results show that the presence of the ORC system allows......Offshore wind technology is rapidly developing and a wind farm can be integrated with offshore power stations. This paper considers as case study a futuristic platform powered by a wind farm and three combined cycle units consisting of a gas turbine and an ORC (organic Rankine cycle) module....... The first aim of this paper is to identify the maximum amount of wind power that can be integrated into the system, without compromising the electric grid balance. The stability of the grid is tested using a dynamic model of the power system based on first principles. Additionally, the dynamics...

  13. A study of rotor and platform design trade-offs for large-scale floating vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, D. Todd; Paquette, Joshua; Barone, Matthew; Goupee, Andrew J.; Fowler, Matthew J.; Bull, Diana; Owens, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Vertical axis wind turbines are receiving significant attention for offshore siting. In general, offshore wind offers proximity to large populations centers, a vast & more consistent wind resource, and a scale-up opportunity, to name a few beneficial characteristics. On the other hand, offshore wind suffers from high levelized cost of energy (LCOE) and in particular high balance of system (BoS) costs owing to accessibility challenges and limited project experience. To address these challenges associated with offshore wind, Sandia National Laboratories is researching large-scale (MW class) offshore floating vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). The motivation for this work is that floating VAWTs are a potential transformative technology solution to reduce offshore wind LCOE in deep-water locations. This paper explores performance and cost trade-offs within the design space for floating VAWTs between the configurations for the rotor and platform.

  14. Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Farms via VSC-HVDC – Dynamic Stability Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongzhi

    farms could seriously impact the operation and stability of their interconnected power system. To assist in maintaining the power system stability when large disturbances occur in the grid, modern offshore wind farms consisting of variable-speed wind turbines are required to provide ancillary services...... such as voltage and frequency control. The greater distance to shore makes commonly used high voltage AC (HVAC) connection unsuitable economically and technically for large offshore wind farms. Alternatively, voltage source converter (VSC)-based high voltage DC (HVDC) transmission becomes more attractive...... and practical to integrate large-scale offshore wind farms into the onshore power grid, owing to its high capacity, advanced controllability and stabilization potential for AC networks etc. In this dissertation, some of the key technical issues with grid integration of large-scale offshore wind farms via VSC...

  15. Offshore Aquaculture Development in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio López Alvarado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador has a long tradition in aquaculture, mainly related to the cultivation of shrimp and tilapia in earthen ponds. Land-based production methods have a large environmental, economic and social impact due to the extensive use of land and its effects on the ecosystems. In order to increase the production of fish without further land use and with a lower environmental impact, a good alternative is the culture of fish in floating cages, adopting technologies used successfully in many other countries. This article analyses the current situation of offshore aquaculture (the production of fish and other aquatic organisms in the open sea in Ecuador, and the prospects for the future of this sector in the country.

  16. Offshoring of healthcare services: the case of US-India trade in medical transcription services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshetri, Nir; Dholakia, Nikhilesh

    2011-01-01

    - The issue of offshore outsourcing of healthcare services is a critical but little-examined problem in healthcare research. The purpose of this study is to contribute to filling this void. A library-based study was carried out of the development of the Indian medical transcription offshoring industry. Findings- Cost-saving potential and the degree of outsourceability are higher for medical transcription compared with most services. Offshoring experience, typically in a low-value BPO, helps to enhance productivity and international linkages required for the success of medical transcription. Research limitations/implications - An important area of future research concerns comparing India's factor endowments in medical transcription outsourcing with other services. Further research is also needed to examine how India differs from its regional competitors in terms of factors endowments associated with these services. Another extension would be to investigate the drivers of offshoring of higher value services such as radiological readings. Practical implications - ICT infrastructures needed for outsourcing require much less investment compared with leading capital-intensive industries. The development patterns of the Indian medical and offshoring industries indicate that India may attract higher skilled medical functions in the future. The Indian offshoring industry is shifting its focus from BPO to knowledge process outsourcing (KPO). Developing countries need to shift to greater automation and greater levels of skill training to retain and reinforce their comparative advantages. This paper's greatest value stems from the fact that it examines the drivers of a new but rapidly growing healthcare industry.

  17. Implementation of a new Foundations Concept for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    The foundation principles for the recent major offshore wind farm projects in Europe have been dominated by two types of foundation solutions, the gravitational foundation and the monopile. A fully operational 3.0 MW offshore wind turbine was installed on a prototype of the bucket foundation...... at the test field in Frederikshavn in December 2002. A five-year research and development project has proven the bucket foundation to be feasible in suitable soil conditions in water depth from near shore to approximately 40 meters. The bucket foundation design reduces the steel weight by half compared...... with a traditional monopile solution and the installation of the bucket foundation is much easier and does not require heavy installation equipment. In this paper the full-scale field installation of the prototype is described. A design procedure has been developed in cooperation with the certifying party in order...

  18. Expected Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Mediterranean Marine Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bray

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Current climate policy and issues of energy security mean wind farms are being built at an increasing rate to meet energy demand. As wind farm development is very likely in the Mediterranean Sea, we provide an assessment of the offshore wind potential and identify expected biological effects of such developments in the region. We break new ground here by identifying potential offshore wind farm (OWF “hotspots” in the Mediterranean. Using lessons learned in Northern Europe, and small-scale experiments in the Mediterranean, we identify sensitive species and habitats that will likely be influenced by OWFs in both these hotspot areas and at a basin level. This information will be valuable to guide policy governing OWF development and will inform the industry as and when environmental impact assessments are required for the Mediterranean Sea.

  19. Offshore Wind Power Production in Critical Weather Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2012-01-01

    control the power balance during offshore storm passages. The demonstration will be done on Horns Rev 2 wind farm. In the same project, the impact of a storm front passage over the system security, for the whole Danish system, and with the expected offshore wind power in 2020 will be investigated....... This paper will present the results of up-scaling the impact that a storm front passage will have on the Danish power system in 2020, given that the existing wind turbine storm controller is not replaced. The simulations are done with CorWind and the analysis is focusing on establishing a reference case...... and quantifying the balancing reserve requirements needed in order to keep the security of the power system....

  20. Evaluation of methodology for QRA in offshore operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnem, Jan Erik

    1998-01-01

    A brief summary is presented of the development of Quantified Risk Analysis in the offshore oil and gas industry for nearly 20 years. From a modest start in Norway as a research activity, QRA has today become one of the focal points of oil and gas management in all countries around the North Sea, and also in other areas. This was mainly initiated by authority regulations and requirements, but has now for some time been driven by the industry itself, as it sees the QRA as a vehicle to gain extended flexibility with respect to optimization of offshore safety standards. This article discusses how QRAs are used, and examines in this light how methodology developments that are and should be carried out by R and D institutions and the industry. Recommendations with respect to how and where knowledge should be developed are expressed and discussed. Lastly visions for future use and developments within the QRA technology are outlined