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Sample records for plated copper electrical

  1. Extensive Characterisation of Copper-clad Plates, Bonded by the Explosive Technique, for ITER Electrical Joints

    CERN Document Server

    Langeslag, S A E; Libeyre, P; Gung, C Y

    2015-01-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductors will be extensively implemented in the large superconducting magnet coils foreseen to confine the plasma in the ITER experiment. The design of the various magnet systems imposes the use of electrical joints to connect unit lengths of superconducting coils by inter-pancake coupling. These twin-box lap type joints, produced by compacting each cable end in into a copper - stainless steel bimetallic box, are required to be highly performing in terms of electrical and mechanical prop- erties. To ascertain the suitability of the first copper-clad plates, recently produced, the performance of several plates is studied. Validation of the bonded interface is carried out by determining microstructural, tensile and shear characteristics. These measure- ments confirm the suitability of explosion bonded copper-clad plates for an overall joint application. Additionally, an extensive study is conducted on the suitability of certain copper purity grades for the various joint types.

  2. Antwerp Copper Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes.......In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes....

  3. Barrel wear reduction in rail guns: the effects of known and controlled rail spacing on low voltage electrical contact and the hard chrome plating of copper-tungsten rail and pure copper rails

    OpenAIRE

    McNeal, Cedric J.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited 100 m/s). Low voltage electrical contact was not maintained for some experimental shots and non-parallel rails were the suspected cause. In this thesis, we used a non-contact capacitive sensor to determine rail spacing to within 2/kAcm10mael, so that the rails will be parallel within small tolerances. Several rails were used in these experiments: 75-25 copper-tungsten, chromium-plated 75-25 Cu-W, and chromium-plated pure copper rails. ...

  4. Securing the public interest in electricity generation markets. The myths of the invisible hand and the copper plate

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Two aspects of investment in generation capacity in liberalized electricity markets are investigated: the question of whether investment will be sufficient to meet society's goals for the reliability of electricity supply (generation adequacy) and the question of how to coordinate investment in electricity generation capacity in a competitive market while bound by the physical requirements and limitations of the electricity networks. The study focuses on the situation in European electricity ...

  5. Securing the public interest in electricity generation markets. The myths of the invisible hand and the copper plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Two aspects of investment in generation capacity in liberalized electricity markets are investigated: the question of whether investment will be sufficient to meet society's goals for the reliability of electricity supply (generation adequacy) and the question of how to coordinate investment in elec

  6. Direct writing patterns for electroless plated copper thin film on plastic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ying-Chih; Kao, Zhen-Kai

    2012-10-24

    A simple and efficient method is developed to create conductive copper thin films on polymer surfaces. Instead of regular palladium colloid inks, micropatterns of silver nitrate inks, which serve as an activating agent for copper plating, were printed and dried on flexible plastic substrates. The printed plastic sheets were then immersed in an electroless copper plating bath at 55 °C for 2 min to create copper thin films on the printed patterns. The prepared copper films have an electrical conductivity as high as 83% of bulk copper and show good adhesion on PET or PI substrates.

  7. Preparation of graphite dispersed copper composite with intruding graphite particles in copper plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Abdul Muizz Mohd; Ishikawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    In this study, it was attempted that copper-graphite composite was prepared locally on the surface of a copper plate with using a spot welding machine. Experiments were carried out with changing the compressive load, the repetition number of the compression and the electrical current in order to study the effect of them on carbon content and Vickers hardness on the copper plate surface. When the graphite was pushed into copper plate only with the compressive load, the composite was mainly hardened by the work hardening. The Vickers hardness increased linearly with an increase in the carbon content. When an electrical current was energized through the composite at the compression, the copper around the graphite particles were heated to the temperature above approximately 2100 K and melted. The graphite particles partially or entirely dissolved into the melt. The graphite particles were precipitated from the melt under solidification. In addition, this high temperature caused the improvement of wetting of copper to graphite. This high temperature caused the annealing, and reduced the Vickers hardness. Even in this case, the Vickers hardness increased with an increase in the carbon content. This resulted from the dispersion hardening.

  8. 环境友好型替代铜及其合金基体镀金的工艺研究%Research of Environment Friendly Electrical Contact Protective lubricant Instead of Gold Plated Covering on Copper and Its Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾成林; 张宝根; 段练

    2014-01-01

    通过长期研究试验,研制出代替镀金用的铜及其合金表面的保护材料SP-2085C和LP-1087C电接触润滑保护剂,经过反复试验,大批量生产实践证明:SP-2085C和LP-1087C电接触润滑保护剂不仅能替代银、铜、镍等金属及其合金上的镀金层,而且保护后的银、铜、镍表面耐蚀能力优于替代前的镀金表面,且电气性能和微波传输性能没有影响。在滑动摩擦的接触表面上,还解决了金、银或铜滑动摩擦的接触表面上的磨损问题。%Through long-term research and test, the electrical contact protective lubricant SP-2085C and LP-1087C instead of gold plated covering on copper and its alloy have been manufactured. after repeated testing, mass production practice has proved that SP-2085C and LP-1087C electrical contact protective lubricant can not only replacing the gold-plating on the silver, copper, nickel and their alloys, but also have no influence on the electricity function and microwave transmission, and with using the protective agent, the corrosion resistance of silver, copper and nickel's surface is better than the gold plated covering before. In addition, the attrition issues of the sliding friction of gold or copper's contact surface have also been solved.

  9. Modeling pore corrosion in normally open gold- plated copper connectors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moffat, Harry K.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Enos, David George; Serna, Lysle M.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this study is to model the electrical response of gold plated copper electrical contacts exposed to a mixed flowing gas stream consisting of air containing 10 ppb H{sub 2}S at 30 C and a relative humidity of 70%. This environment accelerates the attack normally observed in a light industrial environment (essentially a simplified version of the Battelle Class 2 environment). Corrosion rates were quantified by measuring the corrosion site density, size distribution, and the macroscopic electrical resistance of the aged surface as a function of exposure time. A pore corrosion numerical model was used to predict both the growth of copper sulfide corrosion product which blooms through defects in the gold layer and the resulting electrical contact resistance of the aged surface. Assumptions about the distribution of defects in the noble metal plating and the mechanism for how corrosion blooms affect electrical contact resistance were needed to complete the numerical model. Comparisons are made to the experimentally observed number density of corrosion sites, the size distribution of corrosion product blooms, and the cumulative probability distribution of the electrical contact resistance. Experimentally, the bloom site density increases as a function of time, whereas the bloom size distribution remains relatively independent of time. These two effects are included in the numerical model by adding a corrosion initiation probability proportional to the surface area along with a probability for bloom-growth extinction proportional to the corrosion product bloom volume. The cumulative probability distribution of electrical resistance becomes skewed as exposure time increases. While the electrical contact resistance increases as a function of time for a fraction of the bloom population, the median value remains relatively unchanged. In order to model this behavior, the resistance calculated for large blooms has been weighted more heavily.

  10. Underwater electrical discharge in plate to plate configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmashuk, Vitaliy

    2016-09-01

    Two main configurations of high voltage electrodes submersed in water have been used for an electrical discharge generation: pin to pin and pin to plate. An electrical breakdown between plate electrodes is generally difficult to reproduce, because there is a uniform and weak electric field. One major advantage of using plate electrodes is their greater ``wear hardness'' to high-energy discharges. The plate electrodes can withstand extremely high energy deposition at which the pin electrode is quickly destroyed. The electrical discharge between plate electrodes can be initiated by creating an inhomogeneity in the electrical field. Two methods of discharge initiation between plate electrodes are proposed for this aim: 1) focusing of a shock wave in the interelectrode region; 2) a bubble injection into the electrode gap. The shock wave creates favourable conditions for the electrical breakdown between the two plate electrodes: it causes that numerous microbubbles of dissolved air start to grow and serve as locations for streamer initiation. In the second method the gas bubble is injected from the one of the electrodes, which has a gas inlet hole on the lateral face for this purpose. A ``volcano'' like morphology of positive streamers are observed in the experiments with weak electric field. The authors are grateful to MEYS grant INGO LG 15013.

  11. Development of Electroless Copper and Gold Plating on Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUGao; ZHAOGuangjie

    2004-01-01

    The use of more and more electron products requires interior wood products to have the performance of electromagnetic shielding. One of the ways to realize it is to introduce the chemical plating which has already been developed in electron industry into wood processing. The paper clarifies the mechanism of electroless copper and gold plating and its application to wood. It emphasizes the development and technology of electroless copper and gold plating on wood. Meanwhile, it points out that it is highly feasible to take this technology into effect.

  12. Process of direct copper plating on ABS plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guixiang [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)]. E-mail: wgx0357@126.com; Li Ning [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Hu Huili [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yu Yuanchun [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2006-11-15

    The processes of direct copper plating on ABS plastics were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry (UV-vis) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) techniques. The substrates were etched by CrO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution containing Pd{sup 2+} ions, catalyzed by Pd/Sn colloids solution and accelerated in an alkaline solution containing copper ions. The Pd{sup 2+} ions in etching solution can reduce the surface roughness and enhance the colloids adsorption. The good dispersivity colloids have excellent catalysis and its UV-vis peaks broaden. After acceleration, when the stability of Cu{sup 2+}-complex is relatively low, Sn{sup 2+} was oxidized by Cu{sup 2+} in the alkaline solution meanwhile Cu{sub 2}O can be formed. The disproportionation reaction of Cu{sub 2}O will proceed and metallic copper forms between the Pd particles, so the conductivity of ABS surface increased. The copper particles play an important role in determining the uniformity of the propagation of copper plating. The particles of copper plating layer were uniformity and fine. The atomic concentration and the thickness of copper layer were analyzed by XRF.

  13. Electrically conductive gold- and copper-metallized DNA origami nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yanli; Pearson, Anthony C; Gates, Elisabeth P; Uprety, Bibek; Davis, Robert C; Harb, John N; Woolley, Adam T

    2013-03-12

    This work demonstrates the use of a circuit-like DNA origami structure as a template to fabricate conductive gold and copper nanostructures on Si surfaces. We improved over previous results by using multiple Pd seeding steps to increase seed uniformity and density. Our process has also been characterized through atomic force microscopy, particle size distribution analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. We found that four successive Pd seeding steps yielded the best results for electroless metal plating on DNA origami. Electrical resistance measurements were done on both Au- and Cu-metallized nanostructures, with each showing ohmic behavior. Gold-plated DNA origami structures made under optimal conditions had an average resistivity of 7.0 × 10(-5) Ω·m, whereas copper-metallized structures had a resistivity as low as 3.6 × 10(-4) Ω·m. Importantly, this is the first demonstration of electrically conductive Cu nanostructures fabricated on either DNA or DNA origami templates. Although resistivities for both gold and copper samples were larger than those of the bulk metal, these metal nanostructures have the potential for use in electrically connecting small structures. In addition, these metallized objects might find use in surface-enhanced Raman scattering experiments.

  14. High performance 3D printed electronics using electroless plated copper

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Rong Jian; Taeil Kim; Jae Sung Park; Jiacheng Wang; Woo Soo Kim

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents design and performance validation of 3D printed electronic components, 3D toroidal air-core inductors, fabricated by multi-material based Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) 3D printing technology and electroless copper plating. Designs of toroidal inductor is investigated with different core shapes and winding numbers; circular and half-circular cores with 10 and 13 turns of windings...

  15. Electroless copper plating on 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane modified PET fabric challenged by ultrasonic washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yinxiang, E-mail: yxlu@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2009-07-30

    Electroless deposition of Cu on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric modified with 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane was investigated. Morphology, composition, structure, thermal decomposing behavior of copper coating PET fabric after ultrasonic washing in water for 1 h were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectrometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG), respectively. Copper plating on modified fabric has good adherence stability and high electric conductivity before and after ultrasonic washing, while copper coating fabric without modification is easily destroyed during the washing process, which leads to the textile changing from conductor to dielectric. As the copper weight on the treated fabric is 28 g/m{sup 2}, the shielding effectiveness (SE) is more than 54 dB at frequency ranging from 0.01 MHz to 18 GHz.

  16. 'Sabbath' electric plate burn: a ritual hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmeir, P; Sagi, A; Rosenberg, L; Picard, E; Ben Yakar, Y

    1989-02-01

    This report describes the burns caused by an electric hot plate which is used by orthodox Jews for keeping food and liquids warm during the Sabbath (Saturday). An illustrative case is presented and the preventable aspects of this particular burn are discussed.

  17. Sulfidation treatment of copper-containing plating sludge towards copper resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, D; Fukuta, T; Onyango, M S; Matsuda, H

    2006-11-02

    The present study is concerned with the sulfidation treatment of copper-containing plating sludge towards copper resource recovery by flotation of copper sulfide from treated sludge. The sulfidation treatment was carried out by contacting simulated or real copper plating sludge with Na(2)S solution for a period of 5 min to 24 h. The initial molar ratio of S(2-) to Cu(2+) (S(2-) to Me(2+) in the case of real sludge) was adjusted to 1.00, 1.25 or 1.50, while the solid to liquid ratio was set at 1:50. As a result, it was found that copper compounds were converted to various copper sulfides within the first 5 min. In the case of simulated copper sludge, CuS was identified as the main sulfidation product at the molar ratio of S(2-) to Cu(2+) of 1.00, while Cu(7)S(4) (Roxbyite) was mainly found at the molar ratios of S(2-) to Cu(2+) of 1.50 and 1.25. Based on the measurements of oxidation-reduction potential, the formation of either CuS or Cu(7)S(4) at different S(2-) to Cu(2+) molar ratios was attributed to the changes in the oxidation-reduction potential. By contrast, in the case of sulfidation treatment of real copper sludge, CuS was predominantly formed, irrespective of S(2-) to Me(2+) molar ratio.

  18. Influence of oxidation on electrical performance of silver-plated copper products and corresponding prevention and solution methods%氧化对铜基件镀银产品电气性能的影响及其预防和解决方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔凡蓬; 徐帆; 陈秉坚; 刘藩; 田勇

    2015-01-01

    The reasons for oxidation of silver coating on copper-based products were discussed from the two aspects of silver-plating process and environment. The electrical properties of oxidized silver-plated copper products were tested. Some anti-tarnish measures for silver coating, treatment methods after oxidation, and an alternative to silver coating were proposed.%从镀银工艺和环境两方面探讨了铜基镀银产品氧化的原因,分析了氧化后镀银产品的电气性能,提出了镀银层防变色的措施、氧化后处理方式和镀银层替代方案。

  19. Spot brazing of aluminum to copper with a cover plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Junya; Miyazawa, Yasuyuki

    2014-08-01

    It is difficult to join dissimilar metals when an intermetallic compound is formed at the joining interface. Spot brazing can be accomplished in a short time by resistance heating. Therefore, it is said that the formation of a intermetallic compound can be prevented. In this study, aluminum and copper were joined by spot brazing with a cover plate. The cover plate was used to supply heat to base metals and prevent heat dissipation from the base metals. The ability to braze Al and Cu was investigated by observation and analysis. Pure aluminum (A1050) plate and oxygen-free copper (C1020) plate were used as base metals. Cu-Ni-Sn-P brazing filler was used as the brazing filler metal. SPCC was employed as cover plate. Brazing was done with a micro spot welder under an argon gas atmosphere. Brazing ability was estimated by tensile shear strength and cross sectional microstructure observation. Al and Cu can be joined by spot brazing with Cu-Ni-Sn-P brazing filler and cover plate.

  20. High performance 3D printed electronics using electroless plated copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Jin Rong; Kim, Taeil; Park, Jae Sung; Wang, Jiacheng; Kim, Woo Soo

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents design and performance validation of 3D printed electronic components, 3D toroidal air-core inductors, fabricated by multi-material based Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) 3D printing technology and electroless copper plating. Designs of toroidal inductor is investigated with different core shapes and winding numbers; circular and half-circular cores with 10 and 13 turns of windings. Electroless plated copper thin film ensures 3D printed toroidal plastic structures to possess inductive behaviors. The inductance is demonstrated reliably with an applied source frequency from 100 kHz to 2 MHz as designs vary. An RL circuit is utilized to test the fabricated inductors' phase-leading characteristics with corresponding phase angle changes.

  1. High performance 3D printed electronics using electroless plated copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Rong Jian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents design and performance validation of 3D printed electronic components, 3D toroidal air-core inductors, fabricated by multi-material based Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM 3D printing technology and electroless copper plating. Designs of toroidal inductor is investigated with different core shapes and winding numbers; circular and half-circular cores with 10 and 13 turns of windings. Electroless plated copper thin film ensures 3D printed toroidal plastic structures to possess inductive behaviors. The inductance is demonstrated reliably with an applied source frequency from 100 kHz to 2 MHz as designs vary. An RL circuit is utilized to test the fabricated inductors’ phase-leading characteristics with corresponding phase angle changes.

  2. Seeding of silicon by copper ion implantation for selective electroless copper plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhansali, S.; Sood, D.K.; Zmood, R.B. [Microelectronic and Materials Technology Centre, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technolgy, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    We report on the successful use of copper(self) ion implantation into silicon to seed the electroless plating of copper on silicon (100) surfaces. Copper ions have been implanted to doses of 5E14-6.4E16 ions/cm{sup 2} using a MEEVA ion implanter at extraction voltage of 40kV. Dose was varied in fine steps to determine the threshold dose of 2E15 Cu ions/cm{sup 2} for `seed` formation of copper films on silicon using a commercial electroless plating solution. Plated films were studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, EDX and profilometry . The adhesion of films was measured by `scotch tape test`. The adhesion was found to improve with increasing dose. However thicker films exhibited rather poor adhesion and high internal stress. SEM results show that the films grow first as isolated islands which become larger and eventually impinge into a continuous film as the plating time is increased. (authors). 5 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  3. Pulse Plating of Copper-ZrB2 Composite Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongming GUO; Min ZHANG; Zhuji JIN; Renke KANG

    2006-01-01

    Copper-zirconium diboride (ZrB2) composite coatings were fabricated using pulse plating technique to acquire a new type of EDM (electro-discharge machining) electrode material. The effects of pulse parameters, i.e., the average current density, the frequency and the duty cycle, on the incorporation of ZrB2 particles in the copper matrix were investigated. The amountof codeposited ZrB2 particles had a maximum at average current density of 3 A/dm2 and increased with decreasing duty cycle as well as current frequency of the pulse current used for deposition. The hardness of the coatings increased with increasing ZrB2 percentage, whereas the incorporation of ZrB2 particles had little effect on the resistivity of the composites.

  4. Laser-induced selective copper plating of polypropylene surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratautas, K.; Gedvilas, M.; Stankevičiene, I.; JagminienÄ--, A.; Norkus, E.; Li Pira, N.; Sinopoli, S.; Emanuele, U.; Račiukaitis, G.

    2016-03-01

    Laser writing for selective plating of electro-conductive lines for electronics has several significant advantages, compared to conventional printed circuit board technology. Firstly, this method is faster and cheaper at the prototyping stage. Secondly, material consumption is reduced, because it works selectively. However, the biggest merit of this method is potentiality to produce moulded interconnect device, enabling to create electronics on complex 3D surfaces, thus saving space, materials and cost of production. There are two basic techniques of laser writing for selective plating on plastics: the laser-induced selective activation (LISA) and laser direct structuring (LDS). In the LISA method, pure plastics without any dopant (filler) can be used. In the LDS method, special fillers are mixed in the polymer matrix. These fillers are activated during laser writing process, and, in the next processing step, the laser modified area can be selectively plated with metals. In this work, both methods of the laser writing for the selective plating of polymers were investigated and compared. For LDS approach, new material: polypropylene with carbon-based additives was tested using picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses. Different laser processing parameters (laser pulse energy, scanning speed, the number of scans, pulse durations, wavelength and overlapping of scanned lines) were applied in order to find out the optimal regime of activation. Areal selectivity tests showed a high plating resolution. The narrowest width of a copper-plated line was less than 23 μm. Finally, our material was applied to the prototype of the electronic circuit board on a 2D surface.

  5. Fabrication of conductive copper patterns using reactive inkjet printing followed by two-step electroless plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Ju; Lin, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Yan; Sowade, Enrico; Baumann, Reinhard R.; Feng, Zhe-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    A simple and low-cost process for fabricating conductive copper patterns on flexible polyimide substrates was demonstrated. Copper catalyst patterns were first produced on polyimide substrates using reactive inkjet printing of Cu (II)-bearing ink and reducing ink, and then the conductive copper patterns were generated after a two-step electroless plating procedure. The copper layers were characterized by optical microscope, SEM, XRD and EDS. Homogeneously distributed copper nanoclusters were found in the catalyst patterns. A thin copper layer with uniform particle size was formed after first-step electroless plating, and a thick copper layer of about 14.3 μm with closely packed structure and fine crystallinity was produced after second-step electroless plating. This resulting copper layer had good solderability, reliable adhesion strength and a low resistivity of 5.68 μΩ cm without any sintering process.

  6. Electrical Characterization of Spherical Copper Oxide Memristive Array Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    running, dinner-table debate etiquette, sailing, electric guitar, and the Seattle bus system, but only earned his Bachelor of Science in Electrical ... ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SPHERICAL COPPER OXIDE MEMRISTIVE ARRAY SENSORS THESIS James P. Orta, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENP-14-M-40...not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENP-14-M-40 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SPHERICAL COPPER OXIDE MEMRISTIVE ARRAY

  7. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON COPPER-PLATED UTERINE CAVITY SHAPED IUD AND NON-COPPER BEARING UTERINE CAVITY SHAPED IUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENGQing-Gu; etal

    1989-01-01

    A comparative randomized clinical trial was carried out between two uterine cavity shaped IUDs: the copper-plated uterine cavity shaped IUD(UCDCu) and non-copper bearing uterine cavity shaped IUD(UCD). The IUDs were used by 1004 and 1005 women

  8. Morphology of gold and copper ion-plated coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1978-01-01

    Copper and gold films (0.2 to 2 microns thick) were ion plated onto polished 304-stainless-steel, glass, mica surfaces. These coatings were examined by SEM for defects in their morphological growth. Three types of defects were distinguished: nodular growth, abnormal or runaway growth, and spits. The cause for each type of defect was investigated. Nodular growth is due to inherent substrate microdefects, abnormal or runaway growth is due to external surface inclusions, and spits are due to nonuniform evaporation (ejection of droplets). All these defects induce stresses and produce porosity in the coatings and thus weaken their mechanical properties. During surface rubbing, large nodules are pulled out, leaving vacancies in the coatings.

  9. A New Type of Inscribed Copper Plate from Indus Valley (Harappan Civilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasant Shinde

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A group of nine Indus Valley copper plates (c. 2600–2000 BC, discovered from private collections in Pakistan, appear to be of an important type not previously described. The plates are significantly larger and more robust than those comprising the corpus of known copper plates or tablets, and most significantly differ in being inscribed with mirrored characters. One of the plates bears 34 characters, which is the longest known single Indus script inscription. Examination of the plates with x-ray fluorescence (XRF spectrophotometry indicates metal compositions, including arsenical copper, consistent with Indus Valley technology. Microscopy of the metal surface and internal structure reveals detail such as pitting, microcrystalline structure, and corrosion, consistent with ancient cast copper artifacts. Given the relative fineness of the engraving, it is hypothesised that the copper plates were not used as seals, but have characteristics consistent with use in copper plate printing. As such, it is possible that these copper plates are by far the earliest known printing devices, being at least 4000 years old.

  10. Features of misoriented structures in a copper-copper bilayer plate obtained by explosive welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybin, V. V.; Ushanova, E. A.; Zolotorevskii, N. Yu.

    2013-09-01

    Structures induced by deformation in the narrow zone of a contact between two copper plates that is prepared by explosive welding are systematically investigated at the micro-, meso-, and macrolevels. Plastic jets, regions of metal plastic flow anomalous localization, are discovered in areas adjacent to the contact surface. The defect structure of the plastic jets is examined by transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. It is shown that at the mesolevel the plastic jets are regions with a heavily fragmented structure. The statistics of the fragment distribution over misorientations and transverse sizes is studied.

  11. Understanding the antimicrobial activity behind thin- and thick-rolled copper plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Basit; Ahire, Jayesh J; Dicks, Leon M T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial properties of the surfaces of copper plates that were rolled to a thickness of 25 and 100 μm. Differences in topology of 25- and 100-μm-thick copper plates were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Antibacterial activity of the copper surfaces was tested against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus sp. BY1, Enterococcus sp. BY2, and Bacillus cereus BY3. Changes in viable cell numbers were determined by plating onto optimal growth media and staining with LIVE/DEAD BacLight™. Changes in metabolic activity were recorded by expression of the luciferase (lux) gene. Cell morphology was studied using SEM. Accumulation and diffusion of copper from cells were recorded using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Lipid and protein oxidation were recorded spectrophotometrically. Surfaces of 25-μm-thick copper plates were rough compared to that of 100-μm-thick copper plates. For most species, a five-log reduction in cell numbers, cell membrane instability, and a decline in metabolic activity were recorded after 15 min of exposure to 25-μm-thick copper plates. Copper accumulated in the cells, and lipids and proteins were oxidized. The rough surface of thinner copper plates (25 μm thick) released more copper and was more antimicrobial compared to thicker (100 μm) copper plates. Cell death was attributed to destabilization of the cell membrane, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation.

  12. Copper electrodeposition from an acidic plating bath containing accelerating and inhibiting organic additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquale, M.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Universidad Nacional de La Plata-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, (1900), La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: miguelp@inifta.unlp.edu.ar; Gassa, L.M.; Arvia, A.J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Universidad Nacional de La Plata-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, (1900), La Plata (Argentina)

    2008-08-20

    Copper electrodeposition on copper from still plating solutions of different compositions was investigated utilising electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An acid copper sulphate plating base solution was employed either with or without sodium chloride in the presence of a single additive, either polyethylene glycol (PEG) or 3-mercapto-2-propanesulphonic acid (MPSA), and their mixture. Thallium underpotential deposition/anodic stripping was employed to determine the adsorption capability of additives on copper. In the absence of chloride ions, MPSA shows a moderate adsorption on copper, whereas PEG is slightly adsorbed. At low cathodic overpotentials, the simultaneous presence of MPSA and chloride ions accelerates copper electrodeposition through the formation of an MPSA-chloride ion complex in the solution, particularly for about 220 {mu}M sodium chloride. The reverse effect occurs in PEG-sodium chloride plating solutions. In this case, from EIS data the formation of a film that interferes with copper electrodeposition can be inferred. At higher cathodic overpotentials, when copper electrodeposition is under mass transport control, the cathode coverage by a PEG-copper chloride-mediated film becomes either partially or completely detached as the concentration of chloride ions at the negatively charged copper surface diminishes. The copper cathode grain topography at the {mu}m scale depends on the cathodic overpotential, plating solution composition and average current density. Available data about the solution constituents and their adsorption on copper make it possible to propose a likely complex mechanism to understand copper electrodeposition from these media, including the accelerating effect of MPSA and the dynamics of PEG-copper chloride complex adsorbate interfering with the surface mobility of depositing copper ad-ions/ad-atoms.

  13. The interfacial structure of plated copper alloy resistance spot welded joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingwei; Zhai, Guofu; Chen, Qing; Wang, Jianqi; Ren, Gang

    2008-09-01

    Plated copper alloys are widely used in electron industry. The plating lay caused the farther decreasing of the welding property of copper alloys, whose intrinsic weldability was poor. In this paper, the bronze and brass specimens with nickel-tin double plating layer were joined by resistance spot welding method. The microstructure and peel strength of the joints were investigated. The experiment results show that a sandwich-like structure was obtained in the faying surface after welding, and the nickel plating layer thickness had severe effect on the reliability of the joints.

  14. The interfacial structure of plated copper alloy resistance spot welded joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jingwei [Xiamen Hongfa Electroacoustic Co., Ltd, 361021 Xiamen (China); Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001 Harbin (China)], E-mail: jingweiwu.hit@gmail.com; Zhai Guofu [Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001 Harbin (China); Chen Qing; Wang Jianqi; Ren Gang [Xiamen Hongfa Electroacoustic Co., Ltd, 361021 Xiamen (China)

    2008-09-15

    Plated copper alloys are widely used in electron industry. The plating lay caused the farther decreasing of the welding property of copper alloys, whose intrinsic weldability was poor. In this paper, the bronze and brass specimens with nickel-tin double plating layer were joined by resistance spot welding method. The microstructure and peel strength of the joints were investigated. The experiment results show that a sandwich-like structure was obtained in the faying surface after welding, and the nickel plating layer thickness had severe effect on the reliability of the joints.

  15. A Novel RF Inductor Fabricated Through MEMS Processing and Electroless Copper Plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYi; WUWengang; HAOYilong

    2005-01-01

    A novel radio-frequency inductor with single-crystal-silicon spiral structure suspended on glass substrate is reported. The inductor is fabricated by using an improved silicon-glass anodic bonding and deep etching releasing process combined with electroless copper plating technology. The newly developed process is proved simple, stable and easily controlled. Based on the process, the performances of the inductor, such as quality factor, inductance and operating frequency, can be adjusted by changing the structure parameters. Through the electroless copper plating, the silicon spiral structure of the inductor is encapsulated completely by highly conformal copper film. Furthermore, a thin nickel film is plated on the top of the copper layer for passivation and measurement convenience. The thickness of copper and nickel layers influences the characteristics of the inductors largely. The fabricated inductor exhibits high performances. Its quality factor has reached 27 at the frequency arrange from 9 to 11GHz.

  16. Evaluation of Microscopic Degradation of Copper and Copper Alloy by Electrical Resistivity Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chung Seok [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nahm, Seung Hoon [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Chang Young [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    In the present study, the microscopic degradation of copper and copper and alloy subjected to cyclic deformation has been evaluated by the electrical resistivity measurement using the DC four terminal potential method. The copper (Cu) and copper alloy (Cu-35Zn), whose stacking fault energy is much different each other, were cyclically deformed to investigate the response of the electrical resistivity to different dislocation substructures. Dislocation cell substructure was developed in the Cu, while the planar array of dislocation structure was developed in the Cu-35Zn alloy increasing dislocation density with fatigue cycles. The electrical resistivity increased rapidly in the initial stage of fatigue deformation in both materials. Moreover, after the fatigue test it increased by about 7 % for the Cu and 6.5 % for the Cu-35Zn alloy, respectively. From these consistent results, it may be concluded that the dislocation cell structure responds to the electrical resistivity more sensitively than the planar array dislocation structure evolved during cyclic fatigue

  17. Electrical, Corrosion, and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum-Copper Joints Produced by Explosive Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acarer, Mustafa

    2012-11-01

    This study investigates the microstructure, electrical, corrosion, and mechanical properties of plate-shaped aluminum-copper couple produced using the explosive welding method. Mechanical tests, including hardness, tensile, tensile-shear, and impact test, concluded that the Al-Cu bimetal had an acceptable joint resistance. In this study, local intermetallic regions formed on the interface of the joint of the aluminum-copper bimetal, produced using the explosive welding technique. However, the formed intermetallic regions had no significant effect on the mechanical properties of the joint, except for increasing its hardness. According to electrical conductivity tests, the Al-Cu bimetal had an average electrical conductivity in comparison to the electrical conductivity of aluminum and copper, which were the original materials forming the joint. According to the results of electro-chemical corrosion test, during which galvanic corrosion formed, the Al side of the Al-Cu bimetal was more anodic due to its high electronegativity; as a result, it was exposed to more corrosion in comparison to the copper side.

  18. Low magnetic Johnson noise electric field plates for precision measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Rabey, I M; Hinds, E A; Sauer, B E

    2016-01-01

    We describe a parallel pair of high voltage electric field plates designed and constructed to minimise magnetic Johnson noise. They are formed by laminating glass substrates with commercially available polyimide (Kapton) tape, covered with a thin gold film. Tested in vacuum, the outgassing rate is less than $5\\times10^{-5}$ mbar.l/s. The plates have been operated at electric fields up to 8.3 kV/cm, when the leakage current is at most a few hundred pA. The design is discussed in the context of a molecular spin precession experiment to measure the permanent electric dipole moment of the electron.

  19. Recycling and refining of copper for electrical application

    OpenAIRE

    Dablement Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Copper is, after silver, the best electrical conductor. All residual impurities inside the matrix have high consequences on these properties. Thus, the Nexans factory in Lens “purifies” the copper scraps by a fire refining in order to remove all the internal pollutant. This process, unique in France, is complementary to a traditional process using an electrolytic cathode. It allows, first, to diversify the raw material and, second, to increase the ecological balance compare to the traditional...

  20. Atomistic-Continuum Hybrid Simulation of Heat Transfer between Argon Flow and Copper Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Yijin; Chen, C L

    2016-01-01

    A simulation work aiming to study heat transfer coefficient between argon fluid flow and copper plate is carried out based on atomistic-continuum hybrid method. Navier-Stokes equations for continuum domain are solved through the Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PISO) algorithm, and the atom evolution in molecular domain is solved through the Verlet algorithm. The solver is validated by solving Couette flow and heat conduction problems. With both momentum and energy coupling method applied, simulations on convection of argon flows between two parallel plates are performed. The top plate is kept as a constant velocity and has higher temperature, while the lower one, which is modeled with FCC copper lattices, is also fixed but has lower temperature. It is found that, heat transfer between argon fluid flow and copper plate in this situation is much higher than that at macroscopic when the flow is fully developed.

  1. Recycling and refining of copper for electrical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dablement Sébastien

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Copper is, after silver, the best electrical conductor. All residual impurities inside the matrix have high consequences on these properties. Thus, the Nexans factory in Lens “purifies” the copper scraps by a fire refining in order to remove all the internal pollutant. This process, unique in France, is complementary to a traditional process using an electrolytic cathode. It allows, first, to diversify the raw material and, second, to increase the ecological balance compare to the traditional way of scrap treatment for electrical application.

  2. Procurement model for copper and polymer electrical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sremac

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Procurement model for copper and polymer electrical products. Electrical cable structure (wire, insulation, filling and mantle is in accordance with the technical specifications of individual cable components in terms of the incorporated materials. Materials used in cable manufacture are copper, aluminum, rubber and polyvinyl chloride. One of the key issues in managing the flow of goods pertains to the timing of procurement. The combination of the two concepts can take advantage of individual strengths of fuzzy logic and neural networks in hybrid systems of homogeneous structure. The model has high practical significance, as, with minor modifications, it can be applied in any enterprise responsible for managing the goods flows.

  3. Preparation of zeolite a coatings on copper plates by using the substrate heating method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Teber

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The substrate heating method was used to grow zeolite 4A coatings on copper plates. The reaction mixture was kept at 25º C, while the plate was heated to a higher temperature. In some of the synthesis experiments performed, the reaction mixture was circulated in the system. The coatings prepared were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that crystalline and pure zeolite 4A coatings could be formed on copper by using the substrate heating method from a highly alkaline solution, in which dissolution and oxidation of the copper plates took place. A coating with about 310 µm mass equivalent thickness could be grown on copper after 72 h of synthesis. The thickness decreased when circulation was applied. Compared to coatings previously prepared on stainless steel plates under similar experimental conditions, thicker coatings were grown on copper. It is possible that the roughened surface of copper in the highly alkaline reaction mixture provided a higher number of nucleation sites.

  4. Electroless copper plating process of N, N, N, N′-tetrakis (2-hydroxypropyl) ethylenediamine system with high plating rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ya-jie; ZOU Wei-hong; YI Dan-qing; GONG Zhu-qing; LI Xin-hai

    2005-01-01

    Electroless copper plating process of N, N, N′, N′-tetrakis (2-hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine(THPED) chelating agent was researched comprehensively. The results indicate that plating rate decreases with the 3H2O has a bad effect on deposits quality, but 2, 2′-dipyridyl and PEG make deposits quality improve greatly. Low concentration of 2-mercaptobenzothiozole (2-MBT) increases plating rate and improves deposits quality, but decreases plating rate and worsens deposits quality when 2-MBT reaches 5 mg/L. The optimal conditions of this electroless MBT are 16.8 g/L, 16.0 mL/L, 13.3 g/L, 0.5 g/L, 5.0 mg/L and 2.0 mg/L, respectively, pH value is 12.75,bath temperature is 30 ℃. Plating rate reaches 9.54 μm/h plating for 30 min in the bath. The SEM images demonstrate that the surface of copper film is smooth and the crystal is fine.

  5. Improvement of machining quality of copper-plated roll mold by controlling temperature variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Jin JE; Eun-Chae JEON; Sang-Cheon PARK; Doo-Sun CHOI; Kyung-Hyun WHANG; Myung-Chang KANG

    2011-01-01

    Micro prism film used in LCD industry can be manufactured by roll to roll method with copper-plated roll mold. As copper-plated roll mold is getting larger, pitch error is getting severer. The pitch error drops the quality of micro prism film. The main cause of the pitch error was investigated during machining large roll mold whose machined length was 1 200 mm. The temperature of machining system was elevated during machining roll mold, and this elevation induced thermal expansion of the system. The temperature variation around the roll mold also made thermal expansion of the roll mold. The amount of thermal expansion had strong relationship to the amount of pitch error. Therefore, the roll mold was machined after warming-up of machining system and precise temperature controller around copper-plated roll mold was installed, which minimized the temperature variation. Finally,precise micro prism patterns without pitch error were machined on the large roll mold.

  6. Microstructure & Other Properties of Pulse-Plated Copper for Electroforming Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Jensen, Jens Dahl; Dam, H.C.;

    2002-01-01

    Microstructure, hardness, material distribution and current efficiency were studied for various pulse patterns (both direct current, on/off and pulse reverse plating) and different bath compositions of copper sulfate and sulfuric acid, with additions of chloride. The objective was to develop a re...... a reliable copper electroforming process to provide a fine-grained and hard (above HV 125) deposit with good micro- and macrothrowing power. Potential applications include solar cell panels, tools for micro injection molding and various microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)....

  7. Microstructure & Other Properties of Pulse-Plated Copper for Electroforming Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Jensen, Jens Dahl; Dam, H.C.

    2002-01-01

    Microstructure, hardness, material distribution and current efficiency were studied for various pulse patterns (both direct current, on/off and pulse reverse plating) and different bath compositions of copper sulfate and sulfuric acid, with additions of chloride. The objective was to develop a re...... a reliable copper electroforming process to provide a fine-grained and hard (above HV 125) deposit with good micro- and macrothrowing power. Potential applications include solar cell panels, tools for micro injection molding and various microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)....

  8. ELECTROLESS COPPER PLATING ON FRAXINUS MANDSHURICA VENEER USING GLYOXYLIC ACID AS REDUCING AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper coating was deposited on Fraxinus mandshurica veneers for preparing EMI shielding composite by electroless plating using glyoxylic acid as reducing agent in the solution. XPS and SEM were used to analyze the activation process. It was found that a continuous chitosan membrane was loaded on the wood surface. XPS results showed that Pd(II ions were chemically adsorbed on a chitosan membrane on the wood surface through an N-Pd σ coordination bond. After reduction, part of Pd(II absorbed formed very little Pd(0 particles on the chitosan-treated wood surface. The activated wood veneers were immersed into a plating bath in which copper film was successfully initiated. The coatings were characterized by SEM-EDS, XPS, and XRD. The metal deposition, surface resistivity, and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness were measured. The morphology of the coating was uniform, compact, and continuous. The wood grains were preserved on the plated wood veneer, which had a copper-like color and sheen. EDS, XPS, and XRD results indicated that the coating consisted of Cu0 with crystalline structure. The surface resistivity and copper deposition reached 175.14 mΩ•cm-2 and 21.66 g/m2 when the veneer was pretreated with 0.8 % chitosan for 8 min and plated for 30 min at 55 oC. The plated veneers exhibited good electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of over 60 dB in frequency ranging from10 MHz to 1.5 GHz.

  9. Copper Plating from Non-Cyanide Alkaline Baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minggang; Wei, Guoying; Wang, Jianfang; Li, Meng; Zhao, Xixi; Bai, Yuze

    2014-12-01

    Non-cyanide alkaline bath was used to prepare copper thin films. Influences of various temperatures on deposition rates, surface morphologies and microstructures of films were investigated. Copper thin films prepared from non-cyanide alkaline bath show typical nodular structures. Copper films fabricated at higher temperature possess rough surface due to hydrolysis of complexing agents. According to the XRD patterns, all deposited films were crystalline and showed Cu (111), Cu (200) and Cu (220) peaks. The intensity of peak (200) increases gradually with the rise on bath temperatures. Films with maximum thickness (7.5 μm) could be obtained at the temperature of 40°C. From the cyclic voltammetry curve, it was found that the cathodic polarization decreased slightly with increase of bath temperatures. In addition, when the bath temperature was equal to 50°C, current efficiency could reach to 96.95%.

  10. Casimir interaction energies for magneto-electric \\delta-function plates

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A; Schaden, Martin; Shajesh, K V

    2013-01-01

    We present boundary conditions for the electromagnetic fields on a \\delta-function plate, having both electric and magnetic properties, sandwiched between two magneto-electric semi-infinite half spaces. The optical properties for an isolated \\delta-function plate are shown to be independent of the longitudinal material properties of the plate. The Casimir-Polder energy between an isotropically polarizable atom and a magneto-electric \\delta-function plate is attractive for a purely electric \\delta-function plate, repulsive for a purely magnetic \\delta-function plate, and vanishes for the simultaneous perfect conductor limit of both electric and magnetic properties of the \\delta-function plate. The interaction energy between two identical \\delta-function plates is always attractive. It can be attractive or repulsive when the plates have electric and magnetic properties interchanged and reproduces Boyer's result for the interaction energy between perfectly conducting electric and magnetic plates. The change in t...

  11. The study of plate-type electrostatic precipitators electrical supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel N. Popa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Stricter environmental legislation in many countries is producing standards governing the emission of fine particles to the atmosphere from all sources. The industrial separating particles from process streams have numerous methods with different principles. In electrostatic precipitators is used electrical charge of dust particles.There are many aspects of pollution control in both solid and liquid phase using electrostatic precipitators.The operation of plate-type electrostatic precipitators is closely related to its electrical energization, to obtain high collection efficiency with low electrical energization consumption. The paper analyze the traditional direct current energization, the intermittent energization, the pulse energization and the switched mode at high frequency power supplies of plate-type electrostatic precipitators sections.

  12. [Characterization of Wood Surface Treated with Electroless Copper Plating by Near Infrared Spectroscopy Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jing; Zhang, Mao-mao; Zhao, Guang-jie; Yang, Zhong

    2015-05-01

    Wood electromagnetic shielding material, which was made by treating wood with electroless plating, not only keep the superior characteristics of wood, but also improve the conductivity, thermal conductivity and electromagnetic shielding properties of wood. The emergence of this material opens the way to the value-added exploitation of wood and widens the processing and application field for the electromagnetic shielding material. In order to explore the feasibility of using NIR technology to investigate the properties of wood electromagnetic shielding material, this study analysis the samples before and after copper plated process by the NIR spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that (1) there exist significant differences between samples before and after copper plated process both on the spectral shape and absorption, and the great differences can also be seen in the samples with different treat time, especially for the samples with 5 min treat time; (2) after PCA analysis, six clusters from the samples before and after copper plated process were separately distributed in the score plot, and the properties of untreated wood and sensitized wood were similar, and the properties of samples for 25 and 40 min treat time were also similar in order that these samples were close to each other, all of which might suggest that the NIR spectroscopy reflected major feature information about material treatment; (3) After comparing the PCA performance between NIR and visible spectral region, it could be found that the classification performance of samples before and after copper plated process based on the NIR region were better than that based on the visible region, and the information of color on the surface of samples were preferably reflected in the visible region, which could indicate that there are more information about samples' surface characters using the visible spectroscopy coupled with NIR spectroscopy and it is feasible to

  13. Quench Press Hardening with Low Copper Plating. Management and Operation of the DoD Instrumented Factory for Gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    200 words) Copper plating is used as a carbon stop-off during the carburization and austenitization operations associated with the manufacture of...precision gears. The “Low Copper” project’s goals were to optimize the thickness of copper needed during carburization , and to eliminate the need to re... Carburizing , Copper Plating, SAE/AISI 9310H, Precision Gears, Press Quenching 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 92 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18

  14. Numerical model for electrical explosion of copper wires in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Lee, Kern; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, Deok-Kyu

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a simple but quite accurate numerical model for analyzing electrical explosion of copper wires in water. The numerical model solves a circuit equation coupled with one-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equations with the help of appropriate wide-range equation of state (EOS) and electrical conductivity for copper. The MHD equations are formulated in a Lagrangian form to identify the interface between the wire and surrounding water clearly. A quotidian EOS (QEOS) that is known as the simplest form of EOS is utilized to build wide-range EOS for copper. In the QEOS, we consider the liquid-vapor phase transition, which is critical in analyzing the wire explosion system. For the electrical conductivity of copper, a semi-empirical set of equations covering from solid state to partially ionized plasma state are employed. Experimental validation has been performed with copper wires of various diameters, which are exploded by a microsecond timescale pulsed capacitive discharge. The simulation results show excellent agreements with the experimental results in terms of temporal motions of a plasma channel boundary and a shock front as well as current and voltage waveforms. It is found that the wire explodes (vaporizes) along the liquid branch of a binodal curve irrespective of wire dimension and operating voltage. After the explosion, the wire becomes a plasma state right away or after the current pause (dwell), depending on the operating conditions. It is worth noting that such a peculiar characteristic of wire explosion, i.e., current pause and restrike, is well simulated with the present numerical model. In particular, it is shown that the wire cools down along the vapor branch of the binodal curve during the current dwell, due to a significant difference of thermodynamic characteristics across the binodal curve. The influence of radiation for studying nonideal plasmas with a wire explosion technique and a physical process for shock wave formation

  15. Ultrasonic seam welding technologies of copper plate and tube for collecting solar energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤勇; 万珍平; 刘亚俊; 刘树道

    2003-01-01

    The ultrasonic welding is applied more and more extensively due to its advantages such as environmental protection, cleaning and energy saving. By researching the mechanism on ultrasonic seam welding of copper plates and tubes for collecting solar energy, it is put forward that the ultrasonic metal welding process can be divided into two stages, and two factors make functions jointly to join the welded metal specimens. In order to successfully join the welding, three basic conditions must be satisfied, that is, there should be high frequency friction vibration in the contact interface; pressure must be imposed on the plate specimen during friction vibration; the time of friction vibration and pressure imposed should be proper. Furthermore, how to select the hardness of copper plate and tube and ultrasonic seam welding parameters is analyzed by experiments.

  16. Photoconductive Properties of Brush Plated Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Films

    OpenAIRE

    Subiramaniyam, N. P.; P. Thirunavukkarasu; Murali, K. R.

    2013-01-01

    Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) films were deposited for the first time by the brush electrodeposition technique. X-ray diffraction studies indicated the formation of single phase chalcopyrite CIGS. Lattice parameters, dislocation density, and strain were calculated. Band gap of the films increased from 1.12 eV to 1.63 eV as the gallium concentration increased. Room temperature transport parameters of the films, namely, resistivity increased from 0.10 ohm cm to 12 ohm cm, mobility decre...

  17. Electrical conduction in composites containing copper core-copper oxide shell nanostructure in silica gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Das; T K Kundu; M K Dey; S Chakraborty; D Chakravorty

    2003-10-01

    Composites of nanometre-sized copper core-copper oxide shell with diameters in the range 6.1 to 7.3 nm dispersed in a silica gel were synthesised by a technique comprising reduction followed by oxidation of a suitably chosen precursor gel. The hot pressed gel powders mixed with nanometre-sized copper particles dispersed in silica gel showed electrical resistivities several orders of magnitude lower than that of the precursor gel. Electrical resistivities of the different specimens were measured over the temperature range 30 to 300°C. Activation energies for the coreshell nanostructured composites were found to be a fraction of that of the precursor gel. Such dramatic changes are ascribed to the presence of an interfacial amorphous phase. The resistivity variation as a function of temperature was analysed on the basis of Mott’s small polaron hopping conduction model. The effective dielectric constant of the interfacial phase as extracted from the data analysis was found to be much higher than that of the precursor glass. This has been explained as arising from the generation of very high pressure at the interface due to the oxidation step to which the copper nanoparticles are subjected.

  18. Effect of nanostructure on rapid boiling of water on a hot copper plate: a molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ting; Mao, Yijin; Tang, Yong; Zhang, Yuwen; Yuan, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Molecular dynamic simulations are performed to study the effects of nanostructure on rapid boiling of water that is suddenly heated by a hot copper plate. The results show that the nanostructure has significant effects on energy transfer from solid copper plate to liquid water and phase change process from liquid water to vapor. The liquid water on the solid surface rapidly boil after contacting with an extremely hot copper plate and consequently a cluster of liquid water moves upward during phase change. The temperature of the water film when it separates from solid surface and its final temperature when the system is at equilibrium strongly depend on the size of the nanostructure. These temperatures increase with increasing size of nanostructure. Furthermore, a non-vaporized molecular layer is formed on the surface of the copper plate even continuous heat flux is passing into water domain through the plate.

  19. Photoconductive Properties of Brush Plated Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Subiramaniyam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS films were deposited for the first time by the brush electrodeposition technique. X-ray diffraction studies indicated the formation of single phase chalcopyrite CIGS. Lattice parameters, dislocation density, and strain were calculated. Band gap of the films increased from 1.12 eV to 1.63 eV as the gallium concentration increased. Room temperature transport parameters of the films, namely, resistivity increased from 0.10 ohm cm to 12 ohm cm, mobility decreased from 125 cm2V−1s−1 to 20.9 cm2V−1s−1, and carrier concentration decreased from 4.99 × 1017 cm−3 to 2.49 × 1016 cm−3 as the gallium concentration increased. Photosensitivity of the films increased linearly with intensity of illumination and with increase of applied voltage.

  20. Electroless Ni-B plating for electrical contact applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dervos, C. T.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Electroless Ni-B plating has been tried on steel substrate in an effort to employ low-cost starting materials for electrical contacts or connectors. By selected conditions of heat treatment in a high vacuum environment the plating can acquire Cr-equivalent hardness without the effluents of the hard chromium plating process. The surfaces were characterized under scanning electron microscope and by XRD. The fabricated materials were tested under corrosion conditions by polarization measurements. Semispherical nickel plated steel joints were tested in a computer controlled contact make-break apparatus, under simultaneous application of a mechanical and a low-voltage electrical load for 20,000 cycles. After heat treatment the plating acquires a crystalline structure with very good adhesion to the substrate material. Corrosion decreases and increased hardness is obtained. The surface is also characterized by good electrical properties during aging accelerated tests.

    Se ha investigado la deposición de Ni-B por vía química sobre un substrato de acero, con el fin de poder emplear materiales de bajo coste para los contactos o conectores eléctricos. Mediante condiciones específicas de tratamiento térmico en un ambiente de alto vacío, la deposición puede alcanzar durezas equivalentes al cromo (Cr sin los efluentes del proceso de cromado duro. Las superficies se caracterizaron en el microscopio electrónico de barrido y mediante DRX. Los materiales fabricados se ensayaron bajo condiciones de corrosión utilizando mediciones de polarización. Se ensayaron las juntas semiesféricas de acero niquelado en un equipo de contactos controlado por ordenador bajo la aplicación simultánea de una carga mecánica y de una carga eléctrica de bajo voltaje durante 20.000 ciclos. Después del tratamiento térmico, el recubrimiento adquiere una estructura cristalina con muy buena adherencia al material del substrato. Se consigue una menor corrosión y mayor

  1. Copper-Ti3SiC2 composite powder prepared by electroless plating under ultrasonic environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhongbao; XU Shaofan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a new type of Cu-Ti3SiC2 composite powder prepared using the electroless plating technique was introduced. The initial Ti3SiC2 particles are 11 μm in diameter on an average. The Cu plating was carried out at middle temperature (62-65 ℃) with the application of ultrasonic agitation. The copper deposition rate was determined by measuring the weight gain of the powder after plating. It has been found that the pretreatment of Ti3SiC2 powder is very important to obtain copper nanoparticles on the surface of Ti3SiC2. The optimum procedure before plating aimed to add activated sites and the adjustment of the tradifonal composition of the electroless copper plating bath could decelerate the copper deposition rate to 0.8 μm/h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicates that the chemical composition of the plating layer is copper. SEM images show that the surface of the Ti3SiC2 particles is successfully coated with continuous copper layer. The wetting property between the copper matrix and Ti3SiC2 can be improved so as to increase the interfacial strength.

  2. Closed loop oscillating heat pipe as heating device for copper plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamonpet, Patrapon; Sangpen, Waranphop

    2017-04-01

    In manufacturing parts by molding method, temperature uniformity of the mold holds a very crucial aspect for the quality of the parts. Studies have been carried out in searching for effective method in controlling the mold temperature. Using of heat pipe is one of the many effective ways to control the temperature of the molding area to the right uniform level. Recently, there has been the development of oscillating heat pipe and its application is very promising. The semi-empirical correlation for closed-loop oscillating heat pipe (CLOHP) with the STD of ±30% was used in design of CLOHP in this study. By placing CLOHP in the copper plate at some distance from the plate surface and allow CLOHP to heat the plate up to the set surface temperature, the temperature of the plate was recorded. It is found that CLOHP can be effectively used as a heat source to transfer heat to copper plate with excellent temperature distribution. The STDs of heat rate of all experiments are well in the range of ±30% of the correlation used.

  3. On the Electric Field Gradient at Copper Nuclei in Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tadashi

    1993-02-01

    A useful interpretation is presented of the material dependence of Cu electric field gradient (EFG) in a great variety of insulating and superconducting copper oxides. The present study is concerned only with copper sites in nearly tetragonal symmetry and in stoichiometric compositions. The experimental data of Cu EFGs have been analyzed in terms of ionic picture. The analysis has revealed for the first time a systematic correlation between the observed Cu EFG and the ionic contribution to the EFG. By using the correlation, we have extracted empirical values of the Sternheimer antishielding factor γ∞ and the hyperfine constant for Cu2+ and Cu1+ ions. Those values are somewhat different from the traditional ones of the results of unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) calculations for free ions.

  4. Preparation and characterization of molybdenum powders with copper coating by the electroless plating technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guangjun; WANG Dezhi

    2008-01-01

    Molybdenum powders with a diameter of approximately 3 μm were coated with copper using the electroless plating technique in the pH 12.5-13 and temperature range of 55-75℃.The optimization of the electroless copper bath was evaluated through the combination of process parameters like pH and temperature.The optimized values of pH and temperature were found to be 12.5 and 60℃,respectively,which attributes to the bright maroon color of the coating with an increase in weight of 46%.The uncoated and coated powders were subjected to microstructural studies using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the phases were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD).An attempt was made to understand the growth mechanism of the coating.The diffusion-shrinkage autocatalytic model was suggested for copper growth on the molybdenum surface.

  5. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stanley R.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  6. Optimization of Plating Conditions for the Determination of Polonium Using Copper Foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji Benard Babatunde

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The technique of adsorption of polonium onto metal surfaces by spontaneous deposition has found applications in the analysis of environmental samples such as marine sediments, foodstuff, water, and tobacco since the 1960s. Silver foil has been preferred by many scientists but can become quite expensive for routine analysis. Deposition onto copper was first proposed in the 1970s, but has remained poorly studied. In the present study, the cost-effective and rapid optimum conditions necessary for the optimal recovery of Po from aqueous solutions during spontaneous deposition onto copper foils was evaluated while minimizing the deposition of Bi and Pb, which may interfere with subsequent analyses. A series of experiments was performed to determine adsorption yields for Po, Bi, and Pb to copper foils for a range of pH values from 1.0 to 5.5, with and without stable Bi and Pb carriers. Different methods for cleaning the copper foils were also compared. After initial measurements, Po, Bi, and Pb were desorbed from the disc in plating solutions without added activity. At higher pH values (3.0 and 5.5, less Bi was adsorbed to the copper foils, and subsequent desorption removed up to 99.1% of the plated Bi. The polonium yield remained fairly constant at all pH values and was unaffected by the desorption process. There was also no measureable increase in the polonium activity after 33 days, suggesting that Bi and Pb were not significantly co-deposited. All three cleaning methods performed well, whereas uncleaned foils in the same solution showed limited uptake. The use of copper foil under the optimum conditions described here could provide a valuable alternative to the use of silver in 210Po analyses.

  7. Study of electroless copper plating on ABS resin surface modified by heterocyclic organosilane self-assembled film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H N Zhang; J Wang; F F Sun; D Liu; H Y Wang; F Wang

    2014-02-01

    6-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)amino-1, 3, 5-triazine-2, 4-dithiol monosodium (TES) was used to fabricate self-assembled film on corona pretreated acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) resin surface. The self-assembled film modified ABS resin was treated by electroless copper plating. Orthogonal test was carried out to study optimal condition of the process. The surface appearance, plating rate and thickness of electroless copper films were investigated to determine the optimal time of corona-discharge, self-assembly and electroless copper plating. SEM results indicated that porous morphology appeared on ABS resin surface modified by TES self-assembled film and the surface roughness also increased. The adhesion test showed that the adhesion property between ABS resin and copper was excellent. The surface of electroless copper film had high brightness under the optimal condition of 1 min corona-discharge, 30 min self-assembly and 10 min electroless copper plating. The electroless-copper plating temperature was 55 ∼ 60°C and pH was 13 ∼ 13.5.

  8. Preparation of Fabric Sensor for Heart Signal Acquisition Using Printing and Electroless Plating of Copper on Polyester Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Haghdoost

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, a significant progress has been made in the wearable medical devices. Scientists are extensively involved in the design of the flexible instruments equipped with garments to fulfill the daily needs and requirements. The fulfillment of this demand particularly needs a conductive fabric substrate with a high level of homogeneity, and the lowest barrier against electrical current. In this study, textile based ECG electrode was prepared by screen printing of activator followed by electroless plating of copper particles. The data acquisition showed the best outcome with pH=8.5 and the plating temperature of 70 ˚C. The electrical resistance showed a range around 0.08 Ω/sq, which sounds quite proper for ECG signal acquisition since the potential difference according to heart activity on skin surface is in milivolt range. We tested the cardiac signal with a reference electrode of Electroshock monitoring system and the results revealed a very high quality receiving signal. Employing of these types of sensors in textile surface due to their flexibility can bring the users more freedom of action.

  9. Explosive scarf welding of aluminum to copper plates and their interface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashani, J.Z.; Bagheri, S.M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran)

    2009-09-15

    Explosive welding was used to produce scarf joint between aluminum and copper plates. This process is known as explosive scarf welding (ESW). In a scarf joint, the final bond interface is oblique. In this study, chamfered end of aluminum and copper plates were joined explosively and named scarf joint, employing changes in chamfered angle at different stand-off distance and explosive loading. The geometry of scarf joint enables consideration of both flyer and base plate thickness and explosive loading and the effects on mechanical properties of interface such as bond shear strength and micro-hardness can be investigated. Mathematical models developed on the interface properties of scarf joint to make relationship between the bond shear strength and explosive loading ratio. To check the adequacy of developed models, mechanical properties of interface, such as bond shear strength was predicted and compared with actual values in explosive cladding process. The results show reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions. Consequently, mathematical model which is based on scarf joints, can predict bond shear strength of cladding metals under desired explosive loading and flyer plate thickness. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Sprengschweissen von Aluminium - Kupferplatten und ihre Grenzflaecheneigenschaften. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Copper circuit patterning on polymer using selective surface modification and electroless plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Jin; Ko, Tae-Jun; Yoon, Juil; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Han, Jun Hyun

    2017-02-01

    We have examined a potential new and simple method for patterning a copper circuit on PET substrate by copper electroless plating, without the pretreatment steps (i.e., sensitization and activation) for electroless plating as well as the etching processes of conventional circuit patterning. A patterned mask coated with a catalyst material, Ag, for the reduction of Cu ions, is placed on a PET substrate. Subsequent oxygen plasma treatment of the PET substrate covered with the mask promotes the selective generation of anisotropic pillar- or hair-like nanostructures coated with co-deposited nanoparticles of the catalyst material on PET. After oxygen plasma treatment, a Cu circuit is well formed just by dipping the plasma-treated PET into a Cu electroless plating solution. By increasing the oxygen gas pressure in the chamber, the height of the nanostructures increases and the Ag catalyst particles are coated on not only the top but also the side surfaces of the nanostructures. Strong mechanical interlocking between the Cu circuit and PET substrate is produced by the large surface area of the nanostructures, and enhances peel strength. Results indicate this new simple two step (plasma surface modification and pretreatment-free electroless plating) method can be used to produce a flexible Cu circuit with good adhesion.

  11. Electroless Plating of Carbon Nanotubes with Copper%碳纳米管的化学镀铜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凤仪; 袁海龙

    2004-01-01

    A simple chemical method was employed to coat carbon nanotubes with a layer of copper. Due to the hydrophobic nature, large surface curvature, small diameter and large aspect ratio, it is difficult to gain continuous electroless plating layer on the surface of carbon nanotubes. In this paper, a series methods (oxidization, sensitization and activation) are used to add active sites before electroless plating, and the adjustment of the traditional composition of copper electroless plating bath and operating condition can decelerate electroless plating rate. The samples before and after coating were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results showed that the surface of carbon nanotubes was successfully coated with continuous layer of copper, which lays a good foundation for applying carbon nanotubes in composites.

  12. High-adhesion Cu patterns fabricated by nanosecond laser modification and electroless copper plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Ming; Liu, Jianguo, E-mail: liujg@mail.hust.edu.cn; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Du, Qifeng; Ai, Jun

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • High-adhesion copper patterns on alumina ceramic were obtained conveniently. • Effects of processing parameters on adhesion were investigated. • The adhesion of copper–ceramic was higher than the tensile strength of tin-lead solder. • Failure mechanism was studied by the analysis of fracture surfaces. - Abstract: Adhesion strength is a crucial factor for the performance and reliability of metallic patterns on insulator substrates. In this study, we present an efficient technique for selective metallization of alumina ceramic with high adhesion strength by using nanosecond laser modification and electroless copper plating. Specifically, a 355 nm Nd:YVO{sub 4} ultraviolet (UV) laser was employed not only to decompose palladium chloride film locally for catalyzing the electroless reaction, but also to modify the ceramic surface directly using its high fluence. An orthogonal experiment was undertaken to study the effects of processing parameters including laser fluence, scanning speed and scanning line interval on adhesion strength. The adhesion strength was measured by pulling a metallic wire soldered into the copper coating perpendicular to the substrate using a pull tester. The results have shown that a strong adhesion between the copper coating and the alumina ceramic, higher than the tensile strength of tin-lead solder was obtained. Surface and interface characteristics were investigated to understand that, whose results have shown that the high-aspect-ratio microstructures formed by the laser modification is the major reason for the improvement of adhesion.

  13. Micro-Welding of Copper Plate by Frequency Doubled Diode Pumped Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashiba, Shin-Ichi; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Sakagawa, Tomokazu; Takai, Sunao; Okada, Akira

    A pulsed laser of 532 nm wavelength with ms range pulse duration was newly developed by second harmonic generation of diode pumped pulsed Nd:YAG laser. High electro-optical conversion efficiency more than 13% could be achieved, and 1.5 kW peak power green laser pulse was put in optical fiber of 100 μm in diameter. In micro- welding of 1.0 mm thickness copper plate, a keyhole welding was successfully performed by 1.0 kW peak power at spot diameter less than 200 μm. The frequency doubled pulsed laser improved the processing efficiency of copper welding, and narrow and deep weld bead was stably obtained.

  14. Microstructure and Phase Constitution Near the Interface of Explosively Welded Aluminum/Copper Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Henryk; Lityńska-Dobrzyńska, Lidia; Prażmowski, Mariusz

    2013-08-01

    The microstructure changes and the phase constitution within the layers close to the bonding interface strongly influence the properties of bimetallic strips. In this work, the layers near the interface of explosively welded aluminum and copper plates were investigated by means of microscopic observations, mostly with the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDX). The study was focused on the identification of the intermetallic phases, the possible interdiffusion between the copper and the aluminum, and the changes in the dislocation structure of the parent plates. In macro-/mesoscale, the interfaces were outlined by a characteristic sharp transition indicating that there was no mechanical mixing between the welded metals in the solid state. In micro-/nanoscale, the layers adhering to the interface show typical deformed microstructure features, i.e., structure refinement, elongated dislocation cells, slip bands, and microtwins (in copper plate). The internal microstructure of the intermetallic inclusion is composed mostly of dendrites. The electron diffractions and TEM/EDX chemical composition measurements revealed three crystalline equilibrium phases of the γ-Al4Cu9, η-AlCu, and Θ-Al2Cu type (the last one was dominant). However, most of the observed phases of the general Cu m Al n type (also crystalline) do not appear in the equilibrium Al-Cu phase diagram. Inside the intermetallic inclusions, no significant regularity in the phase distribution with respect to the parent sheets was observed. Therefore, it was concluded that the processes occurring in the melt determined their local chemical composition.

  15. Effect of laser surface melting treatment on properties of electric copper busbar joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁工英; 宋晓平; 顾林喻

    2001-01-01

    Electrical conductance and temperature of electric copper busbar joints were measured under different torque moments. Experimental results show that laser surface melting can increase hardness and refine structure of the copper, and it does not deteriorate electric resistance. Meanwhile, the temperature of laser treated joints under electric current is slightly lower than that of original sample. Salt spray test shows that laser treated sample has better salt spray corrosion resistance than the original sample does. The electric resistance of both laser-treated and original samples are increased with salt spray time. For the same salt spray time, the electric resistance of busbar joint is decreased with increasing torque moment.

  16. 化学镀铜短碳纤维-铜-石墨复合材料的性能研究%Properties of Electroless Copper Plating on Short Carbon Fiber-Copper-Graphite Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许少凡; 许少平; 霍金元; 顾斌

    2012-01-01

    The surfaces of short carbon fibers were coated by electroless copper plating method, and the long carbon fibers coated by continuous electroplating copper method were cut short. The carbon fiber-copper-graphite composites with the two kinds of short carbon fibers and the copper-graphite composite without short carbon fibers were prepared by the powder metallurgy method. Their physical and mechanical properties were tested. The dry friction tests of the composites under sliding velocity of 15 m/s and load of 4. 9 N were conducted for 30 h . The results show that such properties of the electroless copper plating on short carbon fiber-copper-graphite composite as electric conductivity, hardness, bending strength and wear resistance are increased much more remarkably than those of the electroplating copper short carbon fiber-copper-graphite and copper-graphite composite without short carbon fiber.%本文采用化学镀铜法对短碳纤维表面进行镀铜,并用电镀法对长碳纤维表面进行连续镀铜后,再切割成镀铜短碳纤维.随后用粉末冶金法制备了含有这两种镀铜短碳纤维的碳纤维-铜-石墨复合材料和不含碳纤维的铜-石墨复合材料,对它们的物理和力学性能进行了测试,并在滑动速度为15 m/s、载荷为4.9N的干摩擦条件下进行了30 h磨损试验,结果表明:化学镀铜短碳纤维-铜-石墨复合材料的导电性、硬度、抗弯强度和耐磨性优于电镀铜短碳纤维-铜-石墨复合材料和不含碳纤维的铜-石墨复合材料.

  17. Interaction between hollow needles - electric field, light emission and ozone generation study in multineedle to plate electrical discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriha, Vitezslav

    2004-09-01

    Multi hollow needle to plate electrical discharges in air are studied as ozone sources. Dependence of ozone concentration as an function of applied voltage, discharge current, mutual hollow needles position and electrical connection, working gas flow rate, distances between needles tips and plate electrode, visible light emission was measured experimentally in these systems. Electric field was numerically modeled. Light emission and electrical field distributions were compared. Coming from light emission and electric field a model of energy density spatial distribution was built. This model was finally compared with ozone generation.

  18. Production of Copper-Plated Beamline Bellows and Spools for LCLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Katherine M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Carpenter, Brian C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Daly, Ed [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Huque, Naeem A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Peshehonoff, Ted [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Arkan, Tug [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lunin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Premo, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is currently constructing a major upgrade to its accelerator, the Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II). Several Department of Energy national laboratories, including the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), are participating in this project. The 1.3-GHz cryomodules for this project consist of eight cavities separated by bellows (expansion joints) and spools (tube sections), which are copper plated for RF conduction. JLab is responsible for procurement of these bellows and spools, which are delivered to JLab and FNAL for assembly into cryomodules. Achieving accelerator-grade copper plating is always a challenge and requires careful specification of requirements and application of quality control processes. Due to the demanding technical requirements of this part, JLab implemented procurement strategies to make the process more efficient as well as provide process redundancy. This paper discusses the manufacturing challenges that were encountered and resolved, as well as the strategies that were employed to minimize the impact of any technical issues.

  19. Effects of different friction stir welding conditions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of copper plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Ali Alavi; Shirazi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Friction stir welding is a new and innovative welding method used to fuse materials. In this welding method, the heat generated by friction and plastic flow causes significant changes in the microstructure of the material, which leads to local changes in the mechanical properties of the weld. In this study, the effects of various welding parameters such as the rotational and traverse speeds of the tool on the microstructural and mechanical properties of copper plates were investigated; additionally, Charpy tests were performed on copper plates for the first time. Also, the effect of the number of welding passes on the aforementioned properties has not been investigated in previous studies. The results indicated that better welds with superior properties are produced when less heat is transferred to the workpiece during the welding process. It was also found that although the properties of the stir zone improved with an increasing number of weld passes, the properties of its weakest zone, the heat-affected zone, deteriorated.

  20. Electric modelling and image analysis of channel flow in bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.; Gonzalez, L.; Garcia-Alegre, M.C.; Guinea, D. [Instituto de Automatica Industrial, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 28500 Arganda, Madrid (Spain); Guinea, D.M.; Moreno, B. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    Bipolar plates are an essential part of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) and are related to fluid conduction. The topology of a bipolar plate is critical to the homogeneous distribution of the feeding gases over the accessible zone of the electrode. An electric model that simulates flow in bipolar plates and permits the optimisation of gas feeding in PEMFCs is proposed. As a first approach, an analogy is made between the gas pressure P and an electric voltage U in a circuit and a gas flow F and an electric current I. The fluidic resistance in a bipolar plate channel is thus R=P/F and is equivalent to the electric resistance R=U/I in a branch of a circuit. Computer image processing techniques allow the validation of the present flow estimation approach based on electrical variables. Separate plates were developed to experimentally implement a complete parallel bipolar topology. (author)

  1. Optimum conditions for fabricating superhydrophobic surface on copper plates via controlled surface oxidation and dehydration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Wen; Ma, Fumin; Yu, Zhanlong; Ruan, Min; Ding, Yigang; Deng, Xiangyi

    2013-09-01

    The superhydrophobic surfaces on copper substrate were fabricated by direct oxidation and dehydration processes, and the reaction and modification conditions were optimized. Firstly, the oxidation conditions including the concentrations of K2S2O8 and NaOH, the oxidation time were studied. It is found that the superhydrophobicity would be better if the copper plates were oxidized in 0.06 M K2S2O8 and 3.0 M NaOH solution at 65 °C for 35 min. Then, the modification conditions including modifier concentration and modification time were investigated. The results showed that 5 wt% lauric acid and 1 h modification time were suitable modification conditions for preparing copper-based superhydrophobic surfaces. The surface fabricated under optimized conditions displayed excellent superhydrophobicity of high water contact angle of 161.1° and a low contact angle hysteresis of 2.5°. The surface microstructure and composition of the superhydrophobic surfaces were also characterized by SEM and FT-IR. It is found that the highly concentrated micro/nanostructured sheets and the low surface energy materials on the surface should be responsible for the high superhydrophobicity.

  2. Outgassing rate of the copper-plated beam tube for ISABELLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hseuh, H.C.; Gaudet, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    The ultrahigh vacuum system of the intersecting storage accelerator, ISABELLE, will consist of two interlaced rings of stainless steel beam tubes with a circumference 2-1/2 miles each. To obtain a good heat conduction during bakeout and to reduce the resistive wall instability during beam operation, a lmm thick copper coating will be electroplated to the outer surface of this 1.5 mm thick beam tube. To minimize the beam loss due to beam-gas collision, the pressure inside the beam tube is required to be 1 x 10/sup -11/ Torr (N/sub 2/ equivalent) or less. To achieve this ultrahigh vacuum, the outgassing rate of the 304 LN stainless steel tubes has been reduced to approx. 1 x 10/sup -13/ Torr. l/cm/sup 2/. sec by vacuum firing at 950/sup 0/C for one hour. However, during acid-bath electroplating of copper, significant amount of hydrogen will be reintroduced and trapped in stainless steel which will substantially increase the outgassing rate (to approx. 2 x 10/sup -12/ Torr . l/cm/sup 2/ sec). The outgassing characteristics of these copper-plated beam tubes are studied and discussed within the scope of diffusion and energy of activation. Methods to reduce the outgassing rate to an acceptable level (approx. 1 x 10/sup -13/ Torr . l/cm/sup 2/ . sec) are also given.

  3. Synthesis of Corrosion-resistant Nanocrystalline Nickle-copper Alloy Coatings by Pulse-plating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Ghosh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright and smooth nanocrystalline Monel-type Ni-Cu alloy gets deposited from complex citrate electrolyte by pulse electrolysis. Transmission electron microscopy studies have revealedthat the deposited Ni-Cu alloy was nanocrystalline in nature and it comprised a two-phase (fcc+Ll, mixture. The presence of twins could be seen in the nanocrystals. The Ni-Cu alloysprepared by pulse electrolysis were finer grained (- 2.5-28.5 nm than those deposited by direct current method. Nelson-Riley function has been used to calculate the lattice parameters for both the pulse current-plated and direct current-plated alloys from x-ray diffraction analysis. The microhardness values for pulse current-plated alloys were higher than for the direct currentplated alloys. The internal stresses of both the pulse current-deposited and the direct currentdeposited alloys have also been measured; the values were lower for pulse current-plated alloys. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies were carried out in aerated and deaerated neutral 3.0 Wt per cent NaCl solution and instantaneous corrosion current density of the plated alloy was determined and compared with the Monel-400 alloy. It was found that nanocrystalline pulse current-N,-35 8 Wt p;r cent copper alloy uxh~bitedlo wer instantaneous value of corros~onc urrent densirv than that of soeclrnens with direct current method and Monel-400 allov The d~ssolut~on ~ ~~~~-~ behaviour ofthe deposited nanocrystalline material was found to be more like general corrosion rather than localised corrosion as in the case of Monel-400 alloy.

  4. The Processing Technology of Copper Based Microstrip Plate%铜基微带板加工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐浩平; 薛杉; 胡宁

    2013-01-01

    文章对金属基微带板材料性能进行了简单介绍,对铜基微带板的工艺流程及技术进行了详细说明。%In this paper, the material properties of the metal based microstrip plate are introduced and the process and technology of copper based microstrip plate are described in detail.

  5. Influence of composition, heat treatment and neutron irradiation on the electrical conductivity of copper alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Singh, B.N.

    1998-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of three different types of copper alloys, viz. CuNiBe, CuCrZr and Cu-Al(2)O(3) as well as of pure copper are reported. The alloys have undergone different pre-irradiation heat treatments and have been fission-neutron irradiated up to 0.3 dpa. In some cases post...

  6. Electrically Conducting Polymer-Copper Sulphide Composite Films, Preparation by Treatment of Polymer-Copper (2) Acetate Composites with Hydrogen Sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takakazu; Kamigaki, Takahira; Kubota, Etsuo

    1988-01-01

    Polymer copper sulfide composite films were prepared by treatment of polymer poly(vinyl chloride), poly(acrylonitrile), copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate (90:10), and ABS resin copper (2) acetate composites with hydrogen sulfide. The films showed electrical conductivity higher than 0.015 S/cm when they contained more than 20 wt percent of copper sulfide. A poly(acrylonitrile)-copper sulfide composite film containing 40 to 50 wt percent of copper sulfide showed electrical conductivity of 10 to 150.0 S/cm and had relatively high mechanical strength to be used in practical purposes.

  7. Preparation and electrical properties of dense micro-cermets made of nickel ferrite and metallic copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baco-Carles, Valérie; Pasquet, Isabelle; Laurent, Véronique; Gabriel, Armand; Tailhades, Philippe

    2009-08-01

    Dense micro-cermets made of nickel ferrites and copper micrometric particles were obtained from partial reduction under hydrogenated atmosphere at 350 °C of mixed copper nickel ferrites, and sintering in nitrogen at 980 °C. The small copper particles are homogeneous in size and well dispersed in the spinel oxide matrix. No exudation of copper metal was observed after sintering. The micro-cermets prepared are semi-conducting materials with electrical conductivity lying from 44 to 130 S/cm at 980 °C. Their overall characteristics make them interesting for inert anodes dedicated to aluminium electrolysis in melted cryolite.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF GLASS PLATE FAILURE MECHANISM SUBJECTED TO COPPER AND STEEL PROJECTILE IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim H. Shah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE ABSTRACT: A glass plate was subjected to impact by spherical copper and steel projectiles at low velocities. The glass failure features consisted of a central Hertzian cone made up of comminuted glass and a spider web like cracking pattern around the cone with circumferential and radial cracks. The objective of the investigation was to determine if the damage caused by copper projectile impact compared to steel projectile impact was higher for the same kinetic energy (K.E. projectiles and the reason for this phenomenon. For the constant K.E. impact, copper projectile apparently caused higher damage in glass plate. Higher damage was attributed to projectile contact duration and the contact area between the projectile and the glass plate. Finite element analysis using LS-DYNA based upon maximum principal strain failure criterion for laminated glass model was able to predict the failed material under the impact location and the cracking pattern in the glass plate for a biased meshing scheme. Radial cracks in glass target were reported to be 15% higher for copper projectile impact than the steel projectile impact. ABSTRAK: Kepingan kaca dikenakan impak oleh projektil kuprum dan keluli berbentuk sfera pada halaju rendah. Ciri-ciri kegagalan kaca terdiri daripada kon berpusat Hertzian yang melibatkan kaca yang hancur dan corak pecahan berbentuk sesawang lelabah pada keliling kon dengan retakan lilitan dan jejarian. Tujuan penyelidikan adalah untuk menentukan sebab bagaimana  dengan projektil tenaga kinetik yang sama, kerosakan yang diakibatkan oleh impak projektil kuprum berbanding dengan impak projektil keluli adalah lebih tinggi. Untuk impak tenaga kinetik yang malar, projektil kuprum didapati menyebabkan kerosakan yang lebih ke atas kepingan kaca. Kerosakan lebih disebabkan oleh tempoh sentuhan projektil dan kawasan sentuhan di antara projektil dan kepingan kaca. Analisis unsur terhingga menggunakan LS

  9. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of patterned copper nanostructure electrolessly plated on arrayed nanoporous silicon pillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei Fen; Shan, Wen Wen; Ling, Hong; Wang, Yu Sheng; Cao, Yan Xia; Li, Xin Jian

    2010-10-20

    A new synthesized composite structure, a patterned copper/silicon nanoporous pillar array (Cu/Si-NPA) made by depositing Cu on Si-NPA using an immersion plating method, can be used as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. Its surface component and morphology were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. It was found that the surface was Cu with two kinds of crystal structures: a continuous film composed of Cu nanocrystallites covering the Si-NPA, and a quasi-regular, interconnected network composed of loop-chains of Cu crystallites, with the size in the range of several tens of nanometer to 300 nm, surrounding the porous Si pillars. The composite structure is strongly SERS active using rhodamine 6G as probe molecules, which is mainly due to the patterned hierarchical Cu structure. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd

  10. A Study of the Preparation and Properties of Antioxidative Copper Inks with High Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Yang; Chang, Wei-Chen; Chen, Guan-Lin; Chung, Cheng-Huan; Liang, Jun-Xiang; Ma, Wei-Yang; Yang, Tsun-Neng

    2015-12-01

    Conductive ink using copper nanoparticles has attracted much attention in the printed electronics industry because of its low cost and high electrical conductivity. However, the problem of easy oxidation under heat and humidity conditions for copper material limits the wide applications. In this study, antioxidative copper inks were prepared by dispersing the nanoparticles in the solution, and then conductive copper films can be obtained after calcining the copper ink at 250 °C in nitrogen atmosphere for 30 min. A low sheet resistance of 47.6 mΩ/□ for the copper film was measured by using the four-point probe method. Importantly, we experimentally demonstrate that the electrical conductivity of copper films can be improved by increasing the calcination temperature. In addition, these highly conductive copper films can be placed in an atmospheric environment for more than 6 months without the oxidation phenomenon, which was verified by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). These observations strongly show that our conductive copper ink features high antioxidant properties and long-term stability and has a great potential for many printed electronics applications, such as flexible display systems, sensors, photovoltaic cells, and radio frequency identification.

  11. Electrical Behavior of Copper Mine Tailings During EKR with Modified Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Adrian; Hansen, Henrik K; Monárdez, Omara; Jorquera, Carlos; Santis, Paulina; Inostroza, Paula

    2017-03-01

    Electro-kinetic remediation (EKR) with sinusoidal electric field obtained simultaneously with DC/AC voltage reduce the polarization of the EKR with DC voltage. The DC voltage value defines the presence of a periodic polarity reversal of the cell and the electrical charge for electro-kinetic transport. In this case, the AC frequency favors the breaking of polarization conditions resulting from the EKR with DC voltage. However, with high frequencies a negative effect occurs where the tailings behave as a filter circuit, discriminating frequencies of an electric signal. The goal of this work is to analyse the electrical behaviour of tailings in EKR experiments. The conditions selected were: DC/AC voltages: 10/15 and 20/25 V (peak values), and AC voltage frequencies 50-2000 Hz. When the AC frequency reaches 2000 Hz, the copper removal tends to zero, indicating that the tailing behaves as a high-pass filter in which the DC voltage was filtered out.

  12. Corrosion-resistant, electrically-conductive plate for use in a fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J David [Bolingbrook, IL; Mawdsley, Jennifer R [Woodridge, IL; Niyogi, Suhas [Woodridge, IL; Wang, Xiaoping [Naperville, IL; Cruse, Terry [Lisle, IL; Santos, Lilia [Lombard, IL

    2010-04-20

    A corrosion resistant, electrically-conductive, durable plate at least partially coated with an anchor coating and a corrosion resistant coating. The corrosion resistant coating made of at least a polymer and a plurality of corrosion resistant particles each having a surface area between about 1-20 m.sup.2/g and a diameter less than about 10 microns. Preferably, the plate is used as a bipolar plate in a proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) fuel cell stack.

  13. Tribological behavior and wear mechanism of resin-matrix contact strip against copper with electrical current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Chuan-jun; CHEN Zhen-hua; CHEN Ding; YAN Hong-ge; HE Feng-yi

    2008-01-01

    The resin-matrix pantograph contact strip (RMPCS), which has excellent abrasion resistance with electrical current and friction-reducing function, was developed in view of the traditional contact strips with high maintenance cost, high wear rate with electrical current and severe damage to the copper conducting wire. The characteristics of worn surfaces, cross-section and typical elemental distributions of RMPCS were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS).The wear behavior and arc discharge of RMPCS against copper were investigated with self-made electrical wear tester. The results show that the electrical current plays a critical role in determining the wear behavior, and the wear rate of the RMPCS against copper with electrical current is 2.7-5.8 times higher than the value without electrical current. The wear rate of the contact strip increases with the increase of the sliding speed and electrical current density. The main wear mechanism of RMPCS against copper without electrical current is low stress grain abrasive and slightly adhesive wear, while arc erosion wear and oxidation wear are the dominate mechanism with electrical current, which is accompanied by adhesive wear during the process of wear.

  14. Effect of fission neutron irradiation on the tensile and electrical properties of copper and copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabritsiev, S.A. [D.V. Efremov Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Zinkle, S.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the properties of several copper alloys following fission reactor irradiation at ITER-relevant temperatures of 80 to 200{degrees}C. This study provides some of the data needed for the ITER research and development Task T213. These low temperature irradiations caused significant radiation hardening and a dramatic decrease in the work hardening ability of copper and copper alloys. The uniform elongation was higher at 200{degree}C compared to 100{degree}C, but still remained below 1% for most of the copper alloys.

  15. Model kekuatan geser dan kekuatan tarik perlekatan copper alloy dengan resin akrilik setelah tin plating (Tensile strength and shear strength models bonds in between copper alloy and acrylic resin after tin plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endanus Harijanto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Tooth crown restoration was made in a complex system consisting of several elements, namely tensile strength and shear strength bond between copper alloy and acrylic resin after tin plating. The aim of this exemination was to find a model representing connection between tensile strength and shear strength in between copper alloy with acrylic resin in statistic method. In conclusion, this exemination utilizing a strength model = 0.645 + 1.237 × tensile strength resulted shear strength exemination. On the other hand, the utilization of a strength = –0.506 + 0.808 × shear strength resulted tensile strength exemination.

  16. A promising structure for fabricating high strength and high electrical conductivity copper alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rengeng; Kang, Huijun; Chen, Zongning; Fan, Guohua; Zou, Cunlei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shaojian; Lu, Yiping; Jie, Jinchuan; Cao, Zhiqiang; Li, Tingju; Wang, Tongmin

    2016-02-09

    To address the trade-off between strength and electrical conductivity, we propose a strategy: introducing precipitated particles into a structure composed of deformation twins. A Cu-0.3%Zr alloy was designed to verify our strategy. Zirconium was dissolved into a copper matrix by solution treatment prior to cryorolling and precipitated in the form of Cu5Zr from copper matrix via a subsequent aging treatment. The microstructure evolutions of the processed samples were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, and the mechanical and physical behaviours were evaluated through tensile and electrical conductivity tests. The results demonstrated that superior tensile strength (602.04 MPa) and electrical conductivity (81.4% IACS) was achieved. This strategy provides a new route for balancing the strength and electrical conductivity of copper alloys, which can be developed for large-scale industrial application.

  17. Low temperature bonding of LD31 aluminum alloys by electric brush plating Ni and Cu coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhenqing; Wang Chunqing; Du Miao

    2005-01-01

    Soldering of LD31 aluminum alloys using Sn-Pb solder paste after electric brush plating Ni and Cu coatings was nvestigated. The technology of electric brush plating Ni and Cu was studied and plating solution was developed. The microstructure of the coatings, soldered joint and fracture face were analyzed using optic microscopy, SEM and EDX. The shear strength of soldered joint could reach as high as 26. 83 MPa. The results showed that reliable soldered joint could be obtained at 230℃, the adhesion of coatings and LD31 aluminum alloy substrate was high enough to bear the thermal process in the soldering.

  18. Study of electroless copper plating on ABS plastic%ABS塑料化学镀铜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦建芳; 姚陈忠; 曹新录

    2012-01-01

    The basic process of electroless copper plating was discussed using ABS plastic as a matrix,formaldehyde as a reducing agent and EDTA as a complexing agent It was sudied for the bath pH, plating temperature and plating time. The optimum process parameters were identified that they were temperature being 50℃, the optimum pH value being 12. S and plating time being 40 min. the composition and morphology of the copper layer under optimal conditions were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and SEM. The results showed that:the copper coating was hongliang appearance,surface roughness,and few impurities.%以ABS塑料为基体,甲醛为还原剂,EDTA为络合剂,研究了化学镀铜的基本工艺.考察镀液的pH值、温度、时间对镀铜的影响,确定最佳工艺参数为pH=12.5、T=50℃、t=40min.通过扫描电镜和X射线衍射分析了最佳条件下镀铜层的形貌和成分,结果表明:该镀层外观红亮,表面平整,杂质含量很少.

  19. Photoelastic Measurement of Strain Induced by Die-Bonding of GaAs Chip on a Copper Heatsink Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tao; Yamada, Masayoshi

    1999-02-01

    Die-bonding-induced strain in a GaAs chip bonded on a copper heatsink plate has been measured with a reflection type of infrared polariscope.The spatial distributions of bonding-induced strain were seen to vary from sample to sample.The maximum value of the bonding-induced strain was found to be of the order of 10-4, which corresponded to about 1/10 of that estimated from the thermal expansion difference for the unit length between GaAs and copper when it was cooled down from the die-bonding temperature to the room temperature.

  20. Structural, optical and electrical properties of chemically deposited copper selenide films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R H Bari; V Ganesan; S Potadar; L A Patil

    2009-02-01

    Stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric thin films of copper selenide have been prepared by chemical bath deposition technique at temperature below 60°C on glass substrate. The effect of nonstoichiometry on the optical, electrical and structural properties of the film was studied. The bandgap energy was observed to increase with the increase in at % of copper in composition. The grain size was also observed to increase with the decrease of at % of copper in composition. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), absorption spectroscopy, and AFM. The results are discussed and interpreted.

  1. Effects of grain boundaries on electrical property of copper wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严文; 陈建; 范新会

    2003-01-01

    By means of annealing at different temperatures, the copper wires with various numbers of grain boundaries were achieved. And the resistivity of copper wires was measured. The results show that with increasing the number of grain boundaries, the resistivity of copper wires increases, the relationship between the number of grain boundaries and the resistivity of cooper wires can be expressed as y=1.86×10-8e-0.90/x. Unlike dislocation and lattice vacant sites, the curve of the grain boundary vs the resistivity is not linear. Grain boundary controls the general trend of the curve, but the type and the quantity of impurity controls the details of the curve.

  2. TECHNICAL DESIGN NOTE: The method for controlling dew droplets deposited on a copper plate by scattered laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shigeaki

    2008-01-01

    Tiny dew droplets deposited on a copper plate were controlled constantly by a developed control technique using scattered laser light for studying initial dropwise condensation. The technique employs proportional control combined with shifting movement by an integrator. The droplets were controlled for 60 min at almost constant diameters in a range from only a few micrometers to tens of micrometers and were almost hemispherical in the initial condensation at room temperature.

  3. Electrodeposition of copper from a copper sulfate solution using a packed-bed continuous-recirculation flow reactor at high applied electric current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshaal F. Alebrahim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is mainly to investigate the performance of a packed-bed continuous-recirculation flow reactor at high applied electric current in removing copper, Cu(II, from simulated electrolyte by electrodeposition. The effects of pHo, circulation rate of flow, initial copper concentration, intensity of the applied current and the method of application of electric current, as to have a constant value during all the time of electrolysis or to be decreased with time, on copper electrodeposition and current efficiency are revealed. The results showed that the increase in pH (provided not lead to the deposition of Cu(OH2, initial concentration of the copper and flow rate increased the electrodeposition of copper as well as improved current efficiency. However, increasing intensity of the applied electric current led to an increase in the electrodeposition of copper and decreased electrical efficiency. It was also observed that reducing the intensity of applied electric current with time during the electrolysis process while maintaining other operating variables constant led to a significant reduction in the consumption of electrical energy used in the process of copper removal by electrodeposition; a reduction of 41.6% could be achieved.

  4. Multimodal vibration damping of a plate by piezoelectric coupling to its analogous electrical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossouarn, B.; Deü, J.-F.; Aucejo, M.; Cunefare, K. A.

    2016-11-01

    Multimodal damping can be achieved by coupling a mechanical structure to an electrical network exhibiting similar modal properties. Focusing on a plate, a new topology for such an electrical analogue is found from a finite difference approximation of the Kirchhoff-Love theory and the use of the direct electromechanical analogy. Discrete models based on element dynamic stiffness matrices are proposed to simulate square plate unit cells coupled to their electrical analogues through two-dimensional piezoelectric transducers. A setup made of a clamped plate covered with an array of piezoelectric patches is built in order to validate the control strategy and the numerical models. The analogous electrical network is implemented with passive components as inductors, transformers and the inherent capacitance of the piezoelectric patches. The effect of the piezoelectric coupling on the dynamics of the clamped plate is significant as it creates the equivalent of a multimodal tuned mass damping. An adequate tuning of the network then yields a broadband vibration reduction. In the end, the use of an analogous electrical network appears as an efficient solution for the multimodal control of a plate.

  5. Thermal dependence of electrical characteristics of micromachined silica microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Vallerga, John V.; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Beetz, Charles P.; Boerstler, Robert W.

    2004-04-01

    Micromachined silica microchannel plates (MCPs) under development have a number of advantages over standard glass MCPs and open completely new possibilities in detector technologies. In this article we present the results of our studies on the thermal properties of silica microchannel plates (sMCPs). Similar to standard glass microchanel plates the resistance of silica MCPs was measured to change exponentially with temperature with a negative thermal coefficient of -0.036 per °C, somewhat larger than that of standard glass MCPs. The resistance also decreases linearly with the applied voltage, with the voltage coefficient of -3.1×10-4 V-1. With the knowledge of these two coefficients, our thermal model allows the calculation of the maximum voltage, which can be applied to a given MCP without inducing a thermal runaway. A typical 25 mm diam, 240 μm thick sMCP with 6 μm pores has to have the resistance larger than ˜30 MΩ to operate safely at voltages up to 800 V. With this model we can also calculate the time required for a given silica MCP to reach the point of thermal equilibrium after a voltage increase. We hope that the ongoing efforts on a proper modification of the sMCP semiconducting layer will lead to the production of new MCPs with a small negative or even a positive thermal coefficient, reducing the possibility of thermal runaways of low-resistance MCPs required for high count rate applications.

  6. Lustrous copper nanoparticle film: Photodeposition with high quantum yield and electric conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Masaya; Yonemura, Mari; Tanaka, Hideki

    2016-11-01

    Cu nanoparticle (NP) film has attracted much attention due to its high electric conductivity. In the present study, we prepared a Cu NP film on a TiO2-coated substrate by photoreduction of copper acetate solution. The obtained film showed high electric conductivity and metallic luster by the successive deposition of Cu NP. Moreover, the film was decomposed on exposure to fresh air, and its decomposition reaction mechanisms were proposed. Hence, we concluded that the obtained lustrous film was composed of Cu NP, even though its physical properties was similar to bulk copper.

  7. Degradation of some typical pharmaceuticals and personal care products with copper-plating iron doped Cu2O under visible light irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing An; Qixing Zhou

    2012-01-01

    A mixture of five commonly used pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) was degraded using a new combined catalyst under visible light irradiation.Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the combined catalyst was composed of copper-plating iron doped Cu2O (FeCu/Cu2O).Compared with the Fe/C inner micro-circuit,the electric currents flowing between Cu and Fe increase the speed of anodic Fe dissolution.Moreover,due to the photochemical properties,Cu2O can accelerate the PPCPs degradation processes under the irradiation of visible light.In addition,shaking increased the dissolved oxygen concentration in the solution,which not only preconditioned the photo-catalysis reaction,but also set the stage for Fe reduction.Aocording to the experimental results,we propose the possible reaction mechanism of the reaction.

  8. VAMTOP套管接箍镀铜层变色原因分析%Reason Analysis on Tarnishing of Copper Plate of VAMTOP Casing Couplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁毅; 历建爱; 李平全; 佟琳

    2012-01-01

    Tarnishing reason of copper plate of VAMTOP casing couplings was analyzed by means of macro examination, microstructure examination, SEM analysis and X-ray energy spectrum analysis. The results show that the main reason for the tarnishing of the copper plating was that the surface copper oxidized and generated copper oxide. The dust color copper oxides hadn't occupied the whole copper layer, and it wouldn't destruct the combination of copper plate with matrix material. The tarnishing had no harmful effects on the service performance of the copper plate of the casing couplings.%采用宏观检验、金相检验、扫描电镜分析以及能谱分析等方法对某VAMTOP套管接箍镀铜层变色的原因进行了分析。结果表明:接箍镀铜层变色主要是由于镀铜层的表层铜发生氧化生成了铜的氧化物所致;该灰褐色氧化物变色层并未深入全镀铜层,不影响镀铜层与基体的结合,变色对接箍镀铜层的使用性能并未造成不良影响。

  9. Vibration control in plates by uniformly distributed PZT actuators interconnected via electric networks

    CERN Document Server

    Vidoli, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a novel device aimed at controlling the mechanical vibrations of plates by means of a set of electrically-interconnected piezoelectric actuators is described. The actuators are embedded uniformly in the plate wherein they connect every node of an electric network to ground, thus playing the two-fold role of capacitive element in the electric network and of couple suppliers. A mathematical model is introduced to describe the propagation of electro-mechanical waves in the device; its validity is restricted to the case of wave-forms with wave-length greater than the dimension of the piezoelectric actuators used. A self-resonance criterion is established which assures the possibility of electro-mechanical energy exchange. Finally the problem of vibration control in simply supported and clamped plates is addressed; the optimal net-impedance is determined. The results indicate that the proposed device can improve the performances of piezoelectric actuation

  10. Electrical conductivity in directionally solidified lead-9 and -20 wt pct copper alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shinwoo; Flanagan, W. F.; Lichter, B. D.; Grugel, R. N.

    1993-01-01

    Composites consisting of aligned copper dendrites in a lead matrix have been produced by directional solidification processing for potential application as grids in lead-acid batteries. To promote a uniform composite of aligned copper dendrites in a protective lead matrix, two alloy compositions, Pb-9 and -20 wt pct Cu, have been directionally solidified through a temperature gradient of 4.5 K/mm at constant growth velocities which ranged from 1 to 100 micron/s. With slow growth rates (below about 10 microns/s), the copper dendrites were generally columnar and continuous along the sample length; at higher velocities (above 60 microns/s), they assumed an intricate and equiaxed morphology. In accordance with copper content and growth rate, the electrical conductivity of the directionally solidified composites was found to be as much as a 2.5 times that of pure lead. The results are compared with that predicted by a model based on a geometrical dendrite.

  11. Thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and specific heat of copper-carbon fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniya, Keiichi; Arakawa, Hideo; Kanai, Tsuneyuki; Chiba, Akio

    1988-01-01

    A new material of copper/carbon fiber composite is developed which retains the properties of copper, i.e., its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, and the property of carbon, i.e., a small thermal expansion coefficient. These properties of the composite are adjustable within a certain range by changing the volume and/or the orientation of the carbon fibers. The effects of carbon fiber volume and arrangement changes on the thermal and electrical conductivity, and specific heat of the composite are studied. Results obtained are as follows: the thermal and electrical conductivity of the composite decrease as the volume of the carbon fiber increases, and were influenced by the fiber orientation. The results are predictable from a careful application of the rule of mixtures for composites. The specific heat of the composite was dependent, not on fiber orientation, but on fiber volume. In the thermal fatigue tests, no degradation in the electrical conductivity of this composite was observed.

  12. High-voltage electrical burns due to copper theft - Case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, M J; Oliveira, I; Egipto, P; Silva, A

    2016-03-31

    Electrical burns are among the most devastating trauma inflicted on the human body. These burns have a higher morbidity, length of stay and a much higher risk of amputation than any other type of burn. Electrical burns affect mostly young, working males because they are more frequently the result of a work accident. However, possibly due to the worldwide economic crisis, we are experiencing a new phenomenon: the theft of high-voltage copper wiring.

  13. High-voltage electrical burns due to copper theft – Case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, M.J.; Oliveira, I.; Egipto, P.; Silva, A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Electrical burns are among the most devastating trauma inflicted on the human body. These burns have a higher morbidity, length of stay and a much higher risk of amputation than any other type of burn. Electrical burns affect mostly young, working males because they are more frequently the result of a work accident. However, possibly due to the worldwide economic crisis, we are experiencing a new phenomenon: the theft of high-voltage copper wiring. PMID:27857650

  14. Electrodeposition of copper from a copper sulfate solution using a packed-bed continuous-recirculation flow reactor at high applied electric current

    OpenAIRE

    Meshaal F. Alebrahim; I.A. Khattab; Sharif, Adel O.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is mainly to investigate the performance of a packed-bed continuous-recirculation flow reactor at high applied electric current in removing copper, Cu(II), from simulated electrolyte by electrodeposition. The effects of pHo, circulation rate of flow, initial copper concentration, intensity of the applied current and the method of application of electric current, as to have a constant value during all the time of electrolysis or to be decreased with time, on copper el...

  15. The electrical simulation of a gas discharge excited copper laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, J. M.; Maitland, Arthur

    1992-12-01

    A circuit model of a gas laser discharge for use with simulator packages such as SPICE to describe the behavior of the combined circuit representing a copper vapor laser with its modulator drive is presented. The laser tube and discharge combination is treated as a transmission line with time-varying impedance elements for which the time variation is achieved by the introduction of controlled voltage and current sources. Theoretical and experimental results are compared. The model is used on a day-to-day basis to assist in interpreting the circuit behavior of laboratory lasers during their operation in order to reduce stress on the power switch (thyratron) and other components.

  16. Robustness of a multimodal piezoelectric damping involving the electrical analogue of a plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossouarn, Boris; Cunefare, Kenneth A.; Aucejo, Mathieu; Deü, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    Multimodal passive damping of a mechanical structure can be implemented by a coupling to a secondary structure exhibiting similar modal properties. When considering a piezoelectric coupling, the secondary structure is an electrical network. A suitable topology for such a network can be obtained by a finite difference formulation of the mechanical equations, followed by a direct electromechanical analogy. This procedure is applied to the Kirchhoff-Love theory in order to find the electrical analogue of a clamped plate. The passive electrical network is implemented with inductors, transformers and the inherent capacitance of the piezoelectric patches. The electrical resonances are tuned to approach those of several mechanical modes simultaneously. This yields a broadband reduction of the plate vibrations through the array of interconnected piezoelectric patches. The robustness of the control strategy is evaluated by introducing perturbations in the mechanical or electrical designs. A non-optimal tuning is considered by way of a uniform variation of the network inductance. Then, the effect of local or boundary modifications of the electromechanical system is observed experimentally. In the end, the use of an analogous electrical network appears as an efficient and robust solution for the multimodal control of a plate.

  17. Liquid cooled plate heat exchanger for battery cooling of an electric vehicle (EV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Rahman, H. Y.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Sheng, J. L. Y.

    2016-03-01

    A liquid cooled plate heat exchanger was designed to improve the battery life of an electric vehicle which suffers from premature aging or degradation due to the heat generation during discharging and charging period. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used as a tool to analyse the temperature distribution when a constant surface heat flux was set at the bottom surface of the battery. Several initial and boundary conditions were set based on the past studies on the plate heat exchanger in the simulation software. The design of the plate heat exchanger was based on the Nissan Leaf battery pack to analyse the temperature patterns. Water at different mass flow rates was used as heat transfer fluid. The analysis revealed the designed plate heat exchanger could maintain the surface temperature within the range of 20 to 40°C which is within the safe operating temperature of the battery.

  18. High resistance to sulfur poisoning of Ni with copper skin under electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaopei; Zhang, Yanxing; Yang, Zongxian

    2017-02-01

    The effects of sulfur poisoning on the (1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) surfaces of pure Ni and Cu/Ni alloy are studied in consideration of the effect of electric field. The effects of Cu dopants on the S poisoning characteristics are analyzed by the means of the density functional theory results in combination with thermodynamics data using the ab initio atomistic thermodynamic method. When the Cu concentration increases to 50% on the surface layer of the Cu/Ni alloy, the (1 1 0) surface becomes the most vulnerable to the sulfur poisoning. Ni with a copper skin can mostly decrease the sulfur poisoning effect. Especially under the electric field of 1.0 V/Å, the sulfur adsorption and phase transition temperature can be further reduced. We therefore propose that Ni surfaces with copper skin can be very effective to improve the resistance to sulfur poisoning of the Ni anode under high electric field.

  19. Effect of direct current and pulse plating on the EDM performance of copper-zirconium diboride composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Direct current and pulse plating of copper-zirconium diboride (ZrB2) composites were studied and the effects of current density (DC) and pulse duty cycle (PC) on the EDM performance of the composites were investigated. With increasing current density, the effect of grain refinement on the electro-discharge machining (EDM) performance of the composites compensates that of the decrease of ZrB2 content in the composites, which improves the spark-resistance of the material. Under the same average current density and other experiment conditions, a lower duty cycle yields better EDM performance probably because more ZrB2 particles are incorporated in the composites in this condition. However, at a still lower duty cycle (10%), the particle agglomeration and the microcracks of the copper matrix occur, which considerably deteriorate the spark-resistance of the composites.

  20. Analysis of China’s Copper Plate and Strip Industry in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Driven by a series of proactive policies to expand domestic demand and certain recovery in external demand,in 2010 China’s copper processing industry continued its glorious achievement.Based on the latest statistic data,in 2010 the physical product output of China’s copper processing products and apparent consumption

  1. Tensile and electrical properties of copper alloys irradiated in a fission reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabritsiev, S.A. [D.V. Efremov Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Pokrovsky, A.S. [Scientific Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Zinkle, S.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Postirradiation electrical sensitivity and tensile measurements have been completed on pure copper and copper alloy sheet tensile specimens irradiated in the SM-2 reactor to doses of {approx}0.5 to 5 dpa and temperatures between {approx}80 and 400{degrees}C. Considerable radiation hardening and accompanying embrittlement was observed in all of the specimens at irradiation temperature below 200{degrees}C. The radiation-induced electrical conductivity degradation consisted of two main components: solid transmutation effects and radiation damage (defect cluster and particle dissolution) effects. The radiation damage component was nearly constant for the doses in this study, with a value of {approx}1.2n{Omega}m for pure copper and {approx}1.6n{Omega}m for dispersion strengthened copper irradiated at {approx}100{degrees}C. The solid transmutation component was proportional to the thermal neutron flux, and became larger than the radiation damage component for fluences larger than {approx}5 10{sup 24} n.m{sup 2}. The radiation hardening and electrical conductivity degradation decreased with increasing irradiation temperature, and became negligible for temperatures above {approx}300{degrees}C.

  2. 从电子脚镀锡铜针中回收锡和铜%Recovery of Tin and Copper from Electronic Foot Tin Plated Copper Needle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 王勇; 熊振坤; 陈斌

    2013-01-01

    The technical study and plant practice of recovery of tin and copper from electronic foot tin plated copper needle were introduced.Tin was separated by alkaline electrolysis at room temperature without heating and electrolyte circulating.The recovery rate of copper and tin is 99.7% and 94.5% respectively under the conditions including current density of 200 A/m2,cell voltage of 0.2~0.4 V,electrolyte composition of Sn of 8~15 g/L and NaOH of 60~120 g/L.Cathode copper according with the requirements of Cu-CATH-1 brand under GB/T467-2010 standards is directly electrolyzed from polished de-tinning copper needle under the electrolysis conditions including copper needle being 5 cm higher than electrolytic liquid level,current density of 200 A/m2,cell voltage of 0.7 V,electrolyte composition of Cu of 45~50 g/L and H2SO4 of 150~180 g/L.%介绍了从电子脚镀锡铜针中回收锡和铜的工艺研究及生产实践.采用常温碱性电解脱锡,电解液无须加热循环流动,控制电流密度200 A/m2、槽电压0.2~0.4V,电解液含Sn8~15 g/L、NaOH60~120 g/L时,铜、锡的直收率分别达到99.7%和94.5%.脱锡铜针抛光处理后可以直接电解生产符合GB/T467-2010标准中Cu-CATH-1要求的阴极铜,电解条件:装填光亮铜针高出电解液面5 cm以上,电流密度200 A/m2,槽电压0.7V,电解液含Cu45~50 g/L、H2SO4150~180 g/L.

  3. Micro friction stir welding of copper electrical contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Klobčar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of micro friction stir welding (μFSW of electrolytic tough pitch copper (CuETP in a lap and butt joint. Experimental plan was done in order to investigate the influence of tool design and welding parameters on the formation of defect free joints. The experiments were done using universal milling machine where the tool rotation speed varied between 600 and 1 900 rpm, welding speed between 14 and 93 mm/min and tilt angle between 3° and 5°. From the welds samples for analysis of microstructure and samples for tensile tests were prepared. The grain size in the nugget zone was greatly reduced compared to the base metal and the joint tensile strength exceeded the strength of the base metal.

  4. Boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a moving plate in a copper-water nanofluid using Buongiorno model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Nor Ashikin Abu; Bachok, Norfifah; Arifin, Norihan Md.

    2016-06-01

    The study of the steady two dimensional boundary layer flow of a copper (Cu)-water nanofluid on a moving plate is investigated. The assumption is the plate moves in the same or opposite direction to the free stream. The nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations using a similarity variables,then a shooting technique is used to solved it numerically. The numerical results for skin friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number, the local Sherwood number as well as the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are obtained. The effect of nanoparticle volume fraction, Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters on heat transfer are examined. The results show that the local Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number increase with increasing in the Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt.

  5. A New Approach on the Active Treatment for Electroless Copper Plating on Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Zheng-Chun; HE,Quan-Guo; TANG,Jian-Xin; XIAO,Peng-Feng; HE,Nong-Yue; LU,Zu-Hong

    2003-01-01

    A new method is described for the electroless deposition of copper onto glass. Commercially available glass slide was modified with γ-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane to form self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on it. Then it was dipped directly into PdCl2 solutlon instead of the conventional SnCl2 sensitization followed by PdCl2 activation. Experimental results showed that the Pd2+ ions from PdCl2solution were coordinated to the amino groups on the glass surfaceresulting in the formation of N-Pd complex. In an electroless copper bath containing a formaldehyde reducing agent, the N-Pd complexes were reduced to Pd0 atoms, which then acted as catalysts and initiated the deposition of copper metal. Although the copper deposition rate on SAM-modified glass was slow at the beginning, it reached to that of conventional method in about 5 min.

  6. Influence of a cold deformation process by drawing on the electrical properties of copper wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Silva Bernardo

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents a study of the drawing, deformation, hardening and heat treatment of copper wire, in order to investigate the influence of combinations of operating variables (annealing factor, oil emulsion temperature and machine speed during the drawing process on the electrical conductivity of copper wires. The results showed that when the metal is deformed, the value of electrical conductivity suffers a decrease due to the hardening phenomenon. Because of this, it is necessary to heat treat the material. So, it was observed that the annealing factor, which is associated with the thermal treatment temperature, showed a high degree of correlation with the electrical conductivity. This fact is explained by the annealing factor which is responsible for the intensity of the heat treatment. The speed at which the drawing occurs also showed a direct correlation with electric conductivity because the higher the value, the greater the heat treatment temperature and consequently, the greater the electrical conductivity of the material. On the other hand, it had not been possible to establish a conclusion about the correlation between the electrical conductivity and oil emulsion temperature during the drawing process.

  7. Electrical conductivity of solutions of copper(II) nitrate crystalohydrate in dimethyl sulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyrbekova, Aigul K.; Mamitova, A. D.; Mamyrbekova, Aizhan K.

    2016-06-01

    Conductometry is used to investigate the electric conductivity of Cu(NO3)2 ṡ 3H2O solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide in the 0.01-2.82 M range of concentrations and at temperatures of 288-318 K. The limiting molar conductivity of the electrolyte and the mobility of Cu2+ and NO 3 - ions, the effective coefficients of diffusion of copper(II) ions and nitrate ions, and the degree and constant of electrolytic dissociation are calculated for different temperatures from the experimental results. It is established that solutions containing 0.1-0.6 M copper nitrate trihydrate in DMSO having low viscosity and high electrical conductivity can be used in electrochemical deposition.

  8. 铜粉处理酸性镀铜溶液中氯离子的机理%Mechanism of Treating Chloride Ion in Acidic Copper Plating Bath with Copper Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇武

    2011-01-01

    阐明了用铜粉处理酸性镀铜溶液中氯离子的机理,理论分析和实验表明,在酸性镀铜溶液中,Cu2+离子与铜粉反应生成Cu+离子,同时氯离子与Cu+离子反应生成氯化亚铜沉淀.向镀液中加铜粉1g/L,氯离子的起始质量浓度为174mg/L时,氯离子的去除率为58.9%,而向镀液中加锌粉1g/L,氯离子的去除率为47.0%,用铜粉处理氯离子的效率较高.%The mechanism of treating chloride ion in acidic copper plating bath by using copper powder was illustrated. Theoretical analyses and experimental tests indicated that in acidic copper plating solution Cu2+ ion could react with copper powder to form Cu + ion and the Cu + ion could react with chloride ion in the solution to produce cuprous chloride precipitation. When the initial mass concentration of the chloride ions in the acidic copper plating solution was 174 mg/L, the elimination rate of chloride ions after adding 1 g/L copper powders to the solution was 58.9% while that after adding 1 g/L zinc powders was 47.0%. This indicates that the treatment efficiency of chloride ion in the acidic copper plating solution with copper powders is higher than that with zinc powders.

  9. Removal of copper, nickel and chromium mixtures from metal plating wastewater by adsorption with modified carbon foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Gu; Lee, Soonjae; Park, Jeong-Ann; Park, Chanhyuk; Lee, Sang Jeong; Kim, Song-Bae; An, Byungryul; Yun, Seong-Taek; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Choi, Jae-Woo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the characterizations and adsorption efficiencies for chromium, copper and nickel were evaluated using manufacture-grade Fe2O3-carbon foam. SEM, XRD, XRF and BET analyses were performed to determine the characteristics of the material. Various pore sizes (12-420 μm) and iron contents (3.62%) were found on the surface of the Fe2O3-carbon foam. Fe2O3-carbon foam was found to have excellent adsorption efficiency compared to carbon foam for mixed solutions of cationic and anionic heavy metals. The adsorption capacities for chromium, copper and nickel were 6.7, 3.8 and 6.4 mg/g, respectively, which were obtained using a dual exponential adsorption model. In experiments with varying dosages of the Fe2O3 powder, no notable differences were observed in the removal efficiency. In a fixed-bed column test, Fe2O3-carbon foam achieved adsorption capacities for chromium, copper and nickel of 33.0, 12.0 and 9.5 mg/g, respectively, after 104 h. Based on these results, Fe2O3-carbon foam was observed to be a promising material for treatment of plating wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural, optical and electrical properties of chemically deposited nonstoichiometric copper indium diselenide films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R H Bari; L A Patil; P P Patil

    2006-10-01

    Thin films of copper indium diselenide (CIS) were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique onto glass substrate at temperature, 60°C. The studies on composition, morphology, optical absorption, electrical conductivity and structure of the films were carried out and discussed. Characterization included X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and absorption spectroscopy. The results are discussed and interpreted.

  11. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid-coconut oil supported liquid membrane for the separation of copper ions from copper plating wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Permeation of Cu(II) from its aqueous solution through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) carrier dissolved in coconut oil has been studied. The effects of Cu(II), pH (in feed), H2SO4 (stripping) and D2EHPA (in membrane) concentrations have been investigated. The stability of the D2EHPA-coconutoil has also been evaluated. High Cu(II) concentration in the feed leads to an increase in flux from 4.1 × 10-9 to 8.9 × 10-9 mol/(m2·s) within the Cu(II) concentration range 7.8×10-4-78.6×10-4 mol/L at pH of 4.0 in the feed and 12.4 × 10-4 mol/L D2EHPA in the membrane phase. Increase in H2SO4 concentration in strip solution leads to an increase in copper ions flux up to 0.25 mol/L H2SO4, providing a maximum flux of 7.4 × 10-9 mol/(m2·s). The optimum conditions for Cu(II) transport are, pH of feed 4.0, 0.25 mol/L H2SO4 in strip phase and 12.4 × 10-4 mol/L D2EHPA (membrane) in 0.5 (m pore size polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane. It has been observed that Cu(II) flux across the membrane tends to increase with the concentration of copper ions. Application of the method developed to copper plating bath rinse solutions has been found to be successful in the recovery of Cu(II). rane. It

  12. Electrical wire explosion process of copper/silver hybrid nano-particle ink and its sintering via flash white light to achieve high electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wan-Ho; Hwang, Yeon-Taek; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-05-01

    In this work, combined silver/copper nanoparticles were fabricated by the electrical explosion of a metal wire. In this method, a high electrical current passes through the metal wire with a high voltage. Consequently, the metal wire evaporates and metal nanoparticles are formed. The diameters of the silver and copper nanoparticles were controlled by changing the voltage conditions. The fabricated silver and copper nano-inks were printed on a flexible polyimide (PI) substrate and sintered at room temperature via a flash light process, using a xenon lamp and varying the light energy. The microstructures of the sintered silver and copper films were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). To investigate the crystal phases of the flash-light-sintered silver and copper films, x-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed. The absorption wavelengths of the silver and copper nano-inks were measured using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). Furthermore, the resistivity of the sintered silver and copper films was measured using the four-point probe method and an alpha step. As a result, the fabricated Cu/Ag film shows a high electrical conductivity (4.06 μΩcm), which is comparable to the resistivity of bulk copper (1.68 μΩcm). In addition, the fabricated Cu/Ag nanoparticle film shows superior oxidation stability compared to the Cu nanoparticle film.

  13. Electrical wire explosion process of copper/silver hybrid nano-particle ink and its sintering via flash white light to achieve high electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wan-Ho; Hwang, Yeon-Taek; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-05-20

    In this work, combined silver/copper nanoparticles were fabricated by the electrical explosion of a metal wire. In this method, a high electrical current passes through the metal wire with a high voltage. Consequently, the metal wire evaporates and metal nanoparticles are formed. The diameters of the silver and copper nanoparticles were controlled by changing the voltage conditions. The fabricated silver and copper nano-inks were printed on a flexible polyimide (PI) substrate and sintered at room temperature via a flash light process, using a xenon lamp and varying the light energy. The microstructures of the sintered silver and copper films were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). To investigate the crystal phases of the flash-light-sintered silver and copper films, x-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed. The absorption wavelengths of the silver and copper nano-inks were measured using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). Furthermore, the resistivity of the sintered silver and copper films was measured using the four-point probe method and an alpha step. As a result, the fabricated Cu/Ag film shows a high electrical conductivity (4.06 μΩcm), which is comparable to the resistivity of bulk copper (1.68 μΩcm). In addition, the fabricated Cu/Ag nanoparticle film shows superior oxidation stability compared to the Cu nanoparticle film.

  14. Static electricity powered copper oxide nanowire microbicidal electroporation for water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Xie, Xing; Zhao, Wenting; Yao, Jie; Kong, Desheng; Boehm, Alexandria B; Cui, Yi

    2014-10-08

    Safe water scarcity occurs mostly in developing regions that also suffer from energy shortages and infrastructure deficiencies. Low-cost and energy-efficient water disinfection methods have the potential to make great impacts on people in these regions. At the present time, most water disinfection methods being promoted to households in developing countries are aqueous chemical-reaction-based or filtration-based. Incorporating nanomaterials into these existing disinfection methods could improve the performance; however, the high cost of material synthesis and recovery as well as fouling and slow treatment speed is still limiting their application. Here, we demonstrate a novel flow device that enables fast water disinfection using one-dimensional copper oxide nanowire (CuONW) assisted electroporation powered by static electricity. Electroporation relies on a strong electric field to break down microorganism membranes and only consumes a very small amount of energy. Static electricity as the power source can be generated by an individual person's motion in a facile and low-cost manner, which ensures its application anywhere in the world. The CuONWs used were synthesized through a scalable one-step air oxidation of low-cost copper mesh. With a single filtration, we achieved complete disinfection of bacteria and viruses in both raw tap and lake water with a high flow rate of 3000 L/(h·m(2)), equivalent to only 1 s of contact time. Copper leaching from the nanowire mesh was minimal.

  15. Structural, morphology and electrical properties of layered copper selenide thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Chyi Liew, J.; Talib, Zainal; Mahmood, W.; Yunus, M.; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Halim, Shaari; Moksin, Mohd; Yusoff, Wan; Pah Lim, K.

    2009-06-01

    Thin films of copper selenide (CuSe) were physically deposited layer-by-layer up to 5 layers using thermal evaporation technique onto a glass substrate. Various film properties, including the thickness, structure, morphology, surface roughness, average grain size and electrical conductivity are studied and discussed. These properties are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometer and 4 point probe at room temperature. The dependence of electrical conductivity, surface roughness, and average grain size on number of layers deposited is discussed.

  16. 乙醛酸化学镀铜工艺%An Electroless Copper Plating Process Using Glyoxylate as Reductant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨防祖; 姚光华; 周绍民

    2012-01-01

    An electroless copper plating process using glyoxylate as reductant was developed, structure and surface morphology of the deposit were also studied. The bath composition and operating conditions were: 28.0g/L CuSO4·5H2O,44.0g/L EDTA·2Na,10.0mg/L α,α' -bipyridyl,10.0mg/L potassium ferrocy-anide,9.2g/L glyoxylate,pH 11.5 ~ 12.5,temperature 40~50℃. Experimental results showed that:the electroless copper plating bath was quite stable; the copper deposition rate would increased in case of bath temperature and copper sulfate concentration increased; the bath stability would decreased due to lower activation energy of copper deposition in case of higher temperature; the qualified copper coating could be obtained only at a proper bath pH range of 11.5 ~12.5; the copper deposition rate would not be affected by concentrations of glyoxylate and complexing agent evidently, whereas excessive content of glyoxylate would cause the bath stability decreased; the copper coating had a FCC mixed crystal structure with blocky grains 、pink/bright appearance and good ductility.%研究了以乙醛酸为还原剂的化学镀铜工艺、镀层结构和形貌.其镀液组成和操作条件为:28.0 g/L CuSO4·5H2O,44.0 g/L EDTA-2Na,10.0 mg/L α,α'-联吡啶,10.0 mg/L亚铁氰化钾,9.2g/L乙醛酸,pH为11.5 ~12.5,θ为40 ~ 50℃.实验结果表明,化学镀铜溶液较稳定;镀液温度和硫酸铜质量浓度提高,铜沉积速率增大;较高的镀液温度下,化学镀铜反应的活化能较低,镀液稳定性下降;镀液pH在11.5~12.5可获得较好的铜镀层;随乙醛酸和络合剂质量浓度提高,铜沉积速率变化不大,但过量的乙醛酸导致镀液的稳定性降低;铜镀层为面心立方混晶结构,呈光亮的粉红色块状形貌,有较高的韧性.

  17. The corrosion rate of copper in a bentonite test package measured with electric resistance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosborg, Bo [Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Kosec, Tadeja; Kranjc, Andrej; Kuhar, Viljem; Legat, Andraz [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-12-15

    LOT1 test parcel A2 was exposed for six years in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, which offers a realistic environment for the conditions that will prevail in a deep repository for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Sweden. The test parcel contained copper electrodes for real-time corrosion monitoring in bentonite ring 36, where the temperature was 24 deg C, and copper coupons in bentonite rings 22 and 30, where the temperature was higher. After retrieval of the test parcel in January 2006, a bentonite test package consisting of bentonite rings 35 - 37 was placed in a container and sealed with a thick layer of paraffin. Later the same year new copper electrodes were installed in the test package. In January 2007 electric resistance (ER) sensors of pure copper with a thickness of 35 {mu}m were also installed in the test package mainly to facilitate the interpretation of the results from the real-time corrosion monitoring with electrochemical techniques. The ER measurements have shown that the corrosion rate of pure copper exposed in an oxic bentonite/ saline groundwater environment at room temperate decreases slowly with time to low but measurable values. The corrosion rates estimated from the regularly performed EIS measurements replicate the ER data. Thus, for this oxic environment in which copper acquires corrosion potentials of the order of 200 mV (SHE) or higher, electrochemical measurements provide believable data. Comparing the recorded ER data with an estimate of the average corrosion rate based on comparing cross-sections from exposed and protected sensor elements, it is obvious that the former overestimates the actual corrosion rate, which is understandable. It seems as if electrochemical measurements can provide a better estimate of the corrosion rate; however, this is quite dependent on the use of proper measuring frequencies and evaluation methods. In this respect ER measurements are more reliable. It has been shown that real-time corrosion

  18. In-situ contact electrical resistance technique for investigating corrosion inhibitor adsorption on copper electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, G.; Quartarone, G.; Zingales, A. [Univ. of Venice (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry; Molokanov, V.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-02-01

    Traditional electrochemical tests and the contact electrical resistance technique (CER) were used to investigate the effect on corrosion of pure copper (99.999 wt%) of adding benzotriazole (BTA) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazone (1-OH-BTA) to acidic solutions (sulfuric acid [H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}], pH = 1.7, and sodium sulfate [Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}] until total sulfate [SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}] concentration = 0.1 M). This technique permitted growth of oxide and/or salt films as well as adsorption of the organic inhibitors on the copper surface to be evaluated. Formation of copper oxide ([Cu{sub 2}O]{sub 2})., sulfate (CuSo{sub 4}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O), thiocyanate (CuSCN), and halogenyde (CuI, CuBr, and CuCl) films on copper electrodes was followed in situ in sulfate solutions at various pH values under low overpotentials. Effects of pH, solution anion content, and/or the amount of BTA or 1-OH-BTA on electrical resistance (R) of the surface films formed on pure copper electrodes were treated. BTA acted as a more efficient corrosion inhibitor than 1-OH-BTA, reaching inhibition percentages (IP) of {approximately}90% compared to those of 1-OH-BTA, which reached a maximum of {approximately}76% in 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M solutions. It was possible to distinguish between maximum R of the surface film, found in solutions containing BTA, associated with the adsorption of neutral inhibitor molecules, and the sharp rise in R attributable to [Cu(BTA)]{sub n} complex formation.

  19. Uniform electric field generation in circular multi-well culture plates using polymeric inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsieh-Fu; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Chang, Hui-Fang; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Shen, Amy Q.

    2016-01-01

    Applying uniform electric field (EF) in vitro in the physiological range has been achieved in rectangular shaped microchannels. However, in a circular-shaped device, it is difficult to create uniform EF from two electric potentials due to different electrical resistances originated from the length difference between the diameter of the circle and the length of any parallel chord of the bottom circular chamber where cells are cultured. To address this challenge, we develop a three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided designed (CAD) polymeric insert to create uniform EF in circular shaped multi-well culture plates. A uniform EF with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.2% in the 6-well plate can be generated with an effective stimulation area percentage of 69.5%. In particular, NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells are used to validate the performance of the 3D designed Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) inserts in a circular-shaped 6-well plate. The CAD based inserts can be easily scaled up (i.e., 100 mm dishes) to further increase effective stimulation area percentages, and also be implemented in commercially available cultureware for a wide variety of EF-related research such as EF-cell interaction and tissue regeneration studies. PMID:27193911

  20. Uniform electric field generation in circular multi-well culture plates using polymeric inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsieh-Fu; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Chang, Hui-Fang; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Shen, Amy Q.

    2016-05-01

    Applying uniform electric field (EF) in vitro in the physiological range has been achieved in rectangular shaped microchannels. However, in a circular-shaped device, it is difficult to create uniform EF from two electric potentials due to different electrical resistances originated from the length difference between the diameter of the circle and the length of any parallel chord of the bottom circular chamber where cells are cultured. To address this challenge, we develop a three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided designed (CAD) polymeric insert to create uniform EF in circular shaped multi-well culture plates. A uniform EF with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.2% in the 6-well plate can be generated with an effective stimulation area percentage of 69.5%. In particular, NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells are used to validate the performance of the 3D designed Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) inserts in a circular-shaped 6-well plate. The CAD based inserts can be easily scaled up (i.e., 100 mm dishes) to further increase effective stimulation area percentages, and also be implemented in commercially available cultureware for a wide variety of EF-related research such as EF-cell interaction and tissue regeneration studies.

  1. The Analysis on the Situation of 2007 Copper Plate & Strip Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Based on the overall development situation of 2007 copper processing industry in China,the following 3 conclusions could be made as the basic characteristics of the industry in the cur- rent year,which the first is that the large in-

  2. Tensile and electrical properties of high-strength high-conductivity copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Eatherly, W.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Electrical conductivity and tensile properties have been measured on an extruded and annealed CuCrNb dispersion strengthened copper alloy which has been developed for demanding aerospace high heat flux applications. The properties of this alloy are somewhat inferior to GlidCop dispersion strengthened copper and prime-aged CuCrZr over the temperature range of 20--500 C. However, if the property degradation in CuCrZr due to joining operations and the anisotropic properties of GlidCop in the short transverse direction are taken into consideration, CuCrNb may be a suitable alternative material for high heat flux structural applications in fusion energy devices. The electrical conductivity and tensile properties of CuCrZr that was solution annealed and then simultaneously aged and diffusion bonded are also summarized. A severe reduction in tensile elongation is observed in the diffusion bonded joint, particularly if a thin copper shim is not placed in the diffusion bondline.

  3. Dual shear plate power processor packaging design. [for Solar Electric Propulsion spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzon, A. O.; Fredrickson, C. D.; Ross, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The use of solar electric propulsion (SEP) for spacecraft primary propulsion imposes an extreme range of operational and environmental design requirements associated with the diversity of missions for which solar electric primary propulsion is advantageous. One SEP element which is particularly sensitive to these environmental extremes is the power processor unit (PPU) which powers and controls the electric ion thruster. An improved power processor thermal-mechanical packaging approach, referred to as dual shear plate packaging, has been designed to accommodate these different requirements with minimum change to the power processor design. Details of this packaging design are presented together with test results obtained from thermal-vacuum and structural-vibration tests conducted with prototype hardware.

  4. Recovery of electrical resistance in copper films on polyethylene terephthalate subjected to a tensile strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glushko, O. [Department Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, Jahnstrasse 12, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Marx, V.M.; Kirchlechner, C. [Department Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, Jahnstrasse 12, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Max-Plank-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Zizak, I. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for Materials and Energy, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Cordill, M.J. [Department Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, Jahnstrasse 12, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Jahnstrasse 12, 8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2014-02-03

    Substantial recovery (decrease) of electrical resistance during and after unloading is demonstrated for copper films on polyethylene terephthalate substrates subjected to a tensile strain with different peak values. Particularly, the films strained to 5% exhibit full resistance recovery after unloading despite clearly visible plastic deformation of the film. The recovery of electrical resistance in connection with the mechanical behavior of film/substrate couple is discussed with the help of in situ scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. - Highlights: • Tensile tests on 200 nm Cu films on PET substrate are performed. • Electrical resistance is recorded in-situ during loading and unloading. • Significant recovery (decrease) of resistance is observed during and after unloading. • Films strained to 5% demonstrate full resistance recovery. • Viscoelastic relaxation of PET is responsible for recovery of Cu film resistance.

  5. Structural and electrical properties of copper-nickel-aluminum alloys obtained by conventional powder metallurgy method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Waldemar A.; Carrio, Juan A.G.; Silveira, C.R. da; Pertile, H.K.S., E-mail: fisica.cch@mackenzie.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (UPM/CCH), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades. Dept. de Fisica; Silva, L.C.E. da; Buso, S.J., E-mail: jgcarrio@mackenzie.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work looked for to search out systematically, in scale of laboratory, copper-nickel-aluminum alloys (Cu-Ni-Al) with conventional powder metallurgy processing, in view of the maintenance of the electric and mechanical properties with the intention of getting electric connectors of high performance or high mechanical damping. After cold uniaxial pressing (1000 kPa), sintering (780 deg C) and convenient homogenization treatments (500 deg C for different times) under vacuum (powder metallurgy), the obtained Cu-Ni-Al alloys were characterized by optical microscopy, electrical conductivity, Vickers hardness. X rays powder diffraction data were collected for the sintered samples in order to a structural and microstructural analysis. The comparative analysis is based on the sintered density, hardness, macrostructures and microstructures of the samples. (author)

  6. 无氰滚镀铜工艺应用及故障解决%Application and troubleshooting of cyanide-free barrel copper plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐金来; 周杰

    2013-01-01

    The process conditions and bath maintenance of cyanide-free barrel copper plating on iron substrate were introduced. It is proposed that the bath can be controlled and maintained based on the proportion of total effective complexing agent vs. copper ions content (n), which is optimal at 1.1~ 1.4. Some common malfunctions and their corresponding solutions for cyanide-free barrel copper plating were empathetically stated.%介绍了铁基无氰滚镀铜工艺条件和镀液的维护,提出以总有效配位剂和铜离子含量的比值(n)作为控制和维护镀液的依据,n保持在1.1~1.4为宜。重点阐述了无氰滚镀铜工艺中的常见故障和解决措施。

  7. Process to Improve the Adherences of Copper to a PTFE Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple low plasma power and roughness free process for improving the adherence of Cu to PTFE is presented. The results show that low pressure and Ar flow combination are the drivers of this improved adherence. Copper Peel Strength Tensile values up to 60 kg/m are obtained which are comparable to those shown in commercial composite dielectrics for high-frequency applications Printed Circuit Boards.

  8. 酸性镀铜溶液中锌杂质的分析方法%Analysis Method of Zinc Impurity in an Acidic Copper Plating Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇武

    2012-01-01

    在电镀生产中,监控镀液中金属杂质是十分必要的.制定了酸性镀铜溶液中锌杂质的分析方法.用碘量法测定硫酸铜,用EDTA容量法测定硫酸铜和锌杂质的总量,从总量中减去硫酸铜的量得到锌杂质的质量浓度.方法准确,能够满足监控酸性镀铜溶液的要求.%It is necessary to monitor the metal impurites in bath during the electroplating production. An a-nalysis method of zinc impurity in acidic copper plating bath is established. The concentration of copper sulfate is firstly determined by using iodimetry, and then the sum of the copper sulfate and zinc impurity is determined with EDTA volumetry. The concentration of zinc is determined by the deference between copper sulfate and the sum of copper sulfate and zinc impurity. This method is exact and accurate, and can satisfy the controlling requirement of acidic copper plating solution.

  9. Electrical Conductivity, Thermal Stability, and Lattice Defect Evolution During Cyclic Channel Die Compression of OFHC Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesh Kumar, S. S.; Raghu, T.

    2015-02-01

    Oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper samples are severe plastically deformed by cyclic channel die compression (CCDC) technique at room temperature up to an effective plastic strain of 7.2. Effect of straining on variation in electrical conductivity, evolution of deformation stored energy, and recrystallization onset temperatures are studied. Deformation-induced lattice defects are quantified using three different methodologies including x-ray diffraction profile analysis employing Williamson-Hall technique, stored energy based method, and electrical resistivity-based techniques. Compared to other severe plastic deformation techniques, electrical conductivity degrades marginally from 100.6% to 96.6% IACS after three cycles of CCDC. Decrease in recrystallization onset and peak temperatures is noticed, whereas stored energy increases and saturates at around 0.95-1.1J/g after three cycles of CCDC. Although drop in recrystallization activation energy is observed with the increasing strain, superior thermal stability is revealed, which is attributed to CCDC process mechanics. Low activation energy observed in CCDC-processed OFHC copper is corroborated to synergistic influence of grain boundary characteristics and lattice defects distribution. Estimated defects concentration indicated continuous increase in dislocation density and vacancy with strain. Deformation-induced vacancy concentration is found to be significantly higher than equilibrium vacancy concentration ascribed to hydrostatic stress states experienced during CCDC.

  10. Ion-beam-induced modifications in the structural and electrical properties of copper oxide selenite nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Pallavi, E-mail: prana.phy@gmail.com; Chauhan, R.P.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Nanowires were synthesized via template-assisted electrodeposition method. •Copper oxide selenite nanowires were irradiated with 160 MeV, Ni{sup +12} ion beam. •XRD confirmed no change in phase of irradiated nanowires. •Electrical resistivity of nanowires was found to decrease with the ion fluence. -- Abstract: Irradiation with swift heavy ions (SHIs) with energy in the MeV range is a unique tool for engineering the properties of materials. In this context, the objective of the present work is to study the conduction of charge carriers in pre- and post-ion-irradiated semiconducting nanowires. Copper oxide selenite nanowires were synthesized using a template-assisted electrodeposition technique from an aqueous solution of 0.8 M CuSO{sub 4}·5H{sub 2}O and 8 mM SeO{sub 2}. The synthesized nanowires were observed to have a monoclinic structure with linear I–V characteristics (IVC). The effect of irradiation with 160 MeV Ni{sup +12} ions on the properties of the copper oxide selenite nanowires was investigated for fluences varying from 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. XRD spectra confirmed no change in the phase of the swift-heavy-ion-irradiated nanowires, but a modification in the orientation of the planes was observed that depended on the ion fluence. The electrical resistivity of the semiconducting nanowires also varied with the ion fluence. Simultaneous irradiation-induced modifications to the electro-chemical potential gradient and the granular properties of the material may have been the origin of the alteration in the structural and electrical properties of the nanowires.

  11. Characterization of laser doped silicon and overcoming adhesion challenges of solar cells with nickel-copper plated contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The combination of localized laser patterning and metal plating allows to replace conventional silver screen printing with nickel-copper plating to form inexpensive front contacts for crystalline silicon solar cells. In this work, a focus is put on effects that could cause inhomogeneous metal deposition and low metal contact adhesion. A descriptive model of the silicon nitride ablation mechanism is derived from SEM imaging and a precise recombination analysis using QSSPC measurements. Surface sensitive XPS measurements are conducted to prove the existence of a parasitic surface layer, identified as SiO{sub x}N{sub y}. The dense SiO{sub x}N{sub y} layer is an effective diffusion barrier, hindering the formation of a nickel silicide interlayer. After removal of the SiO{sub x}N{sub y} layer, cells show severe degradation caused by metal-induced shunting. These shunts are imaged using reverse biased electroluminescence imaging. A shunting mechanism is proposed and experimentally verified. New laser process sequences are devised and proven to produce cells with adhering Ni-Cu contacts. Conclusively the developed processes are assessed based on their industrial feasibility as well as on their efficiency potential.

  12. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  13. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  14. AC electrical breakdown phenomena of epoxy/layered silicate nanocomposite in needle-plate electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Jun; Lee, Jae-Young

    2013-05-01

    Epoxy/layered silicate nanocomposite for the insulation of heavy electric equipments were prepared by dispersing 1 wt% of a layered silicate into an epoxy matrix with a homogenizing mixer and then AC electrical treeing and breakdown tests were carried out. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation showed that nano-sized monolayers were exfoliated from a multilayered silicate in the epoxy matrix. When the nano-sized silicate layers were incorporated into the epoxy matrix, the breakdown rate in needle-plate electrode geometry was 10.6 times lowered than that of the neat epoxy resin under the applied electrical field of 520.9 kV/mm at 30 degrees C, and electrical tree propagated with much more branches in the epoxy/layered silicate nanocomposite. These results showed that well-dispersed nano-sized silicate layers retarded the electrical tree growth rate. The effects of applied voltage and ambient temperature on the tree initiation, growth, and breakdown rate were also studied, and it was found that the breakdown rate was largely increased, as the applied voltage and ambient temperature increased.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING OF TITANIUM ALLOY USING COPPER, BRASS AND ALUMINUM ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DHANABALAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an evaluation has been done on Material Removal Rate (MRR, Surface Roughness (SR and Electrode Wear Rate (EWR during Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM of titanium alloy using copper, brass and aluminum electrodes. Analyzing previous work in this field, it is found that electrode wear and material removal rate increases with an increase current. It is also found that the electrode wear ratio increases with an increase in current. The higher wear ratio is found during machining of titanium alloy using a brass electrode. An attempt has been made to correlate the thermal conductivity and melting point of electrode with the MRR and electrode wear. The MRR is found to be high while machining titanium alloy using brass electrode. During machining of titanium alloy using copper electrodes, a comparatively smaller quantity of heat is absorbed by the work material due to low thermal conductivity. Due to the above reason, the MRR becomes very low. Duringmachining of titanium alloy using aluminium electrodes, the material removal rate and electrode wear rate are only average value while machining of titanium alloy using brass and copper electrodes.

  16. Influence of the electrical sliding speed on friction and wear processes in an electrical contact copper stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, A.; Chekroud, S.; Paulmier, D.

    2004-02-01

    Among the various parameters that influence the friction and wear behaviour of a copper-stainless steel couple crossed by an electrical current and in a dry contact is the sliding speed. The tests were carried out under ambient environment and the sliding speed was in the range of 0.2-8 ms -1. The electrical current intensity was varied from 0 to 40 A and held constant during each experiment. The normal load was maintained constant corresponding to an average Hertzian stress of 10 7 Pa. It appears that the friction coefficient and the wear rate increase at first with the speed, reach their maximums, then slowly decrease and tend to constant values. Over the entire range of sliding speeds two types of wear are observed. These latters are essentially mild wear as long as hard debris do not appear at the interface and severe wear when debris consisting of oxides or oxide metal mixture become big enough, they are removed from the surface and have abrasive effect. The results are discussed in terms of observations of wear debris size and composition, wear track study, metallographic study of worn surfaces and friction and electrical contact resistance records.

  17. Rapid prototyping of zirconium diboride/copper electrical discharge machining electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucker, Brent Eric

    The acceptance of rapid prototyping (RP) as the predominant technique for producing polymer and paper parts directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models has led many corporations and universities to try to extend its capabilities to more robust materials. In addition to producing prototype metal and ceramic parts, a significant effort has been made to create parts that are useful as tools and dies or that reduce the time necessary to create tools and dies. Most materials used for tools and dies are very hard, because they need to be able to withstand millions of cycles before failing. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the most common method used to machine tools and dies out of hard materials. A method for producing EDM electrodes using RP could greatly reduce the time and cost involved in creating tools and dies. A new EDM electrode material made up of zirconium diboride and copper (ZrBsb2/Cu) that is superior to traditional EDM electrodes has been investigated. The processing techniques necessary for creating Zrsb2/Cu electrodes from powders of ZrB2 and copper have been developed. These ZrBsb2/Cu electrodes have a better wear ratio and a faster sink rate than graphite, copper or tungsten/copper EDM electrodes. Performance variables that were tracked are: (1) wear ratio, (2) sink rate and (3) surface finish, where ZrBsb2/Cu, copper, graphite and W/Cu were used as anodes (electrodes) and stainless steel as cathodes (workpieces). The ZrBsb2/Cu electrode material system retains its superior EDM electrode performance across a number of materials processing and compositional variations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the electrodes after EDM. These SEM observations facilitated an understanding of the superior EDM electrode performance characteristics of ZrBsb2/Cu to traditional EDM electrode material systems. A method for creating geometrically-complex ZrBsb2/Cu EDM electrodes using the selective laser sintering (SLS) RP technique was

  18. Copper vanadate nanowires-based MIS capacitors: Synthesis, characterization, and their electrical charge storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2013-07-14

    Copper vanadate (CVO) nanowires were grown on Si/SiO2 substrates by thermal annealing technique. A thin film of a CVO precursor at 550 C under an ambient atmosphere could also be prepared. The electrical properties of the nanowires embedded in the dielectrical layer were examined by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The C-V curves for Au/CVO nanowires embedded in an hafnium oxide layer/SiO2/p-Si capacitor at 298 K showed a clockwise hysteresis loop when the gate bias was swept cyclically. The hysteresis characteristics were studied further at different frequencies, which clearly indicated that the traps in the nanowires have a large charging-discharging time and thus the as-synthesized nanowires can be utilized for electrical charge storage devices. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  19. Coupled stress-strain and electrical resistivity measurements on copper based shape memory single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Cezar Henrique

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, electrical resistivity (ER measurements have been done during some thermomechanical tests in copper based shape memory alloys (SMA's. In this work, single crystals of Cu-based SMA's have been studied at different temperatures to analyse the relationship between stress (s and ER changes as a function of the strain (e. A good consistency between ER change values is observed in different experiments: thermal martensitic transformation, stress induced martensitic transformation and stress induced reorientation of martensite variants. During stress induced martensitic transformation (superelastic behaviour and stress induced reorientation of martensite variants, a linear relationship is obtained between ER and strain as well as the absence of hys teresis. In conclusion, the present results show a direct evidence of martensite electrical resistivity anisotropy.

  20. Electrical nanocharacterization of copper tetracyanoquinodimethane layers dedicated to resistive random access memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleruyelle, Damien; Muller, Christophe; Amouroux, Julien; Müller, Robert

    2010-06-01

    The local electrical properties of copper tetracyanoquinodimethane (CuTCNQ)/HfO2/Pt stacks were investigated thanks to conductive-atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. Local I-V and I-t spectroscopy evidenced repeatable and reversible bipolar electrical switching (SET and RESET operations) at the nanometer scale beneath the AFM tip. Experimental results suggest that resistive switching is due to the creation/dissolution of conductive filaments bridging the CuTCNQ surface to the AFM tip. A physical model based on the migration of Cu+ ions within a nanogap and the growth of a conductive filament shows an excellent agreement with the experimental results during SET operation achieved at nanoscale.

  1. The relationship between stabilizer and copper deposition rate in the electroless copper plating solution%化学镀铜溶液中稳定剂与铜沉积速率的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦建芳; 姚陈忠; 孙鸿

    2012-01-01

    It was researched for stabilizer on the copper deposition rate in the electroless copper plating solution. It was fully consider for main complexing agent, side effects of inhibitors and formaldehyde capture agent which concentration of electroless copper plating. The base formula as copper sulfate 3 g/L, formaldehyde 8 g/L, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid 28 g/L, sodium hydroxide 7.5 g/L, the process parameters were temperature being 50℃, the pH value being 12.5 and plating time being 40 min. The a-mount of the three types of stabilizers were determined for methanol 8 mg/L, potassium ferrocyanide 6 mg/L bipyridyl. The coating obtained under the optimal technical conditions was Hongliang appearance, surface roughness, grain size and detailed electroless copper plating solution stability.%研究了化学镀铜溶液中稳定剂对铜沉积速率的影响,着重考虑主配位剂、副反应的抑制剂、甲醛捕获剂对化学镀铜的影响.结果表明,在基本配方8 g/L CuSO4·5H2O,3 g/L HCHO,28 g/L EDTA,7.5 g/L NaOH,工艺参数pH=12.5,温度50℃,时间40 min的基础上,各种稳定剂的适宜用量为6 mL/L CH3OH、8 mg/L K4Fe(CN)6、6 mg/L2,2’-bipy.在最佳工艺下得到的镀层外观红亮,表面平整,晶粒细致,化学镀铜液稳定.

  2. ELECTRICALLY FORCED THICKNESS-SHEAR VIBRATIONS OF QUARTZ PLATE WITH NONLINEAR COUPLING TO EXTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongxing Wu; Jiashi Yang; Jianke Du; Ji Wang

    2008-01-01

    We study electrically forced nonlinear thickness-shear vibrations of a quartz plate resonator with relatively large amplitude. It is shown that thickness-shear is nonlinearly coupled to extension due to the well-known Poynting effect in nonlinear elasticity. This coupling is relatively strong when the resonant frequency of the extensional mode is about twice the resonant frequency of the thickness-shear mode. This happens when the plate length/thickness ratio assumes certain values. With this nonlinear coupling, the thickness-shear motion is no longer sinusoidal. Coupling to extension also affects energy trapping which is related to device mounting. When damping is 0.01, nonlinear coupling causes a frequency shift of the order of 10-e which is not insignificant,and an amplitude change of the order of 10-8. The effects are expected to be stronger under real damping of 10-5 or larger. To avoid nonlinear coupling to extension, certain values of the aspect ratio of the plate should be avoided.

  3. Barium carbonate as an agent to improve the electrical properties of neodymium-barium-copper system at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, J.P. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Duarte, G.W. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Research Group in Technology and Information, Centro Universitário Barriga Verde (UNIBAVE), Santa Catarina, SC (Brazil); Caldart, C. [Post-Graduate Program in Science and Materials Engineering, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciúma, SC, 88806-000 (Brazil); Kniess, C.T. [Post-Graduate Program in Professional Master in Management, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Montedo, O.R.K.; Rocha, M.R. [Post-Graduate Program in Science and Materials Engineering, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciúma, SC, 88806-000 (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Fiori, M.A., E-mail: fiori@unochapeco.edu.br [Post-Graduate Program in Environmental Science, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó (UNOCHAPECÓ), Chapecó, SC, 89809-000 (Brazil); Post-Graduate Program in Technology and Management of the Innovation, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó (UNOCHAPECÓ), Chapecó, SC, 89809-000 (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Specialized ceramics are manufactured under special conditions and contain specific elements. They possess unique electrical and thermal properties and are frequently used by the electronics industry. Ceramics containing neodymium-barium-copper (NBC) exhibit high conductivities at low temperatures. NBC-based ceramics are typically combined with oxides, i.e., NBCo produced from neodymium oxide, barium oxide and copper oxide. This study presents NBC ceramics that were produced with barium carbonate, copper oxide and neodymium oxide (NBCa) as starting materials. These ceramics have good electrical conductivities at room temperature. Their conductivities are temperature dependent and related to the starting amount of barium carbonate (w%). - Highlights: • The new crystalline structure were obtained due presence of the barium carbonate. • The NBCa compound has excellent electrical conductivity at room temperature. • The grain crystalline morphology was modified by presence of the barium carbonate. • New Phases α and β were introduced by carbonate barium in the NBC compound.

  4. Thermal stability and electrical properties of copper nitride with In or Ti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yun; Gao, Lei; Li, Chao-Rong; Ji, Ai-Ling

    2013-06-01

    Thin films of ternary compounds CuxInyN and CuxTiyN were grown by magnetron sputtering to improve the thermal stability of Cu3N, a material that decomposes below 300 °C, and thus promises many interesting applications in direct-writing. The effect of In or Ti incorporation in altering the structure and physical properties of copper nitride was evaluated by characterizing the film structure, surface morphology, and temperature dependence of electrical resistivity. More Ti than In can be accommodated by copper nitride without completely deteriorating the Cu3N lattice. A small amount of In or Ti can improve the crystallinity, and consequently the surface morphology. While the decomposition temperature is rarely influenced by In, the Ti-doped sample, Cu59.31Ti2.64N38.05, shows an X-ray diffraction pattern dominated by characteristic Cu3N peaks, even after annealing at 500 °C. Both In and Ti reduce the bandgap of the original Cu3N phase, resulting in a smaller electrical resistivity at room temperature. The samples with more Ti content manifest metal-semiconductor transition when cooled from room temperature down to 50 K. These results can be useful in improving the applicability of copper—nitride-based thin films.

  5. SiC颗粒化学镀铜工艺研究%Study on Technics of Electroless Copper Plating on SiC Particle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴开霞; 王博

    2016-01-01

    化学镀铜在生产中应用比较广泛,但是在化学镀铜过程中的活化工艺所需试剂有毒,并且价格较为昂贵。探讨了取消化学镀铜过程中的活化工艺后,其他工艺条件对SiC镀铜效果的影响规律。经实验分析,获得了化学镀铜实验优化工艺参数为:化学镀铜溶液温度为35℃,溶液pH值用氢氧化钠调节至12~13,硫酸铜加入量为12 g/L,甲醛加入量为28 ml/L,酒石酸钾钠加入量为40 g/L,经过一定时间在碳化硅表面得到了良好的铜镀层。通过X射线衍射仪及扫描电镜检测,结果表明:取消了活化工艺后,在碳化硅表面仍然得到了较好的铜包覆层。%Chemical copper plating is widely applied in the production, but the reagent used in activation technology is toxic and expensive. The paper discussed the influence of the rule of other process conditions of electroless plating on SiC copper plating effect. The optimal process parameters of experiment by analyzing was that electroless copper plating solu-tion temperature was 35 ° C, the pH value of the solution was adjusted to 12 ~13 with sodium hydroxide, the amount of copper sulfate added to 12 g/L, the amount of formaldehyde added to 28 ml/L, sodium potassium tartrate added in an a-mount of 40 g/L, after a certain time, we will get a good copper plating layer on the silicon carbide surface. By EDS anal-ysis and scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) testing, the results show that the surface of the silicon carbide still gets the better copper plating layer without the activation process.

  6. Electrically continuous graphene from single crystal copper verified by terahertz conductance spectroscopy and micro four-point probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buron, Jonas D; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Jessen, Bjarke S; Booth, Timothy J; Nielsen, Peter F; Hansen, Ole; Hilke, Michael; Whiteway, Eric; Jepsen, Peter U; Bøggild, Peter; Petersen, Dirch H

    2014-11-12

    The electrical performance of graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to insulating surfaces may be compromised by extended defects, including for instance grain boundaries, cracks, wrinkles, and tears. In this study, we experimentally investigate and compare the nano- and microscale electrical continuity of single layer graphene grown on centimeter-sized single crystal copper with that of previously studied graphene films, grown on commercially available copper foil, after transfer to SiO2 surfaces. The electrical continuity of the graphene films is analyzed using two noninvasive conductance characterization methods: ultrabroadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and micro four-point probe, which probe the electrical properties of the graphene film on different length scales, 100 nm and 10 μm, respectively. Ultrabroadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy allows for measurement of the complex conductance response in the frequency range 1-15 terahertz, covering the entire intraband conductance spectrum, and reveals that the conductance response for the graphene grown on single crystalline copper intimately follows the Drude model for a barrier-free conductor. In contrast, the graphene grown on commercial copper foil shows a distinctly non-Drude conductance spectrum that is better described by the Drude-Smith model, which incorporates the effect of preferential carrier backscattering associated with extended, electronic barriers with a typical separation on the order of 100 nm. Micro four-point probe resistance values measured on graphene grown on single crystalline copper in two different voltage-current configurations show close agreement with the expected distributions for a continuous 2D conductor, in contrast with previous observations on graphene grown on commercial copper foil. The terahertz and micro four-point probe conductance values of the graphene grown on single crystalline copper shows a close to unity correlation, in

  7. Simultaneous determination of copper and lead in seawater using optimised thin-mercury film electrodes in situ plated in thiocyanate media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapuça, Helena M; Monterroso, Sandra C C; Rocha, Luciana S; Duarte, Armando C

    2004-10-08

    In the present work the anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV) methodology using a thin mercury film electrode in situ plated in thiocyanate media was re-assessed in order to allow the simultaneous determination of copper and lead in seawater. Under previously suggested conditions [6], i.e. using a concentration of thiocyanate of 5mM, the ASV peaks of copper and lead overlapped due to the formation of a stable copper(I)-thiocyanate species, limiting the analytical determinations. Therefore, the best value for the thiocyanate concentration was re-evaluated: for 0.05mM a trade-off between good resolution of the copper and lead peaks and high reproducibility of the mercury film formation/removing processes was achieved. In this media, the ASV peaks for Pb and Cu occurred, separated by 140mV. Also, the in situ thin mercury film electrode was produced and removed with good repeatability, which was confirmed by the relative standard deviation values for the ASV determinations: 0.5% for Pb and 2.0% for Cu (10 replicate determinations in a solution with metal concentrations 1.5x10(-8)M for lead and 2.2x10(-8)M for copper). The optimised methodology was successfully applied to the determination of copper in the presence of lead, in certified seawater (NASS-5).

  8. Study of palladium catalyzation for electroless copper plating on polyimide film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bin; Jung, Sang Hee; Suh, Seung Wook; Park, Byung Ki

    2013-01-01

    In order to form flexible printed circuits through inkjet printing technique, the Pd(ll) catalyst ink was printed on the surface of polyimide film modified with KOH solution and then reduced with NaBH4 solution to extract the Pd(O) catalyst nuclei. The concentration of the Pd(ll) catalyst ink and reduction time showed a significant influence on the microstructure of the Pd(O) catalyst nuclei and the formation of Cu patterns through electroless plating. When reduction time exceeded 1 minute, and as the concentration of the Pd(II) catalyst ink increased above 0.02 M, the catalyst nuclei began aggregation, resulting in Cu patterns with thick and more defects.

  9. 关于镀镍铜母线温升的分析%Analysis of Temperature Rise of Electroless Nickel Plating Copper Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕

    2012-01-01

    通过对镀镍铜母线产生温升进行分析,通过对镀镍过程以及镀层成分进行分析,提出控制镀镍层中有害元素的含量来解决降低温升的措施.%This article analyzes the temperature rise and process of the electroless nickel plating copper bus, its and the coating composi tion and puts forward the measures that the temperature rise is lowered is used to control the harmful element in nickel plating layer.

  10. The influence of circuit inductance on the energy characteristics of electric discharge and deformation of plates in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosenkov, V. M.; Bychkov, V. M.

    2017-08-01

    We have experimentally studied the influence of discharge-circuit inductance on the efficiency of conversion of energy stored in a capacitor bank, evolved in the electric-discharge channel in water, and spent for the resulting plastic deformation of plates. It is established for the first time that a growth in inductance of the discharge circuit produces a positive effect on the deformation of plates by increasing the amount of energy spent in this process.

  11. Study of the structure and electrical properties of the copper nitride thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo-Vega, C. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, A. Postal 2732, 22860, Ensenada B.C. (Mexico)]. E-mail: gallardo@ccmc.unam.mx; Cruz, W. de la [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada, UNAM, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, A. Postal 2681, 22860, Ensenada B.C. (Mexico)

    2006-09-15

    Copper nitride thin films were prepared on glass and silicon substrates by ablating a copper target at different pressure of nitrogen. The films were characterized in situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and ex situ by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The nitrogen content in the samples, x = [N]/[Cu], changed between 0 and 0.33 for a corresponding variation in nitrogen pressure of 9 x 10{sup -2} to 1.3 x 10{sup -1} Torr. Using this methodology, it is possible to achieve sub-, over- and stoichiometric films by controlling the nitrogen pressure. The XPS results show that is possible to obtain copper nitride with x = 0.33 (Cu{sub 3}N) and x = 0.25 (Cu{sub 4}N) when the nitrogen pressure is 1.3 x 10{sup -1} and 5 x 10{sup -2} Torr, respectively. The lattice constants obtained from XRD results for copper nitride with x = 0.25 is of 3.850 A and with x = 0.33 have values between 3.810 and 3.830 A. The electrical properties of the films were studied as a function of the lattice constant. These results show that the electrical resistivity increases when the lattice parameter is decreasing. The electrical resistivity of copper nitride with x = 0.25 was smaller than samples with x = 0.33.

  12. Parameters optimization of high stability bath for electroless copper plating%高稳定性化学镀铜液的参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超; 陈金菊; 冯哲圣; 王大勇; 薛文明

    2014-01-01

    The stability of bath, the speed and the brightness of coating were taken as indexes to optimize the bath of electroless copper plating through the single factor experiment method. Electrochemical test of plating solution was done to study the influence of additives on polarization performance of bath. The stability of solution decreases with the concentration of CuSO4·5H2O and HCHO increasing. The addition of appropriate complexing agent and stabilizers can effectively increase the stability of the plating solution. The copper deposition rate reaches to 4.93μm/h for plating 30 min. The stable time of plating bath is more than two hours in 80℃ water bath. Copper layer appears shiny pale pink, and copper particles are close together. The magnitude of copper layer resistivity is 3.67×10-8Ω·m. The adhesion strength between copper layer and substrate is up to 10 N/mm2.%采用单因素实验法,以镀液稳定性、镀速及镀层光亮度为指标,优化了化学镀铜液参数以提高镀液稳定性,并研究了添加剂对镀液电化学极化性能的影响。试验结果表明:随着CuSO4·5H2O和HCHO浓度的增加,镀液稳定性有所下降;适量的络合剂和稳定剂的加入能有效提高镀液稳定性。采用优化后的镀液施镀30 min,镀速为4.93μm/h;施镀后的镀液在80℃水浴中的稳定时间大于2 h;所得铜层为具有金属光泽的淡粉红色,铜颗粒排列紧密;镀铜层电阻率低至3.67×10-8Ω·m,铜层与基体之间的附着强度提高至10 N/mm2。

  13. Surface failure analysis of a field-exposed copper-clad plate in a marine environment with industrial pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Pan; Dong, Chaofang; Xiao, Kui; Li, Xiaogang

    2017-03-01

    The corrosion behavior and electrochemical migration mechanism of a copper-clad plate (PCB-Cu) in a marine atmospheric environment with industrial pollution were studied in field exposure experiments. The results showed that corrosion was initiated from activity locations with low potential. With extended exposure time, the amount of corrosion products increased and gradually formed a double layer structure. The inner layer corrosion products were mainly Cu2O; the outer layer mainly included CuCO3·Cu(OH)2, Cu(OH)2·CuO·HCl, CuSO4·3Cu(OH)2 and CuSO3·3Cu(OH)2. When a 12 V bias voltage was applied, an anomalous electrochemical migration (ECM) phenomenon was observed: a Cu dendrite was produced near the anode and migrated toward the cathode. Finally, ECM led to the bridge connection of the two metallization stripes and caused a short circuit in the PCB-Cu.

  14. Copper removal from an effluent generated by a plastics chromium-plating industry using a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, F F; González, I; Nava, J L

    2008-08-01

    This work shows the application of a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) in the removal of Cu(II) content from an effluent generated by a plastics chromium-plating industry, on the laboratory scale; in particular, it deals with rinse water from the electrolytic copper process. This process was designed to convert cupric ions in solution to metal powder. The generation of metal powders in the RCE was achieved at Reynolds numbers between 52925 and 83183 and limiting current densities (J(L)) in the range of 17 to 25 mA cm(-2). The removal of Cu(II) (initially 922 ppm) reached 43 ppm in 10 minutes of electrolysis for Re = 83183 and J = 25 mA cm(-2), with a space-time yield of 88 mg Cu(II) L(-1) min(-1), 95% current efficiency, and energy consumption of 5.3 KWh m(-3). The electrochemical treatment applied to waste rinse water at the RCE allows this treated water to be recycled back to the same rinsing process, avoiding additional consumption and discharge of this liquid.

  15. Effect of external electric field on morphology of copper phthalocyanine-fullerene blended films during annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhi, Anukul Prasad; Iyer, S. Sundar Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The thin-film morphology and segregated phases of constituents in blends of organic semiconductors play an important role in determining the performance of devices fabricated with these constituents. In this study, we explored the effect of an external electric field applied during annealing on the morphology and phase of blended films of two popular organic semiconductors, copper pthalocyanine (CuPc) and buckminsterfullerene (C60). Films of different blend ratios annealed at various temperatures in both the presence and absence of an electric field were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The characteristics of annealed pristine CuPc films were also included for comparison. The observed changes in the properties of the blended films following the annealing, including the abrupt phase segregation of the blended constituents in the films, are discussed. The polarizability of the molecules was calculated using density functional theory (DFT) to explain the interaction, stacking, and segregation of the molecules in the blend. The results showed that application of an electric field during annealing of the blended films is an additional control parameter that can help tune the properties of the blended film. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Thickness Effect of Micro Speaker Copper Coil Fabrication Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. AYAT

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the advantage of using electroplating for making the thick layer of copper over the sputtering. The purpose of this paper is to fabricate the copper coil for microspeaker. The design and simulation of this copper coil shows that the 15 um thickness is needed. In order to fabricate this coil, copper plating is used. The electro-deposition process is well suited to make films of metals such as copper, gold and nickel. The films can be made in any thickness from ~1 µm to >100 µm. The deposition is best controlled when used with an external electrical potentiostate. However, it requires electrical contact to the substrate when immersed in the liquid bath. In any process, the surface of the substrate must have an electrically conducting coating before the deposition can be done. The result of this experimental research shows the easy and cheap way to fabricate the thick layer of copper for microspeacker fabrication.

  17. Electrical properties and thermal stability of Pd-doped copper nitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, A. L.; Lu, N. P.; Gao, L.; Zhang, W. B.; Liao, L. G.; Cao, Z. X. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, P. O. Box 603, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2013-01-28

    Pd-doped copper nitride films with Pd concentrations up to 5.6 at. % were successfully synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering of metal targets. Higher concentration of Pd (>5.6 at. %) would deteriorate the quality of the deposits. XPS and XRD data strongly suggest that Pd atoms occupy the centers of the Cu{sub 3}N unit cells rather than simply substituting for the Cu atoms. A reduction in the electrical resistivity by three orders of magnitude was observed when the Pd concentration increases from zero to 5.6 at. %. All the deposits with the Pd concentration up to 5.6 at. % exhibit n-typed conductivity behavior. The corresponding carrier concentrations increase by four orders of magnitude from 10{sup 17} to 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. Compared with the undoped copper nitride films, a weakly Pd-doped Cu{sub 3}N films possess fine thermal stability in vacuum. And the decomposition product after annealing at 450 Degree-Sign C exhibits a good metallic behavior, indicating that it qualifies the fabrication of conduct wires or metallic structures for the promising applications.

  18. Physical and electrical properties of copper oxide doped bismuth borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, R. L.; Kundu, Virender Singh; Arora, Susheel; Maan, A. S.

    2013-06-01

    The role of CuO on the physical and electrical properties in x CuO.(25-x)Bi2O3.75B2O3;(5≤x≤20) glass system has been investigated. The glasses were prepared by normal melt quench technique. The density and molar volume of the glasses decreases with increase in CuO (mol %). The dc conductivity was measured in the temperature range 413-513 K. The conduction mechanism in these glasses was discussed in terms of small polaron hopping (SPH) theory proposed by Mott. The activation energy is found to decrease with increasing copper oxide content. The dc conductivity increases with increase in CuO content and ranging from 6.02×10-12 (Ωm)-1 to 1.096×10-10 (Ωm)-1 at 450K.

  19. Effect of the strain rate on the properties of electrical copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, Yu. N.; Demakov, S. L.; Illarionov, A. G.; Popov, A. A.

    2011-03-01

    The effect of the strain rate on the texture and strength characteristics of electrical copper is analyzed using an industrial experiment on low- and high-speed wire drawing. The mechanical properties of the product are determined. The strength of the wire drawn at a high speed is found to be about 20 MPa higher than that of the wire drawn at a low speed. Metallographic analysis shows no differences in the wire structures, and texture analysis reveals differences in the behavior of dominant texture components. The directions of the dominant texture components are found to rotate near the periphery of the workpiece (i.e., at the workpiece surface). The solution of the drawing problem by the finite element method demonstrates an analogous rotation of the principal elongation directions.

  20. Study on the CO2 electric driven fixed swash plate type compressor for eco-friendly vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Donglim; Kim, Kitae; Lee, Jehie; Kwon, Yunki; Lee, Geonho

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to experiment and to performance analysis about the electric-driven fixed swash plate compressor using alternate refrigerant(R744). Comprehensive simulation model for an electric driven compressor using CO2 for eco-friendly vehicle is presented. This model consists of compression model and dynamic model. The compression model included valve dynamics, leakage, and heat transfer models. And the dynamic model included frictional loss between piston ring and cylinder wall, frictional loss between shoe and swash plate, frictional loss of bearings, and electric efficiency. Especially, because the efficiency of an electric parts(motor and inverter) in the compressor affects the loss of the compressor, the dynamo test was performed. We made the designed compressor, and tested the performance of the compressor about the variety pressure conditions. Also we compared the performance analysis result and performance test result.

  1. Water and Electricity Do Mix: Studying Plates, Petroleum, and Permafrost using Marine Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, S.

    2015-12-01

    Marine magnetotelluric (MT) and controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) sounding methods were developed in the early 1980's as deep-water academic tools to study the oceanic lithosphere and mantle. Electrical conductivity is a strong function of porosity, temperature, melting, and volatile content, and so marine MT and CSEM data can be used to address a variety of geological questions related to plate tectonics. These include the distribution of melt at mid-ocean ridges, the fate of fluids in subduction zones, and the nature of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. With the advent of deepwater oil and gas drilling in the late 1990's, marine EM methods were embraced by the exploration community, and are now routinely used to assist in exploration and make drilling decisions for wells costing $100M or more. For countries without conventional hydrocarbon resources, gas hydrate offers the potential for energy production, and marine CSEM methods may be the only effective way to explore for and characterize this resource. The use of EM methods to map geothermal, groundwater, and mineral resources also has application in the marine environment. Water and electricity has proved to be a very successful mix!

  2. Analytical modeling of a sandwiched plate piezoelectric transformer-based acoustic-electric transmission channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawry, Tristan J; Wilt, Kyle R; Scarton, Henry A; Saulnier, Gary J

    2012-11-01

    The linear propagation of electromagnetic and dilatational waves through a sandwiched plate piezoelectric transformer (SPPT)-based acoustic-electric transmission channel is modeled using the transfer matrix method with mixed-domain two-port ABCD parameters. This SPPT structure is of great interest because it has been explored in recent years as a mechanism for wireless transmission of electrical signals through solid metallic barriers using ultrasound. The model we present is developed to allow for accurate channel performance prediction while greatly reducing the computational complexity associated with 2- and 3-dimensional finite element analysis. As a result, the model primarily considers 1-dimensional wave propagation; however, approximate solutions for higher-dimensional phenomena (e.g., diffraction in the SPPT's metallic core layer) are also incorporated. The model is then assessed by comparing it to the measured wideband frequency response of a physical SPPT-based channel from our previous work. Very strong agreement between the modeled and measured data is observed, confirming the accuracy and utility of the presented model.

  3. Electrical Resistivity, Tribological Behaviour of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Nanoboron Carbide Particles Reinforced Copper Hybrid Composites for Pantograph Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Selvakumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the influence and contribution of multiwalled carbon-nanotube (MWCNT–boron carbide (B4C to the mechanical and tribological properties of copper matrix composites. Different weight fractions of nano- B4C-containing fixed-weight fractions of MWCNT-reinforced copper composites were prepared using the entrenched cold-press sintering method of powder metallurgy. The wear losses of sintered Cu–MWCNT–B4C composites were investigated by conducting sliding tests in a pin-on-disc apparatus. The addition of reinforcements showed enhancements in the hardness and wear properties of the composites due to the uniform dispersion of the secondary reinforcement in the copper matrix and the self-lubricating effect of the MWCNTs. The effects of the nanoparticle distribution in the matrix, the worn surface morphology, and the elemental composition of the composites were characterized using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The electrical resistivity of the fabricated copper hybrid composite preforms was evaluated using a four-point probe tester. Our results highlight the use of experiential reinforcing limits of B4C on the wear and electrical and mechanical behaviour of copper composites.

  4. Characterization of Copper Coatings Deposited by High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spray for Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimijazi, H. R.; Aghaee, M.; Salehi, M.; Garcia, E.

    2017-08-01

    Copper coatings were deposited on steel substrates by high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying. The microstructure of the feedstock copper powders and free-standing coatings were evaluated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The x-ray diffraction pattern was utilized to determine phase compositions of powders and coatings. Oxygen content was determined by a LECO-T300 oxygen determiner. The thermal conductivity of the coatings was measured in two directions, through-thickness and in-plane by laser flash apparatus. The electrical resistivity of the coatings was measured by the four-point probe method. Oxygen content of the coatings was two times higher than that of the initial powders (0.35-0.37%). The thermal and electrical conductivities of the coatings were different depending on the direction of the measurement. The thermal and electrical conductivity of the coatings improved after annealing for 6 h at a temperature of 600°C.

  5. Effect of copper precipitates on the stability of microstructures and magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meng; Zeng, Yanping, E-mail: zengyanping@mater.ustb.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    Non-oriented electrical steels with different amounts of copper were prepared and the microstructure and magnetic properties of each kind of steel were studied. The results show that there exist a large number of Cu-rich metastable precipitates in the hot-rolled bands of the steels containing copper. They not only can decrease the sensitivity of the microstructures and magnetic properties of the steels to the change of process parameters but also can significantly reduce the core loss of the steels by improving the recrystallization textures without obviously decreasing the magnetic induction. Therefore, it is possible to control the microstructures and then magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels by the copper precipitates. - Highlights: • Small quantities of copper were added to non-oriented electrical steels. • A metastable Cu-rich phase precipitated in hot-rolled bands. • These precipitates can increase the microstructure stability of the steel. • These precipitates can also increase the stability of magnetic properties. • The microstructure and magnetic properties can be controlled by these precipitates.

  6. Evolution of electronic states in n-type copper oxide superconductor via electric double layer gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kui; Hu, Wei; Zhu, Beiyi; Kim, Dohun; Yuan, Jie; Sun, Yujie; Xiang, Tao; Fuhrer, Michael S; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Greene, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of electrons and holes in n-type copper oxides has been achieved by chemical doping, pressure, and/or deoxygenation. However, the observed electronic properties are blurred by the concomitant effects such as change of lattice structure, disorder, etc. Here, we report on successful tuning the electronic band structure of n-type Pr2-xCexCuO4 (x = 0.15) ultrathin films, via the electric double layer transistor technique. Abnormal transport properties, such as multiple sign reversals of Hall resistivity in normal and mixed states, have been revealed within an electrostatic field in range of -2 V to + 2 V, as well as varying the temperature and magnetic field. In the mixed state, the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity invokes the contribution of both electron and hole-bands as well as the energy dependent density of states near the Fermi level. The two-band model can also describe the normal state transport properties well, whereas the carrier concentrations of electrons and holes are always enhanced or depressed simultaneously in electric fields. This is in contrast to the scenario of Fermi surface reconstruction by antiferromagnetism, where an anti-correlation is commonly expected.

  7. Evolution of electronic states in n-type copper oxide superconductor via electric double layer gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kui; Hu, Wei; Zhu, Beiyi; Kim, Dohun; Yuan, Jie; Sun, Yujie; Xiang, Tao; Fuhrer, Michael S.; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Greene, Richard. L.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of electrons and holes in n-type copper oxides has been achieved by chemical doping, pressure, and/or deoxygenation. However, the observed electronic properties are blurred by the concomitant effects such as change of lattice structure, disorder, etc. Here, we report on successful tuning the electronic band structure of n-type Pr2−xCexCuO4 (x = 0.15) ultrathin films, via the electric double layer transistor technique. Abnormal transport properties, such as multiple sign reversals of Hall resistivity in normal and mixed states, have been revealed within an electrostatic field in range of −2 V to + 2 V, as well as varying the temperature and magnetic field. In the mixed state, the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity invokes the contribution of both electron and hole-bands as well as the energy dependent density of states near the Fermi level. The two-band model can also describe the normal state transport properties well, whereas the carrier concentrations of electrons and holes are always enhanced or depressed simultaneously in electric fields. This is in contrast to the scenario of Fermi surface reconstruction by antiferromagnetism, where an anti-correlation is commonly expected. PMID:27221198

  8. 无氰镀铜的实验研究与生产应用进展(一)%Advances in experimental study and production practice of cyanide-free copper plating-Part I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁诗璞

    2009-01-01

    The unfeasibility of dip plating of copper on iron and steel workpiece from a bright acid copper sulfate bath and the features of acid copper plating process characterized by the combination of dip plating with electrodeposition were analyzed. The latest progress in the studies of acid copper brightener, iron and steel activation principle, and complexing agent for cyanide-free alkaline copper plating were introduced. It is pointed out that cyanide-free HEDP copper plating bath has chemical activation effect and pre-dipping can improve the adhesion of deposit to substrate.%分析了基于硫酸盐光亮酸性镀铜体系的钢铁件浸镀铜工艺工业化应用的不可行性,以及浸镀与电沉积相结合的酸性镀铜工艺的特点.介绍了酸铜光亮剂、钢铁件活化原理、无氰碱铜配位荆等研究的最新进展.指出HEDP无氰碱铜镀液具有化学活化作用,以及预浸能提高镀层结合力.

  9. Continuous electricity generation from domestic wastewater and organic substrates in a flat plate microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Booki; Logan, Bruce E

    2004-11-01

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a device that converts organic matter to electricity using microorganisms as the biocatalyst. Most MFCs contain two electrodes separated into one or two chambers that are operated as a completely mixed reactor. In this study, a flat plate MFC (FPMFC) was designed to operate as a plug flow reactor (no mixing) using a combined electrode/proton exchange membrane (PEM) system. The reactor consisted of a single channel formed between two nonconductive plates that were separated into two halves by the electrode/PEM assembly. Each electrode was placed on an opposite side of the PEM, with the anode facing the chamber containing the liquid phase and the cathode facing a chamber containing only air. Electricity generation using the FPMFC was examined by continuously feeding a solution containing wastewater, or a specific substrate, into the anode chamber. The system was initially acclimated for 1 month using domestic wastewater orwastewater enriched with a specific substrate such as acetate. Average power density using only domestic wastewater was 72+/-1 mW/m2 at a liquid flow rate of 0.39 mL/min [42% COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal, 1.1 h HRT (hydraulic retention time)]. At a longer HRT = 4.0 h, there was 79% COD removal and an average power density of 43+/-1 mW/m2. Power output was found to be a function of wastewater strength according to a Monod-type relationship, with a half-saturation constant of Ks = 461 or 719 mg COD/L. Power generation was sustained at high rates with several organic substrates (all at approximately 1000 mg COD/L), including glucose (212+/-2 mW/ m2), acetate (286+/-3 mW/m2), butyrate (220+/-1 mW/ m2), dextran (150+/-1 mW/m2), and starch (242+/-3 mW/ m2). These results demonstrate the versatility of power generation in a MFC with a variety of organic substrates and show that power can be generated at a high rate in a continuous flow reactor system.

  10. Electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of helical microorganism cells coated with silver by electroless plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jun, E-mail: jun_cai@buaa.edu.cn [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Lan, Mingming; Zhang, Deyuan; Zhang, Wenqiang [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-09-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use the microorganism cells as forming templates to fabricate the bio-based conductive particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microorganism cells selected as forming templates are Spirulina platens, which are of natural helical shape and high aspect ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sliver-coated Spirulina cells are a kind of lightweight conductive particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composites containing sliver-coated Spirulina cells exhibit a lower percolation value. - Abstract: In this paper, microorganism cells (Spirulina platens) were used as forming templates for the fabrication of the helical functional particles by electroless silver plating process. The morphologies and ingredients of the coated Spirulina cells were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. The crystal structures were characterized by employing the X-ray diffraction. The electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of samples containing different volume faction of sliver-coated Spirulina cells were measured and investigated by four-probe meter and vector network analyzer. The results showed that the Spirulina cells were successfully coated with a uniform silver coating and their initial helical shapes were perfectly kept. The electrical resistivity and dielectric properties of the samples had a strong dependence on the volume content of sliver-coated Spirulina cells and the samples could achieve a low percolation value owing to high aspect ratio and preferable helical shape of Spirulina cells. Furthermore, the conductive mechanism was analyzed with the classic percolation theory, and the values of {phi}{sub c} and t were obtained.

  11. Stationary levitation and vibration transmission characteristic in a superconducting seismic isolation device with a permanent magnet system and a copper plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S., E-mail: s.sasaki@ecei.tohoku.ac.j [Electrical Engineering Department, Graduate School, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Shimada, K.; Yagai, T.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T. [Electrical Engineering Department, Graduate School, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Kawai, N.; Yasui, K. [Okumura Corporation, 5-6-1 Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 180-8381 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    We have devised a magnetic levitation type superconducting seismic isolation device taking advantage of the specific characteristic of HTS bulk that the HTS bulk returns to its original position by restoring force against a horizontal displacement. The superconducting seismic isolation device is composed of HTS bulks and permanent magnets (PM rails). The PMs are fixed on an iron plate to realize the same polarities in the longitudinal direction and the different polarities in the transverse direction. The superconducting seismic isolation device can theoretically remove any horizontal vibrations completely. Therefore, the vibration transmissibility in the longitudinal direction of the PM rail becomes zero in theory. The zero vibration transmissibility and the stationary levitation, however, cannot be achieved in the real device because a uniform magnetic field distribution in the longitudinal direction of PM rail cannot be realized due to the individual difference of the PMs. Therefore, to achieve stationary levitation in the real device we adopted a PM-PM system that the different polarities are faced each other. The stationary levitation could be achieved by the magnetic interaction between the PMs in the PM-PM system, while the vibration transmitted to the seismic isolation object due to the magnetic interaction. We adopted a copper plate between the PMs to reduce the vibration transmissibility. The PM-PM system with the copper plate is very useful for realizing the stationary levitation and reducing the vibration transmissibility.

  12. Experimental Study on the Best Conditions of Preparation Copper-Constantan Thermopile by Copper Sulfate Acid Copper Plating%硫酸铜酸性镀铜法制备铜-康铜热电堆的最佳实验条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗浩; 彭同江; 孙红娟

    2012-01-01

    Thermopile is a common heat flow sensor,and the plating effect of thermopile affect its performance directly.This paper based on the basic principles of copper sulfate acid copper plating,and preparing thermopile through the electroplating of copper in constantan substrate,to study the effect of plating time,copper sulfate concentration,sulfuric acid concentration,electroplate solution temperature and current density on the thermoelectric potential of the thermopile.The results show that the optimal conditions for plating: plating time 20 min,copper sulfate concentration of 250 g/L,sulfuric acid concentration of 60 g/L,electroplate solution temperature 36 ℃,current density 10 A/dm2.Under these conditions,the thermoelectric potential of copper-constantan thermopile reaches the maximum.%热电堆是一种常见的热流传感器,热电堆的电镀效果直接影响其性能。基于硫酸铜酸性镀铜基本原理,通过在康铜基体上电镀铜的方式制备热电堆。研究了电镀时间、硫酸铜浓度、硫酸浓度、溶液温度、电流密度对热电堆输出热电势的影响。结果表明,最佳电镀条件为:电镀时间20 min,硫酸铜浓度250 g/L,硫酸浓度60 g/L,镀液温度36℃,电流密度10 A/dm2。在此条件下制备的铜-康铜热电堆输出热电势最高。

  13. Distribution of air and serum PCDD/F levels of electric arc furnaces and secondary aluminum and copper smelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Chang; Shih, Tung-Seng; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

    2009-12-30

    Metallurgical processes, such as smelting, can generate organic impurities such as organic chloride chemicals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The objective of this study was to elucidate the serum PCDD/F levels of 134 workers and ambient air levels around electric arc furnaces (EAF), secondary copper smelters and secondary aluminum smelters (ALSs) in Taiwan. The highest serum PCDD/F levels were found in the ALSs workers (21.9 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid), with lower levels in copper smelter workers (21.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid), and the lowest in the EAF plant workers (18.8 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid). This was still higher than the levels for residents living within 5 km of municipal waste incinerators (14.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid). For ambient samples, the highest ambient air PCDD/F level was in the copper smelters (12.4 pg WHO-TEQ/Nm(3)), with lower levels in ALSs (7.2 pg WHO-TEQ/Nm(3)), and the lowest in the EAF industry (1.8 pg WHO-TEQ/Nm(3)). The congener profiles were consistent in serum and in air samples collected in the copper smelters, but not for ALSs and EAF. In secondary copper smelters, the air PCDD/Fs levels might be directly linked to the PCDD/Fs accumulated in the workers due to the exceedingly stable congener pattern of the PCDD/F emission.

  14. 纯铜化学镀Ni-Cu-P工艺的研究%A Study of Electroless Ni-Cu-P Plating on Pure Copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈益兵; 赵芳霞; 张振忠; 孙晓东

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the problems of corrosion and boundary conductivity to be improved when pure copper is in the process of application, the surface of pure copper was modified by electroless Ni-Cu-P plating. The effects of electroless Ni-Cu-P plating process on the properties of pure copper were investigated by means of XRD, SEM, contact resistance test, corrosion test, etc.The results show that the process can obtain a typical amorphous cellular structure, the contact resistance of modified pure copper is 15 % ~ 30 % of that before modification, and the self-corrosion current density is decreased by two orders of magnitude.%针对纯铜使用过程中表面腐蚀及导电性需进一步提高等问题,采用化学镀Ni-Cu-P对纯铜进行表面改性.采用X射线衍射仪(XRD)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、界面接触电阻测试、极化曲线等手段,研究了化学镀Ni-Cu-P工艺对纯铜性能的影响.结果表明:该工艺能得到典型的非晶胞状结构,改性后纯铜的接触电阻为改性前的15 %~30%,自腐蚀电流密度降低两个数量级.

  15. 2-巯基苯并噻唑对化学镀铜的影响%Effect of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole on electroless copper plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝灵兴; 王晓兰; 丁杰; 孙宇曦; 高琼; 路旭斌; 王增林

    2012-01-01

    The effect of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole on deposition rate of electroless copper plating on ABS plastic, as well as the surface morphology, purity, evenness, and crystal type of copper coating was studied using formaldehyde as the reducing agent. The process parameters of electroless copper plating are as follows: CuSO4·5H2O 10 g/L, EDTA-2Na 30 g/L, HCHO 3 mL/L, PEG-1000 2 mg/L, 2-MBT 0-2 mg/L, temperature 70 ℃ or 40 ℃, pH 12.5, and time 1 h. With the addition of low concentration of 2-MBT to the bath, the mixed potential of electroless copper coating becomes more positive, the deposition rate increases, and the density and evenness of Cu coating improves, while the crystal type of coating slightly changes. The obtained Cu coating has high purity as 2-MBT just plays the part of complexant and accelerant during the electroless copper plating.%以甲醛为还原剂,研究了2-巯基苯并噻唑(2-MBT)对ABS塑料化学镀铜沉积速率、铜镀层表面形貌、纯度、平整度及晶型的影响.化学镀铜的工艺条件为:CuSO4·5H2O 10g/L,EDTA-2Na30g/L,HCHO3mL/L,PEG-10002mg/L,2-MBT0~2mg/L,温度70℃或40℃,pH 12.5,时间1 h.镀液中加入低浓度2-MBT后,化学镀铜的混合电位正移,沉积速率提高,铜镀层的致密性和平整性得到改善,但镀层晶型变化不大.2-MBT在化学镀铜中只起配位和加速作用,所得铜镀层纯度较高.

  16. Increasing wear resistance of copper friction pair with electrically-conductive tribological Cu-Mo-S coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkov, S. Yu.; Sergeev, V. P.; Fedorischeva, M. V.; Sergeev, O. V.; Kalashnikov, M. P.

    2016-11-01

    The composite solid lubricant Cu-Mo-S coating was produced by pulse magnetron sputtering system. The electrical resistivity of deposited Cu-Mo-S coatings was (22.8±3) × 10-8 Ohm×m. Cu-Mo-S coatings decrease the wear rate of the copper friction pair by 38 times. The decrease in the wear rate occurs owing to the formation of a transferred film on the counterface.

  17. Magnesium-zinc ferrite nanoparticles: effect of copper doping on the structural, electrical and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, H M; Al-Heniti, S; Umar, Ahmad; Al-Marzouki, F; Abdel-Daiem, A; Elmosalami, T A; Dawoud, H A; Al-Hazmi, F S; Ata-Allah, S S

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, Mg0.5Zn0.5-Cu(x)Fe2O4 ferrites nanoparticles were synthesized by facile co-precipitation route and characterized in detail in terms of their structural, electrical and magnetic properties as a function of Cu concentration. The prepared samples have cubic spinel phase as confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. The decrease of the lattice constant and increase of X-ray density indicate the solubility of Cu ions in the spinel lattice. The AC conductivity measurements between 300 K and 773 K at different frequencies 1 KHz up to 1 MHz, showed two different behaviors as semiconductor-like at high temperature and frequency depending behavior associated with dispersion phenomena at low temperatures. The conduction mechanism in the system is influenced by Cu concentration and the dominant one is the hopping conduction mechanism. Dielectric measurements at the same conditions of temperatures and frequencies exhibited that the dielectric loss increases with increasing the temperature and decreasing the frequency indicating the semiconducting nature of the ferrite compounds. An anomalous behavior of the dielectric loss is observed in samples with high Cu content which explained in terms of resonance between frequency accompanied the electronic hopping and the frequency of the external electric field. The analysis of Mössbauer spectra revealed that copper free compound is super-paramagnetically relaxed in nature and zinc free compound demonstrates ferrimagnetic order. Moreover, hyperfine field spectrum shows the migration of Cu ions from octahedral to tetrahedral site in zinc free compound.

  18. Study of silver activating solution used in PCB electroless copper plating%银活化液在PCB化学镀铜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琼; 陈世荣; 汪浩; 曹权根; 王恒义; 谢金平; 范小玲

    2013-01-01

    文章简述了印制电路板孔金属化用的各种钯活化液的原理和特点,提出了一种银活化液,并将其催化活性和催化效果与胶体钯进行了对比。结果表明银活化用于化学镀铜,诱导时间快,可以节约成本。%This paper describes the principles and characteristics of various PCB plated through hole palladium activating solution, we propose a silver activation solution and its catalytic activity and catalytic effects were compared with colloidal palladium. The results show that silver activation solution can quickly induce electroless copper plating, and save production cost.

  19. 聚乙二醇改性PET薄膜化学镀铜%Electroless copper plating on polyethylene glycol-modified PET film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘湛昌; 程果; 武守坤; 李柱梁; 邓剑锋; 胡光辉; 肖楚民

    2013-01-01

    研究了聚乙二醇改性对聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯(PET)薄膜化学镀铜的影响.主要工序为:依次用1#、3#、5#金相砂纸打磨PET薄膜,在紫外光下用聚乙二醇改性接枝,以及化学镀铜.镀液的组成与工艺条件为:CuSO4·5H2O 16 g/L,Na2EDTA14 g/L,NaKC4H4O6·2H2O 19.5 g/L,NaOH 14.5 g/L,HCHO15 mL/L,温度40℃,时间30 min.红外光谱图表明PEG-6000被成功接枝在PET薄膜表面.分别采用X射线衍射仪、扫描电镜分析了化学镀铜后PET薄膜的结构和表面形貌,并测试了PET薄膜的结合力、厚度、导电性等性能.结果表明,PET表面的化学镀铜层纯度高;与未改性PET基铜镀层相比,改性的PET基铜镀层结晶更细致、光亮;镀铜层的厚度、电导率、背光等级及其与PET薄膜之间的结合力分别为1.21 μm、1.9×105 S/cm、10级、16.1 N/cm,可用以生产挠性电路板(FCB).%The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film on electroless copper plating on its surface was studied. The process flow mainly consists of: (a) successive polishing of PET film with 1#, 3# and 5# metallographic sand paper; (b) modification of PET film by grafting with PEG; and (c) electroless copper plating from a bath containing CuSO4·5H2O 16 g/L, Na2EDTA 14 g/L, NaKC4H4O6·2H2O 19.5 g/L, NaOH 14.5 g/L, and HCHO 15 mL/L at temperature 40 ℃ for 30 min. The infrared spectra show that PEG-6000 are grafted successfully to the surface of PET film. The structure and surface morphology of PET film before and after electroless copper plating were analyzed by X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope, respectively, and the properties of PET film such as adhesion strength, thickness, and conductivity were tested. The results show that the electroless copper coating on PET film is highly pure. Compared to the copper coating on ungrafted PET substrate, the copper coating on grafted PET substrate is fine-grained and bright. The

  20. Consideration of SH-wave fundamental modes in piezoelectromagnetic plate: electrically open and magnetically open boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenko, A. A.

    2013-11-01

    This report studies the dispersive wave propagation in the transversely isotropic (6 mm) piezoelectromagnetic (PEM) plate when the mechanical, electrical, and magnetic boundary conditions for both the upper and lower free surfaces of the plate are as follows: the mechanically free, electrically open, and magnetically open surfaces. This study follows some original results obtained in book. The fundamental modes' dispersion relations are graphically shown for the following well-known PEM composite materials: BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 and PZT-5H-Terfenol-D. It is natural that for large values of the nondimensional parameter kd (k is the wave number and d is the plate half-thickness), the velocities of both the fundamental modes approach the surface shear-horizontal wave called the piezomagnetic exchange surface Melkumyan wave. It is well known that plate waves are usually utilized in the nondestructive testing and evaluation, for instance, in the airspace industry. Also, PEM materials are used as smart ones in various technical devices such as dispersive wave delay lines, (biochemi)sensors, lab-on-a-chip, etc.

  1. Copper Recovery Combined with Electricity Production in a Microbial Fuel Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, ter A.; Liu, F.; Weijden, R.V.D.; Weijma, J.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    A metallurgical microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an attractive alternative for recovery of copper from copper containing waste streams, as the metal is recovered in its metallic form at the cathode, while the energy for metal reduction can be obtained from oxidation of organic materials at the anode wit

  2. Copper Recovery Combined with Electricity Production in a Microbial Fuel Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, ter A.; Liu, F.; Weijden, R.V.D.; Weijma, J.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    A metallurgical microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an attractive alternative for recovery of copper from copper containing waste streams, as the metal is recovered in its metallic form at the cathode, while the energy for metal reduction can be obtained from oxidation of organic materials at the anode wit

  3. Application of electroless nickel plating prior to sulfate copper electroplating%化学镀镍作为钢酸性镀铜前处理工艺的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄元盛

    2012-01-01

    In order to avoid copper replacement reaction during sulfate copper electroplating on steel surface, electroless nickel plating process was introduced as the pretreatment of electroplating. The effect of electroless nickel plating on sulfate copper electroplating was studied. The results show that there is no copper precipitation on the surface of steel samples electroless nickel plated at least for 6 min after dipping in sulfate copper electroplating solution for 10 min. The effects of electroless plating coating on the both the surface appearance and the adhesion of copper coating are not obvious, so the eleetroless nickel plating can be used for the pretreatment of sulfate copper electroplating.%为了防止钢表面酸性电镀铜出现置换铜,采取在电镀铜前增加化学镀镍工序,研究了化学镀镍工艺对酸性电镀铜的影响。结果表明,化学镀镍时间超过6min时(镍层厚度〉2.5-3μm),工件在酸性镀铜液中浸泡10min,无置换铜出现。化学镀镍层对后续的酸性镀铜层的表面形貌和附着力均无明显影响,表明化学镀镍可作为钢酸性镀铜的底层。

  4. Electricity generation and bivalent copper reduction as a function of operation time and cathode electrode material in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Huang, Liping; Quan, Xie; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2016-03-01

    The performance of carbon rod (CR), titanium sheet (TS), stainless steel woven mesh (SSM) and copper sheet (CS) cathode materials are investigated in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for simultaneous electricity generation and Cu(II) reduction, in multiple batch cycle operations. After 12 cycles, the MFC with CR exhibits 55% reduction in the maximum power density and 76% increase in Cu(II) removal. In contrast, the TS and SSM cathodes at cycle 12 show maximum power densities of 1.7 (TS) and 3.4 (SSM) times, and Cu(II) removal of 1.2 (TS) and 1.3 (SSM) times higher than those observed during the first cycle. Diffusional resistance in the TS and SSM cathodes is found to appreciably decrease over time due to the copper deposition. In contrast to CR, TS and SSM, the cathode made with CS is heavily corroded in the first cycle, exhibiting significant reduction in both the maximum power density and Cu(II) removal at cycle 2, after which the performance stabilizes. These results demonstrate that the initial deposition of copper on the cathodes of MFCs is crucial for efficient and continuous Cu(II) reduction and electricity generation over prolonged time. This effect is closely associated with the nature of the cathode material. Among the materials examined, the SSM is the most effective and inexpensive cathode for practical use in MFCs.

  5. Electrical and photovoltaic characteristics of sodium copper chlorophyllin/n-type silicon heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, A.A.M., E-mail: alaafaragg@yahoo.com [Thin Film Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-02-15

    Heterojunctions of p-type sodium copper chlorophyllin (p-SCC)/n-type silicon (n-Si) were prepared by deposition of p-SCC film on n-Si wafers using spray-pyrolysis technique. Current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements of Au/p-SCC/n-Si/In heterojunctions were performed to discuss the electrical properties of these heterostructures. Rectifying characteristics were observed, which are definitely of the diode type. The current-voltage measurements suggest that the forward current in these junctions involves tunnelling and the results showed that the forward current can be explained by a multi-tunnelling capture-emission model in which the electron emission process dominates the carrier transport mechanism. On the other hand, the reverse current is probably limited by the same conduction process. The capacitance-voltage behavior indicates an abrupt heterojunction model is valid for Au/p-SCC/n-Si/In heterojunctions and the junction parameters such as, built-in potential, V{sub D}, carrier concentration, N, the width of depletion layer, W, were obtained. The temperature and frequency dependence of the measured capacitance were also studied. The loaded I-V characteristics under white illumination provided by tungsten lamp (80 mW/cm{sup 2}) give values of 400 mV, 0.9 mA, 0.38 and 1.7% for the open-circuit voltage, V{sub oc}, the short-circuit current, I{sub sc}, the fill factor, FF, and conversion efficiency, {eta}, respectively.

  6. 氰化滚镀铜工艺实践与探讨%Practice and Exploration of Technology for Barrel Copper Plating from a Cyanide Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇武; 李健强

    2009-01-01

    氰化滚镀铜溶液中碳酸钠含量和主盐浓度不当,都会影响产品的质量.影响碳酸钠含量的因素较多,如溶液的pH值及NaOH浓度,槽电压等.对其具体影响进行了研究,提出措施:NaOH浓度在5.0~7.5 g/L可以将碳酸钠浓度控制在工艺范围内;降低镀槽电压和增加阳极面积有利于降低碳酸钠的浓度;较高的主盐浓度可以提高镀液的电流效率和均镀能力,有利于降低电镀成本.%The concentrations of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate in a barrel cyanide copper-plating bath were determined by chemical analysis, ai-ming at revealing the effect of sodium hydroxide on the formation and concentration of sodium carbonate and hence the quality of the final coating. Results show that the concentration of sodium carbonate in the bath for barrel cyanide copper- plating of zinc work pieces can be effectively controlled within the required range of technology by introducing 5.0 ~ 7. 5 g/L sodium hydroxide. Moreover, reducing the voltage of the plating bath and increasing the anodic area are favorable to decreasing the concentration of sodium carbonate. And raising the concentration of cuprous cya-nide as the main salt is helpful to increasing the current efficiency and throwing power and reducing the electroplating cost as well.

  7. Mineral Liberation of Magnetite-Precipitated Copper Slag Obtained via Molten Oxidation by Using High-Voltage Electrical Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yong; Shibata, Etsuro; Iizuka, Atsushi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    Our proposed method, i.e., a controlled molten oxidation process under 1 vol pct oxygen, leads to selective precipitation of magnetite in a copper smelter slag for downstream iron separation. In the present study, the preroasted magnetite precipitated copper slag was treated via magnetite liberation, which was realized by using high-voltage electrical pulses. The mineral distribution was determined by using a laser microscope and its image analysis; and it revealed that the 100- µm under-sieve product contains approximately 70 pct of liberated mineral particles. The study affirms the positive outcome of using this new technology for comminution to obtain micrometer-scale particles that yield monominerals via selective liberation. Using magnetic separation, iron was capable of finally separating into high- and low-iron-bearing concentrate and tailing that can be used in specific applications.

  8. Surface layer structure and average contact temperature of copper-containing materials under dry sliding with high electric current density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.; Rubtsov, V. Ye.; Aleutdinov, K. A.

    2016-11-01

    Dry sliding of copper and powder composites of Cu-Fe and Cu-Fe-graphite compositions against 1045 steel under electric current of contact density higher than 250 A/cm2 has been studied, which demonstrated the change in surface layer structure and formation of tribolayer consisting of iron, copper and FeO oxide. Signs of quasi-viscous flow of worn surface were observed. It was noted that the thin contact layer containing about 40 at % of oxygen and 40% of Fe was the main factor decreasing the adhesion interaction. It was affirmed that the introduction of graphite into the primary structure of the composite leads to rather low content of FeO oxide and to the increased tendency of surface layer to catastrophic deterioration under sliding with contact current density of about 300 A/cm2. The temperature of contact did not exceed 400°C.

  9. Novel process of cyanide-free copper plating on steel and its application%新型钢铁无氰镀铜工艺及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋义锋; 陈明辉; 杨防祖; 田中群; 周绍民

    2012-01-01

    The second generation of novel cyanide-free alkaline copper plating process was developed based on the first generation of cyanide-free alkaline copper plating process, and the problem of bath stability was successfully resolved. The basic bath composition and operation conditions are as follows: CuSO4·5H2O 25.0 g/L, C6H5O7K3·H2O 0.2 mol/L, assistant complexing agent 0.05 mol/L, stabilizer 0.2 mol/L, activator 0.02 mol/L, H3BO3 30 g/L, KOH 20 g/L, additive 10 mL/L, temperature 45 ℃, pH 8.8-9.2, current density 1.0-1.5 A/dm2, and electrolytic copperas anode. The addition of cuprous stabilizer and activator to plating bath ensures the stable application of the novel process. The influence of bath composition and process conditions on coating properties and current efficiency as well as the anti-impurity performance of the process were studied by Hull cell test and rack plating experiment. The coating obtained under the given process conditions has good properties, the current efficiency is above 90%, and the impurity resistance of the bath is excellent. The given process is suitable for copper pre-plating on steel and copper alloys. The bath keeps stable and the products are qualified after continuous use in production for months.%在第一代钢铁无氰镀铜工艺的基础上,开发出第二代无氰碱性镀铜新工艺,成功地解决了镀液的稳定性问题.镀液的基础配方和工艺条件为:CuSO4·5H2O 25.0 g/L,C6H5O7K3·H2O0.2 mol/L,辅助配位剂0.05 mol/L,稳定剂0.2 mol/L,活化剂0.02 mol/L,H3BO3 30g/L,KOH 20 g/L,添加剂10 mL/L,温度45℃,pH 8.8~9.2,电流密度1.0~1.5 A/dm2,阳极为电解铜.在新工艺镀液中引入一价铜稳定剂和活化离子,保证了其稳定应用.通过赫尔槽和挂镀试验研究了镀液组分和工艺条件对镀层性能和电流效率的影响,以及镀液的抗杂质能力.结果表明,在本工艺条件下,所得镀层性能良好,电流效率高于90%,镀液的抗杂质性能优良.本工

  10. 碳纤维表面单脉冲电镀铜%Carbon Coating on the Fiber Surface with Single Pulse Copper Plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高嵩; 樊明杰; 王桂萍

    2011-01-01

    采用脉冲电镀法在碳纤维表面镀铜,研究了硫酸铜、硫酸、添加剂、施镀时间、电流密度、占空比等因素的影响,确定了合适的镀液成分和电镀工艺.采用冷热循环法检测镀层与碳纤维的结合力,采用SEM和XRD考察了铜镀层质量.结果表明,以130 g/L CuSO4·5H2O,g/L H2SO4 50,30 g/L KNO3及6 mL/L光亮剂为镀液、室温下电流密度82 μA/mm2、占空比40%、施镀时间6 min为电镀条件,可在碳纤维表面得到表面平整细致、结晶度良好的铜镀层.镀层结合力由原来的270kPa提高到450kPa.%Pulse copper plating was used to coat a copper film on the carbon fiber surface. The effects of CUSO4, H2SO4, additives, electroplating time, current density, and duty cycle on the weight gain rate were investigated. And the solution composition and technical parameters for pulse copper plating were determined. The bonding force between the coating and the carbon fiber was tested by psychro-thermal cycles. The quality of copper coating was examined with SEM and XRD. The composition of electroplating solution was 130 g/L CuSO4-5H2O, 50 g/L H2SO4, 30 g/L KNO3 and 6 mL/L brightener. Under ambient temperature, the optimum technical parameters were 82 μA/mm2 of current density, 40% of duty cycle, 6 min of electroplating time, with the conditions a flat, detailed and well-crystalloid coating on the carbon fiber surface was achieved. Coating adhesion was increased from 270 kPa to 450 kPa.

  11. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings using bipolar electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.rojo@usm.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Cubillos, Luis [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2009-09-15

    In this work an electrodialytic remediation (EDR) cell for copper mine tailings with bipolar stainless steel plates was analyzed. The bipolar plates were inserted inside the tailings, dividing it into independent electrochemical cells or sections, in order to increase the copper removal efficiency from mine tailings. The bipolar plates design was tested on acidic copper mine tailings with a fixed: applied electric field, liquid content, initial pH, and remediation time. The laboratory results showed that inserting bipolar plates in EDR cells improves the remediation action, even though the applied electric field is reduced by the electrochemical reactions on the plates. Basically three aspects favor the process: reduction of the ionic migration pathways, increase of the electrode surface, and in-situ generation of protons (H{sup +}) and hydroxyls (OH{sup -}). Furthermore, the laboratory results with citric acid addition significantly improve the remediation actions, reaching copper removal of up to nine times better, compared to conventional EDR experiments without any plates or citric acid addition.

  12. Electrical conductivity modeling of multiple carbon fillers in liquid crystal polymer composites for fuel cell bipolar plate applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, R.L.; Keith, J.M.; King, J.A. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-08-15

    This study modelled the electrical conductivity of a single filler composite system using a general effective media (GEM) equation. The aim of the study was to investigate the use of synthetic graphite and carbon fiber in liquid crystal polymers for fuel cell bipolar plate applications. The polymer consisted of 73 mole per cent hydroxybenzoic acid and 27 mole per cent hydroxynaphthoic acid. Composites of various concentrations of single and multiple filler combinations were tested. A volumetric in-plane electrical conductivity test was conducted on all samples in order to measure voltage drop. A through-plane conductivity test was conducted to measure resistivity. The GEM equation was then used to model the conductivity data obtained during the tests. Results of the study showed that at 45 vol per cent, the electrical conductivity of the multiple filler composite was comparable to data obtained from single filler electrical conductivities. The electrical conductivity of the multiple filler composite at 60 per cent graphite and 10 per cent carbon fiber was comparable to the single filler carbon fiber composite, but lower than the single filler synthetic graphite composite. Results also showed that the GEM equation provided excellent agreement with results obtained during the experiments. It was concluded that the percolation threshold of the multiple filler composite was almost identical to the single carbon fiber filler, but lower than the single synthetic graphite composite. 35 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. MHD Natural Convection Flow of an incompressible electrically conducting viscous fluid through porous medium from a vertical flat plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. G. Prabhakara Rao,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider a two-dimensional MHD natural convection flow of an incompressible viscous and electrically conducting fluid through porous medium past a vertical impermeable flat plate is considered in presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field. The governing equations of velocity and temperature fields with appropriate boundary conditions are solved by the ordinary differential equations by introducing appropriate coordinate transformations. We solve that ordinary differential equations and find the velocity profiles, temperature profile, the skin friction and nusselt number. The effects of Grashof number (Gr, Hartmann number (M and Prandtl number (Pr, Darcy parameter (D-1 on velocity profiles and temperature profiles are shown graphically.

  14. Failure analysis of blistered gold plating on spot welded electrical relays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Witold; O'Donnell, Tim

    1989-01-01

    Gold-plated stainless-steel sideplates, part of a JPL Galileo spacecraft electronic-relay assembly, exhibited blistering after resistance spot welding. Unacceptable relays had heavy nonuniform gold electrodeposited layers with thicknesses 4.5-11.5 microns. SEM and metallographic investigations indicated much higher heat input generated during the resistance spot welding in unacceptable relays. The attributes of acceptable welded relays are contrasted with unacceptable relays; the possible mechanism of laminar formation of polymeric material in the gold plating is discussed; and some recommendations are provided to prevent similar problems.

  15. Modelling of spall damage in ductile materials and its application to the simulation of the plate impact on copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Feng-Guo; Zhou Hong-Qiang; Hu Jun; Shao Jian-Li; Zhang Guang-Ca; Hong Tao; He Bin

    2012-01-01

    A statistical model of dynamic spall damage due to void nucleation and growth is proposed for ductile materials under intense loading,which takes into account inertia,the elastic-plastic effect,and initial void size.To some extent,void interaction could be accounted for in this approach.Based on this model,the simulation of spall experiments for copper is performed by using the Lagrangian finite element method.The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data for the free surface velocity profile,stress record behind copper target,final porosity,and void concentrations across the target. The influence of elastic-plastic effect upon the damage evolution is explored.The correlation between the damage evolution and the history of the stress near the spall plane is also analyzed.

  16. Peculiarities of the precipitation of nanosized ɛ-phase copper particles in ferrite plates of lamellar pearlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataev, I. A.; Stepanova, N. V.; Bataev, A. A.; Nikulina, A. A.; Razumakov, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The fine structure of pearlite in alloys with the structure of gray cast iron that contain 1.6 and 10.8 wt% copper has been studied using transmission electron microscopy. Peculiarities of the formation of the nanosized particles of the ɛ-phase in ferrite lamellae of the pearlite have been determined and their influence on the character of the dislocation structure in the ferrite constituent of the pearlite has been demonstrated. It has been found that the Kurdyumov-Sachs orientation relationship is established between the particles of the ɛ and α phases. In the investigated cast irons, the formation of nanosized ɛ-copper particles results in the growth of pearlite hardness by 35 HV and 84 HV, respectively.

  17. Effect of Copper/Graphite Addition on Electrical Conductivity and Thermal Insulation of Unsaturated Polyester/Jute Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bhabatosh; Chabri, Sumit; Mitra, Bhairab Chandra; Das, Kunal; Bandyopadhyay, Nil Ratan; Sinha, Arijit

    2017-04-01

    Jute fibre along with Cu particle reinforced unsaturated polyester composites having different filler loading viz. 2, 5, 10 and 15 wt% were fabricated by compression molding technique. In present investigation, it was observed that with fillers (Jute and Cu) incorporation, the electrical conductivity was monotonically increased up to 10 wt% of filler content followed by saturation at 15 wt% of filler content. It was further observed that along with fillers (Jute and Cu) incorporation, the thermal insulation was decreased monotonically up to 10 wt% of filler content and achieved a saturation at 15 wt% of filler content. A similar trend was observed with the variation of electrical conductivity and thermal insulation after incorporation of graphite within copper reinforced UP/Jute composites. Structural investigation through SEM, XRD and FTIR confirm the dispersion of fillers. An improvement of crystallinity of the matrix with fillers addition was observed from XRD analyses. The interfacial bonding between fillers and matrix was studied from FTIR pattern.

  18. Palladium Nanoparticles Immobilized on Individual Calcium Carbonate Plates Derived from Mussel Shell Waste: An Ecofriendly Catalyst for the Copper-Free Sonogashira Coupling Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetan, Trin; Lertvachirapaiboon, Chutiparn; Ekgasit, Sanong; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol; Wacharasindhu, Sumrit

    2017-09-05

    The conversion of waste into high-value materials is considered an important sustainability strategy in modern chemical industries. A large volume of shell waste is generated globally from mussel cultivation. In this work, mussel shell waste (Perna viridis) is transformed into individual calcium carbonate plates (ICCPs) and is applied as a support for a heterogeneous catalyst. Palladium nanoparticles (3-6 nm) are deposited with an even dispersion on the ICCP surface, as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Using this system, Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions between aryl iodides and terminal acetylenes were accomplished in high yields with the use of 1 % Pd/ICCP in the presence of potassium carbonate without the use of any copper metal or external ligand. The Pd/ICCP catalyst could also be reused up to three times and activity over 90 % was maintained with negligible Pd-metal leaching. This work demonstrates that mussel shell waste can be used as an inexpensive and effective support for metal catalysts in coupling reactions, as demonstrated by the successful performance of the Pd-catalyzed, copper-free Sonogashira cross-coupling process. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Growth evolution and phase transition from chalcocite to digenite in nanocrystalline copper sulfide: Morphological, optical and electrical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Vasthi Quintana-Ramirez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Copper sulfide is a promising p-type inorganic semiconductor for optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, due its small band gap energy and its electrical properties. In this work nanocrystalline copper sulfide (CuxS, with two stoichiometric ratios (x = 2, 1.8 was obtained by one-pot synthesis at 220, 230, 240 and 260 °C in an organic solvent and amorphous CuxS was obtained in aqueous solution. Nanoparticle-like nucleation centers are formed at lower temperatures (220 °C, mixtures of morphologies (nanorods, nanodisks and nanoprisms are seen at 230 and 240 °C, in which the nanodisks are predominant, while big hexagonal/prismatic crystals are obtained at 260 °C according to TEM results. A mixture of chalcocite and digenite phases was found at 230 and 240 °C, while a clear transition to a pure digenite phase was seen at 260 °C. The evolution of morphology and transition of phases is consistent to the electrical, optical, and morphological properties of the copper sulfide. In fact, digenite Cu1.8S is less resistive (346 Ω/sq and has a lower energy band gap (1.6 eV than chalcocite Cu2S (5.72 × 105 Ω/sq, 1.87 eV. Low resistivity was also obtained in CuxS synthesized in aqueous solution, despite its amorphous structure. All CuxS products could be promising for optoelectronic applications.

  20. Electrical Properties Analysis of Copper doped CdTe/CdS Deposited Thin Films on ITO Coated Glass Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, Darren; Flaherty, James; Sahiner, M. Alper

    CdTe proves to be a viable source for renewable energy in the form of photovoltaic conversion. While CdTe/CdS naturally provide interesting results adding dopants to the cell can yield higher conversion efficiencies. Copper, famous for its electrical properties, can be used as a dopant in the CdTe layer. In conjunction with its dopant characteristics Copper also improves cell performance by acting as a low resistant and high current back contact. All thin films were synthesized using pulsed laser deposition onto ITO coated glass substrates. The CdS layer across all cells has an approximate thickness of 1500 Angstroms. The following CdTe layer has an approximate thickness of 5500 Angstroms. This created the base cell that was then doped. Cu, typically deposited using sublimation or vapor deposition, was done by PLD as well. Two of the three base cells were treated with Cu using the same deposition parameters. The third cell also received a CdCl treatment on top of the Cu layer to understand the effect when the oxygen layer is deferred. Ellipsometer measurements were used to confirm layer thickness. XRD analysis was used to confirm the presence of Cu and the crystal structure of the thin films. A Hall Effect Measurement system was used to measure active charge carrier concentration introduced by dopant. Also, a Keithley sourcemeter was utilized to determine photovoltaic properties. Notable results discussed will be the effects of Copper dopant on the electrical properties of CdS/CdTe based solar cells.

  1. Electrical and Thermal Behavior of Copper-Epoxy Nanocomposites Prepared via Aqueous to Organic Phase Transfer Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Mohd Hirmizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation, electrical, and thermal behaviors of copper-epoxy nanocomposites are described. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide- (CTAB- stabilized copper (Cu particles were synthesized via phase transfer technique. Isopropanol (IPA, sodium borohydride (NaBH4, and toluene solution of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA were used as transferring, reducing agent, and the organic phase, respectively. The UV-Vis absorbance spectra of all the sols prepared indicate that the presence of Cu particles with the particles transfer efficiency is ≥97%. The amount, size, and size distribution of particles in the organosol were dependent on the content of organic solute in the organosol. The composites were obtained upon drying the organosols and these were then subjected to further studies on the curing, thermal, and electrical characteristic. The presence of Cu fillers does not significantly affect the completeness of the composite curing process and only slightly reduce the thermal stability of the composites that is >300°C. The highest conductivity value of the composites obtained is 3.06×10-2 S cm-1.

  2. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy - A flat-plate copper collector with parallel mylar striping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are reported for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in a solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  3. Electroless copper plating of inkjet-printed polydopamine nanoparticles: a facile method to fabricate highly conductive patterns at near room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Siyuan; Liu, Liang; Bromberg, Vadim; Singler, Timothy J

    2014-11-26

    Aqueous dispersions of artificially synthesized, mussel-inspired poly(dopamine) nanoparticles were inkjet printed on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. Narrow line patterns (4 μm in width) of poly(dopamine) resulted due to evaporatively driven transport (coffee ring effect). The printed patterns were metallized via a site-selective Cu electroless plating process at a controlled temperature (30 °C) for varied bath times. The lowest electrical resistivity value of the plated Cu lines was about 6 times greater than the bulk resistivity of Cu. This process presents an industrially viable way to fabricate Cu conductive fine patterns for flexible electronics at low temperature, low cost, and without need of sophisticated equipment.

  4. Electric and Magnetic Fields Generated by a Charged Bunch between Parallel Conducting Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Levchenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Image fields generated by a bunch of charged particles between two parallel perfectly conducting plates are studied in detail. We derive exact analytical expressions for external fields of a charged relativistic bunch with a circular cross-section. Summation of image fields by the direct method invented by Laslett allows the infinite series to be represented in terms of elementary trigonometric functions.

  5. Replacement for Cadmium Plating and Hexavalent Chromium on Fasteners and Electrical Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    radioactive materials, hexavalent chromium, (electroplating and coatings), cadmium (electroplating), mercury, or other highly toxic or carcinogenic...eliminate both UNCLASSIFIED: Dist A. Approved for public release Background - Alternative Choices • Numerous alternatives – Zinc nickel (Zn/Ni) – Tin...Plating • Aluminum Corrosion Performance –equivalent at same thickness • Heat Resistance – Trivalent Chrome protects up to about 400 F; Hexavalent

  6. Flash light sintered copper precursor/nanoparticle pattern with high electrical conductivity and low porosity for printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Wan-Ho; Hwang, Hyun-Jun [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haendang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Sung, E-mail: kima@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haendang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the hybrid copper inks with precursor and nanoparticles were fabricated and sintered via flash light irradiation to achieve highly conductive electrode pattern with low porosity. The hybrid copper ink was made of copper nanoparticles and various copper precursors (e.g., copper(II) chloride, copper(II) nitrate trihydrate, copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate and copper(II) trifluoroacetylacetonate). The printed hybrid copper inks were sintered at room temperature and under ambient conditions using an in-house flash light sintering system. The effects of copper precursor weight fraction and the flash light irradiation conditions (light energy and pulse duration) were investigated. Surfaces of the sintered hybrid copper patterns were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. Also, spectroscopic characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the crystal phases of the flash light sintered copper precursors. High conductivity hybrid copper patterns (27.3 μΩ cm), which is comparable to the resistivity of bulk copper (1.68 μΩ cm) were obtained through flash light sintering at room temperature and under ambient conditions. - Highlights: • The hybrid copper inks with precursor and nanoparticles were fabricated. • The hybrid copper ink was sintered via flash light irradiation. • The resistivity of sintered hybrid copper ink was 27.3 μΩ cm. • Highly conductive copper film with low porosity could be achieved.

  7. 非平行板电容器电容和电场的一种计算%Calculation of electric capacity and electric fleld due to a non-parallel plates capacitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑民伟

    2001-01-01

    The electric capacity and the electric field due to a non-parallel plates capacitor were calculated.%运用复变函数把非平行板电容器转换成平行板电容器来计算电容和电场强度,方法比较简便.

  8. Galvanic zinc-copper microparticles produce electrical stimulation that reduces the inflammatory and immune responses in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simarna; Lyte, Peter; Garay, Michelle; Liebel, Frank; Sun, Ying; Liu, Jue-Chen; Southall, Michael D

    2011-10-01

    The human body has its own innate electrical system that regulates the body's functions via communications among organs through the well-known neural system. While the effect of low-level electrical stimulation on wound repair has been reported, few studies have examined the effect of electric potential on non-wounded, intact skin. A galvanic couple comprised of elemental zinc and copper was used to determine the effects of low-level electrical stimulation on intact skin physiology using a Dermacorder device. Zn-Cu induced the electrical potential recorded on intact skin, enhanced H(2)O(2) production and activated p38 MAPK and Hsp27 in primary keratinocytes. Treatment with Zn-Cu was also found to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α, IL-2, NO and TNF-α in multiple cell types after stimulation with PHA or Propionibacterium acnes bacteria. The Zn-Cu complex led to a dose-dependent inhibition of TNF-α-induced NF-κB levels in keratinocytes as measured by a dual-luciferase promoter assay, and prevented p65 translocation to the nucleus observed via immunofluorescence. Suppression of NF-κB activity via crosstalk with p38 MAPK might be one of the potential pathways by which Zn-Cu exerted its inflammatory effects. Topical application of Zn-Cu successfully mitigated TPA-induced dermatitis and oxazolone-induced hypersensitivity in mice models of ear edema. Anti-inflammatory activity induced by the Zn-Cu galvanic couple appears to be mediated, at least in part, by production of low level of hydrogen peroxide since this activity is reversed by the addition of Catalase enzyme. Collectively, these results show that a galvanic couple containing Zn-Cu strongly reduces the inflammatory and immune responses in intact skin, providing evidence for the role of electric stimulation in non-wounded skin.

  9. Copper Oxide Thin Films through Solution Based Methods for Electrical Energy Conversion and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changqiong

    Copper oxides (Cu2O and CuO), composed of non-toxic and earth abundant elements, are promising materials for electrical energy generation and storage devices. Solution based techniques for creating thin films of these materials, such as electrodeposition, are important to understand and develop because of their potential for realizing substantial energy savings compared to traditional fabrication methods. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O), with its direct band gap, is a p-type semiconductor that is well suited for creating solution-processed photovoltaic devices (solar cells); several key advancements made toward this application are the primary focus of this thesis. Electrodeposition of single-phase, crystalline Cu2O thin films is demonstrated using previously unexplored, acidic lactate/Cu2+ solutions, which has provided additional understanding of the impacts of growth solution chemistry on film formation. The influence of pH on the resulting Cu2O thin film properties is revealed by using the same ligand (sodium lactate) at various solution pH values. Cu2O films grown from acidic lactate solutions can exhibit a distinctive flowerlike, dendritic morphology, in contrast to the faceted, dense films obtained using alkaline lactate solutions. Relative speciation distributions of the various metal complex ions present under different growth conditions are calculated using reported equilibrium association constants and experimentally supported by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. Dependence of thin film morphology on the lactate/Cu2+ molar ratio and applied potential is described. Cu2O/eutectic gallium-indium Schottky junction devices are formed and devices are tested under monochromatic green LED illumination. Further surface examination of the Cu2O films using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals the fact that films grown from acidic lactate solution with a small lactate/Cu2+ molar ratio, which exhibit improved photovoltaic performance compared to films grown from

  10. Formation of the adakite-like granitoid complex and porphyry copper-gold deposit in Shaxi from southern Tancheng-Lujiang fault belt: A clue to the West Pacific plate subduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Xianghua; YANG Xiaoyong; YU Liangfan; ZHANG Qianming

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the geological and geochemical studies, including chemical analysis of bulk rocks, rare-earth and trace element studies, fluid inclusion, and S and O isotopic analyses, the authors described the geo-logical background of the deposit in detail and presented significant proofs for the conditions of formation of the Shaxi porphyry copper-gold deposit. Compared with other large and supper-large porphyry copper deposits in China and the adjacent Cu-Au mineralized areas, the ore-forming processes and conditions were analyzed; and the possibil-ity of forming large porphyry copper deposits in the Shaxi area was discussed. The present study indicated that the ore-forming fluid and material were mainly of magmatic origin, while meteoric water played a certain role in the ore-forming processes. Interactions between subducting and overriding plates provided a major driving force for the formation of igneous rocks and the deposition of metal elements in East China since Jurassic. Based on the geo-chemical data of the Shaxi intrusive, it is found that the copper (gold) mineralization is closely related to the genesis of adakite-like intrusive in the Shaxi area. This adakite-like intrusive was formed in the subduction environment as a result of the subduction of the West Pacific plate toward the East China continent, where there is a great potential-ity to form a large porphyry copper deposit.

  11. Ultrahigh Oxidation Resistance and High Electrical Conductivity in Copper-Silver Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaxiang; Li, Yunping; Wang, Zhongchang; Bian, Huakang; Hou, Yuhang; Wang, Fenglin; Xu, Guofu; Liu, Bin; Liu, Yong

    2016-12-01

    The electrical conductivity of pure Cu powder is typically deteriorated at elevated temperatures due to the oxidation by forming non-conducting oxides on surface, while enhancing oxidation resistance via alloying is often accompanied by a drastic decline of electrical conductivity. Obtaining Cu powder with both a high electrical conductivity and a high oxidation resistance represents one of the key challenges in developing next-generation electrical transferring powder. Here, we fabricate a Cu-Ag powder with a continuous Ag network along grain boundaries of Cu particles and demonstrate that this new structure can inhibit the preferential oxidation in grain boundaries at elevated temperatures. As a result, the Cu-Ag powder displays considerably high electrical conductivity and high oxidation resistance up to approximately 300 °C, which are markedly higher than that of pure Cu powder. This study paves a new pathway for developing novel Cu powders with much enhanced electrical conductivity and oxidation resistance in service.

  12. Wear Resistance of Friction Pair of Metal Composite/Copper under Electric Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleutdinova, M. I.; Fadin, V. V.; Rubtsov, V. Ye; Aleutdinov, K. A.

    2016-11-01

    Sliding of metal composites against copper counterbody under severe conditions (i.e. at the contact current density higher 50 A/cm2 and at high roughness of counterbody) is carried out. It is shown that the composite of composition of Cu-30% of graphite shows low wear resistance in these conditions. Higher wear resistance is inherent in the composites containing lead and bearing steel. Impregnation of these composites by industrial oil hasn't led to noticeable increase in wear resistance.

  13. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) of Inconel 718 by using copper electrode at higher peak current and pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Lajis, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    This experimental work is an attempt to investigate the performance of Copper electrode when EDM of Nickel Based Super Alloy, Inconel 718 is at higher peak current and pulse duration. Peak current, Ip and pulse duration (pulse on-time), ton are selected as the most important electrical pulse parameters. In addition, their influence on material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR), and surface roughness (Ra) are experimentally investigated. The ranges of 10 mm diameter of Copper electrode are used to EDM of Inconel 718. After the experiments, MRR, EWR, and Ra of the machined surfaces need to be measured in order to evaluate the performance of the EDM process. In order to obtain high MRR, higher peak current in range of 20A to 40A and pulse duration in range of 200μs to 400μs were used. Experimental results have shown that machining at a highest peak current used of 40A and the lowest pulse duration of 200μs used for the experiment yields the highest material removal rate (MRR) with value 34.94 mm3/min, whereas machining at a peak current of 20A and pulse duration of 400μs yields the lowest electrode wear rate (EWR) with value -0.0101 mm3/min. The lowest surface roughness (Ra) is 8.53 μm achieved at a lowest peak current used of 20A and pulse duration of 200μs.

  14. Review of HEDP direct copper plating process on iron and steel workpiece after 30 years of development Part Ⅲ. Wastewater treatment of HEDP and other alkaline copper plating solutions%钢铁件HEDP直接镀铜工艺开发30年回顾第三部分——HEDP及其他碱性镀铜液的废水处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方景礼

    2009-01-01

    比较了几种碱性无氰镀铜螯合剂的环保特性与废水处理难度,分析了氧化破坏法、化学沉淀法和离子交换法处理螯合废水的优缺点,介绍了从碱、酸铜废水中回收铜粉以及HEDP镀铜液除铜和除HEDP的高效沉淀新技术.%The environmental protection characteristics and wastewater treatment difficulty of various chelating agents used in non-cyanide alkaline copper plating were compared. The advantages and disadvantages of oxidative destruction, chemical precipitation and ion exchange method for chelating wastewater treatment were analyzed. New methods for recovering copper powder from acidic/alkaline copper-containing wastewater and the highly-efficient precipitation method for removing copper and HEDP from HEDP copper plating solution were introduced.

  15. Highly adhesive metal plating on Zylon fiber via iodine pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatema, Ummul Khair [Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1 Tokida, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567 (Japan); Gotoh, Yasuo, E-mail: ygotohy@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1 Tokida, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567 (Japan)

    2011-11-01

    Highly adhesive metal plating was performed on poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) fiber named Zylon via iodine pretreatment followed by electroless plating. First, iodine components were selectively doped into the inner part of the fiber near the surface through iodine vapor exposure. The doped iodine was converted to palladium iodide particles by treating with palladium chloride solution. After the reduction of the iodide to metal palladium particles, electroless copper plating was conducted on the fiber. A uniform copper layer was deposited on the fiber surface and exhibited high durability in durability tests such as ultrasonic exposure, tape peeling-off, and corrosion in NaCl solution. This durability was attributed to the palladium particles formed at the fiber surface that served as an anchor for the plated layer as well as an electroless plating catalyst. The plated fibers also possessed electrical conductivity. Although the tensile strength of the Zylon fiber decreased from 5.8 to 4.9 GPa after undergoing the pretreatment and plating processes, the light shielding effect improved the light resistance of the plated fibers in terms of tensile properties. After 18 days of xenon lamp exposure, the plated fibers retained 74% of its initial strength, whereas that of untreated fibers decreased to 43%.

  16. Study on Non-cyanide Immersion Silver Plating on Copper%铜基体无氰置换镀银工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海萍; 毕四富; 常健; 邹宇奇; 李宁

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain a good silver deposit on copper substrate, an non-cyanide immersion silver bath using silver nitrate as main salt, sodium bromide as the ligand for Ag+ , ethylenediamine and a, α-dipyridyl as the ligand for copper ion was developed. The effects of bath composition, pH and temperature on the thickness and appearance of silver deposit were investigated, and an optimized silver plating process was then determined by single factor test. The resuits show that after dipping into the optimized bath for 10 min the immersion silver coating presents a bright silverwhite appearance and the thickness of silver deposit is 0.1 μm, which could meet the requirements of PCB surface finishes.%为获得银镀层性能较好的铜表面无氰置换镀银工艺,以硝酸银为主盐,溴化钠为Ag配位剂,乙二胺和α,α-联吡啶为铜离子配住剂,通过单因素试验,研究了镀液各组成的用量及其PH值和温度对镀银层厚度和外观质量的影响,确定了最优工艺参数.采用该优化工艺在铜表面镀银10 min,可获得光亮的银白色镀银层,镀层厚度达0.1 μm以上,可满足PCB表面的终饰要求.

  17. Capacitance of the double electrical layer on the copper-group metals in molten alkali metal halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, E. V.; Stepanov, V. P.

    2016-08-01

    The electrochemical impedance is measured to study the capacitance of the double electrical layer of metallic Au, Ag, and Cu as a function of potential and temperature in nine molten salts, namely, the chlorides, bromides, and iodides of sodium, potassium, and cesium. The C- E curve of a gold electrode has an additional minimum in the anodic branch. This minimum for silver is less pronounced and is only observed at low ac signal frequencies in cesium halides. The additional minimum is not detected for copper in any salt under study. This phenomenon is explained on the assumption that the adsorption of halide anions on a positively charged electrode surface has a predominantly chemical rather than an electrostatic character. The specific adsorption in this case is accompanied by charge transfer through the interface and the formation of an adsorbent-adsorbate covalent bond.

  18. Along-Strike Electrical Conductivity Variations in the Incoming Plate and Shallow Forearc of the Cascadia Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, K.; Bedrosian, P.; Egbert, G. D.; Livelybrooks, D.; Parris, B. A.; Schultz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Magnetotelluric Observations of Cascadia using a Huge Array (MOCHA) experiment was carried out to study the nature of the seismogenic locked zone and the down-dip transition zone where episodic tremor and slip (ETS) originates. This amphibious magnetotelluric (MT) data set consists of 8 offshore and 15 onshore profiles crossing from just seaward of the trench to the western front of the Cascades, with a north-south extent spanning from central Oregon to central Washington. The 71 offshore stations and the 75 onshore stations (red triangles in the image below) fit into the broader context of the more sparsely sampled EarthScope MT transportable array (black triangles) and other previous and pending MT surveys (other symbols). These data allows us to image variations in electrical conductivity along distinct segments of the Cascadia subduction zone defined by ETS recurrence intervals. Since bulk conductivity in this setting depends primarily on porosity, fluid content and temperature, the conductivity images created from the MOCHA data offer unique insights on fluid processes in the crust and mantle, and how the distribution of fluid along the plate interface relates to observed variations in ETS behavior. This abstract explores the across- and along-strike variations in the incoming plate and the shallow offshore forearc. In particular we examine how conductivity variations, and the inferred fluid content and porosity variations, are related to tectonic segmentation, seismicity and deformation patterns, and arc magma variations along-strike. Porosity inferred in the forearc crust can be interpreted in conjunction with active and passive seismic imaging results and may provide new insights on the origin of recently observed extremely high heat flow values. A companion abstract (Parris et al.) examines the deeper conductivity structure of the locked and ETS zones along the plate interface in order to identify correlations between ETS occurrence rates and inferred

  19. Study on the Additive for Electroless Copper Plating Taking the Potassium Sodium Tartrate as the Main Complexing Agent%以酒石酸钾钠为主络合剂的化学镀铜添加剂研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖友军; 许永章

    2012-01-01

    It studied the additive for electroless copper plating taking potassium sodium tartrate as complexing agen, and discussed the effect of CH3OH, K4[Fe(CN)6] ? 3H2O,2,2 -bipyridine on the stability of plating bath, the quality of electroplating layer, the deposition rate of plating, to determine the amount of additive. The results indicate that the optimal conditions of the electroless copper plating system as follows: CH3OH is 14 ml/L, K4 [Fe(CN)6] ? 3H2O is 30 mg/L,2,2'-bipyridine is 5 mg/L,plating 30 min in the bath, the copper deposition rate reaches 4. 6 μm/h,e-lectroplating layer appears shiny pale pink, and stability of plating bath is optimal, electroplating layer has good adhesion.%研究了以酒石酸钾钠为主络合剂的化学镀铜添加剂,讨论了甲醇、亚铁氰化钾、2,2'-联吡啶三种添加剂对镀液稳定性、镀层质量、沉积速率的影响,通过正交试验确定了各添加剂的用量.实验结果表明:在酒石酸钾钠为主络合剂的化学镀铜液中添加14mL/L甲醇、30mg/L亚铁氰化钾和5mg/L2,2’-联吡啶,化学铜沉积30min后,沉积速率可达到4.6μm/h.在此工艺条件下,镀层呈现带光泽的淡粉红色,镀液稳定性佳,镀层附着力好.

  20. Electrical properties of carbon-based polypropylene composites for bipolar plates in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweiri, Radwan; Sahari, Jaafar

    An investigation is made of the electrical properties of polypropylene/graphite (PP/G) composites as prospective replacements for the traditional graphite bipolar plate in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. The composites have relatively low electrical conductivities, i.e., up to 28 S cm -1 at 90 wt.% G. Combination of G with carbon black (CB) is an effective way to develop higher conductivity composites. The conductivity reaches 35 S cm -1 by combination of 25 wt.% CB and 55 wt.% G to 20 wt.% PP. This is five times the value at 80 wt.% G and 20 wt.% PP (7 S cm -1). Two methods are mainly adopted for the preparation of composites, namely, melt compounding and solution blending. Solution blending of PP with conductive fillers followed by moulding of the dried powder leads to higher conductivities compared with those of melt-compounded composites. The combination of conjugated conducting polymers such as polyaniline (PANi) with the PP, G, and CB is also investigated. It is found that composites containing PANi have lower conductivities than those of the neat composites. This decrease in conductivity is attributed to the poor thermal stability of PANi.

  1. 钢铁基体上碱性无氰光泽镀铜%Alkaline Cyanide-Free Bright Copper Plating on Steel Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞祥

    2013-01-01

    介绍了一种在钢铁基体上碱性无氰光泽镀铜的工艺.该工艺不使用剧毒的氰化物,而用优选合成的配位剂(AZO-b)取代.研究了pH值和电流密度对镀层性能的影响.结果表明:镀层与钢铁基体之间的结合力好,镀液使用8个月后仍保持稳定,镀层呈半光亮的金红色.%A process of alkaline cyanide-free bright copper plating on steel substrate is presented. The process uses an optimized synthetic complexing agent (AZO-b) instead of toxic cyanide. The effects of pH value and current density on coating properties were investigated. The results show that the binding force between coating and steel substrate is good, and the bath is still stable after 8 months of operation, with a semi-bright golden red coating.

  2. Analysis of zinc impurity in cyanide copper plating bath%氰化镀铜溶液中锌杂质的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇武

    2013-01-01

    A method for analysis of zinc impurity in cyanide copper plating bath by using triethanolamine as masking agent instead of potassium cyanide was introduced. Cu+ ions react with triethanolamine forming stable complexes, and cannot be oxidized to Cu2+ ions in presence of L-ascorbic acid. Free cyanide is destroyed by formaldehyde, and zinc is then titrated with EDTA at pH 10 using eriochrome black T as indicator. The tests showed that the relative average deviation of the method is 1.4%.%介绍了用三乙醇胺作掩蔽剂取代氰化钾来测定氰化镀铜溶液中锌杂质的方法.三乙醇胺与Cu+离子生成稳定的配合物,在左旋抗坏血酸存在的条件下,Cu+离子不能被氧化成Cu2+离子.测定时加甲醛破坏游离氰化钠,以铬黑T作指示剂,在pH=10的条件下用EDTA滴定锌.实验表明,测定结果的相对平均偏差为1.4%.

  3. Enhancement of performance of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors by transfer from sapphire to a copper plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroki, Masanobu; Kumakura, Kazuhide; Yamamoto, Hideki

    2016-05-01

    We transferred AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) from a sapphire substrate to a copper plate using the hexagonal boron nitride epitaxial lift-off technique. After transfer, the negative slope in the drain current I d decreased owing to the suppression of the self-heating effect. The significant increase in I d and the negative shift of threshold voltage indicate an increase in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density. The increase in 2DEG density is at least partially caused by the reduction in compressive stress in the GaN layer after the transfer, which is revealed from the E 2 peak shifts of -1.3 cm-1 in Raman spectroscopy measurements. We also estimated the temperature in the active region of HEMTs by micro-Raman spectroscopy. For the transferred HEMT, the temperature at the gate edge on the drain side was 100 °C at a power dissipation of 0.9 W. In contrast, the temperature reached 240 °C at a power dissipation of only 0.7 W for the HEMT on the sapphire substrate. This indicates that the transfer technique can enhance the performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs.

  4. Summary memorandum: EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) copper indium diselenide scoping workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, D.L. (University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (USA). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Peterson, T.M. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

    1991-02-01

    This report reviews the proceedings and follow-up discussions of an EPRI workshop held in Chicago on March 22--23, 1990. The workshop carefully assessed the key R D issues facing Copper Indium Diselenide (CIS) technology and provided EPRI with a basis for deciding whether or not it should play a role in addressing them. The workshop began by reviewing CIS' recent history and technical progress. The participants, who represented a broad cross-section of the CIS R D community, then identified and tried to prioritize its important long-term R D needs. They agreed that most of the needed research is now addressed, but not optimally supported. They found three broad research categories that they agreed were central to advancing the technology: characterization of photovoltaic mechanisms, characterization and development of deposition processes, and development of novel alloys.

  5. A DC corona discharge on a flat plate to induce air movement

    OpenAIRE

    Magnier, Pierre; Hong, Dunpin; Leroy-Chesneau, Annie; Pouvesle, Jean-Michel; Hureau, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This paper describes a DC surface corona discharge designed to modify the airflow around a flat plate. The electrode configuration consisted of two thin copper layers placed on each side of the plate's attack edge. Discharge optical measurements with a photomultiplier tube indicated that the light emitted by the plasma is pulsating, at a frequency that increases with applied voltage. Moreover, with voltage higher than a threshold value, the electric discharge changes r...

  6. The experiments of Ramón M. Termeyer SJ on the electric eel in the River Plate region (c. 1760) and other early accounts of Electrophorus electricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Asúa, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Ramón M. Termeyer SJ (1737-1814?), a naturalist who experimented with the electric eel in the River Plate region during the 1760s. After going through an enumeration of the chroniclers that since the sixteenth century noticed the benumbing discharge of Electrophorus electricus, the article summarizes the work that immediately preceded Termeyer's and considers as a term of comparison the experiments on the electric eel performed by Bertrand Bajon (fl. 1751-1778) in the French Guyanne. It ends by discussing the meaning of Termeyer's 1781 and 1810 articles in the light of contemporary ideas of animal electricity.

  7. Electrical Characteristics of Copper Phthalocyanine Thin-Film Transistors with Polyamide-6/Polytetrafluoroethylene Gate Insulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shun-Yang; XU Shi-Ai; MA Dong-Ge

    2007-01-01

    Polyamide-6(PA 6)/polytetrafluoroethylene is studied as a potential gate dielectric for flexible organic thin film transistors.The salne method used for the formation of organic semiconductor and gate dielectric films greatly simplifies the fabrication process of devices.The fabricated transistors show good electrical characteristics.Ambipolar behaviour is observed even when the device is operated in air.

  8. Modelling of Current Density Redistribution in Hollow Needle to Plate Electrical Discharge Designed for Ozone Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriha, Vitezslav

    2003-10-01

    Non-thermal plasma of atmospheric pressure electrical discharges in flowing air can be used to generation of ozone. We have been observed two modes of discharge burning in a hollow needle to plane electrodes configuration studied in the ozone generation experiments: A low current diffuse mode is characterized by increasing of the ozone production with the discharge current; a high current filamentary mode is disadvantageous for the ozone generation(the ozone production decreases when the discharge current increases). A possible interpretation of this effect is following: The filamentary mode discharge current density is redistributed and high current densities in filaments cores lead to degradation of the ozone generation. Local fields in the discharge can be modified by charged metallic and/or dielectric components (passive modulators) in the discharge space. An interactive numerical model has been developed for this purpose. This model is based on Ferguson's polynomial objects for both the discharge chamber scene modelling and the discharge fields analyzing. This approach allows intuitive modifications of modulators shapes and positions in 3D scene followed by quantitative comparison of the current density distribution with previous configurations.

  9. Study on the Eletcroless Silver Plating on Copper Powders in Ethylene Glycol Medium%乙二醇介质中铜微粉表面化学镀银的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雅丽; 付新; 党蕊

    2012-01-01

    The surface of copper powers was plated with silver. The silver-coated copper power was characterized and its performances were tested by XRD, DLS and TG. The influence factors of conductivity, antioxidativity and its particle size were analyzed. The results show that silver-coated copper powders are prepared by liquid chemical reduction methed, which glucose as prereductant and formaldehyde as reductant in ethylene glycol system. The mole ratio of copper and silver is 2 ' 1. Silver-coated copper powders exhibit excellent conductivity and antioxidativity.%在新生成的铜微粉表面化学镀银,用扫描电镜、X射线衍射仪、动态光散射粒径测试仪和热重仪对粉体进行表征和性能测试,分析了粉体导电性、抗氧化性及粒径大小和分布的影响因素.结果表明:在乙二醇介质中采用液相还原法,通过葡萄糖预还原,用甲醛进行二次还原,控制银与铜物质的量之比为2:1,可得到抗氧化性、导电性良好的银包铜微粉.

  10. Influence of copper plate thickness on thermo-mechanical behavior of slab mold%铜板厚度对板坯结晶器热力行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹学欠; 陈杰; 林国海; 陈卫强

    2012-01-01

    基于某钢厂的铸机条件,建立了三维热弹塑性有限元模型,得到了不同厚度铜板的温度、变形量和等效应力应变的分布状态,指导了河北普阳钢铁有限公司结晶器的设计。结果表明:铜板越厚,热面温度越高,等效应力越小,变形量越大。铜板厚度每增加5mm,热面最高温度将相应增加30℃左右;热面最大等效应力将减dx7.5MPa2左右;热面最大变形量将相应增加0.05mm左右;较薄的铜板可减少浇铸过程中铜板的热变形。%In connection with the practical conditions of one caster in a specific plant a three-dimensional thermal elastic-plastic finite element model is established and distribu- tions of temperature, deformation rate and equivalent stress-strain for copper plates with different thickness are obtained. All those parameters are used to guide the design of mold in the Steelmaking Co. , Ltd. of Hebei Puyang Iron & Steel Corporation. Results show that the thicker the copper plate is, the higher the temperature will be at the hot surface, and the less the equivalent stress is, the larger the deformation rate will become. Every 5 mm increase in the thickness of the copper plate will inevitably lead to about 30℃ temperature increase in the highest hot surface and about 7. 5 MPa reduction of the maximum equivalent stress at the hot surface and about 0. 05 mm increase of the maximum deformation rate at the hot surface. Thinner copper plate is more helpful for reduction of the hot deformation of the copper plate in the process of casting.

  11. Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E. H.; Ramsey, Christopher; Bae, Youngsam; Choi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Copper tubes having diameters between about 100 and about 200 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into the pores of alumina nanopore membranes. Copper nanotubes are under consideration as alternatives to copper nanorods and nanowires for applications involving thermal and/or electrical contacts, wherein the greater specific areas of nanotubes could afford lower effective thermal and/or electrical resistivities. Heretofore, copper nanorods and nanowires have been fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and a conventional expensive lithographic process. The present electrodeposition-based process for fabricating copper nanotubes costs less and enables production of copper nanotubes at greater rate.

  12. 陶瓷化学镀铜沉积速度及镀层外观的研究%Study on Deposition Rate and Coating Appearance of Electroless Copper Plating on Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 宣天鹏; 孙衍乐; 许少楠

    2011-01-01

    探讨了硫酸铜质量浓度、络合剂质量浓度比例、甲醛质量浓度、稀土质量浓度及温度变化对陶瓷表面化学镀铜的沉积速率和镀铜层微观形貌的影响.结果表明:随着硫酸铜质量浓度的增加、温度的升高和络合比的降低,化学镀铜的沉积速率提高,但镀液稳定性有所降低;增加甲醛或稀土含量,镀速先升高后下降,有一个最佳值.加入稀土Ce细化了铜颗粒,铜在基体表面的沉积变得均匀,当p(硫酸铈)为0.8g/L时,镀铜层平整细密、孔洞较少.%Effects of copper sulfate concentration, complexing agent concentration ratio, formaldehyde concentration, rare earth content and temperature on copper deposition rate, coating microstructure of elec-troless copper plating on ceramic were discussed. Results showed that with the increase in copper sulfate concentration and temperature and decrease in complexing agent ratio, the Cu deposition rate was increased but bath stability decreased; with increasing formaldehyde concentration and rare earth content, the Cu deposition rate was increased at first and then decreased. By adding rare earth Ce salt, copper particles got refined and copper depositon became even, especially when cerium sulfate content was 0. 8g/L, copper coating became more level,finer and less pores.

  13. Photocatalytic, optical and electrical properties of copper-doped zinc sulfide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    Thin films of ZnS : Cu nanoparticles were prepared by electron beam evaporation on glass substrates. The Cu content was varied from 0 to 9 at%. XRD examination of the as-prepared films revealed the presence of polycrystalline hexagonal ZnS with preferred orientation depending on the Cu content. As annealing was carried out, grain growth was observed and a new orthorhombic copper sulfate phase emerged. The photocatalytic behaviour of ZnS : Cu was mainly evaluated by measuring the decomposition of methylene blue. The photocatalytic activities were found to decrease with increasing Cu content as well as with increasing annealing temperature. The optical transmittance and reflectance measurements were performed using a spectrophotometer. The spectral transmittance was decreased and the band gap energy was shifted from 3.45 to 3.20 eV with increasing Cu content. The refractive index was determined from transmittance using the Swanepoel method. The refractive index was found to depend on Cu content as well as annealing temperature. A strong decrease in room temperature resistivity was obtained with increasing Cu content. The obtained results are interesting and may find applications in photodegradation of pollutants and future display devices.

  14. Change spectroscopic studies and optimization electrical properties of PVP/PEO doped copper phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragab, H.M., E-mail: yara20092009@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Girls Branch, Cairo 11754 (Egypt); Basic Science Department, Faculty of Preparatory Year, Hail University (Saudi Arabia); Ahmad, F.; Radwan, Sh.N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Girls Branch, Cairo 11754 (Egypt)

    2016-12-01

    Composite films of polyvinyl pyrrolidone and Polyethylene oxide (PVP/PEO) blend doped with 1, 4 and 12 wt% of copper Phthalocyanines (CuPc) were prepared by casting method. The samples were studied using different techniques. The X-ray (XRD) revealed average crystallite size and X-ray intensity decrease at 1 CuPc %; this implies to an increase on the degree of amorphousity, then increase at CuPc >1%. The change in both the intensity and position of some absorption peaks of the blend with CuPc content were observed in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy suggest the complexation of polymer blend. The UV–Vis spectroscopy revealed that the optical band gap decreases as well as band tail width increases with increasing CuPc concentration. It may be reflect the role of CuPc in modifying the electronic structure of the polymeric matrix. The charge carrier concentration is responsible for conductivity improvement in electrolytes rather than the mobility.

  15. Change spectroscopic studies and optimization electrical properties of PVP/PEO doped copper phthalocyanines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, H. M.; Ahmad, F.; Radwan, Sh. N.

    2016-12-01

    Composite films of polyvinyl pyrrolidone and Polyethylene oxide (PVP/PEO) blend doped with 1, 4 and 12 wt% of copper Phthalocyanines (CuPc) were prepared by casting method. The samples were studied using different techniques. The X-ray (XRD) revealed average crystallite size and X-ray intensity decrease at 1 CuPc %; this implies to an increase on the degree of amorphousity, then increase at CuPc >1%. The change in both the intensity and position of some absorption peaks of the blend with CuPc content were observed in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy suggest the complexation of polymer blend. The UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed that the optical band gap decreases as well as band tail width increases with increasing CuPc concentration. It may be reflect the role of CuPc in modifying the electronic structure of the polymeric matrix. The charge carrier concentration is responsible for conductivity improvement in electrolytes rather than the mobility.

  16. Magnetoresistance and electrical properties of multi-component copper chalcogenides at pressures up to 50 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Nina; Tebenkov, Alexander; Babushkin, Alexey; Kurochka, Kirill; Phase Transitions Team; Transport Properties Team; Novel Materials Team

    2013-06-01

    Multi-component chalcogenides based on layered semiconductors A3B6 (such as InS, InSe, GaS, GaSe, etc) are new objects of study, they have interesting physical properties and undergo temperature and baric phase transitions. This paper presents the results of a study of the electrical properties and magnetoresistance of CuInS2, CuInSe2, CuInAsS3, CuInAsSe3, CuInSbS3 at pressures up to 50 GPa. High pressures have been generated in the cell with synthetic carbonado-type diamond anvils that can be used as electric contacts. Electric properties at high pressure have been investigated on dc current and by means of impedance spectroscopy. Magnetoresistance has been measured in transverse magnetic field. The pressure ranges of noticeable changes in a behavior of magnetoresistance, of impedance and admittance, tangent of loss angle, relaxation time upon a pressure increase and a pressure decrease are established. This behavior of physical parameters can be due to structural transitions and due to a change of electron structure. This work was supported in part by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 13-02-00633.

  17. Research on Flotation Experiment of African Copper Electric Furance Slag%非洲某铜电炉渣的浮选试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江涛

    2012-01-01

    对赞比亚某电炉渣进行光谱分析、物相分析及多元素分析.结果表明,该电炉渣含铜3.5%,铜主要以金属铜和硫化铜形式产出.根据该电炉渣的矿物学特征,采用一粗两扫两精的选别流程,实验室闭路试验可获得,铜精矿品位34.01%、回收率92.57%的选别指标,达到了该电炉渣综合回收铜的目的.%By spectrum,phase and multi-element analysis,it is found that the electric furnace slag in Zambia contains 3.5% Cu,mainly existing in the form of copper and copper sulfide. According to its mineralogical characteristics, the flotation flowsheet of one roughing,two scavenging and two cleaning was adopted. Through the closed - circuit experiment the copper concentrate with the grade of 34.01% and the recovery of 92.57% could be obtained, reaching the aim of recovering copper in electric furnace slag.

  18. Friction stir welding of copper alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shuhua; Liu Meng; Wang Deqing; Xu Zhenyue

    2007-01-01

    Copper plates,brass plates and copper/brass plates were friction stir welded with various parameters. Experimental results show that the microstructure of the weld is characterized by its much finer grains as contrasted with the coarse grains of parent materials and the heat-affected zones are very narrow. The microhardness of the copper weld is a little higher than that of parent plate. The microhardness of brass weld is about 25% higher than that of parent material. The tensile strength of copper joints increases with increasing welding speed in the test range. The range of parameters to obtain good welds for copper is much wider than that for brass. When different materials were welded, the position of copper plate before welding affected the quality of FSW joints. If the copper plate was put on the advancing side of weld, the good quality of weld could be got under proper parameters.

  19. Study on the Process of Electroless Copper Plating on SiCp%SiCp表面化学镀铜工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曙光; 丁厚福; 郑治祥; 刘君武

    2001-01-01

    Because of its excellent properties, such a s high strength, highmodule, wear resisting, etc, SiCp is added to metal-matrix composite as a reinforce particle. In this present work, the process of electroless copper plating on SiCp was optimized with orthogonal experiments, and SiCp covered with electroless co pper coating was obtained. The relationship between the increasing mass percenta ge of SiCp, the pH value of the bath and the time was studied, meanwhile, the su rface morphology of deposited coating was measured by scanning electron microsco pe (SEM). As the results show, the pH value and the concentration of Ni2+ have a strong influence on the deposition rate, the particles are fine dispersed, and the surface of deposited coating is uniform.%SiCp因其高强度、高模量、耐热、耐磨、耐高温等性能而被作为颗粒增强体制备金属基复合材料。本文用正交法优化了SiCp表面化学镀铜工艺,获得了Cu包覆SiCp,测定了SiCp的增重百分率及镀液的pH值随时间的变化规律,并对镀覆层形貌进行了SEM考察。结果表明,镀液的pH值及Ni2+浓度对镀速影响最为显著;粒子分散很好、镀层均匀。

  20. Metallographic studies of electron beam welded copper plates. EBSD studies of the cross-sections and determination of EBSD reference curves by EB-welded tensile test samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karhula, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    2013-07-15

    This work is part of Posiva's spent nuclear fuel disposal canister sealing development. Posiva has welded series of plate welding experiments at Patria Aviation Facilities. At Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science (TUT DMS) metallographic and electron microscopy studies of electron beam welded copper samples have been carried out. In this report a part of the welding test program is analyzed. The results of the cross-sections of the test welds X436-X440 and X453-X458 are presented here together with the methods used. These two sets of welds were conducted to study the effects of welding speed, annealing temperature and the presence of cosmetic pass. The aim of this study was to estimate the residual stresses present in the EB-welds using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. For this task various EBSD reference curves with tensile test samples were constructed: the recrystallized, substructured and deformed fractions of grains, the occurrence of 1.5 deg C and 2.5 deg C misorientations, the average of mean intra-grain misorientation AMIS, and the hardness could be related to the applied strain. It was found that the hardness was higher if there was a cosmetic pass on the weld. The welding speed and the annealing temperature did not seem to have a noticeable effect on the measured properties. The estimated residual stresses were mainly very low, in the range 27-34 MPa. In the values estimated based on the hardness reference curve, the maximum residual stress was 58.7 MPa (in X455A). (orig.)

  1. 非平行板电容器电场和电容计算的再研究%Re-study on Non-plate Capacitor Electric Field and Electric Capacity's Computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑民伟

    2013-01-01

      在正交曲线坐标系下,分别用分离变量法和静电场的高斯定理计算出非平行板电容器的电场强度、电势和电容。%This paper calculates the non-plate capacitor's electric-field intensity, the electric potential and the elec-tric capacity by using separation quantity method and electrostatic field gauss'theorem respectively in the orthogonal trajectory coordinate system under the polar coordinate system .

  2. Effect of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles on the Optical and Electrical Behavior of Poly(vinyl alcohol) Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Omed Gh.; Saleem, Salwan A.

    2016-11-01

    Polymer nanocomposite films based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) containing copper sulfide nanoparticles (CuS) were prepared using in situ chemical reduction and casting techniques. The synthesized nanocomposites were analyzed using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The XRD pattern reveals that the CuS nanoparticles incorporated in the PVA showed a crystalline nature. The observed FTIR band shifts indicate the intermolecular interaction between the CuS nanoparticles and the PVA matrix. The absorbance of nanocomposite samples increased with increasing CuS concentration. The optical band gap energy was estimated using Tauc's formula and it decreased with increasing dopant concentration. The conductivity and dielectric behavior of the samples were studied over the frequency range of 300 Hz to 1 MHz in the temperature range of 30-110°C. The ac conductivity was found to increase with the increase of dopant concentration as well as frequency. Moreover, the variation of frequency exponent ( s) indicated that the conduction mechanism was the correlated barrier hopping model. The experimental results reveal that the optical and electrical performance of PVA can be enhanced dramatically by the addition of a small amount of CuS nanoparticles. This improved properties of the PVA/CuS nanocomposite suggest uses in optoelectronic devices.

  3. Application of a topical biomimetic electrical signaling technology to photo-aging: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a galvanic zinc-copper complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantalat, Jeannette; Bruning, Elizabeth; Sun, Ying; Liu, Jue-Chen

    2012-01-01

    The first signs of facial skin photo-aging often occur in the skin of the periorbital area and include sagging, loss of firmness and definition, and sallowness. Epidermal wounds have been shown to alter the trans-epithelial electrical potential creating an electric signal that directs cell migration in epithelial wound healing; this electric field declines sharply with age. A topical galvanic zinc-copper complex, which couples elemental zinc and copper to create a biomimetic electric field, has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity and extracellular matrix improvement in vitro, including collagen and elastin production. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a galvanic zinc-copper complex on photo-aging parameters in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. In this eight-week study, women (40-65 years) with mild to moderate photo-aging were randomized to use placebo or 1 of 3 galvanic zinc-copper complex compositions (gel and activating moisturizer). Efficacy evaluations included clinical grading, specialized clinical imaging, and subject self-assessments performed at baseline, 15-30 minutes after product application and after 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Tolerability was based on adverse events and clinical grading of irritation. Significance was set at P?0.05 versus baseline and between treatment groups. The study was completed by 124 women. Compositions containing the galvanic zinc-copper complex showed statistically significant clinical improvements versus placebo and baseline rapidly (15-30 min) after application and through week 8. Clinical grading showed significant improvement versus placebo in skin radiance and under-eye dark circles 15-30 minutes after first application with continued improvement through week 8, and in overall photo-damage, fine lines, lifted appearance of the eyes, and under-eye wrinkles starting after two weeks and continuing through week 8. Test compositions were well tolerated. This galvanic zinc-copper complex

  4. Effect of alloying with palladium on the electrical and mechanical properties of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, A. Yu.; Novikova, O. S.; Kostina, A. E.; Antonov, B. D.

    2016-09-01

    Structure and physicomechanical properties of Cu-Pd alloys that contain 0.5-5.9 at % Pd have been studied. It has been shown that, in all alloys, a solid solution is formed; the lattice parameter of the fcc lattice and the electrical resistivity of the alloys grow linearly with an increase in the content of palladium. It has also been revealed that the introduction of palladium leads to an increase in the recrystallization temperature and to an increase in the strength properties. The assumption on the formation of an atomic short-range order in the quenched Cu-4.6 at %Pd and Cu-5.9 at %Pd alloys has been made.

  5. Structural-Electrical-Coupled Formulation for the Free Vibration of a Piezoelectric-Laminated Plate Using the Analytical Arbitrary Quadrilateral p Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical quadrilateral p element is developed for solving the free vibrations of piezoelectric-laminated plates. The formulations of the displacement and strain fields are based on first-order shear deformation plate theory. The coupling effect between the electrical and stress fields is also considered. The Legendre orthogonal polynomials are used as the element interpolation functions, and the analytical integration technique is adopted. It is found that the present p element method gives high numerical precision results, fast and monotonic convergence rate. In the numerical cases, the effects of the number of hierarchical terms and mesh size on the convergence rate are investigated. Examples of square plates with different displacement and potential boundary conditions are studied. In the comparisons, the solutions of the present element are in good agreement with those obtained from other classical and finite element methods.

  6. Malfunction analysis and treatment caused by zinc impurity during barrel cyanide copper plating%由锌杂质引起的氰化滚镀铜故障分析及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇武; 吴杰

    2012-01-01

    The barrel cyanide copper plating bath is often contaminated by zinc impurities during electroplating, resulting in anode passivation and roughened coatings. The chemical reaction process of anode passivation was analyzed, and the mechanism for treatment of zinc impurities using ammonic water was described. The codeposition of zinc and copper accelerates after adding 1 Ml/L of 25% ammonia solution to the plating bath, thereby reducing the concentration of zinc impurities, and the plating bath recovers to its usual level 2 days later. The ammonia treatment method is simple, convenient in operation, has no effect on regular production, and markedly superior to sulfide precipitation method.%锌合金压铸件氰化滚镀钢液常受锌杂质污染,导致阳极钝化和镀层粗糙.分析了阳极钝化的化学反应过程,阐述了用氨水处理锌杂质的机理和方法.向镀液中加1 mL/L 25%的氨水,可促进锌和铜的共沉积,使锌杂质的浓度降低,2d后镀液恢复正常.氨水处理法简单,便于操作,不影响正常生产,明显优于硫化物沉淀法.

  7. Multi-dimensional modeling of atmospheric copper-sulfidation corrosion on non-planar substrates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ken Shuang

    2004-11-01

    This report documents the author's efforts in the deterministic modeling of copper-sulfidation corrosion on non-planar substrates such as diodes and electrical connectors. A new framework based on Goma was developed for multi-dimensional modeling of atmospheric copper-sulfidation corrosion on non-planar substrates. In this framework, the moving sulfidation front is explicitly tracked by treating the finite-element mesh as a pseudo solid with an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation and repeatedly performing re-meshing using CUBIT and re-mapping using MAPVAR. Three one-dimensional studies were performed for verifying the framework in asymptotic regimes. Limited model validation was also carried out by comparing computed copper-sulfide thickness with experimental data. The framework was first demonstrated in modeling one-dimensional copper sulfidation with charge separation. It was found that both the thickness of the space-charge layers and the electrical potential at the sulfidation surface decrease rapidly as the Cu{sub 2}S layer thickens initially but eventually reach equilibrium values as Cu{sub 2}S layer becomes sufficiently thick; it was also found that electroneutrality is a reasonable approximation and that the electro-migration flux may be estimated by using the equilibrium potential difference between the sulfidation and annihilation surfaces when the Cu{sub 2}S layer is sufficiently thick. The framework was then employed to model copper sulfidation in the solid-state-diffusion controlled regime (i.e. stage II sulfidation) on a prototypical diode until a continuous Cu{sub 2}S film was formed on the diode surface. The framework was also applied to model copper sulfidation on an intermittent electrical contact between a gold-plated copper pin and gold-plated copper pad; the presence of Cu{sub 2}S was found to raise the effective electrical resistance drastically. Lastly, future research needs in modeling atmospheric copper sulfidation are discussed.

  8. Electrical Conductivity and Strong Luminescence in Copper Iodide Double Chains with Isonicotinato Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Khaled; Conesa-Egea, Javier; Delgado, Salome; Castillo, Oscar; Benmansour, Samia; Martínez, José I; Abellán, Gonzalo; Gómez-García, Carlos J; Zamora, Félix; Amo-Ochoa, Pilar

    2015-11-23

    Direct reactions between CuI and isonicotinic acid (HIN) or the corresponding esters, ethyl isonicotinate (EtIN) or methyl isonicotinate (MeIN), give rise to the formation of the coordination polymers [CuI(L)]n with L=EtIN (1), MeIN (2) and HIN (3). Polymers 1-3 show similar structures based on a CuI double chain in which ethyl-, methyl isonicotinate or isonicotinic acid are coordinated as terminal ligands. Albeit, their supramolecular architecture differs considerably, affecting the distances and angles of the central CuI double chains and thereby their physical properties. Hence, the photoluminescence shows remarkable differences; 1 and 2 show a strong yellow emission, whereas 3 displays a weak emission; and 1 and 2 are semiconductors with moderate room temperature conductivities, whereas 3 has increased electrical conductivity up to 3×10(-3)  S cm(-1) . Additionally, 1 and 2 present an irreversible transition to a highly conducting phase with a conductivity almost 4 orders of magnitude higher and a quasi-metallic behaviour. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled to a mass spectrometer and magnetic measurements point to a partial thermally induced oxidation of the carboxylate groups of the ligands with Cu(I) to Cu(0) reduction. DFT calculations have been carried out to rationalise these observations.

  9. Study of the jewelry surface cyanide-free silver plating technology with copper as matrix%以铜为基质的首饰表面无氰镀银工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 周湘宁

    2015-01-01

    A number of experiments has been designed according to the different influence factors of the cyanide-free silver plating process to obtain the electroplating solution and the optimum process conditions.The experiment results will be applied to the process of copper jewelry and copper handicraft to give them a beautiful appearance as the silver jew-elry.%根据无氰镀银工艺体系中不同影响因素设计多组实验,获得电镀液的组成及最佳工艺条件,并应用于铜首饰及其工艺品,使其具备银首饰的美丽外观。

  10. Analysis of the modulation mechanisms of the electric field and breakdown performance in AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a T-shaped field-plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei; Fan, Ju-Sheng; Du, Ming; Zhang, Jin-Feng; Zheng, Xue-Feng; Wang, Chong; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Hao, Yue

    2016-12-01

    A novel AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with a source-connected T-shaped field-plate (ST-FP HEMT) is proposed for the first time in this paper. The source-connected T-shaped field-plate (ST-FP) is composed of a source-connected field-plate (S-FP) and a trench metal. The physical intrinsic mechanisms of the ST-FP to improve the breakdown voltage and the FP efficiency and to modulate the distributions of channel electric field and potential are studied in detail by means of two-dimensional numerical simulations with Silvaco-ATLAS. A comparison to the HEMT and the HEMT with an S-FP (S-FP HEMT) shows that the ST-FP HEMT could achieve a broader and more uniform channel electric field distribution with the help of a trench metal, which could increase the breakdown voltage and the FP efficiency remarkably. In addition, the relationship between the structure of the ST-FP, the channel electric field, the breakdown voltage as well as the FP efficiency in ST-FP HEMT is analyzed. These results could open up a new effective method to fabricate high voltage power devices for the power electronic applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61574112, 61334002, 61306017, 61474091, and 61574110) and the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 605119425012).

  11. Three-dimensional analytical solution for a transversely isotropic functionally graded piezoelectric circular plate subject to a uniform electric potential difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of a functionally graded piezoelectric circular plate subjected to a uniform electric potential difference between the upper and lower surfaces. By assuming the generalized displacements in appropriate forms,five differential equations governing the generalized displacement functions are derived from the equilibrium equations. These displacement functions are then obtained in an explicit form,which still involve four undetermined integral constants,through a step-by-step integration which properly incorporates the boundary conditions at the upper and lower surfaces. The boundary conditions at the cylindrical surface are then used to determine the integral constants. Hence,three-dimen sional analytical solutions for electrically loaded functionally graded piezoelectric circular plates with free or simply-supported edge are completely determined. These solutions can account for an arbitrary material variation along the thickness,and thus can be readily degenerated into those for a homogenous plate. A numerical example is finally given to show the validity of the analysis,and the effect of material inhomogeneity on the elastic and electric fields is discussed.

  12. Electrical conductivity, dielectric properties and optical absorption of organic based nanocrystalline sodium copper chlorophyllin for photodiode application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, A.A.M., E-mail: alaafaragg@yahoo.com [Thin Film Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain shams University, PO Box 11757, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Mansour, A.M. [Solid State Electronics Laboratory, Physics Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Ammar, A.H. [Thin Film Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain shams University, PO Box 11757, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Rafea, M. Abdel [Electronic Materials Department, Advanced Technologies and New Materials Institute, City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, PO Box 21934, New Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria (Egypt); Farid, A.M. [Thin Film Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain shams University, PO Box 11757, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prime novelty of this study is the preparation of nanocrystalline SCC thin films for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature dependence of the DC electrical conductivity can be described by VR H model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AC conductivity, {sigma}{sub AC}({omega}) results have been discussed in terms of CBH model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Position dependent SCC thin film photo-detector has been studied by using laser diode source. - Abstract: Sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC) thin films were successfully prepared, using dip coating technique. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed for studying the thermal stability of SCC film. The surface morphology of thin films was studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystalline structural characteristics were undertaken with the aim of determining the lattice parameters together with a complete list of the Miller indices and interplanar spacing for SCC. The molecular structure and electronic transitions of SCC were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and absorption spectrum, respectively. Temperature dependence of the DC electrical conductivity, ({sigma}{sub DC}) was investigated in the temperature range 289-373 K. Measurements revealed that the {sigma}{sub DC} behavior of the films can be described by Mott's one-dimensional variable range hopping (VRH) model in the entire temperature range. The AC conductivity, ({sigma}{sub AC}({omega})) results were discussed in terms of the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) mechanism for charge carrier transport. The maximum barrier height and the hopping length were estimated. The temperature dependence of the {sigma}{sub AC}({omega}) shows Arrhenius type with one thermal activation energy for each frequency. The behavior of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant as a function of both temperature and frequency were discussed. The energy band model was

  13. Effect of Acid- and Ultraviolet/Ozonolysis-Treated MWCNTs on the Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Nanocomposites as Bipolar Plate Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishata Royan Rajendran Royan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have a huge potential as conductive fillers in conductive polymer composites (CPCs, particularly for bipolar plate applications. These composites are prepared using singlefiller and multifiller reinforced multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs that have undergone a chemical functionalization process. The electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of these composites are determined and compared between the different functionalization processes. The results show that UV/O3-treated functionalization is capable of introducing carboxylic functional groups on CNTs. Acid-treated CNT composites give low electrical conductivity, compared with UV/O3-treated and As-produced CNTs. The in- and through-plane electrical conductivities and flexural strength of multifiller EP/G/MWCNTs (As-produced and UV/O3-treated achieved the US Department of Energy targets. Acid-treated CNT composites affect the electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. These data indicate that the nanocomposites developed in this work may be alternative attributers of bipolar plate requirements.

  14. 氧化铝陶瓷局部活化及选择性化学镀铜的研究%Study of the local activation and selective electroless copper plating on alumina ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由劲博; 龙晋明; 朱晓云; 张秀

    2015-01-01

    为解决陶瓷表面局部化学镀存在的问题,研制了一种针对氧化铝陶瓷局部化学镀铜前处理用的活化胶,其由具有活化能力的银盐(或钯盐)和粘稠的复合物有机载体组成。将活化胶印于氧化铝陶瓷表面,经500℃高温烧结形成局部活化层后,可直接置于化学镀液中进行镀铜处理,得到与印刷图形一致的局部镀铜层。利用电化学工作站测定样品在化学镀铜溶液中电位随时间的变化情况,考察不同活化条件对Cu2+还原的催化活性,利用SEM/EDS进行表面形貌及成分分析,确定了活化胶中银盐和钯盐的适宜浓度。结果表明,该两种活化胶应用于氧化铝陶瓷表面化学镀铜的活化工艺,可实现敏化活化的一步化,使陶瓷表面局部化学镀工艺流程简化,成本降低,具有较高的实用价值。%To solve the problem of local chemical plating on the ceramic surface, a glue ink used in local activation treatment on dielectric alumina ceramics for selective electroless copper plating is developed. It is composed of silver or palladium salt activator and complex organic carrier and can be printed on the alumina substrate through printing method. After the local activation layer on alumina is formed in a sintering process at the temperature of 500℃, the selective electroless copper plating could be performed. A local copper coating, whose pattern is identical with printing graph, is obtained on alumina ceramics. The kinetics of the electroless copper plating and its dependence on different activation glue ink were investigated by monitoring the mixed potential of the specimen in plating bath using an electrochemical workstation. The morphology and composition of the activation layers and copper coatings on alumina were characterized by means of SEM and EDS. The proper concentration of silver and palladium salt in the glue ink is recommended as well. The results show that the

  15. Effects of Phenolic Resin Addition on the Electrical Conductivity and Mechanical Strength of Nano-Copper Paste Formed Cu-Cu Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Runhua; Shen, Jun; Xie, Fuxing; Zuo, Yang; Wu, Dong

    2017-07-01

    Cu-Cu joints bonded by nano-copper pastes with different amounts of phenolic resin were developed at a low temperature (240°C) and a low pressure (1 MPa). The shear strengths of the joints were measured and the bonding layers were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The electrical conductivity of the joints was tested by a parameter analyzer. The results indicated that 2% phenolic resin in the pastes doubled the shear strength of Cu-Cu joints compared to joints made with 0%, 5% and 8% phenolic, because it filled the voids and coated sintered Cu nanoparticles in the joints without affecting the electrical conductivity of the Cu-Cu joint. This was because 2% phenolic paste prevented Cu nanoparticles from oxidation. However, 8% phenolic resin led to an increase of electrical resistivity due to the insulating property of phenolic resin, and a decrease of shear strength due to the hindrance to sintering between the nanoparticles.

  16. 适用于输配电行业的铜件镀银工艺%Silver plating process for copper parts used in power transmission and distribution industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茅红裕

    2011-01-01

    介绍了适用于输配电铜及铜合金件镀银工艺,其流程主要包括化学除油、盐酸活化、混酸酸洗、氰化镀铜、氰化镀银、电解钝化.说明了各工艺的操作条件及注意事项.给出了银镀层变色后的处理,不合格品的褪镀方法,以及镀层抗变色性能、结合力和显微硬度的测试方法.指出了该工艺对环保方面的要求.针对实际生产中遇到的漏镀和镀层有少量颗粒的问题,提出了改进措施.%A process for silver plating on copper parts used in power transmission and distribution industry was introduced. Its process flow is mainly composed of chemical degreasing, hydrochloric acid activating, mixed acid pickling,cyanide copper plating, cyanide silver plating, and electrolytic passivating. The operation conditions and problems needing attention were described. The treatment of tarnished coatings, the removal of rejected coatings, and the methods for testing of tarnish resistance, adhesion strength, and microhardness were given. The requirements of environmental protection were pointed out. Some countermeasures for preventing skip plating and a small amount of particles existing on coatings during practical production were presented.

  17. Highly adhesive metal plating on Zylon ® fiber via iodine pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatema, Ummul Khair; Gotoh, Yasuo

    2011-11-01

    Highly adhesive metal plating was performed on poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) fiber named Zylon® via iodine pretreatment followed by electroless plating. First, iodine components were selectively doped into the inner part of the fiber near the surface through iodine vapor exposure. The doped iodine was converted to palladium iodide particles by treating with palladium chloride solution. After the reduction of the iodide to metal palladium particles, electroless copper plating was conducted on the fiber. A uniform copper layer was deposited on the fiber surface and exhibited high durability in durability tests such as ultrasonic exposure, tape peeling-off, and corrosion in NaCl solution. This durability was attributed to the palladium particles formed at the fiber surface that served as an anchor for the plated layer as well as an electroless plating catalyst. The plated fibers also possessed electrical conductivity. Although the tensile strength of the Zylon® fiber decreased from 5.8 to 4.9 GPa after undergoing the pretreatment and plating processes, the light shielding effect improved the light resistance of the plated fibers in terms of tensile properties. After 18 days of xenon lamp exposure, the plated fibers retained 74% of its initial strength, whereas that of untreated fibers decreased to 43%.

  18. Study of Selective Gold Plating on Aero Electrical Connector Contacts%航空电连接器接触体局部镀金工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淼; 徐加有

    2015-01-01

    针对航空电连接器接触件电镀金成本高问题,研究高速局部镀金工艺。主要研究了不同金离子浓度、添加剂浓度和电源的选择对电流密度范围、沉积速率和镀层质量的影响。试验结果表明,采用局部镀金可以满足航空电连接器的产品性能,同时可以节约成本1/3~1/2。%Gold plating on aero electrical con-nector contacts is costly.In order to solve the problem, the selective gold plating is studied. The research of Au+con-centration, additive concentration and choice of power on current density range, deposition rate and coating quality are carried out. Results show that selective gold plating on aero electrical connector contacts can meet product perfor-mance requirements and save 1/3~1/2 of cost.

  19. Refraction of $e^-$ beams due to plasma lensing at a plasma-vacuum interface -- applied to beam deflection in a Copper cell with electrical RF-breakdown plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Aakash A

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a possible description of the deflection of a relativistic $e^-$ beam in an inhomogeneous copper plasma, encountered by the beam when propagating through a accelerating cell that has undergone a high electric-field RF-breakdown. It is well known that an inhomogeneous plasma forms and may last for up to a few micro-seconds, until recombination in an accelerating structure where a field-emission triggers melting and ionization of RF-cell wall deformity. We present a preliminary model for the beam deflection due to collective plasma response based upon the beam density, plasma density and interaction length.

  20. Transformation of Melting Electric Furnace for Copper-Cobalt Ore Reduction%铜钴矿还原熔炼电炉的改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江宇

    2013-01-01

    The structure and smelting process of the reduction melting electric furnace at one FEZ A cobalt-copper smelting plant in D. R. Congo, was introduced. Furnace leakage is investigated and transformation measurement is introduced.%介绍刚果(金)富利铜钴冶炼厂还原熔炼电炉的构造和冶炼工艺,分析了电炉渗漏的原因,并介绍了改造的措施和方法.

  1. Numerical Model on Frost Height of Round Plate Fin Used for Outdoor Heat Exchanger of Mobile Electric Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to provide the numerical model for prediction of the frost growth of the round plate fin for the purpose of using it as a round plate fin-tube heat exchanger (evaporator under frosting conditions. In this study, numerical model was considering the frost density change with time, and it showed better agreement with experimental data of Sahin (1994 than that of the Kim model (2004 and the Jonse and Parker model (1975. This is because the prediction on the frost height with time was improved by using the frost thermal conductivity reflecting the void fraction and density of ice crystal with frost growth. Therefore, the developed numerical model could be used for frosting performance prediction of the round plate fin-tube heat exchanger.

  2. Study on preparation and performance of ultraviolet-curable active paste for electroless copper plating%紫外光固化化学镀铜活化浆料的制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹权根; 陈世荣; 赖福东; 谢金平; 范小玲

    2015-01-01

    In order to prepare a silver-containing UV-curable active paste for electroless copper plating on the surface of PI (polyimide) thin film, the mixed potentialvs. time curves for electroless copper plating initiated by the active pastes obtained from different mass ratios of polyester acrylate to polyurethane acrylate were determined by electrochemical method, and the influence of the contents of silver nitrate and conductive carbon black on the adhesion and catalytic activity of the active paste and the conductivity of the copper deposit were studied. The surface morphology, structure, and silver distribution of the active paste and copper deposit were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The active paste prepared with polyester acrylate and polyurethane acrylate at a mass ratio of 4 to 6 as composite prepolymers, conductive carbon black 10%, and AgNO3 7% was coated on PI thin film and then cured under UV irradiation. The copper deposit obtained by electroless copper plating for 10 min thereafter is fine-grained and compact with a 100% adhesion to the substrate and a square resistance of 0.046Ω/□.%为了在PI(聚酰亚胺)薄膜上制备一种含银的紫外光(UV)固化化学镀铜活化浆料,采用电化学方法测定了聚酯丙烯酸酯和聚氨酯丙烯酸酯不同质量比得到的活化浆料引发化学镀铜的混合电位–时间曲线,研究了硝酸银和导电炭黑含量对活化浆料的附着力、催化活性及铜镀层导电性的影响,通过扫描电镜(SEM)、X射线能谱仪(EDS)和X射线衍射仪(XRD)对活化浆料和铜镀层的表面形貌、结构以及Ag元素分布等进行了研究。以聚酯丙烯酸酯和聚氨酯丙烯酸酯按质量比为4∶6组成复合预聚体,导电炭黑和AgNO3的用量分别为10%和7%制备活化浆料,将其涂覆在PI薄膜上,UV固化后化学镀铜10 min,所得镀铜层颗粒细小、致

  3. Study on effects of processing parameters on copper-coated tungsten powders prepared by electroless plating%化学镀工艺参数对制备铜包钨粉的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林涛; 史萍萍; 邵慧萍; 何新波

    2014-01-01

    采用化学镀法制备铜包钨复合粉,通过前处理工艺、络合剂、还原剂、溶液的 pH 值以及温度等影响因素研究粉镀层的性能.研究结果表明化学镀铜在前处理工艺中必须要进行完全处理才能使得镀层稳定、均匀;使用络合剂酒石酸钾钠和 EDTA-2Na 相结合,可以既减少镀液中游离的铜离子提高溶液的稳定性,也可以在镀液稳定时间将铜离子完全沉淀,提高镀速,当络合剂 EDTA-2Na 和酒石酸钾钠质量比为1.2时,沉铜速率最快;还原剂甲醛和溶液的 pH 值也相互影响着镀液的稳定性,结果显示还原剂甲醛的最佳浓度为10~20 mL/L,pH 值为12~13;反应最佳温度为45~55℃;制备的铜包覆钨复合粉表面的镀层均匀、连续、致密.%The copper-coated tungsten powder was prepared by electroless plating method in this study.The effects of surface treatment,reducing agent,complexing agent,stabilizer,and pH value of the solution on cop-per coating were studied.Tungsten powder surface should be coarsened,sensitized and activated at first.By combination of two complexing agents of potassium sodium tartrate and EDTA-2Na,free copper particles are decreased,and solution stabilization and plating rate are increased.The maximum plating rate can be reached when the weight ratio of the two complexing agents.The stability of plating solution was also affected by reduc-ing agent formaldehyde and solution pH value,and the optimum content of formaldehyde was 10-20 mL/L and pH value was 12-13.The optimum temperature of plating solution was 45-55 ℃.The copper coating on tung-sten particle was dense,uniform and complete.

  4. 镀银铜粉电磁屏蔽水性涂料的制备及性能研究%Preparation of Silver Plated Copper Electromagnetic Shielding Waterborne Coatings and Its Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桃安; 毛倩瑾; 郑付营; 崔素萍; 兰明章; 王子明; 王亚丽

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic shielding waterborne coatings was developed, with acrylic emulsion and silver plated copper powder as main raw material, wetting agent, dispersing agent, defoamer, leveling agent and water as additives. The process of coating preparation is as following: first, wetting agent, dispersing agent, first part of defoamer and silver plated copper were mixed, then emulsion was added and stired for some time, lastly leveling agent and the rest of defoamer were put into to obtain electromagnetic shielding coatings. The effects of the content of silver plated copper powder, water, and different emulsion on the conductivity and electromagnetic shielding property were discussed by conductive mechanism,electromagnetic shielding theory and the microcosmic structure of coatings. The shielding efficiency of the electromagnetic shielding waterborne coatings is 55-65 dB at range of frequency 100 kHz—1.5 GHz.%以丙烯酸类乳液和片状镀银铜粉为主要原料,添加润湿剂、分散剂、消泡剂、流平剂和水,制备得到电磁屏蔽水性涂料.涂料的制备工艺为:先将润湿剂、分散剂、部分消泡剂和镀银铜粉进行搅拌混合,再加入乳液搅拌均匀,最后加入流平剂和余下消泡剂制得屏蔽涂料.讨论了镀银铜粉含量、乳液种类及用水量对涂层导电性和电磁屏蔽性能的影响,并从导电机理、电磁屏蔽原理和涂层微观结构方面进行了分析.所制备的涂料在100kHz-1.5 GHz的频率范围内,其屏蔽效能达到55-65dB.

  5. Electricity from photovoltaic solar cells: Flat-Plate Solar Array Project final report. Volume V: Process development

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, B.; P. Alexander; D.Burger

    1986-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, funded by the U.S. Government and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was formed in 1975 to develop the module/array technology needed to attain widespread terrestrial use of photovoltaics by 1985. To accomplish this, the FSA Project established and managed an Industry, University, and Federal Government Team to perform the needed research and development. The goal of the Process Development Area, as part of the FSA Project, was to develop ...

  6. Standard Specification for Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tantalum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten, and Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium Alloy Plate, Sheet, and Strip

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    Standard Specification for Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tantalum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten, and Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium Alloy Plate, Sheet, and Strip

  7. Preparation of Sliver Plating Copper Powder and the Study of Its Conducting Propertie%镀银铜粉的制备及其导电性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐景雨; 蔡晓兰; 王开军; 孙鸿鹏

    2012-01-01

    Ethylenediamine is used to adjust the pH value of solution A, and the silver coated copper powder is produced by the chemical displacement method. The factors that affect the conductivity of the silver coated copper powder included in the discussion are the concentration and pH value of the silver ammonia solution, and the mole ratio between silver ammonia ion and the reducing agent. As shown in the results, the powder has no decorative structure of silver grain on its surface when ethylenediamine is utilized to adjust the pH value of solution A. This method also prevents the emergence of the copper ammonia ion. In summary, the best conductivity of the silver coated copper powder is achieved when the silver ammonia solution has a concentration of 0.06 mol/L, pH value of 9. 5 and the mole ration between the silver ammonia ion and the reducing agent is 1 ;1.%采用乙二胺调节A液pH值,用化学置换法制备镀银铜粉.讨论了银氨溶液的浓度,pH值以及银氨离子和还原剂的摩尔比对镀银铜粉导电性能的影响.结果表明,采用乙二胺调节A液pH的方法,所得粉末表层无点缀结构的银颗粒生成,抑制了铜氨离子的生成.而且当银氨离子浓度为0.06 mol/L,pH为9.5,银氨离子和还原剂摩尔比为1∶1时,镀银铜粉的导电性能最佳.

  8. Plating Layer Structure and Property of Silver-Coated Copper Power with High Silver Content%高银含量银包铜粉镀层结构及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡磊; 朱晓云

    2012-01-01

    采用化学镀法制备具有高银含量、一定厚度、致密性好的银包铜粉,用SEM、XRD、粒度分布仪、数字欧姆表和差热分析仪表征了镀银铜粉和原始铜粉的表面形貌、表面结构及导电性能.结果表明:高银含量银包铜粉表面镀层致密性好、包覆完全,包覆层厚度达到336 nm,同时具有较好的导电性和抗氧化性.%The silver-coated copper powder with high silver content, a silver layer of certain thickness and high density was prepared by chemistry plating reaction. The surface morphology, structure and conductivity of the coated powder and the initial powder were characterized by SEM, XRD, LSPSDA, DOM and TG-DTA. Results show that the surface of the silver-coated copper power with high silver content is dense and coated completely, and the coating thickness is up to 336 nm. The powder has good conductivity and oxidation resistance.

  9. 不同络合剂对化学镀法制备镍包铜复合粉末的影响%Effect of different complexing agents on nickel-coated copper compound powder prepared with chemical plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉棉; 孙建国; 赵忠兴; 徐瑞

    2013-01-01

    利用化学镀的方法制备镍包铜复合粉末,考察柠檬酸钠、醋酸钠和乳酸3种络合剂对Ni/Cu包覆粉体的转化率、包覆效果及分散性的影响.分别采用扫描电子显微镜、EDS能谱仪、X射线衍射仪对镍包铜粉末的微观形貌和物相组成进行表征.结果表明:采用柠檬酸钠作为络合剂能使镍更好地包覆于铜粉表面,镍金属原子分数大于90%,并且具有良好的分散性.%Using the chemical plating method,the nickel-coated copper composite powder was prepared,and the effect of three complexing agents of sodium citrate,sodium acetate,and lactic acid on the conversion,coating and dispersion of Ni/Cu cladding powder was examined.The microstructure and compositions of nickel-coated copper powder were characterized by means of scanning electron microscope,EDS energy spectrometer and X ray diffractometer respectively.The result showed that,using sodium citrate as complexing agent,the best nickel-coated copper powder could be prepared,and the atomic percentage content of nickel could reach more than 90%,and had good dispersity.

  10. Electrical Study of Trapped Charges in Copper-Doped Zinc Oxide Films by Scanning Probe Microscopy for Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ting; Zhang, Haifeng

    2017-01-01

    Charge trapping properties of electrons and holes in copper-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Cu) films have been studied by scanning probe microscopy. We investigated the surface potential dependence on the voltage and duration applied to the copper-doped ZnO films by Kelvin probe force microscopy. It is found that the Fermi Level of the 8 at.% Cu-doped ZnO films shifted by 0.53 eV comparing to undoped ZnO films. This shift indicates significant change in the electronic structure and energy balance in Cu-doped ZnO films. The Fermi Level (work function) of zinc oxide films can be tuned by Cu doping, which are important for developing this functional material. In addition, Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements demonstrate that the nature of contact at Pt-coated tip/ZnO:Cu interface is changed from Schottky contact to Ohmic contact by increasing sufficient amount of Cu ions. The charge trapping property of the ZnO films enhance greatly by Cu doping (~10 at.%). The improved stable bipolar charge trapping properties indicate that copper-doped ZnO films are promising for nonvolatile memory applications. PMID:28135335

  11. Use and Safety of High Frequency Electric Knife Cathode Plate%高频电刀负极板的使用及安全护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫技英; 曹金辉

    2015-01-01

    目的:对于高频电刀负极板在手术中的使用方法和安全护理进行探究分析。方法选取我院于2014年3月~2015年5月收治并使用高频电刀进行治疗的患者515例,对其术中高频电刀负极板的使用及安全护理情况进行回顾性分析和总结。结果所有515例患者手术过程顺利,未出现烧伤情况,无血肿和其它并发症情况。结论在运用高频电刀进行手术时,应掌握负极板的正确使用方法,做好安全护理工作,在术前、术中和术后进行严密检查,对患者施以有效的安全防护,才能充分发挥高频电刀手术的便捷性和高效性,有效缩短手术时间,避免血肿和其它手术并发症的发生,避免患者出现烧伤等意外情况。%Objective To explore the method and safety of the use of the high frequency electric knife cathode plate in the operation. Methods 515 cases of patients treated with high frequency electric knife were selected from March 2014to May 2015,and the use and safety of high frequency electric knife were analyzed and summarized in this paper. Results Al 515 patients had a successful operation,no complications,no hematoma and other complications occurred. Conclusion In the use of high-frequency electric knife for surgery,should grasp the correct use of negative plate method,do a good job security,in the preoperative,intraoperative and postoperative strict examination,the patients with effective safety protection,can make ful use of high frequency electric knife operation convenient and efficient,effectively shorten the operation time,avoid hematoma and other complications,avoid the occurrence of patients.

  12. 高压电器铝合金镀银工艺%Silver plating process for aluminum alloy of highvoltage electrical equipments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勿初

    2011-01-01

    A process for plating silver on cast aluminum alloy ZL101 was introduced. The process flow mainly includes degreasing, descaling, pickling, zinc dipping, copper electroplating, silver electroplating, activating and coating protective film. Using a solution composed of 2 volumes of concentrated nitric acid, 1 volume of water and a small amount of hydrofluoric acid, adding a home-made anti-bubbling powder to zinc bath, and removing gases from internal holes during electroplating are effective methods to eliminate the bubbling of deposits.%介绍了一种用于ZL101铝合金的镀银工艺,其主要流程包括除油、除垢、酸蚀、沉锌、镀铜、镀银、活化、打保护剂等.酸蚀时采用由2体积份浓硝酸、1体积份水及少量HF组成的溶液,沉锌时加入自制的除气粉,以及电镀时将内孔中的气体排出,都能有效避免镀层起泡.

  13. Colour-Difference Measurement Method for Evaluation of Quality of Electrolessly Deposited Copper on Polymer after Laser-Induced Selective Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedvilas, Mindaugas; Ratautas, Karolis; Kacar, Elif; Stankevičienė, Ina; Jagminienė, Aldona; Norkus, Eugenijus; Li Pira, Nello; Račiukaitis, Gediminas

    2016-03-01

    In this work a novel colour-difference measurement method for the quality evaluation of copper deposited on a polymer is proposed. Laser-induced selective activation (LISA) was performed onto the surface of the polycarbonate/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (PC/ABS) polymer by using nanosecond laser irradiation. The laser activated PC/ABS polymer was copper plated by using the electroless copper plating (ECP) procedure. The sheet resistance measured by using a four-point probe technique was found to decrease by the power law with the colour-difference of the sample images after LISA and ECP procedures. The percolation theory of the electrical conductivity of the insulator conductor mixture has been adopted in order to explain the experimental results. The new proposed method was used to determine an optimal set of the laser processing parameters for best plating conditions.

  14. Electrical and thermal transports of binary copper sulfides CuxS with x from 1.8 to 1.96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Pengfei; Zhu, Yaqin; Qin, Yuting; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a series of copper sulfides CuxS with x spanning from 1.8 to 1.96 was prepared and their crystal structures, elemental valence states, and thermoelectric properties were systematically studied. The valence state of Cu in CuxS is unchanged as the ratio of Cu/S varies, while the thermoelectric properties are very sensitive to the deficiency of Cu. In addition, the type of sulfur arrangement in the crystal structure also plays an important role on the electrical transports. Finally, the optimum Cu/S atomic ratios in the binary CuxS system were identified for high power factor and thermoelectric figure of merit.

  15. Investigation of Surface Roughness and Material Removal Rate (MRR on Tool Steel Using Brass and Copper Electrode for Electrical Discharge Grinding (EDG Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hafiz Helmi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the investigation on surface roughness and material removal rate (MRR of tool steel machined with brass and copper electrode for Electrical Discharge Grinding (EDG process. The machining parameter include pulse ON time, pulse OFF time, peak current and capacitance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA with Taguchi method is used to investigate the significant effect on the performance characteristic and the optimal cutting parameters of EDG. The result shows that, the surface roughness value when using of both tool materials are mostly influenced by pulse ON time and peak current. The capacitance parameter in both experiments was not giving any significant effect. The significant factors for the material removal rate due to the machining parameter are peak current parameter and ON time parameter but it also can increase the machining time

  16. High-strength braze joints between copper and steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, R. F.

    1967-01-01

    High-strength braze joints between copper and steel are produced by plating the faying surface of the copper with a layer of gold. This reduces porosity in the braze area and strengthens the resultant joint.

  17. Effects of variable electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity on unsteady MHD free convection flow past an exponential accelerated inclined plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, B. M. Jewel; Ahmed, Rubel; Ahmmed, S. F.

    2017-06-01

    An analysis is carried out to investigate the effects of variable viscosity, thermal radiation, absorption of radiation and cross diffusion past an inclined exponential accelerated plate under the influence of variable heat and mass transfer. A set of suitable transformations has been used to obtain the non-dimensional coupled governing equations. Explicit finite difference technique has been used to solve the obtained numerical solutions of the present problem. Stability and convergence of the finite difference scheme have been carried out for this problem. Compaq Visual Fortran 6.6a has been used to calculate the numerical results. The effects of various physical parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, concentration, coefficient of skin friction, rate of heat transfer, rate of mass transfer, streamlines and isotherms on the flow field have been presented graphically and discussed in details.

  18. A study aimed at characterizing the interfacial structure in a tin–silver solder on nickel-coated copper plate during aging

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D C Lin; R Kovacevic; T S Srivatsan; G X Wang

    2008-06-01

    This paper highlights the interfacial structure of tin-silver (Sn-3·5Ag) solder on nickel-coated copper pads during aging performance studies at a temperature of 150°C for up to 96 h. Experimental results revealed the as-solidified solder bump made from using the lead-free solder (Sn-3·5Ag) exhibited or showed a thin layer of the tin–nickel–copper intermetallic compound (IMC) at the solder/substrate interface. This includes a sub-layer having a planar structure immediately adjacent to the Ni-coating and a blocky structure on the inside of the solder. Aging performance studies revealed the thickness of both the IMC layer and the sub-layer, having a planar structure, to increase with an increase in aging time. The observed increase was essentially non-linear. Fine microscopic cracks were observed to occur at the interfaces of the planar sub-layer and the block sub-layer.

  19. Electrically continuous graphene from single crystal copper verified by terahertz conductance spectroscopy and micro four-point probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Jessen, Bjarke Sørensen

    2014-01-01

    The electrical performance of graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to insulating surfaces may be compromised by extended defects, including for instance grain boundaries, cracks, wrinkles, and tears. In this study, we experimentally investigate and compare the nano...

  20. Jiangxi Copper Planning to Produce Copper Products of More Than 480,000 Tons This Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>It is learned from Jiangxi Copper Group that the company has made the plan to produce copper processing products of more than 480,000 tons, and meanwhile its 100,000-ton copper plate and strip project is planned to be

  1. Glass-bead peen plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Peen plating of aluminum, copper, and nickel powders was investigated. Only aluminum was plated successfully within the range of peen plating conditions studied. Optimum plating conditions for aluminum were found to be: (1) bead/powder mixture containing 25 to 35% powder by weight, (2) peening intensity of 0.007A as measured by Almen strip, and (3) glass impact bead diameter of at least 297 microns (0.0117 inches) for depositing-100 mesh aluminum powder. No extensive cleaning or substrate preparation is required beyond removing loose dirt or heavy oil.

  2. Washcoating copper catalyst on ZrO2 coated stainless steel plate with yttria sol for steam reforming of methanol in a microreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.H.; Chen, K.Y. [Yuan Ze Univ., Taiwan (China). Fuel Cell Center; Shen, C.C. [Yuan Ze Univ., Taiwan (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Yeh, C.T. [Yuan Ze Univ., Taiwan (China). Fuel Cell Center, Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    2009-07-01

    A copper-aluminium (CuO/ZnO-Al2O3) catalyst was washcoated on a microchannel. A brushing method was used to make a slurry with commercial yttria sol for the steam reforming of methanol (SRM). Increases in adhesion were investigated by tuning the solid content (SC) and ratio of the catalyst to the binder in the slurry as well as the pH values and stirring times. Catalyst adhesion was quantified by estimating the weight losses of the catalyst layer. The catalysts were then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD); scanning electron microscopy (SEM); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The micro-reformer was then tested in a steam reforming methanol reaction at temperatures ranging between 210 and 300 degrees C. It was concluded that methanol conversion was lower at 210 degrees C, and increased with increases in temperature.

  3. LEP copper accelerating cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    These copper cavities were used to generate the radio frequency electric field that was used to accelerate electrons and positrons around the 27-km Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran from 1989 to 2000. The copper cavities were gradually replaced from 1996 with new superconducting cavities allowing the collision energy to rise from 90 GeV to 200 GeV by mid-1999.

  4. Property and microstructural nonuniformity in the yttrium-barium-copper-oxide superconductor determined from electrical, magnetic, and ultrasonic measurements. Ph.D. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was the following: (1) to characterize the effect of pore fraction on a comprehensive set of electrical and magnetic properties for the yttrium-barium-copper-oxide (YBCO) high temperature ceramic superconductor; and (2) to determine the viability of using a room-temperature, nondestructive characterization method to aid in the prediction of superconducting (cryogenic) properties. The latter involved correlating ultrasonic velocity measurements at room temperature with property-affecting pore fraction and oxygen content variations. The use of ultrasonic velocity for estimating pore fraction in YBCO is presented, and other polycrystalline materials are reviewed, modeled, and statistically analyzed. This provides the basis for using ultrasonic velocity to interrogate microstructure. The effect of pore fraction (0.10-0.25) on superconductor properties of YBCO samples was characterized. Spatial (within-sample) variations in microstructure and superconductor properties were investigated, and the effect of oxygen content on elastic behavior was examined. Experimental methods used included a.c. susceptibility, electrical, and ultrasonic velocity measurements. Superconductor properties measured included transition temperature, magnetic transition width, transport and magnetic critical current density, magnetic shielding, a.c. loss, and sharpness of the voltage-current characteristics. An ultrasonic velocity image constructed from measurements at 1mm increments across a YBCO sample revealed microstructural variations that correlated with variations in magnetic shielding and a.c. loss behavior. Destructive examination using quantitative image analysis revealed pore fraction to be the varying microstructural feature.

  5. Modal Analysis of 27 mm Piezo Electric Plate for Small-Scale Underwater Sonar-Based Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Afolayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents progress towards the development of a small-scale, purely sonar-based navigation device for a robotic fish (~394 mm long. Aperture overloading of small (5 mm diameter ultrasonic transmitters does not allow them to be used effectively inside water. A test on a 27 mm diameter buzzer piezo plate shows promising performance under water at frequencies from 4.5 kHz to 80 kHz. ANSYS-based simulation was therefore used to find modal frequencies at higher frequencies so as to optimize this encouraging result. The simulation process also discovered several antiresonant frequencies such as 38.5 kHz, 54 kHz, and 57.5 kHz. All frequencies above the 8th harmonic (10,589.02 Hz are out of phase with the input load except a resonance frequency of 42.5 kHz and an antiresonance frequency of 56.5 kHz. Also, the first harmonic (1,648.73 Hz is the only frequency that gave a nodal deformation.

  6. Electrically-controlled near-field radiative thermal modulator made of graphene-coated silicon carbide plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we propose a hybrid near-field radiative thermal modulator made of two graphene-covered silicon carbide (SiC) plates separated by a nanometer vacuum gap. The near-field photon tunneling between the emitter and receiver is modulated by changing graphene chemical potentials with symmetrically or asymmetrically applied voltage biases. The radiative heat flux calculated from fluctuational electrodynamics significantly varies with graphene chemical potentials due to tunable near-field coupling strength between graphene plasmons across the vacuum gap. Thermal modulation and switching, which are the key functionalities required for a thermal modulator, are theoretically realized and analyzed. Newly introduced quantities of the modulation factor, the sensitivity factor and switching factor are studied quite extensively in a large parameter range for both graphene chemical potential and vacuum gap distance. This opto-electronic device with faster operating mode, which is in principle only limited by electronics and not by the thermal inertia, will facilitate the practical application of active thermal management, thermal circuits, and thermal computing with photon-based near-field thermal transport.

  7. Effects of complexing agents and additives on displacement plating of copper on steel substrate%配位剂和添加剂对钢铁基体化学置换镀铜的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    农兰平; 蔡洁; 巩育军

    2011-01-01

    研究了配位剂及添加剂对Q235钢上置换镀铜层的沉积速度、外观及耐腐蚀性能的影响.实验结果表明,三乙醇胺(TEA)和乙二胺四乙酸二钠(EDTA-2Na)双配位体系中铜的沉积速率适中,能够获得结晶细腻、结合力好的镀层,且镀层在质量分数为5%的盐酸溶液中的自腐蚀电位明显正移,腐蚀电流密度大大降低,耐蚀性显著提高.采用含吡啶、甲基蓝和硫脲的镀液,可以获得更加光亮的镀层;采用含乌洛托品、甲基蓝和吡啶的镀液,能获得最均匀、结合力最好、耐蚀性最强的镀层.较佳的钢铁件上置换镀铜配方及工艺条件为:硫酸铜20 g/L,EDTA-2Na 14 g/L,TEA 70 mL/L,NaCl 40 g/L,甲基蓝0.2 g/L,吡啶2.0mL/L,硫脲0.10~0.25mg/L,乌洛托品3 g/L,室温,pH 1.5,时间30 s.%The effects of complexing agents and additives on deposition rate, appearance and corrosion resistance of copper coating on Q235 steel by displacement plating were studied. The results indicated that the deposition rate of copper is moderate in a bath containing triethanolamine (TEA) and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA-2Na), and the coatings obtained feature fine grain, good adhesion, obvious positive shift of corrosion potential and significant decrease in corrosion current density in 5wt%HCl solution, showing enhanced corrosion resistance.Brighter coatings can be obtained from a bath containing pyridine, methyl blue and thiourea. Most uniform, best adhered and strongest anti-corrosive coatings can be obtained with urotropine, methyl blue and pyridine. The optimal bath formulation and process conditions for displacement plating of copper on steel substrates are as follows: copper sulfate 20 g/L, EDTA-2Na 14 g/L, TEA 70 mL/L, NaCl 40 g/L, methyl blue 0.2 g/L, pyridine 2.0 mL/L, thiourea 0.10-0.25 mg/L, urotropine 3 g/L, room temperature, pH 1.5, and time 30 s.

  8. Copper Nanoparticle/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Composite Films with High Electrical Conductivity and Fatigue Resistance Fabricated via Flash Light Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Joo, Sung-Jun; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2015-11-18

    In this work, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were employed to improve the conductivity and fatigue resistance of flash light sintered copper nanoparticle (NP) ink films. The effect of CNT weight fraction on the flash light sintering and the fatigue characteristics of Cu NP/CNT composite films were investigated. The effect of carbon nanotube length was also studied with regard to enhancing the conductivity and fatigue resistance of flash light sintered Cu NP/CNT composite films. The flash light irradiation energy was optimized to obtain high conductivity Cu NP/CNT composite films. Cu NP/CNT composite films fabricated via optimized flash light irradiation had the lowest resistivity (7.86 μΩ·cm), which was only 4.6 times higher than that of bulk Cu films (1.68 μΩ·cm). It was also demonstrated that Cu NP/CNT composite films had better durability and environmental stability than those of Cu NPs only.

  9. Effect of heat treatments on the tensile and electrical properties of high-strength, high-conductivity copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Eatherly, W.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The unirradiated tensile properties of CuCrZr produced by two different vendors have been measured following different heat treatments. Room temperature electrical resistivity measurements were also performed in order to estimate the thermal conductivity of these specimens. The thermomechanical conditions studied included solution quenched, solution quenched and aged (ITER reference heat treatment), simulated slow HIP thermal cycle ({approximately}1{degrees}C/min cooling from solutionizing temperature) and simulated fast HIP thermal cycle ({approximately}100{degrees}C/min cooling from solutionizing temperature). Specimens from the last two heat treatments were tested in both the solution-cooled condition and after subsequent precipitate aging at 475{degrees}C for 2 h. Both of the simulated HIP thermal cycles caused a pronounced decreases in the strength and electrical conductivity of CuCrZr. The tensile and electrical properties were unchanged by subsequent aging in the slow HIP thermal cycles caused a pronounced decrease in the strength and electrical conductivity of CuCrZr. The tensile and electrical properties were unchanged by subsequent aging in the slow HIP thermal cycle specimens, whereas the strength and conductivity following aging in the fast HIP thermal cycle improved to {approximately}65% of the solution quenched and aged CuCrZr values. Limited tensile and electrical resistivity measurements were also made on two new heats of Hycon 3HP CuNiBe. High strength but poor uniform and total elongations were observed at 500{degrees}C on one of these new heats of CuNiBe, similar to that observed in other heats.

  10. Effects of stainless steel copper plating on YAG laser welding of aluminum/steel%不锈钢表面镀铜对铝/钢 YAG 激光焊接的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉龙; 李鹤; 王裕波; 余啸; 温昌金; 崔庆波

    2016-01-01

    对0.3 mm 厚的316L 不锈钢/6061铝合金进行了脉冲激光(YAG)封边焊接试验。为了改善铝钢的冶金结合,对不锈钢表面进行了镀 Cu 处理,对比了镀铜前后的焊接情况;利用光学显微镜、扫描电镜及能谱分析等方法研究了接头界面区显微组织特征、熔合情况、元素分布和断口形貌。结果表明:对于铝/钢直接焊接,焊接电流 I =130 A,激光脉宽 D =4 ms,激光频率 f=13 Hz,焊接速度 V =150 mm /min,气体流量25 L/min,零离焦时,焊缝平整、成型美观。镀铜层形成了铝钢焊接的过渡层,减缓了界面处液态金属传递,抑制了铁铝之间的熔合,铝钢熔合线向钢一侧偏移。不锈钢未镀铜情况下,焊接接头组织主要由靠近铝一侧的针状或粗大板条状 Fe2 Al5及靠近钢一侧的 FeAl 组成;镀铜后 Cu 主要固溶到 Fe 中,接头界面组织主要由(Fe,Cu)2 Al5、(Fe,Cu)3 Al 组成。镀铜前后接头拉伸断口形貌未发生明显变化,然而,接头强度明显提高,提高约40.32%,达到15.63 N /mm。%31 6L stainless steel and 6061 aluminum alloy with the thickness of 0.3 mm were jointed by using YAG la-ser welding method.In order to improve the metallurgical bonding characteristics of aluminum and steel,stainless steel was plated with a Cu coating.Welding effects of aluminum/steel were compared before and after copper plating.Microstructure,fusion effect,element distribution and fracture morphology of welding joints were studied by optical microscope,scanning electron microscope,energy dispersive spectrometer.The results show that when the weld-ing conditions were welding current of 1 30 A,laser pulse width of 4 ms,laser frequency of 1 3 Hz,welding speed of 1 50 mm/min,the gas flow rate of 25 L/min and defocusing amount of 0mm,the appearance and quality of the welding joint were good.The Cu-coating layer as transition layer of aluminum and

  11. Electrochemical in-situ impregnation of wood using a copper nail as source for copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Block, Thomas; Nymark, Morten

    2011-01-01

    A new method for copper impregnation of wood in structures was suggested and tested in laboratory scale with specimen of new pine sapwood. A copper nail and a steel screw were placed in the wood, and an electric direct current field was applied, so the copper nail was anode and the screw...... was cathode. At the anode, copper ions were generated. The copper ions were transported into the wood by electromigration (movement of ions in an applied electric field) towards the cathode, and a volume between the two electrodes was thereby impregnated. Copper also moved to a lesser degree in the opposite...

  12. 平板电容器边缘电场特性探究%Research on Electric Field Feature for the Edge of Parallel-plate Capacitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵小桃; 成超; 张静文

    2011-01-01

    Parallel-plate capacitor is one important analysis object of static field in Electromagnetic Field and Wave.In general,its distribution of electric field and potential can be derived according to the evenly charge distribution.In this paper,the approach method is used.From the analysis of the charge density of a conductor,the edge effect of charge distribution will be determined,following the fringing of the electric field and potential distribution can be gotten.The simulation results are reliable,this approach method is practical and also has the promote practical value.%平板电容器是"电磁场与电磁波"课程中静态场部分的重点分析对象。一般根据平板电容器的均匀电荷分布,求解平板电容器的电位和电场分布。本文考虑实际平板导体上电荷分布的不均匀性,利用逼近的方法,从分析导体的电荷密度出发,得出电荷分布的边缘效应,从而确定平板电容器边缘附近的电位和电场分布。仿真结果表明此逼近方法切实可行,具有一定的推广价值。

  13. Fractal multifiber microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lee M.; Feller, W. B.; Kenter, Almus T.; Chappell, Jon H.

    1992-01-01

    The construction and performance of microchannel plates (MCPs) made using fractal tiling mehtods are reviewed. MCPs with 40 mm active areas having near-perfect channel ordering were produced. These plates demonstrated electrical performance characteristics equivalent to conventionally constructed MCPs. These apparently are the first MCPs which have a sufficiently high degree of order to permit single channel addressability. Potential applications for these devices and the prospects for further development are discussed.

  14. A hot plate solar cooker with electricity generation-Combining a parabolic trough mirror with a sidney tube and heat pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaasjager, A.D.J.; Moeys, G.P.G.

    2012-01-01

    Solar cookers supply clean and sustainable energy for cooking and so limit the use of wood or charcoal. A new type of solar cooker is developed with a hot plate. The hot plate offers comfortable access to the food under preparation. The hot plate opens up the opportunity to generate small amounts of

  15. A hot plate solar cooker with electricity generation-Combining a parabolic trough mirror with a sidney tube and heat pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaasjager, A.D.J.; Moeys, G.P.G.

    2012-01-01

    Solar cookers supply clean and sustainable energy for cooking and so limit the use of wood or charcoal. A new type of solar cooker is developed with a hot plate. The hot plate offers comfortable access to the food under preparation. The hot plate opens up the opportunity to generate small amounts of

  16. Magnetic field effects on copper metal deposition from copper sulfate aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udagawa, Chikako; Maeda, Aya; Katsuki, Akio; Maki, Syou; Morimoto, Shotaro; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi

    2014-05-01

    Effects of a magnetic field (≤0.5 T) on electroless copper metal deposition from the reaction of a copper sulfate aqueous solution and a zinc thin plate were examined in this study. In a zero field, a smooth copper thin film grew steadily on the plate. In a 0.38 T field, a smooth copper thin film deposited on a zinc plate within about 1 min. Then, it peeled off repeatedly from the plate. The yield of consumed copper ions increased about 2.1 times compared with that in a zero field. Mechanism of this magnetic field effect was discussed in terms of Lorentz force- and magnetic force-induced convection and local volta cell formation.

  17. Electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C L Aravinda; S M Mayanna; V R Muralidharan

    2000-10-01

    A search for non-cyanide plating baths for copper resulted in the development of alkaline copper complex baths containing trisodium citrate [TSC] and triethanolamine [TEA]. Voltammetric studies were carried out on platinum to understand the electrochemical behaviour of these complexes. In TSC solutions, the deposition of copper involves the slow formation of a monovalent species. Adsorption of this species obeys Langmuir isotherm. In TEA solutions the deposition involves the formation of monovalent ions obeying the non-activated Temkin isotherm. Conversion of divalent to monovalent copper is also slow. In TEA and TSC alkaline copper solutions, the predominant species that undergo stepwise reduction contain only TEA ligands

  18. Effect of copper doping on structural, optical and electrical properties of Cd0.8Zn0.2S films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Hadasa; G Yellaiah; M Nagabhushanam

    2014-02-01

    Cd0.8Zn0.2S:Cu films of 1.3–6.1 mole percentage of copper have been grown on mica substrate by using chemical bath deposition technique. The films have been characterized by using XRD, SEM and UV spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the films are polycrystalline. The average crystallite size as measured from XRD data is in the range of 125–130 nm. The activation energies of Cd0.8Zn0.2S:Cu films, as observed from d.c. conductivity studies in the temperature range (77–300 K) studied, decreased with the increase in Cu concentration. The optical absorption studies have revealed that the energy gap increases gradually with an increase in Cu concentration, whereas conductivity studies have shown an anomalous increase in conductivity in films of 3.8 mole percentage of Cu. SEM pictures have revealed the presence of defects with spherical structure having fibre network. The variation of electrical conductivity is explained based on the defects present and by adopting tunneling mechanism.

  19. Copper hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-10-01

    The world production of copper is steadily increasing. Although humans are widely exposed to copper-containing items on the skin and mucosa, allergic reactions to copper are only infrequently reported. To review the chemistry, biology and accessible data to clarify the implications of copper hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common. As a metal, it possesses many of the same qualities as nickel, which is a known strong sensitizer. Cumulative data on subjects with presumed related symptoms and/or suspected exposure showed that a weighted average of 3.8% had a positive patch test reaction to copper. We conclude that copper is a very weak sensitizer as compared with other metal compounds. However, in a few and selected cases, copper can result in clinically relevant allergic reactions.

  20. Electroleaching of Copper Waste with Recovery of Copper by Electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuñez P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new process to leach and recover copper from solid waste using electric fields was designed. The leaching with electro migration is presented as an alternative to traditional leaching. Preliminary data indicate that the copper ion migration is facilitated by using the electrical potential difference; therefore applying a potential difference in the processes of leaching facilitates the removal of copper. This is especially useful when mineral concentrations are very low. Different phenomena associated with transport of copper in solution are studied to generate a model able predict the state of the copper ion concentration in time. A kinetic model for the process was developed and fitted very well the experimental data.

  1. Metal deposition by electroless plating on polydopamine functionalized micro- and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondin, Giovanni; Wisser, Florian M; Leifert, Annika; Mohamed-Noriega, Nasser; Grothe, Julia; Dörfler, Susanne; Kaskel, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    A novel approach for the fabrication of metal coated micro- and nanoparticles by functionalization with a thin polydopamine layer followed by electroless plating is reported. The particles are initially coated with polydopamine via self-polymerization. The resulting polydopamine coated particles have a surface rich in catechols and amino groups, resulting in a high affinity toward metal ions. Thus, they provide an effective platform for selective electroless metal deposition without further activation and sensitization steps. The combination of a polydopamine-based functionalization with electroless plating ensures a simple, scalable, and cost-effective metal coating strategy. Silver-plated tungsten carbide microparticles, copper-plated tungsten carbide microparticles, and copper-plated alumina nanoparticles were successfully fabricated, showing also the high versatility of the method, since the polymerization of dopamine leads to the formation of an adherent polydopamine layer on the surface of particles of any material and size. The metal coated particles produced with this process are particularly well suited for the production of metal matrix composites, since the metal coating increases the wettability of the particles by the metal, promoting their integration within the matrix. Such composite materials are used in a variety of applications including electrical contacts, components for the automotive industries, magnets, and electromagnetic interference shielding.

  2. Copper transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats.

  3. Copper hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common...

  4. 25/17MN双动厚板冲压液压机的电气控制系统%Electric control system of 25/17MN double motion hydraulic press punching thick plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭利红

    2001-01-01

    Electric control system of 25/17MN double motion hydraulic press punching thick plate and parameters operation manner have been introduced with analysis of graphic interface reality.%介绍了25/17MN双动厚板冲压液压机的电气控制系统及其系统中的参数处理方式,并对图形界面的实时性进行了分析。

  5. Effect of copper content and sulfurization process on optical, structural and electrical properties of ultrasonic spray pyrolysed Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kermadi, S., E-mail: kermadisalim@yahoo.fr [CRTSE- Division DDCS 02, Bd Dr Frantz Fanon BP: 140, Les 07 Merveilles, 16038, Algiers (Algeria); Sali, S.; Ait Ameur, F.; Zougar, L.; Boumaour, M. [CRTSE- Division DDCS 02, Bd Dr Frantz Fanon BP: 140, Les 07 Merveilles, 16038, Algiers (Algeria); Toumiat, A. [Ceramics Laboratory, Physics Department, Constantine University 1, 25017, Constantine (Algeria); Melnik, N.N. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Hewak, D.W. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Duta, Anca [Transilvania University of Brasov, Department of Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling, Eroilor 29, 500036, Brasov (Romania)

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the effect of copper content and of the sulfurization process (using elemental sulfur vapor) on the growth, structure, elemental composition, and on the optical and electrical properties of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films deposited on glass substrates using ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis. For this purpose, a series of aqueous solutions consisting of copper (II) and tin (IV) chlorides, zinc (II) acetate and thiourea with different copper concentrations (x = Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.8, 1, 1.2 and 1.4 while Zn/Sn = 1) were prepared. X-ray diffraction, raman spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible–near infrared absorbance spectroscopy and sheet resistance analyses were used to follow the evolution of the investigated properties. The results outlined a Kesterite type CZTS phase and a secondary copper sulfide (Cu{sub 2-x}S) phase, and their ratio strongly depends on the copper salt concentration and heat-treatment atmosphere. No traces of secondary phases of zinc or tin sulfides are found while high purity CZTS was obtained with the post-sulfurized film at x = 1.2. It was found that the application of additional sulfurization enhances the grain growth to reach 300 nm in size and induces significant improvement of both CZTS crystallinity and electrical conductivity. The optical band gap ranges between 1.44 and 1.57 eV depending on the composition and the sulfur deficiency is strongly reduced leading to Cu-poorer and Zn-richer compounds, as compared to those annealed in nitrogen atmosphere. This study shows promising results, as a first step in developing photovoltaic applications, using sprayed CZTS as absorber. - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films were obtained by ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis. • The copper content and sulfurization process affect the Cu{sub 2}S/CZTS ratio. • Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 1.2 found to be optimum composition

  6. High performance fuel electrodes fabricated by electroless plating of copper on BaZr0.8Ce0.1Y0.1O3-δ proton-conducting ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Neil S.; Way, J. Douglas; Ricote, Sandrine

    2017-10-01

    The stability of copper at high temperatures in reducing and hydrocarbon-containing atmospheres makes it a good candidate for fabricating fuel electrodes on proton-conducting ceramics, such as BaZr0.9-xCexY0.1O3-δ (BZCY). In this work, the electrochemical performance of Cu-based electrodes fabricated by electroless plating (ELP) on BaZr0.8Ce0.1Y0.1O3-δ is studied with impedance spectroscopy. Three activation catalysts (Pd, Ru, and Cu) are investigated and ELP is compared to a commercial Cu paste (ESL 2312-G) for electrode fabrication. The area specific resistances (ASR) for Pd, Ru, and Cu activations at 700 °C in moist 5% H2 in Ar are 2.1, 3.2, and 13.4 Ω cm2, respectively. That is a 1-2 orders of magnitude improvement over the commercial Cu paste (192 Ω cm2). Furthermore, the ASR has contributions from electrode processes and charge transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface. Additionally, the morphology of the as-fabricated electrode is unaffected by the activation catalyst. However, heat treatment at 750 °C in H2 for 24 h leads to sintering and large reorganization of the electrode fabricated with Cu activation (micron sized pores seen in the tested sample), while Pd and Ru activations are immune to such reorganization. Thus, Pd and Ru are identified as candidates for future work with improvements to charge transfer required for the former, and better electrode processes required for the latter.

  7. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  8. Application of atomic absorption spectroscopy for detection of multimetal traces in low-voltage electrical marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubeniene, Marija; Zakaras, Algirdas; Minkuviene, Zita Nijole; Benoshys, Alvydas

    2006-08-10

    Application of atomic absorption spectroscopy to detect multimetal traces in injured skin is a promising tool for investigation of fatalities caused by electrocution. The present paper is aimed at testing the reliability of this method for metal traces detection in electric current marks and is focused on study of peculiarities of metal penetration into the skin exposed to a current impact. Bare aluminum wire, tin-lead coated copper multistrand wire, and zinc-plated steel rope were used to make electrical marks on pig skin. It is demonstrated that amount of copper, zinc, lead, and iron may serve as statistically reliable indicators for the type of wire, which caused the electrical mark, in spite of the background content of these metals in the skin without injury. Different penetration rates for different metals contained in the wire inflicting an electrical mark were observed.

  9. Intensive Plasmonic Flash Light Sintering of Copper Nanoinks Using a Band-Pass Light Filter for Highly Electrically Conductive Electrodes in Printed Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yeon-Taek; Chung, Wan-Ho; Jang, Yong-Rae; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-04-06

    In this work, an intensive plasmonic flash light sintering technique was developed by using a band-pass light filter matching the plasmonic wavelength of the copper nanoparticles. The sintering characteristics, such as resistivity and microstructure, of the copper nanoink films were studied as a function of the range of the wavelength employed in the flash white light sintering. The flash white light irradiation conditions (e.g., wavelength range, irradiation energy, pulse number, on-time, and off-time) were optimized to obtain a high conductivity of the copper nanoink films without causing damage to the polyimide substrate. The wavelength range corresponding to the plasmonic wavelength of the copper nanoparticles could efficiently sinter the copper nanoink and enhance its conductivity. Ultimately, the sintered copper nanoink films under optimal light sintering conditions showed the lowest resistivity (6.97 μΩ·cm), which was only 4.1 times higher than that of bulk copper films (1.68 μΩ·cm).

  10. Jiangxi Copper and Yates Joined Hands in High-Grade Copper Foil Project Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> The construction of a large-scale copper foilproject recently started in the High-Tech De-velopment Zone of Nanchang,the capital ofJiangxi Province.This new copper foil factory,with a designed annual production capacity of6,000 tons of high-grade copper foil,is a jointventure project between Jiangxi Copper Group,the No.1 copper producer in China,and YatesInc.,a leading US copper product company andthe world’s first electrical circuit board maker.

  11. The Effective Electrolytic Recovery of Dilute Copper from Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Chien Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroplating copper industry was discharged huge amount wastewater and cause serious environmental and health damage in Taiwan. This research applied electrical copper recovery system to recover copper metal. In this work, electrotreatment of a industrial copper wastewater ([Cu] = 30000 mg L−1 was studied with titanium net coated with a thin layer of RuO2/IrO2 (DSA reactor. The optimal result for simulated copper solution was 99.9% copper recovery efficiency in current density 0.585 A/dm2 and no iron ion. Due to high concentration of iron and chloride ions in real industrial wastewater, the copper recovery efficiency was down to 60%. Although, the copper recovery efficiency was not high as simulated copper solution, high environmental economic value was included in the technology. The possibility of pretreating the wastewater with iron is the necessary step, before the electrical recovery copper system.

  12. 计及板厚的平板电容器边缘电场特性%Characteristics of Edge Electric Field of Plate Capacitor Relating to its Thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锐; 袁长迎

    2015-01-01

    电容器一般视为不计板厚的理想元件,但实际上板厚对其电场分布存在着较大的影响。利用施瓦兹﹣克利斯多菲变换得到忽略板厚时平板电容器的边缘场强分布,再利用有限元模拟得到计及板厚时平板电容器的边缘场强分布。通过比较与分析,得出了边缘场强随板厚的变化关系以及边缘定点处的场强理想值误差。%The caPacitor is generally regarded as the ideal element regardless of its thickness,but,it actually has a great influence on the electric field. This article gets the distribution of edge electric field ignoring the Plate thickness by taking advantage of Schwarz ﹣ Christoffel transformation. As for the different thicknesses of the caPac-itor,the distribution of edge electric field can be obtained by the use of the finite element simulation. We can ob-tain that the changes in relations between Plate thickness and electric field,as well as the errors of the ideal value in Point through comParison and analysis.

  13. Comparison of BR3 surveillance and vessel plates to the surrogate plates representative of the Yankee Rowe PWR vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J. [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Biemiller, E.C. [Yankee Atomic Electric Co., Bolton, MA (United States); Rosinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G. [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Yankee Rowe PWR plants were operated at lower-than-usual temperature ({approx}260 C) and their plates were austenitized at higher-than-usual temperature ({approx}970 C) -- a heat treatment leading to a coarser microstructure than is typical for the fine grain plates considered in development of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99. The surveillance programs provided by Westinghouse for the two plants were limited to the same A302-B plate representative of the Rowe vessel upper shell plate; this material displayed outlier behavior characterized by a 41J. Charpy-V Notch shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower irradiation temperature and nickel alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rowe plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements embodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares three complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: (1) The accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63% (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19% (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively; (2) The BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program; this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, and was trepanned in early 1995; (3) The accelerated irradiations in the Belgian test reactor BR2 of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is contended that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and that the

  14. Comparison of BR3 Surveillance and Vessel Plates to the Surrogate Plates Representative of the Yankee Rowe PWR Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J.; Biemiller, E.C.; Rosinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G

    1998-07-01

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Yankee Rowe PWR plants were operated at lower-than-usual temperature ( 260 degrees Celsius) and their plates were austenitized a higher-than-usual temperature (970 degrees Celsius) - a heat treatment leading to a coarser microstructure than is typical for the fine grain plates considered in development of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99. The surveillance programs provided by Westinghouse for the two plants were limited to the same A302-B plate representative of the Rowe vessel upper shell plate; this material displayed outlier behaviour characterized by a 41 J Charpy-V Notch shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower irradiation temperature and nickel alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rate plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements embodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares free complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: (1) The accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63 % (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19 (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively; (2) The BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program: this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, and was trepanned in early 1995; (3) The accelerated irradiations in the Belgian test reactor BR2 of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is contended that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and

  15. 46 CFR 169.665 - Name plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.665 Name plates. Each generator, motor and other major item f power equipment must...

  16. 基于多变量MIC神经PID智能板的主动控制%Active vibration control for intelligent piezo-electric plate base on multivariable MIC and meural PID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍松; 张彦会

    2012-01-01

    Because of the positive and negative piezoelectric effect of intelligent Piezo-electric material, the application of it has been more and more in noise and active vibration controlling.According to thin plate theory and finite element method piezoelectric plate is discretized to deduce finite element dynamics equation of intelligent Piezo-electric plate.In addition the plate is controlled by applying multivariable MIC and net PID,and response curves are analyzed through digital simulation for several situations by matlab numerical systenuThe result proves that the method can effectively control vibration of the laminated plate to reach the research purpose of active vibration control and suppression for laminated plate ,in particular in situation of model being unmatched,which well solve variable control problems of intelligent plate model with strong adaptability.%智能压电材料由于它的正逆压电效应,故在噪声及振动的主动振控制中应用越来越多,基于薄板理论并且利用有限元的方法对压电板进行离散化,推导出智能压电板的有限元动力学方程,并且应用多变量MIC网络神经PID算法,对其进行控制,利用MATLAB编程分几种情形进行数字仿真,对响应曲线进行分析,仿真结果表明该方法能有效抑制层合板的振动,达到对智能层合板的主动控制,特别是模型失配时仍然有较好的控制,很好地解决了这类智能板模型易变的控制问题,相对一般的控制方法具有较强适应性.

  17. 无氰铜锡合金仿金电镀添加剂的研究%Study on additives of cyanide-free gold-imitative copper-tin alloy plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄灵飞; 曾振欧; 谢金平; 范小玲

    2015-01-01

    The effects of different types of additives including H-3, DDS, and JZ-1 on the performances of gold-imitative copper–tin alloy coating electroplated from an aqueous pyrophosphate electrolyte was studied in Hull cell and square cell. The plating bath (pH 8.7) is basically composed of Cu2P2O7·3H2O 24 g/L, K4P2O7·3H2O 240 g/L, and Sn2P2O7 2.0 g/L. It is shown that imitation gold coating can be obtained from the pyrophosphate electrolyte only after adding some additive to it. The additive H-3 has a certain effect of leveling, grain refinement, and brightness enhancement. The cathodic current density range for preparation of imitation gold coating on copper alloys from the electrolyte containing H-3 2.8 mL/L is 0.29-2.25 A/cm2. Bright imitation gold coatings can be obtained by conducting the electroplating process in the pyrophosphate electrolyte with additive H-3 on some intermediate layers such as bright acid copper coating, bright nickel coating, and cyanide-free white copper–tin coating or directly on steel substrate.%通过赫尔槽试验和方槽试验研究了添加剂H-3、DDS和JZ-1对焦磷酸盐溶液体系电镀仿金铜锡合金性能的影响。基础镀液组成为:K4P2O7·3H2O 240 g/L,Sn2P2O72.0 g/L,Cu2P2O7·3H2O 24 g/L,pH 8.7。结果表明,采用焦磷酸盐溶液体系电镀铜锡合金时,只有用到添加剂方可得到仿金镀层。添加剂H-3具有一定的整平、细化晶粒和提高光亮度的作用。H-3的用量为2.8 mL/L时,在黄铜基体上获得仿金镀层的阴极电流密度范围为0.29~2.25 A/cm2。焦磷酸盐溶液体系使用添加剂H-3时,在光亮酸铜、光亮镍、无氰白铜锡中间层上和直接在钢铁基体上进行仿金电镀时,均可获得光亮的仿金镀层。

  18. The results and analysis of irradiation experiments conducted on reactor vessel plate and weld materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biemiller, E.C. [Yankee Atomic Electric Co., Bolton, MA (United States); Carter, R.G.; Rosinski, S.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This paper documents the extensive amount of experimental work on radiation damage to reactor vessel materials carried out by Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) and others in support of a licensing effort to restart the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant. The effect of plate nickel content and microstructure on irradiation damage sensitivity was assessed. Typical reactor pressure vessel plate materials each containing 0.24% (by weight) copper, but different nickel contents at 0.19% and 0.63% were heat treated to produce different microstructures. A Linde 80 weld containing 0.30% copper and 1.00% nickel was produced and heat treated to test microstructure effects on the irradiation response of weld metal. Materials taken from plate surface locations (vs 1/4%) were included to test whether or not the improved toughness properties of the plate surface layer, resulting from a rapid quench, is maintained after irradiation. Irradiations were conducted at two irradiation temperatures, 500 F (260 C) and 550 F (288 C), to determine the effect of irradiation temperature on embrittlement. The results of this irradiation testing and additional data from a DOE/Sandia National Laboratories irradiation study show an irradiation temperature effect that is not consistent, but varies with the materials tested. The test results demonstrate that for nickel bearing steels, the superior toughness of plate surface material is maintained even after irradiation to high fluences, and for the copper content tested, nickel has little effect on irradiation response. A mixed effect of microstructure/heat treatment on the materials` irradiation response was noted. Phosphorus potentially played a role in the irradiation response of the low nickel material irradiated at 500 F (288 C) but did not show prominence in the irradiations for the same material conducted at 500 F (260 C).

  19. Research on metal-plated cellulose nitrate flakes and their infrared / millimeter wave characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shu-qin; Zhu, Chen-guang; Wang, Li-hong; Ou'yang, De-hua; Pan, Gong-pei

    2016-10-01

    Copper-plated and silver-plated cellulose nitrate flakes, which were prepared by using chemical plating technology, were used to jam infrared detector and millimeter-wave radar. It was tested for the conductivity and infrared jamming performance of plating and also the RCS (Radar Cross Section) performance of millimeter-wave radar. Test results showed that the prepared metal-plated cellulose nitrate flakes have obvious conductivity, and infrared total radiation energy of silver plating and copper plating had approximately increased 32% and 21% respectively. Through determination, the millimeter-wave reflecting property and RCS of silver-plated cellulose nitrate flakes were higher than that of copper-plated cellulose nitrate flakes. Therefore, silver-plated cellulose nitrate flakes can be used as an effective infrared / millimeter wave composite jamming material.

  20. Plating on some difficult-to-plate metals and alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1980-02-01

    Electrodeposition of coatings on metals such as beryllium, beryllium-copper, Kovar, lead, magnesium, thorium, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zirconium, and their alloys can be problematic. This is due in most cases to a natural oxide surface film that readily reforms after being removed. The procedures we recommend for plating on these metals rely on replacing the oxide film with a displacement coating, or etching to allow mechanical keying between the substrate and plated deposit. The effectiveness of the procedures is demonstrated by interface bond strengths found in ring-shear and conical-head tensile tests.

  1. 24 CFR 3280.5 - Data plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Data plate. 3280.5 Section 3280.5... MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.5 Data plate. Each manufactured home shall bear a data plate affixed in a permanent manner near the main electrical panel or other readily...

  2. 30 CFR 20.13 - Approval plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval plate. 20.13 Section 20.13 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MINE LAMPS OTHER THAN STANDARD CAP LAMPS § 20.13 Approval plate. The manufacturer shall attach, stamp, or mold an approval plate on the battery container or housing of each...

  3. Energy and materials flows in the copper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1980-12-01

    The copper industry comprises both the primary copper industry, which produces 99.9%-pure copper from copper ore, and the secondary copper industry, which salvages and recycles copper-containing scrap metal to extract pure copper or copper alloys. The United States uses about 2 million tons of copper annually, 60% of it for electrical applications. Demand is expected to increase less than 4% annually for the next 20 years. The primary copper industry is concentrated in the Southwest; Arizona produced 66% of the 1979 total ore output. Primary production uses about 170 x 10/sup 12/ Btu total energy annually (about 100 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton pure copper produced from ore). Mining and milling use about 60% of the total consumption, because low-grade ore (0.6% copper) is now being mined. Most copper is extracted by smelting sulfide ores, with concomitant production of sulfur dioxide. Clean air regulations will require smelters to reduce sulfur emissions, necessitating smelting process modifications that could also save 20 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (10 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper) in smelting energy. Energy use in secondary copper production averages 20 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper. If all copper products were recycled, instead of the 30% now salvaged, the energy conservation potential would be about one-half the total energy consumption of the primary copper industry.

  4. Energy and materials flows in the copper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1980-12-01

    The copper industry comprises both the primary copper industry, which produces 99.9%-pure copper from copper ore, and the secondary copper industry, which salvages and recycles copper-containing scrap metal to extract pure copper or copper alloys. The United States uses about 2 million tons of copper annually, 60% of it for electrical applications. Demand is expected to increase less than 4% annually for the next 20 years. The primary copper industry is concentrated in the Southwest; Arizona produced 66% of the 1979 total ore output. Primary production uses about 170 x 10/sup 12/ Btu total energy annually (about 100 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton pure copper produced from ore). Mining and milling use about 60% of the total consumption, because low-grade ore (0.6% copper) is now being mined. Most copper is extracted by smelting sulfide ores, with concomitant production of sulfur dioxide. Clean air regulations will require smelters to reduce sulfur emissions, necessitating smelting process modifications that could also save 20 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (10 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper) in smelting energy. Energy use in secondary copper production averages 20 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper. If all copper products were recycled, instead of the 30% now salvaged, the energy conservation potential would be about one-half the total energy consumption of the primary copper industry.

  5. Development of plating thickness standards. Milestone report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Standards which are unavailable from the National Bureau of Standards were developed to support the nondestructive measurement of plating thickness. Their fabrication, measurement, certification, and calibration-recall schedule are discussed. Reference standards that have been put into service include aluminum/Kapton, silver/copper, tin/steel, gold/silver, cadmium/Kovar, silver/iron, rhodium/copper, and gold/ceramic. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Experimental optimization of an electric blower by corona wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashkovan, A.; Sher, E.; Kalman, H. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-10-01

    The effect of corona wind produced by stretched steel wire and two copper wings on the heat transfer from a heated horizontal plate was investigated experimentally. Although in such an arrangement the heat transfer augmentation is expected to be lower, some advantages may be postulated. In such a construction, the plate to be cooled is not a part of the wind generation system, it is not charged, the electrical field next to it is negligible, and it may be constructed from non-metallic materials. In the course of the study, optimal geometric parameters of the electric blower together with optimal value of high voltage supply have been established. Under these optimal conditions, augmentation by three times of the heat transfer coefficient over that for the natural convection has been achieved. (author)

  7. Electron Percolation In Copper Infiltrated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krcho, Stanislav

    2015-11-01

    The work describes the dependence of the electrical conductivity of carbon materials infiltrated with copper in a vacuum-pressure autoclave on copper concentration and on the effective pore radius of the carbon skeleton. In comparison with non-infiltrated material the electrical conductivity of copper infiltrated composite increased almost 500 times. If the composite contained less than 7.2 vol% of Cu, a linear dependence of the electrical conductivity upon cupper content was observed. If infiltrated carbon contained more than 7.2 vol% of Cu, the dependence was nonlinear - the curve could be described by a power formula (x - xc)t. This is a typical formula describing the electron percolation process in regions containing higher Cu fraction than the critical one. The maximum measured electrical conductivity was 396 × 104 Ω-1 m-1 for copper concentration 27.6 vol%. Experiments and analysis of the electrical conductivity showed that electron percolation occurred in carbon materials infiltrated by copper when the copper volume exceeded the critical concentration. The analysis also showed a sharp increase of electrical conductivity in composites with copper concentration higher than the threshold, where the effective radius of carbon skeleton pores decreased to 350 nanometres.

  8. 2D modeling and simulation of the flow dynamics, electric field and reactions in a low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure nitrogen plasma sharp-end plate-to-plane configuration and CVD reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, Juray; Lorant, Christophe; Descamps, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    In atmospheric-pressure plasma reactors, the flow dynamics can be complex, determine the reactor performance and complicate scale-up. Coupling computational fluid dynamics to the calculation of the electric field and plasma chemistry is challenging because of the numerical stiffness introduced by the difference in time scale of the different phenomena involved. Focusing on low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure pure nitrogen plasma, a model and model reduction based solution strategy to deal with the numerical stiffness are presented and evaluated. The influence of the electric field on the flow dynamics and species concentration fields is first qualitatively studied by means of 2D simulations of a sharp-end plate-to-plane configuration. Next, a specific reactor prototype for low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for in-line surface treatments is simulated to illustrate the importance of accounting for the detailed flow dynamics.

  9. Measurement of electric fields and estimation of dielectric susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogi, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Kiyomitsu; Ohkuma, Yasunori

    2013-05-01

    We describe a method of measuring the spatial structures of electric fields produced by charge distributions such as those on strip electrodes, small disk electrodes, and long double-plate electrodes. An electric-field sensor with high sensitivity to ac fields is fabricated for the measurement using a thin copper sheet. The reliability of the sensor is confirmed using a parallel-plate capacitor. The electric fields are oscillated at a frequency of 300 kHz to operate the electric-field sensor successfully. The structures of the measured fields coincide well with those of theoretical fields derived from Coulomb's law. When a dielectric is inserted in an electric field, polarization charges appear on the surface of the dielectric and modify the electric field in empty space. We measure the modified field and confirm the well-known linear relation between the polarization of a dielectric and the electric field. Dielectric susceptibilities are estimated from the linear relation for four types of dielectric.

  10. 剧烈塑性变形制备高强度高导电纯铜的研究%Investigation of High Tensile Strength and High Electrical Conductivity Pure Copper Fabricated by Severe Plastic Deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石凤健; 王雷刚

    2012-01-01

    Microstructure, mechanical property and electrical conductivity of pure copper fabricated by CCDC were investigated. The results show that large strain can be accumulated without changing the shape and dimension of the sample by CCDC, which leads to the grain refinement. The grain size is refined to submicrometer level after 15 passes CCDC through route B. The hardness and tensile strength improve obviously with increasing the number of CCDC. The tensile strength of the copper reaches to 459. IMPa. The elongation to failure of the material decreases, while it is still above 20%. The electrical conductivity decreases with increasing the CCDC number. But the electrical conductivity retains 91. 7%IACS after 15 passes CCDC. The results indicate that bulk pure copper with high strength and excellent electrical conductivity can be fabricated by SPD process of CCDC.%研究了纯铜多道次反复镦压剧烈塑性变形后的组织、力学性能及导电性能.结果表明,通过反复镦压能在保持试样原始形状和尺寸的情况下在材料内部累积很大的应变,实现材料组织的超细化,退火纯铜经B路线15道次反复镦压变形后,晶粒细化至亚微米级.随镦压次数的增加,纯铜的硬度和抗拉强度明显提高,抗拉强度达到459.1MPa,伸长率明显下降,但仍在20%以上.纯铜的导电率随镦压次数的增加而下降,但15道次镦压后仍然保持在91.7%IACS,说明反复镦压剧烈塑性变形工艺可以制备出具有高强度和良好导电性的块体纯铜材料.

  11. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Friction Stir Welded and Bolted Cold Plates with Al/Cu Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, A. K.; Suresh, M.; Sibi Varshan, M.

    2015-05-01

    An attempt is made to design and fabricate a cold plate with aluminum-copper dissimilar interface joined by friction stir welding. Optimum welding conditions for obtaining sound-quality corner and T joints with an aluminum-copper interface were established. Welded cross sections of the friction stir welded cold plate were analyzed to understand the bonding characteristics. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to evaluate the fluid-flow characteristics and thermal resistance of friction stir welded cold plate and the resulted are compared with the conventional bolted cold plate configuration. For CFD modeling of a cold plate with a dissimilar interface, a new methodology is proposed. From the CFD analysis and experimental results, it is observed that friction stir welded cold plate offered better thermal performance compared to the bolted cold plate and it is due to the metallurgical bonding at the aluminum-copper interface with the dispersion of copper particles.

  12. Electroformed Electrodes for Electrical-Discharge Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, A.; Cassidenti, M.

    1984-01-01

    Copper electrodes replace graphite electrodes in many instances of electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of complex shapes. Copper electrodes wear longer and cause less contamination of EDM dielectric fluid than do graphite electrodes.

  13. Preparation of the liquid lithium divertor plates for NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, R. E.; McKee, G. R.; Fordham, J. A.; Lewis, S. A.; Kugel, H.; Ellis, R. A.; Viola, M. E.; O'Dell, J. S.

    2011-10-01

    Each of the four toroidal panels of the liquid lithium divertor being installed in NSTX for operation in the 2010 campaign is a conical section inclined at 22° like the previous graphite divertor tiles. Each panel is a copper plate clad with stainless steel and a surface layer of porous plasma sprayed molybdenum (Mo) that will host lithium deposited from an evaporator. This paper describes the processes in fabrication; these include cutting to rough shape, die pressing into conical sections, machining to near final shape with holes for electrical heaters, thermocouples and a groove for a cooling tube, brazing of the 0.25-mm cladding and vacuum plasma spraying of the Mo coating.

  14. Electrodialytic Remediation of Copper Mine Tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields.......This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields....

  15. 替代镀金的环境友好型工艺%Environment-friendly technology used for replacing gold plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾成林; 张宝根; 段练

    2015-01-01

    The solvent type SP-2085C and water-soluble LP-1087C electrical contact lubrication protective agents used for replacing gold plating on copper and copper alloy substrates were introduced. Their preparation and coating processes were described. Through corrosion resistance tests (damp-heat, sulfur dioxide atmosphere, and salt spray) and electrical property tests (dielectric strength, insulation resistance, contact resistance, microwave transmission, and weldability), it was showed that, compared with the substrates coated with gold and untreated ones, the two materials not only can substitute gold plating, but also provide better corrosion resistance for copper and copper alloy surfaces than gold plating, not affecting the electrical properties and microwave transmission of products. Besides, the two materials are more environmentally friendly with lower prices.%介绍了可代替铜及铜合金基体镀金用的保护材料──溶剂型SP-2085C和水溶性LP-1087C电接触润滑保护剂,说明了其制备方法与涂覆工艺。通过抗腐蚀性试验(湿热、SO2气氛和盐雾)及电气性能试验(抗电强度、绝缘电阻、接触电阻、微波性能和可焊性),并与镀金板以及未做处理的基材对比,证明这2种材料不仅能替代镀金,而且涂覆后的铜表面耐蚀性优于镀金表面,电气性能和微波传输性未受影响,对环境更友好,且成本更低。

  16. Electric field-induced hole transport in copper(i) thiocyanate (CuSCN) thin-films processed from solution at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pattanasattayavong, Pichaya

    2013-01-01

    The optical, structural and charge transport properties of solution-processed films of copper(i) thiocyanate (CuSCN) are investigated in this work. As-processed CuSCN films of ∼20 nm in thickness are found to be nano-crystalline, highly transparent and exhibit intrinsic hole transporting characteristics with a maximum field-effect mobility in the range of 0.01-0.1 cm2 V-1 s-1. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. The fabrication of carbon nanotubes reinforced copper coating by a kinetic spray process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yuming; Kang, Kicheol; Yoon, Sanghoon; Lee, Changhee

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reinforced copper coating was deposited on copper sheet through kinetic spraying process. Effect of heat treatment on microstructure, conductivity, and hardness of the coating was investigated. The incompact MWCNTs reinforced copper coating exhibits a comparable hardness, but higher electrical resistivity than pure copper coating. After heat treatment at 600 degrees C for 2 h, the hardness of copper coatings significantly decreased due to the substantial grain growth. MWCNTs reinforced copper coating showed stable hardness and electrical conductivity against heat treatment owing to the inhibition of CNTs to grain growth and the intimate contact between CNTs and copper matrix.

  18. Internal static electric and magnetic field at the copper cite in a single crystal of the electron-doped high-Tc superconductor Pr1.85Ce0.15CuO4 -y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoqing; Zamborszky, F.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P. L.; Greene, R. L.; Clark, W. G.

    2014-12-01

    We report 63 ,65Cu -NMR spectroscopy and Knight shift measurements on a single crystal of the electron-doped high-Tc superconductor Pr1.85Ce0.15CuO4 -y with an applied magnetic field (H ) up to 26.42 T. A very small NQR frequency is obtained with the observation of the spectrum, which shows an extremely wide continuous distribution of it that becomes significantly narrower below 20 K at H ∥c where the superconductivity is completely suppressed, indicating a significant change in the charge distribution at the Cu site, while the corresponding change at H ⊥c is negligible when the superconductivity is present or not fully suppressed. The Knight shift and central linewidth are proportional to the applied magnetic field with a high anisotropy. We find that the magnitude of the internal static magnetic field at the copper is dominated by the anisotropic Cu2 + 3 d orbital contributions, while its weak temperature dependence is mainly determined by the isotropic contact hyperfine coupling to the paramagnetic Pr3 + spins, which also gives rise to the full distribution of the internal static magnetic field at the copper for H ⊥c . This internal static electric and magnetic field environment at the copper is very different from that in the hole-doped cuprates, and may provide new insight into the understanding of high-Tc superconductivity. Other experimental techniques are needed to verify whether the observed significant narrowing of the charge distribution at the Cu site with H ∥c is caused by the charge ordering [E. H. da Silva Neto et al., Science (to be published, 2014)] or a new type of charge modulation.

  19. Copper removal from industrial wastewaters by means of electrostatic shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Papadopoulou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic shielding zones made of electrode graphite powder were used as a new type of ionic and electronic currentsinks. Because of the local elimination of the applied electric field, voltage and current within the zones, ions are led insidethem and accumulate there. We implemented the current sinks in electrodialysis of a simulated copper plating rinse watercontaining 100 mg L-1 Cu2+ ions and electrodeionization of a 0.001 M CuSO4 solution with simultaneous electrochemicalregeneration of the used ion exchange resin beds and obtained pure water with a Cu2+ ion concentration of less than 0.12 mgL-1 at a flow rate of 1.29x10-4 L s-1 diluate stream and a current density of 2 mA cm-2.

  20. Electricity from photovoltaic solar cells. Flat-Plate Solar Array Project of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaics Program: 10 years of progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Elmer

    1985-01-01

    The objectives were to develop the flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) array technologies required for large-scale terrestrial use late in the 1980s and in the 1990s; advance crystalline silicon PV technologies; develop the technologies required to convert thin-film PV research results into viable module and array technology; and to stimulate transfer of knowledge of advanced PV materials, solar cells, modules, and arrays to the PV community. Progress reached on attaining these goals, along with future recommendations are discussed.

  1. The New Plating Process on Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MakotoImamura; JunOkada; KazuyaSatoh

    2004-01-01

    This process does not use general electroless plating solution containing formaldehyde(carcinogen) and phosphate(the object of waste water regulation). Furthermore. we succeeded in developing a new electroless copper plating solution which is usable semi-permanently by using the special reducing agent, The electroless deposition forms a very thin conductive film on substrate. Therefore, it can prevent some appearance defects (e.g. pits. pin-holes, laminations and inclusions) that occur in the conventional ones. In addition, it is possible to eliminate electroplating of copper from the process by applying the exclusive nickel solution in electroplating. Therefore, the obtained metal parts can be recycled as high quality stainless steel. Given this copper elecltoplating-free process, 25μ m-thick nickel deposition at the stage of electroplating, at least, enables the metal layers to show properties as versatile as those of the conventional(its total thickness is 25μm in the comparative conventional process).

  2. The New Plating Process on Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Makoto Imamura; Jun Okada; Kazuya Satoh

    2004-01-01

    This process does not use general electroless plating solution containing formaldehyde(carcinogen) and phosphate(the object of waste water regulation). Furthermore, we succeeded in developing a new electroless copper plating solution which is usable semi-permanently by using the special reducing agent. The electroless deposition forms a very thin conductive film on substrate. Therefore, it can prevent some appearance defects (e.g. pits, pin-holes, laminations and inclusions) that occur in the conventional ones. In addition, it is possible to eliminate electroplating of copper from the process by applying the exclusive nickel solution in electroplating. Therefore, the obtained metal parts can be recycled as high quality stainless steel. Given this copper electroplating-free process, 25μ m-thick nickel deposition at the stage of electroplating, at least, enables the metal layers to show properties as versatile as those of the conventional(its total thickness is 25μ m in the comparative conventional process).

  3. Carbon Coating Of Copper By Arc-Discharge Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Ben T.; Jopek, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    Adherent, abrasion-resistant coat deposited with existing equipment. Carbon formed and deposited as coating on copper substrate by pyrolysis of hydrocarbon oil in electrical-arc discharges. Technique for producing carbon deposits on copper accomplished with electrical-discharge-machining equipment used for cutting metals. Applications for new coating technique include the following: solar-energy-collecting devices, coating of metals other than copper with carbon, and carburization of metal surfaces.

  4. NDE of explosion welded copper stainless steel first wall mock-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taehtinen, S.; Kauppinen, P.; Jeskanen, H.; Lahdenperae, K.; Ehrnsten, U. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Materials and Structural Integrity

    1997-04-01

    The study showed that reflection type C-mode scanning acoustic microscope (C-SAM) and internal ultrasonic inspection (IRIS) equipment can be applied for ultrasonic examination of copper stainless steel compound structures of ITER first wall mock-ups. Explosive welding can be applied to manufacture fully bonded copper stainless steel compound plates. However, explosives can be applied only for mechanical tightening of stainless steel cooling tubes within copper plate. If metallurgical bonding between stainless steel tubes and copper plate is required Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) method can be applied. (orig.)

  5. Relative humidity effects on the surface electrical properties of resistive plate chamber melaminic laminates uncoated and coated with polymerized linseed oil film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearzotti, Andrea; Palummo, Lucrezia

    2007-09-01

    Relative humidity is an important quantity to control in many manufacturing environments such as semiconductor industry. Humidity and moisture can affect many electronic devices, generally rendering their operation worse. In this study we present results showing that in some specific applications, humidity can improve the performance of an electronic device. Resistive plate chambers are used as trigger detectors of the muon system in LHC (large hadron collider) experiments ATLAS (a toroidal LHC apparatus), CMS (compact muon solenoid) and ALICE (a large ion collider experiment) and as detector in cosmic rays experiment ARGO (astrophysical radiation with ground-based observatory). These detectors are made of phenolic-melaminic laminate electrodes, coated with a polymerized linseed oil film delimiting the gaseous sensitive volume. The loss of some of the detector capability can be progressive in time and due to the intrinsic limits of the detector materials. One of these effects is due to an increase of the total plate resistance, that is correlated to ion migration and relativity humidity phenomena. Our purpose is to understand the relative humidity (RH) influence on the conduction mechanisms on the electrodes surface. Results of amperometric measurements on laminate samples kept at a fixed temperature of 22°C, cycling RH between 10% and 90% are here presented.

  6. Fabrication and electrical resistivity of Mo-doped VO2 thin films coated on graphite conductive plates by a sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, W.; Jung, H.M.; Um, S. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Vanadium oxides (VO2) can be used in optical devices, thermochromic smart windows and sensors. This paper reported on a study in which vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) powder was prepared and mixed with Molybdenum Oxides (MoO3) to form Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films by a sol-gel method on graphite conductive substrates. The micro-structure and chemical compositions of the Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films was investigated using X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Changes in electrical resistivity were measured as a function of the stoichiometric compositions between vanadium and molybdenum. In this study. Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films showed the typical metal to insulator transition (MIT), where temperature range could be adjusted by modifying the dopant atomic ratio. The through-plane substrate structure of the Mo-doped layer influences the electrical resistivity of the graphite substrate. As the amount of the molybdenum increases, the electrical resistivity of the graphite conductive substrate decreases in the lower temperature range below the freezing point of water. The experimental results showed that if carefully controlled, thermal dissipation of VO2 thin films can be used as a self-heating source to melt frozen water with the electrical current flowing through the graphite substrate. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Preparation of copper-coated fine molybdenum powders with electroless technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guang-jun; WANG De-zhi; ZHOU Jie; WU Zhuang-zhi

    2009-01-01

    The molybdenum powders with average particle size of 3 μm were coated with copper by electroless plating. The influence of pretreatment, solution composition and plating conditions on electroless copper plating was studied. The copper-coated molybdenum powders were examined by SEM and XRD. Results indicate that a series of optimization methods is used to add activated sites before electroless copper plating. Taking TEA and EDTA as chief and assistant complex agents respectively, 2,2'-bipyridyl and PEG as double stabilizers, the Mo powders are coated with copper successfully with little Cu2O contained, at the same time, Mo-Cu composite powders with copper content of 15 - 85 wt% can be obtained. The optimal values of pH, temperature and HCHO concentration are 12- 13, 60-65 ℃ and 22-26 mL/L, respectively.

  8. Pulse Plating on Gold Surfaces Studied by In Situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Møller, Per

    1994-01-01

    Deposition of bulk copper on thin film gold surfaces is carried out by computer-aided pulse plating. It is demonstrated that the morphology of the copper deposit can be studied by in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy both in potentiostatic experiments and in galvanostatic experiments. Optimized...... procedures for obtaining smooth deposits by pulse plating are explained in terms of a levelling effect. Possible non-faradaic processes observed in measurements with high frequency pulse plating are discussed....

  9. Pulse Plating on Gold Surfaces Studied by In Situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Møller, Per

    1994-01-01

    Deposition of bulk copper on thin film gold surfaces is carried out by computer-aided pulse plating. It is demonstrated that the morphology of the copper deposit can be studied by in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy both in potentiostatic experiments and in galvanostatic experiments. Optimized...... procedures for obtaining smooth deposits by pulse plating are explained in terms of a levelling effect. Possible non-faradaic processes observed in measurements with high frequency pulse plating are discussed....

  10. Failure Analysis of Certain Type Gold-plated Military Rectangular Electrical Connectors for Surface Discoloring%某军用矩形电连接器镀金插孔表面发黑故障分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建新; 李继红; 张琳

    2013-01-01

    For the discoloring phenomenon of a military rectangular electrical connectors gold-plated surface,it was characterized by means of microstructure observation,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,infrared spectroscopy,gas chromatography and mass spectrometry,and figured out the surface stained with amine-containing organic compounds causing discoloration,unlike common discoloration for gold-plated pieces due to underlying metal corrosion.%针对某军用矩形电连接器镀金插孔出现表面发黑的现象,通过微观形貌观测、X射线光电子能谱分析、显微红外光谱分析及气相色谱-质谱分析等表征分析手段,得出故障原因是插孔表面粘染了含胺基的有机物,有别于常见的镀金件因底层金属腐蚀引起变色.

  11. Electrical conductivity of old oceanic mantle in the northwestern Pacific I: 1-D profiles suggesting differences in thermal structure not predictable from a plate cooling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kiyoshi; Tada, Noriko; Matsuno, Tetsuo; Liang, Pengfei; Li, Ruibai; Zhang, Luolei; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Abe, Natsue; Hirano, Naoto; Ichiki, Masahiro; Utada, Hisashi

    2017-08-01

    Seafloor magnetotelluric (MT) experiments were recently conducted in two areas of the northwestern Pacific to investigate the nature of the old oceanic upper mantle. The areas are far from any tectonic activity, and "normal" mantle structure is therefore expected. The data were carefully analyzed to reduce the effects of coastlines and seafloor topographic changes, which are significant boundaries in electrical conductivity and thus distort seafloor MT data. An isotropic, one-dimensional electrical conductivity profile was estimated for each area. The profiles were compared with those obtained from two previous study areas in the northwestern Pacific. Between the four profiles, significant differences were observed in the thickness of the resistive layer beyond expectations based on cooling of homogeneous oceanic lithosphere over time. This surprising feature is now further clarified from what was suggested in a previous study. To explain the observed spatial variation, dynamic processes must be introduced, such as influence of the plume associated with the formation of the Shatsky Rise, or spatially non-uniform, small-scale convection in the asthenosphere. There is significant room of further investigation to determine a reasonable and comprehensive interpretation of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system beneath the northwestern Pacific. The present results demonstrate that electrical conductivity provides key information for such investigation.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. 标准加入原子吸收法连续测定光亮镀镍液中铜、锌、铬、铅、铁杂质的含量%Continuous determination of copper, zinc, chromium, lead,and iron impurities in bright nickel plating baths by standard atomic absorption spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀香; 王旭珍; 于丽; 张曰秋

    2001-01-01

    在相同的光亮镀镍液中分别加入浓度依次递增的铜、锌、铁、铬、铜的标准溶液。用原子吸收光谱法连续测定镀液中铜、锌、铁、铬、铅杂质的含量,优选出最佳的仪器工作条件,讨论了共存元素的干扰及消除。该方法简单,准确度和精密度高,具有使用价值。%Increasing amount of copper, zinc, iron, chromium and leadstandard solutions were separately added in the same nickel plating baths, subsequently, copper, zinc, iron, chromium and lead impurities were continuously determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Operating parameters of the analytical apparatus were optimized. Interference of coexisting elements was discussed. This method is simple, accurate, and has good application value.

  13. Microporous microchannel plates and method of manufacturing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, C.P. Jr.; Boerstler, R.W.; Steinbeck, J.; Winn, D.R.

    2000-04-04

    A microchannel plate and method of manufacturing same is provided. The microchannel plate includes a plate consisting of an anodized material and a plurality of channels which are formed during the anodization of the material and extend between the two sides of the plate. Electrodes are also disposed on each side of the plate for generating an electrical field within the channels. Preferably, the material is alumina and the channels are activated such that the channel walls are conductive and highly secondary emissive.

  14. Microporous microchannel plates and method of manufacturing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Jr., Charles P. (New Milford, CT); Boerstler, Robert W. (Woodbury, CT); Steinbeck, John (Fitzwilliam, NH); Winn, David R. (Wilton, CT)

    2000-01-01

    A microchannel plate and method of manufacturing same is provided. The microchannel plate includes a plate consisting of an anodized material and a plurality of channels which are formed during the anodization of the material and extend between the two sides of the plate. Electrodes are also disposed on each side of the plate for generating an electrical field within the channels. Preferably, the material is alumina and the channels are activated such that the channel walls are conductive and highly secondary emissive.

  15. Microporous microchannel plates and method of manufacturing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetz, Jr., Charles P.; Boerstler, Robert W.; Steinbeck, John; Winn, David R.

    2000-01-01

    A microchannel plate and method of manufacturing same is provided. The microchannel plate includes a plate consisting of an anodized material and a plurality of channels which are formed during the anodization of the material and extend between the two sides of the plate. Electrodes are also disposed on each side of the plate for generating an electrical field within the channels. Preferably, the material is alumina and the channels are activated such that the channel walls are conductive and highly secondary emissive.

  16. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Schneibel, Joachim H.; Pint, Bruce A.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2007-05-01

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  17. Study of DC and AC electric field effect on Pisum sativum seeds growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Bahar; Jaleh, Sojoodi; Yasaman, Yasaie

    2014-07-01

    In this research the effect of electric field on two groups of wet and dry Pisum sativum seeds growth was studied. To generate the required electric field a parallel-plate capacitor with round copper plates of 30 cm diameter was used. The experiments were performed once in fixed exposure duration of 8 min in variable DC electric field of 0.25-1.5 kV/m. The other experiments were performed in variable fields of 50-125 kV/m in fixed exposure duration of 8 min, in two groups of AC and DC electric fields. The experiments were repeated three times. In each experiment 10 seeds were used and there was a sham exposed group for comparison, too. After application of electric field, the seeds were kept for six days in the same growth chamber with the temperature of 25 ± 1 °C and 12 h light/12 h darkness. On the 6th day length of stems and height of roots were measured. After doing statistical analysis, in low intensities of DC electric field, the highest significant increase of mean growth (The average of stem length and the height of roots) was seen in 1.5 kV/m in wet seeds. In high intensities of DC and AC electric fields, the highest significant increase of mean growth was seen in AC electric field of 100 kV/m in wet seeds.

  18. Effect of Reaction Temperature on Carbon Yield and Morphology of CNTs on Copper Loaded Nickel Nanoparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ming, Hu; Peiling, Ding; Yunlong, Zhang; Jing, Gao; Xiaoxue, Ren

    2016-01-01

      This investigation was attempted to introduce carbon nanotubes (CNTs) onto surface of copper powders in order to improve heat transfer performance of copper matrix for engineering application of electrical packaging materials...

  19. 直流与交流电气线路中铜导线短路痕迹的分析%Analysis on short circuit trace of copper wire in direct and alternating current electric circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王连铁; 高伟; 赵长征; 袁晓光

    2012-01-01

    直流电气线路及交流电气线路中铜导线发生短路故障时所形成的熔痕的组织特征不同,为区分二者之间的差别,利用模拟试验手段制备出金相样品,并采用宏观分析、金相分析等各种技术手段进行分析总结,归纳出二者发生短路故障时所形成的痕迹特征规律.模拟研究结果表明,直流线路一次短路熔痕的金相组织以细小的柱状晶为主,且孔洞较少;在交流线路中,一次短路故障形成的熔痕的金相组织胞状晶较多,且交、直流电气线路中铜导线发生短路故障时所形成的熔痕的组织特征明显不同,这些特征可用于实际鉴定工作中.%The microstructural characteristics of melted marks formed due to the short circuit fault of copper wire in direct current(DC) and alternating current(AC) electric circuits are different.In order to distinguish the difference between them,the metallographic samples were prepared through the simulation tests.In addition,such technical means as macro analysis and metallographic analysis were used to analyze and summarize the characteristics of the mark formed due to the short circuit fault in DC and AC electric circuits.The simulation results show that the microstructures of melted marks formed due to the primary short circuit fault in DC circuit are mainly composed of fine columnar crystals with fewer holes.However,the microstructures of melted marks formed due to the primary short circuit fault in AC circuit contain more cellular crystals.Furthermore,the microstructural characteristics of melted marks formed due to the short circuit faults of copper wire in DC and AC electric circuits are obviously different,and can provide the reference for the actual identification work.

  20. Standard performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 3-7/8 inches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes, and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  1. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 5 5/8 inches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  2. 铜电化学沉积在微孔金属化中的应用%Application of Copper Electrochemical Deposition for the Metallization of Micropores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨防祖; 吴伟刚; 田中群; 周绍民

    2011-01-01

    以分布有微孔的印刷线路板(PCB)作为模板,按照PCB孔金属化工艺路线,研究乙醛酸化学镀铜和柠檬酸盐体系铜电沉积工艺在PCB微孔金属化中的应用.结果表明,乙醛酸化学镀铜和柠檬酸盐体系电沉积铜可以成功地应用于PCB微孔金属化加工工艺中.微孔化学镀铜金属化导电处理后,铜附着于微孔内壁,颗粒细小,但排列疏松且局部区域发生漏镀现象.微孔一经电镀铜加厚,镀层电阻显著下降;孔壁内外的铜沉积速率达到0.8∶1.0;铜颗粒具有一定的侧向生长能力,能够完全覆盖化学镀铜时产生的微小漏镀区域;微孔内壁铜镀层连续、结构致密并紧密附着于内壁,大大增强了PCB 上下层互连的导电性能.%According to established routes for the microporous metallization of printed circuit boards (PCB), electroless copper plating using glyoxylic acid as a reducing agent and copper electroplating in a citrate bath were used for microporous metallization with PCB distributing micropores as a template. The results show that electroless copper plating using glyoxylic acid as a reducing agent and copper electroplating in a citrate bath can be successfully applied to the microporous metallization of PCB. After an electric conducting treatment of the micropores by electroless copper plating the copper deposited as fine grains and attached to the inner walls of the micropores. The copper deposit was also found in the loose grain arrangement and the leak plating area. Immediately after thickening treatment by copper electroplating, the resistance toward the copper coating of the inner wall decreased notably. The ratio of the copper electroplating rates at the inner and outer micropores was found to be 0.8:1.0. The copper electrodeposit fully covered the surface of the inner wall including the leak plating area, which means that the electroplated copper grains have a certain sideway growing ability. The copper coating on the

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  4. Nickel Electroless Plating: Adhesion Analysis for Mono-Type Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun Gu; Rehman, Atteq ur; Lee, Sang Hee; Lee, Soo Hong

    2015-10-01

    The adhesion of the front electrodes to silicon substrate is the most important parameters to be optimized. Nickel silicide which is formed by sintering process using a silicon substrate improves the mechanical and electrical properties as well as act as diffusion barrier for copper. In this experiment p-type mono-crystalline czochralski (CZ) silicon wafers having resistivity of 1.5 Ω·cm were used to study one step and two step nickel electroless plating process. POCl3 diffusion process was performed to form the emitter with the sheet resistance of 70 ohm/sq. The Six, layer was set down as an antireflection coating (ARC) layer at emitter surface by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. Laser ablation process was used to open SiNx passivation layer locally for the formation of the front electrodes. Nickel was deposited by electroless plating process by one step and two step nickel electroless deposition process. The two step nickel plating was performed by applying a second nickel deposition step subsequent to the first sintering process. Furthermore, the adhesion analysis for both one step and two steps process was conducted using peel force tester (universal testing machine, H5KT) after depositing Cu contact by light induced plating (LIP).

  5. Research on the copper recycling process for the stripping solution of waste ABS plastic electro-plating%废ABS电镀件退镀液中铜的回收工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶荣; 宋明; 成昊; 邱祖民

    2015-01-01

    ×aste ABS plastics were stripped with the solution mixed of hydrochloric acid and hydrogen perox-ide,and electrolytic process was employed to recycle copper aften stripping. Effects of process conditions on current efficiency and copper recovery rate,such as ampere density,electrolyte circulation flow,electrode spacing and elec-trolytic duration,were further studied through single factor and orthogonal test methods to determine the optimum pa-rameters of copper recovery processing. Finally,the optimal process conditions were carried out:Current density, 416. 0 A/m2;Electrode spacing,1. 4 cm;Solution circulation flow,3. 0 L/h;Electrolytic duration,40 min.%采用盐酸和双氧水构建的溶液对废ABS塑料电镀件进行退镀,退镀液中含铜、镍等金属,采用电解法回收退镀液中的铜。通过单因素及正交试验法,考察了电流密度、电解液循环流量、电极距、电解时间等工艺条件对电流效率及铜回收率的影响,确定了铜回收过程的最佳工艺参数:电流密度416.0 A/m2、电极距1.4 cm、溶液循环流量3.0 L/h、电解时间40 min。

  6. Treatment of PCB Wastewater Containing Copper by Three-Dimensional Electrode Electrolysis%三维电极电解处理线路板含铜废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙颖; 李敬苗; 王继斌

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional electrode electrolysis was used to study the electrochemical oxidation process of practical PCB wastewater containing copper. The impacts of tank voltage, plate distance, material of plate, filling element and electrolyte on the copper removal rate were investigated and the suitable reaction conditions were determined: plate distance 3 cm, steel ball as the filling material, tank voltage 10 V, electrolytic time 45 min. Under these reaction conditions, copper removal rate can reach 82. 3 % and the electricity cost is 1. 11 yuan/t.%采用三维电极电解实验研究实际线路板含铜废水的电化学氧化过程.考察了槽电压、极间距、极板材料、添加工作电极材料及电解质对铜的去除率的影响,并确定适宜的反应条件为:极间距3 cm,极间填充钢珠,槽电压10V,电解时间45 min.在此反应条件下,铜的去除率达到82.3%,处理线路板废水的电费成本为1.11元/吨.

  7. Localized corrosion of copper alloys in China seawater for 16 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵月红; 林乐耘; 崔大为

    2004-01-01

    The regulation of localized corrosion of 2 kinds of copper and 17 kinds of copper alloys exposed in seawater of Qingdao, Zhoushan, Yulin and Xiamen for 16 years has been studied. Results show that during immersion copper alloys suffer from pitting corrosion due to high temperature and marine living adhesion at Yulin, and to the higher velocity of seawater containing sand at Zhoushan. However, the seawater of Xiamen inhibits the pitting corrosion of copper alloys. No pitting corrosion is observed on copper alloy plates tested there. The copper alloys suffer from more serious pitting corrosion in the tide zone than that in the immersion zone at Qingdao after long time exposure.

  8. In situ deposits of copper and copper oxide containing condensation polyimide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, G. M.; Taylor, L. T.

    1987-01-01

    Novel copper-polyimide composites have been synthesized via simultaneous thermal decomposition of solid solutions of bis (trifluoroacetylacetonato) copper (II) and thermal cyclodehydration of polyimide acid. In contrast to conventional filled polymer composites which are prepared by dispersion of particles or fibers in a polymer matrix this study has yielded in general uniform Cu or CuO dispersions of very small particle size that reside near the film surface that was exposed to the atmosphere during curing. The nature of the copper deposit, the thickness of the copper deposit, and the polyimide overlayer which bonds the copper to the polymer substrate depend on the curing atmosphere used. A variety of analytical surface methods along with thermogravimetric analysis and variable temperature (surface and volume) electrical resistivity measurements have been used to characterize these thin, flexible copper doped polyimide films.

  9. Correlation between Wear Resistance and Lifetime of Electrical Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical contacts are usually plated in order to prevent corrosion. Platings of detachable electrical contacts experience wear because of the motion between contacts. Once the protecting platings have been worn out, electrical contacts will fail rapidly due to corrosion or fretting corrosion. Therefore the wear resistance of the platings is a very important parameter for the long lifetime of electrical contacts. Many measures which improve the wear resistance can diminish the conductivity of the platings. Due to the fact that platings of electrical contacts must have both a high wear resistance and a high electrical conductivity, the manufacturing of high performance platings of electrical contacts poses a great challenge. Our study shows firstly the correlation between the wear resistance of platings and lifetime of electrical contacts and then the measures, which improve the wear resistance without impairing the electrical performance of the contacts.

  10. Study on composition control and performance of brush plated copper-tin alloy deposits%电刷镀铜锡合金镀层成分控制与性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵仲勋; 曾鹏; 谢光荣; 钟国明; 陈大川; 许小东

    2015-01-01

    采用碱性焦磷酸盐体系在45钢基体上电刷镀制备了铜锡合金镀层。考察了刷镀电压、刷镀液中氯化亚锡质量浓度、pH、刷镀时间等工艺参数对镀层的化学成分、物相结构、显微硬度和附着力的影响。结果表明:刷镀液pH为8.0~10.0时,随电压增大,镀层锡含量呈下降趋势。当氯化亚锡为9.0 g/L,pH为8.0~9.5时,刷镀液稳定,镀层主要由Cu20Sn6和Cu6Sn5构成,锡含量处于高锡水平(质量分数44.10%~57.40%),显微硬度较高。当pH为9.5~10.0时,刷镀液不稳定,镀层主要由Cu20Sn6和α-Cu构成,锡含量处于中锡水平(质量分数35.60%~44.50%),显微硬度较低。随刷镀时间延长,镀层的孔隙率显著下降,刷镀18 min所得镀层非常致密。刷镀电压为4 V时所得厚度为18.00~21.00μm的镀层的附着力在18~23 N之间。%Copper–tin alloy deposits were prepared using electro-brush plating with alkaline pyrophosphate bath on 45 steel substrate. The effects of process parameters such as plating voltage, mass concentration of stannous chloride in bath, pH, and brush plating time on composition, phase structure, microhardness, and adhesion strength of the deposits were studied. The results showed that the tin content of the deposit decline with the increasing of plating voltage at bath pH 8.0-10.0. The bath containing stannous chloride 9.0 g/L is stable at pH 8.0-9.5 and produces the deposits mainly composed of Cu20Sn6 and Cu6Sn5 with a high tin content (44.10wt% to 57.40wt%) and high microhardness, while is unstable at pH 9.5-10.0 and produces the deposits mainly composed of Cu20Sn6 andα-Cu with a medium tin content (35.60wt% to 44.50wt%) and relatively low microhardness. The porosity of the deposit is decreased significantly with the extending of brush plating time. The deposit obtained by brush plating for 18 min is very compact. The adhesion strength of the deposits having a thickness of 18.00-21.00μm obtained at

  11. Technology of Immersion Silver Plating onto Copper Substrate in Ethanol-Based Solution System%铜基材乙醇体系浸镀银工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕培秀; 魏喆良

    2011-01-01

    为解决传统水相体系浸镀银所存在的问题,笔者采用乙醇溶液体系,以硝酸银为主盐,乙二胺为络合剂,并就银离子浓度、络合剂与银离子摩尔浓度比以及镀液pH值等工艺参数,对紫铜浸镀银镀层性能的影响进行了研究.试验结果表明:当银离子质量浓度为2.0 g/L,络合剂与银离子摩尔浓度比为4∶1,镀液pH值为9.8,温度为室温时,可以在紫铜表面获得外观光亮、均匀致密且与基材结合良好的银镀层.%Ethanol-based solution system was adopted to solve the problem of traditional immersion silver planting in aqueous system, silver nitrate and ethylenediamine was employed as main salt and complexant respectively. Silver ion concentration, molar ratio of complexant and silver ion and the pH value of the solution which could affect the film properties on immersion silver planting onto red copper were investigated. The results show that the silver coating on the red copper surface is obtained at silver ion concentration 2. 0 g/L, molar ratio of complexant and silver ion 4 ! 1, the pH value 9. 8 and room temperature, of which has bright, smooth and dense appearance and integrated well with the matrix.

  12. Role of copper oxides in contact killing of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Michael; Erbe, Andreas; Mathews, Salima; Chen, Ying; Solioz, Marc; Mücklich, Frank

    2013-12-31

    The potential of metallic copper as an intrinsically antibacterial material is gaining increasing attention in the face of growing antibiotics resistance of bacteria. However, the mechanism of the so-called "contact killing" of bacteria by copper surfaces is poorly understood and requires further investigation. In particular, the influences of bacteria-metal interaction, media composition, and copper surface chemistry on contact killing are not fully understood. In this study, copper oxide formation on copper during standard antimicrobial testing was measured in situ by spectroscopic ellipsometry. In parallel, contact killing under these conditions was assessed with bacteria in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or Tris-Cl. For comparison, defined Cu2O and CuO layers were thermally generated and characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. The antibacterial properties of these copper oxides were tested under the conditions used above. Finally, copper ion release was recorded for both buffer systems by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectroscopy, and exposed copper samples were analyzed for topographical surface alterations. It was found that there was a fairly even growth of CuO under wet plating conditions, reaching 4-10 nm in 300 min, but no measurable Cu2O was formed during this time. CuO was found to significantly inhibit contact killing, compared to pure copper. In contrast, thermally generated Cu2O was essentially as effective in contact killing as pure copper. Copper ion release from the different surfaces roughly correlated with their antibacterial efficacy and was highest for pure copper, followed by Cu2O and CuO. Tris-Cl induced a 10-50-fold faster copper ion release compared to PBS. Since the Cu2O that primarily forms on copper under ambient conditions is as active in contact killing as pure copper, antimicrobial objects will retain their antimicrobial properties even after oxide formation.

  13. Bright nickel plating on surface of machinable zinc-copper-magnesium-aluminum-rare earth zinc alloy%易切削锌-铜-镁-铝-稀土锌合金表面电镀光亮镍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宏明; 肖来荣; 刘芙蓉; 李艳芬

    2012-01-01

    以新型易切削Zn-Cu-Mg-Al-RE锌合金为基体,电镀得到光亮镍镀层.其工艺流程主要包括化学除油、活化、预镀镍、光亮镀镍和干燥.研究了温度、pH、电流密度、电镀时间等工艺条件对在以硫酸镍、氯化镍、硼酸和光亮剂为主要成分的镀液中所得光亮镍镀层外观的影响.电镀光亮镍的最佳工艺为:0.045~0.050A/cm2,40~45℃,pH=3.9~4.1,10min.在最佳工艺下得到的镀层总厚度约为80 μm,镀层光滑、致密、光泽度好,无针孔、麻点、起泡等缺陷,与基体结合紧密,界面存在ZnNi过渡层.%Bright nickel coating was electroplated on Zn-Cu-Mg-Al-RE zinc alloy substrate through the following process flow: chemical degreasing, activating, nickel pre-plating, bright nickel plating, and drying. The effects of temperature, pH, current density and plating time on the appearance of bright nickel coating prepared from a bath mainly composed of nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, boric acid, and brightener were studied. The optimal process parameters for bright nickel plating are as follows: 0.045-0.050 A/cm2, 40-45℃, pH 3.9-4.1, and 10 min. The coating with a thickness of ca.80 um is obtained under the optimal parameters, which is smooth, compact and of good glossiness, without defects such as pinholes, pits, and bubbles. The nickel coating is tightly bonded to zinc alloy substrate, and there is a ZnNi transition layer close to the zinc alloy substrate.

  14. Spatial and RF power dependence of the structural and electrical characteristics of copper zinc tin selenide thin films prepared by single elementary target sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Yeon Hwa; Jang, Jin Woo; Cho, Yong Soo, E-mail: ycho@yonsei.ac.kr

    2014-11-14

    The spatial variations of the structural, optical and electrical properties of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin films grown by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering across a distance of 60 mm were investigated as a function of the discharge power. Noticeable changes in the deposition rate and elemental distribution were observed in the as-deposited films at the central and near-edge regions. After annealing in a Se atmosphere, the dependence of the phase evolution and electrical properties on the spatial position and power was also evident. Deposition at a low power of 30 W seems to be more promising in generating dominant Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} phase with well-packed crystallites on the surface. On the other hand, deposition at higher power tended to result in a significant portion of a secondary SnSe{sub 2} phase, which is responsible for the higher optical band gap and lower electrical resistivity, depending on the specific region of the film. - Highlights: • Single elementary target sputtering of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin films for solar cells. • Deposition rate and elemental distribution are different at central and edge regions. • Low RF power is promising in generating single phase with less spatial variation. • High RF power induces a secondary SnSe{sub 2} phase and a higher band gap. • Carrier concentration is smaller at centers than at near-edges of the films.

  15. LEP Radio Frequency Copper Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    The pulse of a particle accelerator. 128 of these radio frequency cavities were positioned around CERN's 27-kilometre LEP ring to accelerate electrons and positrons. The acceleration was produced by microwave electric oscillations at 352 MHz. The electrons and positrons were grouped into bunches, like beads on a string, and the copper sphere at the top stored the microwave energy between the passage of individual bunches. This made for valuable energy savings as it reduced the heat generated in the cavity.

  16. New experimental methodology, setup and LabView program for accurate absolute thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity measurements between 25 and 1600 K: application to pure copper, platinum, tungsten, and nickel at very high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadlia, L; Gasser, F; Khalouk, K; Mayoufi, M; Gasser, J G

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we describe an experimental setup designed to measure simultaneously and very accurately the resistivity and the absolute thermoelectric power, also called absolute thermopower or absolute Seebeck coefficient, of solid and liquid conductors/semiconductors over a wide range of temperatures (room temperature to 1600 K in present work). A careful analysis of the existing experimental data allowed us to extend the absolute thermoelectric power scale of platinum to the range 0-1800 K with two new polynomial expressions. The experimental device is controlled by a LabView program. A detailed description of the accurate dynamic measurement methodology is given in this paper. We measure the absolute thermoelectric power and the electrical resistivity and deduce with a good accuracy the thermal conductivity using the relations between the three electronic transport coefficients, going beyond the classical Wiedemann-Franz law. We use this experimental setup and methodology to give new very accurate results for pure copper, platinum, and nickel especially at very high temperatures. But resistivity and absolute thermopower measurement can be more than an objective in itself. Resistivity characterizes the bulk of a material while absolute thermoelectric power characterizes the material at the point where the electrical contact is established with a couple of metallic elements (forming a thermocouple). In a forthcoming paper we will show that the measurement of resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power characterizes advantageously the (change of) phase, probably as well as DSC (if not better), since the change of phases can be easily followed during several hours/days at constant temperature.

  17. Magnetic Effect during Copper Electroplating Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chi-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Hsi; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Wang, Ying-Lang

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, the effect of the intensity of the magnetic field on copper electroplating was investigated. Our results indicate that the variation of the magnetic field on the surface of the cathode electrode affected the electroplating rate of the electroplated copper film. By increasing the intensity of the magnetic field, the copper-electroplating rate increases. However, the magnetic field did not affect the grain sizes or shapes of the copper electroplated films. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the electrochemical effect of the magnetic field during the copper electroplating process. Cyclic-voltammetry stripping, and cell voltage versus plating time were examined to clarify the acceleration behavior of the magnetic field. The proposed equivalent circuit shows that the magnetic field enhanced the copper-electroplating rate by decreasing the charge-transfer resistance as well as the resistance of the diffusion layer.

  18. Measurement of the displacement cross-section of copper irradiated with 125 MeV protons at 12 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke, E-mail: iwamoto.yosuke@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yoshiie, Toshimasa [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, 2-1010 Asashiro-nishi, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Yoshida, Makoto; Nakamoto, Tatsushi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Sakamoto, Masaaki; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi; Uesugi, Tomonori; Ishi, Yoshihiro; Xu, Qiu; Yashima, Hiroshi [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, 2-1010 Asashiro-nishi, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Takahashi, Fumiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Mori, Yoshiharu [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, 2-1010 Asashiro-nishi, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Ogitsu, Toru [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    To validate Monte Carlo codes for the prediction of radiation damage in metals irradiated by >100 MeV protons, the defect-induced electrical resistivity changes related to the displacement cross-section of copper were measured with 125 MeV proton irradiation at 12 K. The cryogenic irradiation system was developed with a Gifford–McMahon cryocooler to cool the sample via an oxygen-free high-conductivity copper plate by conduction cooling. The sample was a copper wire with a 250-μm diameter and 99.999% purity sandwiched between two aluminum nitride ceramic sheets. The electrical resistivity changes of the copper wire were measured using the four-probe technique. After 125 MeV proton irradiation with 1.45 × 10{sup 18} protons/m{sup 2} at 12 K, the total resistivity increase was 4.94 × 10{sup −13} Ω m (resistance increase: 1.53 μΩ), while the resistivity of copper before irradiation was 9.44 × 10{sup −12} Ω m (resistance: 29.41 μΩ). The resistivity increase did not change during annealing after irradiation below 15 K. The experimental displacement cross-section for 125 MeV irradiation shows similar results to the experimental data for 1.1 and 1.94 GeV. Comparison with the calculated results indicated that the defect production efficiency in Monte Carlo codes gives a good quantitative description of the displacement cross-section in the energy region >100 MeV.

  19. Copper allergy from dental copper amalgam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardsson, Lars; Björkner, Bert; Karlsteen, Magnus; Schütz, Andrejs

    2002-05-06

    A 65-year-old female was investigated due to a gradually increasing greenish colour change of her plastic dental splint, which she used to prevent teeth grinding when sleeping. Furthermore, she had noted a greenish/bluish colour change on the back of her black gloves, which she used to wipe her tears away while walking outdoors. The investigation revealed that the patient had a contact allergy to copper, which is very rare. She had, however, had no occupational exposure to copper. The contact allergy may be caused by long-term exposure of the oral mucosa to copper from copper-rich amalgam fillings, which were frequently used in childhood dentistry up to the 1960s in Sweden. The deposition of a copper-containing coating on the dental splint may be caused by a raised copper intake from drinking water, increasing the copper excretion in saliva, in combination with release of copper due to electrochemical corrosion of dental amalgam. The greenish colour change of the surface of the splint is probably caused by deposition of a mixture of copper compounds, e.g. copper carbonates. Analysis by the X-ray diffraction technique indicates that the dominant component is copper oxide (Cu2O and CuO). The corresponding greenish/bluish discoloration observed on the back of the patient's gloves may be caused by increased copper excretion in tears.

  20. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings: Comparing different operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojo, Adrian; Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analyzed, such as remediation time, voltage drop, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields. The results show that electric...... current could remove copper from watery tailings slowly. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was improved due to a pH decrease from 6.7 to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Moreover, with citric acid addition the process was further improved due to a formation...... of copper citrate complexes. Using pulsed electric fields the remediation process with sulphuric acid addition was also improved by a decrease in the polarization cell. Main results: considering remediation with watery tailing as the base line, for three weeks experiments no copper removal was observed...

  1. Synthesis of copper nanoparticles : An overview of the various methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodashenas, Bahareh [Islamic Azad University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghorbani, Hamid Reza [Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    The synthesis of metal nanoparticles has received much attention due to their wide range of applications. Copper nanoparticles have attracted much attention due to their unique optical and electrical properties. Copper is relatively cheap in comparison to precious metals like gold and silver and also has high antibacterial properties. This review gives a brief overview of the available research works considering the synthesis of copper nanoparticles by chemical, physical, and biological methods.

  2. Settling of copper drops in molten slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warczok, A.; Utigard, T. A.

    1995-02-01

    The settling of suspended metal and sulfide droplets in liquid metallurgical, slags can be affected by electric fields. The migration of droplets due to electrocapillary motion phenomena may be used to enhance the recovery of suspended matte/metal droplets and thereby to increase the recovery of pay metals. An experimental technique was developed for the purpose of measuring the effect of electric fields on the settling rate of metallic drops in liquid slags. Copper drops suspended in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-Cu2O slags were found to migrate toward the cathode. Electric fields can increase the settling rate of 5-mm-diameter copper drops 3 times or decrease the settling until levitation by reversal of the electric field. The enhanced settling due to electric fields decreases with increasing Cu2O contents in the slag.

  3. Copper Products Capacity Expansion Stimulate the Copper Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>The dramatic growth of copper consumption in China can directly be seen from the expansion of copper products capacity.According to sta- tistics,in the past 4 years,the improvement on the balance of trade on copper bar,copper,and copper alloy and copper wire & cable has driven the growth of copper consumption a lot.

  4. Body of Knowledge (BOK) for Copper Wire Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, E.; Sampson, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Copper wire bonds have replaced gold wire bonds in the majority of commercial semiconductor devices for the latest technology nodes. Although economics has been the driving mechanism to lower semiconductor packaging costs for a savings of about 20% by replacing gold wire bonds with copper, copper also has materials property advantages over gold. When compared to gold, copper has approximately: 25% lower electrical resistivity, 30% higher thermal conductivity, 75% higher tensile strength and 45% higher modulus of elasticity. Copper wire bonds on aluminum bond pads are also more mechanically robust over time and elevated temperature due to the slower intermetallic formation rate - approximately 1/100th that of the gold to aluminum intermetallic formation rate. However, there are significant tradeoffs with copper wire bonding - copper has twice the hardness of gold which results in a narrower bonding manufacturing process window and requires that the semiconductor companies design more mechanically rigid bonding pads to prevent cratering to both the bond pad and underlying chip structure. Furthermore, copper is significantly more prone to corrosion issues. The semiconductor packaging industry has responded to this corrosion concern by creating a palladium coated copper bonding wire, which is more corrosion resistant than pure copper bonding wire. Also, the selection of the device molding compound is critical because use of environmentally friendly green compounds can result in internal CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) mismatches with the copper wire bonds that can eventually lead to device failures during thermal cycling. Despite the difficult problems associated with the changeover to copper bonding wire, there are billions of copper wire bonded devices delivered annually to customers. It is noteworthy that Texas Instruments announced in October of 2014 that they are shipping microcircuits containing copper wire bonds for safety critical automotive applications

  5. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    in similar experiments but without the bipolar electrodes. The new electrokinetic remediation design was tested on copper mine tailings with different applied electric fields, remediation times and pre-treatment. The results showed that the copper removal was increased from 8% (applying 20V for 8 days...... in sulphuric acidified tailings) without bipolar electrodes to 42% when bipolar electrodes were implemented. Furthermore, the results showed that in this system sulphuric acid addition prior to remediation was better than citric acid addition. In addition, applying a too strong electric field (even...

  6. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Lawrence J.

    1984-01-01

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  7. Copper and copper proteins in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Sergio; Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology.

  8. Comparative study of electroless copper film on different self-assembled monolayers modified ABS substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiushuai; Fan, Ruibin; Wang, Jiaolong; Jia, Mengke; Xiong, Xuanrui; Wang, Fang

    2014-04-15

    Copper films were grown on (3-Mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS), (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 6-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propylamino)-1,3,5- triazine-2,4-dithiol monosodium (TES) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modified acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) substrate via electroless copper plating. The copper films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their individual deposition rate and contact angle were also investigated to compare the properties of SAMs and electroless copper films. The results indicated that the formation of copper nuclei on the TES-SAMs modified ABS substrate was faster than those on the MPTMS-SAMs and APTES-SAMs modified ABS substrate. SEM images revealed that the copper film on TES-SAM modified ABS substrate was smooth and uniform, and the density of copper nuclei was much higher. Compared with that of TES-SAMs modified resin, the coverage of copper nuclei on MPTMS and APTES modified ABS substrate was very limited and the copper particle size was too big. The adhesion property test demonstrated that all the SAMs enhanced the interfacial interaction between copper plating and ABS substrate. XRD analysis showed that the copper film deposited on SAM-modified ABS substrate had a structure with Cu(111) preferred orientation, and the copper film deposited on TES-SAMs modified ABS substrate is better than that deposited on MPTMS-SAMs or APTES-SAMs modified ABS resins in electromigrtion resistance.

  9. Comparative Study of Electroless Copper Film on Different Self-Assembled Monolayers Modified ABS Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiushuai Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Copper films were grown on (3-Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS, (3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES and 6-(3-(triethoxysilylpropylamino-1,3,5- triazine-2,4-dithiol monosodium (TES self-assembled monolayers (SAMs modified acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS substrate via electroless copper plating. The copper films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Their individual deposition rate and contact angle were also investigated to compare the properties of SAMs and electroless copper films. The results indicated that the formation of copper nuclei on the TES-SAMs modified ABS substrate was faster than those on the MPTMS-SAMs and APTES-SAMs modified ABS substrate. SEM images revealed that the copper film on TES-SAM modified ABS substrate was smooth and uniform, and the density of copper nuclei was much higher. Compared with that of TES-SAMs modified resin, the coverage of copper nuclei on MPTMS and APTES modified ABS substrate was very limited and the copper particle size was too big. The adhesion property test demonstrated that all the SAMs enhanced the interfacial interaction between copper plating and ABS substrate. XRD analysis showed that the copper film deposited on SAM-modified ABS substrate had a structure with Cu(111 preferred orientation, and the copper film deposited on TES-SAMs modified ABS substrate is better than that deposited on MPTMS-SAMs or APTES-SAMs modified ABS resins in electromigrtion resistance.

  10. 3D amino-induced electroless plating: a powerful toolset for localized metallization on polymer substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alexandre; Berthelot, Thomas; Viel, Pascal; Jégou, Pascale; Palacin, Serge

    2011-11-18

    The "3D amino-induced electroless plating" (3D-AIEP) process is an easy and cost-effective way to produce metallic patterns onto flexible polymer substrates with a micrometric resolution and based on the direct printing of the mask with a commercial printer. Its effectiveness is based on the covalent grafting onto substrates of a 3D polymer layer which presents the ability to entrap Pd species. Therefore, this activated Pd-loaded and 3D polymer layer acts both as a seed layer for electroless metal growth and as an interdigital layer for enhanced mechanical properties of the metallic patterns. Consequently, flexible and transparent poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) sheets were selectively metalized with nickel or copper patterns. The electrical properties of the obtained metallic patterns were also studied.

  11. Flextensional ultrasonic motor using the contour mode of a square piezoelectric plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinvuo, Joni T; Wilson, Stephen A; Whatmore, Roger W

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a new type of standing wave piezoelectric ultrasonic motor. The motor uses a metallic flextensional amplifier, or cymbal, to convert the contour mode vibrations of a square piezoelectric ceramic plate into flexural oscillations, which are further converted to produce rotary actuation by means of an elastic-fin friction drive. The motor operates on a single-phase electrical supply. A beryllium copper rotor design with three-fin configuration was adopted, and the geometry was varied to include different material thicknesses, fin lengths, and inclinations. The best stall torque and no load speed for a 25-mm square motor were 0.72 Nmm and 895 r/minute, respectively. The behavior of the stator structure was analyzed by ANSYS finite element software using harmonic and modal analyses. The vibration mode estimated by finite element modeling (FEM) was confirmed by laser Doppler vibration measurements.

  12. Analysis of tectonic settings of global superlarge porphyry copper deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA; Bin(夏斌); CHEN; Genwen(陈根文); WANG; He(王核)

    2003-01-01

    About three quarters of superlarge porphyry copper deposits throughout the world occur along the eastern Pacific basin rim, most of which were formed during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Porphyry copper deposits often occur in the upper parts of a subduction zone and in a within-plate orogenic belt. Some porphyry copper deposits are inconsistent with plate subduction with respect to their formation time, and most of them in the world are associated with tensional environment. Metallogenic porphyries originated from the mantle, and the involvement of the lower-crust or oceanic crust materials have played an important role. Based on the geochemical characteristics and tectonic settings of the ore-bearing porphyries in the Gandise and Yulong metallogenic zones, it is proposed that delamination may be the important mechanism of formation of porphyry copper deposits.

  13. Characteristics of coated copper wire specimens using high frequency ultrasonic complex vibration welding equipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino, J; Ihara, S; Harada, Y; Kasahara, K; Sakamaki, N

    2004-04-01

    Welding characteristic of thin coated copper wires were studied using 40, 60, 100 kHz ultrasonic complex vibration welding equipments with elliptical to circular vibration locus. The complex vibration systems consisted of a longitudinal-torsional vibration converter and a driving longitudinal vibration system. Polyurethane coated copper wires of 0.036 mm outer diameter and copper plates of 0.3 mm thickness and the other dimension wires were used as welding specimens. The copper wire part is completely welded on the copper substrate and the insulated coating material is driven from welded area to outsides of the wire specimens by high frequency complex vibration.

  14. Highly conductive composites for fuel cell flow field plates and bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bor Z; Zhamu, Aruna; Song, Lulu

    2014-10-21

    This invention provides a fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate having flow channels on faces of the plate, comprising an electrically conductive polymer composite. The composite is composed of (A) at least 50% by weight of a conductive filler, comprising at least 5% by weight reinforcement fibers, expanded graphite platelets, graphitic nano-fibers, and/or carbon nano-tubes; (B) polymer matrix material at 1 to 49.9% by weight; and (C) a polymer binder at 0.1 to 10% by weight; wherein the sum of the conductive filler weight %, polymer matrix weight % and polymer binder weight % equals 100% and the bulk electrical conductivity of the flow field or bipolar plate is at least 100 S/cm. The invention also provides a continuous process for cost-effective mass production of the conductive composite-based flow field or bipolar plate.

  15. A plating method for metal coating of fiber Bragg grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulong Li; Hua Zhang; Yan Feng; Gang Peng

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for metal coating optical fiber and in-fiber Bragg grating. The technology process which is based on electroless plating and electroplating method is described in detail. The fiber is firstly coated with a thin copper or nickel plate with electroless plating method. Then, a thicker nickel plate is coated on the surface of the conductive layer. Under the optimum conditions, the surfaces of chemical plating and electroplating coatings are all smooth and compact. There is no visible defect found in the cross-section. Using this two-step metallization method, the in-fiber Bragg grating can be well protected and its thermal sensitivity can be enhanced. After the metallization process, the fiber sensor is successfully embedded in the 42CrMo steel by brazing method. Thus a smart metal structure is achieved. The embedding results show that the plating method for metallization protection of in-fiber Bragg grating is effective.

  16. 基于场致发射理论的EDM平板电容模型及其参数%Plate-capacitor Model of Electrical Discharging Machining Process Based on Field Electron Emission Theory and Its Parameters Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蜀阳; 黄玉美

    2011-01-01

    基于场致发射理论提出描述电火花加工(Electrical discharging machining,EDM)过程的平板电容模型,将单脉冲放电周期依次划分为极间电场建立、极间通道击穿、正常放电加工与消电离四个阶段,并分别进行各阶段的极间电场强度、极间电子自由程、极间介质介电常数和极间电流变化规律的理论分析.讨论EDM加工能量大小的影响因素,并给出基于该模型的极间电压与放电电流变化的仿真步骤与方法集.设计通孔加工试验和实时电流与电压采集电路,并基于该模型对极间电压与电流的变化曲线进行Simulink仿真程序设计.试验结果表明,相同加工参数实测曲线与仿真试验图形实现了较好的吻合,而且试验结果统计分析表明,该模型对不同电极材料与加工参数对加工效率的影响可做出合理解释且对加工效率有着良好的预测能力,证明了该模型的合理性与有效性.%Based on the field emission theory, a plate-capacitor model is constructed to describe the electrical discharging machining (EDM) process. In this model, the discharging pulse period is divided into four stages, successively as the establishment of the interelectrode electrical field, the formation of the interelectrode discharging channel, the stable EDM and deionization, and the correlative parameters of each stages, such as the intensity of interelectrode electric field, the mean free path of interelectrode electrons, the interelectrode medium constant, and the varying rules of discharging current etc., are analyzed. The distribution ol EDM energy and its influencing factors are discussed, and the simulation methods of interelectode voltage and current based on this model are given in details. For the purpose of single factor analysis, a set of through-hole experiments and real-time measuring circuit are designed and carried. The good agreement of experimental results with simulation data and the fact that

  17. Fully additive copper metallization on BCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolle, T. [FhG-IZM Berlin (Germany); Schwencke, B.; Reichl, H.

    2000-07-01

    A fully additive copper metallization process on benzocyclobutene cyclotene trademark (BCB) has been investigated for application in MCM-D technology. The process consists of surface pretreatment of the BCB basic layer by reactive ion etching (RIE), spin-coating and photopatterning of an organic seed layer by broad-band I-line photolithography followed by developing and activation steps. The metallization of the seed patterns is performed by a 2-step process by means of electroless copper baths. A height of about 5 {mu}m selectively deposited copper can be achieved. The electrical conductivity of patterns is in the range of 80% - 85% of the bulk conductivity of pure copper. Adhesive strength tests during accelerated aging show good adhesion of copper to the BCB surface, which is influenced by RIE pretreatment, exposure dose and thermal load. Shear experiments performed with optimal treated 200 x 200 {mu}m bumps show shear forces > 150 cN. Design rules have to take into account the lateral growth of copper patterns, which is nearly equal to the vertical growth. Real spaces of {>=} 30 {mu}m between copper lines are possible. The process is considered as a low cost technology because of replacing of sputter technique, few process steps and waste reduction. (orig.)

  18. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, A.; Ottpsen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers.This work shows the laboratory results of nine...... electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4......, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2V/cm.The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20V using approximately 1.8kg mine tailing on dry basis...

  19. Processless offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mahović Poljaček

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.

  20. Studies on copper coating on carbon fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The weak interface bonding of metal matrix reinforced by carbon fibers is the central problem of fabricating such composites. Depositing copper coating on carbon fibers is regarded as a feasible method to solve the problem. In this paper, copper coating has been deposited on the fibers through both electroless deposition and electroplating methods. Two kinds of complexing agents and two stabilizing agents are taken during the electroless plating process. The solution is stable, and little extraneous component is absorbed on the surface. After adding additive agents and increasing the concentration of H2SO4 to the acid cupric sulfate electrolyte, the "black core" during usual electroplating process is avoided. The quality of copper coating is analyzed using SEM and XRD, etc.

  1. Discontinuous precipitation in copper base alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K T Kashyap

    2009-08-01

    Discontinuous precipitation (DP) is associated with grain boundary migration in the wake of which alternate plates of the precipitate and the depleted matrix form. Some copper base alloys show DP while others do not. In this paper the misfit strain parameter, , has been calculated and predicted that if 100 > ± 0.1, DP is observed. This criterion points to diffusional coherency strain theory to be the operative mechanism for DP.

  2. Corrosion inhibition of copper with benzotriazole and other organic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Y.; Guan, Y.; Han, K.N. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    1995-05-01

    The corrosion behavior of copper with various organic inhibitors in aerated solutions at pH 1 to pH 2 was studied using a potentiostat. The inhibitors studied included benzotriazole (BTAH), hydroxy benzophenoximes, L-hydroxy-5-nonylacetophenone oxime, and sodium octyl hydroxamate (SOH). BTAH was shown to be the most effective of the inhibitors tested. Morphology of the copper substrate after corrosion in the presence and absence of BTAH was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to identify the spectra of the adsorbed complexes (BTA). The surface film was identified as a polymeric Cu(I)-BTA complex that totally covered the copper surface, exhibiting strong corrosion inhibition. The formation of Cu(I)-BTA was found to have been accomplished after the adsorption of BTAH on the copper surface. The effect of annealing of copper plate on the rate of corrosion also was investigated, and results indicated that the annealed copper exhibited better corrosion resistance than copper plate that had not been annealed.

  3. Intense pulsed light sintering of copper nanoink for printed electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Sung; Dhage, Sanjay R.; Shim, Dong-Eun; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2009-12-01

    An intense pulsed light (IPL) from a xenon flash lamp was used to sinter copper nanoink printed on low-temperature polymer substrates at room temperature in ambient condition. The IPL can sinter the copper nanoink without damaging the polymer substrates in extremely short time (2 ms). The microstructure of the sintered copper film was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray micro tomography, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The sintered copper film has a grainy structure with neck-like junctions. The resulting resistivity was 5 μΩ cm of electrical resistivity which is only 3 times as high as that of bulk copper. The IPL sintering technique allows copper nanoparticles to be used in inkjet printing on low-temperature substrates such as polymers in ambient conditions.

  4. Intense pulsed light sintering of copper nanoink for printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak-Sung; Dhage, Sanjay R.; Shim, Dong-Eun [University of California, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hahn, H.T. [University of California, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of California, Material Science and Engineering Department, California NanoSystems Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    An intense pulsed light (IPL) from a xenon flash lamp was used to sinter copper nanoink printed on low-temperature polymer substrates at room temperature in ambient condition. The IPL can sinter the copper nanoink without damaging the polymer substrates in extremely short time (2 ms). The microstructure of the sintered copper film was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray micro tomography, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The sintered copper film has a grainy structure with neck-like junctions. The resulting resistivity was 5{mu}{omega} cm of electrical resistivity which is only 3 times as high as that of bulk copper. The IPL sintering technique allows copper nanoparticles to be used in inkjet printing on low-temperature substrates such as polymers in ambient conditions. (orig.)

  5. Combined effects of fretting and pollutant particles on the contact resistance of the electrical connectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Kong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Usually, when electrical connectors operate in vibration environments, fretting will be produced at the contact interfaces. In addition, serious environmental pollution particles will affect contact resistance of the connectors. The fretting will worsen the reliability of connectors with the pollutant particles. The combined effects of fretting and quartz particles on the contact resistance of the gold plating connectors are studied with a fretting test system. The results show that the frequencies have obvious effect on the contact resistance. The higher the frequency, the higher the contact resistance is. The quartz particles cause serious wear of gold plating, which make the nickel and copper layer exposed quickly to increase the contact resistance. Especially in high humidity environments, water supply certain adhesion function and make quartz particles easy to insert or cover the contact surfaces, and even cause opening resistance.

  6. Optimization of electrical conduction and passivity properties of stainless steels used for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates; Opmisation des proprietes de conduction electrique et de passivite d'aciers inoxydables pour la realisation de plaques bipolaires de pile a combustible de type PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, J

    2007-10-15

    Among the new technologies for energy for sustainable development, PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cells) offer seducing aspects. However, in order to make this technology fit large scale application requirements, it has to comply with stringent cost, performance, and durability criteria. In such a frame, the goal of this work was to optimize electrical conduction properties and passivity of stainless steels for the conception of PEMFC bipolar plates, used instead of graphite, the reference material. This work presents the possible ways of performance loss when using stainless steels and some methods to solve this problem. Passive film properties were studied, as well as their modifications by low cost industrial surface treatments, without deposition. Ex situ characterizations of corrosion resistance and electrical conduction were performed. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, water analysis, surface analysis by microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy allowed to study the impact of ageing on two alloys in different states, and several conditions representative of an exposure to PEMFC media. Correlations between semi-conductivity properties, composition, and structure of passive layers were considered, but not leading to clear identification of all parameters responsible for electrical conduction and passivity. The plate industrial state is not convenient for direct use in fuel cell to comply with durability and performance requirements. A surface modification studied improves widely electrical conduction at initial state. The performance is degraded with ageing, but maintaining a level higher than the initial industrial state. This treatment increases also corrosion resistance, particularly on the anode side. (author)

  7. Effects of heat treatment on wear behavior of carbon/carbon-copper composites under electrical current%热处理对炭/炭-铜复合材料载流磨损行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鹏翱; 张红波; 尹健; 杨双磊

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects of heat treatment of Carbon/Carbon ( C/C ) substrates on wear behavior of Carbon/Carbon⁃Copper ( C/C-Cu) composites, copper⁃impregnated carbon fiber reinforced carbon composites were fabricated by infiltrating molten copper alloy into C/C substrates, which were made by chemical vapor infiltration ( CVI) . The wear behavior of C/C-Cu composites was investigated by using a dynamic wear test apparatus during application of an AC electrical current. The worn surfaces of composites before and after test were observed by 3D microscope and SEM. Effects of 2 000℃ heat treatment of C/C substrates on wear behavior of C/C-Cu composites were investigated. The results indicate that the mass wear rate and linear wear rate of the C/C-Cu composites whose C/C substrates were treated at 2 000 ℃ were 34. 42% and 17. 84%, respectively, lower than that of composites without heat treatment. The graphitization degree of C/C substrates improved after 2 000 ℃ heat treatment, thus, the interlaminar splitting resistance was reduced. Thus it is easier for graphite sheets to split into small graphite scraps and form a smooth and lubricant film on the surface, which restrained the inhomogeneous wear induced by surface defects. Therefore, the mutual effects of abrasive wear, adhesive wear, oxidation wear and arc ablation are weakened.%为探明炭/炭( C/C)多孔体热处理对炭/炭-铜( C/C-Cu)复合材料载流磨损行为的影响,采用化学气相渗透法( CVI)增密的C/C多孔体,再通过压力熔渗法制备C/C-Cu复合材料.采用载流动态磨损试验机测试C/C-Cu复合材料载流磨损行为,利用数字式三维视频显微镜和扫描电子显微镜观察复合材料磨损前后的表面形貌,研究了C/C多孔体经过2000℃热处理对C/C-Cu复合材料载流磨损行为的影响.结果表明:C/C-Cu复合材料的质量磨损率和线磨损率比C/C多孔体未经热处理

  8. Carbon black dispersion pre-plating technology for printed wire board manufacturing. Final technology evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folsom, D.W.; Gavaskar, A.R.; Jones, J.A.; Olfenbuttel, R.F.

    1993-10-01

    The project compared chemical use, waste generation, cost, and product quality between electroless copper and carbon-black-based preplating technologies at the printed wire board (PWB) manufacturing facility of McCurdy Circuits in Orange, CA. The carbon-black based preplating technology evaluated is used as an alternative process for electroless copper (EC) plating of through-holes before electrolytic copper plating. The specific process used at McCurdy is the BlackHole (BH) technology process, which uses a dispersion of carbon black in an aqueous solution to provide a conductive surface for subsequent electrolytic copper plating. The carbon-black dispersion technology provided effective waste reduction and long-term cost savings. The economic analysis determined that the new process was cost efficient because chemical use was reduced and the process proved more efficient; the payback period was less than 4 yrs.

  9. [Copper pathology (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, B; Romette, J; Di Costanzo, J D

    1982-01-30

    Copper is an essential dietary component, being the coenzyme of many enzymes with oxidase activity, e.g. ceruloplasmin, superoxide dismutase, monoamine oxidase, etc. The metabolism of copper is complex and imperfectly known. Active transport of copper through the intestinal epithelial cells involves metallothionein, a protein rich in sulfhydryl groups which also binds the copper in excess and probably prevents absorption in toxic amounts. In hepatocytes a metallothionein facilitates absorption by a similar mechanism and regulates copper distribution in the liver: incorporation in an apoceruloplasmin, storage and synthesis of copper-dependent enzymes. Metallothioneins and ceruloplasmin are essential to adequate copper homeostasis. Apart from genetic disorders, diseases involving copper usually result from hypercupraemia of varied origin. Wilson's disease and Menkes' disease, although clinically and pathogenetically different, are both marked by low ceruloplasmin and copper serum levels. The excessive liver retention of copper in Wilson's disease might be due to increased avidity of hepatic metallothioneins for copper and decreased biliary excretion through lysosomal dysfunction. Menkes' disease might be due to low avidity of intestinal and hepatic metallothioneins for copper. The basic biochemical defect responsible for these two hereditary conditions has not yet been fully elucidated.

  10. [Copper IUDs (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, M

    1983-10-01

    Following initial development of the Grafenberg ring in the 1920's, IUDs fell into disuse until the late 1950s, when plastic devices inserted using new technology began to gain worldwide acceptance. Further research indicated that copper had a significant antifertility effect which increased with increasing surface area, and several copper IUDs were developed and adapted, including the Copper T 200, the Copper T 220C, and the Copper T 380 A, probably the most effective yet. The Gravigard and Multiload are 2 other copper devices developed according to somewhat different principles. Copper devices are widely used not so much because of their great effectiveness as because of their suitability for nulliparous patients and their ease of insertion, which minimizes risk of uterine perforation. Records of 2584 women using Copper IUDs for 7190 women-years and 956 women using devices without copper for 6059 women-years suggest that the copper devices were associated with greater effectiveness and fewer removals for complications. Research suggests that the advantages of copper IUDs become more significant with increased duration of use. Contraindications to copper devices include allergy to copper and hepatolenticular degeneration. No carcinogenic or teratogenic effect of copper devices has been found, but further studies are needed to rule out other undesirable effects. Significant modifications of copper devices in recent years have been developed to increase their effectiveness, prolong their duration of usefulness, facilitate insertion and permit insertion during abortion or delivery. The upper limit of the surface area of copper associated with increased effectiveness appears to be between 200-300 sq mm, and at some point increases in copper exposure may provoke expulsion of the IUD. The duration of fertility inhibition of copper IUDs is usually estimated at 2-3 years, but recent research indicates that it may be 6-8 years, and some devices may retain copper surface

  11. Combination cellulose plate (non-agar solid support) and agar plate method improves isolation of fungi from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Kenichi; Todaka, Nemuri; Ōmura, Satoshi; Masuma, Rokuro

    2014-11-01

    This is the first report describing the improved isolation of common filamentous fungi via a method combining cellulose plate and agar plate system. A cellulose plate is a porous plate made of nanofibrous crystaline cellulose. Isolating fungi from soils using these types of media separately resulted in the number of fungal colonies appearing on cellulose plates being lower than that on agar plates. However, the number of actual fungal species isolated using cellulose plates alone was more or less the same as that found using agar plates. Significantly, the diversity of isolates using a combination of the two media was greater than using each media individually. As a result, numerous new or rare fungal species with potential, including previously proposed new species, were isolated successfully in this way. All fungal colonies, including the Penicillium species, that appeared on the cellulose plate penetrated in potato dextrose were either white or yellow. Cultivation on cellulose plates with added copper ion overcomes the change in coloration, the colonies appearing as they do following cultivation on potato dextrose agar.

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. ... vegetables . Now in one of the small sections, put grains and starchy foods. See this list of ...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... 2016 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  15. Food guide plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chips or cookies. VEGETABLES: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Vegetables can be raw, fresh, ... as a snack. FRUITS: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits can be fresh, canned, ...

  16. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  1. Theory of Copper Oxide Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Kamimura, Hiroshi; Shunichi Matsuno; Tsuyoshi Hamada

    2005-01-01

    This is an advanced textbook for graduate students and researchers wishing to learn about high temperature superconductivity in copper oxides, in particular the Kamimura-Suwa (K-S) model. Because a number of models have been proposed since the discovery of high temperature superconductivity by Bednorz and Müller in 1986, the book first explains briefly the historical development that led to the K-S model. It then focuses on the physical background necessary to understand the K-S model and on the basic principles behind various physical phenomena such as electronic structures, electrical, thermal and optical properties, and the mechanism of high temperature superconductivity.

  2. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  3. The Effect of the Configuration of the Absorber on the Performance of Flat Plate Thermal Collector

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Moyu; Qu, Ming; Peng, Steve

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a numerical thermal analysis for a new designed flat plate thermal collector was conducted through modeling. The new flat plate thermal collector has ellipse shaped tubes inside a wavy shaped absorber, which is made of stainless steel. For the comparison, the conventional flat plate thermal collector with circular copper tubes served as a base case was also modeled. Hottel-Whillier equations were utilized to formulate thermal networks for both models developed in Engineering Eq...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reset Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing ... en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes. ...

  5. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  6. Measurement of an Electric Arc Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Šimek, D.

    2015-01-01

    Article is focused on electric arc spectroscopy diagnostics related to electric low voltage apparatuses. The first attempts of spectroscopy measurements are dealt with. An example of radiation spectra of the electric arc burning between copper electrodes is presented. The problems connected with the measurements are discussed.

  7. Oxidation Resistance of Nano-Crystalline Copper Synthesized by Electric Brush-Plating at 500℃%电刷镀纳米Cu在500 ℃下的抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国军; 刘畅; 江中浩

    2010-01-01

    针对电刷镀方法合成的纳米Cu,采用热天平、带有能谱仪的扫描电子显微镜、场发射扫描电子显微镜和X射线衍射仪研究了其在500 ℃下,压力为0.1 MPa 纯O2中的氧化行为,结果表明,所研究的纳米Cu的抗氧化能力明显弱于工业纯Cu.

  8. Electrical Conductivity in Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.

  9. Influences of Corrosive Sulfur on Copper Wires and Oil-Paper Insulation in Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil-impregnated paper is widely used in power transmission equipment as a reliable insulation. However, copper sulphide deposition on oil-paper insulation can lead to insulation failures in power transformers. This paper presents the influences of copper sulfur corrosion and copper sulphide deposition on copper wires and oil-paper insulation in power transformers. Thermal aging tests of paper-wrapped copper wires and bare copper wires in insulating oil were carried out at 130 °C and 150 °C in laboratory. The corrosive characteristics of paper-wrapped copper wires and bare copper wires were analyzed. Dielectric properties of insulation paper and insulating oil were also analyzed at different stages of the thermal aging tests using a broadband dielectric spectrometer. Experiments and analysis results show that copper sulfide deposition on surfaces of copper wires and insulation paper changes the surface structures of copper wires and insulation paper. Copper sulfur corrosion changes the dielectric properties of oil-paper insulation, and the copper sulfide deposition greatly reduces the electrical breakdown strength of oil-paper insulation. Metal passivator is capable of preventing copper wires from sulfur corrosion. The experimental results are helpful for investigations for fault diagnosis of internal insulation in power transformers.

  10. Titanium Carbide Bipolar Plate for Electrochemical Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaConti, Anthony B.; Griffith, Arthur E.; Cropley, Cecelia C.; Kosek, John A.

    1998-05-08

    Titanium carbide comprises a corrosion resistant, electrically conductive, non-porous bipolar plate for use in an electrochemical device. The process involves blending titanium carbide powder with a suitable binder material, and molding the mixture, at an elevated temperature and pressure.

  11. Electromagnetic semitransparent $\\delta$-function plate: Casimir interaction energy between parallel infinitesimally thin plates

    CERN Document Server

    Parashar, Prachi; Shajesh, K V; Schaden, M

    2012-01-01

    We derive boundary conditions for electromagnetic fields on a $\\delta$-function plate. The optical properties of such a plate are shown to necessarily be anisotropic in that they only depend on the transverse properties of the plate. We unambiguously obtain the boundary conditions for a perfectly conducting $\\delta$-function plate in the limit of infinite dielectric response. We show that a material does not "optically vanish" in the thin-plate limit. The thin-plate limit of a plasma slab of thickness $d$ with plasma frequency $\\omega_p^2=\\zeta_p/d$ reduces to a $\\delta$-function plate for frequencies ($\\omega=i\\zeta$) satisfying $\\zeta d \\ll \\sqrt{\\zeta_p d} \\ll 1$. We show that the Casimir interaction energy between two parallel perfectly conducting $\\delta$-function plates is the same as that for parallel perfectly conducting slabs. Similarly, we show that the interaction energy between an atom and a perfect electrically conducting $\\delta$-function plate is the usual Casimir-Polder energy, which is verifi...

  12. Amplification of acoustic waves in laminated piezoelectric semiconductor plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.S.; Yang, X.M.; Turner, J.A. [University of Nebraska, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Two-dimensional equations for coupled extensional, flexural and thickness-shear motions of laminated plates of piezoelectric semiconductors are obtained systematically from the three-dimensional equations by retaining lower order terms in power series expansions in the plate thickness coordinate. The equations are used to analyze extensional waves in a composite plate of piezoelectric ceramics and semiconductors. Dispersion and dissipation due to semiconduction as well as wave amplification by a dc electric field are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Nanosecond gating properties of proximity focused microchannel plate image intensifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N. S. P.; King, N. S. P.; Yates, G. J.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Noel, B. W.; Detch, J. L., Jr.; Ogle, J. W.

    The optical gating properties of Multichannel plate image intensifiers were characterized. Emphasis was placed on parameters relevant to gating speed and correlations between the applied electrical and resultant optical gates.

  14. Synthesis of Copper Pigments, Malachite and Verdigris: Making Tempera Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; Mahon, Megan L.; Halpern, Erica M.

    2011-01-01

    Malachite and verdigris, two copper-based pigments, are synthesized in this experiment intended for use in a general chemistry laboratory. The preparation of egg tempera paint from malachite is also described. All procedures can be done with a magnetic stir plate, standard glassware present in any first-year laboratory, and household chemicals.…

  15. Angular shear plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  16. Thermal, mechanics and electrical characterization of the Al-0,6%Mg-08%Si alloy refined and modified with different copper contents; Caracterizacao termica, mecanica e eletrica da liga Al-0,6% Mg-0,8% Si refinada e modificada com diferentes teores de cobre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, E.S. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil)], Email: mmanufreitas@gmail.com; Marques, P.R.R.; Santos, W.L.R.; Kamizono, K.A.; Quaresma, J. Maria V.

    2009-07-01

    The aluminum, magnesium and silicon alloys form a very important group, utilized as casted form and worked alloys, especially in 6201 alloy series. These alloys show applicability on cables and wires fabrication to electrical energy transmission. The present work analyzes the copper content variation and its influence in electrical conductivity, tensile strength and in studied alloy ductility. The refined Al-0,6% Mg-0,8% Si studied alloy was modified with the following contents: [0,05; 0,10; 0,20 e 0,30]% Cu and unidirectional solidified. The test specimen were machined to 10 mm diameter and rolled to 3,98 mm, whose deformation rate was 60,2%. The obtained wires were mechanical, electrical and structural characterized and the mechanical and electrical characterization results were associated to fractures of evaluated micro cavities. The highest observation was the Cu content in alloy increases the TS, decreases electrical conductivity and increases liquidus isotherm's velocity, forming micro cavities. (author)

  17. Closed-form solution for free vibration of piezoelectric coupled annular plates using Levinson plate theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Hashemi, Sh.; Es'haghi, M.; Karimi, M.

    2010-04-01

    Free vibration analysis of annular moderately thick plates integrated with piezoelectric layers is investigated in this study for different combinations of soft simply supported, hard simply supported and clamped boundary conditions at the inner and outer edges of the annular plate on the basis of the Levinson plate theory (LPT). The distribution of electric potential along the thickness direction in the piezoelectric layer is assumed as a sinusoidal function so that the Maxwell static electricity equation is approximately satisfied. The differential equations of motion are solved analytically for various boundary conditions of the plate. In this study the closed-form solution for characteristic equations, displacement components of the plate and electric potential are derived for the first time in the literature. To demonstrate the accuracy of the present solution, comparison studies is first carried out with the available data in the literature and then natural frequencies of the piezoelectric coupled annular plate are presented for different thickness-radius ratios, inner-outer radius ratios, thickness of piezoelectric, material of piezoelectric and boundary conditions. Present analytical model provides design reference for piezoelectric material application, such as sensors, actuators and ultrasonic motors.

  18. Dynamic Shock Compression of Copper to Multi-Megabar Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haill, T. A.; Furnish, M. D.; Twyeffort, L. L.; Arrington, C. L.; Lemke, R. W.; Knudson, M. D.; Davis, J.-P.

    2015-11-01

    Copper is an important material for a variety of shock and high energy density applications and experiments. Copper is used as a standard reference material to determine the EOS properties of other materials. The high conductivity of copper makes it useful as an MHD driver layer in high current dynamic materials experiments on Sandia National Laboratories Z machine. Composite aluminum/copper flyer plates increase the dwell time in plate impact experiments by taking advantage of the slower wave speeds in copper. This presentation reports on recent efforts to reinstate a composite Al/Cu flyer capability on Z and to extend the range of equation-of-state shock compression data through the use of hyper-velocity composite flyers and symmetric planar impact with copper targets. We will present results from multi-dimensional ALEGRA MHD simulations, as well as experimental designs and methods of composite flyer fabrication. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Note: Printed circuit board based electrically triggered compact rail gap switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, A K; Kaushik, T C; Goswami, M P; Gupta, Satish C

    2010-05-01

    An electrically triggered rail gap switch has been designed over a commercially available copper clad fiberglass sheet commonly used in making printed circuit boards for applications requiring compact design and direct integration to parallel plate transmission lines. Switch performance has been investigated in terms of its inductance, jitter, and gap closing time. With an electrode separation of 9.0 mm, it has been found to have an inductance of 6 nH, gap closing time of 5 ns, and jitter of about 4-10 ns measured at 95% of self-breakdown voltage. An application of this switch has been demonstrated as an electrically exploding foil accelerator developed over the same board and velocities up to 1.6 km/s have been achieved on Kapton flyers with diameter of 3.0 mm and thickness of 125 microm using a compact 1 microF capacitor bank.

  20. Copper Processing Profit Dropped Sharply,Copper Consumption Will Face Impact in the Second Half of the Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Judging from China’s copper consumption field,the biggest consumption unit is electric power,which accounts for 47%of total consumption;it is followed by light industry sector,including household electrical appliance,machinery,durable goods and hardware etc,which accounts for 22%of total consumption;followed by transportation field,

  1. NANO-STRUCTURED SILVER COATING ON COPPER PREPARED IN AN ETHANOL-BASED SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheliang Wei; Dian Tang; Thomas O'Keefe

    2005-01-01

    Recently, silver as an electrochemical deposit on copper substrate has been attracting much attention in the microelectronics field. To deposit nano-scale silver particles on copper, immersion plating using cyanide-based baths is commonly used. In this study, non-toxic ethanol was used as the plating solution. Sputtered copper samples were terized by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS),and an atomic force microscope (AFM). It was found that the deposited particles are metallic silver. After 3 s immersion,fine particles whose diameters were around 6 nm had covered about 40% of the surface of the copper substrate. After10 s immersion, the copper surface was completely covered by silver particles, the diameters of which have increased to about 10-15 nm. After the whole surface was covered, a dense and smooth silver coating was obtained.

  2. Handling of Copper and Copper Oxide Nanoparticles by Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulcke, Felix; Dringen, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Copper is an essential trace element for many important cellular functions. However, excess of copper can impair cellular functions by copper-induced oxidative stress. In brain, astrocytes are considered to play a prominent role in the copper homeostasis. In this short review we summarise the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms which are involved in the handling of copper by astrocytes. Cultured astrocytes efficiently take up copper ions predominantly by the copper transporter Ctr1 and the divalent metal transporter DMT1. In addition, copper oxide nanoparticles are rapidly accumulated by astrocytes via endocytosis. Cultured astrocytes tolerate moderate increases in intracellular copper contents very well. However, if a given threshold of cellular copper content is exceeded after exposure to copper, accelerated production of reactive oxygen species and compromised cell viability are observed. Upon exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of copper ions or copper oxide nanoparticles, astrocytes increase their copper storage capacity by upregulating the cellular contents of glutathione and metallothioneins. In addition, cultured astrocytes have the capacity to export copper ions which is likely to involve the copper ATPase 7A. The ability of astrocytes to efficiently accumulate, store and export copper ions suggests that astrocytes have a key role in the distribution of copper in brain. Impairment of this astrocytic function may be involved in diseases which are connected with disturbances in brain copper metabolism.

  3. Fretting Wear Behavior of Tin Plated Contacts:. Influence on Contact Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Woo; Sankara Narayanan, T. S. N.; Lee, Kang Yong

    The fretting wear behavior of tin plated copper alloy contacts and its influence on the contact resistance are addressed in this paper. Based on the change in the area of contact zone as well as the wear depth as a function of fretting cycles, a model was proposed to explain the observed low and stable contact resistance. The extent of wear of tin coating and the formation of wear debris as a function of fretting cycles were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive X-ray line scanning (EDX), X-ray mapping, and EDX spot analysis were employed to characterize the nature of changes that occur at the contact zone. The study reveals that the fretted area increases linearly up to 8000 cycles due to the continuous removal of the tin coating and attains saturation when the fretting path length reaches a maximum. The observed low and stable contact resistance observed up to 8000 cycles is due to the common area of contact which provides an electrically conducting area. Surface analysis by SEM, EDX, and X-ray elemental mapping elucidate the nature of changes that occurred at the contact zone. Based on the change in contact resistance as a function of fretting cycles, the fretting wear and fretting corrosion dominant regimes are proposed. The interdependence of extent of wear and oxidation increases the complexity of the fretting corrosion behavior of tin plated contacts.

  4. Bioleaching of gold, copper and nickel from waste cellular phone PCBs and computer goldfinger motherboards by two Aspergillus nigerstrains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madrigal-Arias, Jorge Enrique; Argumedo-Delira, Rosalba; Alarcón, Alejandro; Mendoza-López, Ma. Remedios; García-Barradas, Oscar; Cruz-Sánchez, Jesús Samuel; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Jiménez-Fernández, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    ...), this research evaluated the bioleaching efficiency of gold (Au), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) by two strains of Aspergillus niger in the presence of gold-plated finger integrated circuits found in computer motherboards (GFICMs...

  5. Electrical and Optical Diagnostics of Plasma Jet Generated by Needle-plate Dielectric Barrier Discharge at Atmospheric Argon%大气压氩气针-板介质阻挡放电的光电诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹增谦; 沈崇丰; 王永杰; 王慧娟

    2014-01-01

    An atmospheric argon plasma jet was obtained with a needle-plate dielectric barrier dis-charge system. The discharge gap was kept at 4 mm and the argon gas flow rate was 0. 5 L/min. A test capacitor and a test resistance were connected in series in the circuit, and the discharge current and the transport charge were measured simultaneously. The average discharge power in a period of the applied voltage was calculated by Lissajous figure. The plasma jet was investigated spatially by optical emission spectroscopy, and the electron density was estimated by Stark broadening of ArⅠ696. 54 nm. It is found that the discharge is asymmetric at different discharge phases, and more dis-charge current pulses are generated during the positive half cycle of the applied voltage. In addition, with the increasing of the applied voltage, the pulse number and the discharge power increase. Mo-reover, the plasma density is in an order of 1015 cm-3 . With the increasing of the distance from the needle tip, the electron density of the plasma jet decreases from 2. 94 × 1015 cm-3 to 2. 28 × 1015 cm-3 . The results show that the electric field plays an important role in the discharge current num-ber and the spatial distribution of the electron density.%利用针-板介质阻挡放电装置,在4 mm长的气隙中产生了大气压氩气射流等离子体。利用电学方法实现了对放电电流和电荷量的同时测量,并且对放电脉冲数和放电功率进行了研究;利用发射光谱法对放电等离子体进行了空间分辨测量,并根据ArⅠ696.54 nm的Stark展宽计算了等离子体的电子密度。结果发现:随着外加电压的增加,每个周期内的放电脉冲数增加,放电功率也增加。随着针头距离的增加,电子密度由2.94×1015 cm-3逐渐减小到2.28×1015 cm-3。实验结果表明:电场强度对放电脉冲数和电子密度的空间分布起重要作用。

  6. Canine models of copper toxicosis for understanding mammalian copper metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Fieten, Hille; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Watson, Adrian L.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary forms of copper toxicosis exist in man and dogs. In man, Wilson’s disease is the best studied disorder of copper overload, resulting from mutations in the gene coding for the copper transporter ATP7B. Forms of copper toxicosis for which no causal gene is known yet are recognized as well, often in young children. Although advances have been made in unraveling the genetic background of disorders of copper metabolism in man, many questions regarding disease mechanisms and copper homeo...

  7. Parabolic solar cooker: Cooking with heat pipe vs direct spiral copper tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Omotoyosi O.; Dobson, Robert T.

    2016-05-01

    Cooking with solar energy has been seen by many researchers as a solution to the challenges of poverty and hunger in the world. This is no exception in Africa, as solar coking is viewed as an avenue to eliminate the problem of food insecurity, insufficient energy supply for household and industrial cooking. There are several types of solar cookers that have been manufactured and highlighted in literature. The parabolic types of solar cookers are known to reach higher temperatures and therefore cook faster. These cookers are currently being developed for indoor cooking. This technology has however suffered low cooking efficiency and thus leads to underutilization of the high heat energy captured from the sun in the cooking. This has made parabolic solar cookers unable to compete with other conventional types of cookers. Several methods to maximize heat from the sun for indirect cooking has been developed, and the need to improve on them of utmost urgency. This paper investigates how to optimize the heat collected from the concentrating types of cookers by proposing and comparing two types of cooking sections: the spiral hot plate copper tube and the heat pipe plate. The system uses the concentrating solar parabolic dish technology to focus the sun on a conical cavity of copper tubes and the heat is stored inside an insulated tank which acts both as storage and cooking plate. The use of heat pipes to transfer heat between the oil storage and the cooking pot was compared to the use of a direct natural syphon principle which is achieved using copper tubes in spiral form like electric stove. An accurate theoretical analysis for the heat pipe cooker was achieved by solving the boiling and vaporization in the evaporator side and then balancing it with the condensation and liquid-vapour interaction in the condenser part while correct heat transfer, pressure and height balancing was calculated in the second experiment. The results show and compare the cooking time, boiling

  8. Hair copper in intrauterine copper device users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, M; Heyndrickx, A; Uyttersprot, C

    1984-03-01

    The antifertility effect of copper-bearing IUDs is based on continuous release of copper, which is a result of the reaction between the metal and the uterine secretions. Released cupric ions collect in the endometrium and in the uterine fluid but significant accumulation has not been found in the bloodstream or elsewhere. Following Laker's suggestion that hair be used for monitoring essential trace elements, e.g., copper, we checked the copper content of the hair of women wearing copper-bearing IUDs. Samples of untreated pubic hair removed by clipping before diagnostic curettage were obtained from 10 young (24-34 years old), white caucasian females who until then had been wearing an MLCu250 IUD for more than 1 year. Pubes from 10 comparable (sex, age, race) subjects who had never used a Cu-containing device served as controls. The unwashed material was submitted to the toxicology laboratory, where the copper content was assessed by flameless atomic absorption, a technique whose lower limit of measurement lies at a concentration of 0.05 mcg Cu/ml fluid (50 ppb). Hair samples were washed to remove extraneous traces of metal according to the prescriptions of the International Atomic Energy Agency, weighed, and mineralized, after which a small volume (10 mcl) of the diluted fluid was fed into the graphite furnace. Each sample (75-150 mg) was analyzed 4 times, both before and after washing. Since the cleaning procedure reduces the weight of the sample (mainly by the removal of fat, dust, etc.) this explains why the percentage copper content of washed hair is higher than that of unwashed hair belonging to the same subject. The results indicate that there was no significant difference (Mann-Whitney U test) between the mean copper levels of both unwashed and washed pubes from women who were using or had never used an MLCu250 IUD. We therefore conclude that the use of this copper-containing device is not associated with significant accumulation of copper in (pubic) hair.

  9. The Light Velocity Casimir Effect Does the Velocity of Light Increase when Propagating Between the Casimir Plates?

    CERN Document Server

    Ostoma, T; Ostoma, Tom; Trushyk, Mike

    1999-01-01

    We propose experiments that might be set up to detect the increase in the velocity of light in a vacuum in the laboratory frame for photons travelling between (and perpendicular to) the Casimir plates in a vacuum. The Casimir plates are two closely spaced, conductive plates, where an attractive force is observed to exist between the plates called the 'Casimir Force'. We propose that the velocity of light in a vacuum increases when propagating between two transparent Casimir Plates. We call this effect the 'Light Velocity Casimir Effect' or LVC effect. The LVC effect happens because the vacuum energy density in between the plates is lower than that outside the Casimir plates. The conductive plates disallow certain frequencies of electrically charged virtual particles to exist inside the plates, thus lowering the inside vacuum particle density, compared to the density outside the plates. The reduced (electrically charged) virtual particle density results in fewer photon scattering events inside the plates, whic...

  10. China Copper Processing Industry Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>1. Market Consumption The ’China Factor’ and Copper Price Fluctuation We all know China is an enormous consumer of copper,but the exact levels of consumption and where the copper has gone remains a mystery.

  11. Biogenic nanoparticles: copper, copper oxides, copper sulphides, complex copper nanostructures and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubilar, Olga; Rai, Mahendra; Tortella, Gonzalo; Diez, Maria Cristina; Seabra, Amedea B; Durán, Nelson

    2013-09-01

    Copper nanoparticles have been the focus of intensive study due to their potential applications in diverse fields including biomedicine, electronics, and optics. Copper-based nanostructured materials have been used in conductive films, lubrification, nanofluids, catalysis, and also as potent antimicrobial agent. The biogenic synthesis of metallic nanostructured nanoparticles is considered to be a green and eco-friendly technology since neither harmful chemicals nor high temperatures are involved in the process. The present review discusses the synthesis of copper nanostructured nanoparticles by bacteria, fungi, and plant extracts, showing that biogenic synthesis is an economically feasible, simple and non-polluting process. Applications for biogenic copper nanoparticles are also discussed.

  12. Shear flow past a flat plate in hydromagnetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. N. Sastry

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of simple shear flow past a flat plate has been extended to the hydromagnetic case in which a viscous, electrically conducting, incompressible fluid flows past an electrically insulated flat plate with a magnetic field parallel to the plate. For simplicity all physical parameters are assumed constant. A series solution for the velocity field has been developed for small values of a magnetic parameter. The equations governing this flow field were integrated numerically It is found that the effect of the magnetic field is to diminish and increase respectively, the first and second order contributions for the skin friction.

  13. Rapid Prototyping Bipolar Plate of PEMFC by Gelcasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Bing; CHEN Shang-wei; HUANG Ming-yu; WANG Lian-jun

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plate is one key component of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). According to this paper, mesocarbon microbeads were used as raw materials for forming the green bodies of bipolar plates with complex flow channels by gelcasting technique. Then, the final bipolar plates would be gained after the green parts were died, burned out and sintered. Meanwhile, its properties are researched and evaluated by the test of flexible strength and electric resistivity. The resultant flexural strength of sintered sample is 67 Mpa and the electric resistivity is 52 μΩ·m.

  14. Photocatalysis using zero-valent nano-copper for degrading methyl orange under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liú, Dan; Wang, Guoqiang; Liŭ, Dan; Lin, Junhong; He, Yingqiao; Li, Xiangru; Li, Ziheng

    2016-03-01

    As one of zero-valent transition metals, nano-copper was synthesized by a simple chemical reduction route and its photocatalytic activity was appraised by the degradation rate of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution under irradiation of a three-band fluorescent lamp. The results showed that nano-copper possessed visible-light photocatalytic activity. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was used to simulate the electric field distribution of nano-copper. From the results of simulation, it found that there was an enhancement electric field in course of light absorption on the surface of nano-copper, different morphology resulted in a diverse electric field distribution. Enhancement electric field intensity decided the visible-light photocatalytic activity of nano-copper. So the activity was affected by the morphology of nano-copper, as the size reduced and surface roughness increased, could be enhanced. It did be worth noting that the nanoscale of copper played the fatal decisive role for whether copper has the ability to degrade MO. So As-prepared nano-copper may be a novel visible-light photocatalytic material to treat organic pollution.

  15. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  16. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2005-01-31

    Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time.

  17. Hybrid Copper-Silver Conductive Tracks for Enhanced Oxidation Resistance under Flash Light Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Changyong; Sandwell, Allen; Park, Simon S

    2016-08-31

    We developed a simple method to prepare hybrid copper-silver conductive tracks under flash light sintering. The developed metal nanoparticle-based ink is convenient because its preparation process is free of any tedious washing steps. The inks were composed of commercially available copper nanoparticles which were mixed with formic acid, silver nitrate, and diethylene glycol. The role of formic acid is to remove the native copper oxide layer on the surface of the copper nanoparticles. In this way, it facilitates the formation of a silver outer shell on the surface of the copper nanoparticles through a galvanic replacement. In the presence of formic acid, the copper nanoparticles formed copper formate, which was present in the unsintered tracks. However, under illumination by a xenon flash light, the copper formate was then converted to copper. Moreover, the resistance of the copper-only films increased by 6 orders of magnitude when oxidized at high temperatures (∼220 °C). However, addition of silver nitrate to the inks suppressed the oxidation of the hybrid copper-silver films, and the resistance changes in these inks at high temperatures were greatly reduced. In addition, the hybrid inks proved to be advantageous for use in electrical circuits as they demonstrated a stable electrical conductivity after exposure to ambient air at 180 °C.

  18. Hall effects on hydromagnetic flow on an oscillating porous plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.L. Maji; A.K. Kanch; M. Guria; R.N. Jana

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis is made on the unsteady flow of an incompressible electrically conducting viscous fluid bounded by an infinite porous flat plate. The plate executes harmonic oscillations at a frequency n in its own plane. A uniform magnetic field H0 is imposed perpendicular to the direction of the flow. It is found that the solution also exists for blowing at the plate. The temperature distribution is also obtained by taking viscous and Joule dissipation into account. The mean wall temperature 00(0) decreases with the increase in the Hall parameter m. It is found that no temperature distribution exists for the blowing at the plate.

  19. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  20. The corrosion of copper in pure oxygen-free water; Korrosion av koppar i ren syrefritt vatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Kenneth [SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas (Sweden)

    2012-02-15

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate whether further growth of copper oxides occurred during the 19 years the test tube with copper wires was stored at SP. Further more detailed analyzes have been added during the investigation. These assays have not only been focused on the copper wires but also the palladium closure plate, the test tube and the water in the test tube have come to be analyzed by a variety of techniques.

  1. Bioremediation of Copper Contaminated Soil Using Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bhatt Kotiyal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is the use of living organisms (primarily microorganisms for removal of a pollutant from the biosphere. It relies on biological processes to minimize an unwanted environment impact of the pollutants. The microorganisms in particular have the abilities to degrade, detoxify and even accumulate the harmful organic as well as inorganic compounds. Five soil samples were collected from Selaqui industrial area, from different places at a depth of 0-15 cm. These soil samples were subjected to dilution (1:10, then from these dilution 4 and 5 were used for inoculation. Nutrient agar plates were prepared to be used as media. Replica of each dilution was prepared. After 24 hours of incubation at 28 degree centigrade bacterial colonies were observed on the plates. These cultures were purified to get 10 bacterial cultures. Further these cultures were inoculated in 10ml of nutrient broths each and after dense growth were inoculated in 10gm of soil samples in petriplates and were incubated for four days and then copper was estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry technique and compared with the levels of copper obtained that were not inoculated with bacterial strains. The soil samples collected are all alkaline in nature; all the 10 isolated bacteria are gram negative and are chained cocci in structure. Sample 1 and 2, both dilutions have shown reduction in the amount of copper as compared to original soil samples without bacterial inoculation. According to this research sample 1 and sample 2 have shown reduction in the copper levels as compared to the raw soil samples that is without bacterial inoculation in them.

  2. Long-Term Effects of Soldering By-Products on Nickel-Coated Copper Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, T. D.; Hodge, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of thirty-year-old, down graded flight cables was conducted to determine the makeup of a green material on the surface of the shielded wire near soldered areas and to ascertain if the green material had corroded the nickel-coated copper wire. Two likely candidates were possible due to the handling and environments to which these cables were exposed. The flux used to solder the cables is known to contain abietic acid, a carboxylic acid found in many pine rosins used for the soldering process. The resulting material copper abietate is green in color and is formed during the application of heat during soldering operations. Copper (II) chloride, which is also green in color is known to contaminate flight parts and is corrosive. Data is presented that shows the material is copper abietate, not copper (II) chloride, and more importantly that the abietate does not aggressively attack nickel-plated copper wire.

  3. Direct write of copper-graphene composite using micro-cold spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Dardona

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Direct write of a new class of composite materials containing copper and graphene in the powder phase is described. The composite was synthesized using batch electroless plating of copper for various times onto Nano Graphene Platelets (NGP to control the amount of copper deposited within the loosely aggregated graphene powder. Copper deposition was confirmed by both Focused Ion Beam (FIB and Auger electron spectroscopic analysis. A micro-cold spray technique was used to deposit traces that are ∼230 μm wide and ∼5 μm thick of the formulated copper/graphene powder onto a glass substrate. The deposited traces were found to have good adhesion to the substrate with ∼65x the copper bulk resistivity.

  4. Non-invasive terahertz field imaging inside parallel plate waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    We present a non-invasive broadband air photonic method of imaging of the electric field of THz pulses propagating inside a tapered parallel plate waveguide. The method is based on field-enhanced second harmonic generation of the fundamental laser beam in an external electric field. We apply...

  5. Copper and silver halates

    CERN Document Server

    Woolley, EM; Salomon, M

    2013-01-01

    Copper and Silver Halates is the third in a series of four volumes on inorganic metal halates. This volume presents critical evaluations and compilations for halate solubilities of the Group II metals. The solubility data included in this volume are those for the five compounds, copper chlorate and iodate, and silver chlorate, bromate and iodate.

  6. Coping with copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ines; Jacquiod, Samuel; Brejnrod, Asker

    2016-01-01

    Copper has been intensively used in industry and agriculture since mid-18(th) century and is currently accumulating in soils. We investigated the diversity of potential active bacteria by 16S rRNA gene transcript amplicon sequencing in a temperate grassland soil subjected to century-long exposure......, suggesting a potential promising role as bioindicators of copper contamination in soils....

  7. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  10. Variables Affecting Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Simulation of High-Velocity Flyer Plate Impact Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Deepak S [UNLV; Trabia, Mohamed [UNLV; O' Toole, Brendan [UNLV; Hixson, Robert S [NSTec

    2014-01-23

    This paper describes our work to characterize the variables affecting the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method in the LS-DYNA package for simulating high-velocity flyer plate impact experiments. LS-DYNA simulations are compared with one-dimensional experimental data of an oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper flyer plate impacting another plate of the same material. The comparison is made by measuring the velocity of a point on the back surface of the impact plate using the velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) technique.

  11. Studies on the Dynamic Buckling of Circular Plate Irradiated by Laser Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晨光; 段祝平

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic buckling of thin copper plate induced by laser beam, was analyzed with the numerical integration and disturbance methods of controlling equation. The buckling and post-buckling of thin plate were shown, with the consideration of the temperature distribution, inertia effect and initial deflection. At last, the buckling criterion about the circular plate was obtained and used to investigate the relation between the critical laser intensity and the ratio of thickness and diameter of the plate. The results fit the experimental observation and the FEM simulation very well, and benefit to the understanding of failure phenomenon of structures irradiated by laser beam.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Directionally Freeze-cast Copper Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia I. Cuba Ramos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Because of their excellent thermal and electric conductivities, copper foams are ideally suited for applications such as heat exchangers, catalyst supports and EMI-shields. Here, we demonstrate the preparation of copper with ~80% aligned, elongated, interconnected pores via directional freeze casting, a well established processing technique for porous ceramics. First, an aqueous slurry of 40−80 nm cupric oxide powders was directionally solidified, resulting in a preform consisting of elongated, aligned dendrites of pure ice separated by interdendritic ice walls with high oxide powder content. Oxide rather than metallic nanometric particles are used, as the latter would oxidize rapidly and uncontrollably when suspended in the aqueous solution used during directional casting. The preforms were then freeze-dried to sublimate the ice and sintered in a hydrogen-bearing atmosphere to reduce the copper oxide to metallic copper particles and densify these copper particles. Microstructural analysis of the copper foams shows that three types of porosities are present: (i aligned, elongated pores replicating the ice dendrites created during the freeze-casting process; (ii micro-porosity in the partially sintered copper walls separating the elongated pores; and (iii cracks in these copper walls, probably created because of shrinkage associated with the reduction of the oxide powders.

  13. Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future.

  14. Investigation of the decolorization efficiency of two pin-to-plate corona discharge plasma system for industrial wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tayeb, A., E-mail: ahmed.khalil@ejust.edu.eg; El-Shazly, A. H.; Elkady, M. F. [Egypt−Japan University of Science and Technology, Chemicals and Petrochemicals Engineering Department (Egypt); Abdel-Rahman, A. B. [Egypt−Japan University of Science and Technology, Electronics and Communications Engineering Department (Egypt)

    2016-09-15

    In this article, a dual pin-to-plate high-voltage corona discharge system is introduced to study experimentally the gap distance, the contact time, the effect of pin and plate materials, the thickness of ground plate and the conductivity on the amount of Acid Blue 25 dye color removal efficiency from polluted water. A study for the optimum air gap distance between dual pin and surface of Acid Blue 25 dye solution is carried out using 3D-EM simulator to find maximum electric field intensity at the tip of both pins. The outcomes display that the best gap for corona discharge is approximately 5 mm for 15-kV source. This separation is constant during the study of other factors. In addition, an investigation of the essential reactive species responsible for oxidation of the dye organic compounds (O{sub 3} in air discharge, O{sub 3} in water, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) during the experimental time is conducted. Three various materials such as: stainless steel, copper and aluminum are used for pins and plate. The maximum color removal efficiencies of Acid Blue 25 dyes are 99.03, 82.04, and 90.78% after treatment time 15 min for stainless steel, copper, and aluminum, respectively. Measurement results for the impact of thickness of an aluminum ground plate on color removal competence show color removal efficiencies of 86.3, 90.78, and 98.06% after treatment time 15 min for thicknesses of 2, 0.5, and 0.1 mm, respectively. The increasing of the solution conductivity leads to the reduction of decolorization efficiency. A kinetic model is used to define the performance of corona discharge system. The models of pseudo-zero-order, pseudo-first-order, and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics are utilized to investigate the decolorization of Acid Blue 25 dye. The rate of degradation of Acid Blue 25 dye follows the pseudo-first-order kinetics in the dye concentration.

  15. Investigation of the decolorization efficiency of two pin-to-plate corona discharge plasma system for industrial wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tayeb, A.; El-Shazly, A. H.; Elkady, M. F.; Abdel-Rahman, A. B.

    2016-09-01

    In this article, a dual pin-to-plate high-voltage corona discharge system is introduced to study experimentally the gap distance, the contact time, the effect of pin and plate materials, the thickness of ground plate and the conductivity on the amount of Acid Blue 25 dye color removal efficiency from polluted water. A study for the optimum air gap distance between dual pin and surface of Acid Blue 25 dye solution is carried out using 3D-EM simulator to find maximum electric field intensity at the tip of both pins. The outcomes display that the best gap for corona discharge is approximately 5 mm for 15-kV source. This separation is constant during the study of other factors. In addition, an investigation of the essential reactive species responsible for oxidation of the dye organic compounds (O3 in air discharge, O3 in water, and H2O2) during the experimental time is conducted. Three various materials such as: stainless steel, copper and aluminum are used for pins and plate. The maximum color removal efficiencies of Acid Blue 25 dyes are 99.03, 82.04, and 90.78% after treatment time 15 min for stainless steel, copper, and aluminum, respectively. Measurement results for the impact of thickness of an aluminum ground plate on color removal competence show color removal efficiencies of 86.3, 90.78, and 98.06% after treatment time 15 min for thicknesses of 2, 0.5, and 0.1 mm, respectively. The increasing of the solution conductivity leads to the reduction of decolorization efficiency. A kinetic model is used to define the performance of corona discharge system. The models of pseudo-zero-order, pseudo-first-order, and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics are utilized to investigate the decolorization of Acid Blue 25 dye. The rate of degradation of Acid Blue 25 dye follows the pseudo-first-order kinetics in the dye concentration.

  16. Compatibility of copper-electroplated cells with Metal Wrap Through module materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, I.J.; Geerligs, L.J.; Olson, C.L.; Goris, M.J.A.A. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-10-16

    As part of the European FP7 RandD project 'Cu-PV', the compatibility of copper-electroplated metal wrapthrough (MWT) cells with conductive adhesives has been investigated. The objectives of this project include to reduce, by the use of copper plating, the amount of silver utilized in cell manufacturing, and to demonstrate the compatibility of high-power n-type back-contact module technology with copper-plated cells. The overall goal is to reduce the impact on the environment of cell and module manufacture. MWT module technology as developed by ECN uses conductive adhesive to make the interconnection between cells and a conductive backsheet foil. These adhesives have been proved to result in very reliable modules in the case of cells with fired silver metallization. To determine the compatibility of conductive adhesive with copper-plated cells, component tests were performed, followed by the manufacture of modules with copperplated cells and conductive adhesive interconnections. Climate chamber testing of these modules showed that the adhesive is compatible with the copper-plated cells. The next steps include further optimization of the plating process and additional testing at the module level.

  17. Temperature influence study on copper selenide films

    OpenAIRE

    V.RAJENDRAN; PACKIASEELI S. ARULMOZHI; MUTHUMARI S.; Vijayalakshmi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Copper selenide was prepared by film is successfully deposited on a Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide (FTO) substrate by a brush plating technique. The film was uniform, had good adherence to the substrate and was annealed at 300 ◦ C and 500 ◦ C. As the annealing temperature increased, the orientation of the crystallites is more randomized than in the as-prepared film. The structural and optical properties of the film were investigated by XRD, SEM, EDAX, UV-Visible and PL. The XRD pattern indicated th...

  18. Kunpeng Copper:The largest Copper Smelting Company of Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>On September 9,Liangshan Mining Company’s 100,000 tons/year cathode copper project kicked off.It is another key project of the company following the successful launch of the 100,000 tons/year anode copper project.Based on ISA copper smelting technology of the largest open-cast copper mine in southwest China,

  19. One-step pickling-activation before magnesium alloy plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-juan; YU Gang; OUYANG Yue-jun; HE Xiao-mei; ZHANG Jun; YE Li-yuan

    2009-01-01

    A one-step pickling-activation process was proposed as an environmental friendly pretreatment method in phosphate-permanganate solution before electroplating on magnesium alloys. The effects of pickling-activation on qualities of coating were assessed by adhesion and porosity testing of copper plating. The interfacial reactions between specimen and solution were analyzed with SEM, EDX and XRD. The results show that the developed process of pickling-activation can equalize the potentials on substrate surface. The compacted zinc film can be obtained by zinc immersion after treating magnesium alloy in the pH 4-6 phosphate-permanganate solution for 3-5 min. The adhesion and corrosion resistance of copper plating are enhanced. The one-step pickling-activation can replace the existing two-step process of acid pickling and activation which contains a great deal of chromium and fluorine. The procedure of surface pretreatment is simplified and the production environment is improved.

  20. Experimental Vibration Study on the Healthy and Delaminated Composite Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Israr; Sinha, Jyoti K, E-mail: Jyoti.Sinha@manchester.ac.uk [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-19

    Vibration based damage, in particular delamination detection, in the composite structures is an active research area. The present study is also on the dynamics of the composite plates with and without delamination based on the experimental study. The test plate made of E-glass fibre and epoxy resins has been used here. A piezo-electric shaker has been used to excite the composite plate and the acceleration responses were measured using the number of accelerometers. The dynamics of the delaminated composite plates were then compared with a healthy composite plate when the vibration experiments have been conducted at the lower modes. The paper will discuss the observations made on the measured vibration responses from both the healthy and the delaminated plates and the possibility of the delamination detection from the experimental vibration data.