WorldWideScience

Sample records for platform edge species

  1. Creation Greenhouse Environment Map Using Localization of Edge of Cultivation Platforms Based on Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nasiri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Stereo vision means the capability of extracting the depth based on analysis of two images taken from different angles of one scene. The result of stereo vision is a collection of three-dimensional points which describes the details of scene proportional to the resolution of the obtained images. Vehicle automatic steering and crop growth monitoring are two important operations in agricultural precision. The essential aspects of an automated steering are position and orientation of the agricultural equipment in relation to crop row, detection of obstacles and design of path planning between the crop rows. The developed map can provide this information in the real time. Machine vision has the capabilities to perform these tasks in order to execute some operations such as cultivation, spraying and harvesting. In greenhouse environment, it is possible to develop a map and perform an automatic control by detecting and localizing the cultivation platforms as the main moving obstacle. The current work was performed to meet a method based on the stereo vision for detecting and localizing platforms, and then, providing a two-dimensional map for cultivation platforms in the greenhouse environment. Materials and Methods In this research, two webcams, made by Microsoft Corporation with the resolution of 960×544, are connected to the computer via USB2 in order to produce a stereo parallel camera. Due to the structure of cultivation platforms, the number of points in the point cloud will be decreased by extracting the only upper and lower edges of the platform. The proposed method in this work aims at extracting the edges based on depth discontinuous features in the region of platform edge. By getting the disparity image of the platform edges from the rectified stereo images and translating its data to 3D-space, the point cloud model of the environments is constructed. Then by projecting the points to XZ plane and putting local maps together

  2. Optimized optical devices for edge-coupling-enabled silicon photonics platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Png, Ching Eng; Ang, Thomas Y. L.; Ong, Jun Rong; Lim, Soon Thor; Sahin, Ezgi; Chen, G. F. R.; Tan, D. T. H.; Guo, Tina X.; Wang, Hong

    2018-02-01

    We present a library of high-performance passive and active silicon photonic devices at the C-band that is specifically designed and optimized for edge-coupling-enabled silicon photonics platform. These devices meet the broadband (100 nm), low-loss (= 25 Gb/s), and polarization diversity requirements (TE and TM polarization extinction ratio beam splitters (PBSs), and high-speed modulators are some of the devices within our library. In particular, we have designed and fabricated inverse taper fiber-to-waveguide edge couplers of tip widths ranging from 120 nm to 200 nm, and we obtained a low coupling loss of 1.80+/-0.28 dB for 160 nm tip width. To achieve polarization diversity operation for inverse tapers, we have experimentally realized different designs of polarization beam splitters (PBS). Our optimized PBS has a measured extinction ratio of <= 25 dB for both the quasiTE modes, and quasi-TM modes. Additionally, a broadband (100 nm) directional coupler with a 50/50 power splitting ratio was experimentally realized on a small footprint of 20×3 μm2 . Last but not least, high-speed silicon modulators with a range of carrier doping concentrations and offset of the PN junction can be used to optimise the modulation efficiency, and insertion losses for operation at 25 GHz.

  3. Edges within farmland: Management implications of taxonspecific species richness correlates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Kučera, T.; Zimmermann, Kamil; Bartůšková, I.; Plátek, Michal; Grill, S.; Konvička, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 8 (2015), s. 714-725 ISSN 1439-1791 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2167 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Forest-farmland edges * Biodiversity conservation * Carabids * Butterflies * Birds * Small mammals * Floristic composition * Agricultural landscape Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.836, year: 2015

  4. An Efficient Neural-Network-Based Microseismic Monitoring Platform for Hydraulic Fracture on an Edge Computing Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaopu; Lin, Jun; Chen, Zubin; Sun, Feng; Zhu, Xi; Fang, Gengfa

    2018-06-05

    Microseismic monitoring is one of the most critical technologies for hydraulic fracturing in oil and gas production. To detect events in an accurate and efficient way, there are two major challenges. One challenge is how to achieve high accuracy due to a poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The other one is concerned with real-time data transmission. Taking these challenges into consideration, an edge-computing-based platform, namely Edge-to-Center LearnReduce, is presented in this work. The platform consists of a data center with many edge components. At the data center, a neural network model combined with convolutional neural network (CNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM) is designed and this model is trained by using previously obtained data. Once the model is fully trained, it is sent to edge components for events detection and data reduction. At each edge component, a probabilistic inference is added to the neural network model to improve its accuracy. Finally, the reduced data is delivered to the data center. Based on experiment results, a high detection accuracy (over 96%) with less transmitted data (about 90%) was achieved by using the proposed approach on a microseismic monitoring system. These results show that the platform can simultaneously improve the accuracy and efficiency of microseismic monitoring.

  5. An Efficient Neural-Network-Based Microseismic Monitoring Platform for Hydraulic Fracture on an Edge Computing Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopu Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Microseismic monitoring is one of the most critical technologies for hydraulic fracturing in oil and gas production. To detect events in an accurate and efficient way, there are two major challenges. One challenge is how to achieve high accuracy due to a poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. The other one is concerned with real-time data transmission. Taking these challenges into consideration, an edge-computing-based platform, namely Edge-to-Center LearnReduce, is presented in this work. The platform consists of a data center with many edge components. At the data center, a neural network model combined with convolutional neural network (CNN and long short-term memory (LSTM is designed and this model is trained by using previously obtained data. Once the model is fully trained, it is sent to edge components for events detection and data reduction. At each edge component, a probabilistic inference is added to the neural network model to improve its accuracy. Finally, the reduced data is delivered to the data center. Based on experiment results, a high detection accuracy (over 96% with less transmitted data (about 90% was achieved by using the proposed approach on a microseismic monitoring system. These results show that the platform can simultaneously improve the accuracy and efficiency of microseismic monitoring.

  6. Implementing a Parallel Image Edge Detection Algorithm Based on the Otsu-Canny Operator on the Hadoop Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianfang; Chen, Lichao; Wang, Min; Tian, Yun

    2018-01-01

    The Canny operator is widely used to detect edges in images. However, as the size of the image dataset increases, the edge detection performance of the Canny operator decreases and its runtime becomes excessive. To improve the runtime and edge detection performance of the Canny operator, in this paper, we propose a parallel design and implementation for an Otsu-optimized Canny operator using a MapReduce parallel programming model that runs on the Hadoop platform. The Otsu algorithm is used to optimize the Canny operator's dual threshold and improve the edge detection performance, while the MapReduce parallel programming model facilitates parallel processing for the Canny operator to solve the processing speed and communication cost problems that occur when the Canny edge detection algorithm is applied to big data. For the experiments, we constructed datasets of different scales from the Pascal VOC2012 image database. The proposed parallel Otsu-Canny edge detection algorithm performs better than other traditional edge detection algorithms. The parallel approach reduced the running time by approximately 67.2% on a Hadoop cluster architecture consisting of 5 nodes with a dataset of 60,000 images. Overall, our approach system speeds up the system by approximately 3.4 times when processing large-scale datasets, which demonstrates the obvious superiority of our method. The proposed algorithm in this study demonstrates both better edge detection performance and improved time performance.

  7. The cutting-edge training modalities and educational platforms for accredited surgical training: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgione, Antonello; Guraya, Salman Y

    2017-01-01

    Historically, operating room (OR) has always been considered as a stand-alone trusted platform for surgical education and training. However, concerns about financial constraints, quality control, and patient safety have urged the surgical educators to develop more cost-effective, surgical educational platforms that can be employed outside the OR. Furthermore, trained surgeons need to regularly update their surgical skills to keep abreast with the emerging surgical technologies. This research aimed to explore the value of currently available modern surgical tools that can be used outside the OR and also elaborates the existing laparoscopic surgical training programs in world-class centers across the globe with a view to formulate a blended and unified structured surgical training program. Several data sources were searched using MeSH terms "Laparoscopic surgery" and "Surgical training" and "Surgical curriculum" and "fundamentals of endoscopic surgery" and "fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery" and "Telementoring" and "Box trainer." The eligibility criteria used in data extraction searched for original and review articles and by excluding the editorial articles, short communications, conference proceedings, personal view, and commentaries. Data synthesis and data analysis were done by reviewing the initially retrieved 211 articles. Irrelevant and duplicate and redundant articles were excluded from the study. Finally, 12 articles were selected for this systematic review. Data results showed that a myriad of cutting-edge technical innovations have provided modern surgical training tools such as the simulation-based mechanical and virtual reality simulators, animal and cadaveric labs, telementoring, telerobotic-assisted surgery, and video games. Surgical simulators allow the trainees to acquire surgical skills in a tension-free environment without supervision or time constraints. The existing world-renowned surgical training centers employ various clusters of training

  8. The cutting-edge training modalities and educational platforms for accredited surgical training: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Forgione

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Historically, operating room (OR has always been considered as a stand-alone trusted platform for surgical education and training.However, concerns about financial constraints, quality control, and patient safety have urged the surgical educators to develop more cost-effective, surgical educational platforms that can be employed outside the OR. Furthermore, trained surgeons need to regularly update their surgical skills to keep abreast with the emerging surgical technologies. This research aimed to explore the value of currently available modern surgical tools that can be used outside the OR and also elaborates the existing laparoscopic surgical training programs in world-class centers across the globe with a view to formulate a blended and unified structured surgical training program. Materials and Methods: Several data sources were searched using MeSH terms “Laparoscopic surgery” and “Surgical training” and “Surgical curriculum” and “fundamentals of endoscopic surgery” and “fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery” and “Telementoring” and “Box trainer.” The eligibility criteria used in data extraction searched for original and review articles and by excluding the editorial articles, short communications, conference proceedings, personal view, and commentaries. Data synthesis and data analysis were done by reviewing the initially retrieved 211 articles. Irrelevant and duplicate and redundant articles were excluded from the study. Results: Finally, 12 articles were selected for this systematic review. Data results showed that a myriad of cutting-edge technical innovations have provided modern surgical training tools such as the simulation-based mechanical and virtual reality simulators, animal and cadaveric labs, telementoring, telerobotic-assisted surgery, and video games. Surgical simulators allow the trainees to acquire surgical skills in a tension-free environment without supervision or time constraints

  9. PySpline: A Modern, Cross-Platform Program for the Processing of Raw Averaged XAS Edge and EXAFS Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenderholt, Adam; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.

    2007-01-01

    PySpline is a modern computer program for processing raw averaged XAS and EXAFS data using an intuitive approach which allows the user to see the immediate effect of various processing parameters on the resulting k- and R-space data. The Python scripting language and Qt and Qwt widget libraries were chosen to meet the design requirement that it be cross-platform (i.e. versions for Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux). PySpline supports polynomial pre- and post-edge background subtraction, splining of the EXAFS region with a multi-segment polynomial spline, and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the resulting k3-weighted EXAFS data

  10. The cutting-edge training modalities and educational platforms for accredited surgical training: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Forgione, Antonello; Guraya, Salman Y.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Historically, operating room (OR) has always been considered as a stand-alone trusted platform for surgical education and training. However, concerns about financial constraints, quality control, and patient safety have urged the surgical educators to develop more cost-effective, surgical educational platforms that can be employed outside the OR. Furthermore, trained surgeons need to regularly update their surgical skills to keep abreast with the emerging surgical technologies. Th...

  11. SoC-Based Edge Computing Gateway in the Context of the Internet of Multimedia Things: Experimental Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Jridi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm/architecture and Hardware/Software co-designs for implementing a digital edge computing layer on a Zynq platform in the context of the Internet of Multimedia Things (IoMT. Traditional cloud computing is no longer suitable for applications that require image processing due to cloud latency and privacy concerns. With edge computing, data are processed, analyzed, and encrypted very close to the device, which enable the ability to secure data and act rapidly on connected things. The proposed edge computing system is composed of a reconfigurable module to simultaneously compress and encrypt multiple images, along with wireless image transmission and display functionalities. A lightweight implementation of the proposed design is obtained by approximate computing of the discrete cosine transform (DCT and by using a simple chaotic generator which greatly enhances the encryption efficiency. The deployed solution includes four configurations based on HW/SW partitioning in order to handle the compromise between execution time, area, and energy consumption. It was found with the experimental setup that by moving more components to hardware execution, a timing speedup of more than nine times could be achieved with a negligible amount of energy consumption. The power efficiency was then enhanced by a ratio of 7.7 times.

  12. CROPPER: a metagene creator resource for cross-platform and cross-species compendium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paananen, Jussi; Storvik, Markus; Wong, Garry

    2006-09-22

    Current genomic research methods provide researchers with enormous amounts of data. Combining data from different high-throughput research technologies commonly available in biological databases can lead to novel findings and increase research efficiency. However, combining data from different heterogeneous sources is often a very arduous task. These sources can be different microarray technology platforms, genomic databases, or experiments performed on various species. Our aim was to develop a software program that could facilitate the combining of data from heterogeneous sources, and thus allow researchers to perform genomic cross-platform/cross-species studies and to use existing experimental data for compendium studies. We have developed a web-based software resource, called CROPPER that uses the latest genomic information concerning different data identifiers and orthologous genes from the Ensembl database. CROPPER can be used to combine genomic data from different heterogeneous sources, allowing researchers to perform cross-platform/cross-species compendium studies without the need for complex computational tools or the requirement of setting up one's own in-house database. We also present an example of a simple cross-platform/cross-species compendium study based on publicly available Parkinson's disease data derived from different sources. CROPPER is a user-friendly and freely available web-based software resource that can be successfully used for cross-species/cross-platform compendium studies.

  13. AUTECOLOGY OF INVASIVE SPECIES Cyperus rotundus L. IN FOREST EDGE OF POHEN MOUNTAIN, BATUKAHU NATURE RESERVE, BALI, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sutomo Sutomo; Dini Fardila

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic-origin forest disturbance has been known to increase the risk of invasion to native habitat. Invasive species caused problems for local ecosystems and their native species. The  research on the dynamics and autecology of invasive species Cyperus rotundus was conducted on anthropogenic disturbed Pohen mountain forest in Bali, Indonesia. Results showed significant changes in microclimatic variables from forest edge to interior. C. rotundus in Pohen mountain forest can be found in ...

  14. Ag K- and L3-edge XAFS study on Ag species in Ag/Ga2O3 photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M; Yamamoto, N; Yoshida, T; Nomoto, T; Yamamoto, A; Yoshida, H; Yagi, S

    2016-01-01

    Ag loaded Ga 2 O 3 (Ag/Ga 2 O 3 ) shows photocatalytic activity for reduction of CO 2 with water. Ag L 3 -edge XANES and K-edge EXAFS spectra were measured for various Ag/Ga 2 O 3 samples, which suggested that structural and chemical states of Ag species varied with the loading amount of Ag and the preparation method. The Ag species were metallic Ag particles with an AgGaO 2 -like interface structure in the sample with high loading amount of Ag while predominantly Ag metal clusters in the sample with low loading amount of Ag. The XANES feature just above the edge represented the interaction between the Ag species and the Ga 2 O 3 surface, showing that the Ag metal clusters had more electrons in the d -orbitals by interacting with the Ga 2 O 3 surface, which would contribute the high photocatalytic activity. (paper)

  15. Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josko, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The advent of DNA sequencing technologies and the various applications that can be performed will have a dramatic effect on medicine and healthcare in the near future. There are several DNA sequencing platforms available on the market for research and clinical use. Based on the medical laboratory scientist or researcher's needs and taking into consideration laboratory space and budget, one can chose which platform will be beneficial to their institution and their patient population. Although some of the instrument costs seem high, diagnosing a patient quickly and accurately will save hospitals money with fewer hospital stays and targeted treatment based on an individual's genetic make-up. By determining the type of disease an individual has, based on the mutations present or having the ability to prescribe the appropriate antimicrobials based on the knowledge of the organism's resistance patterns, the clinician will be better able to treat and diagnose a patient which ultimately will improve patient outcomes and prognosis.

  16. Seasonal source-sink dynamics at the edge of a species' range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, L Leann; Fuller, Todd K; Sievert, Paul R; Kellogg, Robert L

    2009-06-01

    The roles of dispersal and population dynamics in determining species' range boundaries recently have received theoretical attention but little empirical work. Here we provide data on survival, reproduction, and movement for a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) population at a local distributional edge in central Massachusetts (USA). Most juvenile females that apparently exploited anthropogenic resources survived their first winter, whereas those using adjacent natural resources died of starvation. In spring, adult females recolonized natural areas. A life-table model suggests that a population exploiting anthropogenic resources may grow, acting as source to a geographically interlaced sink of opossums using only natural resources, and also providing emigrants for further range expansion to new human-dominated landscapes. In a geographical model, this source-sink dynamic is consistent with the local distribution identified through road-kill surveys. The Virginia opossum's exploitation of human resources likely ameliorates energetically restrictive winters and may explain both their local distribution and their northward expansion in unsuitable natural climatic regimes. Landscape heterogeneity, such as created by urbanization, may result in source-sink dynamics at highly localized scales. Differential fitness and individual dispersal movements within local populations are key to generating regional distributions, and thus species ranges, that exceed expectations.

  17. Seasonal source-sink dynamics at the edge of a species' range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, L.L.; Fuller, T.K.; Sievert, P.R.; Kellogg, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    The roles of dispersal and population dynamics in determining species' range boundaries recently have received theoretical attention but little empirical work. Here we provide data on survival, reproduction, and movement for a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) population at a local distributional edge in central Massachusetts (USA). Most juvenile females that apparently exploited anthropogenic resources survived their first winter, whereas those using adjacent natural resources died of starvation. In spring, adult females recolonized natural areas. A life-table model suggests that a population exploiting anthropogenic resources may grow, acting as source to a geographically interlaced sink of opossums using only natural resources, and also providing emigrants for further range expansion to new human-dominated landscapes. In a geographical model, this source-sink dynamic is consistent with the local distribution identified through road-kill surveys. The Virginia opossum's exploitation of human resources likely ameliorates energetically restrictive winters and may explain both their local distribution and their northward expansion in unsuitable natural climatic regimes. Landscape heterogeneity, such as created by urbanization, may result in source-sink dynamics at highly localized scales. Differential fitness and individual dispersal movements within local populations are key to generating regional distributions, and thus species ranges, that exceed expectations. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Shark teeth as edged weapons: serrated teeth of three species of selachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Joshua K; Bemis, William E

    2017-02-01

    Prior to European contact, South Pacific islanders used serrated shark teeth as components of tools and weapons. They did this because serrated shark teeth are remarkably effective at slicing through soft tissues. To understand more about the forms and functions of serrated shark teeth, we examined the morphology and histology of tooth serrations in three species: the Tiger Shark (Galeocerdo cuvier), Blue Shark (Prionace glauca), and White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias). We show that there are two basic types of serrations. A primary serration consists of three layers of enameloid with underlying dentine filling the serration's base. All three species studied have primary serrations, although the dentine component differs (orthodentine in Tiger and Blue Sharks; osteodentine in the White Shark). Smaller secondary serrations are found in the Tiger Shark, formed solely by enameloid with no contribution from underlying dentine. Secondary serrations are effectively "serrations within serrations" that allow teeth to cut at different scales. We propose that the cutting edges of Tiger Shark teeth, equipped with serrations at different scales, are linked to a diet that includes large, hard-shelled prey (e.g., sea turtles) as well as smaller, softer prey such as fishes. We discuss other aspects of serration form and function by making analogies to man-made cutting implements, such as knives and saws. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermal carrying capacity for a thermally-sensitive species at the warmest edge of its range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ayllón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic environmental change is causing unprecedented rates of population extirpation and altering the setting of range limits for many species. Significant population declines may occur however before any reduction in range is observed. Determining and modelling the factors driving population size and trends is consequently critical to predict trajectories of change and future extinction risk. We tracked during 12 years 51 populations of a cold-water fish species (brown trout Salmo trutta living along a temperature gradient at the warmest thermal edge of its range. We developed a carrying capacity model in which maximum population size is limited by physical habitat conditions and regulated through territoriality. We first tested whether population numbers were driven by carrying capacity dynamics and then targeted on establishing (1 the temperature thresholds beyond which population numbers switch from being physical habitat- to temperature-limited; and (2 the rate at which carrying capacity declines with temperature within limiting thermal ranges. Carrying capacity along with emergent density-dependent responses explained up to 76% of spatio-temporal density variability of juveniles and adults but only 50% of young-of-the-year's. By contrast, young-of-the-year trout were highly sensitive to thermal conditions, their performance declining with temperature at a higher rate than older life stages, and disruptions being triggered at lower temperature thresholds. Results suggest that limiting temperature effects were progressively stronger with increasing anthropogenic disturbance. There was however a critical threshold, matching the incipient thermal limit for survival, beyond which realized density was always below potential numbers irrespective of disturbance intensity. We additionally found a lower threshold, matching the thermal limit for feeding, beyond which even unaltered populations declined. We predict that most of our study

  20. AUTECOLOGY OF INVASIVE SPECIES Cyperus rotundus L. IN FOREST EDGE OF POHEN MOUNTAIN, BATUKAHU NATURE RESERVE, BALI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutomo Sutomo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic-origin forest disturbance has been known to increase the risk of invasion to native habitat. Invasive species caused problems for local ecosystems and their native species. The  research on the dynamics and autecology of invasive species Cyperus rotundus was conducted on anthropogenic disturbed Pohen mountain forest in Bali, Indonesia. Results showed significant changes in microclimatic variables from forest edge to interior. C. rotundus in Pohen mountain forest can be found in a road edge and forest exterior where sunlight is abundant and decrease in a more shady sites and absent under thick forest canopies CCA ordination analysis showed that C. rotundus in Pohen mountain forest tends to co-occur together with Imperata cylindrica and Bidens biternata. To be able to control potentially troublesome exotic invasive species, firstly we have to understand what factors limit their growth and development. Therefore this study is has important value because the data which from  result in studying invasive species autecology will act as baseline data that will be useful to generate management program including rehabilitation and restoration program. Key words: species dynamics, autecology, Cyperus rotundus, Pohen mountain forest, Bali

  1. Modeling Rare Species Distribution at the Edge: The Case for the Vulnerable Endemic Pyrenean Desman in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Williams-Tripp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endemic Pyrenean Desman (Galemys pyrenaicus is an elusive, rare, and vulnerable species declining over its entire and narrow range (Spain, Portugal, France, and Andorra. The principal set of conservation measures in France is a 5-years National Action Plan based on 25 conservation actions. Priority is given to update its present distribution and develop tools for predictive distribution models. We aim at building the first species distribution model and map for the northern edge of the range of the Desman and confronting the outputs of the model to target conservation efforts in the context of environmental change. Contrasting to former comparable studies, we derive a simpler model emphasizing the importance of factors linked to precipitation and not to the temperature. If temperature is one of the climate change key factors, depicted shrinkage in Desman distribution could be lower or null at the northern (French edge suggesting thus a major role for this northern population in terms of conservation of the species. Finally, we question the applied issue of temporal and spatial transferability for such environmental favourability models when it is made at the edge of the distribution range.

  2. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy of plutonium solid species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropf, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    We present XANES at the L III edge for four plutonium solid phases: Pu(III)F 3 , Pu(IV)O 2 , NaPu(V)O 2 CO 3 , and Ba 3 Pu(VI)O 6 . These correspond to the four important oxidation states in the process chemistry and environmental chemistry of plutonium. By a fitting method that uses an arc tangent function and gaussian curves, it was possible to reproducibly determine the edge energy and distinguish among the four oxidation states. These data demonstrate a 1.85 ± 0.20 eV shift per oxidation state

  3. ImaEdge - a platform for quantitative analysis of the spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical proteins during cell polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Lim, Yen Wei; Zhao, Peng; Kanchanawong, Pakorn; Motegi, Fumio

    2017-12-15

    Cell polarity involves the compartmentalization of the cell cortex. The establishment of cortical compartments arises from the spatial bias in the activity and concentration of cortical proteins. The mechanistic dissection of cell polarity requires the accurate detection of dynamic changes in cortical proteins, but the fluctuations of cell shape and the inhomogeneous distributions of cortical proteins greatly complicate the quantitative extraction of their global and local changes during cell polarization. To address these problems, we introduce an open-source software package, ImaEdge, which automates the segmentation of the cortex from time-lapse movies, and enables quantitative extraction of cortical protein intensities. We demonstrate that ImaEdge enables efficient and rigorous analysis of the dynamic evolution of cortical PAR proteins during Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis. It is also capable of accurate tracking of varying levels of transgene expression and discontinuous signals of the actomyosin cytoskeleton during multiple rounds of cell division. ImaEdge provides a unique resource for quantitative studies of cortical polarization, with the potential for application to many types of polarized cells.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first authors of the paper. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Edge Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2013-01-01

    of this container is to separate inside from outside and to protect and provide privacy, psychological as well as physical (Venturi, 1966). But, if dwelling phenomenon takes place both inside and outside the private house – why is the urban house an enclosed box? What is the differentiation between inside...... and outside the contemporary urban house? And what is the interplay between them? The research argues for re-thinking the edge zone between inside and outside the urban house. Therefore, although, residential buildings in the city are the objects of study, the focal point here is the edge zone along...... the building. The research explores and develops the architectural characteristics of correlations between the resident, the singular unit, the building and the given location at the edge zone. It approaches the edge zone of the urban house as a platform for dynamic interactions between these behaviours...

  5. The Llandovery (Silurian conodont species diversity on the Upper Yangtze Platform, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyang Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Conodonts are one of the stratigraphically most important fossil groups in the Silurian Period. We examine the regional diversity dynamics of the Llandovery condonts on the Upper Yangtze Platform. The data set of 41 species from seven sections is compiled from the Geobiodiversity Database. Four measures of taxonomic richness based on zonal counting are used to demonstrate the conodont diversity change. The CONOP (Constrained optimization program is used to build up a more precise composite sequence, which provides the data for comparative analysis of diversity change. Conodont richness keeps growing from the Ozarkodina aff. hassi Zone through the Ozarkodina obesa Zone to the Ozarkodina guizhouensis Zone and reaches a peak at the fourth zone, the Pterospathodus eopennatus Zone. This significant growth was followed by a rapid decrease, which probably represents an extinction in the mid-Telychian. This extinction event can also be observed in other fossil groups such as graptolites and chitinozoans based on recent studies.

  6. Threats to at-risk species in America's private forests: a Forests on the Edge report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary A. Carr; Ronald E. McRoberts; Lisa G. Mahal; Sara J. Comas

    2010-01-01

    More than 4,600 native animal and plant species associated with private forests in the United States are at risk of decline or extinction. This report identifies areas across the conterminous United States where at-risk species habitats in rural private forests are most likely to decrease because of increases in housing density from 2000 to 2030. We also identify areas...

  7. [Effects of highway on the vegetation species composition along a distance gradient from road edge in southeastern margin of Tengeer Desert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Li, Xin-Rong; Guo, Qun; Zhang, Jing-Guang; Zhang, Zhi-Shan

    2011-05-01

    Aimed to examine the effects of highway on the vegetation species composition in arid desert area, forty-eight transects perpendicular to the provincial highway 201 from Shapotou to Jing-tai in the southeastern margin of Tengger Desert were installed, with the vegetation species distribution along a distance gradient from the road edge investigated. The results showed that with increasing distance from the road edge, the species number, coverage, biomass, and alpha-diversity of herbaceous plants declined, but had no significant differences with the control beyond 5 m. Within 0-6 m to the road edge, the herbaceous plant height was greater than that of the control, but their density had less change. Within 0-2 m to the road edge, the species turnover rate of herbaceous plants was lower; at 2-5m, this rate was the highest; while beyond 10 m, the species composition of herbaceous plants was similar to that of the control. The herbaceous plant community at the road edge was dominated by gramineous plants, with the disturbance-tolerant species Pennisetum centrasiaticum, Chloris virgata, and Agropyron cristatum accounting for 68.6% of the total. C. virgata beyond 1 m to the road edge had a rapid decrease in its individual number and presence frequency, P. centrasiaticum and A. cristatum beyond 2 m also showed a similar trend, while the composite plants Artemisia capillaris and A. frigida beyond 2 m from the road edge had a rapid increase in its individual number, accounting for 70% of the herbaceous plants. At the road edge, the coverage and density of shrubs were significantly lower than those of the control, but the species composition had no significant difference.

  8. Introduction of non-native marine fish species to the Canary Islands waters through oil platforms as vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, José G.; González, José A.; Triay-Portella, Raül; Martín, José A.; Ruiz-Díaz, Raquel; Lorenzo, José M.; Luque, Ángel

    2016-11-01

    This work documents the introduction of non-native fish species to the Canary Islands (central-eastern Atlantic) through oil rigs. Methodological approaches have included surveys by underwater visual censuses around and under oil platforms and along the docking area of rigs at the Port of Las Palmas. Eleven non-native fish species were registered. Paranthias furcifer, Abudefduf hoefleri, Acanthurus bahianus, Acanthurus chirurgus, and Acanthurus coeruleus are first recorded from the Canaries herein. Other three species could not be identified, although they have never been observed in the Canaries. Cephalopholis taeniops, Abudefduf saxatilis, and Acanthurus monroviae had been previously recorded. Native areas of these species coincide with the areas of origin and the scale of oil rigs with destination the Port of Las Palmas. The absence of native species in the censuses at rigs and their presence at rigs docking area, together with the observation of non-native species after the departure of platforms, reject the possibility that these non-native species were already present in the area introduced by another vector. C. taeniops, A. hoefleri, A. saxatilis, A. chirurgus, A. coeruleus and A. monroviae are clearly seafarer species. A. bahianus seems to be a potential seafarer species. P. furcifer is a castaway species. For the moment, the number of individuals of the non-native species in marine ecosystems of the Canaries seems to be low, and more investigation is needed for controlling these translocations.

  9. Living on the edge: latitudinal variations in the reproductive biology of two coastal species of sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S M; Harry, A V; Bennett, M B

    2016-11-01

    Differences in the reproductive biology of both the Australian weasel shark Hemigaleus australiensis and the Australian sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon taylori were apparent between individuals from the southern-most extent of their range in eastern Australia (Moreton Bay) and those from northern Australia. For H. australiensis from Moreton Bay the total length (L T ) at which 50% of individuals were mature (L T50 ) was 759 mm for females and 756 mm for males, values that were respectively 17-26% larger than reported for the species in northern Australia. The relatively low percentage (63%) of pregnant mature females and presence of small, similar-sized, embryos in utero in both May and November suggested a semi-synchronous, annual reproductive cycle in Moreton Bay, whereas a synchronous, biannual reproductive cycle occurred in northern Australia. It is likely that H. australiensis has a resting phase between gestation cycles at the southern-most extent of its range. For R. taylori from Moreton Bay the L T50 s were 588 and 579 mm for females and males, respectively, values 2-3% larger than for individuals from the mid-Queensland coast and 31-35% larger than for individuals from northern Australia. The length at which 50% of the females were maternal (611 mm L T ) in Moreton Bay was greater than the L T50 , indicating that not all sharks mate immediately after maturing. Rhizoprionodon taylori in the south had an annual reproductive cycle incorporating a 7-8 month embryonic diapause, with pups probably born in February. A mean fecundity of 7·5 was almost double that reported from northern Australia. Regional variations in the reproductive characteristics of H. australiensis and R. taylori may influence their resilience to fishing and other anthropogenic pressures. The substantial differences reported here highlight the importance of region-specific life-history parameters to successful management and conservation. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Large-scale cross-species chemogenomic platform proposes a new drug discovery strategy of veterinary drug from herbal medicines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    Full Text Available Veterinary Herbal Medicine (VHM is a comprehensive, current, and informative discipline on the utilization of herbs in veterinary practice. Driven by chemistry but progressively directed by pharmacology and the clinical sciences, drug research has contributed more to address the needs for innovative veterinary medicine for curing animal diseases. However, research into veterinary medicine of vegetal origin in the pharmaceutical industry has reduced, owing to questions such as the short of compatibility of traditional natural-product extract libraries with high-throughput screening. Here, we present a cross-species chemogenomic screening platform to dissect the genetic basis of multifactorial diseases and to determine the most suitable points of attack for future veterinary medicines, thereby increasing the number of treatment options. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and text mining, we build a cross-species drug-likeness evaluation approach to screen the lead compounds in veterinary medicines. Second, a specific cross-species target prediction model is developed to infer drug-target connections, with the purpose of understanding how drugs work on the specific targets. Third, we focus on exploring the multiple targets interference effects of veterinary medicines by heterogeneous network convergence and modularization analysis. Finally, we manually integrate a disease pathway to test whether the cross-species chemogenomic platform could uncover the active mechanism of veterinary medicine, which is exemplified by a specific network module. We believe the proposed cross-species chemogenomic platform allows for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of veterinary medicine and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for animal diseases.

  11. Investigation of Pb species in soils, celery and duckweed by synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Liqiang; Shen, Yating; Liu, Jian; Zeng, Yuan

    2016-08-01

    The Pb species play a key role in its translocation in biogeochemical cycles. Soils, sediments and plants were collected from farmlands around Pb mines, and the Pb species in them was identified by X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectrometry. In soils, Pb5(PO4)3Cl and Pb3(PO4)2 were detected, and in sediments, Pb-fulvic acids (FAs) complex was identified. A Pb complex with FA fragments was also detected in celery samples. We found that (1) different Pb species were present in soils and sediments; (2) the Pb species in celery, which was grown in sediments, was different from the species present in duckweed, which grew in water; and (3) a Pb-FA-like compound was present in celery roots. The newly identified Pb species, the Pb-FA-like compound, may play a key role in Pb tolerance and translocation within plants.

  12. CrusView: a Java-based visualization platform for comparative genomics analyses in Brassicaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2013-09-01

    In plants and animals, chromosomal breakage and fusion events based on conserved syntenic genomic blocks lead to conserved patterns of karyotype evolution among species of the same family. However, karyotype information has not been well utilized in genomic comparison studies. We present CrusView, a Java-based bioinformatic application utilizing Standard Widget Toolkit/Swing graphics libraries and a SQLite database for performing visualized analyses of comparative genomics data in Brassicaceae (crucifer) plants. Compared with similar software and databases, one of the unique features of CrusView is its integration of karyotype information when comparing two genomes. This feature allows users to perform karyotype-based genome assembly and karyotype-assisted genome synteny analyses with preset karyotype patterns of the Brassicaceae genomes. Additionally, CrusView is a local program, which gives its users high flexibility when analyzing unpublished genomes and allows users to upload self-defined genomic information so that they can visually study the associations between genome structural variations and genetic elements, including chromosomal rearrangements, genomic macrosynteny, gene families, high-frequency recombination sites, and tandem and segmental duplications between related species. This tool will greatly facilitate karyotype, chromosome, and genome evolution studies using visualized comparative genomics approaches in Brassicaceae species. CrusView is freely available at http://www.cmbb.arizona.edu/CrusView/.

  13. Differential Effects of Roads and Traffic on Space Use and Movements of Native Forest-Dependent and Introduced Edge-Tolerant Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang Ling Chen

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic infrastructure such as roads and non-native species are major causes of species endangerment. Understanding animal behavioral responses to roads and traffic provides insight into causes and mechanisms of effects of linear development on wildlife and aids effective mitigation and conservation. We investigated effects of roads and traffic on space use and movements of two forest-dwelling species: endemic, forest-dependent Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis and introduced, edge-tolerant Abert's squirrels (Sciurus aberti. To assess the effects of roads on space use and movement patterns, we compared the probability that a squirrel home range included roads and random lines in forests, and assessed effects of traffic intensity on rate of road crossing and movement patterns. Red squirrels avoided areas adjacent to roads and rarely crossed roads. In contrast, Abert's squirrels were more likely to include roads in their home ranges compared to random lines in forests. Both red squirrels and Abert's squirrels increased speed when crossing roads, compared to before and after road crossings. Increased hourly traffic volume reduced the rate of road crossings by both species. Behavioral responses of red squirrels to roads and traffic resemble responses to elevated predation risk, including reduced speed near roads and increased tortuosity of movement paths with increased traffic volume. In contrast, Abert's squirrels appeared little affected by roads and traffic with tortuosity of movement paths reduced as distance to roads decreased. We found that species with similar body size category (<1 kg but different habitat preference and foraging strategy responded to roads differently and demonstrated that behavior and ecology are important when considering effects of roads on wildlife. Our results indicate that roads restricted movements and space use of a native forest-dependent species while creating habitat preferred

  14. Differential Effects of Roads and Traffic on Space Use and Movements of Native Forest-Dependent and Introduced Edge-Tolerant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang Ling; Koprowski, John L

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic infrastructure such as roads and non-native species are major causes of species endangerment. Understanding animal behavioral responses to roads and traffic provides insight into causes and mechanisms of effects of linear development on wildlife and aids effective mitigation and conservation. We investigated effects of roads and traffic on space use and movements of two forest-dwelling species: endemic, forest-dependent Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis) and introduced, edge-tolerant Abert's squirrels (Sciurus aberti). To assess the effects of roads on space use and movement patterns, we compared the probability that a squirrel home range included roads and random lines in forests, and assessed effects of traffic intensity on rate of road crossing and movement patterns. Red squirrels avoided areas adjacent to roads and rarely crossed roads. In contrast, Abert's squirrels were more likely to include roads in their home ranges compared to random lines in forests. Both red squirrels and Abert's squirrels increased speed when crossing roads, compared to before and after road crossings. Increased hourly traffic volume reduced the rate of road crossings by both species. Behavioral responses of red squirrels to roads and traffic resemble responses to elevated predation risk, including reduced speed near roads and increased tortuosity of movement paths with increased traffic volume. In contrast, Abert's squirrels appeared little affected by roads and traffic with tortuosity of movement paths reduced as distance to roads decreased. We found that species with similar body size category (roads differently and demonstrated that behavior and ecology are important when considering effects of roads on wildlife. Our results indicate that roads restricted movements and space use of a native forest-dependent species while creating habitat preferred by an introduced, edge-tolerant species.

  15. The Monarch Initiative: an integrative data and analytic platform connecting phenotypes to genotypes across species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mungall, Christopher J.; McMurry, Julie A.; Köhler, Sebastian; Balhoff, James P.; Borromeo, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of phenotypic outcomes with genetic variation and environmental factors is a core pursuit in biology and biomedicine. Numerous challenges impede our progress: patient phenotypes may not match known diseases, candidate variants may be in genes that have not been characterized, model organisms may not recapitulate human or veterinary diseases, filling evolutionary gaps is difficult, and many resources must be queried to find potentially significant genotype-phenotype associations. Nonhuman organisms have proven instrumental in revealing biological mechanisms. Advanced informatics tools can identify phenotypically relevant disease models in research and diagnostic contexts. Large-scale integration of model organism and clinical research data can provide a breadth of knowledge not available from individual sources and can provide contextualization of data back to these sources. The Monarch Initiative (monarchinitiative.org) is a collaborative, open science effort that aims to semantically integrate genotype-phenotype data from many species and sources in order to support precision medicine, disease modeling, and mechanistic exploration. Our integrated knowledge graph, analytic tools, and web services enable diverse users to explore relationships between phenotypes and genotypes across species.

  16. Applying the Power of Reticular Chemistry to Finding the Missing alb-MOF Platform Based on the (6,12)-Coordinated Edge-Transitive Net

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhijie

    2017-02-05

    Highly connected and edge-transitive nets are of prime importance in crystal chemistry and are regarded as ideal blueprints for the rational design and construction of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). We report the design and synthesis of highly connected MOFs based on reticulation of the sole two edge-transitive nets with a vertex figure as double six-membered-ring (d6R) building unit, namely the (4,12)-coordinated shp net (square and hexagonal-prism) and the (6,12)-coordinated alb net (aluminum diboride, hexagonal-prism and trigonal-prism). Decidedly, the combination of our recently isolated 12-connected (12-c) rare-earth (RE) nonanuclear [RE(μ-OH)(μ-O)(OC-)] carboxylate-based cluster, points of extension matching the 12 vertices of hexagonal-prism d6R, with 4-connected (4-c) square porphyrinic tetracarboxylate ligand led to the formation of the targeted RE-shp-MOF. This is the first time that RE-MOFs based on 12-c molecular building blocks (MBBs), d6R building units, have been deliberately targeted and successfully isolated, paving the way for the long-awaited (6,12)-c MOF with alb topology. Indeed, combination of a custom-designed hexacarboxylate ligand with RE salts led to the formation of the first related alb-MOF, RE-alb-MOF. Intuitively, we successfully transplanted the alb topology to another chemical system and constructed the first indium-based alb-MOF, In-alb-MOF, by employing trinuclear [In(μ-O)(OC-)] as the requisite 6-connected trigonal-prism and purposely made a dodecacarboxylate ligand as a compatible 12-c MBB. Prominently, the dodecacarboxylate ligand was employed to transplant shp topology into copper-based MOFs by employing the copper paddlewheel [Cu(OC-)] as the complementary square building unit, affording the first Cu-shp-MOF. We revealed that highly connected edge-transitive nets such shp and alb are ideal for topological transplantation and deliberate construction of related MOFs based on minimal edge-transitive nets.

  17. Applying the Power of Reticular Chemistry to Finding the Missing alb-MOF Platform Based on the (6,12)-Coordinated Edge-Transitive Net

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhijie; Weselinski, Lukasz Jan; Adil, Karim; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shkurenko, Aleksander; Jiang, Hao; Bhatt, Prashant; Guillerm, Vincent; Dauzon, Emilie; Xue, Dongxu; O’ Keeffe, Michael; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Highly connected and edge-transitive nets are of prime importance in crystal chemistry and are regarded as ideal blueprints for the rational design and construction of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). We report the design and synthesis of highly connected MOFs based on reticulation of the sole two edge-transitive nets with a vertex figure as double six-membered-ring (d6R) building unit, namely the (4,12)-coordinated shp net (square and hexagonal-prism) and the (6,12)-coordinated alb net (aluminum diboride, hexagonal-prism and trigonal-prism). Decidedly, the combination of our recently isolated 12-connected (12-c) rare-earth (RE) nonanuclear [RE(μ-OH)(μ-O)(OC-)] carboxylate-based cluster, points of extension matching the 12 vertices of hexagonal-prism d6R, with 4-connected (4-c) square porphyrinic tetracarboxylate ligand led to the formation of the targeted RE-shp-MOF. This is the first time that RE-MOFs based on 12-c molecular building blocks (MBBs), d6R building units, have been deliberately targeted and successfully isolated, paving the way for the long-awaited (6,12)-c MOF with alb topology. Indeed, combination of a custom-designed hexacarboxylate ligand with RE salts led to the formation of the first related alb-MOF, RE-alb-MOF. Intuitively, we successfully transplanted the alb topology to another chemical system and constructed the first indium-based alb-MOF, In-alb-MOF, by employing trinuclear [In(μ-O)(OC-)] as the requisite 6-connected trigonal-prism and purposely made a dodecacarboxylate ligand as a compatible 12-c MBB. Prominently, the dodecacarboxylate ligand was employed to transplant shp topology into copper-based MOFs by employing the copper paddlewheel [Cu(OC-)] as the complementary square building unit, affording the first Cu-shp-MOF. We revealed that highly connected edge-transitive nets such shp and alb are ideal for topological transplantation and deliberate construction of related MOFs based on minimal edge-transitive nets.

  18. Chlorine levels and species in fine and size resolved atmospheric particles by X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy analysis in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jie; Yang, Guo-Sheng; Ma, Ling-Ling; Luo, Min; Zheng, Lei; Huo, Qing; Zhao, Yi-Dong; Hu, Tian-Dou; Cai, Zhen-Feng; Xu, Dian-Dou

    2018-04-01

    An understanding of the species of chlorine is crucial in the metropolis-Beijing, which is suffering serious haze pollution with high frequency. Particulate Matters (PMs) with five different sizes were collected in Beijing from July 2009 to March 2016, and characterized non-destructively by X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. PM 2.5 contributed for the major PMs mass in spring and summer, PM 0.5-1.0 and PM 1.0-2.5 contributed for the major PMs mass in autumn and winter. The concentrations of the three chlorine species were in the order of inorganic chlorine (Cl inorg ) > aliphatic chlorine (Cl ali ) > aromatic chlorine (Cl aro ), indicating that Cl inorg constituted the primary chlorine fraction and less toxic Cl ali constituted the primary total organic chlorine (Cl ali  + Cl aro , abbreviated as Cl org ) in the PMs in Beijing. In addition, these three chlorine species exhibited identical seasonal variation in PM 2.5 : winter > autumn > spring > summer. Wet precipitation is an important factor to result in the lower mass concentrations of these three chlorine species in summer. The temporal variations of both size resolved PM mass concentrations and chlorine species concentrations suggested that the air pollution prevention and control in Beijing has just won initial success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Organometallic model complexes elucidate the active gallium species in alkane dehydrogenation catalysts based on ligand effects in Ga K-edge XANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getsoian, Andrew “Bean”; Das, Ujjal; Camacho-Bunquin, Jeffrey; Zhang, Guanghui; Gallagher, James R.; Hu, Bo; Cheah, Singfoong; Schaidle, Joshua A.; Ruddy, Daniel A.; Hensley, Jesse E.; Krause, Theodore R.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Hock, Adam S.

    2016-01-01

    Gallium-modified zeolites are known catalysts for the dehydrogenation of alkanes, reactivity that finds industrial application in the aromatization of light alkanes by Ga-ZSM5. While the role of gallium cations in alkane activation is well known, the oxidation state and coordination environment of gallium under reaction conditions has been the subject of debate. Edge shifts in Ga K-edge XANES spectra acquired under reaction conditions have long been interpreted as evidence for reduction of Ga(III) to Ga(I). However, a change in oxidation state is not the only factor that can give rise to a change in the XANES spectrum. In order to better understand the XANES spectra of working catalysts, we have synthesized a series of molecular model compounds and grafted surface organometallic Ga species and compared their XANES spectra to those of gallium-based catalysts acquired under reducing conditions. We demonstrate that changes in the identity and number of gallium nearest neighbors can give rise to changes in XANES spectra similar to those attributed in literature to changes in oxidation state. Specifically, spectral features previously attributed to Ga(I) may be equally well interpreted as evidence for low-coordinate Ga(III) alkyl or hydride species. These findings apply both to gallium-impregnated zeolite catalysts and to silica-supported single site gallium catalysts, the latter of which is found to be active and selective for dehydrogenation of propane and hydrogenation of propylene.

  20. Developing the next generation of graphene-based platforms for cancer therapeutics: The potential role of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabish, Tanveer A; Zhang, Shaowei; Winyard, Paul G

    2018-05-01

    Graphene has a promising future in applications such as disease diagnosis, cancer therapy, drug/gene delivery, bio-imaging and antibacterial approaches owing to graphene's unique physical, chemical and mechanical properties alongside minimal toxicity to normal cells, and photo-stability. However, these unique features and bioavailability of graphene are fraught with uncertainties and concerns for environmental and occupational exposure. Changes in the physicochemical properties of graphene affect biological responses including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Lower production of ROS by currently available theranostic agents, e.g. magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanostructures or polymeric nanoparticles, restricts their clinical application in cancer therapy. Oxidative stress induced by graphene accumulated in living organs is due to acellular factors which may affect physiological interactions between graphene and target tissues and cells. Acellular factors include particle size, shape, surface charge, surface containing functional groups, and light activation. Cellular responses such as mitochondrial respiration, graphene-cell interactions and pH of the medium are also determinants of ROS production. The mechanisms of ROS production by graphene and the role of ROS for cancer treatment, are poorly understood. The aim of this review is to set the theoretical basis for further research in developing graphene-based theranostic platforms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Developing the next generation of graphene-based platforms for cancer therapeutics: The potential role of reactive oxygen species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer A. Tabish

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Graphene has a promising future in applications such as disease diagnosis, cancer therapy, drug/gene delivery, bio-imaging and antibacterial approaches owing to graphene's unique physical, chemical and mechanical properties alongside minimal toxicity to normal cells, and photo-stability. However, these unique features and bioavailability of graphene are fraught with uncertainties and concerns for environmental and occupational exposure. Changes in the physicochemical properties of graphene affect biological responses including reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Lower production of ROS by currently available theranostic agents, e.g. magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanostructures or polymeric nanoparticles, restricts their clinical application in cancer therapy. Oxidative stress induced by graphene accumulated in living organs is due to acellular factors which may affect physiological interactions between graphene and target tissues and cells. Acellular factors include particle size, shape, surface charge, surface containing functional groups, and light activation. Cellular responses such as mitochondrial respiration, graphene-cell interactions and pH of the medium are also determinants of ROS production. The mechanisms of ROS production by graphene and the role of ROS for cancer treatment, are poorly understood. The aim of this review is to set the theoretical basis for further research in developing graphene-based theranostic platforms.

  2. Quantification of chemical sulphur species in bulk soil and organic sulphur fractions by S K-edge Xanes spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, K; Almkvist, G; Nilsson, S I

    2011-01-01

    residue (CR) incorporation and farmyard manure (FYM) application, with equal applications of mineral nutrients were included in the study. In the new data treatment method, internally calibrated spectra of dilute solutions (30 mm) of model compounds were used to fit the sample spectra. This greatly...... the opposite trend was observed. Sulphur XANES spectroscopy of acetylacetone extracts of physically protected and unprotected organic S in two of the soils revealed that physical protection was not related to S speciation; however, intermediate forms of oxidized S species appeared to accumulate in the residual...

  3. Edge Simulation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei I. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Angus, Justin [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Lee, Wonjae [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The goal of the Edge Simulation Laboratory (ESL) multi-institutional project is to advance scientific understanding of the edge plasma region of magnetic fusion devices via a coordinated effort utilizing modern computing resources, advanced algorithms, and ongoing theoretical development. The UCSD team was involved in the development of the COGENT code for kinetic studies across a magnetic separatrix. This work included a kinetic treatment of electrons and multiple ion species (impurities) and accurate collision operators.

  4. In vitro bacterial cytotoxicity of CNTs: reactive oxygen species mediate cell damage edges over direct physical puncturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavel, Krishnamoorthy; Gomathi, Rajkumar; Manian, Sellamuthu; Rajendra Kumar, Ramasamy Thangavelu

    2014-01-21

    Understanding the bacterial cytotoxicity of CNTs is important for a wide variety of applications in the biomedical, environmental, and health sectors. A majority of the earlier reports attributed the bactericidal cytotoxicity of CNTs to bacterial cell membrane damage by direct physical puncturing. Our results reveal that bacterial cell death via bacterial cell membrane damage is induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced from CNTs and is not due to direct physical puncturing by CNTs. To understand the actual mechanism of bacterial killing, we elucidated the bacterial cytotoxicity of SWCNTs and MWCNTs against Gram-negative human pathogenic bacterial species Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its amelioration upon functionalizing the CNTs with antioxidant tannic acid (TA). Interestingly, the bacterial cells treated with CNTs exhibited severe cell damage under laboratory (ambient) and sunlight irradiation conditions. However, CNTs showed no cytotoxicity to the bacterial cells when incubated in the dark. The quantitative assessments carried out by us made it explicit that CNTs are effective generators of ROS such as (1)O2, O2(•-), and (•)OH in an aqueous medium under both ambient and sunlight-irradiated conditions. Both naked and TA-functionalized CNTs showed negligible ROS production in the dark. Furthermore, strong correlations were obtained between ROS produced by CNTs and the bacterial cell mortality (with the correlation coefficient varying between 0.7618 and 0.9891) for all four tested pathogens. The absence of bactericidal cytotoxicity in both naked and functionalized CNTs in the dark reveals that the presence of ROS is the major factor responsible for the bactericidal action compared to direct physical puncturing. This understanding of the bactericidal activity of the irradiated CNTs, mediated through the generation of ROS, could be interesting for novel applications such as regulated ROS delivery

  5. The influence of El Niño and edge effects on the reproductive phenology and floral visitors of Eschweilera tetrapetala Mori (Lecythidaceae, an endemic species of the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiara Silva Menezes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We compared the reproductive phenology and floral visitors of Eschweilera tetrapetala growing along the edge and in the interior of a submontane forest in the Chapada Diamantina mountains, Bahia State, Brazil. We sought to determine if there were inter-annual differences in intensity and seasonality associated with environmental conditions, and if there were differences in floral visitors between the two environmental contexts. Phenological observations were performed for three years, and included the occurrence of an El Niño event. We applied circular statistics to detect seasonal trends, performed cross correlations between phenophases and climate, Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests for inter-annual variation, and the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test for edge-interior differences in the species richness of floral visitors. We observed inter-annual variations in the intensity and seasonality of flower production that accompanied variations in rainfall, possibly associated with El Niño events. Floral visitor richness differed between the forest edge and interior, with seven species recorded for the interior and only one for the edge. Reduced fruit set was also observed at the forest edge. This study contributes to our understanding of the influence of El Niño and edge effects on the reproductive phenologies of tropical plants.

  6. Species identification and other data collected from visual observation and other data from the COMMONWEALTH and other platforms in the North Pacific Ocean from 01 October 1950 to 01 August 1963 (NODC Accession 7200709)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Species identification and other data were collected using visual observation, net, and photograph from the COMMONWEALTH and other platforms in the North Pacific...

  7. Zooplankton species identities and other data from the KNORR and other platforms as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) from 01 June 1969 to 01 December 1971 (NCEI Accession 7200735)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton species identities and other data were collected from the KNORR and other platforms from 01 June 1969 to 01 December 1971. Data were collected by the...

  8. Zooplankton species identities and other data from the KNORR and other platforms as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) from 01 September 1969 to 01 December 1971 (NODC Accession 7300577)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton species identities and other data were collected from the KNORR and other platforms the from 01 September 1969 to 01 December 1971. Data were collected...

  9. Edge effect on weevils and spiders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Horváth

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The edge effect on weevils and spiders was tested along oak forest – meadow transects using sweep-net samples at the Síkfökút Project in Hungary. For spiders the species richness was significantly higher in the forest edge than either in the meadow or the forest interior. For weevils the species richness of the forest edge was higher than that of the meadow, but the difference was not statistically significant whereas the species richness of the forest interior was significantly lower than that of the forest edge and the meadow. The composition of the spider assemblage of the edge was more similar to the forest, while the composition of weevils in the edge was more similar to the meadow. Our results based on two invertebrate groups operating on different trophic levels suggest that there is a significant edge effect for the studied taxa resulting in higher species richness in the edge.

  10. LES tests on airfoil trailing edge serration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a large number of acoustic simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with different Trailing Edge Serrations (TES). The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH) acoustic analogy is used for noise prediction at trailing edge. The acoustic solver is running on the platform...

  11. Edge effect on weevils and spiders

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, R.; Magura, T.; Péter, G.; Tóthmérész, B.

    2002-01-01

    The edge effect on weevils and spiders was tested along oak forest – meadow transects using sweep-net samples at the Síkfökút Project in Hungary. For spiders the species richness was significantly higher in the forest edge than either in the meadow or the forest interior. For weevils the species richness of the forest edge was higher than that of the meadow, but the difference was not statistically significant whereas the species richness of the forest...

  12. CrusView: A Java-Based Visualization Platform for Comparative Genomics Analyses in Brassicaceae Species[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2013-01-01

    In plants and animals, chromosomal breakage and fusion events based on conserved syntenic genomic blocks lead to conserved patterns of karyotype evolution among species of the same family. However, karyotype information has not been well utilized in genomic comparison studies. We present CrusView, a Java-based bioinformatic application utilizing Standard Widget Toolkit/Swing graphics libraries and a SQLite database for performing visualized analyses of comparative genomics data in Brassicaceae (crucifer) plants. Compared with similar software and databases, one of the unique features of CrusView is its integration of karyotype information when comparing two genomes. This feature allows users to perform karyotype-based genome assembly and karyotype-assisted genome synteny analyses with preset karyotype patterns of the Brassicaceae genomes. Additionally, CrusView is a local program, which gives its users high flexibility when analyzing unpublished genomes and allows users to upload self-defined genomic information so that they can visually study the associations between genome structural variations and genetic elements, including chromosomal rearrangements, genomic macrosynteny, gene families, high-frequency recombination sites, and tandem and segmental duplications between related species. This tool will greatly facilitate karyotype, chromosome, and genome evolution studies using visualized comparative genomics approaches in Brassicaceae species. CrusView is freely available at http://www.cmbb.arizona.edu/CrusView/. PMID:23898041

  13. Edge Detection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    PROJECT. T ASK0 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA It WORK UNIT NUMBERS V 545 Technology Square ( Cambridge, HA 02139 I I* CONTOOL1LIN@4OFFICE NAME...ARD-A1t62 62 EDGE DETECTION(U) NASSACNUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE 1/1 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB E C HILDRETH SEP 85 AI-M-8 N99SI4-8S-C-6595...used to carry out this analysis. cce~iO a N) ’.~" D LI’BL. P p ------------ Sj. t i MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY i ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

  14. Living edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2014-01-01

    was originally introduced to enhance indoor qualities including light and view. Throughout the paper, it is argued that these ecological motives have grown to architectural and urban dimensions. The paper analyzes the characteristics and potentials of these dimensions and their interconnections. The paper...... on the ground level, but there is a lack of recognition in the significance of communicative characters as well at the higher part of the edge. The city’s planning approach is “Consider urban life before urban space. Consider urban space before buildings” This urban strategy neglects the possible architectural...... contribution to the street atmosphere and its effect on urban life. Bay balcony has been a common architectural element in Copenhagen’s residential buildings, since the end of the twenties. It is a domestic border with an architectural thickness combining window, door, windowsill and balcony. The bay balcony...

  15. Transcript profiling of two alfalfa genotypes with contrasting cell wall composition in stems using a cross-species platform: optimizing analysis by masking biased probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hans-Joachim G

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The GeneChip® Medicago Genome Array, developed for Medicago truncatula, is a suitable platform for transcript profiling in tetraploid alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L. subsp. sativa]. However, previous research involving cross-species hybridization (CSH has shown that sequence variation between two species can bias transcript profiling by decreasing sensitivity (number of expressed genes detected and the accuracy of measuring fold-differences in gene expression. Results Transcript profiling using the Medicago GeneChip® was conducted with elongating stem (ES and post-elongation stem (PES internodes from alfalfa genotypes 252 and 1283 that differ in stem cell wall concentrations of cellulose and lignin. A protocol was developed that masked probes targeting inter-species variable (ISV regions of alfalfa transcripts. A probe signal intensity threshold was selected that optimized both sensitivity and accuracy. After masking for both ISV regions and previously identified single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs, the number of differentially expressed genes between the two genotypes in both ES and PES internodes was approximately 2-fold greater than the number detected prior to masking. Regulatory genes, including transcription factor and receptor kinase genes that may play a role in development of secondary xylem, were significantly over-represented among genes up-regulated in 252 PES internodes compared to 1283 PES internodes. Several cell wall-related genes were also up-regulated in genotype 252 PES internodes. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR of differentially expressed regulatory and cell wall-related genes demonstrated increased sensitivity and accuracy after masking for both ISV regions and SFPs. Over 1,000 genes that were differentially expressed in ES and PES internodes of genotypes 252 and 1283 were mapped onto putative orthologous loci on M. truncatula chromosomes. Clustering simulation analysis of the differentially expressed genes

  16. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2011-01-01

    The Windows Azure Platform has rapidly established itself as one of the most sophisticated cloud computing platforms available. With Microsoft working to continually update their product and keep it at the cutting edge, the future looks bright - if you have the skills to harness it. In particular, new features such as remote desktop access, dynamic content caching and secure content delivery using SSL make the latest version of Azure a more powerful solution than ever before. It's widely agreed that cloud computing has produced a paradigm shift in traditional architectural concepts by providin

  17. Payment Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    thoroughly and substitute current payment standards in the decades to come. This paper portrays how digital payment platforms evolve in socio-technical niches and how various technological platforms aim for institutional attention in their attempt to challenge earlier platforms and standards. The paper...... applies a co-evolutionary multilevel perspective to model the interplay and processes between technology and society wherein digital payment platforms potentially will substitute other payment platforms just like the credit card negated the check. On this basis this paper formulate a multilevel conceptual...

  18. Climate Change and Genetic Structure of Leading Edge and Rear End Populations in a Northwards Shifting Marine Fish Species, the Corkwing Wrasse (Symphodus melops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per Erik; Gonzalez, Enrique Blanco; Robalo, Joana; Albretsen, Jon; Almada, Vitor

    2013-01-01

    One mechanism by which marine organisms may respond to climate shifts is range shifts. The corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops) is a temperate fish species, inhabiting the coasts of Europe, that show strong indications of current as well as historical (ice-age) range shifts towards the north. Nine neutral microsatellite DNA markers were screened to study genetic signatures and spatial population structure over the entire geographic and thermal gradient of the species from Portugal to Norway. A major genetic break (F ST  = 0.159 average among pairs) was identified between Scandinavian and more southern populations, with a marked reduction (30% or more) in levels of genetic variability in Scandinavia. The break is probably related to bottleneck(s) associated with post-glacial colonization of the Scandinavian coasts, and indicates a lack of present gene flow across the North Sea. The lack of gene flow can most likely be attributed to the species' need for rocky substrate for nesting and a relatively short pelagic larval phase, limiting dispersal by ocean currents. These findings demonstrate that long-distance dispersal may be severely limited in the corkwing wrasse, and that successful range-shifts following present climate change may be problematic for this and other species with limited dispersal abilities, even in the seemingly continuous marine environment.

  19. Platform Constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina Stefanova; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This research paper presents an initial attempt to introduce and explain the emergence of new phenomenon, which we refer to as platform constellations. Functioning as highly modular systems, the platform constellations are collections of highly connected platforms which co-exist in parallel and a......’ acquisition and users’ engagement rates as well as unlock new sources of value creation and diversify revenue streams....

  20. Chemical kinetics of Cs species in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and pyrophyllite-based system using Cs K-edge in situ X-ray absorption fine structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Kenji; Nakamura, Takafumi; Takaoka, Masaki; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Fujimori, Takashi; Ina, Toshiaki

    2017-05-01

    We conducted in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (in situ XAFS) analysis at the Cs K-edge to investigate the chemical kinetics of Cs species during reaction in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA) and pyrophyllite-based system. Understanding the kinetics of Cs is essential to the design of appropriate conditions for Cs stabilization. In situ XAFS analysis of four pastes, prepared from NaOHaq, sodium silicate solution, pyrophyllite, and MSWIFA with the addition of CsCl, was conducted in custom-built reaction cells at four curing temperatures (room temperature, 60 °C, 80 °C, 105 °C) for approximately 34 h. The results indicated that the change in Cs species during reaction at room temperature was small, while changes at higher temperatures were faster and more extreme, with the fastest conversion to pollucite occurring at 105 °C. Further analysis using a leaching test and a simple reaction model for Cs species during reaction showed that the pollucite formation rate was dependent on the curing temperature and had a significant negative correlation with Cs leaching. The activation energy of pollucite formation was estimated to be 31.5 kJ/mol. These results revealed that an important change in the chemical state of Cs occurs during reaction in the system.

  1. Estrutura de espécies arbóreas sob efeito de borda em um fragmento de floresta estacional semidecidual em Pernambuco Edge effect on the structure of tree species in a seasonal forest fragment in Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Caue de Holanda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Os fragmentos florestais são considerados os únicos redutos detentores de biodiversidade do planeta. Conhecer os processos que decorrem após a fragmentação, a exemplo da estrutura arbórea ocorrente na borda, é de fundamental importância para se proporem medidas conservacionistas. Os objetivos deste trabalho, desenvolvido em uma área de 83,8 ha, localizada no Município de Nazaré da Mata, PE, foram efetuar o levantamento fitossociológico de espécies arbóreas adultas sob efeito de borda e verificar a similaridade florística entre as parcelas. A área amostral foi de 10.000 m², equivalentes à implantação de 10 transectos de 10 x 100 m perpendiculares à borda, distribuídos de forma sistemática. Foram amostrados, etiquetados e identificados todos os indivíduos arbóreos com CAP e" 15 cm. Posteriormente, realizaram-se os cálculos dos parâmetros fitossociológicos e da similaridade florística. Neste estudo, amostraram-se 1.238 indivíduos, pertencentes a 72 táxons, distribuídos em 26 famílias botânicas. As espécies Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium e Anadenanthera colubrina apresentaram o maior valor de importância, pois, teoricamente, conseguiram explorar melhor o recurso proporcionado pelo hábitat.Forest fragments are considered the last refuges for biodiversity in the planet. Knowing the processes that occur after fragmentation, such as the tree structure that occurs in the edge, is fundamental to propose conservationist measures. The objective of this work was to carry out a phytosociological survey of adult tree species under edge effect and verify the floristic similarity among the plots. The work was developed in an area of 83,8 ha located in the municipality of Nazaré da Mata - PE. The sample area comprised 10.000 m², equivalent to the implantation of 10 contiguous transects of 10 x 100 m perpendicular to the edge. All tree individuals with CAP e" 15 cm were sampled, labeled and identified

  2. Factors affecting the occurrence of saugers in small, high-elevation rivers near the western edge of the species' natural distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, C.J.; Hubert, W.A.; Johnson, Kevin; Oberlie, D.; Dufek, D.

    2005-01-01

    Factors affecting the occurrence of saugers Sander canadensis were studied throughout the Wind River basin, a high-elevation watershed (> 1,440 m above mean sea level) on the western periphery of the species' natural distribution in central Wyoming. Adult saugers appeared to have a contiguous distribution over 170 km of streams among four rivers in the watershed. The upstream boundaries of sauger distribution were influenced by summer water temperatures and channel slopes in two rivers and by water diversion dams that created barriers to upstream movement in the other two rivers. Models that included summer water temperature, maximum water depth, habitat type (pool or run), dominant substrate, and alkalinity accounted for the variation in sauger occurrence across the watershed within the areas of sauger distribution. Water temperature was the most important basin-scale habitat feature associated with sauger occurrence, and maximum depth was the most important site-specific habitat feature. Saugers were found in a larger proportion of pools than runs in all segments of the watershed and occurred almost exclusively in pools in upstream segments of the watershed. Suitable summer water temperatures and deep, low-velocity habitat were available to support saugers over a large portion of the Wind River watershed. Future management of saugers in the Wind River watershed, as well as in other small river systems within the species' native range, should involve (1) preserving natural fluvial processes to maintain the summer water temperatures and physical habitat features needed by saugers and (2) assuring that barriers to movement do not reduce upstream boundaries of populations.

  3. Edge responses are different in edges under natural versus anthropogenic influence: a meta-analysis using ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magura, Tibor; Lövei, Gábor L; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2017-02-01

    Most edges are anthropogenic in origin, but are distinguishable by their maintaining processes (natural vs. continued anthropogenic interventions: forestry, agriculture, urbanization). We hypothesized that the dissimilar edge histories will be reflected in the diversity and assemblage composition of inhabitants. Testing this "history-based edge effect" hypothesis, we evaluated published information on a common insect group, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in forest edges. A meta-analysis showed that the diversity-enhancing properties of edges significantly differed according to their history. Forest edges maintained by natural processes had significantly higher species richness than their interiors, while edges with continued anthropogenic influence did not. The filter function of edges was also essentially different depending on their history. For forest specialist species, edges maintained by natural processes were penetrable, allowing these species to move right through the edges, while edges still under anthropogenic interventions were impenetrable, preventing the dispersal of forest specialists out of the forest. For species inhabiting the surrounding matrix (open-habitat and generalist species), edges created by forestry activities were penetrable, and such species also invaded the forest interior. However, natural forest edges constituted a barrier and prevented the invasion of matrix species into the forest interior. Preserving and protecting all edges maintained by natural processes, and preventing anthropogenic changes to their structure, composition, and characteristics are key factors to sustain biodiversity in forests. Moreover, the increasing presence of anthropogenic edges in a landscape is to be avoided, as they contribute to the loss of biodiversity. Simultaneously, edges under continued anthropogenic disturbance should be restored by increasing habitat heterogeneity.

  4. Stability of edge states and edge magnetism in graphene nanoribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Kunstmann, Jens; Özdoğan, Cem; Quandt, Alexander; Fehske, Holger

    2010-01-01

    We critically discuss the stability of edge states and edge magnetism in zigzag edge graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs). We point out that magnetic edge states might not exist in real systems, and show that there are at least three very natural mechanisms - edge reconstruction, edge passivation, and edge closure - which dramatically reduce the effect of edge states in ZGNRs or even totally eliminate them. Even if systems with magnetic edge states could be made, the intrinsic magnetism would not be ...

  5. Nanoindentation near the edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Jakes; C.R. Frihart; J.F. Beecher; R.J. Moon; P.J. Resto; Z.H. Melgarejo; O.M. Saurez; H. Baumgart; A.A. Elmustafa; D.S. Stone

    2009-01-01

    Whenever a nanoindent is placed near an edge, such as the free edge of the specimen or heterophase interface intersecting the surface, the elastic discontinuity associated with the edge produces artifacts in the load-depth data. Unless properly handled in the data analysis, the artifacts can produce spurious results that obscure any real trends in properties as...

  6. The use of edge habitats by commuting and foraging bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, B.

    1998-01-01

    Travelling routes and foraging areas of many bat species are mainly along edge habitats, such as treelines, hedgerows, forest edges, and canal banks. This thesis deals with the effects of density, configuration, and structural features of edge habitats on the occurrence of bats. Four

  7. Zooplankton species identities and other data from net tows from NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV and other platforms from NE Atlantic (limit-40 W) as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1977-04-20 to 1986-12-10 (NODC Accession 9400006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton species identities and other data were collected from net tows from NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV and other platforms in the NE Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 20...

  8. Edge separation using diffraction anomalous fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravel, B.; Bouldin, C.E.; Renevier, H.; Hodeau, J.L.; Berar, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    We exploit the crystallographic sensitivity of the Diffraction Anomalous Fine-Structure (DAFS) measurement to separate the fine structure contributions of different atomic species with closely spaced resonant energies. In BaTiO 3 the Ti K edge and Ba Lm edges are separated by 281 eV, or about 8.2 Angstrom -1 ), thus severely limiting the information content of the Ti K edge signal. Using the site selectivity of DAFS we can separate the two fine structure spectra using an iterative Kramers-Kronig method, thus extending the range of the Ti K edge spectrum. This technique has application to many rare earth/transition metal compounds, including many magnetic materials of technological significance for which K and L edges overlap in energy. (au)

  9. Urbanization impacts on mammals across urban-forest edges and a predictive model of edge effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor, Nélida R; Driscoll, Don A; Escobar, Martín A H; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula). We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis) had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1) habitat quality/preference, (2) species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3) spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This framework will

  10. Urbanization impacts on mammals across urban-forest edges and a predictive model of edge effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida R Villaseñor

    Full Text Available With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula. We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1 habitat quality/preference, (2 species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3 spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This

  11. An edge pedestal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacev, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    A new model for calculation of the gradient scale lengths in the edge pedestal region and of the edge transport barrier width in H-mode tokamak plasmas will be described. Model problem calculations which demonstrate the promise of this model for predicting experimental pedestal properties will be discussed. The density and Prague gradient scale lengths (L) in the edge are calculated from the particle and ion and electron energy radial transport equations, making use of (presumed) known particle and energy fluxes flowing across the edge transport barrier from the core into the SOL and of edge transport coefficients. The average values of the particle and heat fluxes in the edge transport barrier are calculated in terms of the fluxes crossing into the SOL and the atomic physics reaction rates (ionisation, charge-exchange, elastic scattering, impurity radiation) in the edge by integrating the respective transport equations from the pedestal to the separatrix. An important implication of this model is that the pedestal gradient scale lengths depend not just on local pedestal platers properties but also on particle and energy fluxes from the core plasma and on recycling neutral fluxes that penetrate into the plasma edge, both of which in turn depend on the pedestal properties. The MHD edge pressure gradient constraint α≤ α C is used to determine the pressure width of the edge transport barrier, Δ TB = Δ TB (α c ). Three different models for the MHD edge pressure gradient constraint have been investigated: (1) nominal ideal ballooning mode theory, (2) ballooning mode theory taking into account the edge geometry and shear to access He second stability region; and pedestal β-limit theory when the ballooning modes are stabilised by diamagnetic effects. A series of calculations have been made for a DIII-D model problem. The calculated gradient scale lengths and edge transport barrier widths are of the magnitude of values observed experimentally, and certain trends

  12. Platform computing

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Platform Computing releases first grid-enabled workload management solution for IBM eServer Intel and UNIX high performance computing clusters. This Out-of-the-box solution maximizes the performance and capability of applications on IBM HPC clusters" (1/2 page) .

  13. FISH SPECIES and Other Data from CAPT JACK and Other Platforms From Gulf of Mexico from 19800619 to 19801014 (NODC Accession 8100335)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic (species) records of fish/nekton collected as part of the Brine Disposal Project Study. This study was an examination of the effects of elevated salinity...

  14. [Orange Platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Kenji

    2017-07-01

    The Organized Registration for the Assessment of dementia on Nationwide General consortium toward Effective treatment in Japan (ORANGE platform) is a recently established nationwide clinical registry for dementia. This platform consists of multiple registries of patients with dementia stratified by the following clinical stages: preclinical, mild cognitive impairment, early-stage, and advanced-stage dementia. Patients will be examined in a super-longitudinal fashion, and their lifestyle, social background, genetic risk factors, and required care process will be assessed. This project is also notable because the care registry includes information on the successful, comprehensive management of patients with dementia. Therefore, this multicenter prospective cohort study will contribute participants to all clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease as well as improve the understanding of individuals with dementia.

  15. Analyses of fungal community by Illumina MiSeq platforms and characterization of Eurotium species on Liupao tea, a distinctive post-fermented tea from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yan; Wei, BaoYao; Teng, JianWen; Huang, Li; Xia, Ning

    2017-09-01

    Liupao tea is a distinctive Chinese dark tea obtained by indigenous tea fermentation facilitated by the symbiotic association of bacteria and fungi. The composition of fungal community in 4 Liupao tea samples stored for several years under natural microbial fermentation was evaluated by MiSeq sequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed 3 phyla, 6 families, 8 genera. The genera Eurotium and Aspergillus were dominant fungi in almost all the samples. A total of 85 strains found in 41 other tea samples were species of Eurotium. amstelodami, Eurotium. niveoglaucum, Eurotium. repens, Eurotium. rubrum, Eurotium. tonophilum and Eurotium. cristatum by culture-dependent method. Of these species, E. repens, E. rubrum and E. tonophilum have not been previously associated with Liupao tea. This report is the first to reveal fungal flora composition using Illumina-based sequencing and provide useful information for relevant studies on the isolation of Eurotium species in Liupao tea. The predominant molds are Eurotium species, and the comparison of fungal diversity in dark teas is worth considering. The taxonomic analysis of the microbial community would also aid the further study of functional genes and metabolic pathways of Liupao tea fermentation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Edge effects in composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guz, A.N.; Kokhanenko, Yu.V.

    1995-01-01

    In the present article we survey papers on edge effects investigated by the rigorous approach. We interpret edge effects as stressed states created in a composite as a result of zones in which the stresses exhibit a rapidly changing behavior in comparison with the slow variation of the stresses outside such zones. Here the range of the edge effect is defined as the distance from the point of its inception to the boundary of the edge zone in a given direction. The transition of the stresses to the slowly varying state is determined within prescribed error limits. The size and configuration of the edge zone depends on the tolerated error. Clearly, the main difficulty associated with the rigorous approach is finding solutions of the elasticity problems. The finite-difference approach is suggested for the approximate solution of these problems. In light of the comparative time consumption of the finite-difference approach, it is best directed at certain classes of problems rather than at particular individual problems. Not too many papers on the investigation of edge effects by the rigorous approach have been published to date. Below, following in their footsteps, we formulate edge effect problems in composites, determine classes of problems, and investigate edge effects in composite materials and structural elements using them in Cartesian (planar and three-dimensional problems) and cylindrical (axisymmetric problems) coordinate frames. We note that the division of approaches to the study of edge effects into qualitative (nonrigorous) and quantitative (rigorous) reflects the authors own point of view. Of course, other schemes of classification of the approaches to the investigation of the regions of rapidly varying states in composites are possible

  17. Identification and utilization of inter-species conserved (ISC probesets on Affymetrix human GeneChip® platforms for the optimization of the assessment of expression patterns in non human primate (NHP samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Alma

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While researchers have utilized versions of the Affymetrix human GeneChip® for the assessment of expression patterns in non human primate (NHP samples, there has been no comprehensive sequence analysis study undertaken to demonstrate that the probe sequences designed to detect human transcripts are reliably hybridizing with their orthologs in NHP. By aligning probe sequences with expressed sequence tags (ESTs in NHP, inter-species conserved (ISC probesets, which have two or more probes complementary to ESTs in NHP, were identified on human GeneChip® platforms. The utility of human GeneChips® for the assessment of NHP expression patterns can be effectively evaluated by analyzing the hybridization behaviour of ISC probesets. Appropriate normalization methods were identified that further improve the reliability of human GeneChips® for interspecies (human vs NHP comparisons. Results ISC probesets in each of the seven Affymetrix GeneChip® platforms (U133Plus2.0, U133A, U133B, U95Av2, U95B, Focus and HuGeneFL were identified for both monkey and chimpanzee. Expression data was generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of 12 human and 8 monkey (Indian origin Rhesus macaque samples using the Focus GeneChip®. Analysis of both qualitative detection calls and quantitative signal intensities showed that intra-species reproducibility (human vs. human or monkey vs. monkey was much higher than interspecies reproducibility (human vs. monkey. ISC probesets exhibited higher interspecies reproducibility than the overall expressed probesets. Importantly, appropriate normalization methods could be leveraged to greatly improve interspecies correlations. The correlation coefficients between human (average of 12 samples and monkey (average of 8 Rhesus macaque samples are 0.725, 0.821 and 0.893 for MAS5.0 (Microarray Suite version 5.0, dChip and RMA (Robust Multi-chip Average normalization method, respectively. Conclusion It is

  18. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  19. Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Labrecque, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide is a practical guide on creating engaging content for the Web with Adobe's newest HTML5 tool. By taking a chapter-by-chapter look at each major aspect of Adobe Edge, the book lets you digest the available features in small, easily understandable chunks, allowing you to start using Adobe Edge for your web design needs immediately. If you are interested in creating engaging motion and interactive compositions using web standards with professional tooling, then this book is for you. Those with a background in Flash Professional wanting to get started quickly with Adobe

  20. Adobe Edge Preview 3

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Want to use an Adobe tool to design animated web graphics that work on iPhone and iPad? You've come to the right book. Adobe Edge Preview 3: The Missing Manual shows you how to build HTML5 graphics using simple visual tools. No programming experience? No problem. Adobe Edge writes the underlying code for you. With this eBook, you'll be designing great-looking web elements in no time. Get to know the workspace. Learn how Adobe Edge Preview 3 performs its magic.Create and import graphics. Make drawings with Edge's tools, or use art you designed in other programs.Work with text. Build menus, lab

  1. Pavement edge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Four projects were built over two construction seasons using special devices attached to the paving machine that produces a 30 slope on the outside pavement edge instead of the near vertical drop-off common with conventional paving equipment. This ...

  2. Race for the wireless robot platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    With the world going wireless, Norwegian energy champion Statoil Hydro is pushing forward with an unmanned, robot-operated production platform called Mesa Verde. Enlisted to solve safety and operational issues and help the oil company gain a cost edge on global competitors is an Emerson-Cisco wireless alliance itself facing stiff competition

  3. Urbanization Impacts on Mammals across Urban-Forest Edges and a Predictive Model of Edge Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Villaseñor, Nélida R.; Driscoll, Don A.; Escobar, Martín A. H.; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2014-01-01

    With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing den...

  4. Understanding the promises and premises of online health platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, J.; Poell, T.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the claims and complexities involved in the platform-based economics of health and fitness apps. We examine a double-edged logic inscribed in these platforms, promising to offer personal solutions to medical problems while also contributing to the public good. On the one

  5. The Edge supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian

    1992-01-01

    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  6. Properties on the edge: graphene edge energies, edge stresses, edge warping, and the Wulff shape of graphene flakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branicio, Paulo S; Jhon, Mark H; Gan, Chee Kwan; Srolovitz, David J

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that the broken bonds of an unreconstructed graphene edge generate compressive edge stresses leading to edge warping. Here, we investigate edge energies and edge stresses of graphene nanoribbons with arbitrary orientations from armchair to zigzag, considering both flat and warped edge shapes in the presence and absence of hydrogen. We use the second generation reactive empirical bond order potential to calculate the edge energies and stresses for clean and hydrogenated edges. Using these energies, we perform a Wulff construction to determine the equilibrium shapes of flat graphene flakes as a function of hydrogen chemical potential. While edge stresses for clean, flat edges are compressive, they become tensile if allowed to warp. Conversely, we find that edge energies change little (∼1%) with edge warping. Hydrogenation of the edges virtually eliminates both the edge energy and edge stresses. For warped edges an approximately linear relationship is found between amplitudes and wavelengths. The equilibrium shape of a graphene flake is determined by the value of the hydrogen chemical potential. For very small (and large) values of it the flakes have a nearly hexagonal (dodecagon) shape with zigzag oriented edges, while for intermediate values graphene flakes are found with complex shapes

  7. Theory of edge radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Kocharyan, V.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2008-08-15

    We formulate a complete theory of Edge Radiation based on a novel method relying on Fourier Optics techniques. Similar types of radiation like Transition UndulatorRadiation are addressed in the framework of the same formalism. Special attention is payed in discussing the validity of approximations upon which the theory is built. Our study makes consistent use of both similarity techniques and comparisons with numerical results from simulation. We discuss both near and far zone. Physical understanding of many asymptotes is discussed. Based on the solution of the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, we also discuss an analytical model to describe the presence of a vacuum chamber. In particular, explicit calculations for a circular vacuum chamber are reported. Finally, we consider the use of Edge Radiation as a tool for electron beam diagnostics. We discuss Coherent Edge Radiation, Extraction of Edge Radiation by a mirror, and other issues becoming important at high electron energy and long radiation wavelength. Based on this work we also study the impact of Edge Radiation on XFEL setups and we discuss recent results. (orig.)

  8. YARP: Yet Another Robot Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Natale

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe YARP, Yet Another Robot Platform, an open-source project that encapsulates lessons from our experience in building humanoid robots. The goal of YARP is to minimize the effort devoted to infrastructure-level software development by facilitating code reuse, modularity and so maximize research-level development and collaboration. Humanoid robotics is a "bleeding edge" field of research, with constant flux in sensors, actuators, and processors. Code reuse and maintenance is therefore a significant challenge. We describe the main problems we faced and the solutions we adopted. In short, the main features of YARP include support for inter-process communication, image processing as well as a class hierarchy to ease code reuse across different hardware platforms. YARP is currently used and tested on Windows, Linux and QNX6 which are common operating systems used in robotics.

  9. High Speed Edge Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Norman F (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Analog circuits for detecting edges in pixel arrays are disclosed. A comparator may be configured to receive an all pass signal and a low pass signal for a pixel intensity in an array of pixels. A latch may be configured to receive a counter signal and a latching signal from the comparator. The comparator may be configured to send the latching signal to the latch when the all pass signal is below the low pass signal minus an offset. The latch may be configured to hold a last negative edge location when the latching signal is received from the comparator.

  10. The Inner Urban Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferebee, Ann; Carpenter, Edward K.

    1974-01-01

    In this article, renewal of the inner urban edge is discussed. Norfolk (Virginia) is attempting to blur the difference between old and new neighbor hoods through zoning and architectural controls. Cincinnati (Ohio) is developing an environmentally sound hillside design. Reading (Pennsylvania) is utilizing old railyards for greenbelts of hiking and…

  11. Swords with Blunt Edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popham, W. James

    2004-01-01

    Many U.S. educators now wonder whether they're teachers or targets. This mentality stems from the specter of their school being sanctioned for failing the state accountability tests mandated under No Child Left Behind (NCLB). According to this author, most of those tests are like blunt-edged swords: They function badly in two directions. While…

  12. Balancing the edge effects budget: bay scallop settlement and loss along a seagrass edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, John M; Furman, Bradley T; Tettelbach, Stephen T; Peterson, Bradley J

    2012-07-01

    Edge effects are a dominant subject in landscape ecology literature, yet they are highly variable and poorly understood. Often, the literature suggests simple models for edge effects-positive (enhancement at the edge), negative (enhancement at the interior), or no effect (neutral)--on a variety of metrics, including abundance, diversity, and mortality. In the marine realm, much of this work has focused on fragmented seagrass habitats due to their importance for a variety of commercially important species. In this study, the settlement, recruitment, and survival of bay scallops was investigated across a variety of seagrass patch treatments. By simultaneously collecting settlers (those viable larvae available to settle and metamorphose) and recruits (those settlers that survive some period of time, in this case, 6 weeks) on the same collectors, we were able to demonstrate a "balance" between positive and negative edge effects, resulting in a net neutral effect. Scallop settlement was significantly enhanced along seagrass edges, regardless of patch type while survival was elevated within patch interiors. However, recruitment (the net result of settlement and post-settlement loss) did not vary significantly from edge to center, representing a neutral effect. Further, results suggest that post-settlement loss, most likely due to predation, appears to be the dominant mechanism structuring scallop abundance, not patterns in settlement. These data illustrate the complexity of edge effects, and suggest that the metric used to investigate the effect (be it abundance, survival, or other metrics) can often influence the magnitude and direction of the perceived effect. Traditionally, high predation along a habitat edge would have indicated an "ecological trap" for the species in question; however, this study demonstrates that, at the population level, an ecological trap may not exist.

  13. Edge effects on the electronic properties of phosphorene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Xihong; Copple, Andrew; Wei, Qun

    2014-01-01

    Two dimensional few-layer black phosphorus crystal structures have recently been fabricated and have demonstrated great potential in electronic applications. In this work, we employed first principles density functional theory calculations to study the edge and quantum confinement effects on the electronic properties of the phosphorene nanoribbons (PNR). Different edge functionalization groups, such as H, F, Cl, OH, O, S, and Se, in addition to a pristine case were studied for a series of ribbon widths up to 3.5 nm. It was found that the armchair-PNRs (APNRs) are semiconductors for all edge groups considered in this work. However, the zigzag-PNRs (ZPNRs) show either semiconductor or metallic behavior in dependence on their edge chemical species. Family 1 edges (i.e., H, F, Cl, OH) form saturated bonds with P atoms in the APNRs and ZPNRs, and the edge states keep far away from the band gap. However, Family 2 edges (pristine, O, S, Se) form weak unsaturated bonds with the p z orbital of the phosphorus atoms and bring edge states within the band gap of the ribbons. For the ZPNRs, the edge states of Family 2 are present around the Fermi level within the band gap, which close up the band gap of the ZPNRs. For the APNRs, these edge states are located at the bottom of the conduction band and result in a reduced band gap.

  14. Edge effects on the electronic properties of phosphorene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Xihong, E-mail: xihong.peng@asu.edu [School of Letters and Sciences, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona 85212 (United States); Copple, Andrew [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Wei, Qun [School of Letters and Sciences, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona 85212 (United States); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2014-10-14

    Two dimensional few-layer black phosphorus crystal structures have recently been fabricated and have demonstrated great potential in electronic applications. In this work, we employed first principles density functional theory calculations to study the edge and quantum confinement effects on the electronic properties of the phosphorene nanoribbons (PNR). Different edge functionalization groups, such as H, F, Cl, OH, O, S, and Se, in addition to a pristine case were studied for a series of ribbon widths up to 3.5 nm. It was found that the armchair-PNRs (APNRs) are semiconductors for all edge groups considered in this work. However, the zigzag-PNRs (ZPNRs) show either semiconductor or metallic behavior in dependence on their edge chemical species. Family 1 edges (i.e., H, F, Cl, OH) form saturated bonds with P atoms in the APNRs and ZPNRs, and the edge states keep far away from the band gap. However, Family 2 edges (pristine, O, S, Se) form weak unsaturated bonds with the p{sub z} orbital of the phosphorus atoms and bring edge states within the band gap of the ribbons. For the ZPNRs, the edge states of Family 2 are present around the Fermi level within the band gap, which close up the band gap of the ZPNRs. For the APNRs, these edge states are located at the bottom of the conduction band and result in a reduced band gap.

  15. ICRF edge modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the technical progress for the DOE sponsored grant, ''ICRF Edge Modeling.'' An emphasis is placed on the progress since the Technical Progress Report (January 10, 1990) was submitted to the Department of Energy. The design of ICRF antennas for C-Mod and TFTR was investigated during this period. In addition, quasilinear models for electron heating were refined and applied to the design of ICRF antennas. The relevant professional activities sponsored by this grant are given. 4 refs., 11 figs

  16. ICRF edge modeling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehrman, I.S. (Grumman Corp. Research Center, Princeton, NJ (USA)); Colestock, P.L. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-04-01

    Theoretical models have been developed, and are currently being refined, to explain the edge plasma-antenna interaction that occurs during ICRF heating. The periodic structure of a Faraday shielded antenna is found to result in strong ponderomotive force in the vicinity of the antenna. A fluid model, which incorporates the ponderomotive force, shows an increase in transport to the Faraday shield. A kinetic model shows that the strong antenna near fields act to increase the energy of deuterons which strike the shield, thereby increasing the sputtering of shield material. Estimates of edge impurity harmonic heating show no significant heating for either in or out-of-phase antenna operation. Additionally, a particle model for electrons near the shield shows that heating results from the parallel electric field associated with the fast wave. A quasilinear model for edge electron heating is presented and compared to the particle calculations. The models' predictions are shown to be consistent with measurements of enhanced transport. (orig.).

  17. Smoothness in Binomial Edge Ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Damadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study some geometric properties of the algebraic set associated to the binomial edge ideal of a graph. We study the singularity and smoothness of the algebraic set associated to the binomial edge ideal of a graph. Some of these algebraic sets are irreducible and some of them are reducible. If every irreducible component of the algebraic set is smooth we call the graph an edge smooth graph, otherwise it is called an edge singular graph. We show that complete graphs are edge smooth and introduce two conditions such that the graph G is edge singular if and only if it satisfies these conditions. Then, it is shown that cycles and most of trees are edge singular. In addition, it is proved that complete bipartite graphs are edge smooth.

  18. Edge Effects and Ecological Traps: Effects on Shrubland Birds in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    April A. Woodward; Alix D. Fink; Frank R. Thompson III

    2001-01-01

    The effect of habitat edge on avian nesting success has been the focus of considerable debate. We studied relationships between habitat edges, locations of nests, and predation. We tested the ecological trap hypothesis for 5 shrubland bird species in the Missouri Ozarks. We compared habitat selection and daily nest predation rates among 3 distance-to-edge categories....

  19. Edge effect on palm diversity in rain forest fragments in western Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baez, S.; Balslev, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    to be idiosyncratic and to depend on the level of disturbance at edges. This paper explores how variation in forest structure at the edges of two old-growth forest fragments in a tropical rain forest in western Ecuador affects palms of different species, life-forms, and size classes. We investigate (1) how edge...

  20. Competing edge networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mark; Grindrod, Peter

    2012-06-01

    We introduce a model for a pair of nonlinear evolving networks, defined over a common set of vertices, subject to edgewise competition. Each network may grow new edges spontaneously or through triad closure. Both networks inhibit the other's growth and encourage the other's demise. These nonlinear stochastic competition equations yield to a mean field analysis resulting in a nonlinear deterministic system. There may be multiple equilibria; and bifurcations of different types are shown to occur within a reduced parameter space. This situation models competitive communication networks such as BlackBerry Messenger displacing SMS; or instant messaging displacing emails.

  1. Degenerate band edge laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysi, Mehdi; Othman, Mohamed A. K.; Figotin, Alexander; Capolino, Filippo

    2018-05-01

    We propose a class of lasers based on a fourth-order exceptional point of degeneracy (EPD) referred to as the degenerate band edge (DBE). EPDs have been found in parity-time-symmetric photonic structures that require loss and/or gain; here we show that the DBE is a different kind of EPD since it occurs in periodic structures that are lossless and gainless. Because of this property, a small level of gain is sufficient to induce single-frequency lasing based on a synchronous operation of four degenerate Floquet-Bloch eigenwaves. This lasing scheme constitutes a light-matter interaction mechanism that leads also to a unique scaling law of the laser threshold with the inverse of the fifth power of the laser-cavity length. The DBE laser has the lowest lasing threshold in comparison to a regular band edge laser and to a conventional laser in cavities with the same loaded quality (Q ) factor and length. In particular, even without mirror reflectors the DBE laser exhibits a lasing threshold which is an order of magnitude lower than that of a uniform cavity laser of the same length and with very high mirror reflectivity. Importantly, this novel DBE lasing regime enforces mode selectivity and coherent single-frequency operation even for pumping rates well beyond the lasing threshold, in contrast to the multifrequency nature of conventional uniform cavity lasers.

  2. Creation of forest edges has a global impact on forest vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, CA; Banks-Leite, C; Wearn, OR; Marsh, CJ; Butchart, SHM; Arroyo-Rodríguez, V; Barlow, J; Cerezo, A; Cisneros, L; D’Cruze, N; Faria, D; Hadley, A; Harris, S; Klingbeil, BT; Kormann, U; Lens, L; Medina-Rangel, GF; Morante-Filho, JC; Olivier, P; Peters, SL; Pidgeon, A; Ribeiro, DB; Scherber, C; Schneider-Maunory, L; Struebig, M; Urbina-Cardona, N; Watling, JI; Willig, MR; Wood, EM; Ewers, RM

    2017-01-01

    Summary Forest edges influence more than half the world’s forests and contribute to worldwide declines in biodiversity and ecosystem functions. However, predicting these declines is challenging in heterogeneous fragmented landscapes. We assembled an unmatched global dataset on species responses to fragmentation and developed a new statistical approach for quantifying edge impacts in heterogeneous landscapes to quantify edge-determined changes in abundance of 1673 vertebrate species. We show that 85% of species’ abundances are affected, either positively or negatively, by forest edges. Forest core species, which were more likely to be listed as threatened by the IUCN, only reached peak abundances at sites farther than 200-400 m from sharp high-contrast forest edges. Smaller-bodied amphibians, larger reptiles and medium-sized non-volant mammals experienced a larger reduction in suitable habitat than other forest core species. Our results highlight the pervasive ability of forest edges to restructure ecological communities on a global scale. PMID:29088701

  3. Product Platform Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Lone

    The aim of this research is to improve understanding of platform-based product development by studying platform performance in relation to internal effects in companies. Platform-based product development makes it possible to deliver product variety and at the same time reduce the needed resources...... engaging in platform-based product development. Similarly platform assessment criteria lack empirical verification regarding relevance and sufficiency. The thesis focuses on • the process of identifying and estimating internal effects, • verification of performance of product platforms, (i...... experienced representatives from the different life systems phase systems of the platform products. The effects are estimated and modeled within different scenarios, taking into account financial and real option aspects. The model illustrates and supports estimation and quantification of internal platform...

  4. Mobile platform security

    CERN Document Server

    Asokan, N; Dmitrienko, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Recently, mobile security has garnered considerable interest in both the research community and industry due to the popularity of smartphones. The current smartphone platforms are open systems that allow application development, also for malicious parties. To protect the mobile device, its user, and other mobile ecosystem stakeholders such as network operators, application execution is controlled by a platform security architecture. This book explores how such mobile platform security architectures work. We present a generic model for mobile platform security architectures: the model illustrat

  5. Cheating on the edge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Alan Dugatkin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of an individual agent-based model of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Our model examines antibiotic resistance when two strategies exist: "producers"--who secrete a substance that breaks down antibiotics--and nonproducers ("cheats" who do not secrete, or carry the machinery associated with secretion. The model allows for populations of up to 10,000, in which bacteria are affected by their nearest neighbors, and we assume cheaters die when there are no producers in their neighborhood. Each of 10,000 slots on our grid (a torus could be occupied by a producer or a nonproducer, or could (temporarily be unoccupied. The most surprising and dramatic result we uncovered is that when producers and nonproducers coexist at equilibrium, nonproducers are almost always found on the edges of clusters of producers.

  6. Challenges in edge modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.

    2007-01-01

    Fluid models like B2, UEDGE or EDGE2D are the working horses for scrape-off layer physics, both for design and experimental support. The concept of a numerical tokamak, aiming at a predictive code for ITER, triggers the need to re-assess the available tools and their necessary extensions. These additional physics issues will be summarized from a personal point-of-view. Depending on the specific problem, several complexity levels of scrape-off layer models will be needed. Therefore, a hierarchy of tools is necessary, which will be discussed. Furthermore, the experience existing in other scientific fields with multi-scale problems and modeling should be used. Here, the coupling of different length and time scales are in particular of interest for fusion problems. (author)

  7. Edge remap for solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis

    2013-12-01

    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  8. Playing on the edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak-Sassenrath, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    and specific ways. For instance, gambling for money, party and drinking games, professional play and show sports, art installations, violent and military propaganda computer games, pervasive/mobile gaming, live-action role playing, festivals, performances, and games such as Ghosting and Planking. It is argued......Everything gets more interesting, challenging, or intense the closer it gets to the edge, and so does play. How edgy can play become and still be play? Based on Huizinga’s notion of play, this chapter discusses how a wide range of playful activities pushes the boundaries of play in different...... that in concert with a number of characteristics that mark an activity as play, play is essentially a subjective perspective and individual decision of the player. Huizinga calls this attitude the play spirit, which informs a player’s actions and is in turn sustained by them. Edgy digital or mobile games do...

  9. Competing edge networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, Mark; Grindrod, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a model for a pair of nonlinear evolving networks, defined over a common set of vertices, subject to edgewise competition. Each network may grow new edges spontaneously or through triad closure. Both networks inhibit the other's growth and encourage the other's demise. These nonlinear stochastic competition equations yield to a mean field analysis resulting in a nonlinear deterministic system. There may be multiple equilibria; and bifurcations of different types are shown to occur within a reduced parameter space. This situation models competitive communication networks such as BlackBerry Messenger displacing SMS; or instant messaging displacing emails. -- Highlights: ► A model for edgewise-competing evolving network pairs is introduced. ► Defined competition equations yield to a mean field analysis. ► Multiple equilibrium states and different bifurcation types can occur. ► The system is sensitive to sparse initial conditions and near unstable equilibriums.

  10. Data Platforms and Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Courmont, Antoine; Hoyng, Rolien

    2017-01-01

    This section offers a series of joint reflections on (open) data platform from a variety of cases, from cycling, traffic and mapping to activism, environment and data brokering. Data platforms play a key role in contemporary urban governance. Linked to open data initiatives, such platforms are of...

  11. Dynamic Gaming Platform (DGP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    GAMING PLATFORM (DGP) Lockheed Martin Corporation...YYYY) APR 09 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Jul 07 – Mar 09 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DYNAMIC GAMING PLATFORM (DGP) 5a...CMU Carnegie Mellon University DGP Dynamic Gaming Platform GA Genetic Algorithm IARPA Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity LM ATL Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories PAINT ProActive INTelligence

  12. ITS Platform North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the project entitled “ITS Platform North Denmark” which is used as a test platform for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) solutions. The platform consists of a newly developed GNSS/GPRS On Board Unit (OBU) to be installed in 500 cars, a backend server and a specially...

  13. Insectivorous Birds and Environmental Factors Across an Edge-Interior Gradient in Tropical Rainforest of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah B. Mohd; Mohamed Zakaria; Hossein Varasteh Moradi; Ebil Yusof

    2009-01-01

    The study objectives were to test: (1) the effects of the edge-interior gradient on understorey insectivorous bird abundance, density and diversity; (2) effects of environmental variables along an edge-interior gradient at population level (i.e., on each sub-guilds and species abundance); (3) possible effects of environmental structure along an edge-interior gradient at community level (i.e., species richness, diversity and total abundance). Fifteen hundred and four birds belonging to ...

  14. [Characterization of High Andean forest edges and implications for their ecological restoration (Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Alba Lucía; Vargas Ríos, Orlando

    2008-09-01

    The growth of a forest patch through colonization of the adjacent matrix is mostly determined by the particular characteristics of the edge zone. Knowing how these characteristics are related to a specific edge type and how they influence the regeneration process, is important for High Andean forest edges restoration. This study aimed to characterize three types of High Andean forest edge in Cogua Forest Reserve (Colombia): 1) edge of Chusquea scandens, 2) "paramizado", and 3) old edge, characterized for being in a later successional state. Two forest patches were chosen for each edge type and 13 criteria were analyzed; these were of topographic order, micro-environmental order, vegetation structure and species composition. In each patch the vegetation was evaluated by means of two 60 m transects perpendicular to the edge and along the matrix-edge-interior of the forest gradient. All woody plant species were identified and counted to determine their abundance. Environmental variables (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and light radiation) were measured in one of the transects. Three of the 13 criteria were of little importance in shaping the type of edge habitat (slope, patch shape and area). The others were closely related with the micro-environmental conditions and in turn with the vegetation structure and composition; this relationship confers particular characteristics to each edge type. The microclimate and floristic edge limits coincided; edges extend between 10 and 20 m into the forest depending on the edge type. The paramizado edge has the smallest environmental self-regulation capacity and is more exposed to fluctuations of the studied variables, because of its greatest exposition to the wind action and loss of the tallest trees (between 10 and 15 m) which regulate the understorey microclimate. This low environmental buffer capacity prevents the establishing of mature forest species (for example, Schefflera sp. and Oreopanax bogotensis

  15. Instructor Perspectives of Mobile Learning Platform: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alrasheedi, Muasaad; Capretz, Luiz Fernando; Raza, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning (mLearning) is the cutting-edge learning platform to really gain traction, driven mostly by the huge uptake in smartphones and their ever increasing uses within the educational society. Education has long benefitted from the proliferation of technology; however, mLearning adoption has not proceeded at the pace one might expect. There is a disconnect between the rate of adoption of the underlying platform (smartphones) and the use of that technology within learning. The reasons...

  16. Induced Superconductivity in the Quantum Spin Hall Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hechen; Hart, Sean; Wagner, Timo; Leubner, Philipp; Muehlbauer, Mathias; Bruene, Christoph; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens; Yacoby, Amir

    2014-03-01

    Two-dimensional topological insulators have a gapped bulk and helical edge states, making it a quantum spin Hall insulator. Combining such edge states with superconductivity can be an excellent platform for observing and manipulating localized Majorana fermions. In the context of condensed matter, these are emergent electronic states that obey non-Abelian statistics and hence support fault-tolerant quantum computing. To realize such theoretical constructions, an essential step is to show these edge channels are capable of carrying coherent supercurrent. In our experiment, we fabricate Josephson junctions with HgTe/HgCdTe quantum wells, a two-dimensional material that becomes a quantum spin Hall insulator when the quantum well is thicker than 6.3 nm and the bulk density is depleted. In this regime, we observe supercurrents whose densities are confined to the edges of the junctions, with edge widths ranging from 180 nm to 408 nm. To verify the topological nature of these edges, we measure identical junctions with HgTe/HgCdTe quantum wells thinner than 6.3 nm and observe only uniform supercurrent density across the junctions. This research is supported by Microsoft Corporation Project Q, the NSF DMR-1206016, the DOE SCGF Program, the German Research Foundation, and EU ERC-AG program.

  17. Continuous Platform Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Fiil

    low risks and investments but also with relatively fuzzy results. When looking for new platform projects, it is important to make sure that the company and market is ready for the introduction of platforms, and to make sure that people from marketing and sales, product development, and downstream......, but continuous product family evolution challenges this strategy. The concept of continuous platform development is based on the fact that platform development should not be a one-time experience but rather an ongoing process of developing new platforms and updating existing ones, so that product family...

  18. Mapping Forest Edge Using Aerial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Slightly more than 60% of Massachusetts is covered with forest and this land cover type is invaluable for the protection and maintenance of our natural resources and is a carbon sink for the state. However, Massachusetts is currently experiencing a decline in forested lands, primarily due to the expansion of human development (Thompson et al., 2011). Of particular concern is the loss of "core areas" or the areas within forests that are not influenced by other land cover types. These areas are of significant importance to native flora and fauna, since they generally are not subject to invasion by exotic species and are more resilient to the effects of climate change (Campbell et al., 2009). However, the expansion of development has reduced the amount of this core area, but the exact amount is still unknown. Current methods of estimating core area are not particularly precise, since edge, or the area of the forest that is most influenced by other land cover types, is quite variable and situation dependent. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to devise a new method for identifying areas that could qualify as "edge" within the Harvard Forest, in Petersham MA, using new remote sensing techniques. We sampled along eight transects perpendicular to the edge of an abandoned golf course within the Harvard Forest property. Vegetation inventories as well as Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) at different heights within the canopy were used to determine edge depth. These measurements were then compared with small-footprint waveform aerial LiDAR datasets and imagery to model edge depths within Harvard Forest.

  19. Cutting Edge Localisation in an Edge Profile Milling Head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Robles, Laura; Azzopardi, George; Alegre, Enrique; Petkov, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Wear evaluation of cutting tools is a key issue for prolonging their lifetime and ensuring high quality of products. In this paper, we present a method for the effective localisation of cutting edges of inserts in digital images of an edge profile milling head. We introduce a new image data set of

  20. Cross-Platform Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina ENACHE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cross-platform - a concept becoming increasingly used in recent years especially in the development of mobile apps, but this consistently over time and in the development of conventional desktop applications. The notion of cross-platform software (multi-platform or platform-independent refers to a software application that can run on more than one operating system or computing architecture. Thus, a cross-platform application can operate independent of software or hardware platform on which it is execute. As a generic definition presents a wide range of meanings for purposes of this paper we individualize this definition as follows: we will reduce the horizon of meaning and we use functionally following definition: a cross-platform application is a software application that can run on more than one operating system (desktop or mobile identical or in a similar way.

  1. Cutting edge proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Jakob; Espadas, Guadalupe; Molina, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Tryptic digestion is an important component of most proteomics experiments, and trypsin is available from many sources with a cost that varies by more than 1000-fold. This high-mass-accuracy LC-MS study benchmarks six commercially available trypsins with respect to autolytic species and sequence ...

  2. The transition-edge EBIT microcalorimeter spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele L.; Adams, Joseph; Bandler, Simon; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory; Chervenak, James; Doriese, Randy; Eckart, Megan; Irwin, Kent; Kelley, Richard; Kilbourne, Caroline; Leutenegger, Maurice; Porter, F. S.; Reintsema, Carl; Smith, Stephen; Ullom, Joel

    2014-07-01

    The Transition-edge EBIT Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (TEMS) is a 1000-pixel array instrument to be delivered to the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 2015. It will be the first fully operational array of its kind. The TEMS will utilize the unique capabilities of the EBIT to verify and benchmark atomic theory that is critical for the analysis of high-resolution data from microcalorimeter spectrometers aboard the next generation of x-ray observatories. We present spectra from the present instrumentation at EBIT, as well as our latest results with time-division multiplexing using the current iteration of the TEMS focal plane assembly in our test platform at NASA/GSFC.

  3. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Johannes S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Assaad, Fakher F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Schnyder, Andreas P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground state degeneracy and a diverging density of states. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. Here, we employ Monte Carlo simulations combined with mean-field considerations to examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of d{sub xy}-wave superconductors. We find that attractive interactions induce a complex s-wave pairing instability together with a density wave instability. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism mixed with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. We discuss the implications of our findings for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  4. LES tests on airfoil trailing edge serration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a large number of acoustic simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with different Trailing Edge Serrations (TES). The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH) acoustic analogy is used for noise prediction at trailing edge. The acoustic solver is running on the platform of our in-house incompressible flow solver EllipSys3D. The flow solution is first obtained from the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), the acoustic part is then carried out based on the instantaneous hydrodynamic pressure and velocity field. To obtain the time history data of sound pressure, the flow quantities are integrated around the airfoil surface through the FWH approach. For all the simulations, the chord based Reynolds number is around 1.5x10 6 . In the test matrix, the effects from angle of attack, the TE flap angle, the length/width of the TES are investigated. Even though the airfoil under investigation is already optimized for low noise emission, most numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments show that the noise level is further decreased by adding the TES device. (paper)

  5. Ion transport in turbulent edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, P.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA; Hazeltine, R.D.; Catto, P.J.

    1996-02-01

    Edge plasmas, such as the tokamak scrape-off layer, exist as a consequence of a balance between cross-field diffusion and parallel losses. The former is usually anomalous, and is widely thought to be driven by strong electrostatic turbulence. It is shown that the anomalous diffusion affects the parallel ion transport by giving rise to a new type of thermal force between different ion species. This force is parallel to the magnetic field, but arises entirely because of perpendicular gradients, and could be important for impurity retention in the tokamak divertor. (author)

  6. ADMS Evaluation Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-01-23

    Deploying an ADMS or looking to optimize its value? NREL offers a low-cost, low-risk evaluation platform for assessing ADMS performance. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a vendor-neutral advanced distribution management system (ADMS) evaluation platform and is expanding its capabilities. The platform uses actual grid-scale hardware, large-scale distribution system models, and advanced visualization to simulate realworld conditions for the most accurate ADMS evaluation and experimentation.

  7. Platform development supportedby gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of implementing industrial platforms in practice can be described as a configuration problem caused by high number of variables, which often have contradictory influences on the total performance of the firm. Consequently, the specific platform decisions become extremely complex......, possibly increasing the strategic risks for the firm. This paper reports preliminary findings on platform management process at LEGO, a Danish toy company.  Specifically, we report the process of applying games combined with simulations and workshops in the platform development. We also propose a framework...

  8. Omnidirectional holonomic platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.; Killough, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the concepts for a new family of wheeled platforms which feature full omnidirectionality with simultaneous and independently controlled rotational and translational motion capabilities. The authors first present the orthogonal-wheels concept and the two major wheel assemblies on which these platforms are based. They then describe how a combination of these assemblies with appropriate control can be used to generate an omnidirectional capability for mobile robot platforms. The design and control of two prototype platforms are then presented and their respective characteristics with respect to rotational and translational motion control are discussed

  9. Platform decommissioning costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, David

    1998-01-01

    There are over 6500 platforms worldwide contributing to the offshore oil and gas production industry. In the North Sea there are around 500 platforms in place. There are many factors to be considered in planning for platform decommissioning and the evaluation of options for removal and disposal. The environmental impact, technical feasibility, safety and cost factors all have to be considered. This presentation considers what information is available about the overall decommissioning costs for the North Sea and the costs of different removal and disposal options for individual platforms. 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. The edge of space time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.

    1993-01-01

    What happened at the beginning of the expansion of the universe. Did space time have an edge at the Big Bang. The answer is that, if the boundary conditions of the universe are that it has no boundary, time ceases to be well-defined in the very early universe as the direction ''north'' ceases to be well defined at the North Pole of the Earth. The quantity that we measure as time has a beginning but that does not mean spacetime has an edge, just as the surface of the Earth does not have an edge at the North Pole. 8 figs

  11. Reduction of airfoil trailing edge noise by trailing edge blowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhard, T; Carolus, T; Erbslöh, S

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise and its reduction by trailing edge blowing. A Somers S834 airfoil section which originally was designed for small wind turbines is investigated. To mimic realistic Reynolds numbers the boundary layer is tripped on pressure and suction side. The chordwise position of the blowing slot is varied. The acoustic sources, i.e. the unsteady flow quantities in the turbulent boundary layer in the vicinity of the trailing edge, are quantified for the airfoil without and with trailing edge blowing by means of a large eddy simulation and complementary measurements. Eventually the far field airfoil noise is measured by a two-microphone filtering and correlation and a 40 microphone array technique. Both, LES-prediction and measurements showed that a suitable blowing jet on the airfoil suction side is able to reduce significantly the turbulence intensity and the induced surface pressure fluctuations in the trailing edge region. As a consequence, trailing edge noise associated with a spectral hump around 500 Hz could be reduced by 3 dB. For that a jet velocity of 50% of the free field velocity was sufficient. The most favourable slot position was at 90% chord length

  12. The influence of anthropogenic edge effects on primate populations and their habitat in a fragmented rainforest in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Laura M; Schreier, Amy L; Voss, Kristofor A; Sheehan, Elizabeth A; Barrickman, Nancy L; Pryor, Nathaniel P; Barton, Matthew C

    2018-05-01

    When a forest is fragmented, this increases the amount of forest edge relative to the interior. Edge effects can lead to loss of animal and plant species and decreased plant biomass near forest edges. We examined the influence of an anthropogenic forest edge comprising cattle pasture, coconut plantations, and human settlement on the mantled howler (Alouatta palliata), white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus), Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), and plant populations at La Suerte Biological Research Station (LSBRS), Costa Rica. We predicted that there would be lower monkey encounter rate, mean tree species richness, and diameter at breast height (DBH) in forest edge versus interior, and that monkeys would show species-specific responses to edge based on diet, body size, and canopy height preferences. Specifically, we predicted that howler monkeys would show positive or neutral edge effects due to their flexible folivorous diet, large body size, and preference for high canopy, capuchins would show positive edge effects due to their diverse diet, small body size, and preference for low to middle canopy, and spider monkeys would show negative edge effects due their reliance on ripe fruit, large body size, and preference for high upper canopy. We conducted population and vegetation surveys along edge and interior transects at LSBRS. Contrary to predictions, total monkey encounter rate did not vary between the forest edge and forest interior. Furthermore, all three species showed neutral edge effects with no significant differences in encounter rate between forest edge and interior. Interior transects had significantly higher mean tree species richness than edge transects, and interior trees had greater DBH than edge trees, although this difference was not significant. These results suggest that forest edges negatively impact plant populations at La Suerte but that the monkeys are able to withstand these differences in vegetation.

  13. Groundwater Assessment Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Podgorski, Joel; Berg, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The Groundwater Assessment Platform is a free, interactive online GIS platform for the mapping, sharing and statistical modeling of groundwater quality data. The modeling allows users to take advantage of publicly available global datasets of various environmental parameters to produce prediction maps of their contaminant of interest.

  14. EURESCOM Services Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Lambertus Johannes Maria; van Halteren, Aart

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the EURESCOM Project 715. In February 1999, a large team of researchers from six European public network operators completed a two year period of cooperative experiments on a TINA-based environment, called the EURESCOM Services Platform (ESP). This platform

  15. Diffraction at a Straight Edge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 5. Diffraction at a Straight Edge: A Gem from Sommerfeld's Work in Classical Physics. Rajaram Nityananda. General Article Volume 20 Issue 5 May 2015 pp 389-400 ...

  16. DAVs: Red Edge and Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing

    2018-04-01

    As established by ground based surveys, white dwarfs with hydrogen atmospheres pulsate as they cool across the temperature range, 12500Kred edge is a two-decade old puzzle. Recently, Kepler discovered a number of cool DAVs exhibiting sporadic outbursts separated by days, each lasting several hours, and releasing \\sim 10^{33}-10^{34} {erg}. We provide quantitative explanations for both the red edge and the outbursts. The minimal frequency for overstable modes rises abruptly near the red edge. Although high frequency overstable modes exist below the red edge, their photometric amplitudes are generally too small to be detected by ground based observations. Nevertheless, these overstable parent modes can manifest themselves through nonlinear mode couplings to damped daughter modes which generate limit cycles giving rise to photometric outbursts.

  17. Edge Fracture in Complex Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Ewan J; Kusumaatmaja, Halim; Fielding, Suzanne M

    2017-07-14

    We study theoretically the edge fracture instability in sheared complex fluids, by means of linear stability analysis and direct nonlinear simulations. We derive an exact analytical expression for the onset of edge fracture in terms of the shear-rate derivative of the fluid's second normal stress difference, the shear-rate derivative of the shear stress, the jump in shear stress across the interface between the fluid and the outside medium (usually air), the surface tension of that interface, and the rheometer gap size. We provide a full mechanistic understanding of the edge fracture instability, carefully validated against our simulations. These findings, which are robust with respect to choice of rheological constitutive model, also suggest a possible route to mitigating edge fracture, potentially allowing experimentalists to achieve and accurately measure flows stronger than hitherto possible.

  18. Bird community responses to the edge between suburbs and reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikin, Karen; Barton, Philip S; Knight, Emma; Lindenmayer, David B; Fischer, Joern; Manning, Adrian D

    2014-02-01

    New insights into community-level responses at the urban fringe, and the mechanisms underlying them, are needed. In our study, we investigated the compositional distinctiveness and variability of a breeding bird community at both sides of established edges between suburban residential areas and woodland reserves in Canberra, Australia. Our goals were to determine if: (1) community-level responses were direct (differed with distance from the edge, independent of vegetation) or indirect (differed in response to edge-related changes in vegetation), and (2) if guild-level responses provided the mechanism underpinning community-level responses. We found that suburbs and reserves supported significantly distinct bird communities. The suburban bird community, characterised by urban-adapted native and exotic species, had a weak direct edge response, with decreasing compositional variability with distance from the edge. In comparison, the reserve bird community, characterised by woodland-dependent species, was related to local tree and shrub cover. This was not an indirect response, however, as tree and shrub cover was not related to edge distance. We found that the relative richness of nesting, foraging and body size guilds also displayed similar edge responses, indicating that they underpinned the observed community-level responses. Our study illustrates how community-level responses provide valuable insights into how communities respond to differences in resources between two contrasting habitats. Further, the effects of the suburban matrix penetrate into reserves for greater distances than previously thought. Suburbs and adjacent reserves, however, provided important habitat resources for many native species and the conservation of these areas should not be discounted from continued management strategies.

  19. Product Platform Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus

    for customisation of products. In many companies these changes in the business environment have created a controversy between the need for a wide variety of products offered to the marketplace and a desire to reduce variation within the company in order to increase efficiency. Many companies use the concept...... other. These groups can be varied and combined to form different product variants without increasing the internal variety in the company. Based on the Theory of Domains, the concept of encapsulation in the organ domain is introduced, and organs are formulated as platform elements. Included......This PhD thesis has the title Product Platform Modelling. The thesis is about product platforms and visual product platform modelling. Product platforms have gained an increasing attention in industry and academia in the past decade. The reasons are many, yet the increasing globalisation...

  20. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    . To shed light on this unexplored and growing managerial concern, the purpose of this explorative study is to identify operational challenges to management when product platforms are replaced. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses a longitudinal field-study approach. Two companies, Gamma and Omega...... replacement was chosen in each company. Findings – The study shows that platform replacements primarily challenge managers' existing knowledge about platform architectures. A distinction can be made between “width” and “height” in platform replacements, and it is crucial that managers observe this in order...... to challenge their existing knowledge about platform architectures. Issues on technologies, architectures, components and processes as well as on segments, applications and functions are identified. Practical implications – Practical implications are summarized and discussed in relation to a framework...

  1. Edge of polar cap patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.

  2. Robotic vehicle with multiple tracked mobility platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salton, Jonathan R [Albuquerque, NM; Buttz, James H [Albuquerque, NM; Garretson, Justin [Albuquerque, NM; Hayward, David R [Wetmore, CO; Hobart, Clinton G [Albuquerque, NM; Deuel, Jr., Jamieson K.

    2012-07-24

    A robotic vehicle having two or more tracked mobility platforms that are mechanically linked together with a two-dimensional coupling, thereby forming a composite vehicle of increased mobility. The robotic vehicle is operative in hazardous environments and can be capable of semi-submersible operation. The robotic vehicle is capable of remote controlled operation via radio frequency and/or fiber optic communication link to a remote operator control unit. The tracks have a plurality of track-edge scallop cut-outs that allow the tracks to easily grab onto and roll across railroad tracks, especially when crossing the railroad tracks at an oblique angle.

  3. The vacuum platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes GridPP’s Vacuum Platform for managing virtual machines (VMs), which has been used to run production workloads for WLCG and other HEP experiments. The platform provides a uniform interface between VMs and the sites they run at, whether the site is organised as an Infrastructure-as-a-Service cloud system such as OpenStack, or an Infrastructure-as-a-Client system such as Vac. The paper describes our experience in using this platform, in developing and operating VM lifecycle managers Vac and Vcycle, and in interacting with VMs provided by LHCb, ATLAS, ALICE, CMS, and the GridPP DIRAC service to run production workloads.

  4. Anuran assemblage on forest edges in Datu Salumay, Davao City, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Mae M. Dacalus

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation due to anthropogenic encroachment has been associated with changes in abiotic conditions known as edge effect. This condition plays a major role in the amphibian decline globally. A five-day sampling in a regenerating forest of So. Maharlika, Barangay Datu Salumay, Marilog District, Davao City, Philippines was conducted to test effect of forest edges on a local forest. Visual encounter technique was employed surveying quadrats (10 x 10 meters established along a main transect (1 km long. The first 500 meters of the main transect served as the edge while the rest constituted the forest interior. Data on canopy cover, termperature, and humidity from each site were contrasted with species endemism and diversity to determine influence of differing edge and forest interior conditions. Eight species of frogs were captured: five belongs to the Family Rhacophoridae and one species each belong to the Families Megophryidae, Microhylidae, and Dicroglossidae. No significant difference was noted of the data on canopy cover, temperature, and humidity in both forest edge and interior. Six anuran species were accounted each in the forest edge and interior, although more endemic species were recorded from the forest interior. Current results maybe suggestive of the possible impact of edges on anuran species although more data is required to validate this claim.

  5. Protected Edge Modes without Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Levin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the question of when a gapped two-dimensional electron system without any symmetry has a protected gapless edge mode. While it is well known that systems with a nonzero thermal Hall conductance, K_{H}≠0, support such modes, here we show that robust modes can also occur when K_{H}=0—if the system has quasiparticles with fractional statistics. We show that some types of fractional statistics are compatible with a gapped edge, while others are fundamentally incompatible. More generally, we give a criterion for when an electron system with Abelian statistics and K_{H}=0 can support a gapped edge: We show that a gapped edge is possible if and only if there exists a subset of quasiparticle types M such that (1 all the quasiparticles in M have trivial mutual statistics, and (2 every quasiparticle that is not in M has nontrivial mutual statistics with at least one quasiparticle in M. We derive this criterion using three different approaches: a microscopic analysis of the edge, a general argument based on braiding statistics, and finally a conformal field theory approach that uses constraints from modular invariance. We also discuss the analogous result for two-dimensional boson systems.

  6. The universal modular platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    A new and patented design for offshore wellhead platforms has been developed to meet a 'fast track' requirement for increased offshore production, from field locations not yet identified. The new design uses modular construction to allow for radical changes in the water depth of the final location and assembly line efficiency in fabrication. By utilizing high strength steels and structural support from the well conductors the new design accommodates all planned production requirements on a support structure significantly lighter and less expensive than the conventional design it replaces. Twenty two platforms based on the new design were ready for installation within 18 months of the project start. Installation of the new platforms began in 1992 for drilling support and 1993 for production support. The new design has become the Company standard for all future production platforms. Large saving and construction costs have been realized through its light weight, flexibility in both positioning and water depth, and its modular construction

  7. Identification of platform levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2005-01-01

    reduction, ability to launch a wider product portfolio without increasing resources and reduction of complexity within the whole company. To support the multiple product development process, platform based product development has in many companies such as Philips, VW, Ford etc. proven to be a very effective...... product development in one step and therefore the objective of this paper is to identify levels of platform based product development. The structure of this paper is as follows. First the applied terminology for platforms will be briefly explained and then characteristics between single and multi product...... development will be examined. Based on the identification of the above characteristics five platform levels are described. The research presented in this paper is a result of MSc, Ph.D projects at the Technical University of Denmark and consultancy projects within the organisation of Institute of Product...

  8. Paper based electronics platform

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna Mohammad; Sevilla, Galo Andres Torres; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    A flexible and non-functionalized low cost paper-based electronic system platform fabricated from common paper, such as paper based sensors, and methods of producing paper based sensors, and methods of sensing using the paper based sensors

  9. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  10. Edge effects at an induced forest-grassland boundary: forest birds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bird species diversity and guild composition between the edge (5-10 m from the margin) of primary forest abutting grassland and the deep interior (> 500 m from the margin) in the Dngoye Forest Reserve were compared. Edge and interior sites were chosen that were homogeneous with respect to habitat physiognomy i.e. ...

  11. National Community Solar Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupert, Bart [Clean Energy Collective, Louisville, CO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was created to provide a National Community Solar Platform (NCSP) portal known as Community Solar Hub, that is available to any entity or individual who wants to develop community solar. This has been done by providing a comprehensive portal to make CEC’s solutions, and other proven community solar solutions, externally available for everyone to access – making the process easy through proven platforms to protect subscribers, developers and utilities. The successful completion of this project provides these tools via a web platform and integration APIs, a wide spectrum of community solar projects included in the platform, multiple groups of customers (utilities, EPCs, and advocates) using the platform to develop community solar, and open access to anyone interested in community solar. CEC’s Incubator project includes web-based informational resources, integrated systems for project information and billing systems, and engagement with customers and users by community solar experts. The combined effort externalizes much of Clean Energy Collective’s industry-leading expertise, allowing third parties to develop community solar without duplicating expensive start-up efforts. The availability of this platform creates community solar projects that are cheaper to build and cheaper to participate in, furthering the goals of DOE’s SunShot Initiative. Final SF 425 Final SF 428 Final DOE F 2050.11 Final Report Narrative

  12. All-graphene edge contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kåre Wedel; Falkenberg, Jesper Toft; Papior, Nick Rübner

    2016-01-01

    Using ab-initio methods we investigate the possibility of three-terminalgraphene "T-junction" devices and show that these all-graphene edge contactsare energetically feasible when the 1D interface itself is free from foreignatoms. We examine the energetics of various junction structures as a func......Using ab-initio methods we investigate the possibility of three-terminalgraphene "T-junction" devices and show that these all-graphene edge contactsare energetically feasible when the 1D interface itself is free from foreignatoms. We examine the energetics of various junction structures...... to be in therange of 1-10 kΩμm which is comparable to the best contact resistance reportedfor edge-contacted graphene-metal contacts. We conclude that conductingall-carbon T-junctions should be feasible....

  13. [Edge effect of the plant community structure on land-bridge islands in the Thousand Island Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Fei; Yuan, Jin-Feng; Hu, Guang; Xu, Gao-Fu; Yu, Ming-Jian

    2014-01-01

    The research was conducted on 29 land-bridge islands in the Thousand Island Lake (TIL), where long-term monitoring plots were set up during 2009-2010. The community attributes including species richness, Shannon index, plant mean height, plant mean diameter at breast height (DBH) and plant density along the edge-interior gradient from edge to interior forest were calculated to investigate the edge effect. The results showed that the species richness and Shannon index were affected through the whole gradient (larger than 50 m), while the range of edge effect was 20-30 m on mean plant height, and 10 m on plant density and mean DBH. Community attributes differed significantly among the edge gradients. The species richness and Shannon index peaked at the intermediate edge gradient. Plant density decreased and plant mean height increased along the edge to interior gradient. All five community attributes were significantly associated with the edge gradient, also different functional groups, evergreen or deciduous species, trees or shrubs, shade tolerant or shade intolerant species, were differentially influenced by the edge effect. It was demonstrated the influence of edge effect on the fragmented forest community varied with community attributes and functional groups.

  14. Improving color constancy by photometric edge weighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsenij, A.; Gevers, T.; van de Weijer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Edge-based color constancy methods make use of image derivatives to estimate the illuminant. However, different edge types exist in real-world images, such as material, shadow, and highlight edges. These different edge types may have a distinctive influence on the performance of the illuminant

  15. The knife-edge chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barasch, E.F.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Drew, M.M.; Elliott, S.M.; Lee, B.; McIntyre, P.M.; Pang, Y.; Popovic, M.; Smith, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the design for a new technology for particle track detectors is described. Using standard IC fabrication techniques, a pattern of microscopic knife edges and field-shaping electrodes can be fabricated on a silicon substrate. The knife-edge chamber uniquely offers attractive performance for the track chambers required for SSC detectors, for which no present technology is yet satisfactory. Its features include: excellent radiation hardness (10 Mrad), excellent spatial resolution (∼20 μm), short drift time (20 ns), and large pulse height (1 mV)

  16. Evaluation of OLED and edge-lit LED lighting panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Xi; Narendran, Nadarajah; Zhu, Yiting; Freyssinier, Jean Paul

    2016-09-01

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) offers a new technology platform for lighting designers and end-users to illuminate spaces with low energy demand. Two types of SSL sources include organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). OLED is an area light source, and its primary competing technology is the edge-lit LED panel. Generally, both of these technologies are considered similar in shape and appearance, but there is little understanding of how people perceive discomfort glare from large area light sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate discomfort glare for the two lighting technologies under similar operating conditions by gathering observers' reactions. The human factors study results showed no statistically significant difference in human response to discomfort glare between OLED and edge-lit LED panels when the two light sources produced the same lighting stimulus. This means both technologies appeared equally glary beyond a certain luminance.

  17. Scheduling Heuristics for Live Video Transcoding on Cloud Edges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panagiotis Oikonomou; Maria G. Koziri; Nikos Tziritas; Thanasis Loukopoulos; XU Cheng-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Efficient video delivery involves the transcoding of the original sequence into various resolutions, bitrates and standards, in order to match viewers 'capabilities. Since video coding and transcoding are computationally demanding, performing a portion of these tasks at the network edges promises to decrease both the workload and network traffic towards the data centers of media provid-ers. Motivated by the increasing popularity of live casting on social media platforms, in this paper we focus on the case of live vid-eo transcoding. Specifically, we investigate scheduling heuristics that decide on which jobs should be assigned to an edge mini-datacenter and which to a backend datacenter. Through simulation experiments with different QoS requirements we conclude on the best alternative.

  18. Edge effects on understory epiphytic ferns and epiphyllous bryophytes in moist afromontane forests of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hylander Kristoffer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on edge effects in tropical forests have been conducted in landscapes with low human population density and in situations where the edges have been left unused after logging of the adjacent area. Here we studied forest margins heavily used by local farmers in a forest/agriculture mosaic landscape in Ethiopia. We compared forest structure and plant species composition across 41 forest-agriculture ecotones from 200 m out into the agricultural area to 200 m into the forest. There are strong edge effects from the edge and into the forest on canopy cover and number of stumps and apparently these forest-agricultural edges are intensively used by humans. They are penetrated by paths, beehives are found in the trees, timber of various dimensions is harvested and there is sometimes substantial cover of perennial wild (or semi-wild crops such as coffee and spices. The number of understory epiphytic fern species as well as number of epiphyllous (i.e., growing on leaves bryophyte species was lower at 20 m than at 75 m from the edge. The number of fern species was higher in newly created edges and thereafter they declined, which indicates an extinction debt. This pattern was not seen for the epiphyllous bryophytes. It is likely that different human management activities are responsible for many of the found edge effects besides wind and sun effects from the edge. Tropical forest margins provide important resources for people in many landscapes. It is important to understand how such use affects the biota of the forests. This study shows that there are substantial edge effects, but that the edge effects do not seem to become worse over time for epiphyllous bryophytes and only slightly so for ferns.

  19. The Platformization of the Web: Making Web Data Platform Ready

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I inquire into Facebook’s development as a platform by situating it within the transformation of social network sites into social media platforms. I explore this shift with a historical perspective on, what I refer to as, platformization, or the rise of the platform as the dominant

  20. Responses of Euglossine Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossina) to an Edge-Forest Gradient in a Large Tabuleiro Forest Remnant in Eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coswosk, J A; Ferreira, R A; Soares, E D G; Faria, L R R

    2018-08-01

    Euglossine fauna of a large remnant of Brazilian Atlantic forest in eastern Brazil (Reserva Natural Vale) was assessed along an edge-forest gradient towards the interior of the fragment. To test the hypotheses that the structure of assemblages of orchid bees varies along this gradient, the following predictions were evaluated: (i) species richness is positively related to distance from the forest edge, (ii) species diversity is positively related to distance from the edge, (iii) the relative abundance of species associated with forest edge and/or open areas is inversely related to the distance from edge, and (iv) relative abundance of forest-related species is positively related to distance from the edge. A total of 2264 bees of 25 species was assessed at five distances from the edge: 0 m (the edge itself), 100 m, 500 m, 1000 m and 1500 m. Data suggested the existence of an edge-interior gradient for euglossine bees regarding species diversity and composition (considering the relative abundance of edge and forest-related species as a proxy for species composition) but not species richness.

  1. Contrast in edge vegetation structure modifies the predation risk of natural ground nests in an agricultural landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Schneider

    Full Text Available Nest predation risk generally increases nearer forest-field edges in agricultural landscapes. However, few studies test whether differences in edge contrast (i.e. hard versus soft edges based on vegetation structure and height affect edge-related predation patterns and if such patterns are related to changes in nest conspicuousness between incubation and nestling feeding. Using data on 923 nesting attempts we analyse factors influencing nest predation risk at different edge types in an agricultural landscape of a ground-cavity breeding bird species, the Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe. As for many other bird species, nest predation is a major determinant of reproductive success in this migratory passerine. Nest predation risk was higher closer to woodland and crop field edges, but only when these were hard edges in terms of ground vegetation structure (clear contrast between tall vs short ground vegetation. No such edge effect was observed at soft edges where adjacent habitats had tall ground vegetation (crop, ungrazed grassland. This edge effect on nest predation risk was evident during the incubation stage but not the nestling feeding stage. Since wheatear nests are depredated by ground-living animals our results demonstrate: (i that edge effects depend on edge contrast, (ii that edge-related nest predation patterns vary across the breeding period probably resulting from changes in parental activity at the nest between the incubation and nestling feeding stage. Edge effects should be put in the context of the nest predator community as illustrated by the elevated nest predation risk at hard but not soft habitat edges when an edge is defined in terms of ground vegetation. These results thus can potentially explain previously observed variations in edge-related nest predation risk.

  2. Edge detection and texture classification by cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylinski, Sarah; Osorio, Daniel; Shohet, Adam J

    2009-12-14

    Cephalopod mollusks including octopus and cuttlefish are adept at adaptive camouflage, varying their appearance to suit the surroundings. This behavior allows unique access into the vision of a non-human species because one can ask how these animals use spatial information to control their coloration pattern. There is particular interest in factors that affect the relative levels of expression of the Mottle and the Disruptive body patterns. Broadly speaking, the Mottle is displayed on continuous patterned surfaces whereas the Disruptive is used on discrete objects such as pebbles. Recent evidence from common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, suggests that multiple cues are relevant, including spatial scale, contrast, and depth. We analyze the body pattern responses of juvenile cuttlefish to a range of checkerboard stimuli. Our results suggest that the choice of camouflage pattern is consistent with a simple model of how cuttlefish classify visual textures, according to whether they are Uniform or patterned, and whether the pattern includes visual edges. In particular, cuttlefish appear to detect edges by sensing the relative spatial phases of two spatial frequency components (e.g., fundamental and the third harmonic Fourier component in a square wave). We discuss the relevance of these findings to vision and camouflage in aquatic environments.

  3. At the edge of intonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the 'edge of intonation' in a twofold sense. It focuses on utterance-final F0 movements and crosses the traditional segment-prosody divide by investigating the interplay of F0 and voiceless fricatives in speech production. An experiment was performed for German with four...

  4. Capillary Sharp Inner Edge Manufacturing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Jan; Studenovský, K.; Najdek, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 35 (2009), s. 19-25 ISSN 1584-5982. [MECAHITECH 09 /1./. Bukurešť, 08.10.2009-09.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : capillary * edge * manufacturing Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery

  5. Development of edge effects around experimental ecosystem hotspots is affected by edge density and matrix type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological edge effects are sensitive to landscape context. In particular, edge effects can be altered by matrix type and by the presence of other nearby edges. We experimentally altered patch configurations in an African savanna to determine how edge density and matrix type influence edge effect de...

  6. Transactional Network Platform: Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert G.; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2013-10-31

    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or "agents" that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on a local building controller or in the Cloud. The transactional network project is a multi-lab effort with Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) also contributing to the effort. PNNL coordinated the project and also was responsible for the development of the transactional network (TN) platform and three different applications associated with RTUs. This document describes two applications or "agents" in details, and also summarizes the platform. The TN platform details are described in another companion document.

  7. Nonlinear neoclassical transport in toroidal edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, T.; Helander, P.

    2001-01-01

    In conventional neoclassical theory, the density and temperature gradients are not allowed to be as steep as frequently observed in the tokamak edge. In this paper the theory of neoclassical transport in a collisional, impure plasma is extended to allow for steeper profiles than normally assumed. The dynamics of highly charged impurity ions then becomes nonlinear, which affects the transport of all species. As earlier found in the banana regime, when the bulk plasma gradients are large the impurity ions undergo a poloidal redistribution, which reduces their parallel friction with the bulk ions and suppresses the neoclassical ion particle flux. The neoclassical confinement is thus improved in regions with large radial gradients. When the plasma is collisional and the gradients are large, the impurities accumulate on the inboard side of the torus

  8. Platform-based production development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Jacob; Brunoe, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Platforms as a means for applying modular thinking in product development is relatively well studied, but platforms in the production system has until now not been given much attention. With the emerging concept of platform-based co-development the importance of production platforms is though...

  9. Reusable platform concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudmestad, O.T.; Sparby, B.K.; Stead, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    There is an increasing need to reduce costs of offshore production facilities in order to make development of offshore fields profitable. For small fields with short production time there is in particular a need to investigate ways to reduce costs. The idea of platform reuse is for such fields particularly attractive. This paper will review reusable platform concepts and will discuss their range of application. Particular emphasis will be placed on technical limitations. Traditional concepts as jackups and floating production facilities will be discussed by major attention will be given to newly developed ideas for reuse of steel jackets and concrete structures. It will be shown how the operator for several fields can obtain considerable savings by applying such reusable platform concepts

  10. Edge-injective and edge-surjective vertex labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Regen, F.

    2010-01-01

    For a graph G = (V, E) we consider vertex-k-labellings f : V → {1,2, ,k} for which the induced edge weighting w : E → {2, 3,., 2k} with w(uv) = f(u) + f(v) is injective or surjective or both. We study the relation between these labellings and the number theoretic notions of an additive basis and ...

  11. Analysis of femtosecond laser assisted capsulotomy cutting edges and manual capsulorhexis using environmental scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrao, Sebastiano; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Desiderio, Giovanni; Buratto, Lucio; Schiano-Lomoriello, Domenico; Pileri, Marco; Lombardo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the structure and irregularity of the capsulotomy cutting edges created by two femtosecond (FS) laser platforms in comparison with manual continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) using environmental scanning electron microscopy (eSEM). Methods. Ten anterior capsulotomies were obtained using two different FS laser cataract platforms (LenSx, n = 5, and Victus, n = 5). In addition, five manual CCC (n = 5) were obtained using a rhexis forceps. The specimens were imaged by eSEM (FEI Quanta 400, OR, USA). Objective metrics, which included the arithmetic mean deviation of the surface (Sa) and the root-mean-square deviation of the surface (Sq), were used to evaluate the irregularity of both the FS laser capsulotomies and the manual CCC cutting edges. Results. Several microirregularities were shown across the FS laser capsulotomy cutting edges. The edges of manually torn capsules were shown, by comparison of Sa and Sq values, to be smoother (P < 0.05) than the FS laser capsulotomy edges. Conclusions. Work is needed to understand whether the FS laser capsulotomy edge microirregularities, not seen in manual CCC, may act as focal points for the concentration of stress that would increase the risk of capsular tear during phacoemulsification as recently reported in the literature.

  12. Analysis of Femtosecond Laser Assisted Capsulotomy Cutting Edges and Manual Capsulorhexis Using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Serrao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the structure and irregularity of the capsulotomy cutting edges created by two femtosecond (FS laser platforms in comparison with manual continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC using environmental scanning electron microscopy (eSEM. Methods. Ten anterior capsulotomies were obtained using two different FS laser cataract platforms (LenSx, n=5, and Victus, n=5. In addition, five manual CCC (n=5 were obtained using a rhexis forceps. The specimens were imaged by eSEM (FEI Quanta 400, OR, USA. Objective metrics, which included the arithmetic mean deviation of the surface (Sa and the root-mean-square deviation of the surface (Sq, were used to evaluate the irregularity of both the FS laser capsulotomies and the manual CCC cutting edges. Results. Several microirregularities were shown across the FS laser capsulotomy cutting edges. The edges of manually torn capsules were shown, by comparison of Sa and Sq values, to be smoother (P<0.05 than the FS laser capsulotomy edges. Conclusions. Work is needed to understand whether the FS laser capsulotomy edge microirregularities, not seen in manual CCC, may act as focal points for the concentration of stress that would increase the risk of capsular tear during phacoemulsification as recently reported in the literature.

  13. Wireless sensor platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2017-08-08

    A wireless sensor platform and methods of manufacture are provided. The platform involves providing a plurality of wireless sensors, where each of the sensors is fabricated on flexible substrates using printing techniques and low temperature curing. Each of the sensors can include planar sensor elements and planar antennas defined using the printing and curing. Further, each of the sensors can include a communications system configured to encode the data from the sensors into a spread spectrum code sequence that is transmitted to a central computer(s) for use in monitoring an area associated with the sensors.

  14. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2010-01-01

    The Azure Services Platform is a brand-new cloud-computing technology from Microsoft. It is composed of four core components-Windows Azure, .NET Services, SQL Services, and Live Services-each with a unique role in the functioning of your cloud service. It is the goal of this book to show you how to use these components, both separately and together, to build flawless cloud services. At its heart Windows Azure Platform is a down-to-earth, code-centric book. This book aims to show you precisely how the components are employed and to demonstrate the techniques and best practices you need to know

  15. Generalized Multi-Edge Analysis for K-Edge Densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.

    1998-01-01

    In K-edge densitometry (KED), a continuous-energy x-ray beam is transmitted through a liquid sample. The actinide content of the sample can be measured through analysis of the transmitted portion of the x-ray beam. Traditional methods for KED analysis allow the simultaneous calculation of, at most, two actinide concentrations. A generalized multi-edge KED analytical method is presented, allowing up to six actinide concentrations to be calculated simultaneously. Applications of this method for hybrid KED/x-ray fluorescence (HKED) systems are discussed. Current HKED systems require the operator to know the approximate actinide content of each sample, and manually select the proper analysis mode. The new multi-edge KED technique allows rapid identification of the major actinide components in a sample, independent of actinide content. The proper HKED analysis mode can be selected automatically, without requiring sample content information from the user. Automatic HKED analysis would be especially useful in an analytical laboratory setting, where samples with truly unknown characteristics are encountered. Because this technique requires no hardware modifications, several facilities that use HKED may eventually benefit from this approach

  16. Edge effects and geometric constraints: a landscape-level empirical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Suzy E; Prevedello, Jayme A; Delciellos, Ana Cláudia; Vieira, Marcus Vinícius

    2016-01-01

    Edge effects are pervasive in landscapes yet their causal mechanisms are still poorly understood. Traditionally, edge effects have been attributed to differences in habitat quality along the edge-interior gradient of habitat patches, under the assumption that no edge effects would occur if habitat quality was uniform. This assumption was questioned recently after the recognition that geometric constraints tend to reduce population abundances near the edges of habitat patches, the so-called geometric edge effect (GEE). Here, we present the first empirical, landscape-level evaluation of the importance of the GEE in shaping abundance patterns in fragmented landscapes. Using a data set on the distribution of small mammals across 18 forest fragments, we assessed whether the incorporation of the GEE into the analysis changes the interpretation of edge effects and the degree to which predictions based on the GEE match observed responses. Quantitative predictions were generated for each fragment using simulations that took into account home range, density and matrix use for each species. The incorporation of the GEE into the analysis changed substantially the interpretation of overall observed edge responses at the landscape scale. Observed abundances alone would lead to the conclusion that the small mammals as a group have no consistent preference for forest edges or interiors and that the black-eared opossum Didelphis aurita (a numerically dominant species in the community) has on average a preference for forest interiors. In contrast, incorporation of the GEE suggested that the small mammal community as a whole has a preference for forest edges, whereas D. aurita has no preference for forest edges or interiors. Unexplained variance in edge responses was reduced by the incorporation of GEE, but remained large, varying greatly on a fragment-by-fragment basis. This study demonstrates how to model and incorporate the GEE in analyses of edge effects and that this

  17. Crop type influences edge effects on the reproduction of songbirds in sagebrush habitat near agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly C. Knight

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive fragmentation of the sagebrush shrubsteppe of western North America could be contributing to observed population declines of songbirds in sagebrush habitat. We examined whether habitat fragmentation impacts the reproduction of songbirds in sagebrush edge habitat near agriculture, and if potential impacts vary depending on the adjacent crop type. Specifically, we evaluated whether nest abundance and nest survival varied between orchard edge habitat, vineyard edge habitat, and interior habitat. We then examined whether the local nest predator community and vegetation could explain the differences detected. We detected fewer nests in edge than interior habitat. Nest abundance per songbird was also lower in edge than interior habitat, although only adjacent to vineyards. Nest predation was more frequent in orchard edge habitat than vineyard edge or interior habitat. Predators identified with nest cameras were primarily snakes, however, reduced nest survival in orchard edge habitat was not explained by differences in the abundance of snakes or any other predator species identified. Information theoretic analysis of daily survival rates showed that greater study plot shrub cover and lower grass height at nests were partially responsible for the lower rate of predation-specific daily nest survival rate (PDSR observed in orchard edge habitat, but additional factors are likely important. Results of this study suggest that different crop types have different edge effects on songbirds nesting in sagebrush shrubsteppe, and that these reproductive edge effects may contribute to observed declines of these species. Habitat managers should avoid the creation of new orchard-sagebrush habitat edges to avoid further impacts on already declining songbird populations.

  18. Edge imaging in intense beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bernal

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of rings of charge observed near the edge of beams from high-perveance guns is described with a simple ray tracing technique inspired by the particle-core model. We illustrate the technique, which has no analog in light optics, with examples from experiments employing solenoid focusing of an electron beam. The rings of charge result from the combined effects of external focusing and space-charge forces acting on paraxial fringe particles with relatively large initial transverse velocities. The model is independent of the physical mechanisms responsible for the fringe particles. Furthermore, the focal length for edge imaging in a uniform focusing channel is derived using a linearized trajectory equation for the motion of fringe particles. Counterintuitively, the focal length decreases as the beam current increases.

  19. The Creative Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrge, Christian; Hansen, Søren

    whether you consider thirdgrade teaching, human-resource development, or radical new thinking in product development in a company. The Creative Platform was developed at Aalborg University through a series of research-and-development activities in collaboration with educational institutions and private...

  20. Creative Platform Learning (CPL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonna Langeland; Hansen, Søren

    Creative Platform Learning (CPL) er en pædagogisk metode, der skaber foretagsomme og innovative elever, der kan anvende deres kreativitet til at lære nyt. Ifølge den nye skolereform skal Innovation og entreprenørskab tydeliggøres i alle fag. I CPL er det en integreret del af undervisningen...

  1. Games and Platform Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    is the application of on-line games in order to provide training for decision makers and in order to generate overview over the implications of platform decisions. However, games have to be placed in a context with other methods and we argue that a mixture of games, workshops, and simulations can provide improved...

  2. Shot loading platform analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the wind/seismic analysis and evaluation for the shot loading platform. Hand calculations were used for the analysis. AISC and UBC load factors were used in this evaluation. The results show that the actual loads are under the allowable loads and all requirements are met

  3. Brake for rollable platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    Frame-mounted brake is independent of wheels and consists of simple lever-actuated foot. Brake makes good contact with surface even though foot pad is at higher or lower level than wheels, this is particularly important when a rollable platform is used on irregular surface.

  4. CERN Neutrino Platform Hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    My summer research was broadly in CERN's neutrino platform hardware efforts. This project had two main components: detector assembly and data analysis work for ICARUS. Specifically, I worked on assembly for the ProtoDUNE project and monitored the safety of ICARUS as it was transported to Fermilab by analyzing the accelerometer data from its move.

  5. Nonreference Medical Image Edge Map Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Panetta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Edge detection is a key step in medical image processing. It is widely used to extract features, perform segmentation, and further assist in diagnosis. A poor quality edge map can result in false alarms and misses in cancer detection algorithms. Therefore, it is necessary to have a reliable edge measure to assist in selecting the optimal edge map. Existing reference based edge measures require a ground truth edge map to evaluate the similarity between the generated edge map and the ground truth. However, the ground truth images are not available for medical images. Therefore, a nonreference edge measure is ideal for medical image processing applications. In this paper, a nonreference reconstruction based edge map evaluation (NREM is proposed. The theoretical basis is that a good edge map keeps the structure and details of the original image thus would yield a good reconstructed image. The NREM is based on comparing the similarity between the reconstructed image with the original image using this concept. The edge measure is used for selecting the optimal edge detection algorithm and optimal parameters for the algorithm. Experimental results show that the quantitative evaluations given by the edge measure have good correlations with human visual analysis.

  6. Gyrosheath near the tokamak edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Xiao, H.; Valanju, P.M.

    1993-03-01

    A new model for the structure of the radial electric field profile in the edge during the H-mode is proposed. Charge separation caused by the difference between electron and ion gyromotion, or more importantly in a tokamak, the banana motion (halo effect) can self-consistently produce an electric dipole moment that causes the sheared radial electric field. The calculated results based on the model are consistent with D-III D and TEXTOR experimental results

  7. Knife-edge seal for vacuum bagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cam actuated clamps pinch bagging material between long knife edge (mounted to clamps) and high temperature rubber cushion bonded to baseplate. No adhesive, tape, or sealing groove is needed to seal edge of bagging sheet against base plate.

  8. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) REST Interface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other...

  9. Organizing on the Edge: Appreciation and Critique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, W. R

    2006-01-01

    .... Hayes, "Power to the Edge: Command, Control in the Information Age" (2003). The author places the "edge" perspective in the broader context of organizational studies, noting both its strengths and limitations...

  10. Genetic connectivity in scleractinian corals across the Northern Gulf of Mexico: oil/gas platforms, and relationship to the Flower Garden Banks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Sammarco

    Full Text Available The 3,000 oil/gas structures currently deployed in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM provide hard substratum for marine organisms in a region where such has been rare since the Holocene. The major exception to this are the Flower Garden Banks (FGB. Corals are known to have colonized oil/gas platforms around the FGB, facilitating biogeographic expansion. We ask the question, what are the patterns of genetic affinity in these coral populations. We sampled coral tissue from populations of two species occurring on oil and gas platforms: Madracis decactis (hermatype and Tubastraea coccinea (invasive ahermatype. We sampled 28 platforms along four transects from 20 km offshore to the continental shelf edge off 1 Matagorda Island, TX; 2 Lake Sabine, TX; 3 Terrebonne Bay, LA; and 4 Mobile, AL. The entire population of M. decactis was sampled between depths of 5 m and 37 m. T. coccinea populations were sub-sampled. Genetic variation was assessed using the PCR-based Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs. Data were analyzed via AFLPOP and STRUCTURE. Genetic connectivity among M. decactis platform populations was highest near the FGB and decreased to the east. Connectivity increased again in the eastern sector, indicating isolation between the populations from different sides of the Mississippi River (Transects 3 and 4. A point-drop in genetic affinity (relatedness at the shelf edge south of Terrebonne Bay, LA indicated a population differing from all others in the northern GOM. Genetic affinities among T. coccinea were highest in the west and decreased to the east. Very low genetic affinities off Mobile, AL indicated a dramatic difference between those populations and those west of the Mississippi River, apparently a formidable barrier to larval dispersal.

  11. Genetic connectivity in scleractinian corals across the Northern Gulf of Mexico: oil/gas platforms, and relationship to the Flower Garden Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, Paul W; Brazeau, Daniel A; Sinclair, James

    2012-01-01

    The 3,000 oil/gas structures currently deployed in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) provide hard substratum for marine organisms in a region where such has been rare since the Holocene. The major exception to this are the Flower Garden Banks (FGB). Corals are known to have colonized oil/gas platforms around the FGB, facilitating biogeographic expansion. We ask the question, what are the patterns of genetic affinity in these coral populations. We sampled coral tissue from populations of two species occurring on oil and gas platforms: Madracis decactis (hermatype) and Tubastraea coccinea (invasive ahermatype). We sampled 28 platforms along four transects from 20 km offshore to the continental shelf edge off 1) Matagorda Island, TX; 2) Lake Sabine, TX; 3) Terrebonne Bay, LA; and 4) Mobile, AL. The entire population of M. decactis was sampled between depths of 5 m and 37 m. T. coccinea populations were sub-sampled. Genetic variation was assessed using the PCR-based Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs). Data were analyzed via AFLPOP and STRUCTURE. Genetic connectivity among M. decactis platform populations was highest near the FGB and decreased to the east. Connectivity increased again in the eastern sector, indicating isolation between the populations from different sides of the Mississippi River (Transects 3 and 4). A point-drop in genetic affinity (relatedness) at the shelf edge south of Terrebonne Bay, LA indicated a population differing from all others in the northern GOM. Genetic affinities among T. coccinea were highest in the west and decreased to the east. Very low genetic affinities off Mobile, AL indicated a dramatic difference between those populations and those west of the Mississippi River, apparently a formidable barrier to larval dispersal.

  12. Creation of forest edges has a global impact on forest vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, M.; Lefebvre, V.; Peres, C. A.; Banks-Leite, C.; Wearn, O. R.; Marsh, C. J.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Arroyo-Rodríguez, V.; Barlow, J.; Cerezo, A.; Cisneros, L.; D'Cruze, N.; Faria, D.; Hadley, A.; Harris, S. M.; Klingbeil, B. T.; Kormann, U.; Lens, L.; Medina-Rangel, G. F.; Morante-Filho, J. C.; Olivier, P.; Peters, S. L.; Pidgeon, A.; Ribeiro, D. B.; Scherber, C.; Schneider-Maunoury, L.; Struebig, M.; Urbina-Cardona, N.; Watling, J. I.; Willig, M. R.; Wood, E. M.; Ewers, R. M.

    2017-11-01

    Forest edges influence more than half of the world’s forests and contribute to worldwide declines in biodiversity and ecosystem functions. However, predicting these declines is challenging in heterogeneous fragmented landscapes. Here we assembled a global dataset on species responses to fragmentation and developed a statistical approach for quantifying edge impacts in heterogeneous landscapes to quantify edge-determined changes in abundance of 1,673 vertebrate species. We show that the abundances of 85% of species are affected, either positively or negatively, by forest edges. Species that live in the centre of the forest (forest core), that were more likely to be listed as threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), reached peak abundances only at sites farther than 200-400 m from sharp high-contrast forest edges. Smaller-bodied amphibians, larger reptiles and medium-sized non-volant mammals experienced a larger reduction in suitable habitat than other forest-core species. Our results highlight the pervasive ability of forest edges to restructure ecological communities on a global scale.

  13. Mobile Platforms and Development Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Helal, Sumi; Li, Wengdong

    2012-01-01

    Mobile platform development has lately become a technological war zone with extremely dynamic and fluid movement, especially in the smart phone and tablet market space. This Synthesis lecture is a guide to the latest developments of the key mobile platforms that are shaping the mobile platform industry. The book covers the three currently dominant native platforms -- iOS, Android and Windows Phone -- along with the device-agnostic HTML5 mobile web platform. The lecture also covers location-based services (LBS) which can be considered as a platform in its own right. The lecture utilizes a sampl

  14. CFAR Edge Detector for Polarimetric SAR Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper; Skriver, Henning; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2003-01-01

    Finding the edges between different regions in an image is one of the fundamental steps of image analysis, and several edge detectors suitable for the special statistics of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) intensity images have previously been developed. In this paper, a new edge detector for polar...

  15. Energetics of highly kinked step edges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2010-01-01

    We have determined the step edge free energy, the step edge stiffness and dimensionless inverse step edge stiffness of the highly kinked < 010> oriented step on a (001) surface of a simple square lattice within the framework of a solid-on-solid model. We have found an exact expression for the step

  16. Acyclicity in edge-colored graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    A walk W in edge-colored graphs is called properly colored (PC) if every pair of consecutive edges in W is of different color. We introduce and study five types of PC acyclicity in edge-colored graphs such that graphs of PC acyclicity of type i is a proper superset of graphs of acyclicity of type...

  17. Platform Performance and Challenges - using Platforms in Lego Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Lone; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2009-01-01

    needs focus on the incentive of using the platform. This problem lacks attention in literature, as well as industry, where assessment criteria do not cover this aspect. Therefore, we recommend including user incentive in platform assessment criteria to these challenges. Concrete solution elements...... ensuring user incentive in platforms is an object for future research...

  18. Available: motorised platform

    CERN Multimedia

    The COMPASS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The COMPASS collaboration would like to offer to a new owner the following useful and fully operational piece of equipment, which is due to be replaced with better adapted equipment.   Please contact Erwin Bielert (erwin.bielert@cern.ch or 160539) for further information.  Motorized platform (FOR FREE):   Fabricated by ACL (Alfredo Cardoso & Cia Ltd) in Portugal. The model number is MeXs 5-­‐30.  Specifications: 5 m wide, 1 m deep, adjustable height (1.5 m if folded). Maximum working floor height: 4 m. conforms to CERN regulations, number LV158. Type LD500, capacity 500 kg and weight 2000 kg.  If no interested party is found before December 2014, the platform will be thrown away.

  19. RemoteLabs Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Crabeel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a first step towards the implementation of a framework for remote experimentation of electric machines – the RemoteLabs platform. This project was focused on the development of two main modules: the user Web-based and the electric machines interfaces. The Web application provides the user with a front-end and interacts with the back-end – the user and experiment persistent data. The electric machines interface is implemented as a distributed client server application where the clients, launched by the Web application, interact with the server modules located in platforms physically connected the electric machines drives. Users can register and authenticate, schedule, specify and run experiments and obtain results in the form of CSV, XML and PDF files. These functionalities were successfully tested with real data, but still without including the electric machines. This inclusion is part of another project scheduled to start soon.

  20. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  1. Online stock trading platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion LUNGU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is the perfect tool that can assure the market’s transparency for any user who wants to trade on the stock market. The investor can have access to the market news, financial calendar or the press releases of the issuers. A good online trading platform also provides real-time intraday quotes, trading history and technical analysis giving the investor a clearer view of the supply and demand in the market. All this information provides the investor a good image of the market and encourages him to trade. This paper wishes to draft the pieces of an online trading platform and to analyze the impact of developing and implementing one in a brokerage firm.

  2. Hardware Design Considerations for Edge-Accelerated Stereo Correspondence Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Ttofis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereo correspondence is a popular algorithm for the extraction of depth information from a pair of rectified 2D images. Hence, it has been used in many computer vision applications that require knowledge about depth. However, stereo correspondence is a computationally intensive algorithm and requires high-end hardware resources in order to achieve real-time processing speed in embedded computer vision systems. This paper presents an overview of the use of edge information as a means to accelerate hardware implementations of stereo correspondence algorithms. The presented approach restricts the stereo correspondence algorithm only to the edges of the input images rather than to all image points, thus resulting in a considerable reduction of the search space. The paper highlights the benefits of the edge-directed approach by applying it to two stereo correspondence algorithms: an SAD-based fixed-support algorithm and a more complex adaptive support weight algorithm. Furthermore, we present design considerations about the implementation of these algorithms on reconfigurable hardware and also discuss issues related to the memory structures needed, the amount of parallelism that can be exploited, the organization of the processing blocks, and so forth. The two architectures (fixed-support based versus adaptive-support weight based are compared in terms of processing speed, disparity map accuracy, and hardware overheads, when both are implemented on a Virtex-5 FPGA platform.

  3. Edge and coupled core/edge transport modelling in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodestro, L.L.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory and modelling of tokamak edge, scrape-off-layer (SOL) and divertor plasmas are described. The effects of the poloidal E x B drift on inner/outer divertor-plate asymmetries within a 1D analysis are shown to be in good agreement with experimental trends; above a critical v ExB , the model predicts transitions to supersonic flow at the inboard midplane. 2D simulations show the importance of E x B flow in the private-flux region and of ∇ B-drifts. A theory of rough plasma-facing surfaces is given, predicting modifications to the SOL plasma. The parametric dependence of detached-plasma states in slab geometry has been explored; with sufficient pumping, the location of the ionization front can be controlled; otherwise only fronts near the plate or the X-point are stable. Studies with a more accurate Monte-Carlo neutrals model and a detailed non-LTE radiation-transport code indicate various effects are important for quantitative modelling. Detailed simulations of the DIII-D core and edge are presented; impurity and plasma flow are discussed and shown to be well modelled with UEDGE. (author)

  4. Edge and coupled core-edge transport modelling in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodestro, L.L.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory and modelling of tokamak edge, scrape-off-layer (SOL) and divertor plasmas are described. The effects of the poloidal ExB drift on inner/outer divertor-plate asymmetries within a 1D analysis are shown to be in good agreement with experimental trends; above a critical v ExB, the model predicts transitions to supersonic SOL flow at the inboard midplane. 2D simulations show the importance of ExB flow in the private-flux region and of ∇ B-drifts. A theory of rough plasma-facing surfaces is given, predicting modifications to the SOL plasma. The parametric dependence of detached-plasma states in slab geometry has been explored; with sufficient pumping, the location of the ionization front can be controlled; otherwise only fronts near the plate or the X-point are stable. Studies with a more accurate Monte-Carlo neutrals model and a detailed non-LTE radiation-transport code indicate various effects are important for quantitative modelling. Detailed simulations of the DIII-D core and edge are presented; impurity and plasma flow are discussed and shown to be well modelled with UEDGE. (author)

  5. HPC - Platforms Penta Chart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo, Angelina Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-08

    Strategy, Planning, Acquiring- very large scale computing platforms come and go and planning for immensely scalable machines often precedes actual procurement by 3 years. Procurement can be another year or more. Integration- After Acquisition, machines must be integrated into the computing environments at LANL. Connection to scalable storage via large scale storage networking, assuring correct and secure operations. Management and Utilization – Ongoing operations, maintenance, and trouble shooting of the hardware and systems software at massive scale is required.

  6. Cloud Robotics Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Koken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud robotics is a rapidly evolving field that allows robots to offload computation-intensive and storage-intensive jobs into the cloud. Robots are limited in terms of computational capacity, memory and storage. Cloud provides unlimited computation power, memory, storage and especially collaboration opportunity. Cloud-enabled robots are divided into two categories as standalone and networked robots. This article surveys cloud robotic platforms, standalone and networked robotic works such as grasping, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM and monitoring.

  7. Band Edge Dynamics and Multiexciton Generation in Narrow Band Gap HgTe Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livache, Clément; Goubet, Nicolas; Martinez, Bertille; Jagtap, Amardeep; Qu, Junling; Ithurria, Sandrine; Silly, Mathieu G; Dubertret, Benoit; Lhuillier, Emmanuel

    2018-04-11

    Mercury chalcogenide nanocrystals and especially HgTe appear as an interesting platform for the design of low cost mid-infrared (mid-IR) detectors. Nevertheless, their electronic structure and transport properties remain poorly understood, and some critical aspects such as the carrier relaxation dynamics at the band edge have been pushed under the rug. Some of the previous reports on dynamics are setup-limited, and all of them have been obtained using photon energy far above the band edge. These observations raise two main questions: (i) what are the carrier dynamics at the band edge and (ii) should we expect some additional effect (multiexciton generation (MEG)) as such narrow band gap materials are excited far above the band edge? To answer these questions, we developed a high-bandwidth setup that allows us to understand and compare the carrier dynamics resonantly pumped at the band edge in the mid-IR and far above the band edge. We demonstrate that fast (>50 MHz) photoresponse can be obtained even in the mid-IR and that MEG is occurring in HgTe nanocrystal arrays with a threshold around 3 times the band edge energy. Furthermore, the photoresponse can be effectively tuned in magnitude and sign using a phototransistor configuration.

  8. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denvil, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Carenton, N.; Levavasseur, G.; Raciazek, J.

    2015-12-01

    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French global climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output are some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve.At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of French High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group) has recently been enhanced so as to support hitherto impossible realtime use cases such as simulation monitoring, data publication, metrics collection, simulation control, visualizations … etc. At the core of this enhancement is Prodiguer: an AMQP (Advanced Message Queue Protocol) based event driven asynchronous distributed messaging platform. libIGCM now dispatches copious amounts of information, in the form of messages, to the platform for remote processing by Prodiguer software agents at IPSL servers in Paris. Such processing takes several forms: Persisting message content to database(s); Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; Notifying downstream applications; Automation of visualization pipelines; We will describe and/or demonstrate the platform's: Technical implementation; Inherent ease of scalability; Inherent adaptiveness in respect to supervising simulations; Web portal receiving simulation notifications in realtime.

  9. Image Edge Tracking via Ant Colony Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruowei; Wu, Hongkun; Liu, Shilong; Rahman, M. A.; Liu, Sanchi; Kwok, Ngai Ming

    2018-04-01

    A good edge plot should use continuous thin lines to describe the complete contour of the captured object. However, the detection of weak edges is a challenging task because of the associated low pixel intensities. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) has been employed by many researchers to address this problem. The algorithm is a meta-heuristic method developed by mimicking the natural behaviour of ants. It uses iterative searches to find the optimal solution that cannot be found via traditional optimization approaches. In this work, ACO is employed to track and repair broken edges obtained via conventional Sobel edge detector to produced a result with more connected edges.

  10. K-edge densitometer (KED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprinkle, J.K.; Hansen, W.J.

    1993-02-11

    In 1979, a K-edge densitometer (KED) was installed by the Safeguards Assay group from Los Alamos National Laboratory in the PNC reprocessing plant at Tokai-mura, Japan. It uses an active nondestructive assay technique, KED, to measure the plutonium concentration of the product solution. The measurement uncertainty of an assay depends on the count time chosen, but can be 0.5% or better. The computer hardware and software were upgraded in 1992. This manual describes the operation of the instrument, with an emphasis on the user interface to the software.

  11. Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

  12. Impurity and trace tritium transport in tokamak edge turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, V.

    2005-01-01

    The turbulent transport of impurity or minority species, as for example tritium, is investigated in drift-Alfven edge turbulence. The full effects of perpendicular and parallel convection are kept for the impurity species. The impurity density develops a granular structure with steep gradients...... and locally exceeds its initial values due to the compressibility of the flow. An approximate decomposition of the impurity flux into a diffusive part and an effective convective part (characterized by a pinch velocity) is performed and a net inward pinch effect is recovered. The pinch velocity is explained...

  13. Utilizing platforms in industrialized construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Wörösch, Michael; Hvam, Lars

    2015-01-01

    platform strategies, this researchhighlights key aspects of adapting platform-based developed theory to industrialised construction.Building projects use different layers of product, process and logistics platforms to form the right cost– value ratio for the target market application, while modelling...

  14. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities (>1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark...... is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between...... the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge...

  15. Energetics of edge oxidization of graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuma, Airi; Yamanaka, Ayaka; Okada, Susumu

    2018-06-01

    On the basis of the density functional theory, we studied the geometries and energetics of O atoms adsorbed on graphene edges for simulating the initial stage of the edge oxidization of graphene. Our calculations showed that oxygen atoms are preferentially adsorbed onto the graphene edges with the zigzag portion, resulting in a large adsorption energy of about 5 eV. On the other hand, the edges with armchair shape are rarely oxidized, or the oxidization causes substantial structural reconstructions, because of the stable covalent bond at the armchair edge with the triple bond nature. Furthermore, the energetics sensitively depends on the edge angles owing to the inhomogeneity of the charge density at the edge atomic sites.

  16. Haptic Edge Detection Through Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platkiewicz, Jonathan; Lipson, Hod; Hayward, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    Most tactile sensors are based on the assumption that touch depends on measuring pressure. However, the pressure distribution at the surface of a tactile sensor cannot be acquired directly and must be inferred from the deformation field induced by the touched object in the sensor medium. Currently, there is no consensus as to which components of strain are most informative for tactile sensing. Here, we propose that shape-related tactile information is more suitably recovered from shear strain than normal strain. Based on a contact mechanics analysis, we demonstrate that the elastic behavior of a haptic probe provides a robust edge detection mechanism when shear strain is sensed. We used a jamming-based robot gripper as a tactile sensor to empirically validate that shear strain processing gives accurate edge information that is invariant to changes in pressure, as predicted by the contact mechanics study. This result has implications for the design of effective tactile sensors as well as for the understanding of the early somatosensory processing in mammals.

  17. TranslatomeDB: a comprehensive database and cloud-based analysis platform for translatome sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanting; Xiang, Lunping; Zheng, Tingkai; Jin, Jingjie; Zhang, Gong

    2018-01-04

    Translation is a key regulatory step, linking transcriptome and proteome. Two major methods of translatome investigations are RNC-seq (sequencing of translating mRNA) and Ribo-seq (ribosome profiling). To facilitate the investigation of translation, we built a comprehensive database TranslatomeDB (http://www.translatomedb.net/) which provides collection and integrated analysis of published and user-generated translatome sequencing data. The current version includes 2453 Ribo-seq, 10 RNC-seq and their 1394 corresponding mRNA-seq datasets in 13 species. The database emphasizes the analysis functions in addition to the dataset collections. Differential gene expression (DGE) analysis can be performed between any two datasets of same species and type, both on transcriptome and translatome levels. The translation indices translation ratios, elongation velocity index and translational efficiency can be calculated to quantitatively evaluate translational initiation efficiency and elongation velocity, respectively. All datasets were analyzed using a unified, robust, accurate and experimentally-verifiable pipeline based on the FANSe3 mapping algorithm and edgeR for DGE analyzes. TranslatomeDB also allows users to upload their own datasets and utilize the identical unified pipeline to analyze their data. We believe that our TranslatomeDB is a comprehensive platform and knowledgebase on translatome and proteome research, releasing the biologists from complex searching, analyzing and comparing huge sequencing data without needing local computational power. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Climate threats on growth of rear-edge European beech peripheral populations in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorado-Liñán, I.; Akhmetzyanov, L.; Menzel, A.

    2017-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in the Iberian Peninsula are a clear example of a temperate forest tree species at the rear edge of its large distribution area in Europe. The expected drier and warmer climate may alter tree growth and species distribution. Consequently, the peripheral

  19. Effects of habitat structure and altitudinal gradients on avian species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... effect on bird species diversity. Bird species diversity increased with increase in tree height. A significant decline in bird species diversity with increased number of trees and canopy cover was noted. This result probably suggests an accumulation of forest edge species and generalist species in the less forested habitat.

  20. Carbon distribution during plasma detachment triggered by edge magnetic island formation in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, C.F.; Morita, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Oishi, T.; Goto, M.; Wang, E.H.; Huang, X.L.

    2013-01-01

    The detached plasma has been successfully achieved by applying the edge 1/1 magnetic island in Large Helical Device (LHD). Carbon, which is uniquely the dominant intrinsic impurity in general LHD discharges, is considered to be the main radiating species in the island-triggered detached plasma. The vertical profile of CIV measured from general discharges of LHD is characterized by a single edge intensity peak. In detached plasmas triggered by the edge magnetic island formation, however, the vertical profile of CIV shows a significant difference. Double edge peaks of CIV are found during the plasma detachment and the CIV radiation is also remarkably enhanced in the vicinity of X-point, whereas the vertical profile of CVI does not show any significant difference in both the attached and detached plasmas. In this proceeding the carbon distribution during the plasma detachment is presented and the results are discussed with edge magnetic field structure. (author)

  1. Predicted solar cell edge radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Cell Orbital Test (ASCOT) will test six types of solar cells in a high energy proton environment. During the design of the experiment a question was raised about the effects of proton radiation incident on the edge of the solar cells and whether edge radiation shielding was required. Historical geosynchronous data indicated that edge radiation damage is not detectable over the normal end of life solar cell degradation; however because the ASCOT radiation environment has a much higher and more energetic fluence of protons, considerably more edge damage is expected. A computer analysis of the problem was made by modeling the expected radiation damage at the cell edge and using a network model of small interconnected solar cells to predict degradation in the cell's electrical output. The model indicated that the deepest penetration of edge radiation was at the top of the cell near the junction where the protons have access to the cell through the low density cell/cover adhesive layer. The network model indicated that the cells could tolerate high fluences at their edge as long as there was high electrical resistance between the edge radiated region and the contact system on top of the cell. The predicted edge radiation related loss was less than 2% of maximum power for GaAs/Ge solar cells. As a result, no edge radiation protection was used for ASCOT

  2. Arthropods on plants in a fragmented Neotropical dry forest: a functional analysis of area loss and edge effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ezequiel; Salvo, Adriana; Valladares, Graciela

    2015-02-01

    Loss and fragmentation of natural ecosystems are widely recognized as the most important threats to biodiversity conservation, with Neotropical dry forests among the most endangered ecosystems. Area and edge effects are major factors in fragmented landscapes. Here, we examine area and edge effects and their interaction, on ensembles of arthropods associated to native vegetation in a fragmented Chaco Serrano forest. We analyzed family richness and community composition of herbivores, predators, and parasitoids on three native plant species in 12 fragments of varying size and at edge/interior positions. We also looked for indicator families by using Indicator Species Analysis. Loss of family richness with the reduction of forest fragment area was observed for the three functional groups, with similar magnitude. Herbivores were richer at the edges without interaction between edge and area effects, whereas predators were not affected by edge/interior position and parasitoid richness showed an interaction between area and position, with a steeper area slope at the edges. Family composition of herbivore, predator, and parasitoid assemblages was also affected by forest area and/or edge/interior situation. We found three indicator families for large remnants and five for edges. Our results support the key role of forest area for conservation of arthropods taxonomic and functional diversity in a highly threatened region, and emphasize the need to understand the interactions between area and edge effects on such diversity. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Partnership For Edge Physics Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PARASHAR, MANISH

    2018-04-02

    In this effort, we will extend our prior work as part of CPES (i.e., DART and DataSpaces) to support in-situ tight coupling between application codes that exploits data locality and core-level parallelism to maximize on-chip data exchange and reuse. This will be accomplished by mapping coupled simulations so that the data exchanges are more localized within the nodes. Coupled simulation workflows can more effectively utilize the resources available on emerging HEC platforms if they can be mapped and executed to exploit data locality as well as the communication patterns between application components. Scheduling and running such workflows requires an extended framework that should (1) provide a unified hybrid abstraction to enable coordination and data sharing across computation tasks that run on the heterogeneous multi-core-based systems, and (2) develop a data-locality based dynamic tasks scheduling approach to increase on-chip or intra-node data exchanges and in-situ execution. This effort will extend our prior work as part of CPES (i.e., DART and DataSpaces), which provided a simple virtual shared-space abstraction hosted at the staging nodes, to support application coordination, data sharing and active data processing services. Moreover, it will transparently manage the low-level operations associated with the inter-application data exchange, such as data redistributions, and will enable running coupled simulation workflow on multi-cores computing platforms.

  4. Ethical decisions at the edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Grant

    2008-05-01

    Medicine grows incrementally in its ability to treat patients and at the growing edge it poses problems about the appropriateness of treatments that are different from those where good practice conforms to widely agreed standards. The growth of access to medical knowledge and the diversity of contemporary theoretical and clinical medicine have spawned deep divisions in the profession and divergent opinions about what constitutes reasonable care. That hallmark of acceptable practice is also under pressures from the threat of litigation, a highly commercialised contemporary medical environment, patient demands based on medical journalism and the internet and the exponential growth of bio-medical technology. Patient empowerment can result in complaints arising in new and complex areas and expert opinion can often differ markedly depending on where on the medical spectrum the experts are aligned. This column lays out some broad-brush principles to assess the adequacy of medical advice in such a climate.

  5. Imaging edges of nanostructured graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Jens; Cagliani, Alberto; Booth, T. J.

    Graphene, as the forefather of 2D-materials, attracts much attention due to its extraordinary properties like transparency, flexibility and outstanding high conductivity, together with a thickness of only one atom. However, graphene also possesses no band gap, which makes it unsuitable for many...... electronic applications like transistors. It has been shown theoretically that by nanostructuring pristine graphene, e.g. with regular holes, the electronic properties can be tuned and a band gap introduced. The size, distance and edge termination of these “defects” influence the adaptability....... Such nanostructuring can be done experimentally, but especially characterization at atomic level is a huge challenge. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) is used to characterize the atomic structure of graphene. We optimized the imaging conditions used for the FEI Titan ETEM. To reduce the knock-on damage of the carbon atoms...

  6. The CERN Neutrino Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Bordoni, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    The long-baseline neutrino programme has been classified as one of the four highest-priority sci- entific objectives in 2013 by the European Strategy for Particle Physics. The Neutrino Platform is the CERN venture to foster and support the next generation of accelerator-based neutrino os- cillation experiments. Part of the present CERN Medium-Term Plan, the Neutrino Platform provide facilities to develop and prototype the next generation of neutrino detectors and contribute to unify the European neu- trino community towards the US and Japanese projects. A significative effort is made on R&D; for LAr TPC technologies: two big LAr TPC prototypes for the DUNE far detector are under con- struction at CERN. Those detectors will be exposed in 2018 to an entirely new and NP-dedicated beam-line from the SPS which will provide electron, muon and hadron beams with energies in the range of sub-GeV to a few GeV. Other projects are also presently under development: one can cite the refurbishing and shipping to the US ...

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of tokamak edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Hastie, R.J.; Wilson, H.R.; Miller, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    A new formalism for analyzing the magnetohydrodynamic stability of a limiter tokamak edge plasma is developed. Two radially localized, high toroidal mode number n instabilities are studied in detail: a peeling mode and an edge ballooning mode. The peeling mode, driven by edge current density and stabilized by edge pressure gradient, has features which are consistent with several properties of tokamak behavior in the high confinement open-quotes Hclose quotes-mode of operation, and edge localized modes (or ELMs) in particular. The edge ballooning mode, driven by the pressure gradient, is identified; this penetrates ∼n 1/3 rational surfaces into the plasma (rather than ∼n 1/2 , expected from conventional ballooning mode theory). Furthermore, there exists a coupling between these two modes and this coupling provides a picture of the ELM cycle

  8. Structural breakdown of specialized plant-herbivore interaction networks in tropical forest edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ximenes Pinho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant-herbivore relationships are essential for ecosystem functioning, typically forming an ecological network with a compartmentalized (i.e. modular structure characterized by highly specialized interactions. Human disturbances can favor habitat generalist species and thus cause the collapse of this modular structure, but its effects are rarely assessed using a network-based approach. We investigate how edge proximity alters plant-insect herbivore networks by comparing forest edge and interior in a large remnant (3.500 ha of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Given the typical dominance of pioneer plants and generalist herbivores in edge-affected habitats, we test the hypothesis that the specialized structure of plant-herbivore networks collapse in forest edges, resulting in lower modularity and herbivore specialization. Despite no differences in the number of species and interactions, the network structure presented marked differences between forest edges and interior. Herbivore specialization, modularity and number of modules were significantly higher in forest interior than edge-affected habitats. When compared to a random null model, two (22.2% and eight (88.8% networks were significantly modular in forest edge and interior, respectively. The loss of specificity and modularity in plant-herbivore networks in forest edges may be related to the loss of important functions, such as density-dependent control of superior plant competitors, which is ultimately responsible for the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Our results support previous warnings that focusing on traditional community measures only (e.g. species diversity may overlook important modifications in species interactions and ecosystem functioning.

  9. Edge Effects on Community and Social Structure of Northern Temperate Deciduous Forest Ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie S. Banschbach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining how ant communities are impacted by challenges from habitat fragmentation, such as edge effects, will help us understand how ants may be used as a bioindicator taxon. To assess the impacts of edge effects upon the ant community in a northern temperate deciduous forest, we studied edge and interior sites in Jericho, VT, USA. The edges we focused upon were created by recreational trails. We censused the ants at these sites for two consecutive growing seasons using pitfall traps and litter plot excavations. We also collected nests of the most common ant species at our study sites, Aphaenogaster rudis, for study of colony demography. Significantly greater total numbers of ants and ant nests were found in the edge sites compared to the interior sites but rarefaction analysis showed no significant difference in species richness. Aphaenogaster rudis was the numerically dominant ant in the habitats sampled but had a greater relative abundance in the interior sites than in the edge sites both in pitfall and litter plot data. Queen number of A. rudis significantly differed between the nests collected in the edge versus the interior sites. Habitat-dependent changes in social structure of ants represent another possible indicator of ecosystem health.

  10. Edge and line detection of complicated and blurred objects

    OpenAIRE

    Haugsdal, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This report deals with edge and line detection in pictures with complicated and/or blurred objects. It explores the alternatives available, in edge detection, edge linking and object recognition. Choice of methods are the Canny edge detection and Local edge search processing combined with regional edge search processing in the form of polygon approximation.

  11. Forest Edge Regrowth Typologies in Southern Sweden-Relationship to Environmental Characteristics and Implications for Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiström, Björn; Busse Nielsen, Anders

    2017-07-01

    After two major storms, the Swedish Transport Administration was granted permission in 2008 to expand the railroad corridor from 10 to 20 m from the rail banks, and to clear the forest edges in the expanded area. In order to evaluate the possibilities for managers to promote and control the species composition of the woody regrowth so that a forest edge with a graded profile develops over time, this study mapped the woody regrowth and environmental variables at 78 random sites along the 610-km railroad between Stockholm and Malmö four growing seasons after the clearing was implemented. Through different clustering approaches, dominant tree species to be controlled and future building block species for management were identified. Using multivariate regression trees, the most decisive environmental variables were identified and used to develop a regrowth typology and to calculate species indicator values. Five regrowth types and ten indicator species were identified along the environmental gradients of soil moisture, soil fertility, and altitude. Six tree species dominated the regrowth across the regrowth types, but clustering showed that if these were controlled by selective thinning, lower tree and shrub species were generally present so they could form the "building blocks" for development of a graded edge. We concluded that selective thinning targeted at controlling a few dominant tree species, here named Functional Species Control, is a simple and easily implemented management concept to promote a wide range of suitable species, because it does not require field staff with specialist taxonomic knowledge.

  12. Study of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise with special focus on airfoils with blunt trailing edges. Two methods are employed to calculate airfoil noise: The flow/acoustic splitting method and the semi-empirical method. The flow/acoustic splitting method is derived from compressible Navier...... design or optimization. Calculations from both methods are compared with exist experiments. The airfoil blunt noise is found as a function of trailing edge bluntness, Reynolds number, angle of attack, etc....

  13. Selective Electroless Silver Deposition on Graphene Edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, D.; Larsen, M. V.; Andryieuski, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a method of electroless selective silver deposition on graphene edges or between graphene islands without covering the surface of graphene. Modifications of the deposition recipe allow for decoration of graphene edges with silver nanoparticles or filling holes in damaged graphene...... on silica substrate and thus potentially restoring electric connectivity with minimal influence on the overall graphene electrical and optical properties. The presented technique could find applications in graphene based transparent conductors as well as selective edge functionalization and can be extended...

  14. Discursive Maps at the Edge of Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Discursive Maps at the Edge of Chaos A Monograph by Major Mathieu Primeau Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Engineer School of Advanced Military...Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Discursive Maps at the Edge of Chaos 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...meaning of boundaries and polarize conflict towards violence. The edge of chaos is the fine line between disorder and coherence. Discursive maps

  15. Moveable Leading Edge Device for a Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Dale M. (Inventor); Eckstein, Nicholas Stephen (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and apparatus for managing a flight control surface system. A leading edge section on a wing of an aircraft is extended into a deployed position. A deformable section connects the leading edge section to a trailing section. The deformable section changes from a deformed shape to an original shape when the leading edge section is moved into the deployed position. The leading edge section on the wing is moved from the deployed position to an undeployed position. The deformable section changes to the deformed shape inside of the wing.

  16. Visible imaging of edge turbulence in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.; Maqueda, R.; Hill, K.; Johnson, D.

    2000-01-01

    Edge plasma turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators is believed to cause the radical heat and particle flux across the separatrix and into the scrape-off-layers of these devices. This paper describes initial measurements of 2-D space-time structure of the edge density turbulence made using a visible imaging diagnostic in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The structure of the edge turbulence is most clearly visible using a method of gas puff imaging to locally illuminate the edge density turbulence

  17. IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON EDGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳瑟; 刘重庆

    2002-01-01

    A method that incorporates edge detection technique, Markov Random field (MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques was presented for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. It first applies edge detection technique to obtain a Difference In Strength (DIS) map. An initial segmented result is obtained based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance. Then the region process is modeled by MRF to obtain an image that contains different intensity regions. The gradient values are calculated and then the watershed technique is used. DIS calculation is used for each pixel to define all the edges (weak or strong) in the image. The DIS map is obtained. This help as priority knowledge to know the possibility of the region segmentation by the next step (MRF), which gives an image that has all the edges and regions information. In MRF model,gray level l, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The segmentation results are improved by using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions are processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. The edge map is obtained using a merge process based on averaged intensity mean values. A common edge detectors that work on (MRF) segmented image are used and the results are compared. The segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  18. Object detection using categorised 3D edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiforenko, Lilita; Buch, Anders Glent; Bodenhagen, Leon

    2015-01-01

    is made possible by the explicit use of edge categories in the feature descriptor. We quantitatively compare our approach with the state-of-the-art template based Linemod method, which also provides an effective way of dealing with texture-less objects, tests were performed on our own object dataset. Our...... categorisation algorithm for describing objects in terms of its different edge types. Relying on edge information allow our system to deal with objects with little or no texture or surface variation. We show that edge categorisation improves matching performance due to the higher level of discrimination, which...

  19. Visible imaging of edge turbulence in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Zweben; R. Maqueda; K. Hill; D. Johnson; S. Kaye; H. Kugel; F. Levinton; R. Maingi; L. Roquemore; S. Sabbagh; G. Wurden

    2000-01-01

    Edge plasma turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators is believed to cause the radial heat and particle flux across the separatrix and into the scrape-off-layers of these devices. This paper describes initial measurements of 2-D space-time structure of the edge density turbulence made using a visible imaging diagnostic in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The structure of the edge turbulence is most clearly visible using a method of ''gas puff imaging'' to locally illuminate the edge density turbulence

  20. Influence of matrix type on tree community assemblages along tropical dry forest edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; Gallardo-Vásquez, Julio César; Alvarez-Añorve, Mariana Y; Avila-Cabadilla, Luis Daniel

    2014-05-01

    • Anthropogenic habitat edges have strong negative consequences for the functioning of tropical ecosystems. However, edge effects on tropical dry forest tree communities have been barely documented.• In Chamela, Mexico, we investigated the phylogenetic composition and structure of tree assemblages (≥5 cm dbh) along edges abutting different matrices: (1) disturbed vegetation with cattle, (2) pastures with cattle and, (3) pastures without cattle. Additionally, we sampled preserved forest interiors.• All edge types exhibited similar tree density, basal area and diversity to interior forests, but differed in species composition. A nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination showed that the presence of cattle influenced species composition more strongly than the vegetation structure of the matrix; tree assemblages abutting matrices with cattle had lower scores in the ordination. The phylogenetic composition of tree assemblages followed the same pattern. The principal plant families and genera were associated according to disturbance regimes as follows: pastures and disturbed vegetation (1) with cattle and (2) without cattle, and (3) pastures without cattle and interior forests. All habitats showed random phylogenetic structures, suggesting that tree communities are assembled mainly by stochastic processes. Long-lived species persisting after edge creation could have important implications in the phylogenetic structure of tree assemblages.• Edge creation exerts a stronger influence on TDF vegetation pathways than previously documented, leading to new ecological communities. Phylogenetic analysis may, however, be needed to detect such changes. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  1. Role of edge effect on small mammal populations in a forest fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    In many cases, edge effect may determine the distribution and densities of small mammal populations. In 1995 and 1998, a mark and recapture study was conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC, to evaluate the role of forest edge habitat. The area studied was an abandoned home site that had been recently isolated by a timber harvest. Harvest activities left a distinct edge of old field and planted pine contrasting with a relatively xeric, mixed hardwood stand. Trapping was conducted for 17 days in 1995 and 14 days in 1998. Three 30 m by 150 m grids were placed in the clear-cut, edge, and hardwood interior habitats. For both years the principal species captured were Peromyscus gossypinus, P. polionotus, and Neotoma floridana. The edge habitat accounted for approximately 55 percent of all captures and nearly four times as many recaptures as the interior and clear-cut habitats. In 1998, greater numbers of N. floridana were trapped than in 1995. The results indicate that the use of edge habitat can be pronounced even within simple communities. Stewards of managed or restored habitats need to carefully consider the role of edge in these systems. In managed areas such as waste sites, movement of material within the food chain could be reduced by minimizing edge habitat around the points of contamination

  2. Edge passivation induced single-edge ferromagnetism of zigzag MoS_2 nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Hui; Ma, Ben; Hu, Jingguo; Pan, Jing

    2017-01-01

    We performed density functional theory study on electronic structure, magnetic properties and stability of zigzag MoS_2 nanoribbons (ZMoS_2NRs) with and without oxygen (O) passivation. The bare ZMoS_2NRs are magnetic metal with ferromagnetic edge states, edge passivation decreases their magnetism because of the decrease of edge unsaturated electrons. Obviously, the electronic structure and magnetic properties of ZMoS_2NRs greatly depend on edge states. When both edges are passivated by O atoms, ZMoS_2NRs are nonmagnetic metals. When either edge is passivated by O atoms, the systems exhibit single-edge ferromagnetism and magnetism concentrates on the non-passivated edge. Edge passivation can not only tune the magnetism of ZMoS_2NRs, but also enhance their stability by eliminating dangling bonds. These interesting findings on ZMoS_2NRs may open the possibility of their application in nanodevices and spintronics. - Highlights: • Edge passivation for tuning magnetism of zigzag MoS_2 nanoribbons (ZMoS_2NRs) is proposed. • Edge passivation can tune ZMoS_2NRs from nonmagnetic metal to ferromagnetic metal. • When either edge is passivated, the systems exhibit single-edge ferromagnetic states. • These findings may inspire great interest in the community of ZMoS_2NRs and motivate numerous experimental researches.

  3. Nesting ecology of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus at the eastern edge of their historic distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie M. Herman-Brunson; Kent C. Jensen; Nicholas W. Kaczor; Christopher C. Swanson; Mark A. Rumble; Robert W. Klaver

    2009-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus populations in North Dakota declined approximately 67% between 1965 and 2003, and the species is listed as a Priority Level 1 Species of Special Concern by the North Dakota Game and Fish Department. The habitat and ecology of the species at the eastern edge of its historical range is largely unknown. We...

  4. Edge effects and beta diversity in ground and canopy beetle communities of fragmented subtropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Marisa J; Catterall, Carla P; Stork, Nigel E

    2018-01-01

    Clearing of dry forests globally creates edges between remnant forest and open anthropogenic habitats. We used flight intercept traps to evaluate how forest beetle communities are influenced by distance from such edges, together with vertical height, spatial location, and local vegetation structure, in an urbanising region (Brisbane, Australia). Species composition (but not total abundance or richness) differed greatly between ground and canopy. Species composition also varied strongly among sites at both ground and canopy levels, but almost all other significant effects occurred only at ground level, where: species richness declined from edge to interior; composition differed between positions near edges ( 50 m); high local canopy cover was associated with greater total abundance and richness and differing composition; and greater distances to the city centre were associated with increased total abundances and altered composition. Analyses of individual indicator species associated with this variation enabled further biological interpretations. A global literature synthesis showed that most spatially well-replicated studies of edge effects on ground-level beetles within forest fragments have likewise found that positions within tens of metres from edges with open anthropogenic habitats had increased species richness and different compositions from forest interior sites, with fewer effects on abundance. Accordingly, negative edge effects will not prevent relatively small compact fragments (if >10-20 ha) from supporting forest-like beetle communities, although indirect consequences of habitat degradation remain a threat. Retention of multiple spatially scattered forest areas will also be important in conserving forest-dependent beetles, given high levels of between-site diversity.

  5. Edge effects and beta diversity in ground and canopy beetle communities of fragmented subtropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catterall, Carla P.; Stork, Nigel E.

    2018-01-01

    Clearing of dry forests globally creates edges between remnant forest and open anthropogenic habitats. We used flight intercept traps to evaluate how forest beetle communities are influenced by distance from such edges, together with vertical height, spatial location, and local vegetation structure, in an urbanising region (Brisbane, Australia). Species composition (but not total abundance or richness) differed greatly between ground and canopy. Species composition also varied strongly among sites at both ground and canopy levels, but almost all other significant effects occurred only at ground level, where: species richness declined from edge to interior; composition differed between positions near edges ( 50 m); high local canopy cover was associated with greater total abundance and richness and differing composition; and greater distances to the city centre were associated with increased total abundances and altered composition. Analyses of individual indicator species associated with this variation enabled further biological interpretations. A global literature synthesis showed that most spatially well-replicated studies of edge effects on ground-level beetles within forest fragments have likewise found that positions within tens of metres from edges with open anthropogenic habitats had increased species richness and different compositions from forest interior sites, with fewer effects on abundance. Accordingly, negative edge effects will not prevent relatively small compact fragments (if >10–20 ha) from supporting forest-like beetle communities, although indirect consequences of habitat degradation remain a threat. Retention of multiple spatially scattered forest areas will also be important in conserving forest-dependent beetles, given high levels of between-site diversity. PMID:29494680

  6. Preparing for a Product Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiil-Nielsen, Ole; Munk, Lone; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2005-01-01

    on commonalities and similarities in the product family, and variance should be based on customer demands. To relate these terms and to improve the basis on which decisions are made, we need a way of visualizing the hierarchy of the product family as well as the commonality and variance. This visualization method...... of the platform or ensuring that the platform can meet future demands will be very useful in the preparation process of a platform synthesis as well as in the updating or reengineering of an existing product development platform.......Experience in the industry as well as recent related scientific publications show the benefits of product development platforms. Companies use platforms to develop not a single but multiple products (i.e. a product family) simultaneously. When these product development projects are coordinated...

  7. Adoption of Mobile Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina Stefanova; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous mobile payment solutions, which rely on new disruptive technologies, have been launched on the payment market in recent years. But despite the growing number of mobile payment apps, very few solutions have turned to be successful as the majority of them fail to gain a critical mass...... of users. In this paper, we investigate successful platform adoption strategies by using the Reach and Range Framework for Multi-Sided Platforms as a strategic tool to which mobile payment providers can adhere in order to tackle some of the main challenges they face throughout the evolution...... of their platforms. The analysis indicates that successful mobile payment solutions tend to be launched as one-sided platforms and then gradually be expanded into being two-sided. Our study showcases that the success of mobile payment platforms lies with the ability of the platform to balance the reach (number...

  8. Web Platform Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsworth, Ashley [Sunvestment Group, Frederick, MD (United States); Kurtz, Jim [Sunvestment Group, Frederick, MD (United States); Brun de Pontet, Stephanie [Sunvestment Group, Frederick, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Sunvestment Energy Group (previously called Sunvestment Group) was established to create a web application that brings together site hosts, those who will obtain the energy from the solar array, with project developers and funders, including affinity investors. Sunvestment Energy Group (SEG) uses a community-based model that engages with investors who have some affinity with the site host organization. In addition to a financial return, these investors receive non-financial value from their investments and are therefore willing to offer lower cost capital. This enables the site host to enjoy more savings from solar through these less expensive Community Power Purchase Agreements (CPPAs). The purpose of this award was to develop an online platform to bring site hosts and investors together virtually.

  9. Mobile4D platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available and share their own Internet/Telco service Mashups. digm. This all 2.1.2  SPICE   Service Platform for Innovative Communication Environment was also a European Union’s Sixth Framework Programme (FP6) funded project, which formed a consortium consisting...  OPUCE  SPICE  Twisted   Mobicents  Telco  specific  Minimal Total Life cycle cost  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  Standards Compliant Solution  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  Bearer & Device Agnostic  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  Ease of use and accessibility  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  Synergies...

  10. Geometric information provider platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Yousefzadeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Renovation of existing buildings is known as an essential stage in reduction of the energy loss. Considerable part of renovation process depends on geometric reconstruction of building based on semantic parameters. Following many research projects which were focused on parameterizing the energy usage, various energy modelling methods were developed during the last decade. On the other hand, by developing accurate measuring tools such as laser scanners, the interests of having accurate 3D building models are rapidly growing. But the automation of 3D building generation from laser point cloud or detection of specific objects in that is still a challenge.  The goal is designing a platform through which required geometric information can be efficiently produced to support energy simulation software. Developing a reliable procedure which extracts required information from measured data and delivers them to a standard energy modelling system is the main purpose of the project.

  11. Energy Tracking Software Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan Davis; Nathan Bird; Rebecca Birx; Hal Knowles

    2011-04-04

    Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footprint. Real estate agents have access to consumption data, allowing for sharing a comparison with potential home buyers. Home builders have the opportunity to compare their neighborhood's energy efficiency with competitors. Home energy raters have a tool for gauging the progress of their clients after efficiency changes. And, social groups are able to help encourage members to reduce their energy bills and help their environment. EnergyIT.com is the business umbrella for all energy tracking solutions and is designed to provide information about our energy tracking software and promote sales. CompareAndConserve.com (Gainesville-Green.com) helps homeowners conserve energy through education and competition. ToolsForTenants.com helps renters factor energy usage into their housing decisions.

  12. Sinking offshore platform. Nedsenkbar fralandsplatform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einstabland, T.B.; Olsen, O.

    1988-12-19

    The invention deals with a sinking offshore platform of the gravitational type designed for being installed on the sea bed on great depths. The platform consists of at least three inclining pillars placed on a foundation unit. The pillars are at the upper end connected to a tower structure by means of a rigid construction. The tower supports the platform deck. The rigid construction comprises a centre-positioned cylinder connected to the foundation. 11 figs.

  13. Saturn's Rings Edge-on

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In one of nature's most dramatic examples of 'now-you see-them, now-you-don't', NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured Saturn on May 22, 1995 as the planet's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This ring-plane crossing occurs approximately every 15 years when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane.For comparison, the top picture was taken by Hubble on December 1, 1994 and shows the rings in a more familiar configuration for Earth observers.The bottom picture was taken shortly before the ring plane crossing. The rings do not disappear completely because the edge of the rings reflects sunlight. The dark band across the middle of Saturn is the shadow of the rings cast on the planet (the Sun is almost 3 degrees above the ring plane.) The bright stripe directly above the ring shadow is caused by sunlight reflected off the rings onto Saturn's atmosphere. Two of Saturn's icy moons are visible as tiny starlike objects in or near the ring plane. They are, from left to right, Tethys (slightly above the ring plane) and Dione.This observation will be used to determine the time of ring-plane crossing and the thickness of the main rings and to search for as yet undiscovered satellites. Knowledge of the exact time of ring-plane crossing will lead to an improved determination of the rate at which Saturn 'wobbles' about its axis (polar precession).Both pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The top image was taken in visible light. Saturn's disk appears different in the bottom image because a narrowband filter (which only lets through light that is not absorbed by methane gas in Saturn's atmosphere) was used to reduce the bright glare of the planet. Though Saturn is approximately 900 million miles away, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles across.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and

  14. Product Platform Screening at LEGO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Steen Jensen, Thomas; Nielsen, Ole Fiil

    2012-01-01

    Product platforms offer great benefits to companies developing new products in highly competitive markets. Literature describes how a single platform can be designed from a technical point of view, but rarely mentions how the process begins. How do companies identify possible platform candidates...... after a few changes had been applied to the initial process layout. This case study shows how companies must focus on a limited selection of simultaneous projects in order to keep focus. Primary stakeholders must be involved from the very beginning, and short presentations of the platform concepts...

  15. Flexible experimental FPGA based platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karsten Holm; Nymand, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental flexible Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based platform for testing and verifying digital controlled dc-dc converters. The platform supports different types of control strategies, dc-dc converter topologies and switching frequencies. The controller platform...... interface supporting configuration and reading of setup parameters, controller status and the acquisition memory in a simple way. The FPGA based platform, provides an easy way within education or research to use different digital control strategies and different converter topologies controlled by an FPGA...

  16. Quantized charge transport in chiral Majorana edge modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel, Stephan; Mascot, Eric; Cocklin, Sagen; Vojta, Matthias; Morr, Dirk K.

    2017-11-01

    Majorana fermions can be realized as quasiparticles in topological superconductors, with potential applications in topological quantum computing. Recently, lattices of magnetic adatoms deposited on the surface of s -wave superconductors—Shiba lattices—have been proposed as a new platform for topological superconductivity. These systems possess the great advantage that they are accessible via scanning-probe techniques and thus enable the local manipulation and detection of Majorana modes. Using a nonequilibrium Green's function technique we demonstrate that the topological Majorana edge modes of nanoscopic Shiba islands display universal electronic and transport properties. Most remarkably, these Majorana modes possess a quantized charge conductance that is proportional to the topological Chern number, C , and carry a supercurrent whose chirality reflects the sign of C . These results establish nanoscopic Shiba islands as promising components in future topology-based devices.

  17. Introducing Platform Interactions Model for Studying Multi-Sided Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina; Damsgaard, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Multi-Sided Platforms (MSPs) function as socio-technical entities that facilitate direct interactions between various affiliated to them constituencies through developing and managing IT architecture. In this paper, we aim to explain the nature of the platform interactions as key characteristic o...

  18. Competitive edge through technological innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, M.

    1997-01-01

    The vital role of advanced technology in natural gas cost reduction has been described. Among advanced technologies, seismic, drilling and fracturing technologies have been singled out as being the most important. Access to new supply frontiers (aided by the application of advanced technology), and more effective business strategies were considered as the other most influential factors in efficiently exploiting oil and gas resources. In view of predictions of substantially increased demand, advanced technology is poised to be even more important in the future. With this as background, an examination of the level of investment for the development of advanced technology revealed that energy industry R and D expenditures were lowest among industries in the U.S. (only 0.7 per cent of sales). It was concluded that notwithstanding industry's ability to improve output per R and D dollar invested, the achievement of the necessary technological advancements is a strategic imperative for both the industry and the U.S. as a whole. As far as the industry is concerned, its ability to maintain a competitive edge over competing energy forms, will be determined largely on the basis of its willingness to invest in future advanced technology development. 2 refs., 14 figs

  19. CMS kinematic edge from sbottoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Peisi; Wagner, Carlos E. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present two scenarios in the Minimal Supersymmetric Extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) that can lead to an explanation of the excess in the invariant mass distribution of two opposite charged, same flavor leptons, and the corresponding edge at an energy of about 78 GeV, recently reported by the CMS Collaboration. In both scenarios, sbottoms are pair produced, and decay to neutralinos and a b-jet. The heavier neutralinos further decay to a pair of leptons and the lightest neutralino through on-shell sleptons or off-shell neutral gauge bosons. These scenarios are consistent with the current limits on the sbottoms, neutralinos, and sleptons. Assuming that the lightest neutralino is stable we discuss the predicted relic density as well as the implications for darkmatter direct detection. We show that consistency between the predicted and the measured value of the muon anomalous magnetic moment may be obtained in both scenarios. Finally, we define the signatures of these models that may be tested at the 13 TeV run of the LHC

  20. Cerrado ground-dwelling ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae as indicators of edge effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto F. Brandão

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale agricultural production in Brazil preferentially occupies plateaus reclaimed from areas originally covered by Cerrado (savanna. Depending on the region, a percentage of the pristine vegetation coverage must be preserved by law, resulting in the creation of fragmented legal Cerrado reserves. The geometry of these relatively small legal reserves creates new habitat edges and ecotones, whose effects on the invertebrate fauna are poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the effects of abrupt edges resulting from soy production on ground-dwelling ant assemblages in the Brazilian Cerrado. The study sites are located within the Amazon region, in the state of Maranhão, northern Brazil, but were covered by Cerrado on a relatively low plateau, irregularly inter-spaced with gallery forests along streams. We compared species richness and species composition of ground-dwelling ants along eight transects set 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 m into the sensu stricto Cerrado and 50 and 100 m into the soy field. The collecting periods covered the wet and dry seasons. Effects on ant species richness were non-significant, although composition of the assemblages was significantly affected by edge effects, which were, in part, found to be species specific. We hypothesize that edge effects are probably greater than estimated because of the shape and complexity of reserves. Consideration of edge effects in the Cerrado Biome should enable the design of appropriate reserve sizes and shapes to meet conservation goals.

  1. Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Endangered Species Protection Program helps promote recovery of listed species. The ESPP determines if pesticide use in a geographic area may affect any listed species. Find needed limits on pesticide use in Endangered Species Protection Bulletins.

  2. Automatic Edging and Trimming of Hardwood Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Eugene M. Wengert; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is a potential to increase hardwood lumber value by more than 20 percent through optimum edging and trimming. Even a small portion of this percentage can boost the profitability of hardwood lumber manufacturers substantially. The objective of this research project is to develop an automated system which would assist in correct edging and...

  3. Development of planar detectors with active edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoli, M.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.

  4. Development of planar detectors with active edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povoli, M., E-mail: povoli@disi.unitn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.

  5. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan

    2005-06-24

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  6. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Corrigan, G.

    2005-01-01

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables

  7. Magnetism of zigzag edge phosphorene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhili, E-mail: zlzhu@zzu.edu.cn, E-mail: jiayu@zzu.edu.cn; Li, Chong; Yu, Weiyang; Chang, Dahu; Sun, Qiang; Jia, Yu, E-mail: zlzhu@zzu.edu.cn, E-mail: jiayu@zzu.edu.cn [International Joint Research Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2014-09-15

    We have investigated, by means of ab initio calculations, the electronic and magnetic structures of zigzag edge phosphorene nanoribbons (ZPNRs) with various widths. The stable magnetic state was found in pristine ZPNRs by allowing the systems to be spin-polarized. The ground state of pristine ZPNRs prefers ferromagnetic order in the same edge but antiferromagnetic order between two opposite edges. The magnetism arises from the dangling bond states as well as edge localized π-orbital states. The presence of a dangling bond is crucial to the formation of the magnetism of ZPNRs. The hydrogenated ZPNRs get nonmagnetic semiconductors with a direct band gap. While, the O-saturated ZPNRs show magnetic ground states due to the weak P-O bond in the ribbon plane between the p{sub z}-orbitals of the edge O and P atoms.

  8. Resonance absorption of ICRF wave in edge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Ryo; Yamanaka, Kaoru.

    1987-07-01

    An edge plasma is shown to significantly absorb ICRF wave when a resonant triplet, a cutoff-resonance-cutoff triplet, is constructed in the evanescent region. Two-ion-component plasmas in a torus are considered though the plasmas are modeled by a slab in which the density changes linearly along the x-axis. The resonance is a perpendicular-ion-cyclotron resonance, i.e., an Alfven resonance, and is formed when the applied frequency ω is smaller than the local cyclotron frequency, at the edge of the antenna side, of the lighter species of ions. Roughly the absorption rate A b is given by M 2 for M 2 >> S 2 and S 4 for S 2 >> M 2 where M = k y l and S ≅ k z l and l is a scale length of the order of the plasma minor radius and k y and k z are the perpendicular and the parallel components of the wave vector. It is noted that the both quantities, M and S, readily become of the order of unity. Since A b is not very sensitive to the density ratio of the two ion species, a few percent of impurities may cause a significant absorption. As the mass ratio of the two ion species comes close to unity the triplet forms readily. Therefore a D-T plasma seems to suffer more easily this kind of resonance absorption than a D-H plasma. (author)

  9. Centralized Connectivity for Multiwireless Edge Computing and Cellular Platform: A Smart Vehicle Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Shahzad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study takes an intuitive step to develop the user-convenient smart vehicle parking system (SVPS, a smart system able to manage the massive crowd of vehicles during parking searching and do the better jobs of parking reservation and management, with the shorter-path processing tactics. For that, this study inclusively employed the mapping strategy, where the system parking points are prevalent, to assist the users to get the parking information fast and conveniently. This study is comprised of the several parking points systematically spread over the several locations and traceable over the available graphical map, and the overall information is easily accessible using smart devices. For parking information, a smart web application which is another important module of this study is designed, with which the SVPS system’s registered users are able to access all the services provided for smart vehicle parking searching and reservation in efficient and reliable ways. An integrated network approach, RFID (radio frequency identification and wireless sensors network (WSN, called RF-WSN, is employed to retrieve the real-time information from the installed and configured sensor devices in RFID-WSN network.

  10. An augmented-reality edge enhancement application for Google Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Alex D; Peli, Eli

    2014-08-01

    Google Glass provides a platform that can be easily extended to include a vision enhancement tool. We have implemented an augmented vision system on Glass, which overlays enhanced edge information over the wearer's real-world view, to provide contrast-improved central vision to the Glass wearers. The enhanced central vision can be naturally integrated with scanning. Google Glass' camera lens distortions were corrected by using an image warping. Because the camera and virtual display are horizontally separated by 16 mm, and the camera aiming and virtual display projection angle are off by 10°, the warped camera image had to go through a series of three-dimensional transformations to minimize parallax errors before the final projection to the Glass' see-through virtual display. All image processes were implemented to achieve near real-time performance. The impacts of the contrast enhancements were measured for three normal-vision subjects, with and without a diffuser film to simulate vision loss. For all three subjects, significantly improved contrast sensitivity was achieved when the subjects used the edge enhancements with a diffuser film. The performance boost is limited by the Glass camera's performance. The authors assume that this accounts for why performance improvements were observed only with the diffuser filter condition (simulating low vision). Improvements were measured with simulated visual impairments. With the benefit of see-through augmented reality edge enhancement, natural visual scanning process is possible and suggests that the device may provide better visual function in a cosmetically and ergonomically attractive format for patients with macular degeneration.

  11. A practice scaffolding interactive platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    A Practice Scaffolding Interactive Platform (PracSIP) is a social learning platform which supports students in collaborative project based learning by simulating a professional practice. A PracSIP puts the core tools of the simulated practice at the students' disposal, it organizes collaboration...

  12. Paper based electronics platform

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna Mohammad

    2017-07-20

    A flexible and non-functionalized low cost paper-based electronic system platform fabricated from common paper, such as paper based sensors, and methods of producing paper based sensors, and methods of sensing using the paper based sensors are provided. A method of producing a paper based sensor can include the steps of: a) providing a conventional paper product to serve as a substrate for the sensor or as an active material for the sensor or both, the paper product not further treated or functionalized; and b) applying a sensing element to the paper substrate, the sensing element selected from the group consisting of a conductive material, the conductive material providing contacts and interconnects, sensitive material film that exhibits sensitivity to pH levels, a compressible and/or porous material disposed between a pair of opposed conductive elements, or a combination of two of more said sensing elements. The method of sensing can further include measuring, using the sensing element, a change in resistance, a change in voltage, a change in current, a change in capacitance, or a combination of any two or more thereof.

  13. Elastically Deformable Side-Edge Link for Trailing-Edge Flap Aeroacoustic Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Lockard, David P. (Inventor); Moore, James B. (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Lin, John C. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor); Kahng, Seun K. (Inventor); Verden, Scott A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system is provided for reducing aeroacoustic noise generated by an aircraft having wings equipped with trailing-edge flaps. The system includes a plurality of elastically deformable structures. Each structure is coupled to and along one of the side edges of one of the trailing-edge flaps, and is coupled to a portion of one of the wings that is adjacent to the one of the side edges. The structures elastically deform when the trailing-edge flaps are deployed away from the wings.

  14. Localized Edge Vibrations and Edge Reconstruction by Joule Heating in Graphene Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Mads; Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Control of the edge topology of graphene nanostructures is critical to graphene-based electronics. A means of producing atomically smooth zigzag edges using electronic current has recently been demonstrated in experiments [Jia et al., Science 323, 1701 (2009)]. We develop a microscopic theory...... for current-induced edge reconstruction using density functional theory. Our calculations provide evidence for localized vibrations at edge interfaces involving unpassivated armchair edges. We demonstrate that these vibrations couple to the current, estimate their excitation by Joule heating, and argue...

  15. Edge-functionalization of armchair graphene nanoribbons with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryou, Junga; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Gunn; Hong, Suklyun

    2017-06-21

    Using density functional theory calculations, we have studied the edge-functionalization of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures. While the AGNRs with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures (labeled (5,6)-AGNRs) are metallic, the edge-functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs with substitutional atoms opens a band gap. We find that the band structures of edge-functionalized (5,6)-N-AGNRs by substitution resemble those of defect-free (N-1)-AGNR at the Γ point, whereas those at the X point show the original ones of the defect-free N-AGNR. The overall electronic structures of edge-functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs depend on the number of electrons, supplied by substitutional atoms, at the edges of functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs.

  16. Environmental filtering is the main assembly rule of ground beetles in the forest and its edge but not in the adjacent grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magura, Tibor; Lövei, Gábor L

    2017-07-04

    In a fragmented landscape, transitional zones between neighboring habitats are common, and our understanding of community organizational forces across such habitats is important. Edge studies are numerous, but the majority of them utilize information on species richness and abundance. Abundance and taxonomic diversity, however, provide little information on the functioning and phylogeny of the co-existing species. Combining the evaluation of their functional and phylogenetic relationships, we aimed to assess whether ground beetle assemblages are deterministically or stochastically structured along grassland-forest gradients. Our results showed different community assembly rules on opposite sides of the forest edge. In the grassland, co-occurring species were functionally and phylogenetically not different from the random null model, indicating a random assembly process. Contrary to this, at the forest edge and the interior, co-occurring species showed functional and phylogenetic clustering, thus environmental filtering was the likely process structuring carabid assemblages. Community assembly in the grassland was considerably affected by asymmetrical species flows (spillover) across the forest edge: more forest species penetrated into the grassland than open-habitat and generalist species entered into the forest. This asymmetrical species flow underlines the importance of the filter function of forest edges. As unfavorable, human-induced changes to the structure, composition and characteristics of forest edges may alter their filter function, edges have to be specifically considered during conservation management. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Power deposition on misaligned edges in COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dejarnac

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available If the decision is made not to apply a toroidal chamfer to tungsten monoblocks at ITER divertor vertical targets, exposed leading edges will arise as a result of assembly tolerances between adjacent plasma-facing components. Then, the advantage of glancing magnetic field angles for spreading plasma heat flux on top surfaces is lost at the misaligned edges with an interaction occurring at near normal incidence, which can drive melting for the expected inter-ELM heat fluxes. A dedicated experiment has been performed on the COMPASS tokamak to thoroughly study power deposition on misaligned edges using inner-wall limited discharges on a special graphite tile presenting gaps and leading edges directly viewed by a high resolution infra-red camera. The parallel power flux deducted from the unperturbed measurement far from the gap is fully consistent with the observed temperature increase at the leading edge, respecting the power balance. All the power flowing into the gap is deposited at the leading edge and no mitigation factor is required to explain the thermal response. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the ion Larmor smoothing effect is weak and that the power deposition on misaligned edges is well described by the optical approximation because of an electron dominated regime associated with non-ambipolar parallel current flow.

  18. AliEn - EDG Interoperability in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnasco, S; Buncic, P; Carminati, F; Cerello, P G; Saiz, P

    2003-01-01

    AliEn (ALICE Environment) is a GRID-like system for large scale job submission and distributed data management developed and used in the context of ALICE, the CERN LHC heavy-ion experiment. With the aim of exploiting upcoming Grid resources to run AliEn-managed jobs and store the produced data, the problem of AliEn-EDG interoperability was addressed and an in-terface was designed. One or more EDG (European Data Grid) User Interface machines run the AliEn software suite (Cluster Monitor, Storage Element and Computing Element), and act as interface nodes between the systems. An EDG Resource Broker is seen by the AliEn server as a single Computing Element, while the EDG storage is seen by AliEn as a single, large Storage Element; files produced in EDG sites are registered in both the EDG Replica Catalogue and in the AliEn Data Catalogue, thus ensuring accessibility from both worlds. In fact, both registrations are required: the AliEn one is used for the data management, the EDG one to guarantee the integrity and...

  19. Stratospheric Platforms for Monitoring Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konigorski, D.; Gratzel, U.; Obersteiner, M.; Schneidereit, M.

    2010-01-01

    Stratospheric platforms are emerging systems based on challenging technology. Goal is to create a platform, payload, and mission design which is able to complement satellite services on a local scale. Applications are close to traditional satellite business in telecommunication, navigation, science, and earth observation and include for example mobile telecommunications, navigation augmentation, atmospheric research, or border control. Stratospheric platforms could potentially support monitoring activities related to safeguards, e.g. by imagery of surfaces, operational conditions of nuclear facilities, and search for undeclared nuclear activities. Stratospheric platforms are intended to be flown in an altitude band between 16 and 30 km, above 16-20 km to take advantage of usually lower winds facilitating station keeping, below 30 km to limit the challenges to achieve a reasonable payload at acceptable platform sizes. Stratospheric platforms could substitute satellites which are expensive and lack upgrade capabilities for new equipment. Furthermore they have practically an unlimited time over an area of interest. It is intended to keep the platforms operational and maintenance free on a 24/7 basis with an average deployment time of 3 years. Geostationary satellites lack resolution. Potential customers like Armed Forces, National Agencies and commercial customers have indicated interest in the use of stratospheric platforms. Governmental entities are looking for cheaper alternatives to communications and surveillance satellites and stratospheric platforms could offer the following potential advantages: Lower operational cost than satellite or UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) constellation (fleet required); Faster deployment than satellite constellation; Repositioning capability and ability to loiter as required; Persistent long-term real-time services over a fairly large regional spot; Surge capability: Able to extend capability (either monitoring or communications

  20. Positive edge effects on forest-interior cryptogams in clear-cuts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Caruso

    Full Text Available Biological edge effects are often assessed in high quality focal habitats that are negatively influenced by human-modified low quality matrix habitats. A deeper understanding of the possibilities for positive edge effects in matrix habitats bordering focal habitats (e.g. spillover effects is, however, essential for enhancing landscape-level resilience to human alterations. We surveyed epixylic (dead wood inhabiting forest-interior cryptogams (lichens, bryophytes, and fungi associated with mature old-growth forests in 30 young managed Swedish boreal forest stands bordering a mature forest of high conservation value. In each young stand we registered species occurrences on coarse dead wood in transects 0-50 m from the border between stand types. We quantified the effect of distance from the mature forest on the occurrence of forest-interior species in the young stands, while accounting for local environment and propagule sources. For comparison we also surveyed epixylic open-habitat (associated with open forests and generalist cryptogams. Species composition of epixylic cryptogams in young stands differed with distance from the mature forest: the frequency of occurrence of forest-interior species decreased with increasing distance whereas it increased for open-habitat species. Generalists were unaffected by distance. Epixylic, boreal forest-interior cryptogams do occur in matrix habitats such as clear-cuts. In addition, they are associated with the matrix edge because of a favourable microclimate closer to the mature forest on southern matrix edges. Retention and creation of dead wood in clear-cuts along the edges to focal habitats is a feasible way to enhance the long-term persistence of epixylic habitat specialists in fragmented landscapes. The proposed management measures should be performed in the whole stand as it matures, since microclimatic edge effects diminish as the matrix habitat matures. We argue that management that aims to increase

  1. ICP (ITER Collaborative Platform)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuano, C.; Carayon, F.; Patel, V. [ITER, 13 - St. Paul-Lez Durance (France)

    2009-07-01

    The ITER organization has the necessity to manage a massive amount of data and processes. Each team requires different process and databases often interconnected with those of others teams. ICP is the current central ITER repository of structured and unstructured data. All data in ICP is served and managed via a web interface that provides global accessibility with a common user friendly interface. This paper will explain the model used by ICP and how it serves the ITER project by providing a robust and agile platform. ICP is developed in ASP.NET using MSSQL Server for data storage. It currently houses 15 data driven applications, 150 different types of record, 500 k objects and 2.5 M references. During European working hours the system averages 150 concurrent users and 20 requests per second. ICP connects to external database applications to provide a single entry point to ITER data and a safe shared storage place to maintain this data long-term. The Core model provides an easy to extend framework to meet the future needs of the Organization. ICP follows a multi-tier architecture, providing logical separation of process. The standard three-tier architecture is expanded, with the data layer separated into data storage, data structure, and data access components. The business or applications logic layer is broken up into a common business functionality layer, a type specific logic layer, and a detached work-flow layer. Finally the presentation tier comprises a presentation adapter layer and an interface layer. Each layer is built up from small blocks which can be combined to create a wide range of more complex functionality. Each new object type developed gains access to a wealth of existing code functionality, while also free to adapt and extend this. The hardware structure is designed to provide complete redundancy, high availability and to handle high load. This document is composed of an abstract followed by the presentation transparencies. (authors)

  2. Edge-Disjoint Fibonacci Trees in Hypercube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indhumathi Raman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fibonacci tree is a rooted binary tree whose number of vertices admit a recursive definition similar to the Fibonacci numbers. In this paper, we prove that a hypercube of dimension h admits two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-2, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-4 and so on, as subgraphs. The result shows that an algorithm with Fibonacci trees as underlying data structure can be implemented concurrently on a hypercube network with no communication latency.

  3. Natural and artificial spectral edges in exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingam, Manasvi; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-09-01

    Technological civilizations may rely upon large-scale photovoltaic arrays to harness energy from their host star. Photovoltaic materials, such as silicon, possess distinctive spectral features, including an 'artificial edge' that is characteristically shifted in wavelength shortwards of the 'red edge' of vegetation. Future observations of reflected light from exoplanets would be able to detect both natural and artificial edges photometrically, if a significant fraction of the planet's surface is covered by vegetation or photovoltaic arrays, respectively. The stellar energy thus tapped can be utilized for terraforming activities by transferring heat and light from the day side to the night side on tidally locked exoplanets, thereby producing detectable artefacts.

  4. Adobe Edge Animate CC for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The easy way to build HTML5 mobile and web apps using Adobe's new Edge Animate CC Edge Animate CC is an approachable WYSIWYG alternative for leveraging the power of languages like HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript to design and develop for the web and mobile devices, even if you have no programming experience. Written by Michael Rohde, the book calls on this seasoned web developer's wealth of experience using Edge Animate CC, and a companion website includes all code from the book to help you apply what you learn as you go. Features an easy-to-use interface, with a propert

  5. Edge-Matching Problems with Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Martin; Fischer, Paul; Witt, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Edge-matching problems, also called puzzles, are abstractions of placement problems with neighborhood conditions. Pieces with colored edges have to be placed on a board such that adjacent edges have the same color. The problem has gained interest recently with the (now terminated) Eternity II...... puzzle, and new complexity results. In this paper we consider a number of settings which differ in size of the puzzles and the manipulations allowed on the pieces. We investigate the effect of allowing rotations of the pieces on the complexity of the problem, an aspect that is only marginally treated so...

  6. Platform Expansion Design as Strategic Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina S.; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address how the strategic choice of platform expansion design impacts the subse-quent platform strategy. We identify two distinct approaches to platform expansion – platform bun-dling and platform constellations, which currently co-exist. The purpose of this paper is to outline...

  7. A Typology of Multi-sided Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina Stefanova; Damsgaard, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address how the composition of a platform impacts the platform’s business model. By platform’s business model we mean platform features, platform architecture and platform governance. To this end, we construct the Platform Business Model Framework. We apply the framework to three...

  8. Simulated big sagebrush regeneration supports predicted changes at the trailing and leading edges of distribution shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Taylor, Kyle A.; Pennington, Victoria E.; Nelson, Kellen N.; Martin, Trace E.; Rottler, Caitlin M.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Many semi-arid plant communities in western North America are dominated by big sagebrush. These ecosystems are being reduced in extent and quality due to economic development, invasive species, and climate change. These pervasive modifications have generated concern about the long-term viability of sagebrush habitat and sagebrush-obligate wildlife species (notably greater sage-grouse), highlighting the need for better understanding of the future big sagebrush distribution, particularly at the species' range margins. These leading and trailing edges of potential climate-driven sagebrush distribution shifts are likely to be areas most sensitive to climate change. We used a process-based regeneration model for big sagebrush, which simulates potential germination and seedling survival in response to climatic and edaphic conditions and tested expectations about current and future regeneration responses at trailing and leading edges that were previously identified using traditional species distribution models. Our results confirmed expectations of increased probability of regeneration at the leading edge and decreased probability of regeneration at the trailing edge below current levels. Our simulations indicated that soil water dynamics at the leading edge became more similar to the typical seasonal ecohydrological conditions observed within the current range of big sagebrush ecosystems. At the trailing edge, an increased winter and spring dryness represented a departure from conditions typically supportive of big sagebrush. Our results highlighted that minimum and maximum daily temperatures as well as soil water recharge and summer dry periods are important constraints for big sagebrush regeneration. Overall, our results confirmed previous predictions, i.e., we see consistent changes in areas identified as trailing and leading edges; however, we also identified potential local refugia within the trailing edge, mostly at sites at higher elevation. Decreasing

  9. The European Photovoltaic Technology Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.; Aulich, H.; Bal, J.L.; Dimmler, B.; Garnier, A.; Jongerden, G.; Luther, J.; Luque, A.; Milner, A.; Nelson, D.; Pataki, I.; Pearsall, N.; Perezagua, E.; Pietruszko, S.; Rehak, J.; Schellekens, E.; Shanker, A.; Silvestrini, G.; Sinke, W.; Willemsen, H.

    2006-05-01

    The European Photovoltaic Technology Platform is one of the European Technology Platforms, a new instrument proposed by the European Commission. European Technology Platforms (ETPs) are a mechanism to bring together all interested stakeholders to develop a long-term vision to address a specific challenge, create a coherent, dynamic strategy to achieve that vision and steer the implementation of an action plan to deliver agreed programmes of activities and optimise the benefits for all parties. The European Photovoltaic Technology Platform has recently been established to define, support and accompany the implementation of a coherent and comprehensive strategic plan for photovoltaics. The platform will mobilise all stakeholders sharing a long-term European vision for PV, helping to ensure that Europe maintains and improves its industrial position. The platform will realise a European Strategic Research Agenda for PV for the next decade(s). Guided by a Steering Committee of 20 high level decision-makers representing all relevant European PV Stakeholders, the European PV Technology Platform comprises 4 Working Groups dealing with the subjects policy and instruments; market deployment; science, technology and applications as well as developing countries and is supported by a secretariat

  10. Vertical Relationships within Platform Marketplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Tremblay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In two-sided markets a platform allows consumers and sellers to interact by creating sub-markets within the platform marketplace. For example, Amazon has sub-markets for all of the different product categories available on its site, and smartphones have sub-markets for different types of applications (gaming apps, weather apps, map apps, ridesharing apps, etc.. The network benefits between consumers and sellers depend on the mode of competition within the sub-markets: more competition between sellers lowers product prices, increases the surplus consumers receive from a sub-market, and makes platform membership more desirable for consumers. However, more competition also lowers profits for a seller which makes platform membership less desirable for a seller and reduces seller entry and the number of sub-markets available on the platform marketplace. This dynamic between seller competition within a sub-market and agents’ network benefits leads to platform pricing strategies, participation decisions by consumers and sellers, and welfare results that depend on the mode of competition. Thus, the sub-market structure is important when investigating platform marketplaces.

  11. Edge-related loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bráulio A Santos

    Full Text Available Deforestation and forest fragmentation are known major causes of nonrandom extinction, but there is no information about their impact on the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining species assemblages. Using a large vegetation dataset from an old hyper-fragmented landscape in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest we assess whether the local extirpation of tree species and functional impoverishment of tree assemblages reduce the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining tree assemblages. We detected a significant loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in forest edges, but not in core areas of small (<80 ha forest fragments. This was attributed to a reduction of 11% in the average phylogenetic distance between any two randomly chosen individuals from forest edges; an increase of 17% in the average phylogenetic distance to closest non-conspecific relative for each individual in forest edges; and to the potential manifestation of late edge effects in the core areas of small forest remnants. We found no evidence supporting fragmentation-induced phylogenetic clustering or evenness. This could be explained by the low phylogenetic conservatism of key life-history traits corresponding to vulnerable species. Edge effects must be reduced to effectively protect tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.

  12. Edge-related loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bráulio A; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Moreno, Claudia E; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2010-09-08

    Deforestation and forest fragmentation are known major causes of nonrandom extinction, but there is no information about their impact on the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining species assemblages. Using a large vegetation dataset from an old hyper-fragmented landscape in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest we assess whether the local extirpation of tree species and functional impoverishment of tree assemblages reduce the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining tree assemblages. We detected a significant loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in forest edges, but not in core areas of small (phylogenetic distance between any two randomly chosen individuals from forest edges; an increase of 17% in the average phylogenetic distance to closest non-conspecific relative for each individual in forest edges; and to the potential manifestation of late edge effects in the core areas of small forest remnants. We found no evidence supporting fragmentation-induced phylogenetic clustering or evenness. This could be explained by the low phylogenetic conservatism of key life-history traits corresponding to vulnerable species. Edge effects must be reduced to effectively protect tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.

  13. Acidity of clay edges from ab-initio simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazi, Sami; Salanne, Mathieu; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Turq, Pierre; Sprik, Michiel; Sulpizi, Marialore

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. One of the most important factor to understand and predict the sorption of cations on clay surfaces is the protonation state of the surface sites, which is difficult to determine experimentally. Indeed, titration provides a global measure only; it does not probe the status of different silanol (Si-OH) and aluminol sites (Al-OH and Al-OH 2 ) present along the edges of clay sheets in the presence of water. A novel method has been recently designed to quantify the acidity of chemical species. This method allows to estimate pKa values from First Principles Molecular Dynamics by thermodynamic integration. We have applied it to the case of pyrophyllite clay edge sites. These calculations will allow us to subsequently perform classical Molecular Dynamic simulations with realistic surface structures (protonated/deprotonated sites) for natural clays in the presence of water. After presenting the method, we show its application to the (010) edge of pyrophyllite. We find that the most acidic group is Si-OH while the least acidic one is Al-OH, which never deprotonates in water because of its high pKa value (22.1). We further provide a microscopic understanding of the solvation structure and reactivity of the edges of neutral clays. In particular we address the tendency to deprotonation of the different reactive groups on the (010) face of pyrophyllite, showing the important role of solvation and its rearrangements after deprotonation. Finally, we compare our results to the one predicted by the empiric method MUSIC and the estimate from deprotonation energies in the vacuum, confirming the important role of solvation in both the protonated and deprotonated states. (authors)

  14. Arsenic K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy to determine oxidation states of arsenic of a coastal aquifer–aquitard system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ya; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Zhu, Sanyuan; Li, Yiliang

    2013-01-01

    Determination of oxidation states of solid-phase arsenic in bulk sediments is a valuable step in the evaluation of its bioavailability and environmental fate in deposits, but is difficult when the sediments have low arsenic contents and heterogeneous distribution of arsenic species. As K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was used to determine quantitatively the oxidation states of arsenic in sediments collected from different depths of boreholes in the Pearl River Delta, China, where the highest aquatic arsenic concentration is 161.4 μg/L, but the highest solid arsenic content only 39.6 mg/kg. The results demonstrated that XANES is efficient in determining arsenic oxidation states of the sediments with low arsenic contents and multiple arsenic species. The study on the high-resolution vertical variations of arsenic oxidation states also indicated that these states are influenced strongly by groundwater activities. With the help of geochemical data, solid arsenic speciation, toxicity and availability were further discussed. -- Highlights: •XANES is efficient in determining arsenic oxidation states of the bulk sediments. •Distribution of arsenic oxidation states is consistent with geochemical conditions. •Arsenic oxidation states are influenced strongly by groundwater activities. -- As K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy is efficient in determining arsenic oxidation states of the bulk sediments with low arsenic contents and heterogeneous distribution of arsenic species

  15. Platform decisions supported by gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    Platform is an ambiguous multidisciplinary concept. The philosophy behind it is easy to communicate and makes intuitively sense. However, the ease in communication does overshadow the high complexity when the concept is implemented. The practical industrial platform implementation challenge can...... be described as being a configuration problem with a high number of variables. These variables are different in nature; they have contradictory influence on the total performance, and, their importance change over time. Consequently, the specific platform decisions become highly complex and the consequences...

  16. Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Samantha; Requier, Fabrice; Nusillard, Benoît; Roberts, Stuart P M; Potts, Simon G; Bouget, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    Wild pollinators have been shown to enhance the pollination of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) and thus increase its market value. Several studies have previously shown that pollination services are greater in crops adjoining forest patches or other seminatural habitats than in crops completely surrounded by other crops. In this study, we investigated the specific importance of forest edges in providing potential pollinators in B. napus fields in two areas in France. Bees were caught with yellow pan traps at increasing distances from both warm and cold forest edges into B. napus fields during the blooming period. A total of 4594 individual bees, representing six families and 83 taxa, were collected. We found that both bee abundance and taxa richness were negatively affected by the distance from forest edge. However, responses varied between bee groups and edge orientations. The ITD (Inter-Tegular distance) of the species, a good proxy for bee foraging range, seems to limit how far the bees can travel from the forest edge. We found a greater abundance of cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.) of Andrena spp. and Andrena spp. males at forest edges, which we assume indicate suitable nesting sites, or at least mating sites, for some abundant Andrena species and their parasites (Fig. 1). Synthesis and Applications. This study provides one of the first examples in temperate ecosystems of how forest edges may actually act as a reservoir of potential pollinators and directly benefit agricultural crops by providing nesting or mating sites for important early spring pollinators. Policy-makers and land managers should take forest edges into account and encourage their protection in the agricultural matrix to promote wild bees and their pollination services.

  17. Edge enhancement improves disruptive camouflage by emphasising false edges and creating pictorial relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, John; Sharman, Rebecca J; Scott-Brown, Kenneth C; Lovell, Paul George

    2016-12-06

    Disruptive colouration is a visual camouflage composed of false edges and boundaries. Many disruptively camouflaged animals feature enhanced edges; light patches are surrounded by a lighter outline and/or a dark patches are surrounded by a darker outline. This camouflage is particularly common in amphibians, reptiles and lepidopterans. We explored the role that this pattern has in creating effective camouflage. In a visual search task utilising an ultra-large display area mimicking search tasks that might be found in nature, edge enhanced disruptive camouflage increases crypsis, even on substrates that do not provide an obvious visual match. Specifically, edge enhanced camouflage is effective on backgrounds both with and without shadows; i.e. this is not solely due to background matching of the dark edge enhancement element with the shadows. Furthermore, when the dark component of the edge enhancement is omitted the camouflage still provided better crypsis than control patterns without edge enhancement. This kind of edge enhancement improved camouflage on all background types. Lastly, we show that edge enhancement can create a perception of multiple surfaces. We conclude that edge enhancement increases the effectiveness of disruptive camouflage through mechanisms that may include the improved disruption of the object outline by implying pictorial relief.

  18. Tetrapods on the EDGE: Overcoming data limitations to identify phylogenetic conservation priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Claudia L.; Wearn, Oliver R.; Owen, Nisha R.

    2018-01-01

    The scale of the ongoing biodiversity crisis requires both effective conservation prioritisation and urgent action. As extinction is non-random across the tree of life, it is important to prioritise threatened species which represent large amounts of evolutionary history. The EDGE metric prioritises species based on their Evolutionary Distinctiveness (ED), which measures the relative contribution of a species to the total evolutionary history of their taxonomic group, and Global Endangerment (GE), or extinction risk. EDGE prioritisations rely on adequate phylogenetic and extinction risk data to generate meaningful priorities for conservation. However, comprehensive phylogenetic trees of large taxonomic groups are extremely rare and, even when available, become quickly out-of-date due to the rapid rate of species descriptions and taxonomic revisions. Thus, it is important that conservationists can use the available data to incorporate evolutionary history into conservation prioritisation. We compared published and new methods to estimate missing ED scores for species absent from a phylogenetic tree whilst simultaneously correcting the ED scores of their close taxonomic relatives. We found that following artificial removal of species from a phylogenetic tree, the new method provided the closest estimates of their “true” ED score, differing from the true ED score by an average of less than 1%, compared to the 31% and 38% difference of the previous methods. The previous methods also substantially under- and over-estimated scores as more species were artificially removed from a phylogenetic tree. We therefore used the new method to estimate ED scores for all tetrapods. From these scores we updated EDGE prioritisation rankings for all tetrapod species with IUCN Red List assessments, including the first EDGE prioritisation for reptiles. Further, we identified criteria to identify robust priority species in an effort to further inform conservation action whilst

  19. Flow distortion at a dense forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    The flow near tall forest edges is complex, yet poorly described. A field experiment using two meteorological masts equipped with sonic anemometers and a horizontally staring lidar was performed upwind and downwind of the interface between an open flat farmland and a tall (hc = 24 m) beech forest......, relative to the measurements upwind of the edge. The lidar data taken at several positions between the masts at 1.25hc show that the minimum wind speed occurred just upwind of the edge. At the 1.25hc level, at the forest mast, the momentum flux (\\documentclass...... qualitatively be explained with the concept of eddy‐blocking by the canopy top, which could also explain the observed increase in lateral variance and the decrease in the vertical variance. Despite the short distance to the edge of approximately 1.5hc, the beginning of a new internal boundary layer was visible...

  20. Floquet edge states in germanene nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, Muhammad; Zhang, Qingyun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate versatile electronic properties of germanene monolayers under circularly, linearly, and elliptically polarized light. We show for the high frequency regime that the edge states can be controlled by tuning the amplitude

  1. Edge energies and shapes of nanoprecipitates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, John C.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we present a model to explain the size-dependent shapes of lead nano-precipitates in aluminum. Size-dependent shape transitions, frequently observed at nanolength scales, are commonly attributed to edge energy effects. This report resolves an ambiguity in the definition and calculation of edge energies and presents an atomistic calculation of edge energies for free clusters. We also present a theory for size-dependent shapes of Pb nanoprecipitates in Al, introducing the concept of ''magic-shapes'' defined as precipitate shapes having near zero elastic strains when inserted into similarly shaped voids in the Al matrix. An algorithm for constructing a complete set of magic-shapes is presented. The experimental observations are explained by elastic strain energies and interfacial energies; edge energies play a negligible role. We replicate the experimental observations by selecting precipitates having magic-shapes and interfacial energies less than a cutoff value.

  2. Thermal stability of the tokamak plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The general linear, fluid, thermal instability theory for the plasma edge has been extended. An analysis of a two-dimensional fluid model of the plasma edge has identified the importance of many previously unappreciated phenomena associated with parallel and gyroviscous forces in the presence of large radial gradients, with large radial or parallel flows, with the temperature dependence of transport coefficients, and with the coupling of temperature, flow and density perturbations. The radiative condensation effect is generalized to include a further destabilizing condensation effect associated with radial heat conduction. Representative plasma edge neutral and impurity densities are found to be capable of driving thermal instabilities in the edge transport barrier and radiative mantle, respectively. (author)

  3. Folded membrane dialyzer with mechanically sealed edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markley, F.W.

    A semipermeable membrane is folded in accordion fashion to form a stack of pleats and the edges are sealed so as to isolate the opposite surfaces of the membrane. The stack is contained within a case that provides ports for flow of blood in contact with one surface of the membrane through channels formed by the pleats and also provides ports for flow of a dialysate through channels formed by the pleats in contact with the other surface of the membrane. The serpentine side edges of the membrane are sealed by a solidified plastic material, whereas effective mechanical means are provided to seal the end edges of the folded membrane. The mechanical means include a clamping strip which biases case sealing flanges into a sealed relationship with end portions of the membrane near the end edges, which portions extend from the stack and between the sealing flanges.

  4. Cover Art: River's Edge: Downward, Outward, Upward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonee Kulman Brigham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Artist's Statement for the cover art of IJPS volume 4, issue 3: River's Edge: Downward, Outward, Upward, 2015. Mixed Media: photograph, inkjet printed on presentation matte of colored pencil over photograph.

  5. Marine fouling assemblages on offshore gas platforms in the southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stap, van der Tim; Coolen, J.W.P.; Lindeboom, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Offshore platforms are known to act as artificial reefs, though there is on-going debate on whether this effect is beneficial or harmful for the life in the surrounding marine environment. Knowing what species exist on and around the offshore platforms and what environmental variables influence this

  6. Edge and core dynamics in harness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.

    2007-01-01

    Resistive kink oscillations in tokamak plasmas are usually treated as core localized events, yet there there are several mechanisms by which they may interact with the edge dynamics. This suggests that we may regulate edge oscillatory behaviour, or ELMs, by harnessing the natural or contrived sawtooth period and amplitude. In this work I investigate core-edge oscillatory entrainment through direct propagation of heat pulses, inductive coupling, and global higher order resonance effects. In the core of auxiliary heated tokamak plasmas the ineluctable rhythm of slow buildup and rapid conversion of potential energy governs electron and heat radial transport. The growth phase of the sawtooth is accompanied by significant reconnection, then during the collapse the temperature and density in the core fall dramatically. There is evidence from experiments in reversed field pinch devices that ensuing energy fluxes can affect flow shear and confinement at the edge. The basis for this study is the dynamical (BDS) model for edge plasma behavior that was derived from electrostatic resistive MHD equations. The BDS model reflects the major qualitative features of edge dynamics that have been observed, such as L-H transitions and associated ELMs, hysteresis, and spontaneous reversal of poloidal shear flow. Under poorly dissipative conditions the transient behavior of the model can exhibit period-doubling, blue-sky, homoclinic, and other exotic bifurcations. Thus we might ask questions such as: Is it possible to mode-lock the edge dynamics to the core sawteeth? Can we induce, or prevent, a change in direction of shear flow? What about MHD effects? Is core-edge communication one way or is there some feedback? In the simplest prototype for coupled core-edge dynamics I model the sawtooth crash as a periodic power input to the edge potential energy reservoir. This is effected by coupling the BDS model to the dynamical system u = u(1 - u 2 - x 2 ) - ω s x, x = x(1-u 2 -x 2 ) + ω s u

  7. Numerical simulation of edge plasma in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yiping; Qiu Lijian

    1996-02-01

    The transport process and transport property of plasma in edge layer of Tokamak are simulated by solving numerically two-dimensional and multi-fluid plasma transport equations using suitable simulation code. The simulation results can show plasma parameter distribution characteristics in the area of edge layer, especially the characteristics near the first wall and divertor target plate. The simulation results play an important role in the design of divertor and first wall of Tokamak. (2 figs)

  8. Edge on Impact Simulations and Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Leavy, R. Brian; Clayton, John D.; Strack, O. Erik; Brannon, Rebecca M.; Strassburger, Elmar

    2013-01-01

    In the quest to understand damage and failure of ceramics in ballistic events, simplified experiments have been developed to benchmark behavior. One such experiment is known as edge on impact (EOI). In this experiment, an impactor strikes the edge of a thin square plate, and damage and cracking that occur on the free surface are captured in real time with high speed photography. If the material of interest is transparent, additional information regarding damage and wave mechanics within the s...

  9. Integrated core-edge-divertor modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    An integrated calculation model for simulating the interaction of physics phenomena taking place in the plasma core, in the plasma edge and in the SOL and divertor of tokamaks has been developed and applied to study such interactions. The model synthesises a combination of numerical calculations (1) the power and particle balances for the core plasma, using empirical confinement scaling laws and taking into account radiation losses (2), the particle, momentum and power balances in the SOL and divertor, taking into account the effects of radiation and recycling neutrals, (3) the transport of feeling and recycling neutrals, explicitly representing divertor and pumping geometry, and (4) edge pedestal gradient scale lengths and widths, evaluation of theoretical predictions (5) confinement degradation due to thermal instabilities in the edge pedestals, (6) detachment and divertor MARFE onset, (7) core MARFE onsets leading to a H-L transition, and (8) radiative collapse leading to a disruption and evaluation of empirical fits (9) power thresholds for the L-H and H-L transitions and (10) the width of the edge pedestals. The various components of the calculation model are coupled and must be iterated to a self-consistent convergence. The model was developed over several years for the purpose of interpreting various edge phenomena observed in DIII-D experiments and thereby, to some extent, has been benchmarked against experiment. Because the model treats the interactions of various phenomena in the core, edge and divertor, yet is computationally efficient, it lends itself to the investigation of the effects of different choices of various edge plasma operating conditions on overall divertor and core plasma performance. Studies of the effect of feeling location and rate, divertor geometry, plasma shape, pumping and over 'edge parameters' on core plasma properties (line average density, confinement, density limit, etc.) have been performed for DIII-D model problems. A

  10. Presheath profiles in simulated tokamak edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBombard, B.; Conn, R.W.; Hirooka, Y.; Lehmer, R.; Leung, W.K.; Nygren, R.E.; Ra, Y.; Tynan, G.

    1988-04-01

    The PISCES plasma surface interaction facility at UCLA generates plasmas with characteristics similar to those found in the edge plasmas of tokamaks. Steady state magnetized plasmas produced by this device are used to study plasma-wall interaction phenomena which are relevant to tokamak devices. We report here progress on some detailed investigations of the presheath region that extends from a wall surface into these /open quotes/simulated tokamak/close quotes/ edge plasma discharges along magnetic field lines

  11. Morphological Variations of Leading-Edge Serrations in Owls (Strigiformes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weger

    Full Text Available Owls have developed serrations, comb-like structures, along the leading edge of their wings. Serrations were investigated from a morphological and a mechanical point of view, but were not yet quantitatively compared for different species. Such a comparative investigation of serrations from species of different sizes and activity patterns may provide new information about the function of the serrations.Serrations on complete wings and on tenth primary remiges of seven owl species were investigated. Small, middle-sized, and large owl species were investigated as well as species being more active during the day and owls being more active during the night. Serrations occurred at the outer parts of the wings, predominantly at tenth primary remiges, but also on further wing feathers in most species. Serration tips were oriented away from the feather rachis so that they faced into the air stream during flight. The serrations of nocturnal owl species were higher developed as demonstrated by a larger inclination angle (the angle between the base of the barb and the rachis, a larger tip displacement angle (the angle between the tip of the serration and the base of the serration and a longer length. Putting the measured data into a clustering algorithm yielded dendrograms that suggested a strong influence of activity pattern, but only a weak influence of size on the development of the serrations.Serrations are supposed to be involved in noise reduction during flight and also depend on the aerodynamic properties that in turn depend on body size. Since especially nocturnal owls have to rely on hearing during prey capture, the more pronounced serrations of nocturnal species lend further support to the notion that serrations have an important function in noise reduction. The differences in shape of the serrations investigated indicate that a silent flight requires well-developed serrations.

  12. Morphological Variations of Leading-Edge Serrations in Owls (Strigiformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, Matthias; Wagner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Background Owls have developed serrations, comb-like structures, along the leading edge of their wings. Serrations were investigated from a morphological and a mechanical point of view, but were not yet quantitatively compared for different species. Such a comparative investigation of serrations from species of different sizes and activity patterns may provide new information about the function of the serrations. Results Serrations on complete wings and on tenth primary remiges of seven owl species were investigated. Small, middle-sized, and large owl species were investigated as well as species being more active during the day and owls being more active during the night. Serrations occurred at the outer parts of the wings, predominantly at tenth primary remiges, but also on further wing feathers in most species. Serration tips were oriented away from the feather rachis so that they faced into the air stream during flight. The serrations of nocturnal owl species were higher developed as demonstrated by a larger inclination angle (the angle between the base of the barb and the rachis), a larger tip displacement angle (the angle between the tip of the serration and the base of the serration) and a longer length. Putting the measured data into a clustering algorithm yielded dendrograms that suggested a strong influence of activity pattern, but only a weak influence of size on the development of the serrations. Conclusions Serrations are supposed to be involved in noise reduction during flight and also depend on the aerodynamic properties that in turn depend on body size. Since especially nocturnal owls have to rely on hearing during prey capture, the more pronounced serrations of nocturnal species lend further support to the notion that serrations have an important function in noise reduction. The differences in shape of the serrations investigated indicate that a silent flight requires well-developed serrations. PMID:26934104

  13. Forest Edge Regrowth Typologies in Southern Sweden—Relationship to Environmental Characteristics and Implications for Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiström, Björn; Nielsen, Anders Busse

    2017-01-01

    clustering approaches, dominant tree species to be controlled and future building block species for management were identified. Using multivariate regression trees, the most decisive environmental variables were identified and used to develop a regrowth typology and to calculate species indicator values....... Five regrowth types and ten indicator species were identified along the environmental gradients of soil moisture, soil fertility, and altitude. Six tree species dominated the regrowth across the regrowth types, but clustering showed that if these were controlled by selective thinning, lower tree...... and shrub species were generally present so they could form the “building blocks” for development of a graded edge. We concluded that selective thinning targeted at controlling a few dominant tree species, here named Functional Species Control, is a simple and easily implemented management concept...

  14. What's happening at the edge of tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    Handling the power deposition at the walls of a plasma fusion device and controlling the particle fueling of the plasma originated the interest in the edge of the plasma by magnetic fusion scientists. Recently this interest has intensified because of clear evidence that the quality of the central plasma confinement depends in unexpected ways on details of how the edge plasma is managed. Significant efforts are being pursued to understand and exploit the improved plasma confinement observed in the 'H-mode' obtained with divertors and in the 'super-shots' obtained with low neutral particle flux from the edge of TFTR limiter plasmas. The controls, that determine whether or not these well-confined plasmas are obtained, are applied in the edge plasma where a wealth of atomic and molecular processes occur. A qualitative overview of current research related to plasma edge and desirable features is presented to guide thoughts about atomic processes to be included in modeling and interpreting the plasma edge of tokamaks. (orig.)

  15. Unsteady phenomena in the edge tone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paal, G.; Vaik, I.

    2007-01-01

    Despite its geometrical simplicity, the edge tone displays a remarkably complex behaviour. A plane jet oscillates around the wedge-shaped object with a relatively stable frequency and under certain circumstances emits an audible tone. This configuration plays a central role in the sound production of several wind instruments but occurs in industrial situations too. The flow exhibits various interesting nonlinear phenomena reported in the literature which are not entirely explained. In this paper, detailed high precision numerical simulations of the flow are reported under various conditions. Several phenomena are reproduced in agreement with the literature such as the existence of 'stages', the dependence of oscillation frequency on the outflow velocity and the orifice-edge distance within one stage, the pressure distribution on the edge surface, etc. A criterion for the appropriate time step for constant accuracy has been derived. The location of force action is surprisingly stable; it remains in a very narrow region of the wedge surface independently of the Reynolds number and the orifice-edge distance but it is much further behind the edge tip than reported in the literature. The various stages can coexist in different ways: jumping back and forth between stages or being superposed on each other. Regardless of the form, the first stage continues to be dominant even when the second and third stage appears. The question of disturbance propagation velocity and disturbance wavelength is also investigated. The development of higher harmonics of a single stage along the orifice-edge tip distance is presented

  16. Edge effect correction using ion beam figuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Xie, Xuhui; Li, Furen; Zhou, Lin

    2017-11-10

    The edge effect is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for fabricating large primary mirrors, as it can greatly reduce the key performance of the optical system. Ion beam figuring (IBF) has the advantage of no edge effect, so we can use it to remove high points on the edge and improve surface accuracy. The edge local correction method (ELCM) of IBF processes only the surface edge zone, and is very different from the current full caliber figuring method (FCFM). Therefore, it is necessary to study the ELCM of IBF. In this paper, the key factors of ELCM are analyzed, such as dwell time algorithm, edge data extension methods, and the outward dimension of the starting figuring point. At the same time, the distinctions between ELCM and FCFM are compared. Finally, a 142 mm diameter fused silica mirror is fabricated to verify the validity of the theoretical of ELCM. The experimental results indicate that the figuring precision and efficiency can be obviously improved by ELCM.

  17. IRET: requirements for service platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Baresi, Luciano; Ripa, Gianluca; Pasquale, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed This paper describes IRENE (Indenica Requirements ElicitatioN mEthod), a methodology to elicit and model the requirements of service platforms, and IRET (IREne Tool), the Eclipse-based modeling framework we developed for IRENE

  18. Platform attitude data acquisition system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.

    A system for automatic acquisition of underwater platform attitude data has been designed, developed and tested in the laboratory. This is a micro controller based system interfacing dual axis inclinometer, high-resolution digital compass...

  19. Microneedle Platforms for Cell Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Kavaldzhiev, Mincho

    2017-01-01

    to the development of micro-needle platforms that offer customized fabrication and new capabilities for enhanced cell analyses. The highest degree of geometrical flexibility is achieved with 3D printed micro-needles, which enable optimizing the topographical stress

  20. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Elevated Fixed Platform (EFP) is a helicopter recovery test facility located at Lakehurst, NJ. It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop...

  1. Radiographic inspection on offshore platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Sergio Damasceno; Sperandio, Augusto Gasparoni

    1994-01-01

    One of the great challenges for non-destructive inspection is on offshore platforms, where safety is a critical issue. Inspection by gammagraphy is practically forbidden on the platform deck due to problems to personnel safety and radiological protection. Ir-192 sources are used and the risk of an accident with loss of radioisotope must be considered. It is unfeasible to use gammagraphy, because in case of an accident the rapid evacuation from the platform would be impossible. This problem does not occur when X-ray equipment is used as the radiation source. The limited practicality and portability of the X-ray equipment have prevented its use as a replacement for the gammagraphy. This paper presents the preliminary tests to see the viable use of radiographic tests with constant potential on offshore platforms. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs, 3 photos

  2. Edge subdivision and edge multisubdivision versus some domination related parameters in generalized corona graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Dettlaff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph \\(G=(V,E\\, the subdivision of an edge \\(e=uv\\in E(G\\ means the substitution of the edge \\(e\\ by a vertex \\(x\\ and the new edges \\(ux\\ and \\(xv\\. The domination subdivision number of a graph \\(G\\ is the minimum number of edges of \\(G\\ which must be subdivided (where each edge can be subdivided at most once in order to increase the domination number. Also, the domination multisubdivision number of \\(G\\ is the minimum number of subdivisions which must be done in one edge such that the domination number increases. Moreover, the concepts of paired domination and independent domination subdivision (respectively multisubdivision numbers are defined similarly. In this paper we study the domination, paired domination and independent domination (subdivision and multisubdivision numbers of the generalized corona graphs.

  3. Transaortic Alfieri Edge-to-Edge Repair for Functional Mitral Regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imasaka, Ken-Ichi; Tayama, Eiki; Morita, Shigeki; Toriya, Ryohei; Tomita, Yukihiro

    2018-03-01

    There is controversy about handling functional mitral regurgitation in patients undergoing aortic valve or proximal aortic operations. We describe a transaortic Alfieri edge-to-edge repair for functional mitral regurgitation that reduces operative excessive invasion and prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time. Between May 2013 and December 2016, 10 patients underwent transaortic Alfieri edge-to-edge mitral repair. There were no operative deaths. The severity of mitral regurgitation immediately after the operation by transesophageal echocardiography was none or trivial in all patients. A transaortic Alfieri edge-to-edge repair for functional mitral regurgitation is a simple and safe approach. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioma platform advancements during 2017

    OpenAIRE

    FUMAGALLI DAVIDE; NIEMEYER STEFAN

    2017-01-01

    In this report we describe the advancements on the Bioma Framework developed during year 2017. Given that the Bioma platform is quite mature, its core was not recently changed. So that the majority of changes concerns the implementation of the models developed in the platform. Moreover, during 2017 we also set up an alternative version of the framework itself, based on a new developing framework called .NET Core, with the purpose of being able to create a version of Bioma runnable on Linux. ...

  5. Cretaceous tropical carbonate platform changes used as paleoclimatic and paleoceanic indicators: the three lower Cretaceous platform crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud-Vanneau, A.; Vrielynck, B.

    2009-04-01

    time and is related to the opening of the North Atlantic and the neocimerian tectonic phase. It could be linked to cooling periods. Geographically, the warm oligotrophic tropical carbonate platforms of the northern Tethyan margin migrated towards the equator from more than 500kms. The Upper Valanginian-Hauterivian mesotrophic to eutrophic carbonate platforms are muddier and microbially dominated (algal mats, oolites). 60% of benthic foraminifers living in carbonate platform became extinct. The second crisis occurred during Late Aptian to Albian time. It is coeval to the increasing plate movement and the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. It is linked to massive detrital input on both margins of the Tethys. Tropical carbonate platform are mostly mesotrophic to eutrophic with abundance of opportunistic species such as Orbitolina, which took advantage of abundance of clastic grains. 50% of benthic foraminifers living in carbonate platform became extinct. The last crisis coincides with the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary. This period corresponds to a rapid northward movement of Africa and Spain and the opening of the North-South Atlantic connection. At the boundary we note the disappearance of organisms such as large benthic foraminifers, corals and rudists, which had a symbiotic relationship with green algae. More than 90% of large benthic foraminifers living in carbonate platform became extinct, but this extinction is not available for small size benthic foraminifers, which had not symbiosis.

  6. The COMET Sleep Research Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Deborah A; DeSalvo, Steven; Miller, Richard A; Jónsson, Darrell; Griffin, Kara S; Hyde, Pamela R; Walsh, James K; Kushida, Clete A

    2014-01-01

    The Comparative Outcomes Management with Electronic Data Technology (COMET) platform is extensible and designed for facilitating multicenter electronic clinical research. Our research goals were the following: (1) to conduct a comparative effectiveness trial (CET) for two obstructive sleep apnea treatments-positive airway pressure versus oral appliance therapy; and (2) to establish a new electronic network infrastructure that would support this study and other clinical research studies. The COMET platform was created to satisfy the needs of CET with a focus on creating a platform that provides comprehensive toolsets, multisite collaboration, and end-to-end data management. The platform also provides medical researchers the ability to visualize and interpret data using business intelligence (BI) tools. COMET is a research platform that is scalable and extensible, and which, in a future version, can accommodate big data sets and enable efficient and effective research across multiple studies and medical specialties. The COMET platform components were designed for an eventual move to a cloud computing infrastructure that enhances sustainability, overall cost effectiveness, and return on investment.

  7. Further results for crack-edge mappings by ray methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, A.N.; Achenbach, J.D.; Ahlberg, L.; Tittman, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses further extensions of the local edge mapping method to the pulse-echo case and to configurations of water-immersed specimens and transducers. Crack edges are mapped by the use of arrival times of edge-diffracted signals. Topics considered include local edge mapping in a homogeneous medium, local edge mapping algorithms, local edge mapping through an interface, and edge mapping through an interface using synthetic data. Local edge mapping is iterative, with two or three iterations required for convergence

  8. Influence of soil pathogens on early regeneration success of tropical trees varies between forest edge and interior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnadas, Meghna; Comita, Liza S

    2018-01-01

    Soil fungi are key mediators of negative density-dependent mortality in seeds and seedlings, and the ability to withstand pathogens in the shaded understory of closed-canopy forests could reinforce light gradient partitioning by tree species. For four species of tropical rainforest trees-two shade-tolerant and two shade-intolerant-we conducted a field experiment to examine the interactive effects of fungal pathogens, light, and seed density on germination and early seedling establishment. In a fully factorial design, seeds were sown into 1 m 2 plots containing soil collected from underneath conspecific adult trees, with plots assigned to forest edge (high light) or shaded understory, high or low density, and fungicide or no fungicide application. We monitored total seed germination and final seedling survival over 15 weeks. Shade-intolerant species were strongly constrained by light; their seedlings survived only at the edge. Fungicide application significantly improved seedling emergence and/or survival for three of the four focal species. There were no significant interactions between fungicide and seed density, suggesting that pathogen spread with increased aggregation of seeds and seedlings did not contribute to pathogen-mediated mortality. Two species experienced significant edge-fungicide interactions, but fungicide effects in edge vs. interior forest varied with species and recruitment stage. Our results suggest that changes to plant-pathogen interactions could affect plant recruitment in human-impacted forests subject to fragmentation and edge-effects.

  9. A Parallel Modular Biomimetic Cilia Sorting Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. H. Whiting

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic unicellular organism Paramecium caudatum uses cilia to swim around its environment and to graze on food particles and bacteria. Paramecia use waves of ciliary beating for locomotion, intake of food particles and sensing. There is some evidence that Paramecia pre-sort food particles by discarding larger particles, but intake the particles matching their mouth cavity. Most prior attempts to mimic cilia-based manipulation merely mimicked the overall action rather than the beating of cilia. The majority of massive-parallel actuators are controlled by a central computer; however, a distributed control would be far more true-to-life. We propose and test a distributed parallel cilia platform where each actuating unit is autonomous, yet exchanging information with its closest neighboring units. The units are arranged in a hexagonal array. Each unit is a tileable circuit board, with a microprocessor, color-based object sensor and servo-actuated biomimetic cilia actuator. Localized synchronous communication between cilia allowed for the emergence of coordinated action, moving different colored objects together. The coordinated beating action was capable of moving objects up to 4 cm/s at its highest beating frequency; however, objects were moved at a speed proportional to the beat frequency. Using the local communication, we were able to detect the shape of objects and rotating an object using edge detection was performed; however, lateral manipulation using shape information was unsuccessful.

  10. Forests on the edge: Microenvironmental drivers of carbon cycle response to edge effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmann, A.; Hutyra, L.; Smith, I. A.; Thompson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Twenty percent of the world's forest is within 100 m of a forest edge, but much of our understanding of forest carbon (C) cycling comes from large, intact ecosystems, which creates an important mismatch between the landscapes we study and those we aim to characterize. The temperate broadleaf forest is the most heavily fragmented forest biome in the world and its growth and carbon storage responses to forest edge effects appear to be the opposite of those in the tropical and boreal regions. We used field measurements to quantify the drivers of temperate forest C cycling response to edge effects, characterizing vegetative growth, respiration, and forest structure. We find large gradients in air and soil temperature from the forest interior to edge (up to 4 and 10° C, respectively) and the magnitude of this gradient is inversely correlated to the size of the forest edge growth enhancement. Further, leaf area index increases with proximity to the forest edge. While we also find increases in soil respiration between the forest interior and edge, this flux is small relative to aboveground growth enhancement near the edge. These findings represent an important advancement in our understanding of forest C cycle response to edge effects and will greatly improve our capacity to constrain biogenic C fluxes in fragmented and heterogeneous landscapes.

  11. Analysis of the sources and dynamic processes leading to the increase of atmospheric CO2, black carbon and other trace species during recent urban pollution events in the Paris megacity region : a synergy of resources provided by the IPSL OCAPI platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xueref-Remy, I.; Foret, G.; Beekmann, M.; Brégonzio-Rozier, L.; Favez, O.; Gros, V.; Moreau-Guigon, E.; Vogel, F. R.; Belviso, S.; Ghersi, V.; Dupont, J. C.; Bodichon, R.; Cailteau-Fischbach, C.; Baisnee, D.; Peinado, F.; Haeffelin, M.; DeCola, P.; Turnbull, J. C.; Chelin, P.; Te, Y. V.; Formenti, P.; Doussin, J. F.; Gratien, A.; Desboeufs, K. V.; Ramage, K.; Jeseck, P.; Delmotte, M.; Ramonet, M.; Michoud, V.; Ravetta, F.

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, more than 50% of the global population leave in urban centers which activities generate large anthropogenic emissions of CO2 (more than 70% of fossil fuel CO2 comes from urbanized/industrialized areas) and reactive gases that endanger our climate, the health of human beings and surrounding ecosystems. The worst situations are encountered during urban pollution events that usually form under anticyclonic conditions. Analyzing the contribution of the local and regional sources of urban CO2 and co-emitted species vs the remote ones, as well as the nature of these sources and the dynamical processes that lead to the building of such events can provide interesting knowledge for helping urban policy makers to better identify the role of anthropogenic/biogenic sources on the urban air composition and to take proper decisions in matter of CO2 and pollutants sources mitigation. With 12 million of people, Paris (France) is the second megacity in Europe. In 2016, two pollution events occured in the Paris region during which the instrumental platform OCAPI (http://observations.ipsl.fr/composition-atmospherique-en-idf.html) from IPSL (Institut Pierre Simon Laplace) was mobilized in collaboration with air quality governing actors (AIRPARIF, INERIS) to collect a bunch of observations. Five sites located in the urban, peri-urban and rural areas of Paris were equiped with in-situ analyzers (CO2, CO, black carbon, 13CO2, COS) ; Fourier transform spectrometers for column measurements (XCO2, XCO, XCOS), particle filters (for aerosols size and content analysis) ; air samples (levoglucosan, 14CO2, VOCs) ; and Lidar profilers (boundary layer height ; wind profiles). These data, combined with a backtrajectories analysis, give information about the dynamical processes that lead to the formation of the pollution events and on the contribution of local, regional and remote sources. The analysis of the correlations between the trace species and of the isotopic content of carbon in

  12. Boundaries in ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and environmental variables at the edges of forest patches with residential developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Doreen E; Gagné, Sara A

    2018-01-01

    Few studies of edge effects on wildlife objectively identify habitat edges or explore non-linear responses. In this paper, we build on ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) research that has begun to address these domains by using triangulation wombling to identify boundaries in beetle community structure and composition at the edges of forest patches with residential developments. We hypothesized that edges are characterized by boundaries in environmental variables that correspond to marked discontinuities in vegetation structure between maintained yards and forest. We expected environmental boundaries to be associated with beetle boundaries. We collected beetles and measured environmental variables in 200 m by 200 m sampling grids centered at the edges of three forest patches, each with a rural, suburban, or urban context, in Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. We identified boundaries within each grid at two spatial scales and tested their significance and overlap using boundary statistics and overlap statistics, respectively. We complemented boundary delineation with k -means clustering. Boundaries in environmental variables, such as temperature, grass cover, and leaf litter depth, occurred at or near the edges of all three sites, in many cases at both scales. The beetle variables that exhibited the most pronounced boundary structure in relation to edges were total species evenness, generalist abundance, generalist richness, generalist evenness, and Agonum punctiforme abundance. Environmental and beetle boundaries also occurred within forest patches and residential developments, indicating substantial localized spatial variation on either side of edges. Boundaries in beetle and environmental variables that displayed boundary structure at edges significantly overlapped, as did boundaries on either side of edges. The comparison of boundaries and clusters revealed that boundaries formed parts of the borders of patches of similar beetle or environmental condition. We

  13. Boundaries in ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae and environmental variables at the edges of forest patches with residential developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen E. Davis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Few studies of edge effects on wildlife objectively identify habitat edges or explore non-linear responses. In this paper, we build on ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae research that has begun to address these domains by using triangulation wombling to identify boundaries in beetle community structure and composition at the edges of forest patches with residential developments. We hypothesized that edges are characterized by boundaries in environmental variables that correspond to marked discontinuities in vegetation structure between maintained yards and forest. We expected environmental boundaries to be associated with beetle boundaries. Methods We collected beetles and measured environmental variables in 200 m by 200 m sampling grids centered at the edges of three forest patches, each with a rural, suburban, or urban context, in Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. We identified boundaries within each grid at two spatial scales and tested their significance and overlap using boundary statistics and overlap statistics, respectively. We complemented boundary delineation with k-means clustering. Results Boundaries in environmental variables, such as temperature, grass cover, and leaf litter depth, occurred at or near the edges of all three sites, in many cases at both scales. The beetle variables that exhibited the most pronounced boundary structure in relation to edges were total species evenness, generalist abundance, generalist richness, generalist evenness, and Agonum punctiforme abundance. Environmental and beetle boundaries also occurred within forest patches and residential developments, indicating substantial localized spatial variation on either side of edges. Boundaries in beetle and environmental variables that displayed boundary structure at edges significantly overlapped, as did boundaries on either side of edges. The comparison of boundaries and clusters revealed that boundaries formed parts of the borders of patches of

  14. Edge Modeling by Two Blur Parameters in Varying Contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Suyoung

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a method of modeling edge profiles with two blur parameters, and estimating and predicting those edge parameters with varying brightness combinations and camera-to-object distances (COD). First, the validity of the edge model is proven mathematically. Then, it is proven experimentally with edges from a set of images captured for specifically designed target sheets and with edges from natural images. Estimation of the two blur parameters for each observed edge profile is performed with a brute-force method to find parameters that produce global minimum errors. Then, using the estimated blur parameters, actual blur parameters of edges with arbitrary brightness combinations are predicted using a surface interpolation method (i.e., kriging). The predicted surfaces show that the two blur parameters of the proposed edge model depend on both dark-side edge brightness and light-side edge brightness following a certain global trend. This is similar across varying CODs. The proposed edge model is compared with a one-blur parameter edge model using experiments of the root mean squared error for fitting the edge models to each observed edge profile. The comparison results suggest that the proposed edge model has superiority over the one-blur parameter edge model in most cases where edges have varying brightness combinations.

  15. Power spectrum weighted edge analysis for straight edge detection in images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvir, Hrishikesh V.; Skipper, Julie A.

    2007-04-01

    Most man-made objects provide characteristic straight line edges and, therefore, edge extraction is a commonly used target detection tool. However, noisy images often yield broken edges that lead to missed detections, and extraneous edges that may contribute to false target detections. We present a sliding-block approach for target detection using weighted power spectral analysis. In general, straight line edges appearing at a given frequency are represented as a peak in the Fourier domain at a radius corresponding to that frequency, and a direction corresponding to the orientation of the edges in the spatial domain. Knowing the edge width and spacing between the edges, a band-pass filter is designed to extract the Fourier peaks corresponding to the target edges and suppress image noise. These peaks are then detected by amplitude thresholding. The frequency band width and the subsequent spatial filter mask size are variable parameters to facilitate detection of target objects of different sizes under known imaging geometries. Many military objects, such as trucks, tanks and missile launchers, produce definite signatures with parallel lines and the algorithm proves to be ideal for detecting such objects. Moreover, shadow-casting objects generally provide sharp edges and are readily detected. The block operation procedure offers advantages of significant reduction in noise influence, improved edge detection, faster processing speed and versatility to detect diverse objects of different sizes in the image. With Scud missile launcher replicas as target objects, the method has been successfully tested on terrain board test images under different backgrounds, illumination and imaging geometries with cameras of differing spatial resolution and bit-depth.

  16. Edge strength of CAD/CAM materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeilschifter, Maria; Preis, Verena; Behr, Michael; Rosentritt, Martin

    2018-05-16

    To investigate the edge force of CAD/CAM materials as a function of (a) material, (b) thickness, and (c) distance from the margin. Materials intended for processing with CAD/CAM were investigated: eight resin composites, one resin-infiltrated ceramic, and a clinically proven lithiumdisilicate ceramic (reference). To measure edge force (that is, load to failure/crack), plates (d = 1 mm) were fixed and loaded with a Vickers diamond indenter (1 mm/min, Zwick 1446) at a distance of 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0 mm from the edge. Edge force was defined as a loading force at a distance of 0.5 mm. The type of failure was determined. To investigate the influence of the thickness, all data were determined on 1-mm and 2-mm plates. To test the influence of bonding and an underlying dentin, individual 1-mm plates were bonded to a 1-mm-thick dentin-like (concerning modulus of elasticity) resin composite. For the 1-mm plates, edge force varied between 64.4 ± 24.2 N (Shofu Block HC) and 183.2 ± 63.3 N (ceramic reference), with significant (p ≤ 0.001) differences between the materials. For the 2-mm plates, values between 129.2 ± 32.5 N (Lava Ultimate) and 230.3 ± 67.5 N (Cerasmart) were found. Statistical comparison revealed no significant differences (p > 0.109) between the materials. Brilliant Crios (p = 0.023), Enamic (p = 0.000), Shofu Blocks HC (p = 0.009), and Grandio Bloc (p = 0.002) showed significantly different edge force between the 1-mm- and 2-mm-thick plates. The failure pattern was either cracking, (severe) chipping, or fracture. Material, material thickness, and distance from the edge impact the edge force of CAD/CAM materials. CAD/CAM materials should be carefully selected on the basis of their individual edge force and performance during milling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acyclicity in edge-colored graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    A walk W in edge-colored graphs is called properly colored (PC) if every pair of consecutive edges in W is of different color. We introduce and study five types of PC acyclicity in edge-colored graphs such that graphs of PC acyclicity of type i is a proper superset of graphs of acyclicity of type i......+1, i=1,2,3,4. The first three types are equivalent to the absence of PC cycles, PC closed trails, and PC closed walks, respectively. While graphs of types 1, 2 and 3 can be recognized in polynomial time, the problem of recognizing graphs of type 4 is, somewhat surprisingly, NP-hard even for 2-edge-colored...... graphs (i.e., when only two colors are used). The same problem with respect to type 5 is polynomial-time solvable for all edge-colored graphs. Using the five types, we investigate the border between intractability and tractability for the problems of finding the maximum number of internally vertex...

  18. Does the edge effect influence plant community structure in a tropical dry forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Gallo Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Edge effects are considered a key factor in regulating the structure of plant communities in different ecosystems. However, regardless to few studies, edge influence does not seem to be decisive in semiarid regions such as the Brazilian tropical dry forest known as Caatinga but this issue remains inconclusive. The present study tests the null hypothesis that the plant community of shrubs and trees does not change in its structure due to edge effects. Twenty-four plots (20 x 20 m were set up in a fragment of Caatinga, in which 12 plots were in the forest edges and 12 plots were inside the fragment. Tree richness, abundance and species composition did not differ between edge and interior plots. The results of this study are in agreement with the pattern previously found for semiarid environments and contrasts with previous results obtained in different environments such as Rainforests, Savanna and Forest of Araucaria, which indicate abrupt differences between the border and interior of the plant communities in these ecosystems, and suggest that the community of woody plants of the Caatinga is not ecologically affected by the presence of edges.

  19. Are Scots pine forest edges particularly prone to drought-induced mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Allan; Schunk, Christian; Zeiträg, Claudia; Herrmann, Corinna; Kaiser, Laura; Lemme, Hannes; Straub, Christoph; Taeger, Steffen; Gößwein, Sebastian; Klemmt, Hans-Joachim; Menzel, Annette

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency of drought-induced tree mortality world-wide. To better predict the associated change of species composition and forest dynamics on various scales and develop adequate adaptation strategies, more information on the mechanisms driving the often observed patchiness of tree die-back is needed. Although forest-edge effects may play an important role within the given context, only few corresponding studies exist. Here, we investigate the regional die-back of Scots pine in Franconia, Germany, after a hot and dry summer in 2015, thereby emphasizing possible differences in mortality between forest edge and interior. By means of dendroecological investigations and close-range remote sensing, we assess long-term growth performance and current tree vitality along five different forest-edge distance gradients. Our results clearly indicate a differing growth performance between edge and interior trees, associated with a higher vulnerability to drought, increased mortality rates, and lower tree vitality at the forest edge. Prior long-lasting growth decline of dead trees compared to live trees suggests depletion of carbon reserves in course of a long-term drought persisting since the 1990s to be the cause of regional Scots pine die-back. These findings highlight the forest edge as a potential focal point of forest management adaptation strategies in the context of drought-induced mortality.

  20. The impact of edge effect on termite community (Blattodea: Isoptera) in fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, C S; Cristaldo, P F; Florencio, D F; Ribeiro, E J M; Cruz, N G; Silva, E A; Costa, D A; Araújo, A P A

    2017-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is considered to be one of the biggest threats to tropical ecosystem functioning. In this region, termites perform an important ecological role as decomposers and ecosystem engineers. In the present study, we tested whether termite community is negatively affected by edge effects on three fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Termite abundance and vegetation structure were sampled in 10 transects (15 × 2 m), while termite richness, activity, and soil litter biomass were measured in 16 quadrants (5 × 2 m) at forest edge and interior of each fragment. Habitat structure (i.e. number of tree, diameter at breast height and soil litter biomass) did not differ between forest edge and interior of fragments. Termite richness, abundance and activity were not affected by edge effect. However, differences were observed in the β diversity between forest edge and interior as well as in the fragments sampled. The β diversity partitioning indicates that species turnover is the determinant process of termite community composition under edge effect. Our results suggest that conservation strategies should be based on the selection of several distinct sites instead of few rich sites (e.g. nesting).

  1. Ant-lepidopteran associations along African forest edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Azémar, Frédéric; Libert, Michel; Compin, Arthur; Hérault, Bruno; Orivel, Jérôme; Bouyer, Thierry; Corbara, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    Working along forest edges, we aimed to determine how some caterpillars can co-exist with territorially dominant arboreal ants (TDAAs) in tropical Africa. We recorded caterpillars from 22 lepidopteran species living in the presence of five TDAA species. Among the defoliator and/or nectarivorous caterpillars that live on tree foliage, the Pyralidae and Nymphalidae use their silk to protect themselves from ant attacks. The Notodontidae and lycaenid Polyommatinae and Theclinae live in direct contact with ants; the Theclinae even reward ants with abundant secretions from their Newcomer gland. Lichen feeders (lycaenid; Poritiinae), protected by long bristles, also live among ants. Some lycaenid Miletinae caterpillars feed on ant-attended membracids, including in the shelters where the ants attend them; Lachnocnema caterpillars use their forelegs to obtain trophallaxis from their host ants. Caterpillars from other species live inside weaver ant nests. Those of the genus Euliphyra (Miletinae) feed on ant prey and brood and can obtain trophallaxis, while those from an Eberidae species only prey on host ant eggs. Eublemma albifascia (Erebidae) caterpillars use their thoracic legs to obtain trophallaxis and trophic eggs from ants. Through transfer bioassays of last instars, we noted that herbivorous caterpillars living in contact with ants were always accepted by alien conspecific ants; this is likely due to an intrinsic appeasing odor. Yet, caterpillars living in ant shelters or ant nests probably acquire cues from their host colonies because they were considered aliens and killed. We conclude that co-evolution with ants occurred similarly in the Heterocera and Rhopalocera.

  2. Infective endocarditis following transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmarats, Lluis; Rodriguez-Gabella, Tania; Chamandi, Chekrallah; Bernier, Mathieu; Beaudoin, Jonathan; O'Connor, Kim; Dumont, Eric; Dagenais, François; Paradis, Jean-Michel; Rodés-Cabau, Josep

    2018-05-10

    To assess the clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis (IE) after edge-to-edge mitral valve repair with the MitraClip device. Transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair has emerged as an alternative to surgery in high-risk patients. However, few data exist on IE following transcatheter mitral procedures. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, and Cochrane Library) were searched for original published studies on IE after edge-to-edge transcatheter mitral valve repair from 2003 to 2017. A total of 10 publications describing 12 patients with definitive IE (median age 76 years, 55% men) were found. The mean logistic EuroSCORE/EuroSCORE II were 41% and 45%, respectively. The IE episode occurred early (within 12 months post-procedure) in nine patients (75%; within the first month in five patients). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent (60%) causal microorganism, and severe mitral regurgitation was present in all cases but one. Surgical mitral valve replacement (SMVR) was performed in most (67%) patients, and the mortality associated with the IE episode was high (42%). IE following transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair is a rare but life-threatening complication, usually necessitating SMVR despite the high-risk profile of the patients. These results highlight the importance of adequate preventive measures and a prompt diagnosis and treatment of this serious complication. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Size effect model for the edge strength of glass with cut and ground edge finishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandebroek, M.; Louter, C.; Caspeele, R.; Ensslen, F.; Belis, J.L.I.F.

    2014-01-01

    The edge strength of glass is influenced by the size of the surface (near the edge) which is subjected to tensile stresses. To quantify this size effect, 8 series of single layer annealed glass beam specimens (as-received glass) were subjected to in-plane four-point bending with linearly increased

  4. Edge printability: techniques used to evaluate and improve extreme wafer edge printability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bill; Demmert, Cort; Jekauc, Igor; Tiffany, Jason P.

    2004-05-01

    The economics of semiconductor manufacturing have forced process engineers to develop techniques to increase wafer yield. Improvements in process controls and uniformities in all areas of the fab have reduced film thickness variations at the very edge of the wafer surface. This improved uniformity has provided the opportunity to consider decreasing edge exclusions, and now the outermost extents of the wafer must be considered in the yield model and expectations. These changes have increased the requirements on lithography to improve wafer edge printability in areas that previously were not even coated. This has taxed all software and hardware components used in defining the optical focal plane at the wafer edge. We have explored techniques to determine the capabilities of extreme wafer edge printability and the components of the systems that influence this printability. We will present current capabilities and new detection techniques and the influence that the individual hardware and software components have on edge printability. We will show effects of focus sensor designs, wafer layout, utilization of dummy edge fields, the use of non-zero overlay targets and chemical/optical edge bead optimization.

  5. Stratifying the Develoment of Product Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2013-01-01

    companies develop platforms for different aims, purposes, and product scopes. Following on from this, the requirements for platform development resources, the ways of organizing platform development, and the implications for management styles have not been explored and are presumably varying. To start...... influencing the project length, requirements for platform development resources, principles for organizing, and implications for management styles....

  6. The Educational Platform: Constructing Conceptual Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peca, Kathy; Isham, Mark

    2001-01-01

    The education faculty at Eastern New Mexico University used educational platforms as a means of developing the unit's conceptual framework. Faculty members developed personal platforms, then synthesized them into one curricular area platform. The resultant unit educational platform became the basis for the unit's conceptual framework, which…

  7. New offshore platform in the Mexican Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beisel, T.

    1982-04-01

    After a construction period of only 10 months, the second steel Offshore platform was recently completed in the Mexican Gulf. The pattern for this structure was the Cognac platform. The erection of the new platform, called the 'Cerveza' platform, is described in the article.

  8. The Dynamics of Digital Platform Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eaton, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Curated platforms provide an architectural basis for third parties to develop platform complements and for platform owners to control their implementation as a form of open innovation. The refusal to implement complements as innovations can cause tension between platform owners and developers. Th...

  9. Dynamic anthropogenic edge effects on the distribution and diversity of fungi in fragmented old-growth forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruete, Alejandro; Snäll, Tord; Jönsson, Mari

    2016-07-01

    Diversity patterns and dynamics at forest edges are not well understood. We disentangle the relative importance of edge-effect variables on spatio-temporal patterns in species richness and occupancy of deadwood-dwelling fungi in fragmented old-growth forests. We related richness and log occupancy by 10 old-growth forest indicator fungi and by two common fungi to log conditions in natural and anthropogenic edge habitats of 31 old-growth Picea abies forest stands in central Sweden. We compared edge-to-interior gradients (100 m) to the forest interior (beyond 100 m), and we analyzed stand-level changes after 10 yr. Both richness and occupancy of logs by indicator species was negatively related to adjacent young clear-cut edges, but this effect decreased with increasing clear-cut age. The occupancy of logs by indicator species also increased with increasing distance to the natural edges. In contrast, the occupancy of logs by common species was positively related or unrelated to distance to clear-cut edges regardless of the edge age, and this was partly explained by fungal specificity to substrate quality. Stand-level mean richness and mean occupancy of logs did not change for indicator or common species over a decade. By illustrating the importance of spatial and temporal dimensions of edge effects, we extend the general understanding of the distribution and diversity of substrate-confined fungi in fragmented old-growth forests. Our results highlight the importance of longer forest rotation times adjacent to small protected areas and forest set-asides, where it may take more than 50 yr for indicator species richness levels to recover to occupancy levels observed in the forest interior. Also, non-simultaneous clear-cutting of surrounding productive forests in a way that reduces the edge effect over time (i.e., dynamic buffers) may increase the effective core area of small forest set-asides and improve their performance on protecting species of special concern for

  10. Topological edge modes in multilayer graphene systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Lixin

    2015-08-10

    Plasmons can be supported on graphene sheets as the Dirac electrons oscillate collectively. A tight-binding model for graphene plasmons is a good description as the field confinement in the normal direction is strong. With this model, the topological properties of plasmonic bands in multilayer graphene systems are investigated. The Zak phases of periodic graphene sheet arrays are obtained for different configurations. Analogous to Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model in electronic systems, topological edge plasmon modes emerge when two periodic graphene sheet arrays with different Zak phases are connected. Interestingly, the dispersion of these topological edge modes is the same as that in the monolayer graphene and is invariant as the geometric parameters of the structure such as the separation and period change. These plasmonic edge states in multilayer graphene systems can be further tuned by electrical gating or chemical doping. © 2015 Optical Society of America.

  11. Performance of active edge pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomben, M.; Ducourthial, A.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Calderini, G.; D'Eramo, L.; Giacomini, G.; Marchiori, G.; Zorzi, N.; Rummler, A.; Weingarten, J.

    2017-05-01

    To cope with the High Luminosity LHC harsh conditions, the ATLAS inner tracker has to be upgraded to meet requirements in terms of radiation hardness, pile up and geometrical acceptance. The active edge technology allows to reduce the insensitive area at the border of the sensor thanks to an ion etched trench which avoids the crystal damage produced by the standard mechanical dicing process. Thin planar n-on-p pixel sensors with active edge have been designed and produced by LPNHE and FBK foundry. Two detector module prototypes, consisting of pixel sensors connected to FE-I4B readout chips, have been tested with beams at CERN and DESY. In this paper the performance of these modules are reported. In particular the lateral extension of the detection volume, beyond the pixel region, is investigated and the results show high hit efficiency also at the detector edge, even in presence of guard rings.

  12. Floquet edge states in germanene nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-08-23

    We theoretically demonstrate versatile electronic properties of germanene monolayers under circularly, linearly, and elliptically polarized light. We show for the high frequency regime that the edge states can be controlled by tuning the amplitude of the light and by applying a static electric field. For circularly polarized light the band gap in one valley is reduced and in the other enhanced, enabling single valley edge states. For linearly polarized light spin-split states are found for both valleys, being connected by time reversal symmetry. The effects of elliptically polarized light are similar to those of circularly polarized light. The transport properties of zigzag nanoribbons in the presence of disorder confirm a nontrivial nature of the edge states under circularly and elliptically polarized light.

  13. Controllable edge feature sharpening for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ran; Jin, Xiaogang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to sharpen blurred edge features in scanned tooth preparation surfaces generated by structured-light scanners. It aims to efficiently enhance the edge features so that the embedded feature lines can be easily identified in dental CAD systems, and to avoid unnatural oversharpening geometry. We first separate the feature regions using graph-cut segmentation, which does not require a user-defined threshold. Then, we filter the face normal vectors to propagate the geometry from the smooth region to the feature region. In order to control the degree of the sharpness, we propose a feature distance measure which is based on normal tensor voting. Finally, the vertex positions are updated according to the modified face normal vectors. We have applied the approach to scanned tooth preparation models. The results show that the blurred edge features are enhanced without unnatural oversharpening geometry.

  14. Controllable Edge Feature Sharpening for Dental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to sharpen blurred edge features in scanned tooth preparation surfaces generated by structured-light scanners. It aims to efficiently enhance the edge features so that the embedded feature lines can be easily identified in dental CAD systems, and to avoid unnatural oversharpening geometry. We first separate the feature regions using graph-cut segmentation, which does not require a user-defined threshold. Then, we filter the face normal vectors to propagate the geometry from the smooth region to the feature region. In order to control the degree of the sharpness, we propose a feature distance measure which is based on normal tensor voting. Finally, the vertex positions are updated according to the modified face normal vectors. We have applied the approach to scanned tooth preparation models. The results show that the blurred edge features are enhanced without unnatural oversharpening geometry.

  15. Edge database analysis for extrapolation to ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, M.; Janeschitz, G.; Stambaugh, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    An edge database has been archived to facilitate cross-machine comparisons of SOL and edge pedestal characteristics, and to enable comparison with theoretical models with an aim to extrapolate to ITER. The SOL decay lengths of power, density and temperature become broader for increasing density and q 95 . The power decay length is predicted to be 1.4-3.5 cm (L-mode) and 1.4-2.7 cm (H-mode) at the midplane in ITER. Analysis of Type I ELMs suggests that each giant ELM on ITER would exceed the ablation threshold of the divertor plates. Theoretical models are proposed for the H-mode transition, for Type I and Type III ELMs and are compared with the edge pedestal database. (author)

  16. Long coherence times for edge spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Jack; Yao, Norman Y.; Laumann, Christopher R.; Fendley, Paul

    2017-06-01

    We show that in certain one-dimensional spin chains with open boundary conditions, the edge spins retain memory of their initial state for very long times, even at infinite temperature. The long coherence times do not require disorder, only an ordered phase. In the integrable Ising and XYZ chains, the presence of a strong zero mode means the coherence time is infinite. When Ising is perturbed by interactions breaking the integrability, the coherence time remains exponentially long in the perturbing couplings. We show that this is a consequence of an edge ‘almost’ strong zero mode that almost commutes with the Hamiltonian. We compute this operator explicitly, allowing us to estimate accurately the plateau value of edge spin autocorrelator.

  17. Preparation of edge states by shaking boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z.C. [Department of Physics, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Center for Quantum Sciences and School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Hou, S.C. [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Wang, L.C. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yi, X.X., E-mail: yixx@nenu.edu.cn [Center for Quantum Sciences and School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Preparing topological states of quantum matter, such as edge states, is one of the most important directions in condensed matter physics. In this work, we present a proposal to prepare edge states in Aubry–André–Harper (AAH) model with open boundaries, which takes advantage of Lyapunov control to design operations. We show that edge states can be obtained with almost arbitrary initial states. A numerical optimalization for the control is performed and the dependence of control process on the system size is discussed. The merit of this proposal is that the shaking exerts only on the boundaries of the model. As a by-product, a topological entangled state is achieved by elaborately designing the shaking scheme.

  18. Evolution of Edge Pedestal Profiles Between ELMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, J. P.; Stacey, W. M.; Groebner, R. J.

    2012-10-01

    The measured edge profile evolution in DIII-D discharges is analyzed in terms of the implied thermal diffusivities, ion diffusion coefficients and pinch velocities, using the momentum-balance methodology of Ref. [1], extended to take into account ion orbit loss and X-point loss. The evolution of the density, temperature, rotation and radial electric field profiles in the edge pedestal between edge localized modes (ELMs) provides information of these diffusive and non-diffusive transport processes in the pedestal of H-mode plasmas. This methodology is incorporated in the GTEDGE code developed for DIII-D data interpretation. Using a smaller integration time for the charge exchange recombination measurements than in Ref. [1] allows a more detailed examination of the time evolution of the ion temperature and rotation profiles. 6pt [1] W.M. Stacey and R.J. Groebner, Nucl. Fusion 51, 063024 (2011).

  19. Edge effects in composites by moire interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnek, R.; Post, D.; Herakovich, C.

    1983-01-01

    The very high sensitivity of moire interferometry has permitted the present edge effect experiments to be conducted at a low average stress and strain level, assuring linear and elastic behavior in the composite material samples tested. Sensitivity corresponding to 2450 line/mm moire was achieved with a 0.408 micron/fringe. Simultaneous observations of the specimen face and edge displacement fields showed good fringe definition despite the 1-mm thickness of the specimens and the high gradients, and it is noted that the use of a carrier pattern and optical filtering was effective in even these conditions. Edge effects and dramatic displacement gradients were confirmed in angle-ply composite laminates.

  20. Properties of the tokamak edge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, H.

    1988-01-01

    A short review of some features of the edge plasma in limiter tokamaks is given. The limits of the simple one-dimensional scrape-off layer (SOL) model and the relation between the core plasma are discussed. Multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE) phenomena and detached plasma are closely connected with the particle and energy balance of the SOL. Their occurrence is based on the relation of plasma parameters of the edge plasma to those of the core. Important problems of plasma wall interactions are the detection of the impurity sources and sinks and the study of the impurity transport and shielding. The non-uniform character of plasma wall interactions and their dependence on the discharge performance still renders difficult any theoretical forecast of impurity distribution and transport and calls for better diagnostics. (author)

  1. Leading-edge vortex lifts swifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videler, J J; Stamhuis, E J; Povel, G D E

    2004-12-10

    The current understanding of how birds fly must be revised, because birds use their hand-wings in an unconventional way to generate lift and drag. Physical models of a common swift wing in gliding posture with a 60 degrees sweep of the sharp hand-wing leading edge were tested in a water tunnel. Interactions with the flow were measured quantitatively with digital particle image velocimetry at Reynolds numbers realistic for the gliding flight of a swift between 3750 and 37,500. The results show that gliding swifts can generate stable leading-edge vortices at small (5 degrees to 10 degrees) angles of attack. We suggest that the flow around the arm-wings of most birds can remain conventionally attached, whereas the swept-back hand-wings generate lift with leading-edge vortices.

  2. ALLIANCES: simulation platform for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, E.; Montarnal, Ph.; Loth, L.; Chavant, C.

    2009-01-01

    CEA, ANDRA and EDF are jointly developing the software platform ALLIANCES whose aim is to produce a tool for the simulation of nuclear waste storage and disposal. This type of simulations deals with highly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical and radioactive (T-H-M-C-R) processes. ALLIANCES' aim is to accumulate within the same simulation environment the already acquired knowledge and to gradually integrate new knowledge. The current version of ALLIANCES contains the following modules: - Hydraulics and reactive transport in unsaturated and saturated media; - Multi-phase flow; - Mechanical thermal-hydraulics; - Thermo-Aeraulics; - Chemistry/Transport coupling in saturated media; - Alteration of waste package coupled with the environment; - Sensitivity analysis tools. The next releases will include more physical phenomena like: reactive transport in unsaturated flow and multicomponent multiphase flow; incorporation of responses surfaces in sensitivity analysis tools; integration of parallel numerical codes for flow and transport. Since the distribution of the first release of ALLIANCES (December 2003), the platform was used by ANDRA for his safety simulation program and by CEA for reactive transport simulations (migration of uranium in a soil, diffusion of different reactive species on laboratory samples, glass/iron/clay interaction). (authors)

  3. Imaging enabled platforms for development of therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Jonathan; Rizvi, Imran; Blanden, Adam R.; Evans, Conor L.; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Spring, Bryan Q.; Muzikansky, Alona; Pogue, Brian W.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2011-03-01

    Advances in imaging and spectroscopic technologies have enabled the optimization of many therapeutic modalities in cancer and noncancer pathologies either by earlier disease detection or by allowing therapy monitoring. Amongst the therapeutic options benefiting from developments in imaging technologies, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is exceptional. PDT is a photochemistry-based therapeutic approach where a light-sensitive molecule (photosensitizer) is activated with light of appropriate energy (wavelength) to produce reactive molecular species such as free radicals and singlet oxygen. These molecular entities then react with biological targets such as DNA, membranes and other cellular components to impair their function and lead to eventual cell and tissue death. Development of PDT-based imaging also provides a platform for rapid screening of new therapeutics in novel in vitro models prior to expensive and labor-intensive animal studies. In this study we demonstrate how an imaging platform can be used for strategizing a novel combination treatment strategy for multifocal ovarian cancer. Using an in vitro 3D model for micrometastatic ovarian cancer in conjunction with quantitative imaging we examine dose and scheduling strategies for PDT in combination with carboplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent presently in clinical use for management of this deadly form of cancer.

  4. Edge modulation of electronics and transport properties of cliff-edge phosphorene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Caixia; Wang, Tianxing; Xia, Congxin; Liu, Yufang

    2017-12-01

    Based on the first-principles calculations, we study the electronic structures and transport properties of cliff-like edge phosphorene nanoribbons (CPNRs), considering different types of edge passivation. The band structures of bare CPNRs possess the metallic features; while hydrogen (H), fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl) and oxygen (O) atoms-passivated CPNRs are semiconductor materials, and the band gap values monotonically decrease when the ribbon width increases. Moreover, the H and F-passivated CPNRs exhibit the direct band gap characteristics, while the Cl and O-passivated cases show the features of indirect band gap. In addition, the edge passivated CPNRs are more energetically stable than bare edge case. Meanwhile, our results also show that the transport properties of the CPNRs can be obviously influenced by the different edge passivation.

  5. Edge effect on post-dispersal artificial seed predation in the southeastern Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Penido

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the post-dispersal artificial seed predation rates in two areas of the southeastern Amazon forest-savanna boundary, central Brazil. We conducted the survey in a disturbance regime controlled research site to verify if exists an edge effect in these rates and if the disturbance (in this case annual fire and no fire affects seed predation. We placed 800 peanuts seeds in each area at regular distance intervals from the fragment`s edge. Data were analyzed by a likelihood ratio model selection in generalized linear models (GLM. The complete model (with effects from edge distance and site and its interaction was significative (F3=4.43; p=0.005. Seeds had a larger predation rates in fragment’s interior in both areas, but in the controlled area (no disturbance this effect was less linear. This suggests an edge effect for post-dispersal seed predation, and that disturbances might alter these effects. Even if we exclude the site effect (grouping both areas together there is still a strong edge effect on seed predation rates (F3=32.679; p>0.001. We did not verify predator’s species in this study; however, the presence of several species of ants was extremely common in the seeds. The detection of an edge effect in only a short survey time suggests that there is heterogeneity in predation rates and that this variation might affect plant recruitment in fragmented areas of the Amazon forest. Henceforth, this seed predation should be taken in consideration in reforestation projects, where the main source of plants species is from seed distribution.

  6. Edge effect on post-dispersal artificial seed predation in the southeastern Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penido, G; Ribeiro, V; Fortunato, D S

    2015-05-01

    This paper evaluates the post-dispersal artificial seed predation rates in two areas of the southeastern Amazon forest-savanna boundary, central Brazil. We conducted the survey in a disturbance regime controlled research site to verify if exists an edge effect in these rates and if the disturbance (in this case annual fire and no fire) affects seed predation. We placed 800 peanuts seeds in each area at regular distance intervals from the fragment`s edge. Data were analyzed by a likelihood ratio model selection in generalized linear models (GLM). The complete model (with effects from edge distance and site and its interaction) was significative (F3=4.43; p=0.005). Seeds had a larger predation rates in fragment's interior in both areas, but in the controlled area (no disturbance) this effect was less linear. This suggests an edge effect for post-dispersal seed predation, and that disturbances might alter these effects. Even if we exclude the site effect (grouping both areas together) there is still a strong edge effect on seed predation rates (F3=32.679; p>0.001). We did not verify predator's species in this study; however, the presence of several species of ants was extremely common in the seeds. The detection of an edge effect in only a short survey time suggests that there is heterogeneity in predation rates and that this variation might affect plant recruitment in fragmented areas of the Amazon forest. Henceforth, this seed predation should be taken in consideration in reforestation projects, where the main source of plants species is from seed distribution.

  7. Improved core-edge tokamak transport simulations with the CORSICA 2 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarditi, A.; Cohen, R.H.; Crotinger, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The CORSICA 2 code models the nonlinear transport between the core and the edge of a tokamak plasma. The code couples a 2D axisymmetric edge/SOL model (UEDGE) to a 1D model for the radial core transport in toroidal flux coordinates (the transport module from the CORSICA 1 code). The core density and temperature profiles are joined to the flux-surface average profiles from the 2D code sufficiently inside the magnetic separatrix, at a flux surface on which the edge profiles are approximately constant. In the present version of the code, the deuterium density and electron and ion temperatures are coupled. The electron density is determined by imposing quasi-neutrality, both in the core and in the edge. The model allows the core-edge coupling of multiple ion densities while retaining a single temperature (corresponding to the equilibration value) for the all ion species. Applications of CORSICA 2 to modeling the DIII-D tokamak are discussed. This work will focus on the simulation of the L-H transition, coupling a single ion species (deuterium) and the two (electron and ion) temperatures. These simulations will employ a new self-consistent model for the L-H transition that is being implemented in the UEDGE code. Applications to the modeling of ITER ignition scenarios are also discussed. This will involve coupling a second density species (the thermal alphas), bringing the total number of coupled variables up to four. Finally, the progress in evolving the magnetic geometry is discussed. Currently, this geometry is calculated by CORSICA's MHD equilibrium module (TEQ) at the beginning of the run and fixed thereafter. However, CORSICA 1 can evolve this geometry quasistatically, and this quasistatic treatment is being extended to include the edge/SOL geometry. Recent improvements for code speed-up are also presented

  8. A Versatile Microarray Platform for Capturing Rare Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Haller, Anna; Gorges, Tobias M.; Vellekoop, Michael J.; Riethdorf, Sabine; Müller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Fuchs, Harald

    2015-10-01

    Analyses of rare events occurring at extremely low frequencies in body fluids are still challenging. We established a versatile microarray-based platform able to capture single target cells from large background populations. As use case we chose the challenging application of detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs) - about one cell in a billion normal blood cells. After incubation with an antibody cocktail, targeted cells are extracted on a microarray in a microfluidic chip. The accessibility of our platform allows for subsequent recovery of targets for further analysis. The microarray facilitates exclusion of false positive capture events by co-localization allowing for detection without fluorescent labelling. Analyzing blood samples from cancer patients with our platform reached and partly outreached gold standard performance, demonstrating feasibility for clinical application. Clinical researchers free choice of antibody cocktail without need for altered chip manufacturing or incubation protocol, allows virtual arbitrary targeting of capture species and therefore wide spread applications in biomedical sciences.

  9. Physics-based edge evaluation for improved color constancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsenij, A.; Gevers, T.; van de Weijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Edge-based color constancy makes use of image derivatives to estimate the illuminant. However, different edge types exist in real-world images such as shadow, geometry, material and highlight edges. These different edge types may have a distinctive influence on the performance of the illuminant

  10. Disentangling Competition Among Platform Driven Strategic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In platform-driven markets, competitive advantage is derived from superior platform design and configurations. For this reason, platform owners strive to create unique and inimitable platform configurals to maintain and extend their competitiveness within network economies. To disentangle firm...... competition within platform-driven markets, we opted for the UK mobile payment market as our empirical setting. By embracing the theoretical lens of strategic groups and digital platforms, this study supplements prior research by deriving a taxonomy of platform-driven strategic groups that is grounded...

  11. Edge detection in landing budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Bhagavatula

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While considerable scientific effort has been devoted to studying how birds navigate over long distances, relatively little is known about how targets are detected, obstacles are avoided and smooth landings are orchestrated. Here we examine how visual features in the environment, such as contrasting edges, determine where a bird will land. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Landing in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus was investigated by training them to fly from a perch to a feeder, and video-filming their landings. The feeder was placed on a grey disc that produced a contrasting edge against a uniformly blue background. We found that the birds tended to land primarily at the edge of the disc and walk to the feeder, even though the feeder was in the middle of the disc. This suggests that the birds were using the visual contrast at the boundary of the disc to target their landings. When the grey level of the disc was varied systematically, whilst keeping the blue background constant, there was one intermediate grey level at which the budgerigar's preference for the disc boundary disappeared. The budgerigars then landed randomly all over the test surface. Even though this disc is (for humans clearly distinguishable from the blue background, it offers very little contrast against the background, in the red and green regions of the spectrum. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that budgerigars use visual edges to target and guide landings. Calculations of photoreceptor excitation reveal that edge detection in landing budgerigars is performed by a color-blind luminance channel that sums the signals from the red and green photoreceptors, or, alternatively, receives input from the red double-cones. This finding has close parallels to vision in honeybees and primates, where edge detection and motion perception are also largely color-blind.

  12. Plasma edge modelling with ICRF coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of Radio-Frequency (RF wave heating in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF in the core plasmas of fusion devices are relatively well understood while those in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL remain still unresolved. This paper is dedicated to study the ICRF interactions with the plasma edge, mainly from the theoretical and numerical point of view, in particular with the 3D edge plasma fluid and neutral transport code EMC3-EIRENE and various wave codes. Here emphasis is given to the improvement of ICRF coupling with local gas puffing and to the ICRF induced density convection in the SOL.

  13. CO2 fluxes near a forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, Monique Y.; Zhang, Gensheng

    2008-01-01

    In contrast with recent advances on the dynamics of the flow at a forest edge, few studies have considered its role on scalar transport and, in particular, on CO2 transfer. The present study addresses the influence of the abrupt roughness change on forest atmosphere CO2 exchange and contrasts...... as a function of both sources/sinks distribution and the vertical structure of the canopy. Results suggest that the ground source plays a major role in the formation of wave-like vertical CO2 flux behavior downwind of a forest edge, despite the fact that the contribution of foliage sources/sinks changes...

  14. Edge detection techniques for iris recognition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tania, U T; Motakabber, S M A; Ibrahimy, M I

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays security and authentication are the major parts of our daily life. Iris is one of the most reliable organ or part of human body which can be used for identification and authentication purpose. To develop an iris authentication algorithm for personal identification, this paper examines two edge detection techniques for iris recognition system. Between the Sobel and the Canny edge detection techniques, the experimental result shows that the Canny's technique has better ability to detect points in a digital image where image gray level changes even at slow rate

  15. Radiative edge layers in limiter tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monier-Garbet, P.

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of the highly radiative edge layers produced in the limiter configuration and with an open ergodic divertor are reviewed, with emphasis on the results obtained in TEXTOR and Tore Supra. In these two experiments an impurity injection technique is used to obtain highly radiating homogeneous peripheral layers. This requires that the peripheral radiation capability be maximized, while at the same time avoiding plasma core contamination; it is also necessary to insure the stability of the radiating layer. These physics issues, governing the success of the highly radiative edge scenario, are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Wing Leading Edge Concepts for Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmilovich, Arvin; Yadlin, Yoram; Pitera, David M.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of wing leading edge concepts for noise reduction during high-lift operations, without compromising landing stall speeds, stall characteristics or cruise performance. High-lift geometries, which can be obtained by conventional mechanical systems or morphing structures have been considered. A systematic aerodynamic analysis procedure was used to arrive at several promising configurations. The aerodynamic design of new wing leading edge shapes is obtained from a robust Computational Fluid Dynamics procedure. Acoustic benefits are qualitatively established through the evaluation of the computed flow fields.

  17. X-point effect on edge stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarelma, S; Kirk, A; Kwon, O J

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of the X-point configuration on edge localized mode (ELM) triggering peeling and ballooning modes using fixed boundary equilibria and modifying the plasma shape to approach the limit of a true X-point. The current driven pure peeling modes are asymptotically stabilized by the X-point while the stabilizing effect on ballooning modes depends on the poloidal location of the X-point. The coupled peeling-ballooning modes experience the elimination of the peeling component as the X-point is introduced. This can significantly affect the edge stability diagrams used to analyse the ELM triggering mechanisms.

  18. Edge Cut Domination, Irredundance, and Independence in Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Fenstermacher, Todd; Hedetniemi, Stephen; Laskar, Renu

    2016-01-01

    An edge dominating set $F$ of a graph $G=(V,E)$ is an \\textit{edge cut dominating set} if the subgraph $\\langle V,G-F \\rangle$ is disconnected. The \\textit{edge cut domination number} $\\gamma_{ct}(G)$ of $G$ is the minimum cardinality of an edge cut dominating set of $G.$ In this paper we study the edge cut domination number and investigate its relationships with other parameters of graphs. We also introduce the properties edge cut irredundance and edge cut independence.

  19. Microneedle Platforms for Cell Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Kavaldzhiev, Mincho

    2017-11-01

    Micro-needle platforms are the core components of many recent drug delivery and gene-editing techniques, which allow for intracellular access, controlled cell membrane stress or mechanical trapping of the nucleus. This dissertation work is devoted to the development of micro-needle platforms that offer customized fabrication and new capabilities for enhanced cell analyses. The highest degree of geometrical flexibility is achieved with 3D printed micro-needles, which enable optimizing the topographical stress environment for cells and cell populations of any size. A fabrication process for 3D-printed micro-needles has been developed as well as a metal coating technique based on standard sputter deposition. This extends the functionalities of the platforms by electrical as well as magnetic features. The micro-needles have been tested on human colon cancer cells (HCT116), showing a high degree of biocompatibility of the platform. Moreover, the capabilities of the 3D-printed micro-needles have been explored for drug delivery via the well-established electroporation technique, by coating the micro-needles with gold. Antibodies and fluorescent dyes have been delivered to HCT116 cells and human embryonic kidney cells with a very high transfection rate up to 90%. In addition, the 3D-printed electroporation platform enables delivery of molecules to suspended cells or adherent cells, with or without electroporation buffer solution, and at ultra-low voltages of 2V. In order to provide a micro-needle platform that exploits existing methods for mass fabrication a custom designed template-based process has been developed. It has been used for the production of gold, iron, nickel and poly-pyrrole micro-needles on silicon and glass substrates. A novel delivery method is introduced that activates the micro-needles by electromagnetic induction, which enables to wirelessly gain intracellular access. The method has been successfully tested on HCT116 cells in culture, where a time

  20. Moodle vs. Social Media Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulieva, Valeria

    Given the competition coming from various social media platforms, it is explored in this paper how students could be encouraged to use Moodle more proactively during their studies. Moodle is a course management system for online learning. It is designed to be a flexible template-based system, which......, known and widely used social platforms. It might be also due to the fact that students do not see the benefits in investing time and efforts in learning the new system. Another reason might be the mandatory nature of Moodle, i.e., it is imposed on students, rather than a free choice – and this might...

  1. Towards a Framework of Digital Platform Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric T. K.

    2016-01-01

    between monopolistic (i.e., Pingit) and federated (i.e., Paym) mobile payment platforms to illustrate its applicability and yield principles on the nature and impact of competition among platform-driven ubiquitous systems. Preliminary findings indicate that monopolistic mobile digital platforms attempt...... to create unique configurals to obtain monopolistic power by tightly coupling platform layers, which are difficult to replicate. Conversely, federated digital platforms compete by dispersing the service layer to harness the collective resources from individual firms. Furthermore, the interaction...

  2. Development of a Novel System to Measure a Clearance of a Passenger Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M.; Oizumi, J.; Matsuoka, R.; Takeda, H.; Okukura, H.; Ooya, A.; Koike, A.

    2016-06-01

    Clearances of a passenger platform at a railway station should be appropriately maintained for safety of both trains and passengers. In most Japanese railways clearances between a platform and a train car is measured precisely once or twice a year. Because current measurement systems operate on a track, the closure of the track is unavoidable. Since the procedure of the closure of a track is time-consuming and bothersome, we decided to develop a new system to measure clearances without the closure of a track. A new system is required to work on a platform and the required measurement accuracy is less than several millimetres. We have adopted a 3D laser scanner and stop-and-go operation for a new system. The current systems on a track measure clearances continuously at walking speed, while our system on a platform measures clearances at approximately ten metres intervals. The scanner controlled by a PC acquires a set of point data at each measuring station. Edge points of the platform, top and side points of two rails are detected from the acquired point data. Finally clearances of the platform are calculated by using the detected feature points of the platform and the rails. The results of an experiment using a prototype of our system show that the measurement accuracy by our system would be satisfactory, but our system would take more time than the current systems. Since our system requires no closure of a track, we conclude that our system would be convenient and effective.

  3. Invasive acacias experience higher ant seed removal rates at the invasion edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Montesinos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal is a key process for the invasion of new areas by exotic species. Introduced plants often take advantage of native generalist dispersers. Australian acacias are primarily dispersed by ants in their native range and produce seeds bearing a protein and lipid rich reward for ant mutualists (elaiosome. Nevertheless, the role of myrmecochory in the expansion of Australian acacias in European invaded areas is still not clear. We selected one European population of Acacia dealbata and another of A. longifolia and offered elaiosome-bearing and elaiosome-removed seeds to local ant communities. For each species, seeds were offered both in high-density acacia stands and in low-density invasion edges. For both acacia species, seed removal was significantly higher at the low-density edges. For A. longifolia, manual elimination of elaiosomes reduced the chance of seed removal by 80% in the low-density edges, whereas it made no difference on the high-density stands. For A. dealbata, the absence of elaiosome reduced seed removal rate by 52%, independently of the acacia density. Our data suggests that invasive acacias have found effective ant seed dispersers in Europe and that the importance of such dispersers is higher at the invasion edges.

  4. Helical edge states and fractional quantum Hall effect in a graphene electron-hole bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Yamagishi, Javier D; Luo, Jason Y; Young, Andrea F; Hunt, Benjamin M; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Ashoori, Raymond C; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2017-02-01

    Helical 1D electronic systems are a promising route towards realizing circuits of topological quantum states that exhibit non-Abelian statistics. Here, we demonstrate a versatile platform to realize 1D systems made by combining quantum Hall (QH) edge states of opposite chiralities in a graphene electron-hole bilayer at moderate magnetic fields. Using this approach, we engineer helical 1D edge conductors where the counterpropagating modes are localized in separate electron and hole layers by a tunable electric field. These helical conductors exhibit strong non-local transport signals and suppressed backscattering due to the opposite spin polarizations of the counterpropagating modes. Unlike other approaches used for realizing helical states, the graphene electron-hole bilayer can be used to build new 1D systems incorporating fractional edge states. Indeed, we are able to tune the bilayer devices into a regime hosting fractional and integer edge states of opposite chiralities, paving the way towards 1D helical conductors with fractional quantum statistics.

  5. Impacts from Partial Removal of Decommissioned Oil and Gas Platforms on Fish Biomass and Production on the Remaining Platform Structure and Surrounding Shell Mounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claisse, Jeremy T; Pondella, Daniel J; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A; Williams, Chelsea M; Bull, Ann S

    2015-01-01

    When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth) or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes). "Shell mounds" are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders) on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat.

  6. Impacts from Partial Removal of Decommissioned Oil and Gas Platforms on Fish Biomass and Production on the Remaining Platform Structure and Surrounding Shell Mounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Claisse

    Full Text Available When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes. "Shell mounds" are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat.

  7. Atom–atom interactions around the band edge of a photonic crystal waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Jonathan D.; Goban, Akihisa; Asenjo-Garcia, Ana; Lu, Mingwu; Yu, Su-Peng; Chang, Darrick E.; Kimble, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Tailoring the interactions between quantum emitters and single photons constitutes one of the cornerstones of quantum optics. Coupling a quantum emitter to the band edge of a photonic crystal waveguide (PCW) provides a unique platform for tuning these interactions. In particular, the cross-over from propagating fields E(x)∝e±ikxx outside the bandgap to localized fields E(x)∝e−κx|x| within the bandgap should be accompanied by a transition from largely dissipative atom–atom interactions to a regime where dispersive atom–atom interactions are dominant. Here, we experimentally observe this transition by shifting the band edge frequency of the PCW relative to the D1 line of atomic cesium for N¯=3.0±0.5 atoms trapped along the PCW. Our results are the initial demonstration of this paradigm for coherent atom–atom interactions with low dissipation into the guided mode. PMID:27582467

  8. Atom-atom interactions around the band edge of a photonic crystal waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Jonathan D; Goban, Akihisa; Asenjo-Garcia, Ana; Lu, Mingwu; Yu, Su-Peng; Chang, Darrick E; Kimble, H J

    2016-09-20

    Tailoring the interactions between quantum emitters and single photons constitutes one of the cornerstones of quantum optics. Coupling a quantum emitter to the band edge of a photonic crystal waveguide (PCW) provides a unique platform for tuning these interactions. In particular, the cross-over from propagating fields [Formula: see text] outside the bandgap to localized fields [Formula: see text] within the bandgap should be accompanied by a transition from largely dissipative atom-atom interactions to a regime where dispersive atom-atom interactions are dominant. Here, we experimentally observe this transition by shifting the band edge frequency of the PCW relative to the [Formula: see text] line of atomic cesium for [Formula: see text] atoms trapped along the PCW. Our results are the initial demonstration of this paradigm for coherent atom-atom interactions with low dissipation into the guided mode.

  9. Edge detection of iris of the eye for human biometric identification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna O. Tryfonova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Method of human biometric identification by iris of the eye is considered as one of the most accurate and reliable methods of identification. Aim of the research is to solve the problem of edge detection of digital image of the human eye iris to be able to implement human biometric identification system by means of mobile device. To achieve this aim the algorithm of edge detection by Canny is considered in work. It consists of the following steps: smoothing, finding gradients, non-maximum suppression, double thresholding with hysteresis. The software implementation of the Canny algorithm is carried out for the Android mobile platform with the use of high level programming language Java.

  10. Range-edge genetic diversity: locally poor extant southern patches maintain a regionally diverse hotspot in the seagrass Zostera marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Onno E; Serrão, Ester A

    2012-04-01

    Refugial populations at the rear edge are predicted to contain higher genetic diversity than those resulting from expansion, such as in post-glacial recolonizations. However, peripheral populations are also predicted to have decreased diversity compared to the centre of a species' distribution. We aim to test these predictions by comparing genetic diversity in populations at the limits of distribution of the seagrass Zostera marina, with populations in the species' previously described central diversity 'hotspot'. Zostera marina populations show decreased allelic richness, heterozygosity and genotypic richness in both the 'rear' edge and the 'leading' edge compared to the diversity 'hotspot' in the North Sea/Baltic region. However, when populations are pooled, genetic diversity at the southern range is as high as in the North Sea/Baltic region while the 'leading edge' remains low in genetic diversity. The decreased genetic diversity in these southern Iberian populations compared to more central populations is possibly the effect of drift because of small effective population size, as a result of reduced habitat, low sexual reproduction and low gene flow. However, when considering the whole southern edge of distribution rather than per population, diversity is as high as in the central 'hotspot' in the North Sea/Baltic region. We conclude that diversity patterns assessed per population can mask the real regional richness that is typical of rear edge populations, which have played a key role in the species biogeographical history and as marginal diversity hotspots have very high conservation value. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. A new species of Conchicolites (Cornulitida, Tentaculita from the Wenlock of Gotland, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Vinn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new cornulitid species, Conchicolites crispisulcans sp. nov., is described from the Wenlock of Gotland, Sweden. The undulating edge of C. crispisulcans sp. nov. peristomes is unique among the species of Conchicolites. This undulating peristome edge may reflect the position of setae at the tube aperture. The presence of the undulating peristome edge supports the hypothesis that cornulitids had setae and were probably related to brachiopods.

  12. Optically Unraveling the Edge Chirality-Dependent Band Structure and Plasmon Damping in Graphene Edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jiahua; Chen, Runkun; Cheng, Yuan; Yang, Tianzhong; Zhai, Feng; Dai, Qing; Chen, Jianing

    2018-05-01

    The nontrivial topological origin and pseudospinorial character of electron wavefunctions make edge states possess unusual electronic properties. Twenty years ago, the tight-binding model calculation predicted that zigzag termination of 2D sheets of carbon atoms have peculiar edge states, which show potential application in spintronics and modern information technologies. Although scanning probe microscopy is employed to capture this phenomenon, the experimental demonstration of its optical response remains challenging. Here, the propagating graphene plasmon provides an edge-selective polaritonic probe to directly detect and control the electronic edge state at ambient condition. Compared with armchair, the edge-band structure in the bandgap gives rise to additional optical absorption and strongly absorbed rim at zigzag edge. Furthermore, the optical conductivity is reconstructed and the anisotropic plasmon damping in graphene systems is revealed. The reported approach paves the way for detecting edge-specific phenomena in other van der Waals materials and topological insulators. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Tangential 2-D Edge Imaging for GPI and Edge/Impurity Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqueda, Ricardo; Levinton, Fred M.

    2011-01-01

    Nova Photonics, Inc. has a collaborative effort at the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This collaboration, based on fast imaging of visible phenomena, has provided key insights on edge turbulence, intermittency, and edge phenomena such as edge localized modes (ELMs) and multi-faceted axisymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE). Studies have been performed in all these areas. The edge turbulence/intermittency studies make use of the Gas Puff Imaging diagnostic developed by the Principal Investigator (Ricardo Maqueda) together with colleagues from PPPL. This effort is part of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) edge, scrape-off layer and divertor group joint activity (DSOL-15: Inter-machine comparison of blob characteristics). The edge turbulence/blob study has been extended from the current location near the midplane of the device to the lower divertor region of NSTX. The goal of this effort was to study turbulence born blobs in the vicinity of the X-point region and their circuit closure on divertor sheaths or high density regions in the divertor. In the area of ELMs and MARFEs we have studied and characterized the mode structure and evolution of the ELM types observed in NSTX, as well as the study of the observed interaction between MARFEs and ELMs. This interaction could have substantial implications for future devices where radiative divertor regions are required to maintain detachment from the divertor plasma facing components.

  14. Edge control in CNC polishing, paper 2: simulation and validation of tool influence functions on edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Walker, David; Yu, Guoyu; Sayle, Andrew; Messelink, Wilhelmus; Evans, Rob; Beaucamp, Anthony

    2013-01-14

    Edge mis-figure is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for manufacturing the segments of extremely large telescopes, which can dominate key aspects of performance. A novel edge-control technique has been developed, based on 'Precessions' polishing technique and for which accurate and stable edge tool influence functions (TIFs) are crucial. In the first paper in this series [D. Walker Opt. Express 20, 19787-19798 (2012)], multiple parameters were experimentally optimized using an extended set of experiments. The first purpose of this new work is to 'short circuit' this procedure through modeling. This also gives the prospect of optimizing local (as distinct from global) polishing for edge mis-figure, now under separate development. This paper presents a model that can predict edge TIFs based on surface-speed profiles and pressure distributions over the polishing spot at the edge of the part, the latter calculated by finite element analysis and verified by direct force measurement. This paper also presents a hybrid-measurement method for edge TIFs to verify the simulation results. Experimental and simulation results show good agreement.

  15. Edge currents in frustrated Josephson junction ladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, A. M.; Santos, F. D. R.; Dias, R. G.

    2016-09-01

    We present a numerical study of quasi-1D frustrated Josephson junction ladders with diagonal couplings and open boundary conditions, in the large capacitance limit. We derive a correspondence between the energy of this Josephson junction ladder and the expectation value of the Hamiltonian of an analogous tight-binding model, and show how the overall superconducting state of the chain is equivalent to the minimum energy state of the tight-binding model in the subspace of one-particle states with uniform density. To satisfy the constraint of uniform density, the superconducting state of the ladder is written as a linear combination of the allowed k-states of the tight-binding model with open boundaries. Above a critical value of the parameter t (ratio between the intra-rung and inter-rung Josephson couplings) the ladder spontaneously develops currents at the edges, which spread to the bulk as t is increased until complete coverage is reached. Above a certain value of t, which varies with ladder size (t = 1 for an infinite-sized ladder), the edge currents are destroyed. The value t = 1 corresponds, in the tight-binding model, to the opening of a gap between two bands. We argue that the disappearance of the edge currents with this gap opening is not coincidental, and that this points to a topological origin for these edge current states.

  16. Superconducting Metallic Glass Transition-Edge-Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Charles C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A superconducting metallic glass transition-edge sensor (MGTES) and a method for fabricating the MGTES are provided. A single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is deposited on a substrate. The single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is an absorber for the MGTES and is electrically connected to a circuit configured for readout and biasing to sense electromagnetic radiation.

  17. Edge maps: Representing flow with bounded error

    KAUST Repository

    Bhatia, Harsh

    2011-03-01

    Robust analysis of vector fields has been established as an important tool for deriving insights from the complex systems these fields model. Many analysis techniques rely on computing streamlines, a task often hampered by numerical instabilities. Approaches that ignore the resulting errors can lead to inconsistencies that may produce unreliable visualizations and ultimately prevent in-depth analysis. We propose a new representation for vector fields on surfaces that replaces numerical integration through triangles with linear maps defined on its boundary. This representation, called edge maps, is equivalent to computing all possible streamlines at a user defined error threshold. In spite of this error, all the streamlines computed using edge maps will be pairwise disjoint. Furthermore, our representation stores the error explicitly, and thus can be used to produce more informative visualizations. Given a piecewise-linear interpolated vector field, a recent result [15] shows that there are only 23 possible map classes for a triangle, permitting a concise description of flow behaviors. This work describes the details of computing edge maps, provides techniques to quantify and refine edge map error, and gives qualitative and visual comparisons to more traditional techniques. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. Nonlinear neoclassical transport in toroidal edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, T.

    2002-01-01

    Edge plasma processes play a critical role for the global confinement of the plasma in a tokamak. In the edge region, where impurity ions are abundant and the temperature and density gradients are large, the assumptions of standard neoclassical theory break down. This paper reviews recent extensions of neoclassical theory to treat this problem, in particular our own work, which focuses on the nonlinear aspects of transport in a plasma with heavy impurity ions. In this theory, the pressure and temperature gradients are allowed to be steeper than in conventional theory neoclassical theory, so that the friction force between the bulk ions and heavy impurities is comparable to the parallel impurity pressure gradient. The impurity ions are then found to undergo a spontaneous rearrangement on each flux surface. This reduces their parallel friction with the bulk ions and causes the neoclassical ion flux to become a non-monotonic function of the gradients for plasma parameters typical of the tokamak edge. Thus, the neoclassical confinement is improved in regions where the gradients are large, such as in the edge pedestal. (orig.)

  19. Nonlinear neoclassical theory for toroidal edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, T.; Helander, P.

    2001-01-01

    Edge plasma processes play a critical role for the global confinement of the plasma. In the edge region, where impurity ions are abundant and the temperature and density gradients are large, the assumptions of the standard neoclassical theory break down. We have extended the theory of neoclassical transport in an impure plasma with arbitrary cross section and aspect ratio to allow for steeper pressure and temperature gradients than are usually considered in the conventional theory. The gradients are allowed to be so large that the friction force between the bulk ions and heavy impurities is comparable to the parallel impurity pressure gradient. In this case the impurity ions are found to undergo a spontaneous rearrangement on each flux surface. This reduces their parallel friction with the bulk ions and causes the neoclassical ion flux to become a non-monotonic function of the gradients for plasma parameters typical of the tokamak edge. Thus, the neoclassical confinement is improved in regions where the gradients are large, such as in the edge pedestal. The theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data from several tokamaks. (orig.)

  20. The SKED: speckle knife edge detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpies, S D; Light, R A; Achamfuo-Yeboah, S O; Clark, M; Somekh, M G

    2014-01-01

    The knife edge detector—also known as optical beam deflection—is a simple and robust method of detecting ultrasonic waves using a laser. It is particularly suitable for detection of high frequency surface acoustic waves as the response is proportional to variation of the local tilt of the surface. In the case of a specular reflection of the incident laser beam from a smooth surface, any lateral movement of the reflected beam caused by the ultrasonic waves is easily detected by a pair of photodiodes. The major disadvantage of the knife edge detector is that it does not cope well with optically rough surfaces, those that give a speckled reflection. The optical speckles from a rough surface adversely affect the efficiency of the knife edge detector, because 'dark' speckles move synchronously with 'bright' speckles, and their contributions to the ultrasonic signal cancel each other out. We have developed a new self-adapting sensor which can cope with the optical speckles reflected from a rough surface. It is inelegantly called the SKED—speckle knife edge detector—and like its smooth surface namesake it is simple, cheap, compact, and robust. We describe the theory of its operation, and present preliminary experimental results validating the overall concept and the operation of the prototype device

  1. The SKED: speckle knife edge detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpies, S. D.; Light, R. A.; Achamfuo-Yeboah, S. O.; Clark, M.; Somekh, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    The knife edge detector—also known as optical beam deflection—is a simple and robust method of detecting ultrasonic waves using a laser. It is particularly suitable for detection of high frequency surface acoustic waves as the response is proportional to variation of the local tilt of the surface. In the case of a specular reflection of the incident laser beam from a smooth surface, any lateral movement of the reflected beam caused by the ultrasonic waves is easily detected by a pair of photodiodes. The major disadvantage of the knife edge detector is that it does not cope well with optically rough surfaces, those that give a speckled reflection. The optical speckles from a rough surface adversely affect the efficiency of the knife edge detector, because 'dark' speckles move synchronously with 'bright' speckles, and their contributions to the ultrasonic signal cancel each other out. We have developed a new self-adapting sensor which can cope with the optical speckles reflected from a rough surface. It is inelegantly called the SKED—speckle knife edge detector—and like its smooth surface namesake it is simple, cheap, compact, and robust. We describe the theory of its operation, and present preliminary experimental results validating the overall concept and the operation of the prototype device.

  2. Anomalous transport in the tokamak edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vayakis, G.

    1991-04-01

    The tokamak edge has been studied with arrays of Langmuir and magnetic probes on the DITE and COMPASS-C devices. Measurements of plasma parameters such as density, temperature and radial magnetic field were taken in order to elucidate the character, effect on transport and origin of edge fluctuations. The tokamak edge is a strongly-turbulent environment, with large electrostatic fluctuation levels and broad spectra. The observations, including direct correlation measurements, are consistent with a picture in which the observed magnetic field fluctuations are driven by the perturbations in electrostatic parameters. The propagation characteristics of the turbulence, investigated using digital spectral techniques, appear to be dominated by the variation of the radial electric field, both in limiter and divertor plasmas. A shear layer is formed, associated in each case with the last closed flux surface. In the shear layer, the electrostatic wavenumber spectra are significantly broader. The predictions of a drift wave model (DDGDT) and of a family of models evolving from the rippling mode (RGDT group), are compared with experimental results. RGDT, augmented by impurity radiation effects, is shown to be the most reasonable candidate to explain the nature of the edge turbulence, only failing in its estimate of the wavenumber range. (Author)

  3. Edge Sheared Flows and Blob Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myra, J.; D' Ippolito, D.; Russell, D., E-mail: jrmyra@lodestar.com [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder (United States); Davis, W. M.; Zweben, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States); Terry, J.; LaBombard, B. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: A study of sheared flows in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) and their interaction with blob-filaments is presented. Edge sheared flows are believed to be important for the L-H, and H-L transitions. Blob generation and dynamics impacts both the (near-separatrix) scrape-off-layer (SOL) width critical for power handling in the divertor, and the interaction of plasma in the far SOL with plasma-facing components. These topics are critical for ITER and future devices. A fluid-based 2D curvature-interchange model embedded in the SOLT code is employed to study these issues. Sheared binormal flows both regulate the power flux crossing the separatrix and control the character of emitted turbulence structures such as blob-filaments. At a critical power level (depending on parameters) the laminar flows containing intermittent, but bound, structures give way to full-blown blob emissions signifying a transition from quasi-diffusive to convective transport. In order to diagnose sheared flows in experiments and assess their interaction with blobs, a blob-tracking algorithm has been developed and applied to both NSTX and Alcator C-Mod data. Blob motion and ellipticity can be affected by sheared flows, and are diagnosed and compared with seeded blob simulations. A picture of the interaction of blobs and sheared flows is emerging from advances in the theory and simulation of edge turbulence, combined with ever-improving capabilities for edge diagnostics and their analysis. (author)

  4. Edge Delamination of Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Thuc Hue; Yun, Seok Joon; Thi, Quoc Huy; Zhao, Jiong

    2017-07-25

    Delamination of thin films from the supportive substrates is a critical issue within the thin film industry. The emergent two-dimensional, atomic layered materials, including transition metal dichalcogenides, are highly flexible; thus buckles and wrinkles can be easily generated and play vital roles in the corresponding physical properties. Here we introduce one kind of patterned buckling behavior caused by the delamination from a substrate initiated at the edges of the chemical vapor deposition synthesized monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, led by thermal expansion mismatch. The atomic force microscopy and optical characterizations clearly showed the puckered structures associated with the strain, whereas the transmission electron microscopy revealed the special sawtooth-shaped edges, which break the geometrical symmetry for the buckling behavior of hexagonal samples. The condition of the edge delamination is in accordance with the fracture behavior of thin film interfaces. This edge delamination and buckling process is universal for most ultrathin two-dimensional materials, which requires more attention in various future applications.

  5. Evaluation of alternative snow plow cutting edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    With approximately 450 snow plow trucks, the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) uses in : excess of 10,000 linear feet of plow cutting edges each winter season. Using the 2008-2009 cost per linear : foot of $48.32, the Departments total co...

  6. Edge diagnostics for tandem mirror machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    The edge plasma in a tandem mirror machine shields the plasma core from cold neutral gas and impurities. A variety of diagnostics are used to measure the fueling, shielding, and confinement of the edge plasma in both the end plug and central cell regions. Fast ion gauges and residual gas analyzers measure the gas pressure and composition outside of the plasma. An array of Langmuir probes is used to measure the electron density and temperature. Extreme ultraviolet (euv) and visible spectroscopy are used to measure both the impurity and deuterium densities and to estimate the shielding factor for the core plasma. The linear geometry of a tandem mirror also allows direct measurements of the edge plasma by sampling the ions and electrons lost but the ends of the machine. Representative data obtained by these diagnostics during operation of the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) and Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) experiments are presented. Diagnostics that are currently being developed to diagnose the edge plasma are also discussed

  7. Commercial Technology at the Tactical Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Software defined Networking ( SDN ), Autonomic Networking , and Cognitive Radios for Spectrum Sharing. Software defined ...www.opennetworking.org/. 41 Pan, P., “ Software Defined Network ( SDN ) Problem Statement and Use Cases for Data Center Applications,” IETF, 2011, http://tools.ietf.org/id...routinely at the tactical edge in the near future. These include software defined networking , autonomous networks , cognitive

  8. Acoustic streaming of a sharp edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Zhou, Jianbo; Yalamanchili, Satish

    2014-07-01

    Anomalous acoustic streaming is observed emanating from sharp edges of solid bodies that are vibrating in fluids. The streaming velocities can be orders of magnitude higher than expected from the Rayleigh streaming at similar amplitudes of vibration. Acoustic velocity of fluid relative to a solid body diverges at a sharp edge, giving rise to a localized time-independent body force acting on the fluid. This force results in a formation of a localized jet. Two-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to predict acoustic streaming for low amplitude vibration using two methods: (1) Steady-state solution utilizing perturbation theory and (2) direct transient solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Both analyses agree with each other and correctly predict the streaming of a sharp-edged vibrating blade measured experimentally. The origin of the streaming can be attributed to the centrifugal force of the acoustic fluid flow around a sharp edge. The dependence of this acoustic streaming on frequency and velocity is examined using dimensional analysis. The dependence law is devised and confirmed by numerical simulations.

  9. Edge-disjoint Hamiltonian cycles in hypertournaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a method for reducing k-tournament problems, for k >= 3, to ordinary tournaments, that is, 2-tournaments. It is applied to show that a k-tournament on n >= k + 1 + 24d vertices (when k >= 4) or on n >= 30d + 2 vertices (when k = 3) has d edge-disjoint Hamiltonian cycles if and only...

  10. Leading-Edge Vortex lifts swifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, JJ; Stamhuis, EJ; Povel, GDE

    2004-01-01

    The current understanding of how birds fly must be revised, because birds use their hand-wings in an unconventional way to generate lift and drag. Physical models of a common swift wing in gliding posture with a 60degrees sweep of the sharp hand-wing leading edge were tested in a water tunnel.

  11. Zone edge effects with variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems may offer solutions to enhance water use efficiency by addressing variability within a field. However, the design of VRI systems should be considered to maximize application uniformity within sprinkler zones, while minimizing edge effects between such zones alo...

  12. Robotic edge machining using elastic abrasive tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, A. V.; Semyonov, E. N.; Belomestnykh, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The article describes a robotic center designed for automation of finishing operations, and analyzes technological aspects of an elastic abrasive tool applied for edge machining. Based on the experimental studies, practical recommendations on the application of the robotic center for finishing operations were developed.

  13. Simultaneous embedding: edge orderings, relative positions, cutvertices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bläsius, T.; Karrer, A.; Rutter, I.

    A simultaneous embedding (with fixed edges) of two graphs (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.) with common graph (Formula presented.) is a pair of planar drawings of (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.) that coincide on G. It is an open question whether there is a polynomial-time

  14. Increased heat fluxes near a forest edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W; van Breugel, PB; Moors, EJ; Nieveen, JP

    2002-01-01

    Observations of sensible and latent heat flux above forest downwind of a forest edge show these fluxes to be larger than the available energy over the forest. The enhancement averages to 56 W m(-2), or 16% of the net radiation, at fetches less than 400 m, equivalent to fetch to height ratios less

  15. Increased heat fluxes near a forest edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W.; Breugel, van P.B.; Moors, E.J.; Nieveen, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Observations of sensible and latent heat flux above forest downwind of a forest edge show these fluxes to be larger than the available energy over the forest. The enhancement averages to 56 W mm2, or 16 f the net radiation, at fetches less than 400 m, equivalent to fetch to height ratios less than

  16. Plasma edge cooling during RF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Hawryluk, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    A new approach to prevent the influx of high-Z impurities into the core of a tokamak discharge by using RF power to modify the edge plasma temperature profile is presented. This concept is based on spectroscopic measurements on PLT during ohmic heating and ATC during RF heating. A one dimensional impurity transport model is used to interpret the ATC results

  17. Verkenning locatiegegevens en sociale platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loenen, B.; Kilic, Deniz; Van de Velde, Rob

    2017-01-01

    In deze rapportage hebben we ons verdiept in de wereld van de commerciële toepassingen van sensordata, waarin locatiegegevens van smartphones op grote schaal worden vastgelegd. Een beter inzicht in de wereld van de sociale en commerciële platforms zou ervoor moeten zorgen dat deze beter begrepen

  18. 2009 Analysis Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Analysis platform review meeting, held on February 18, 2009, at the Marriott Residence Inn, National Harbor, Maryland.

  19. 2009 Feedstocks Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program‘s Feedstock platform review meeting, held on April 8–10, 2009, at the Grand Hyatt Washington, Washington, D.C.

  20. Platform pricing in matching markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goos, M.; van Cayseele, P.; Willekens, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a simple model of monopoly platform pricing accounting for two pertinent features of matching markets. 1) The trading process is characterized by search and matching frictions implying limits to positive cross-side network effects and the presence of own-side congestion.

  1. Towards trustworthy health platform cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, M.; Nalin, M.; Petkovic, M.; Baroni, I.; Marco, A.; Jonker, W.; Petkovic, M.

    2012-01-01

    To address today’s major concerns of health service providers regarding security, resilience and data protection when moving on the cloud, we propose an approach to build a trustworthy healthcare platform cloud, based on a trustworthy cloud infrastructure. This paper first highlights the main

  2. 2009 Infrastructure Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass program‘s Infrastructure platform review meeting, held on February 19, 2009, at the Marriott Residence Inn, National Harbor, Maryland.

  3. The visibility of IQHE at sharp edges: experimental proposals based on interactions and edge electrostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkarslan, U; Oylumluoglu, G; Grayson, M; Siddiki, A

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the incompressible strips on the integer quantized Hall effect (IQHE) is investigated, considering a cleaved-edge overgrown (CEO) sample as an experimentally realizable sharp edge system. We propose a set of experiments to clarify the distinction between the large-sample limit when bulk disorder defines the IQHE plateau width and the small-sample limit smaller than the disorder correlation length, when self-consistent edge electrostatics define the IQHE plateau width. The large-sample or bulk quantized Hall (QH) regime is described by the usual localization picture, whereas the small-sample or edge regime is discussed within the compressible/incompressible strips picture, known as the screening theory of QH edges. Utilizing the unusually sharp edge profiles of the CEO samples, a Hall bar design is proposed to manipulate the edge potential profile from smooth to extremely sharp. By making use of a side-gate perpendicular to the two-dimensional electron system, it is shown that the plateau widths can be changed or even eliminated altogether. Hence, the visibility of IQHE is strongly influenced when adjusting the edge potential profile and/or changing the dc current direction under high currents in the nonlinear transport regime. As a second investigation, we consider two different types of ohmic contacts, namely highly transmitting (ideal) and highly reflecting (non-ideal) contacts. We show that if the injection contacts are non-ideal, but still ohmic, it is possible to measure directly the non-quantized transport taking place at the bulk of the CEO samples. The results of the experiments we propose will clarify the influence of the edge potential profile and the quality of the contacts, under QH conditions. (paper)

  4. Unconventional quantized edge transport in the presence of inter-edge coupling in intercalated graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanchang

    2016-01-01

    It is generally believed that the inter-edge coupling destroys the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect along with the gap opening at the Dirac points. Using first-principles calculations, we find that the quantized edge transport persists in the presence of inter-edge coupling in Ta intercalated epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001), being a QSH insulator with the non-trivial gap of 81 meV. In this case, the band is characterized by two perfect Dirac cones with different Fermi velocities, yet only one m...

  5. New edge-centered photonic square lattices with flat bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhong, Hua; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Yanpeng; Belić, Milivoj R.

    2017-07-01

    We report a new class of edge-centered photonic square lattices with multiple flat bands, and consider in detail two examples: the Lieb-5 and Lieb-7 lattices. In these lattices, there are 5 and 7 sites in the unit cell and in general, the number is restricted to odd integers. The number of flat bands m in the new Lieb lattices is related to the number of sites N in the unit cell by a simple formula m =(N - 1) / 2. The flat bands reported here are independent of the pseudomagnetic field. The properties of lattices with even and odd number of flat bands are different. We consider the localization of light in such Lieb lattices. If the input beam excites the flat-band mode, it will not diffract during propagation, owing to the strong mode localization. In the Lieb-7 lattice, the beam will also oscillate during propagation and still not diffract. The period of oscillation is determined by the energy difference between the two flat bands. This study provides a new platform for investigating light trapping, photonic topological insulators, and pseudospin-mediated vortex generation.

  6. Mortality after percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair: a contemporary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortlandt, Friso A; de Beenhouwer, Thomas; Swaans, Martin J; Post, Marco C; van der Heyden, Jan A S; Eefting, Frank D; Rensing, Benno J W M

    2016-04-01

    Percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve (MV) repair is a relatively new treatment option for mitral regurgitation (MR). After the feasibility and safety having been proved in low-surgical-risk patients, the use of this procedure has shifted more to the treatment of high-risk patients. With the absence of randomized controlled trials (RCT) for this particular subgroup, observational studies try to add evidence to the safety aspect of this procedure. These also provide short- and mid-term mortality figures. Several mortality predictors have been identified, which may help the optimal selection of patients who will benefit most from this technique. In this article we provide an overview of the literature about mortality and its predictors in patients treated with the percutaneous edge-to-edge device.

  7. Active Ti Species in TiCl3-Doped NaAlH4. Mechanism for Catalyst Deactivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balde, C.P.; Stil, H.A.; van der Eerden, A.M.J.; de Jong, K.P.; Bitter, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the active Ti species in TiCl3-doped NaAlH4, a promising hydrogen storage material, was studied as a function of the desorption temperature with Ti K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, Ti K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy,

  8. Edge-effect interactions in fragmented and patchy landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porensky, Lauren M; Young, Truman P

    2013-06-01

    Ecological edges are increasingly recognized as drivers of landscape patterns and ecosystem processes. In fragmented and patchy landscapes (e.g., a fragmented forest or a savanna with scattered termite mounds), edges can become so numerous that their effects pervade the entire landscape. Results of recent studies in such landscapes show that edge effects can be altered by the presence or proximity of other nearby edges. We considered the theoretical significance of edge-effect interactions, illustrated various landscape configurations that support them and reviewed existing research on this topic. Results of studies from a variety of locations and ecosystem types show that edge-effect interactions can have significant consequences for ecosystems and conservation, including higher tree mortality rates in tropical rainforest fragments, reduced bird densities in grassland fragments, and bush encroachment and reduced wildlife densities in a tropical savanna. To clarify this underappreciated concept and synthesize existing work, we devised a conceptual framework for edge-effect interactions. We first worked to reduce terminological confusion by clarifying differences among terms such as edge intersection and edge interaction. For cases in which nearby edge effects interact, we proposed three possible forms of interaction: strengthening (presence of a second edge causes stronger edge effects), weakening (presence of a second edge causes weaker edge effects), and emergent (edge effects change completely in the presence of a second edge). By clarifying terms and concepts, this framework enables more precise descriptions of edge-effect interactions and facilitates comparisons of results among disparate study systems and response variables. A better understanding of edge-effect interactions will pave the way for more appropriate modeling, conservation, and management in complex landscapes. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Understanding the promises and premises of online health platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Van Dijck

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the claims and complexities involved in the platform-based economics of health and fitness apps. We examine a double-edged logic inscribed in these platforms, promising to offer personal solutions to medical problems while also contributing to the public good. On the one hand, online platforms serve as personalized data-driven services to their customers. On the other hand, they allegedly serve public interests, such as medical research or health education. In doing so, many apps employ a diffuse discourse, hinging on terms like “sharing,” “open,” and “reuse” when they talk about data extraction and distribution. The analytical approach we adopt in this article is situated at the nexus of science and technology studies, political economy, and the sociology of health and illness. The analysis concentrates on two aspects: datafication (the use and reuse of data and commodification (a platform’s deployment of governance and business models. We apply these analytical categories to three specific platforms: 23andMe, PatientsLikeMe, and Parkinson mPower. The last section will connect these individual examples to the wider implications of health apps’ data flows, governance policies, and business models. Regulatory bodies commonly focus on the (medical safety and security of apps, but pay scarce attention to health apps’ techno-economic governance. Who owns user-generated health data and who gets to benefit? We argue that it is important to reflect on the societal implications of health data markets. Governments have the duty to provide conceptual clarity in the grand narrative of transforming health care and health research.

  10. Independent component analysis of edge information for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Karande, Kailash Jagannath

    2013-01-01

    The book presents research work on face recognition using edge information as features for face recognition with ICA algorithms. The independent components are extracted from edge information. These independent components are used with classifiers to match the facial images for recognition purpose. In their study, authors have explored Canny and LOG edge detectors as standard edge detection methods. Oriented Laplacian of Gaussian (OLOG) method is explored to extract the edge information with different orientations of Laplacian pyramid. Multiscale wavelet model for edge detection is also propos

  11. Edge-detect interpolation for direct digital periapical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Nam Kyu; Koh, Kwang Joon

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to aid in the use of the digital images by edge-detect interpolation for direct digital periapical images using edge-deted interpolation. This study was performed by image processing of 20 digital periapical images; pixel replication, linear non-interpolation, linear interpolation, and edge-sensitive interpolation. The obtained results were as follows ; 1. Pixel replication showed blocking artifact and serious image distortion. 2. Linear interpolation showed smoothing effect on the edge. 3. Edge-sensitive interpolation overcame the smoothing effect on the edge and showed better image.

  12. Edge states in a ferromagnetic honeycomb lattice with armchair boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleón, Pierre A.; Xian, Y.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the properties of magnon edge states in a ferromagnetic honeycomb lattice with armchair boundaries. In contrast with fermionic graphene, we find novel edge states due to the missing bonds along the boundary sites. After introducing an external on-site potential at the outermost sites we find that the energy spectra of the edge states are tunable. Additionally, when a non-trivial gap is induced, we find that some of the edge states are topologically protected and also tunable. Our results may explain the origin of the novel edge states recently observed in photonic lattices. We also discuss the behavior of these edge states for further experimental confirmations.

  13. Recruiting first generation college students into the Geosciences: Alaska's EDGE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, A.; Connor, C.

    2008-12-01

    Funded in 2005-2008, by the National Science Foundation's Geoscience Education Division, the Experiential Discoveries in Geoscience Education (EDGE) project was designed to use glacier and watershed field experiences as venues for geospatial data collected by Alaska's grade 6-12 middle and high school teachers and their students. EDGE participants were trained in GIS and learned to analyze geospatial data to answer questions about the warming Alaska environment and to determine rates of ongoing glacier recession. Important emphasis of the program was the recruitment of Alaska Native students of Inupiat, Yup'ik, Athabascan, and Tlingit populations, living in both rural and urban areas around the state. Twelve of Alaska's 55 school districts have participated in the EDGE program. To engage EDGE students in the practice of scientific inquiry, each was required to carry out a semester scale research project using georeferenced data, guided by their EDGE teacher and mentor. Across Alaska students investigated several Earth systems processes including freezing conditions of lake ice; the changes in water quality in storm drains after rainfall events; movements of moose, bears, and bison across Alaskan landscapes; changes in permafrost depth in western Alaska; and the response of migrating waterfowl to these permafrost changes. Students correlated the substrate beneath their schools with known earthquake intensities; measured cutbank and coastal erosion on northern rivers and southeastern shorelines; tracked salmon infiltration of flooded logging roads; noted the changing behavior of eagles during late winter salmon runs; located good areas for the use of tidal power for energy production; tracked the extent and range of invasive plant species with warming; and the change of forests following deglaciation. Each cohort of EDGE students and teachers finished the program by attended a 3-day EDGE symposium at which students presented their research projects first in a

  14. Shifts in Plant Assemblages Reduce the Richness of Galling Insects Across Edge-Affected Habitats in the Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Danielle G; Santos, Jean C; Oliveira, Marcondes A; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    Impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation on specialist herbivores have been rarely addressed. Here we examine the structure of plant and galling insect assemblages in a fragmented landscape of the Atlantic forest to verify a potential impoverishment of these assemblages mediated by edge effects. Saplings and galling insects were recorded once within a 0.1-ha area at habitat level, covering forest interior stands, forest edges, and small fragments. A total of 1,769 saplings from 219 tree species were recorded across all three habitats, with differences in terms of sapling abundance and species richness. Additionally, edge-affected habitats exhibited reduced richness of both host-plant and galling insects at plot and habitat spatial scale. Attack levels also differed among forest types at habitat spatial scale (21.1% of attacked stems in forest interior, 12.4% in small fragments but only 8.5% in forest edges). Plot ordination resulted in three clearly segregated clusters: one formed by forest interior, one by small fragments, and another formed by edge plots. Finally, the indicator species analysis identified seven and one indicator plant species in forest interior and edge-affected habitats, respectively. Consequently, edge effects lead to formation of distinct taxonomic groups and also an impoverished assemblage of plants and galling insects at multiple spatial scales. The results of the present study indicate that fragmentation-related changes in plant assemblages can have a cascade effects on specialist herbivores. Accordingly, hyperfragmented landscapes may not be able to retain an expressive portion of tropical biodiversity. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Crystallographic study of grain refinement in aluminum alloys using the edge-to-edge matching model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, M.-X.; Kelly, P.M.; Easton, M.A.; Taylor, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The edge-to-edge matching model for describing the interfacial crystallographic characteristics between two phases that are related by reproducible orientation relationships has been applied to the typical grain refiners in aluminum alloys. Excellent atomic matching between Al 3 Ti nucleating substrates, known to be effective nucleation sites for primary Al, and the Al matrix in both close packed directions and close packed planes containing these directions have been identified. The crystallographic features of the grain refiner and the Al matrix are very consistent with the edge-to-edge matching model. For three other typical grain refiners for Al alloys, TiC (when a = 0.4328 nm), TiB 2 and AlB 2 , the matching only occurs between the close packed directions in both phases and between the second close packed plane of the Al matrix and the second close packed plane of the refiners. According to the model, it is predicted that Al 3 Ti is a more powerful nucleating substrate for Al alloy than TiC, TiB 2 and AlB 2 . This agrees with the previous experimental results. The present work shows that the edge-to-edge matching model has the potential to be a powerful tool in discovering new and more powerful grain refiners for Al alloys

  16. Factors affecting the abundance of selected fishes near oil and gas platforms in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, D.R.; Wilson, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    A logbook program was initiated to determine the relative abundance of selected fish species around oil and gas platforms off the Louisiana coast. Logbooks were maintained by 55 anglers and 10 charterboat operators from March 1987 to March 1988. A total of 36,839 fish were caught representing over 46 different species. Principal component analysis (PCA) grouped the seventeen most abundant species into reef fish, pelagic fish, bluefish-red drum, Atlantic croaker-silver/sand seatrout, and cobia-shark-blue runner associations. Multiple regression analyses were used to compare PCA groupings to physical platform, temporal, geological, and angler characteristic variables and their interactions. Reef fish, Atlantic croaker, and silver/sand seatrout abundances were highest near large, structurally complex platforms in relatively deep water. High spotted seatrout abundances were correlated with small, unmanned oil and gas platforms in shallow water. Pelagic fish, bluefish, red drum, cobia, and shark abundances were not related to the physical parameters of the platforms

  17. Factors affecting the abundance of selected fishes near oil and gas platforms in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, D.R.; Wilson, C.A. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (United States))

    1991-01-01

    A logbook program was initiated to determine the relative abundance of selected fish species around oil and gas platforms off the Louisiana coast. Logbooks were maintained by 55 anglers and 10 charterboat operators from March 1987 to March 1988. A total of 36,839 fish were caught representing over 46 different species. Principal component analysis (PCA) grouped the seventeen most abundant species into reef fish, pelagic fish, bluefish-red drum, Atlantic croaker-silver/sand seatrout, and cobia-shark-blue runner associations. Multiple regression analyses were used to compare PCA groupings to physical platform, temporal, geological, and angler characteristic variables and their interactions. Reef fish, Atlantic croaker, and silver/sand seatrout abundances were highest near large, structurally complex platforms in relatively deep water. High spotted seatrout abundances were correlated with small, unmanned oil and gas platforms in shallow water. Pelagic fish, bluefish, red drum, cobia, and shark abundances were not related to the physical parameters of the platforms.

  18. Climate News Across Media Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2015-01-01

    In a changing media landscape marked by technological, institutional and cultural convergence, comparative and cross-media content analysis represents a valuable analytical tool in mapping the diverse channels of climate change communication. This paper presents a comparative study of climate...... quantitative and qualitative content analysis the paper documents and explores the extent and character of climate change news across different media platforms. The study aims at contributing to the on-going assessment of how news media are addressing climate change at a time when old and new media...... change news on five different media platforms: newspapers, television, radio, web-news and mobile news. It investigates the themes and actors represented in public climate change communication as well as the diverse possibilities of participating in public debates and information sharing. By combining...

  19. Stabilisation problem in biaxial platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindner Tymoteusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes investigation of rolling ball stabilization problem on a biaxial platform. The aim of the control system proposed here is to stabilize ball moving on a plane in equilibrium point. The authors proposed a control algorithm based on cascade PID and they compared it with another control method. The article shows the results of the accuracy of ball stabilization and influence of applied filter on the signal waveform. The application used to detect the ball position measured by digital camera has been written using a cross platform .Net wrapper to the OpenCV image processing library - EmguCV. The authors used the bipolar stepper motor with dedicated electronic controller. The data between the computer and the designed controller are sent with use of the RS232 standard. The control stand is based on ATmega series microcontroller.

  20. SAFETY PLATFORM OF POLISH TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna CHRUZIK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the level of Polish transport safety culture can be seen that it is now dependent on the culture of safety management within the organization and the requirements and recommendations of law in this field for different modes of transport (air, rail, road, water. Of the four basic types of transport requirements are widely developed in the aviation, rail, and water – the sea. In order to harmonize the requirements for transport safety so it appears advisable to develop a platform for exchange of safety information for different modes of transport, and the development of good practices multimodal offering the possibility of improving Polish transport safety. Described in the publication of the proposal in addition to the alignment platform experience and knowledge in the field of transport safety in all its kinds, it can also be a tool for perfecting new operators of public transport.

  1. Tax Responses in Platform Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Köthenbürger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    that a higher ad valorem tax may undermine a firm's incentive to differentiate its product from that of its competitors. Finally, we demonstrate that the effects of increasing specific taxes may be the opposite of those of increasing value added taxes....... price and thus buy less of the good. The present paper shows that this result need not hold in a two-sided market. On the contrary, a higher ad valorem tax may lower end-user prices and spur sales. Thus, two-sided platform firms may not at all engage in tax shifting via price increases. We further show......Two-sided platform firms serve distinct customer groups that are connected through interdependent demand, and include major businesses such as the media industry, banking, and the software industry. A well known result of tax incidence is that consumers of a more heavily taxed good pay a higher...

  2. Stabilisation problem in biaxial platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Tymoteusz; Rybarczyk, Dominik; Wyrwał, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The article describes investigation of rolling ball stabilization problem on a biaxial platform. The aim of the control system proposed here is to stabilize ball moving on a plane in equilibrium point. The authors proposed a control algorithm based on cascade PID and they compared it with another control method. The article shows the results of the accuracy of ball stabilization and influence of applied filter on the signal waveform. The application used to detect the ball position measured by digital camera has been written using a cross platform .Net wrapper to the OpenCV image processing library - EmguCV. The authors used the bipolar stepper motor with dedicated electronic controller. The data between the computer and the designed controller are sent with use of the RS232 standard. The control stand is based on ATmega series microcontroller.

  3. Negotiation platform for personalised advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Luís Ventura de; Malheiro, Benedita; Foss, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-agent brokerage platform for near real time advertising personalisation organised in three layers: user interface, agency and marketplace. The personalisation is based on the classification of viewer profiles and advertisements (ads). The goal is to provide viewers with a personalised advertising alignment during programme intervals. The enterprise interface agents upload new ads and negotiation profiles to producer agents and new user and negotiation profiles to ...

  4. Reconfigurable microfluidic platform in ice

    OpenAIRE

    Varejka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Microfluidic devices are popular tools in the biotechnology industry where they provide smaller reagent requirements, high speed of analysis and the possibility for automation. The aim of the project is to make a flexible biocompatible microfluidic platform adapted to different specific applications, mainly analytical and separations which parameters and configuration can be changed multiple times by changing corresponding computer programme. The current project has been sup...

  5. Visual guidance of mobile platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Rodney J.

    1993-12-01

    Two systems are described and results presented demonstrating aspects of real-time visual guidance of autonomous mobile platforms. The first approach incorporates prior knowledge in the form of rigid geometrical models linking visual references within the environment. The second approach is based on a continuous synthesis of information extracted from image tokens to generate a coarse-grained world model, from which potential obstacles are inferred. The use of these techniques in workplace applications is discussed.

  6. DATABASE REPLICATION IN HETEROGENOUS PLATFORM

    OpenAIRE

    Hendro Nindito; Evaristus Didik Madyatmadja; Albert Verasius Dian Sano

    2014-01-01

    The application of diverse database technologies in enterprises today is increasingly a common practice. To provide high availability and survavibality of real-time information, a database replication technology that has capability to replicate databases under heterogenous platforms is required. The purpose of this research is to find the technology with such capability. In this research, the data source is stored in MSSQL database server running on Windows. The data will be replicated to MyS...

  7. GSGG edge cladding development: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumitani, T.; Meissner, H.E.; Toratani, H.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of this project have been: (1) Investigate the possibility of chemical etching of GSGG crystal slabs to obtain increased strength. (2) Design and construct a simplified mold assembly for casting cladding glass to the edges of crystal slabs of different dimensions. (3) Conduct casting experiments to evaluate the redesigned mold assembly and to determine stresses as function of thermal expansion coefficient of cladding glass. (4) Clad larger sizes of GGG slabs as they become available. These tasks have been achieved. Chemical etching of GSGG slabs does not appear possible with any other acid than H 3 PO 4 at temperatures above 300 0 C. A mold assembly has been constructed which allowed casting cladding glass around the edges of the largest GGG slabs available (10 x 20 x 160 mm) without causing breakage through the annealing step

  8. Quantum nature of edge magnetism in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golor, Michael; Wessel, Stefan; Schmidt, Manuel J

    2014-01-31

    It is argued that the subtle crossover from decoherence-dominated classical magnetism to fluctuation-dominated quantum magnetism is experimentally accessible in graphene nanoribbons. We show that the width of a nanoribbon determines whether the edge magnetism is on the classical side, on the quantum side, or in between. In the classical regime, decoherence is dominant and leads to static spin polarizations at the ribbon edges, which are well described by mean-field theories. The quantum Zeno effect is identified as the basic mechanism which is responsible for the spin polarization and thereby enables the application of graphene in spintronics. On the quantum side, however, the spin polarization is destroyed by dynamical processes. The great tunability of graphene magnetism thus offers a viable route for the study of the quantum-classical crossover.

  9. Analyzing the edge effects in a Brazilian seasonally dry tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, D M; Eisenlohr, P V

    2016-02-01

    Due to the deciduous nature of dry forests (widely known as seasonally dry tropical forests) they are subject to microclimatic conditions not experienced in other forest formations. Close examinations of the theory of edge effects in dry forests are still rare and a number of questions arise in terms of this topic. In light of this situation we examined a fragment of the dry forest to respond to the following questions: (I) Are there differences in canopy cover along the edge-interior gradient during the dry season? (II) How does the microclimate (air temperature, soil temperature, and relative humidity) vary along that gradient? (III) How does the microclimate influence tree species richness, evenness and abundance along that gradient? (IV) Are certain tree species more dominant closer to the forest edges? Regressions were performed to address these questions. Their coefficients did not significantly vary from zero. Apparently, the uniform openness of the forest canopy caused a homogeneous internal microclimate, without significant differentiation in habitats that would allow modifications in biotic variables tested. We conclude that the processes of edge effect commonly seen in humid forests, not was shared with the dry forest assessed.

  10. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Tryggestad, Erik, E-mail: frank.verhaegen@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States)

    2011-06-21

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  11. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  12. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  13. Benchmarking computer platforms for lattice QCD applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenbusch, M.; Jansen, K.; Pleiter, D.; Wegner, P.; Wettig, T.

    2003-09-01

    We define a benchmark suite for lattice QCD and report on benchmark results from several computer platforms. The platforms considered are apeNEXT, CRAY T3E, Hitachi SR8000, IBM p690, PC-Clusters, and QCDOC. (orig.)

  14. Benchmarking computer platforms for lattice QCD applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenbusch, M.; Jansen, K.; Pleiter, D.; Stueben, H.; Wegner, P.; Wettig, T.; Wittig, H.

    2004-01-01

    We define a benchmark suite for lattice QCD and report on benchmark results from several computer platforms. The platforms considered are apeNEXT, CRAY T3E; Hitachi SR8000, IBM p690, PC-Clusters, and QCDOC

  15. The Innovative Capabilities Of Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a model for studying the innovative capabilities of digital payment platforms in regards to open innovation integration and commercialization. We perceive digital platforms as layered modular IT artifacts, where platform governance and the configuration of platform layers impact...... the support for open innovation. The proposed model has been employed in a comparative case study between two digital payment platforms: Apple Pay and Google Wallet. The findings suggest that digital payment platforms make use of boundary resources to be highly integrative or integratable, which supports...... the intended conjoint commercialization efforts. Furthermore, the architectural design of digital platforms impacts the access to commercialization, resulting to an exclusion or inclusion strategy in accessing value opportunities. Our findings contribute to the open innovation and digital platform literature...

  16. Hierarchical DSE for multi-ASIP platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micconi, Laura; Corvino, Rosilde; Gangadharan, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes a hierarchical Design Space Exploration (DSE) for the design of multi-processor platforms targeted to specific applications with strict timing and area constraints. In particular, it considers platforms integrating multiple Application Specific Instruction Set Processors (ASIPs...

  17. The Logic of Digital Platform Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric T. K.

    Digital platforms are disruptive IT artifacts, because they facilitate the quick release of innovative platform derivatives from third parties (e.g., apps). This study endeavours to unravel the disruptive potential, caused by distinct designs and configurations of digital platforms on market...... environments. We postulate that the disruptive potential of digital platforms is determined by the degree of alignment among the business, technology and platform profiles. Furthermore, we argue that the design and configuration of the aforementioned three elements dictates the extent to which open innovation...... is permitted. To shed light on the disruptive potential of digital platforms, we opted for payment platforms as our unit of analysis. Through interviews with experts and payment providers, we seek to gain an in-depth appreciation of how contemporary digital payment platforms are designed and configured...

  18. Software development on the SAP HANA platform

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Software Development on the SAP HANA Platform is a general tutorial guide to SAP HANA.This book is written for beginners to the SAP HANA platform. No knowledge of SAP HANA is necessary to start using this book.

  19. Towards a Disruptive Digital Platform Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol

    that digital platforms leverage on three strategic design elements (i.e., business, architecture, and technology design) to create supportive conditions for facilitating disruption. To shed light on disruptive digital platforms, I opted for payment platforms as my empirical context and unit of analysis......Digital platforms are layered modular information technology architectures that support disruption. Digital platforms are particularly disruptive, as they facilitate the quick release of digital innovations that may replace established innovations. Yet, despite their support for disruption, we have...... not fully understood how such digital platforms can be strategically designed and configured to facilitate disruption. To that end, this thesis endeavors to unravel disruptive digital platforms from the supply perspective that are grounded on strategic digital platform design elements. I suggest...

  20. Platforms for Persistent Communications, Surveillance and Reconnaissance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, William; Vehlow, Chuck; Wartell, Mike; Adler, Allen; Swan, Pete; Wynn, Bob; Beriwaln, Madhu; Collier, Darrell; Gallagher, Herb; Glaser, Gary; Scalera, Steve; Puthoff, Jolene

    2008-01-01

    ...). The Army Science Board investigated capabilities of platforms deployed in space near space and lower altitudes and assessed tradeoffs among benefits weaknesses costs and logistics burdens associated with platform types...

  1. Emergent properties of patch shapes affect edge permeability to animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilis O Nams

    Full Text Available Animal travel between habitat patches affects populations, communities and ecosystems. There are three levels of organization of edge properties, and each of these can affect animals. At the lowest level are the different habitats on each side of an edge, then there is the edge itself, and finally, at the highest level of organization, is the geometry or structure of the edge. This study used computer simulations to (1 find out whether effects of edge shapes on animal behavior can arise as emergent properties solely due to reactions to edges in general, without the animals reacting to the shapes of the edges, and to (2 generate predictions to allow field and experimental studies to test mechanisms of edge shape response. Individual animals were modeled traveling inside a habitat patch that had different kinds of edge shapes (convex, concave and straight. When animals responded edges of patches, this created an emergent property of responding to the shape of the edge. The response was mostly to absolute width of the shapes, and not the narrowness of them. When animals were attracted to edges, then they tended to collect in convexities and disperse from concavities, and the opposite happened when animals avoided edges. Most of the responses occurred within a distance of 40% of the perceptual range from the tip of the shapes. Predictions were produced for directionality at various locations and combinations of treatments, to be used for testing edge behavior mechanisms. These results suggest that edge shapes tend to either concentrate or disperse animals, simply because the animals are either attracted to or avoid edges, with an effect as great as 3 times the normal density. Thus edge shape could affect processes like pollination, seed predation and dispersal and predator abundance.

  2. Gaining the Edge: Connecting with the Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Cleaver’s and Partridge’s) entered Americans’ living rooms nightly. The Osmond’s and Beatles captivated music of the Boomer’s youth. Powerful...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY GAINING THE EDGE: CONNECTING WITH THE MILLENNIALS by Kay A. Smith, Lt Col, USAF A Research Report Submitted to... the Faculty In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation Requirements 1 December 2008 DISCLAIMER The views expressed in this academic research

  3. Lived citizenship on the edge of society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    work. Drawing on the notion of intimate citizenship and an understanding of citizenship as socio-spatial, the theoretical framework addresses the challenges of enhancing the agency of social work clients and of promoting inclusive citizenship, and how these challenges are shaped by emotions, affect......, rationality, materiality, power relations, policies and managerial strategies. Lived Citizenship on the Edge of Society will be of interest to students and scholars across a range of disciplines including social policy and social work....

  4. Images of Edge Turbulence in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Bush, C.E.; Maqueda, R.; Munsat, T.; Stotler, D.; Lowrance, J.; Mastracola, V.; Renda, G.

    2004-01-01

    The 2-D structure of edge plasma turbulence has been measured in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by viewing the emission of the Da spectral line of deuterium. Images have been made at framing rates of up to 250,000 frames/sec using an ultra-high speed CCD camera developed by Princeton Scientific Instruments. A sequence of images showing the transition between L-mode and H-mode states is shown

  5. Transport in the tokamak plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vold, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental observations characterize the edge plasma or boundary layer in magnetically confined plasmas as a region of great complexity. Evidence suggests the edge physics plays a key role in plasma confinement although the mechanism remains unresolved. This study focuses on issues in two areas: observed poloidal asymmetries in the Scrape Off Layer (SOL) edge plasma and the physical nature of the plasma-neutral recycling. A computational model solves the coupled two dimensional partial differential equations governing the plasma fluid density, parallel and radial velocities, electron and ion temperatures and neutral density under assumptions of toroidal symmetry, ambipolarity, anomalous diffusive radial flux, and neutral-ion thermal equilibrium. Drift flow and plasma potential are calculated as dependent quantities. Computational results are compared to experimental data for the CCT and TEXTOR:ALT-II tokamak limiter cases. Comparisons show drift flux is a major component of the poloidal flow in the SOL along the tangency/separatrix. Plasma-neutral recycling is characterized in several tokamak divertors, including the C-MOD device using magnetic flux surface coordinates. Recycling is characterized by time constant, τ rc , on the order of tens of milliseconds. Heat flux transients from the core into the edge on shorter time scales significantly increase the plasma temperatures at the target and may increase sputtering. Recycling conditions in divertors vary considerably depending on recycled flux to the core. The high density, low temperature solution requires that the neutral mean free path be small compared to the divertor target to x-point distance. The simulations and analysis support H-mode confinement and transition models based on the recycling divertor solution bifurcation

  6. The transition-edge microbolometer (TREMBOL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wentworth, S.M.; Neikirk, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The TREMBOL (transition-edge microbolometer) and the composite TREMBOL are introduced as detectors for FIR imaging arrays. The TREMBOL uses a superconductor's sharp change in resistance at the normal conduction to superconduction transition. The structure of the composite TREMBOL enables heating of the individual detectors in an array up to their transition temperature, and can thus be used in multiplexing, which would be very advantageous for two-dimensional arrays. 23 refs

  7. Multi-scale Regions from Edge Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Wajahat; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    In this article we introduce a novel method for detecting multi-scale salient regions around edges using a graph based image compression algorithm. Images are recursively decomposed into triangles arranged into a binary tree using linear interpolation. The entropy of any local region of the image......), their performance is comparable to SIFT (Lowe, 2004).We also show that when they are used together with MSERs (Matas et al., 2002), the performance of MSERs is boosted....

  8. Edge rotational magnons in magnonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisenkov, Ivan; Kalyabin, Dmitry; Nikitov, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    It is predicted that in 2D magnonic crystals the edge rotational magnons of forward volume magnetostatic spin waves can exist. Under certain conditions, locally bounded magnons may appear within the crystal consisting of the ferromagnetic matrix and periodically inserted magnetic/non-magnetic inclusions. It is also shown that interplay of different resonances in 2D magnonic crystal may provide conditions for spin wave modes existence with negative group velocity

  9. Edge modelling for W7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.; Borchardt, M.; Riemann, J.; Bonnin, X.; Nuehrenberg, J.; Mutzke, A.

    2001-01-01

    The edge modelling activities for W7-X are summarized. The status of the new 3D SOL transport code BoRiS is presented, including an algorithm for calculation of magnetic coordinates and metric coefficients. In addition, the analysis of a toroidally averaged island topology with respect to the effect of drift and currents is discussed using the 2D B2-solps5.0 code. (author)

  10. ICRF/edge physics research on TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oost, G. van; Nieuwenhove, R. van; Koch, R.; Messiaen, A.M.; Vandenplas, P.E.; Weynants, R.R.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Lie, Y.T.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Samm, U.; Schweer, B.; Conn, R.W.; Corbett, W.J.; Goebel, D.M.; Moyer, R.A.; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1990-01-01

    Extensive investigations of ICRF-induced effects on the edge plasma and on plasma-wall interaction were conducted on TEXTOR under different wall- and limiter as well as plasma- and heating conditions. Several strong effects of ICRF on the edge parameters were observed on TEXTOR, such as density rise, instantaneous electron heating, modification of SOL profiles, influx of ligth and/or heavy impurities, increased heat flux to the limiters, and production of energetic ions in the SOL. The fast response time of some of the changes and the observation of a maximum in the SOL profile of electron temperature, heat flux and metal sputtering clearly demonstrated that RF power is directly absorbed in the SOL. Estimates of this power amount to several percent of the total RF power launched into the plasma. Plasma-wall interaction during ICRF was substantially reduced by an appropriate choice of the wall conditioning procedures (wall carbonization with liner at 400degC or, above all, boronization). As a result record low values of the radiated power fraction were achieved during ICRF and long pulse, high power, low impurity operation was possible. Further improvement was obtained by ICRF antenna phasing. When ICRF power is coupled to the plasma, several effects on the core and edge plasma influence the operation of the toroidal pump limiter ALT-II. Experimental and theoretical studies were performed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the ICRF-induced effects, including the propagation of plasma waves in the edge plasma and nonlinear phenomena such as parametric decay, important changes in the DC current between the antenna structure and the liner due to the sheath effect at the antennas, and the generation of waves at harmonics of the RF generator frequency. Radial profiles of the DC radial and poloidal electric fields as well as a localized RF electric field structure were measured in the SOL using a fast scanning probe. (orig.)

  11. Depth from Edge and Intensity Based Stereo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    a Mars Viking vehicle, and a random dotted coffee jar. Assessment of the algorithm is a bit difficult: it uses a fairly simple control structure with...correspondences. This use of an evaluation function estimator allowed the introduction of the extensive pruning of a branch and bound algorithm. Even with it...Figure 3-6). This is the edge reversal constraint, and was integral to the pruning . As it happens, this same constraint is the key to the use of the

  12. Impact of Distance from the Forest Edge on The Wild Bee Diversity on the Northern Slope of Mount Slamet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Widhiono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural landscape in northern slope of Mount Slamet, diversity of wild bee species as pollinator depend on forested habitats. This study aimed to assess the effects of distance from the forest edge on the diversity of wild bees on strawberry and tomato crops. This study was conducted from July 2014 to October 2014. The experimental fields contained tomato and strawberry with a total area of 4 ha (2 ha each and divided into five plots based on distance from the forest edge (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 m. Wild bee was catched with  kite netting  in 7.00 -9.00 in ten consecutive days. Wild bee diversity differed according to distance from the forest edge, the highest value was at 0 m for strawberry plots (H’ = 2.008, E = 0.72 and Chao1= 16 and for tomato plots, the highest diversity was at 50 m from the forest edge (H’ = 2.298, E = 0.95 and Chao1= 11 and the lowest was at 200 m in both plots. Wild bee species richness and abundance decreased with distance, resulting in the minimum diversity and abundance of wild bee at 200 m from forest edge in both crops. How to CiteWidhiono, I., & Sudiana, E. (2016. Impact of Distance from the Forest Edge on The Wild Bee Diversity on the Northern Slope of Mount Slamet. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 148-154.

  13. Canny edge-based deformable image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Vasant; Huang, Yihui; Mao, Weihua; Yuan, Baohong; Tang, Liping

    2017-02-07

    This work focuses on developing a 2D Canny edge-based deformable image registration (Canny DIR) algorithm to register in vivo white light images taken at various time points. This method uses a sparse interpolation deformation algorithm to sparsely register regions of the image with strong edge information. A stability criterion is enforced which removes regions of edges that do not deform in a smooth uniform manner. Using a synthetic mouse surface ground truth model, the accuracy of the Canny DIR algorithm was evaluated under axial rotation in the presence of deformation. The accuracy was also tested using fluorescent dye injections, which were then used for gamma analysis to establish a second ground truth. The results indicate that the Canny DIR algorithm performs better than rigid registration, intensity corrected Demons, and distinctive features for all evaluation matrices and ground truth scenarios. In conclusion Canny DIR performs well in the presence of the unique lighting and shading variations associated with white-light-based image registration.

  14. DIII-D edge physics database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, R.A.; Porter, G.D.; Hill, D.N.; Buchenauer, D.A.; Bramson, G.

    1992-03-01

    We have developed an edge-physics database containing data for the plasma in the divertor region and the scrape-off layer (SOL) for the DIII-D tokamak. The database provides many of the parameters necessary to model the power flow to the divertor and other plasma processes in the plasma edge. It will also facilitate the analysis of DIII-D data for comparison with other divertor tokamaks. In addition to the core plasma parameters, edge-specific data are included in this database. Initial results using the database show good agreement between the pressure profiles measured by the Langmuir probes and those determined from the Thomson data for the inner strike point, but not for the outer strike point region. We also find that the ratio of separatrix density to average core density, as well as the in/out asymmetry in the SOL power at the divertor in DIII-D do not agree with values currently assumed in modeling the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

  15. The edge plasma and divertor in TIBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, W.L.

    1987-10-16

    An open divertor configuration has been adopted for TIBER. Most recent designs, including DIII-D, NET and CIT use open configurations and rely on a dense edge plasma to shield the plasma from the gas produced at the neutralizer plate. Experiments on ASDEX, PDX, D-III, and recently on DIII-D have shown that a dense edge plasma can be produced by re-ionizing most of the gas produced at the plate. This high recycling mode allows a large flux of particles to carry the heat to the plate, so that the mean energy per particle can be low. Erosion of the plate can be greatly reduced if the average impact energy of the ions at the plate can be reduced to near or below the threshold for sputtering of the plate material. The present configuration allows part of the flux of edge plasma ions to be neutralized at the entrance to the pumping duct so that helium is pumped as well as hydrogen. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Bilayer graphene: gap tunability and edge properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Eduardo V; Santos, J M B Lopes dos; Peres, N M R; Guinea, F; Castro Neto, A H

    2008-01-01

    Bilayer graphene - two coupled single graphene layers stacked as in graphite - provides the only known semiconductor with a gap that can be tuned externally through electric field effect. Here we use a tight binding approach to study how the gap changes with the applied electric field. Within a parallel plate capacitor model and taking into account screening of the external field, we describe real back gated and/or chemically doped bilayer devices. We show that a gap between zero and midinfrared energies can be induced and externally tuned in these devices, making bilayer graphene very appealing from the point of view of applications. However, applications to nanotechnology require careful treatment of the effect of sample boundaries. This being particularly true in graphene, where the presence of edge states at zero energy - the Fermi level of the undoped system - has been extensively reported. Here we show that also bilayer graphene supports surface states localized at zigzag edges. The presence of two layers, however, allows for a new type of edge state which shows an enhanced penetration into the bulk and gives rise to band crossing phenomenon inside the gap of the biased bilayer system.

  17. The edge plasma and divertor in TIBER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    An open divertor configuration has been adopted for TIBER. Most recent designs, including DIII-D, NET and CIT use open configurations and rely on a dense edge plasma to shield the plasma from the gas produced at the neutralizer plate. Experiments on ASDEX, PDX, D-III, and recently on DIII-D have shown that a dense edge plasma can be produced by re-ionizing most of the gas produced at the plate. This high recycling mode allows a large flux of particles to carry the heat to the plate, so that the mean energy per particle can be low. Erosion of the plate can be greatly reduced if the average impact energy of the ions at the plate can be reduced to near or below the threshold for sputtering of the plate material. The present configuration allows part of the flux of edge plasma ions to be neutralized at the entrance to the pumping duct so that helium is pumped as well as hydrogen. 7 refs., 3 figs

  18. Software Development Process Improvement in Datacom Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Trabelsi, Walid

    2008-01-01

    Masteroppgave i Informasjons- og Kommunikasjonsteknologi 2008, Universitetet i Agder, Grimstad Ericsson Mobile Platform (EMP) is responsible of the development of a software platform and also to some extend responsible for related hardware parts. EMP is developing the data communication parts of the platform which is used by EMP customers. The platform development is done in large development programs and each program span over a quite a long time period. However, as we see eve...

  19. Rapid prototyping of robotic platforms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Ronde, Willis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available of thickness up to 200mm can be cut to create prototype chassis/ bodies or even the final product. One of the few limitations is the cutting of certain laminated materials, as this tends to produce delaminated cutting edges or even fractures in the case... mine inspection robot (Shongololo). Shongololo’s frame is made from engineering plastics while the chassis of Dassie was made from aluminium and cut using abrasive waterjet machining. The advantage of using abrasive waterjet machining is the speed...

  20. Assembly procedure for Shot Loading Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routh, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This supporting document describes the assembly procedure for the Shot Loading Platform. The Shot Loading Platform is used by multiple equipment removal projects to load shielding shot in the annular spaces of the equipment storage containers. The platform height is adjustable to accommodate different sizes of storage containers and transport assemblies

  1. Reverse engineering of the robot base platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar A Rahman; Azizul Rahman A Aziz; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Muhd Nor Atan; Fadil Ismail; Rosli Darmawan

    2009-01-01

    The robot base platform used to place the robotic arm version 2 was imported through a local company. The robot base platform is used as a reference for reverse egineering development for a smaller size robot. The paper will discuss the reverse engineering design process and parameters involved in the development of the robot base platform. (Author)

  2. Breeding Guild Determines Frog Distributions in Response to Edge Effects and Habitat Conversion in the Brazil's Atlantic Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B Ferreira

    Full Text Available Understanding the response of species with differing life-history traits to habitat edges and habitat conversion helps predict their likelihood of persistence across changing landscape. In Brazil's Atlantic Forest, we evaluated frog richness and abundance by breeding guild at four distances from the edge of a reserve: i 200 m inside the forest, ii 50 m inside the forest, iii at the forest edge, and iv 50 m inside three different converted habitats (coffee plantation, non-native Eucalyptus plantation, and abandoned pastures, hereafter matrix types. By sampling a dry and a wet season, we recorded 622 individual frogs representing 29 species, of which three were undescribed. Breeding guild (i.e. bromeliad, leaf-litter, and water-body breeders was the most important variable explaining frog distributions in relation to edge effects and matrix types. Leaf-litter and bromeliad breeders decreased in richness and abundance from the forest interior toward the matrix habitats. Water-body breeders increased in richness toward the matrix and remained relatively stable in abundance across distances. Number of large trees (i.e. DBH > 15 cm and bromeliads best explained frog richness and abundance across distances. Twenty species found in the interior of the forest were not found in any matrix habitat. Richness and abundance across breeding guilds were higher in the rainy season but frog distributions were similar across the four distances in the two seasons. Across matrix types, leaf-litter species primarily used Eucalyptus plantations, whereas water-body species primarily used coffee plantations. Bromeliad breeders were not found inside any matrix habitat. Our study highlights the importance of primary forest for bromeliad and leaf-litter breeders. We propose that water-body breeders use edge and matrix habitats to reach breeding habitats along the valleys. Including life-history characteristics, such as breeding guild, can improve predictions of frog

  3. Breeding Guild Determines Frog Distributions in Response to Edge Effects and Habitat Conversion in the Brazil's Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rodrigo B; Beard, Karen H; Crump, Martha L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the response of species with differing life-history traits to habitat edges and habitat conversion helps predict their likelihood of persistence across changing landscape. In Brazil's Atlantic Forest, we evaluated frog richness and abundance by breeding guild at four distances from the edge of a reserve: i) 200 m inside the forest, ii) 50 m inside the forest, iii) at the forest edge, and iv) 50 m inside three different converted habitats (coffee plantation, non-native Eucalyptus plantation, and abandoned pastures, hereafter matrix types). By sampling a dry and a wet season, we recorded 622 individual frogs representing 29 species, of which three were undescribed. Breeding guild (i.e. bromeliad, leaf-litter, and water-body breeders) was the most important variable explaining frog distributions in relation to edge effects and matrix types. Leaf-litter and bromeliad breeders decreased in richness and abundance from the forest interior toward the matrix habitats. Water-body breeders increased in richness toward the matrix and remained relatively stable in abundance across distances. Number of large trees (i.e. DBH > 15 cm) and bromeliads best explained frog richness and abundance across distances. Twenty species found in the interior of the forest were not found in any matrix habitat. Richness and abundance across breeding guilds were higher in the rainy season but frog distributions were similar across the four distances in the two seasons. Across matrix types, leaf-litter species primarily used Eucalyptus plantations, whereas water-body species primarily used coffee plantations. Bromeliad breeders were not found inside any matrix habitat. Our study highlights the importance of primary forest for bromeliad and leaf-litter breeders. We propose that water-body breeders use edge and matrix habitats to reach breeding habitats along the valleys. Including life-history characteristics, such as breeding guild, can improve predictions of frog distributions in

  4. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy studies of graphite edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Y.; Matsui, T.; Kambara, H.; Tagami, K.; Tsukada, M.; Fukuyama, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    We studied experimentally and theoretically the electronic local density of states (LDOS) near single-step edges at the surface of exfoliated graphite. In scanning tunneling microscopy measurements, we observed the (3x3)R30 o and honeycomb superstructures extending over 3-4-bar nm both from the zigzag and armchair edges. Calculations based on a density-functional-derived non-orthogonal tight-binding model show that these superstructures can coexist if the two types of edges admix each other in real graphite step edges. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements near the zigzag edge reveal a clear peak in the LDOS at an energy below the Fermi energy by 20-bar meV. No such a peak was observed near the armchair edge. We concluded that this peak corresponds to the 'edge state' theoretically predicted for graphene ribbons, since a similar prominent LDOS peak due to the edge state is obtained by the first principles calculations

  5. Research on reducing the edge effect in magnetorheological finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Dai, Yifan; Peng, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianmin

    2011-03-20

    The edge effect could not be avoided in most optical manufacturing methods based on the theory of computer controlled optical surfacing. The difference between the removal function at the workpiece edge and that inside it is also the primary cause for edge effect in magnetorheological finishing (MRF). The change of physical dimension and removal ratio of the removal function is investigated through experiments. The results demonstrate that the situation is different when MRF "spot" is at the leading edge or at the trailing edge. Two methods for reducing the edge effect are put into practice after analysis of the processing results. One is adopting a small removal function for dealing with the workpiece edge, and the other is utilizing the removal function compensation. The actual processing results show that these two ways are both effective on reducing the edge effect in MRF.

  6. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) CS-W Interface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other...

  7. Assessment of ion-atom collision data for magnetic fusion plasma edge modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Cross-section data for ion-atom collision processes which play important roles in the edge plasma of magnetically-confined fusion devices are surveyed and reviewed. The species considered include H, He, Li, Be, C, O, Ne, Al, Si, Ar, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo, W and their ions. The most important ion-atom collision processes occurring in the edge plasma are charge-exchange reactions. Excitation and ionization processes are also considered. The scope is limited to atomic species and to collision velocities corresponding to plasma ion temperatures in the 2-200 eV range. Sources of evaluated or recommended data are presented where possible, and deficiencies in the data base are indicated. 42 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  8. Habitat edge, land management, and rates of brood parasitism in tallgrass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Michael A; Shochat, Eyal; Reinking, Dan L; Wolfe, Donald H; Sherrod, Steve K

    2006-04-01

    Bird populations in North America's grasslands have declined sharply in recent decades. These declines are traceable, in large part, to habitat loss, but management of tallgrass prairie also has an impact. An indirect source of decline potentially associated with management is brood parasitism by the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), which has had substantial negative impacts on many passerine hosts. Using a novel application of regression trees, we analyzed an extensive five-year set of nest data to test how management of tallgrass prairie affected rates of brood parasitism. We examined seven landscape features that may have been associated with parasitism: presence of edge, burning, or grazing, and distance of the nest from woody vegetation, water, roads, or fences. All five grassland passerines that we included in the analyses exhibited evidence of an edge effect: the Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Henslow's Sparrow (A. henslowii), Dickcissel (Spiza americana), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna). The edge was represented by narrow strips of woody vegetation occurring along roadsides cut through tallgrass prairie. The sparrows avoided nesting along these woody edges, whereas the other three species experienced significantly higher (1.9-5.3x) rates of parasitism along edges than in prairie. The edge effect could be related directly to increase in parasitism rate with decreased distance from woody vegetation. After accounting for edge effect in these three species, we found evidence for significantly higher (2.5-10.5x) rates of parasitism in grazed plots, particularly those burned in spring to increase forage, than in undisturbed prairie. Regression tree analysis proved to be an important tool for hierarchically parsing various landscape features that affect parasitism rates. We conclude that, on the Great Plains, rates of brood parasitism are strongly associated with relatively recent road cuts

  9. Education Confronts Changing Demographics. The Challenge to Edge Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tushnet, Naida C.

    This monograph introduces a conference addressing the educational issues of the edge cities of the urban Pacific Southwest. Edge cities on the outside of urban cores (edge cities) are currently facing many of the problems formerly experienced only in urban areas. Of the 30 fastest-growing cities of over 100,000 residents in the country, 19 are…

  10. Polarimetric Edge Detector Based on the Complex Wishart Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Schou, Jesper; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2001-01-01

    polarimetric edge detector provides a constant false alarm rate and it utilizes the full polarimetric information. The edge detector has been applied to polarimetric SAR data from the Danish dual-frequency, airborne polarimetric SAR, EMISAR. The results show clearly an improved edge detection performance...

  11. Edge-based correlation image registration for multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Prabal [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-17

    Registration information for images of a common target obtained from a plurality of different spectral bands can be obtained by combining edge detection and phase correlation. The images are edge-filtered, and pairs of the edge-filtered images are then phase correlated to produce phase correlation images. The registration information can be determined based on these phase correlation images.

  12. Image-Based Edge Bundles : Simplified Visualization of Large Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, A.; Ersoy, O.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new approach aimed at understanding the structure of connections in edge-bundling layouts. We combine the advantages of edge bundles with a bundle-centric simplified visual representation of a graph's structure. For this, we first compute a hierarchical edge clustering of a given graph

  13. Gait alterations can reduce the risk of edge loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Mariska; Meyer, Christophe; De Groote, Friedl; Corten, Kristoff; Simon, Jean-Pierre; Desloovere, Kaat; Jonkers, Ilse

    2016-06-01

    Following metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty, edge loading (i.e., loading near the edge of a prosthesis cup) can increase wear and lead to early revision. The position and coverage angle of the prosthesis cup influence the risk of edge loading. This study investigates the effect of altered gait patterns, more specific hip, and pelvis kinematics, on the orientation of hip contact force and the consequent risk of antero-superior edge loading using muscle driven simulations of gait. With a cup orientation of 25° anteversion and 50° inclination and a coverage angle of 168°, many gait patterns presented risk of edge loading. Specifically at terminal double support, 189 out of 405 gait patterns indicated a risk of edge loading. At this time instant, the high hip contact forces and the proximity of the hip contact force to the edge of the cup indicated the likelihood of the occurrence of edge loading. Although the cup position contributed most to edge loading, altering kinematics considerably influenced the risk of edge loading. Increased hip abduction, resulting in decreasing hip contact force magnitude, and decreased hip extension, resulting in decreased risk on edge loading, are gait strategies that could prevent edge loading. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1069-1076, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Edge and line oriented contour detection : State of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papari, Giuseppe; Petkov, Nicolai

    We present an overview of various edge and line oriented approaches to contour detection that have been proposed in the last two decades. By edge and line oriented we mean methods that do not rely on segmentation. Distinction is made between edges and contours. Contour detectors are divided in local

  15. Total edge irregularity strength of (n,t)-kite graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarsih, Tri; Indriati, Diari

    2018-04-01

    Let G(V, E) be a simple, connected, and undirected graph with vertex set V and edge set E. A total k-labeling is a map that carries vertices and edges of a graph G into a set of positive integer labels {1, 2, …, k}. An edge irregular total k-labeling λ :V(G)\\cup E(G)\\to \\{1,2,\\ldots,k\\} of a graph G is a labeling of vertices and edges of G in such a way that for any different edges e and f, weights wt(e) and wt(f) are distinct. The weight wt(e) of an edge e = xy is the sum of the labels of vertices x and y and the label of the edge e. The total edge irregularity strength of G, tes(G), is defined as the minimum k for which a graph G has an edge irregular total k-labeling. An (n, t)-kite graph consist of a cycle of length n with a t-edge path (the tail) attached to one vertex of a cycle. In this paper, we investigate the total edge irregularity strength of the (n, t)-kite graph, with n > 3 and t > 1. We obtain the total edge irregularity strength of the (n, t)-kite graph is tes((n, t)-kite) = \\lceil \\frac{n+t+2}{3}\\rceil .

  16. South African Identities on the Edge: Lauren Beukes's Moxyland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We follow the work of various critics and argue that the text presents identity as fractured, riven and characterized by sharp edges. The edges in question refer to the boundaries of personal, corporeal, national and corporate identity. These edges may be considered symptomatic of the individual and social demands placed ...

  17. Bulk Versus Edge in the Quantum Hall Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Y. -C.; Lee, D. -H.

    1996-01-01

    The manifestation of the bulk quantum Hall effect on edge is the chiral anomaly. The chiral anomaly {\\it is} the underlying principle of the ``edge approach'' of quantum Hall effect. In that approach, $\\sxy$ should not be taken as the conductance derived from the space-local current-current correlation function of the pure one-dimensional edge problem.

  18. The effect of defocus on edge contrast sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, NM; Kooijman, AC

    The effect of optical blur (defocus) on edge contrast sensitivity was studied. Edge contrast sensitivity detoriates with fairly small amounts of blur (similar to 0.5 D) and is roughly reduced by half for each dioptre of blur. The effect of blur on edge contrast sensitivity equals the effect of blur

  19. How edge-reinforced random walk arises naturally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolles, S.W.W.

    2003-01-01

    We give a characterization of a modified edge-reinforced random walk in terms of certain partially exchangeable sequences. In particular, we obtain a characterization of an edge-reinforced random walk (introduced by Coppersmith and Diaconis) on a 2-edge-connected graph. Modifying the notion of

  20. Natural vegetation cover in the landscape and edge effects: differential responses of insect orders in a fragmented forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ezequiel; Salvo, Adriana; Valladares, Graciela

    2017-10-01

    Human activities have led to global simplification of ecosystems, among which Neotropical dry forests are some of the most threatened. Habitat loss as well as edge effects may affect insect communities. Here, we analyzed insects sampled with pan traps in 9 landscapes (at 5 scales, in 100-500 m diameter circles) comprising cultivated fields and Chaco Serrano forests, at overall community and taxonomic order level. In total 7043 specimens and 456 species of hexapods were captured, with abundance and richness being directly related to forest cover at 500 m and higher at edges in comparison with forest interior. Community composition also varied with forest cover and edge/interior location. Different responses were detected among the 8 dominant orders. Collembola, Hemiptera, and Orthoptera richness and/or abundance were positively related to forest cover at the larger scale, while Thysanoptera abundance increased with forest cover only at the edge. Hymenoptera abundance and richness were negatively related to forest cover at 100 m. Coleoptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera were more diverse and abundant at the forest edge. The generally negative influence of forest loss on insect communities could have functional consequences for both natural and cultivated systems, and highlights the relevance of forest conservation. Higher diversity at the edges could result from the simultaneous presence of forest and matrix species, although "resource mapping" might be involved for orders that were richer and more abundant at edges. Adjacent crops could benefit from forest proximity since natural enemies and pollinators are well represented in the orders showing positive edge effects. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.