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Sample records for plate theory clpt

  1. A Geometrically—Nonlinear Plate Theory 12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AlbertC.J.LUO

    1999-01-01

    An approximate plate theory developed in this paper is based on an assumed displacement field,the strains described by a Taylor series in the normal distance from the middle surface,the exact strains of the middle surface and the equations of equilibrium governing the exact configuration of the deformed middle surface,In this theory the exact geometry of the deformed middle surface is used to derive the strains and equilibrium of the plate.Application of this theory does not depend on the constitutive law.THis theory can reduce to some existing nonlinear theories through imposition of constraints.

  2. Semiclassical theory of plate vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolny, E.; Hugues, E.

    1996-11-01

    The bi-harmonic equation of flexural vibrations of elastic plates is studied by a semiclassical method which can easily be generalized for other models of wave propagation. The surface and perimeter terms of the asymptotic number of levels are derived exactly. The next constant term is also derived. A semiclassical approximation of the quantization condition is obtained. A Berry-Tabor formula and a Gutzwiller trace formula are deduced for the integrable and chaotic cases respectively. From 600 eigenvalues of a clamped stadium plate obtained by a specially developed numerical algorithm, the trace formula is assessed, looking at its Fourier transform compared with the membrane case. (author)

  3. Theories for Elastic Plates via Orthogonal Polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1981-01-01

    A complementary energy functional is used to derive an infinite system of two-dimensional differential equations and appropriate boundary conditions for stresses and displacements in homogeneous anisotropic elastic plates. Stress boundary conditions are imposed on the faces a priori......, and this introduces a weight function in the variations of the transverse normal and shear stresses. As a result the coupling between the two-dimensional differential equations is described in terms of a single difference operator. Special attention is given to a truncated system of equations for bending...... of transversely isotropic plates. This theory has three boundary conditions, like Reissner's, but includes the effect of transverse normal strain, essentially through a reinterpretation of the transverse displacement function. Full agreement with general integrals to the homogeneous three-dimensional equations...

  4. Polar plate theory for orthogonal anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michelle D.

    1998-11-01

    The following paper discusses the derivation and evaluation of the plate equations for a circular composite disk with orthogonal anisotropy. The work will be on a macromechanical level and include buckling, static and dynamic load applications. Necessary to a complete examination of the circular disk is the conversion of the stiffness matrix to cylindrical coordinates. In the transformed state, these coefficients are no longer constant, adding to the complexity of the proposed differential equations. Laminated fiber-reinforced (or filamentary) composites are used today for their high strength-to weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. However, because of the typical anisotropic behavior of composites, determining the material properties on a microscopic level and the mechanics on a macroscopic level is much more difficult. This difficulty manifests itself particularly well in the evaluation of material properties and governing differential equations of a circular disk with the fibers of the lamina oriented orthogonally. One could encounter such a situation in space structures that require a circular geometry. For example, determining fastener pull through in a circular composite plate would best be performed in a polar coordinate system. In order to calculate the strain (which is a function of the angle, θ) from the displacements, the stiffness matrix and boundary conditions would need to be expressed in cylindrical coordinates. Naturally the composite would be constructed with fibers in orthogonal directions, then the necessary geometry would be cut out, thus the required lengthy transformation of coordinate systems. To bypass this derivation, numerical methods have been used and finite element models have been attempted. FEM over predicts plate stiffness by 20% and underpredicts failure by 70%. Obviously there is a need to transform classical plate theory to a cylindrical coordinate system.

  5. Static Analysis of Laminated Composite Plate using New Higher Order Shear Deformation Plate Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtehal Abbas Sadiq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a theoretical analysis depending on the new higher order . element in shear deformation theory for simply supported cross-ply laminated plate is developed. The new displacement field of the middle surface expanded as a combination of exponential and trigonometric function of thickness coordinate with the transverse displacement taken to be constant through the thickness. The governing equations are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved using Navier solution method to obtain the deflection and stresses under uniform sinusoidal load. The effect of many design parameters such as number of laminates, aspect ratio and thickness ratio on static behavior of the laminated composite plate has been studied. The modal of the present work has been verified by comparing the results of shape functions with that were obtained by other workers. Result shows the good agreement with 3D elasticity solution and that published by other researchers.

  6. Vibration reduction of composite plates by piezoelectric patches using a modified artificial bee colony algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ghashochi-Bargh

    Full Text Available In Current paper, power consumption and vertical displacement optimization of composite plates subject to a step load are carried out by piezoelectric patches using the modified multi-objective Elitist-Artificial Bee Colony (E-ABC algorithm. The motivation behind this concept is to well balance the exploration and exploitation capability for attaining better convergence to the optimum. In order to reduce the calculation time, the elitist strategy is also used in Artificial Bee Colony algorithm. The voltages of patches, plate length/width ratios, ply angles, plate thickness/length ratios, number of layers and edge conditions are chosen as design variables. The formulation is based on the classical laminated plate theory (CLPT and Hamilton's principle. The performance of the new ABC approach is compared with the PSO algorithm and shows the good efficiency of the new ABC approach. To check the validity, the transient responses of isotropic and orthotropic plates are compared with those available in the literature and show a good agreement.

  7. Vibration analysis of a trimorph plate as a precursor model for smart automotive bodywork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Big-Alabo, A; Cartmell, M P

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the vibration characteristics of a proposed candidate structure for smarter car bodies. The material is conceived as a three-layer laminated structure in the form of a trimorph plate. The vibration response of the plate is investigated for large deflections by considering the effects of geometric nonlinearity. First, the governing equation for the mid-point deflection of the plate is developed based on classical laminate plate theory (CLPT). The governing equation is solved, and a simulation is run for different possible layer-stacking sequences. Comparisons are made between the nonlinear vibration response of this trimorph plate both with and without the effects of the von Kármán geometric nonlinearity. The results show that for the same material properties the different layer-stacking sequences produce different vibration responses, and from there it is concluded that layer-stacking sequencing is a basis for the definition of a suitable material configuration for high performance automotive applications.

  8. The limitations on applying classical thin plate theory to thin annular plates clamped on the inner boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Zietlow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimentally measured resonance frequencies of a thin annular plate with a small ratio of inner to outer radii and clamped on the inner boundary are compared to the predictions of classical thin-plate (CTP theory and a finite-element (FE model. The results indicate that, contrary to the conclusions presented in a number of publications, CTP theory does not accurately predict the frequencies of a relatively small number of resonant modes at lower frequencies. It is shown that these inaccuracies are attributable to shear deformations, which are thought to be negligible in thin plates and are neglected in CTP theory. Of particular interest is the failure of CTP theory to accurately predict the resonance frequency of the lowest vibrational mode, which was shifted approximately 30% by shear motion at the inner boundary.

  9. Thermal flexural analysis of cross-ply laminated plates using trigonometric shear deformation theory

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    Yuwaraj Marotrao Ghugal

    Full Text Available Thermal stresses and displacements for orthotropic, two-layer antisymmetric, and three-layer symmetric square cross-ply laminated plates subjected to nonlinear thermal load through the thickness of laminated plates are presented by using trigonometric shear deformation theory. The in-plane displacement field uses sinusoidal function in terms of thickness co-ordinate to include the shear deformation effect. The theory satisfies the shear stress free boundary conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. The present theory obviates the need of shear correction factor. Governing equations and boundary conditions of the theory are obtained using the principle of virtual work. The validity of present theory is verified by comparing the results with those of classical plate theory and first order shear deformation theory and higher order shear deformation theory.

  10. A Modified Kirchhoff plate theory for Free Vibration analysis of functionally graded material plates using meshfree method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Do, Vuong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a modified Kirchhoff theory is presented for free vibration analyses of functionally graded material (FGM) plate based on modified radial point interpolation method (RPIM). The shear deformation effects are taken account into modified theory to ignore the locking phenomenon of thin plates. Due to the proposed refined plate theory, the number of independent unknowns reduces one variable and exists with four degrees of freedom per node. The simulated free vibration results employed by the modified RPIM are compared with the other analytical solutions to verify the effectiveness and the accuracy of the developed mesh-free method. Detail parametric studies of the proposed method are then conducted including the effectiveness of thickness ratio, boundary condition and material inhomogeneity on the sample problems of square plates. Results illustrated that the modified mesh-free RPIM can effectively predict the numerical calculation as compared to the exact solutions. The obtained numerical results are indicated that the proposed method are stable and well accurate prediction to evaluate with other published analyses.

  11. Vibration analysis of orthotropic circular and elliptical nano-plates embedded in elastic medium based on nonlocal Mindlin plate theory and using Galerkin method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjomshoa, Amin; Tahani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    In the present study a continuum model based on the nonlocal elasticity theory is developed for free vibration analysis of embedded ortho tropic thick circular and elliptical nano-plates rested on an elastic foundation. The elastic foundation is considered to behave like a Pasternak type of foundations. Governing equations for vibrating nano-plate are derived according to the Mindlin plate theory in which the effects of shear deformations of nano-plate are also included. The Galerkin method is then employed to obtain the size dependent natural frequencies of nano-plate. The solution procedure considers the entire nano-plate as a single super-continuum element. Effect of nonlocal parameter, lengths of nano-plate, aspect ratio, mode number, material properties, thickness and foundation on circular frequencies are investigated. It is seen that the nonlocal frequencies of the nano-plate are smaller in comparison to those from the classical theory and this is more pronounced for small lengths and higher vibration modes. It is also found that as the aspect ratio increases or the nanoplate becomes more elliptical, the small scale effect on natural frequencies increases. Further, it is observed that the elastic foundation decreases the influence of nonlocal parameter on the results. Since the effect of shear deformations plays an important role in vibration analysis and design of nano-plates, by predicting smaller values for fundamental frequencies, the study of these nano-structures using thick plate theories such as Mindlin plate theory is essential.

  12. Free Vibration Analyses of FGM Thin Plates by Isogeometric Analysis Based on Classical Plate Theory and Physical Neutral Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuohui Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The isogeometric analysis with nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS based on the classical plate theory (CPT is developed for free vibration analyses of functionally graded material (FGM thin plates. The objective of this work is to provide an efficient and accurate numerical simulation approach for the nonhomogeneous thin plates and shells. Higher order basis functions can be easily obtained in IGA, thus the formulation of CPT based on the IGA can be simplified. For the FGM thin plates, material property gradient in the thickness direction is unsymmetrical about the midplane, so effects of midplane displacements cannot be ignored, whereas the CPT neglects midplane displacements. To eliminate the effects of midplane displacements without introducing new unknown variables, the physical neutral surface is introduced into the CPT. The approximation of the deflection field and the geometric description are performed by using the NURBS basis functions. Compared with the first-order shear deformation theory, the present method has lower memory consumption and higher efficiency. Several numerical results show that the present method yields highly accurate solutions.

  13. Natural Frequency of F.G. Rectangular Plate by Shear Deformation Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrjerdi, Ali; Sapuan, S M; Shahzamanian, M M; Mustapha, F; Zahari, R; Bayat, M

    2011-01-01

    Natural frequency of functionally graded (F.G.) rectangular plate is carried out by using second-order shear deformation theory (SSDT). The material properties of functionally graded rectangular plates, except the Poisson's ratio, are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness of the plate in accordance with the exponential law distribution. The equations of motion are obtained by energy method. Numerical results for functionally graded plates are given in dimensionless graphical forms and the effects of material properties on natural frequency are determined.

  14. ON HAMILTONIAN FORMULATIONS AND CONSERVATION LAWS FOR PLATE THEORIES OF VEKUA-AMOSOV TYPE

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    Sergey I. Zhavoronok

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Some variants of the generalized Hamiltonian formulation of the plate theory of I. N. Vekua – A. A. Amosov type are presented. The infinite dimensional formulation with one evolution variable, or an “instantaneous” formalism, as well as the de Donder – Weyl one are considered, and their application to the numerical simulation of shell and plate dynamics is briefly discussed. The main conservation laws are formulated for the general plate theory of Nth order, and the possible motion integrals are introduced

  15. A Novel Higher-Order Shear and Normal Deformable Plate Theory for the Static, Free Vibration and Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Chao Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-form solution of a special higher-order shear and normal deformable plate theory is presented for the static situations, natural frequencies, and buckling responses of simple supported functionally graded materials plates (FGMs. Distinguished from the usual theories, the uniqueness is the differentia of the new plate theory. Each individual FGM plate has special characteristics, such as material properties and length-thickness ratio. These distinctive attributes determine a set of orthogonal polynomials, and then the polynomials can form an exclusive plate theory. Thus, the novel plate theory has two merits: one is the orthogonality, where the majority of the coefficients of the equations derived from Hamilton’s principle are zero; the other is the flexibility, where the order of the plate theory can be arbitrarily set. Numerical examples with different shapes of plates are presented and the achieved results are compared with the reference solutions available in the literature. Several aspects of the model involving relevant parameters, length-to-thickness, stiffness ratios, and so forth affected by static and dynamic situations are elaborate analyzed in detail. As a consequence, the applicability and the effectiveness of the present method for accurately computing deflection, stresses, natural frequencies, and buckling response of various FGM plates are demonstrated.

  16. A nonlinear theory for elastic plates with application to characterizing paper properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. W. Johnson; Thomas J. Urbanik

    1984-03-01

    A theory of thin plates which is physically as well as kinematically nonlinear is, developed and used to characterize elastic material behavior for arbitrary stretching and bending deformations. It is developed from a few clearly defined assumptions and uses a unique treatment of strain energy. An effective strain concept is introduced to simplify the theory to a...

  17. A New Hyperbolic Shear Deformation Theory for Bending Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar Hassaine Daouadji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical formulation, Navier’s solutions of rectangular plates based on a new higher order shear deformation model are presented for the static response of functionally graded plates. This theory enforces traction-free boundary conditions at plate surfaces. Shear correction factors are not required because a correct representation of transverse shearing strain is given. Unlike any other theory, the number of unknown functions involved is only four, as against five in case of other shear deformation theories. The mechanical properties of the plate are assumed to vary continuously in the thickness direction by a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. Numerical illustrations concern flexural behavior of FG plates with metal-ceramic composition. Parametric studies are performed for varying ceramic volume fraction, volume fractions profiles, aspect ratios, and length to thickness ratios. Results are verified with available results in the literature. It can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and simple in solving the static bending behavior of functionally graded plates.

  18. Lamb wave extraction of dispersion curves in micro/nano-plates using couple stress theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrati, Behnam; Yaghootian, Amin; Ghanbar Zadeh, Afshin; Mohammad-Sedighi, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, Lamb wave propagation in a homogeneous and isotropic non-classical micro/nano-plates is investigated. To consider the effect of material microstructure on the wave propagation, three size-dependent models namely indeterminate-, modified- and consistent couple stress theories are used to extract the dispersion equations. In the mentioned theories, a parameter called 'characteristic length' is used to consider the size of material microstructure in the governing equations. To generalize the parametric studies and examine the effect of thickness, propagation wavelength, and characteristic length on the behavior of miniature plate structures, the governing equations are nondimensionalized by defining appropriate dimensionless parameters. Then the dispersion curves for phase and group velocities are plotted in terms of a wide frequency-thickness range to study the lamb waves propagation considering microstructure effects in very high frequencies. According to the illustrated results, it was observed that the couple stress theories in the Cosserat type material predict more rigidity than the classical theory; so that in a plate with constant thickness, by increasing the thickness to characteristic length ratio, the results approach to the classical theory, and by reducing this ratio, wave propagation speed in the plate is significantly increased. In addition, it is demonstrated that for high-frequency Lamb waves, it converges to dispersive Rayleigh wave velocity.

  19. Vibration Analysis of a Magnetoelectroelastic Rectangular Plate Based on a Higher-Order Shear Deformation Theory

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    Alireza Shooshtari

    Full Text Available Abstract Free vibration of a magnetoelectroelastic rectangular plate is investigated based on the Reddy's third-order shear deformation theory. The plate rests on an elastic foundation and it is considered to have different boundary conditions. Gauss's laws for electrostatics and magnetostatics are used to model the electric and magnetic behavior. The partial differential equations of motion are reduced to a single partial differential equation and then by using the Galerkin method, the ordinary differential equation of motion as well as an analytical relation for the natural frequency of the plate is obtained. Some numerical examples are presented to validate the proposed model and to investigate the effects of several parameters on the vibration frequency of the considered smart plate.

  20. Assessment of Theories for Free Vibration Analysis of Homogeneous and Multilayered Plates

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    Erasmo Carrera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses classical and advanced theories for free vibrational response of homogeneous and multilayered simply supported plates. Closed form solutions are given for thick and thin geometries. Single layer and multilayered plates made of metallic, composite and piezo-electric materials, are considered. Classical theories based on Kirchhoff and Reissner-Mindlin assumptions are compared with refined theories obtained by enhancing the order of the expansion of the displacement fields in the thickness direction z. The effect of the Zig-Zag form of the displacement distribution in z as well as of the Interlaminar Continuity of transverse shear and normal stresses at the layer interface were evaluated. A number of conclusions have been drawn. These conclusions could be used as desk-bed in order to choose the most valuable theories for a given problem.

  1. Generalized viscothermoelasticity theory of dual-phase-lagging model for damping analysis in circular micro-plate resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, D.; Seth, R. K.

    2018-05-01

    Analysis and numerical results are presented for the thermoelastic dissipation of a homogeneous isotropic, thermally conducting, Kelvin-Voigt type circular micro-plate based on Kirchhoff's Love plate theory utilizing generalized viscothermoelasticity theory of dual-phase-lagging model. The analytical expressions for thermoelastic damping of vibration and frequency shift are obtained for generalized dual-phase-lagging model and coupled viscothermoelastic plates. The scaled thermoelastic damping has been illustrated in case of circular plate and axisymmetric circular plate for fixed aspect ratio for clamped and simply supported boundary conditions. It is observed that the damping of vibrations significantly depend on time delay and mechanical relaxation times in addition to thermo-mechanical coupling in circular plate under resonance conditions and plate dimensions.

  2. Discrete quintic spline for boundary value problem in plate deflation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patricia J. Y.

    2017-07-01

    We propose a numerical scheme for a fourth-order boundary value problem arising from plate deflation theory. The scheme involves a discrete quintic spline, and it is of order 4 if a parameter takes a specific value, else it is of order 2. We also present a well known numerical example to illustrate the efficiency of our method as well as to compare with other numerical methods proposed in the literature.

  3. Parallel double-plate capacitive proximity sensor modelling based on effective theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Nan; Zhu, Haiye; Wang, Wenyu; Gong, Yu

    2014-01-01

    A semi-analytical model for a double-plate capacitive proximity sensor is presented according to the effective theory. Three physical models are established to derive the final equation of the sensor. Measured data are used to determine the coefficients. The final equation is verified by using measured data. The average relative error of the calculated and the measured sensor capacitance is less than 7.5%. The equation can be used to provide guidance to engineering design of the proximity sensors

  4. Free Vibration Analysis of Composite Plates via Refined Theories Accounting for Uncertainties

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    G. Giunta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The free vibration analysis of composite thin and relatively thick plates accounting for uncertainty is addressed in this work. Classical and refined two-dimensional models derived via Carrera's Unified Formulation (CUF are considered. Material properties and geometrical parameters are supposed to be random. The fundamental frequency related to the first bending eigenmode is stochastically described in terms of the mean value, the standard deviation, the related confidence intervals and the cumulative distribution function. The Monte Carlo Method is employed to account for uncertainty. Cross-ply, simply supported, orthotropic plates are accounted for. Symmetric and anti-symmetric lay-ups are investigated. Displacements based and mixed two-dimensional theories are adopted. Equivalent single layer and layer wise approaches are considered. A Navier type solution is assumed. The conducted analyses have shown that for the considered cases, the fundamental natural frequency is not very sensitive to the uncertainty in the material parameters, while uncertainty in the geometrical parameters should be accounted for. In the case of thin plates, all the considered models yield statistically matching results. For relatively thick plates, the difference in the mean value of the natural frequency is due to the different number of degrees of freedom in the model.

  5. Transmission line theory for long plasma production by radio frequency discharges between parallel-plate electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.

    1991-01-01

    In order to seek for a radio frequency (RF) eigen-mode of waves in producing a plasma between a pair of long dielectric-covered parallel-plate RF electrodes, this paper analyzed all normal modes propagating along the electrodes by solving Maxwell's equations. The result showed that only an odd surface wave mode will produce the plasma in usual experimental conditions, which will become a basic transmission line theory when use of such long electrodes for on-line mass-production of amorphous silicon solar cells

  6. Application of Generalized Fractional Thermoelasticity Theory with Two Relaxation Times to an Electromagnetothermoelastic Thick Plate

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    A. M. Abd El-Latief

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractional mathematical model of Maxwell’s equations in an electromagnetic field and the fractional generalized thermoelastic theory associated with two relaxation times are applied to a 1D problem for a thick plate. Laplace transform is used. The solution in Laplace transform domain has been obtained using a direct method and its inversion is calculated numerically using a method based on Fourier series expansion technique. Finally, the effects of the two fractional parameters (thermo and magneto on variable fields distributions are made. Numerical results are represented graphically.

  7. The problem of the black plate with zero thickness and finite width in neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, Pierre.

    1979-08-01

    A black plate with zero thickness, finite width and infinite height, imbedded in an infinite and homogeneous medium which scatters and absorbs neutrons, is considered. The problem is time-independent and the neutrons, which are supposed to have a unique speed, are issued, either from a current at infinity (problem A), or from a uniform source (problem B). It is shown that the Csub(N) method seems to be particularly well suited to the resolution of this 'two-dimensional Milne problem'. A particular interest is attached to the determination of the radius R of the black cylinder leading to the same polar behaviour of the flux at infinity as the plate (criterion 1), or absorbing the same number of neutrons as the plate (criterion 2). In this preliminary report, values of R are calculated in various limit cases: the width of the plate being taken equal to one, l being the mean free path and c the number of secondaries par collision in the outer medium, R is calculated at first in the limit l → 0 (for c = 1) by the theory of Musklelishvili, and then in the limit l → infinity (whatever c is) and c → 0 (whatever l is). In the limit c → 1 (whatever l is), R is shown to be the same in problems A and B and criteria 1 and 2. On the other hand, whatever l and c are; the values of R obtained in the problem A with the criterion 2 and in the problem B with the criterion 1 are shown to be equal. All these results allow henceforth a reasonable interpolation which can be useful in the practice [fr

  8. A review of the pathomechanism of forward slippage in pediatric spondylolysis: the Tokushima theory of growth plate slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairyo, Koichi; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Higashino, Kosaku; Sakai, Toshinori; Suzue, Naoto; Hamada, Daisuke; Takata, Yoichiro; Goto, Tomohiro; Nishisho, Toshihiko; Goda, Yuichiro; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Tonogai, Ichiro; Miyagi, Ryo; Abe, Mitsunobu; Morimoto, Masatoshi; Mineta, Kazuaki; Kimura, Tetsuya; Nitta, Akihiro; Higuchi, Tadahiro; Hama, Shingo; Jha, Subash C; Takahashi, Rui; Fukuta, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    Spondylolysis is a stress fracture of the pars interarticularis, which in some cases progresses to spondylolisthesis (forward slippage of the vertebral body). This slip progression is prevalent in children and occurs very rarely after spinal maturation. The pathomechanism and predilection for children remains controversial despite considerable clinical and basic research into the disorder over the last three decades. Here we review the pathomechanism of spondylolytic spondylolisthesis in children and adolescents, and specifically the Tokushima theory of growth plate slippage developed from our extensive research findings. Clinically, we have observed the slippage site near the growth plate on MRI; then, using fresh cadaveric spines, we found the weakest link against forward shear loading was the growth plate. We subsequently developed an immature rat model showing forward slippage after growth plate injury. Moreover, finite element analysis of the pediatric spine clearly showed increased mechanical stress at the growth plate in the spondylolytic pediatric spine model compared with the intact pediatric spine. Thus, spondylolysis progresses to spondylolisthesis (forward slippage) in children and adolescents with the growth plate as the site of the slippage. Repetitive mechanical loading on to the growth plate may serve to separate the growth plate and subsequently progress to spondylolisthesis.

  9. A higher order shear deformation theory for laminated anisotropic plates and its application in defence industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, T.

    1992-01-01

    Composite materials have been used for centuries, brick reinforced with straw, laminated iron-steel swords, gun-barrels and concrete, to name but a few. Today industrial innovations improved energy planning, uncertain availability have created a greater interest in search of new materials. Now that increasingly performance requirements are forcing many conventional materials to the limit, the engineer's approach of fitting the design to the properties is changing into one of finding materials with the right properties to meet the demand of design, service of economics. The use of composite materials have progressed through several stages in past two and half decade. First, demonstration pieces were built with the idea of let's see if we can build one. For second stage, replacement pieces, part of the objective was to test a part designed to replace a metal part in an existing application. The last stage is actual production pieces designed from the beginning to be fabricated wholly from composite. This last goal is being approached in deliberate, conservation and multistage fashion. A substantial composite technology has been developed and awaits further challenge. In this paper new higher order shear deformable theory for anisotropic laminated composite is presented. The finite element method is used to get static and dynamic solution for the plate with and without damping effects. Finally, example and discussion are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the theory presented herein. (author)

  10. Factors Contributing to Plate Waste among Elementary School Children in Tokyo, Japan: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the aspects of the Theory of Planned Behavior with the greatest relevance to plate waste (PW) among elementary school children in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: A total of 111 fifth- and sixth-grade students at an elementary school in Tokyo, Japan responded to a self-report questionnaire. The…

  11. Predicting guar seed splitting by compression between two plates using Hertz theory of contact stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, R K; Shivhare, U S; Nanda, S K

    2012-09-01

    Hertz's theory of contact stresses was applied to predict the splitting of guar seeds during uni-axial compressive loading between 2 rigid parallel plates. The apparent modulus of elasticity of guar seeds varied between 296.18 and 116.19 MPa when force was applied normal to hilum joint (horizontal position), whereas it varied between 171.86 and 54.18 MPa when force was applied in the direction of hilum joint (vertical position) with in moisture content range of 5.16% to 15.28% (d.b.). At higher moisture contents, the seeds yielded after considerable deformation, thus showing ductile nature. Distribution of stresses below the point of contact were plotted to predict the location of critical point, which was found at 0.44 to 0.64 mm and 0.37 to 0.53 mm below the contact point in vertical and horizontal loading, respectively, depending upon moisture content. The separation of cotyledons from each other initiated before yielding of cotyledons and thus splitting of seed took place. The relationships between apparent modulus of elasticity, principal stresses with moisture content were described using second-order polynomial equations and validated experimentally. Manufacture of guar gum powder requires dehulling and splitting of guar seeds. This article describes splitting behavior of guar seeds under compressive loading. Results of this study may be used for design of dehulling and splitting systems of guar seeds. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. A theory for fluidelastic instability of tube-support-plate-inactive modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.; Chandra, S.

    1991-01-01

    Fluidelastic instability of loosely supported tubes, vibrating in a tube support plate (TSP)-inactive mode, is suspected to be one of the main causes of the tube failure in some operating steam generators and heat exchangers. This paper presents a mathematical model for fluidelastic instability of loosely supported tubes exposed to nonuniform crossflow. the model incorporates all motion-dependent fluid forces based on the unsteady-flow theory. In the unstable region associated with a TSP-inactive mode, tube motion can be described by two linear models: TSP-inactive mode when tubes do not strike the TSP, and TSP-active mode when tubes do strike the TSP. The bilinear model (consisting of these linear models) presented here simulates the characteristics of fluidelastic instability of loosely supported tubes in stable and unstable regions associated with TSP-inactive modes. Analytical results obtained with the model are compared with published experimental data; they agree reasonably well. The prediction procedure presented for the fluidelastic instability response of loosely supported tubes is applicable to the stable and unstable regions of the TSP-inactive mode

  13. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  14. Theory and design of heat exchanger : air cooled plate, spiral heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Ui Dong

    1960-02-01

    This book deals with air cooled heat exchanger, which introduces heat rejection system, wet surface cooler in new from, explanation of structure and design, materials, basic design like plenums chambers and fan ring, finned tube fouling factor, airflow in forced draft and fan design. It also tells of plate heat exchanger and spiral heat exchanger giving descriptions of summary, selection, basic design, device and safety function, maintenance, structure of plate heat exchanger, frames and connector plate and, basic things of spiral tube heat exchanger.

  15. Random matrix theory and acoustic resonances in plates with an approximate symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Ellegaard, C.; Jackson, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a random matrix model of systems with an approximate symmetry and present the spectral fluctuation statistics and eigenvector characteristics for the model. An acoustic resonator like, e.g., an aluminum plate may have an approximate symmetry. We have measured the frequency spectrum and...

  16. A Multi-scale Refined Zigzag Theory for Multilayered Composite and Sandwich Plates with Improved Transverse Shear Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurlaro, Luigi; Gherlone, Marco; Di Sciuva, Marco; Tessler, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT) enables accurate predictions of the in-plane displacements, strains, and stresses. The transverse shear stresses obtained from constitutive equations are layer-wise constant. Although these transverse shear stresses are generally accurate in the average, layer-wise sense, they are nevertheless discontinuous at layer interfaces, and thus they violate the requisite interlaminar continuity of transverse stresses. Recently, Tessler applied Reissner's mixed variational theorem and RZT kinematic assumptions to derive an accurate and efficient shear-deformation theory for homogeneous, laminated composite, and sandwich beams, called RZT(m), where "m" stands for "mixed". Herein, the RZT(m) for beams is extended to plate analysis, where two alternative assumptions for the transverse shear stresses field are examined: the first follows Tessler's formulation, whereas the second is based on Murakami's polynomial approach. Results for elasto-static simply supported and cantilever plates demonstrate that Tessler's formulation results in a powerful and efficient structural theory that is well-suited for the analysis of multilayered composite and sandwich panels.

  17. Comparison of the application of plate and beam theories to the elastic dilation and interaction of PFR sub-assembly wrappers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, R.L.

    1977-10-01

    A wrapper face is assumed to be a long, narrow, rectangular plate. The mechanical interaction between adjacent dilating wrappers in contact along an axial line is discussed in terms of the theory of the bending of plates. A variational method is used to obtain neat and concise equations that determine both the interaction load and the length of the line of contact. The prime objective of the work is to compare the results obtained from plate theory with corresponding expressions from much simpler calculations based on beam theory. Numerical results indicate that the elastic dilation of a wrapper and its interaction with a neighbouring wrapper can be calculated to adequate accuracy by simple beam theory. (author)

  18. Analytical theory of coherent synchrotron radiation wakefield of short bunches shielded by conducting parallel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupakov, Gennady; Zhou, Demin

    2016-04-21

    We develop a general model of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) impedance with shielding provided by two parallel conducting plates. This model allows us to easily reproduce all previously known analytical CSR wakes and to expand the analysis to situations not explored before. It reduces calculations of the impedance to taking integrals along the trajectory of the beam. New analytical results are derived for the radiation impedance with shielding for the following orbits: a kink, a bending magnet, a wiggler of finite length, and an infinitely long wiggler. All our formulas are benchmarked against numerical simulations with the CSRZ computer code.

  19. On three phase lags thermodi¤usion theory in micropolar porous circular plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work examines a two dimensional axisymmetric problem of micropolar porous thermodi¤usion circular plate due to thermal and chemical potential sources. The governing equations are solved by using the potential function. The expressions of displacements, microrotation, volume fraction field, temperature distribution, concentration and stresses are obtained in the transformed domain by using Laplace and Hankel transforms. The inversion of transforms using Fourier expansion techniques has been applied to obtain the results in the physical domain. The numerical results for resulting quantities are obtained and depicted graphically to show the influence of porosity, relaxation time, phase lags, with and without energy dissipation on the resulting quantities. Some particular cases are also deduced.

  20. Two-dimensional linear elasticity theory of magneto-electro-elastic plates considering surface and nonlocal effects for nanoscale device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Li, Peng; Jin, Feng

    2016-09-01

    A novel two-dimensional linear elastic theory of magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) plates, considering both surface and nonlocal effects, is established for the first time based on Hamilton’s principle and the Lee plate theory. The equations derived are more general, suitable for static and dynamic analyses, and can also be reduced to the piezoelectric, piezomagnetic, and elastic cases. As a specific application example, the influences of the surface and nonlocal effects, poling directions, piezoelectric phase materials, volume fraction, damping, and applied magnetic field (i.e., constant applied magnetic field and time-harmonic applied magnetic field) on the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling effects are first investigated based on the established two-dimensional plate theory. The results show that the ME coupling coefficient has an obvious size-dependent characteristic owing to the surface effects, and the surface effects increase the ME coupling effects significantly when the plate thickness decreases to its critical thickness. Below this critical thickness, the size-dependent effect is obvious and must be considered. In addition, the output power density of a magnetic energy nanoharvester is also evaluated using the two-dimensional plate theory obtained, with the results showing that a relatively larger output power density can be achieved at the nanoscale. This study provides a mathematical tool which can be used to analyze the mechanical properties of nanostructures theoretically and numerically, as well as evaluating the size effect qualitatively and quantitatively.

  1. Modeling and analysis of proximal tibial growth plate fractures in adolescents: Theory and potential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Basile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overuse injuries in children and adolescents are becoming increasingly common, particularly in those who regularly participate in a single sport. As a result, prevention, early detection and treatment of these injuries is vital. However, existing research in adult populations cannot always be directly applied to analogous cases in younger populations. This study attempts to provide an example of how both mathematical and computer modeling can be utilized to predict alterations in load locations, directions, and magnitudes resulting from maturational changes in a way not possible in vivo. Methods: A 2D leg extension model was created and used to calculate relevant forces at the proximal knee joint. Individual aspects of the model, such as quadriceps force and leg length, were changed to quantify how increases in a growing adolescent’s force generation and limb length may affect the forces at the joint. The derived forces were input into a 3D finite element model incorporating a growing young adult’s relatively weaker epiphyseal plate material to calculate the stresses and strains on the tibia of an adolescent. Results: Findings indicated that a shortened patellar tendon and increased quadriceps muscle strength were potentially greater contributors to increased stress on the proximal tibia, as opposed to aspects such as height and weight changes. Conclusions: The theoretical and computational methods employed show promise in their ability to predict potential injury risks in populations for whom evidence-based research is lacking. Models incorporating the elbow and shoulder have high impact potential for young baseball pitchers.

  2. Casimir amplitudes and capillary condensation of near-critical fluids between parallel plates: renormalized local functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Ryuichi; Onuki, Akira

    2012-03-21

    We investigate the critical behavior of a near-critical fluid confined between two parallel plates in contact with a reservoir by calculating the order parameter profile and the Casimir amplitudes (for the force density and for the grand potential). Our results are applicable to one-component fluids and binary mixtures. We assume that the walls absorb one of the fluid components selectively for binary mixtures. We propose a renormalized local functional theory accounting for the fluctuation effects. Analysis is performed in the plane of the temperature T and the order parameter in the reservoir ψ(∞). Our theory is universal if the physical quantities are scaled appropriately. If the component favored by the walls is slightly poor in the reservoir, there appears a line of first-order phase transition of capillary condensation outside the bulk coexistence curve. The excess adsorption changes discontinuously between condensed and noncondensed states at the transition. With increasing T, the transition line ends at a capillary critical point T=T(c) (ca) slightly lower than the bulk critical temperature T(c) for the upper critical solution temperature. The Casimir amplitudes are larger than their critical point values by 10-100 times at off-critical compositions near the capillary condensation line. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  3. Aero-servo-viscoelasticity theory: Lifting surfaces, plates, velocity transients, flutter, and instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, Craig G.

    -partial differential equations. The spatial component of the governing equations is eliminated using a series expansion of basis functions and by applying Galerkin's method. The number of terms in the series expansion affects the convergence of the spatial component, and convergence is best determined by the von Koch rules that previously appeared for column buckling problems. After elimination of the spatial component, an ordinary integral-differential equation in time remains. The dynamic stability of elastic and viscoelastic problems is assessed using the determinant of the governing system of equations and the time component of the solution in the form exp (lambda t). The determinant is in terms of lambda where the values of lambda are the latent roots of the aero-servo-viscoelastic system. The real component of lambda dictates the stability of the system. If all the real components are negative, the system is stable. If at least one real component is zero and all others are negative, the system is neutrally stable. If one or more real components are positive, the system is unstable. In aero-servo-viscoelasticity, the neutrally stable condition is termed flutter. For an aero-servo-viscoelastic lifting surface, the unstable condition is historically termed torsional divergence. The more general aero-servo-viscoelastic theory has produced a number of important results, enumerated in the following list: 1. Subsonic panel flutter can occur before panel instability. This result overturned a long held assumption in aeroelasticity, and was produced by the novel application of the von Koch rules for convergence. Further, experimental results from the 1950s by the Air Force were retrieved to provide additional proof. 2. An expanded definition for flutter of a lifting surface. The legacy definition is that flutter is the first occurrence of simple harmonic motion of a structure, and the flight velocity at which this motion occurs is taken as the flutter speed. The expanded definition

  4. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    's continental drift theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it has laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. In the early... of the structure of the atom was to physical sciences and the theory of evolution was to the life sciences. Tectonics is the study of the forces within the Earth that give rise to continents, ocean basins, mountain ranges, earthquake belts and other large-scale...

  5. Static stability analysis of smart magneto-electro-elastic heterogeneous nanoplates embedded in an elastic medium based on a four-variable refined plate theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a nonlocal four-variable refined plate theory is developed to examine the buckling behavior of nanoplates made of magneto-electro-elastic functionally graded (MEE-FG) materials resting on Winkler-Pasternak foundation. Material properties of nanoplate change in spatial coordinate based on power-law distribution. The nonlocal governing equations are deduced by employing the Hamilton principle. For various boundary conditions, the analytical solutions of nonlocal MEE-FG plates for buckling problem will be obtained based on an exact solution approach. Finally, dependency of buckling response of MEE-FG nanoplate on elastic foundation parameters, magnetic potential, external electric voltage, various boundary conditions, small scale parameter, power-law index, plate side-to-thickness ratio and aspect ratio will be figure out. These results can be advantageous for the mechanical analysis and design of intelligent nanoscale structures constructed from magneto-electro-thermo-elastic functionally graded materials.

  6. Plate and shell theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Fundamental analytical methods for the calculation of the bending strength and stability of isotrop and stiffened panels typically used in ship structures.Practical working examples with references to the rules of ship classification societies....

  7. Dynamic analysis of isotropic nanoplates subjected to moving load using state-space method based on nonlocal second order plate theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nami, Mohammad Rahim [Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Janghorban, Maziar [Islamic Azad University, Marvdash (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this work, dynamic analysis of rectangular nanoplates subjected to moving load is presented. In order to derive the governing equations of motion, second order plate theory is used. To capture the small scale effects, the nonlocal elasticity theory is adopted. It is assumed that the nanoplate is subjected to a moving concentrated load with the constant velocity V in the x direction. To solve the governing equations, state-space method is used to find the deflections of rectangular nanoplate under moving load. The results obtained here reveal that the nonlocality has significant effect on the deflection of rectangular nanoplate subjected to moving load.

  8. Vibration and buckling of orthotropic functionally graded micro-plates on the basis of a re-modified couple stress theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihao Yang

    Full Text Available A microstructure-dependent model for the free vibration and buckling analysis of an orthotropic functionally graded micro-plate was proposed on the basis of a re-modified couple stress theory. The macro- and microscopic anisotropy were simultaneously taken into account by introducing two material length scale parameters. The material attributes were assumed to vary continuously through the thickness direction by a power law. The governing equations and corresponding boundary conditions were derived through Hamilton’s principle. The Navier method was used to calculate the natural frequencies and buckling loads of a simply supported micro-plate. The numerical results indicated that the present model predicts higher natural frequencies and critical buckling loads than the classical model, particular when the geometric size of the micro-plates is comparable to the material length scale parameters, i.e., the scale effect is well represented. The scale effect becomes more noticeable as the material length scale parameters increase, the anisotropy weaken or the power law index increases, and vice versa. Keywords: Free vibration, Buckling, Functionally graded materials, Modified couple stress theory, Scale effect

  9. Charts Adapted from Van Driest's Turbulent Flat-plate Theory for Determining Values of Turbulent Aerodynamic Friction and Heat-transfer Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dorothy B; Faget, Maxime A

    1956-01-01

    A modified method of Van Driest's flat-plate theory for turbulent boundary layer has been found to simplify the calculation of local skin-friction coefficients which, in turn, have made it possible to obtain through Reynolds analogy theoretical turbulent heat-transfer coefficients in the form of Stanton number. A general formula is given and charts are presented from which the modified method can be solved for Mach numbers 1.0 to 12.0, temperature ratios 0.2 to 6.0, and Reynolds numbers 0.2 times 10 to the 6th power to 200 times 10 to the 6th power.

  10. Thermo-fluid-dynamics of natural convection around a heated vertical plate with a critical assessment of the standard similarity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Abhijit; Nayek, Subhajit

    2017-10-01

    A compulsory element of all textbooks on natural convection has been a detailed similarity analysis for laminar natural convection on a heated semi-infinite vertical plate and a routinely used boundary condition for such analysis is u = 0 at x = 0. The same boundary condition continues to be assumed in related theoretical analyses, even in recent publications. The present work examines the consequence of this long-held assumption, which appears to have never been questioned in the literature, on the fluid dynamics and heat transfer characteristics. The assessment has been made here by solving the Navier-Stokes equations numerically with two boundary conditions—one with constrained velocity at x = 0 to mimic the similarity analysis and the other with no such constraints simulating the case of a heated vertical plate in an infinite expanse of the quiescent fluid medium. It is found that the fluid flow field given by the similarity theory is drastically different from that given by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations with unconstrained velocity. This also reflects on the Nusselt number, the prediction of the CFD simulations with unconstrained velocity being quite close to the experimentally measured values at all Grashof and Prandtl numbers (this is the first time theoretically computed values of the average Nusselt number N u ¯ are found to be so close to the experimental values). The difference of the Nusselt number (Δ N u ¯ ) predicted by the similarity theory and that by the CFD simulations (as well as the measured values), both computed with a high degree of precision, can be very significant, particularly at low Grashof numbers and at Prandtl numbers far removed from unity. Computations show that within the range of investigations (104 ≤ GrL ≤ 108, 0.01 ≤ Pr ≤ 100), the maximum value of Δ N u ¯ may be of the order 50%. Thus, for quantitative predictions, the available theory (i.e., similarity analysis) can be rather inadequate. With

  11. Kirchhoff plate theory-based electromechanically-coupled analytical model considering inertia and stiffness effects of a surface-bonded piezoelectric patch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Heonjun; Youn, Byeng D; Kim, Heung Soo

    2016-01-01

    As a compact and durable design concept, piezoelectric energy harvesting skin (PEH skin) has been recently proposed for self-powered electronic device applications. This study aims to develop an electromechanically-coupled analytical model of PEH skin considering the inertia and stiffness effects of a piezoelectric patch. Based on Kirchhoff plate theory, Hamilton’s principle is used to derive the electromechanically-coupled differential equation of motion. Due to the geometric discontinuity of the piezoelectric patch, the Rayleigh–Ritz method is applied to calculate the natural frequency and corresponding mode shapes. The electrical circuit equation is derived from Gauss’s law. Output voltage is estimated by solving the equation of motion and electrical circuit equation, simultaneously. For the purpose of evaluating the predictive capability, the results of the electromechanically-coupled analytical model are compared with those of the finite element method in a hierarchical manner. The outstanding merits of the electromechanically-coupled analytical model of PEH skin are three-fold: (1) consideration of the inertia and stiffness effects of the piezoelectric patches; (2) physical parameterization between the two-dimensional mechanical configuration and piezoelectric transduction; (3) manipulability of the twisting modes of a cantilever plate with a small aspect ratio. (paper)

  12. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  13. Study of Nd:YAG laser annealing of electroless Ni-P film on spiegel-iron plate by Taguchi method and grey system theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, 64, Wunhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China); Chien, W.T.; Jiang, M.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuehfu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Chen, W.J., E-mail: chenwjau@yuntech.edu.t [Graduate School of Materials Science, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, 123 University Road, Section 3, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-09

    An electroless Ni-P film was first deposited on a spiegel-iron plate and then annealed by an Nd:YAG pulsed wave laser. In order to obtain the optimal laser annealing parameters for maximizing the hardness and minimizing the surface roughness of electroless Ni-P films, the Taguchi method and grey system theory were used to analyze the experimental data. The electroless Ni-P film was also characterized by scanning electron microscopy for the morphology, and transmission electron microscopy for the microstructure and crystal structure. The results showed that the hardness and the surface roughness of electroless Ni-P films can be, at the same time, improved to 50.8% and 68%, respectively, by the laser annealing with the optimal parameters.

  14. Study of Nd:YAG laser annealing of electroless Ni-P film on spiegel-iron plate by Taguchi method and grey system theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.L.; Chien, W.T.; Jiang, M.H.; Chen, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    An electroless Ni-P film was first deposited on a spiegel-iron plate and then annealed by an Nd:YAG pulsed wave laser. In order to obtain the optimal laser annealing parameters for maximizing the hardness and minimizing the surface roughness of electroless Ni-P films, the Taguchi method and grey system theory were used to analyze the experimental data. The electroless Ni-P film was also characterized by scanning electron microscopy for the morphology, and transmission electron microscopy for the microstructure and crystal structure. The results showed that the hardness and the surface roughness of electroless Ni-P films can be, at the same time, improved to 50.8% and 68%, respectively, by the laser annealing with the optimal parameters.

  15. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  16. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  17. Parallel plate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Volkov, P.

    1981-01-01

    A 5x3cm 2 (timing only) and a 15x5cm 2 (timing and position) parallel plate avalanche counters (PPAC) are considered. The theory of operation and timing resolution is given. The measurement set-up and the curves of experimental results illustrate the possibilities of the two counters [fr

  18. Elastic stability of thick auxetic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Auxetic materials and structures exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio while thick plates encounter shear deformation, which is not accounted for in classical plate theory. This paper investigates the effect of a negative Poisson’s ratio on thick plates that are subjected to buckling loads, taking into consideration the shear deformation using Mindlin plate theory. Using a highly accurate shear correction factor that allows for the effect of Poisson’s ratio, the elastic stability of circular and square plates are evaluated in terms of dimensionless parameters, namely the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratio and Mindlin critical buckling load factors. Results for thick square plates reveal that both parameters increase as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. In the case of thick circular plates, the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratios and the Mindlin critical buckling load factors increase and decrease, respectively, as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. The results obtained herein show that thick auxetic plates behave as thin conventional plates, and therefore suggest that the classical plate theory can be used to evaluate the elastic stability of thick plates if the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. The results also suggest that materials with highly negative Poisson’s ratios are recommended for square plates, but not circular plates, that are subjected to buckling loads. (paper)

  19. Application of generalized function to dynamic analysis of thick plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, D.; Weng, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The structures with thick plates have been used extensively in national defence, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, nuclear engineering, civil engineering, etc.. Various theories have been established to deal with the problems of elastic plates, which include the classical theory of thin plates, the improved theory of thick plates, three-dimensional elastical theory. In this paper, the derivative of δ-function is handled by using the generalized function. The dynamic analysis of thick plates subjected the concentrated load is presented. The improved Donnell's equation of thick plates is deduced and employed as the basic equation. The generalized coordinates are solved by using the method of MWR. The general expressions for the dynamic response of elastic thick plates subjected the concentrated load are given. The numerical results for rectangular plates are given herein. The results are compared with those obtained from the improved theory and the classical theory of plates. (orig./GL)

  20. A new discrete Kirchhoff-Mindlin element based on Mindlin-Reissner plate theory and assumed shear strain fields. I - An extended DKT element for thick-plate bending analysis. II - An extended DKQ element for thick-plate bending analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katili, Irwan

    1993-06-01

    A new three-node nine-degree-of-freedom triangular plate bending element is proposed which is valid for the analysis of both thick and thin plates. The element, called the discrete Kirchhoff-Mindlin triangle (DKMT), has a proper rank, passes the patch test for thin and thick plates in an arbitrary mesh, and is free of shear locking. As an extension of the DKMT element, a four-node element with 3 degrees of freedom per node is developed. The element, referred to as DKMQ (discrete Kirchhoff-Mindlin quadrilateral) is found to provide good results for both thin and thick plates without any compatibility problems.

  1. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf, R.; Budić, B.; Stamenković, D.; Čolić, M.; Ivanič, A.; Kosec, B.

    2013-01-01

    Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  2. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective ... foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put ...

  4. Optics for People Stuck in Traffic: License Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnon, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Explains the theory behind the working of Scotchlite, a retrodirective material used for coating automotive license plates, and the Ensure Imaging System that allows law enforcement officers to verify the authenticity of the plate. (JRH)

  5. analytical bending solution of all clamped isotropic rectangular plate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    PLATE ON WINKLER'S FOUNDATION USING CHARACTERISTIC. ORTHOGONAL ... foundations, storage tanks, swimming pools, floor system of buildings, highways ..... “Energy Methods in Theory of Rectangular Plates. (use of Polynomial ...

  6. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated......Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... theoretically and experimentally and the issue of finite size effects is addressed....

  7. Buckling Response of Thick Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUAZZA MOKHTAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the buckling of a functionally graded plate is studied by using first order shear deformation theory (FSDT. The material properties of the plate are assumed to be graded continuously in the direction of thickness. The variation of the material properties follows a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The von Karman strains are used to construct the equilibrium equations of the plates subjected to two types of thermal loading, linear temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered. The governing equations are reduced to linear differential equation with boundary conditions yielding a simple solution procedure. In addition, the effects of temperature field, volume fraction distributions, and system geometric parameters are investigated. The results are compared with the results of the no shear deformation theory (classic plate theory, CPT.

  8. Validation of three-dimensional incompressible spatial direct numerical simulation code: A comparison with linear stability and parabolic stability equation theories for boundary-layer transition on a flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Streett, Craig L.; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    1992-01-01

    Spatially evolving instabilities in a boundary layer on a flat plate are computed by direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. In a truncated physical domain, a nonstaggered mesh is used for the grid. A Chebyshev-collocation method is used normal to the wall; finite difference and compact difference methods are used in the streamwise direction; and a Fourier series is used in the spanwise direction. For time stepping, implicit Crank-Nicolson and explicit Runge-Kutta schemes are used to the time-splitting method. The influence-matrix technique is used to solve the pressure equation. At the outflow boundary, the buffer-domain technique is used to prevent convective wave reflection or upstream propagation of information from the boundary. Results of the DNS are compared with those from both linear stability theory (LST) and parabolized stability equation (PSE) theory. Computed disturbance amplitudes and phases are in very good agreement with those of LST (for small inflow disturbance amplitudes). A measure of the sensitivity of the inflow condition is demonstrated with both LST and PSE theory used to approximate inflows. Although the DNS numerics are very different than those of PSE theory, the results are in good agreement. A small discrepancy in the results that does occur is likely a result of the variation in PSE boundary condition treatment in the far field. Finally, a small-amplitude wave triad is forced at the inflow, and simulation results are compared with those of LST. Again, very good agreement is found between DNS and LST results for the 3-D simulations, the implication being that the disturbance amplitudes are sufficiently small that nonlinear interactions are negligible.

  9. The tectonic plates are moving!

    CERN Document Server

    Livermore, Roy

    2018-01-01

    Written in a witty and informal style, this book explains modern plate tectonics in a non-technical manner, showing not only how it accounts for phenomena such as great earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, but also how it controls conditions at the Earth’s surface, including global geography and climate, making it suitable for life. The book presents the advances that have been made since the establishment of plate tectonics in the 1960s, highlighting, on the fiftieth anniversary of the theory, the contributions of a small number of scientists who have never been widely recognized for their discoveries. Beginning with the publication of a short article in Nature by Vine and Matthews, the book traces the development of plate tectonics through two generations of the theory. First-generation plate tectonics covers the exciting scientific revolution of the 1960s, its heroes, and its villains. The second generation includes the rapid expansions in sonar, satellite, and seismic technologies during the 1...

  10. On the lamb wave propagation in anisotropic laminated composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Keun; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Moon Saeng

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the propagation of Lamb (or plate) waves in anisotropic laminated composite plates. The dispersion relations are explicitly derived using the classical plate theory (CLT), the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and the exact solution (ES), Attention is paid to the lowest antisymmetric (flexural) and lowest symmetric(extensional) modes in the low frequency, long wavelength limit. Different values of shear correction factor were tested in FSDT and comparisons between flexural wave dispersion curves were made with exact results to asses the range of validity of approximate plate theories in the frequency domain.

  11. Radiation shielding plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Torakichi; Sugawara, Takeo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and stabilize the configuration of a radiation shielding plate which is used in close contact with an object to be irradiated with radiation rays. Constitution: The radiation shielding plate comprises a substrate made of lead glass and a metallic lead coating on the surface of the substrate by means of plating, vapor deposition or the like. Apertures for permeating radiation rays are formed to the radiation shielding plate. Since the shielding plate is based on a lead glass plate, a sufficient mechanical strength can be obtained with a thinner structure as compared with the conventional plate made of metallic lead. Accordingly, if the shielding plate is disposed on a soft object to be irradiated with radiation rays, the object and the plate itself less deform to obtain a radiation irradiation pattern with distinct edges. (Moriyama, K.)

  12. Introduction to Analysis and Design of Plate Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Lützen, Marie

    , composite materials as glass-fibre-reinforced plates, sandwich plates and reinforced concrete plates are not included as they are topics for other courses. The present notes are mainly based on Pedersen and Jensen (1983), written in Danish. The first version of the notes was prepared by Marie L......The present notes cover plate theory dealing with bending, vibrations, elastic buckling and ultimate strength. The plate structures considered are isotropic, orthotropic and stiffened plates made of metallic materials. The main objective of the notes is to give an introduction to plates and plate...... panels and to present some fairly easy methods and results to be used in the design phase to judge, whether a plate panel can be considered safe from a structural point of view or requires a more detailed numerical analysis, typically using the Finite Element Method. Furthermore, a short introduction...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy ... plate. Then on one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. ...

  14. Create Your Plate

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  15. Create Your Plate

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  16. Create Your Plate

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  17. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  18. Paper microzone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Emanuel; Phillips, Scott T; Vella, Sarah J; Martinez, Andres W; Whitesides, George M

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (approximately 180 microm), require small volumes of sample (5 microL per zone), and can be manufactured from inexpensive materials ($0.05 per plate). The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers. This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (approximately 15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates. These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The limit of detection per zone loaded for fluorescence was 125 fmol for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, and this level corresponds to 0.02 the quantity of analyte per well used to achieve comparable signal-to-noise in a 96-well plastic plate (using a solution of 25 nM labeled protein). The limits of detection for absorbance on paper was approximately 50 pmol per zone for both Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth dyes; these values were 0.4 that required for the plastic plate. Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader.

  19. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  20. Nonlinear morphoelastic plates II: Exodus to buckled states

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, J.

    2011-05-11

    Morphoelasticity is the theory of growing elastic materials. The theory is based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient and provides a formulation of the deformation and stresses induced by growth. Following a companion paper, a general theory of growing non-linear elastic Kirchhoff plate is described. First, a complete geometric description of incompatibility with simple examples is given. Second, the stability of growing Kirchhoff plates is analyzed. © SAGE Publications 2011.

  1. Nonlinear morphoelastic plates II: Exodus to buckled states

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, J.; Goriely, A.; Tabor, M.

    2011-01-01

    Morphoelasticity is the theory of growing elastic materials. The theory is based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient and provides a formulation of the deformation and stresses induced by growth. Following a companion paper, a general theory of growing non-linear elastic Kirchhoff plate is described. First, a complete geometric description of incompatibility with simple examples is given. Second, the stability of growing Kirchhoff plates is analyzed. © SAGE Publications 2011.

  2. Nonlinear analysis of flexible plates lying on elastic foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trushin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes numerical procedures for analysis of flexible rectangular plates lying on elastic foundation. Computing models are based on the theory of plates with account of transverse shear deformations. The finite difference energy method of discretization is used for reducing the initial continuum problem to finite dimensional problem. Solution procedures for nonlinear problem are based on Newton-Raphson method. This theory of plates and numerical methods have been used for investigation of nonlinear behavior of flexible plates on elastic foundation with different properties.

  3. Create Your Plate

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  5. Thermal Effects on Vibration and Control of Piezocomposite Kirchhoff Plate Modeled by Finite Elements Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sanbi, M.; Saadani, R.; Sbai, K.; Rahmoune, M.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical results of the modeling of a smart plate are presented for optimal active vibration control. The smart plate consists of a rectangular aluminum piezocomposite plate modeled in cantilever configuration with surface bonded thermopiezoelectric patches. The patches are symmetrically bonded on top and bottom surfaces. A generic thermopiezoelastic theory for piezocomposite plate is derived, using linear thermopiezoelastic theory and Kirchhoff assumptions. Finite element eq...

  6. Create Your Plate

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  9. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... ready, you can try new foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. Then on one side, cut it ... and starchy foods. See this list of grains and starchy foods . ...

  10. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    elsewhere, such as S.J. Shand (1933), E.B. Bailey (1939), and Arthur Holmes (1944), presented continental drift as a working hypothesis that could elegantly solve important geological problems. Americans were preconditioned to dislike continental drift theory, ever since James Dwight Dana taught in his Manual of Geology (1863...1895) that North America was the type continent of the world, and that it had stood alone since earliest time. Such beliefs sometimes trump geologic evidence. As noted by Stephen Jay Gould (1999) Sigmund Freud had much insight into the psychology of scientific revolutions: they involve a scientific development that shows humans to have lesser status than previously perceived. In the Copernican revolution (geocentrism vs. heliocentrism) humans no longer inhabited the center of the universe. In the Darwinian revolution (creationism vs. evolutionism) humans were no longer uniquely created. In the Wegenerian revolution (fixism vs. mobilism) North America was no longer uniquely created; it was just other fragment from Pangaea. North American geologists were pleased when Press & Siever gave them their own lithospheric plate. Being a global-tectonic killjoy, I would like to take away that small consolation as well. Or at least pose the question: Is there really a North American Plate?

  11. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  12. High loading uranium plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pari of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat hiving a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process

  13. Continuum Mechanics of Beam and Plate Flexure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    This text has been written and used during the spring of 1995 for a course on flexural mechanics of beams and plates at Aalborg University. The idea has been to concentrate on basic principles of the theories, which are of importance to the modern structural engineer. Today's structural engineer...... must be acquainted with the classic beam and plate theories, when reading manuals and using modern software tools such as the finite element method. Each chapter includes supplementary theory and derivations enabling consultation of the notes also at a later stage of study. A preliminary chapter...... introduces the modern notation used in textbooks and in research today. It further gives an introduction to three-dimensional continuum mechanics of elastic bodies and the related principles of virtual work. The ideas to give the students a basic understanding of the stresses and strains, the equilibrium...

  14. Heat insulating plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, J.A.F.

    1976-10-28

    Micro-porous insulation plates are dealt with, for example, how they are used in the insulation of heat storage devices. Since one side of such plates is exposed to a temperature of over 700/sup 0/C, a shrinkage of the glass texture of the covering can occur, which can exceed the shrinkage of the inner micro-porous material, so that cracks and splits in the high temperature side of the covering can come about. The task of the invention is to design the plate in such a way as to prevent this from happening. For this purpose the plate is provided, according to invention specifications, with flutes, waves, ribs, waffle or grid patterns and the covering is set into the recesses originating from this.

  15. Create Your Plate

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  17. Create Your Plate

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  18. Create Your Plate

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  1. Create Your Plate

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  4. Create Your Plate

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  10. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

  11. Create Your Plate

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  14. BAO Plate Archive Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Paronyan, G. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Andreasyan, H. R.; Azatyan, N. M.; Kostandyan, G. R.; Samsonyan, A. L.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Harutyunyan, V. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) Plate Archive Project that is aimed at digitization, extraction and analysis of archival data and building an electronic database and interactive sky map. BAO Plate Archive consists of 37,500 photographic plates and films, obtained with 2.6m telescope, 1m and 0.5m Schmidt telescopes and other smaller ones during 1947-1991. The famous Markarian Survey (or the First Byurakan Survey, FBS) 2000 plates were digitized in 2002-2005 and the Digitized FBS (DFBS, www.aras.am/Dfbs/dfbs.html) was created. New science projects have been conducted based on this low-dispersion spectroscopic material. Several other smaller digitization projects have been carried out as well, such as part of Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) plates, photographic chain plates in Coma, where the blazar ON 231 is located and 2.6m film spectra of FBS Blue Stellar Objects. However, most of the plates and films are not digitized. In 2015, we have started a project on the whole BAO Plate Archive digitization, creation of electronic database and its scientific usage. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) database will accommodate all new data. The project runs in collaboration with the Armenian Institute of Informatics and Automation Problems (IIAP) and will continues during 4 years in 2015-2018. The final result will be an Electronic Database and online Interactive Sky map to be used for further research projects. ArVO will provide all standards and tools for efficient usage of the scientific output and its integration in international databases.

  15. Neutron imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1995-01-01

    Imaging plates have been used in the field of medical diagnosis since long ago, but their usefulness was verified as the two-dimensional detector for analyzing the X-ray crystalline structure of high bio molecules like protein, and they have contributed to the remarkable progress in this field. The great contribution is due to the excellent features, such as the detection efficiency of about 100%, the positional resolution smaller than 0.2 mm, the dynamic range of five digits, and the area of several hundreds mm square. The neutron imaging plates have not yet obtained the sufficient results. It was planned to construct the neutron diffractometer for biological matters, and to put imaging plate neutron detectors (IP-ND) to practical use as the detector. The research on the development of IP-NDs was carried out, and the IPp-NDs having the performance comparable with that for X-ray were able to be produced. Imaging plates are the integral type two-dimensional radiation detector using photostimulated luminescence matters, and their principle is explained. As to neutron imaging plates, the converter, neutron detection efficiency and the flight of secondary particles in photo-stimulated luminescence matters are described. As for the present state of development of neutron imaging plates, the IP-NDs made for trial, the dynamic range, the positional resolution, the detection efficiency and the kinds of converters, and the application of IP-NDs are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Free vibration analysis of rectangular plates with central cutout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanak Kalita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A nine-node isoparametric plate element in conjunction with first-order shear deformation theory is used for free vibration analysis of rectangular plates with central cutouts. Both thick and thin plate problems are solved for various aspect ratios and boundary conditions. In this article, primary focus is given to the effect of rotary inertia on natural frequencies of perforated rectangular plates. It is found that rotary inertia has significant effect on thick plates, while for thin plates the rotary inertia term can be ignored. It is seen that the numerical convergence is very rapid and based on comparison with experimental and analytical data from literature, it is proposed that the present formulation is capable of yielding highly accurate results. Finally, some new numerical solutions are provided here, which may serve as benchmark for future research on similar problems.

  17. Dynamic coupled piezothermoelasticity of pyroelectric composite plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidary, F.; Reza Eslami, M.

    2005-01-01

    The equations governing the linear response of coupled piezothermolelastic composite plate, considering the pyroelectric effect, are outlined in this paper. The finite element method with linear shape functions for a first-order shear deformation theory of laminated plates is used to obtain the defections and temperature. The finite element equations are developed for piezothermoelectric sensor and actuator. The governing equations are solved using the time marching method. Numerical results are presented for the conventional active direct proportional control of the plate. Controlled and uncontrolled displacements and temperature responses are graphically illustrated. the corresponding temperature response with consideration of the pyroelectric effects is also presented. Dynamic case studies are carried out to observe the pyroelectric effects in the piezothermoelastic control systems. (authors)

  18. Concentration of solar radiation by white painted transparent plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smestad, G; Hamill, P

    1982-04-01

    A simple flat-plate solar concentrator is described in this paper. The device is composed of a white painted transparent plate with a photovoltaic cell fixed to an unpainted area on the bottom of the plate. Light scattering off the white material is either lost or directed to the solar cell. Experimental concentrations of up to 1.9 times the incident solar flux have been achieved using white clays. These values are close to those predicted by theory for the experimental parameters investigated. A theory of the device operation is developed. Using this theory suggestions are made for optimizing the concentrator system. For reasonable choices of cell and plate size and reflectivities of 80% concentrations of over 2x are possible. The concentrator has the advantage over other systems in that the concentration is independent of incidence angle and the concentrator is easy to produce. The device needs no tracking system and will concentrate on a cloudy day.

  19. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  20. Plate tectonics in the late Paleozoic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Domeier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the chronicle of plate motions through time, paleogeography is fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics and its role in shaping the geology of the present-day. To properly appreciate the history of tectonics—and its influence on the deep Earth and climate—it is imperative to seek an accurate and global model of paleogeography. However, owing to the incessant loss of oceanic lithosphere through subduction, the paleogeographic reconstruction of ‘full-plates’ (including oceanic lithosphere becomes increasingly challenging with age. Prior to 150 Ma ∼60% of the lithosphere is missing and reconstructions are developed without explicit regard for oceanic lithosphere or plate tectonic principles; in effect, reflecting the earlier mobilistic paradigm of continental drift. Although these ‘continental’ reconstructions have been immensely useful, the next-generation of mantle models requires global plate kinematic descriptions with full-plate reconstructions. Moreover, in disregarding (or only loosely applying plate tectonic rules, continental reconstructions fail to take advantage of a wealth of additional information in the form of practical constraints. Following a series of new developments, both in geodynamic theory and analytical tools, it is now feasible to construct full-plate models that lend themselves to testing by the wider Earth-science community. Such a model is presented here for the late Paleozoic (410–250 Ma together with a review of the underlying data. Although we expect this model to be particularly useful for numerical mantle modeling, we hope that it will also serve as a general framework for understanding late Paleozoic tectonics, one on which future improvements can be built and further tested.

  1. Application of generalized function to dynamic analysis of elasto-plastic thick plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, D.; Weng, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The elasto-plastic dynamic analysis of thick plates is of great significance to the research and the design on an anti-seismic structure and an anti-explosive structure. In this paper, the derivative of δ-function is handled by using the generalized function. The dynamic influence coefficient of thick plates in deduced. A dynamic response of elasto-plastic thick plates its material has hardening behaviour considered, is analysed by using known elastic solutions. The general expressions for the dynamic response of elasto-plastic rectangular thick plates subjected arbitrary loads are given. Detailed computations are performed for the square plates of various height-span ratios. The results are compared with those obtained from the improved theory and the classical theory of plates. The modification of the classical deflection theory for plates is employed. The increment analysis is used for calculations. The yield function is considered as a function of inplane and transverse shear stresses. (orig./GL)

  2. Plating on Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Jones, A.

    1979-03-01

    Zircaloy-2 is a difficult alloy to coat with an adherent electroplate because it easily forms a tenacious oxide film in air and aqueous solutions. Procedures reported in the literature and those developed at SLL for surmounting this problem were investigated. The best results were obtained when specimens were first etched in either an ammonium bifluoride/sulfuric acid or an ammonium bifluoride solution, plated, and then heated at 700 0 C for 1 hour in a constrained condition. Machining threads in the Zircaloy-2 for the purpose of providing sites for mechanical interlocking of the plating also proved satisfactory

  3. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  4. Hydrodynamics of a flexible plate between pitching rigid plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a flexible plate have been studied as a model problem in swimming and flying of animals and fluid-structure interaction of plants and flags. Motivated by fish schooling and an array of sea grasses, we investigate the dynamics of a flexible plate closely placed between two pitching rigid plates. In most studies on passive deformation of the flexible plate, the plate is immersed in a uniform flow or a wavy flow. However, in this study, the flexible plate experiences periodic deformation by the oscillatory flow generated by the prescribed pitching motion of the rigid plates. In our model, the pitching axes of the rigid plates and the clamping position of the flexible plate are aligned on the same line. The flexible plate shows various responses depending on length and pitching frequency of rigid plates, thickness of a flexible plate, and free-stream velocity. To find the effect of each variable on the response of the flexible plate, amplitude of a trailing edge and modal contribution of a flapping motion are compared, and flow structure around the flexible plate is examined.

  5. DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF THICK PLATES ON TWO PARAMETER ELASTIC FOUNDATION UNDER TIME VARIABLE LOADING

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgan, Korhan; Daloglu, Ayse T.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, behavior of foundation plates with transverse shear deformation under time variable loading is presented using modified Vlasov foundation model. Finite element formulation of thick plates on elastic foundation is derived by using an 8-noded finite element based on Mindlin plate theory. Selective reduced integration technique is used to avoid shear locking problem which arises when smaller plate thickness is considered for the evaluation of the stiffness matrices. After comparis...

  6. Investigation of Heat Transfer to a Flat Plate in a Shock Tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    2 Objectives and Scope . . . . . .. .. .. .... 5 11. Theory ............... ....... 7 Shock Tube Principles........... 7 Boundary Layer Theory ...in *excess of theory , but the rounded edge flat plate exhibited data which matched or was less than what theory predicted for each Mach number tested...normal shock advancing along an infinite flat plate. For x< Ugt there is a region of interaction between the downstream influence of the leading edge

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... meal-planning, . In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tool is not to scale because of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future Without Diabetes Donate towards research today and your gift will be matched. Donate ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... Type 2 Education Series Hear audio clips and full recordings of past Q&A events at your ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  13. Microchannel plate photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majka, R.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given the status of development work on photodetectors using microchannel plates (MCP) as the electron gain element. Projections are made and opinions are presented on what might be available in the next few years. Several uses for these devices at ISABELLE are mentioned

  14. Flat plate collector. Solarflachkollektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, N

    1979-03-29

    The invention refers to a flat solar collector with an absorber plate, which is arranged on a support and is covered by a transparent window, between which and the plate there is an air space. The previously known structures of this type had the disadvantage that the thermal expansion of the enclosed air caused considerable difficulties. The purpose of the invention is therefore to create a collector, which can be used on the modular system, retains its properties and is safe in spite of the great temperature variations. According to the invention this problem is solved by providing a compensating space in the collector, which is separated by a diaphragm from the airspace between the plate and the covering window. The airspace therefore remains sealed against the atmosphere, so that no dirt, corrosion of the inside and no condensation can reduce the efficiency of the collector. A rise in pressure due to an increase in temperature is immediately reduced by expansion of the diaphragm, which enters the compensation space. In order to increase the pressure in the airspace above the plate for increases in temperature, the compensation space is connected to the atmosphere. The diaphragm can be mirrored on the side towards the absorber, which makes the diaphragm into an insulating element, as it reflects radiated heat from the absorber.

  15. Application of the Modified Vlasov Model to the Free Vibration Analysis of Thick Plates Resting on Elastic Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgan, Korhan; Daloglu, Ayse T.

    2009-01-01

    The Modified Vlasov Model is applied to the free vibration analysis of thick plates resting on elastic foundations. The effects of the subsoil depth, plate dimensions and their ratio, the value of the vertical deformation parameter within the subsoil on the frequency parameters of plates on elastic foundations are investigated. A four-noded, twelve degrees of freedom quadrilateral finite element (PBQ4) is used for plate bending analysis based on Mindlin plate theory which is effectively appli...

  16. Simplified description of out-of-plane waves in thin annular elastic plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadeh, Maziyar Nesari; Sorokin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Dispersion relations are derived for the out-of-plane wave propagation in planar elastic plates with constant curvature using the classical Kirchhoff thin plate theory. The dispersion diagrams and the mode shapes are compared with their counterparts for a straight plate strip and the role...... of curvature is assessed for plates with unconstrained edges. Elementary Bernoulli–Euler theory for a beam of rectangular cross-section with the circular shape of its axis is also employed to analyze the wave guide properties of this structure in its out-of-plane deformation. The applicability range...... of the elementary beam theory is validated. The wave finite element method in the formulation of the three-dimensional elasticity theory is used to ensure that the comparison of dispersion diagrams is performed in the frequency range, where the classical thin plate theory is valid. Thus, the paper summarizes...

  17. Flow-induced plastic collapse of stacked fuel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D C; Scarton, H A

    1985-03-01

    Flow-induced plastic collapse of stacked fuel plate assemblies was first noted in experimental reactors such as the ORNL High Flux Reactor Assembly and the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). The ETR assembly is a stack of 19 thin flat rectangular fuel plates separated by narrow channels through which a coolant flows to remove the heat generated by fission of the fuel within the plates. The uranium alloyed plates have been noted to buckle laterally and plastically collapse at the system design coolant flow rate of 10.7 m/s, thus restricting the coolant flow through adjacent channels. A methodology and criterion are developed for predicting the plastic collapse of ETR fuel plates. The criterion is compared to some experimental results and the Miller critical velocity theory.

  18. THE EFFECT OF SUPPORT PLATE ON DRILLING-INDUCED DELAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Zarif Karimi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Delamination is considered as a major problem in drilling of composite materials, which degrades the mechanical properties of these materials. The thrust force exerted by the drill is considered as the major cause of delamination; and one practical approach to reduce delamination is to use a back-up plate under the specimen. In this paper, the effect of exit support plate on delamination in twist drilling of glass fiber reinforced composites is studied. Firstly, two analytical models based on linear fracture mechanics and elastic bending theory of plates are described to find critical thrust forces at the beginning of crack growth for drilling with and without back-up plate. Secondly, two series of experiments are carried out on glass fiber reinforced composites to determine quantitatively the effect of drilling parameters on the amount of delamination. Experimental findings verify a large reduction in the amount of delaminated area when a back-up plate is placed under the specimen.

  19. Buckling transition and boundary layer in non-Euclidean plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrati, Efi; Sharon, Eran; Kupferman, Raz

    2009-07-01

    Non-Euclidean plates are thin elastic bodies having no stress-free configuration, hence exhibiting residual stresses in the absence of external constraints. These bodies are endowed with a three-dimensional reference metric, which may not necessarily be immersible in physical space. Here, based on a recently developed theory for such bodies, we characterize the transition from flat to buckled equilibrium configurations at a critical value of the plate thickness. Depending on the reference metric, the buckling transition may be either continuous or discontinuous. In the infinitely thin plate limit, under the assumption that a limiting configuration exists, we show that the limit is a configuration that minimizes the bending content, among all configurations with zero stretching content (isometric immersions of the midsurface). For small but finite plate thickness, we show the formation of a boundary layer, whose size scales with the square root of the plate thickness and whose shape is determined by a balance between stretching and bending energies.

  20. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.

  1. Effect of plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    The study of unusual plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters is presented, with a view to providing data for the substitution of the plate with one centered circular orifice in those applications where its use is not possible. For this purpose, six pairs of plates with different forms, with and without chamfered edges, were made and tested in a closed water loop. Results show that, generally, the use of chamfers improves the results and, in the case of perforated and slotlike orificed plates, the narrow-ness of the fluid passage tends to make unnecessary its use. (Author) [pt

  2. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force....

  4. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  5. Study of uranium plating measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jufang; Wen Zhongwei; Wang Mei; Wang Dalun; Liu Rong; Jiang Li; Lu Xinxin

    2007-06-01

    In neutron physics experiments, the measurement for plate-thickness of uranium can directly affect uncertainties of experiment results. To measure the plate-thickness of transform target (enriched uranium plating and depleted uranium plating), the back to back ionization chamber, small solid angle device and Au-Si surface barrier semi-conductor, were used in the experiment study. Also, the uncertainties in the experiment were analyzed. Because the inhomo-geneous of uranium lay of plate can quantitively affect the result, the homogeneity of uranium lay is checked, the experiment result reflects the homogeneity of uranium lay is good. (authors)

  6. Looking for Plate Tectonics in all the wrong fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaille, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Ever since the theory of Plate Tectonics in the 1960's, the dream of the geomodeler has been to generate plate tectonics self-consistently from thermal convection in the laboratory. By selfconsistenly, I mean that the configuration of the plate boundaries is in no way specified a priori, so that the plates develop and are wholly consumed without intervention from the modeler. The reciepe is simple : put a well-chosen fluid in a fishtank heated from below and cooled from above, wait and see. But the « well-chosen » is the difficult part... and the interesting one. Plate tectonics is occuring on Earth because of the characteristics of the lithosphere rheology. The latter are complex to estimate as they depend on temperature, pressure, phase, water content, chemistry, strain rate, memory and scale. As a result, the ingredients necessary for plate tectonics are still debated, and it would be useful to find an analog fluid who could reproduce plate tectonics in the laboratory. I have therefore spent the last 25 years to try out fluids, and I shall present a number of failures to generate plate tectonics using polymers, colloids, ketchup, milk, chocolate, sugar, oils. To understand why they failed is important to narrow down the « well-chosen » fluid.

  7. Size-Dependent Dynamic Behavior of a Microcantilever Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Material length scale considerably affects the mechanical properties of microcantilever components. Recently, cantilever-plate-like structures have been commonly used, whereas the lack of studies on their size effects constrains the design, testing, and application of these structures. We have studied the size-dependent dynamic behavior of a cantilever plate based on a modified couple stress theory and the differential quadrature method in this note. The numerical solutions of microcantilever plate equation involving the size effect have been presented. We have also analyzed the bending and vibration of the microcantilever plates considering the size effect and discussed the dependence of the size effect on their geometric dimensions. The results have shown that (1 the mechanical characteristics of the cantilever plate show obvious size effects; as a result, the bending deflection of a microcantilever plate reduces whereas the natural frequency increases effectively and (2 for the plates with the same material, the size effect becomes more obvious when the plates are thinner.

  8. Vibration analysis of partially cracked plate submerged in fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Shashank; Jain, N. K.; Joshi, P. V.

    2018-01-01

    The present work proposes an analytical model for vibration analysis of partially cracked rectangular plates coupled with fluid medium. The governing equation of motion for the isotropic plate based on the classical plate theory is modified to accommodate a part through continuous line crack according to simplified line spring model. The influence of surrounding fluid medium is incorporated in the governing equation in the form of inertia effects based on velocity potential function and Bernoulli's equations. Both partially and totally submerged plate configurations are considered. The governing equation also considers the in-plane stretching due to lateral deflection in the form of in-plane forces which introduces geometric non-linearity into the system. The fundamental frequencies are evaluated by expressing the lateral deflection in terms of modal functions. The assessment of the present results is carried out for intact submerged plate as to the best of the author's knowledge the literature lacks in analytical results for submerged cracked plates. New results for fundamental frequencies are presented as affected by crack length, fluid level, fluid density and immersed depth of plate. By employing the method of multiple scales, the frequency response and peak amplitude of the cracked structure is analyzed. The non-linear frequency response curves show the phenomenon of bending hardening or softening and the effect of fluid dynamic pressure on the response of the cracked plate.

  9. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  10. Fuel plate stability experiments and analysis for the Advanced Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinson, W.F.; Battiste, R.L.; Luttrell, C.R.; Yahr, G.T.

    1992-01-01

    The planned Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) and several existing reactors use closely spaced arrays of involute shaped fuel-plates which are cooled by water flowing through the channels between the plates. There is concern that at certain coolant flow velocities adjacent plates may deflect and touch, with resulting failure of the plates. Experiments have been conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to examine this potential phenomenon. Results of the experiments and comparison with analytical predictions are reported in this paper. The tests were conducted using full scale epoxy plate models of the aluminum/uranium silicide ANS involute shaped fuel plates. Use of epoxy plates and model theory allowed lower flow velocities and pressures to explore the potential failure mechanism. Plate deflections and channel pressures as function of the flow velocity are examined. Comparisons with mathematical models are noted. 12 refs

  11. Fuel plate stability experiments and analysis for the Advanced Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinson, W.F.; Battiste, R.L.; Luttrell, C.R.; Yahr, G.T.

    1993-05-01

    The planned reactor for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) will use closely spaced arrays of involute-shaped fuel plates that will be cooled by water flowing through the channels between the plates. There is concern that at certain coolant flow velocities, adjacent plates may deflect and touch, with resulting failure of the plates. Experiments have been conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to examine this potential phenomenon. Results of the experiments and comparison with analytical predictions are reported. The tests were conducted using full-scale epoxy plate models of the aluminum/uranium silicide ANS involute-shaped fuel plates. Use of epoxy plates and model theory allowed lower flow velocities and pressures to explore the potential failure mechanism. Plate deflections and channel pressures as functions of the flow velocity are examined. Comparisons with mathematical models are noted

  12. [Conventional plate osteosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaue, K

    2010-02-01

    Consolidation of bone is an essential clinical problem when treating fractures, fixing osteotomies and fusing joints. In most cases, the means of fixation are plates and screws. The goal is functional postoperative therapy by moving the adjacent joints and thus avoiding the deleterious disadvantages of long-lasting articular immobilization. Pre-operative planning, surgical approach, a good understanding of the precise mechanics of the structure and the biological answer for the various tissues are prerequisites of successful osteosynthesis. The choice of implants and the application of their versatility, as well as their adaptation to individual cases are the key to good results.

  13. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  14. On liquid films on an inclined plate

    KAUST Repository

    BENILOV, E. S.

    2010-08-18

    This paper examines two related problems from liquid-film theory. Firstly, a steady-state flow of a liquid film down a pre-wetted plate is considered, in which there is a precursor film in front of the main film. Assuming the former to be thin, a full asymptotic description of the problem is developed and simple analytical estimates for the extent and depth of the precursor film\\'s influence on the main film are provided. Secondly, the so-called drag-out problem is considered, where an inclined plate is withdrawn from a pool of liquid. Using a combination of numerical and asymptotic means, the parameter range where the classical Landau-Levich-Wilson solution is not unique is determined. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

  15. Plating on difficult-to-plate metals: what's new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the changes since 1970 in procedures for plating on such materials as titanium, molybdenum, silicon, aluminum, and gallium arsenide are summarized. While basic procedures for plating some of these materials were developed as many as 30 to 40 years ago, changes in the end uses of the plated products have necessitated new plating processes. In some cases, vacuum techniques - such as ion bombardment, ion implantation, and vacuum metallization - have been introduced to improve the adhesion of electrodeposits. In other cases, these techniques have been used to deposit materials upon which electrodeposits are required

  16. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisation of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. Bipolar Plates for PEM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lædre, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Summary of thesis: The Bipolar Plate (BPP) is an important component in both Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) and Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzers (PEMWEs). Bipolar plate material and processing constitutes for a large fraction of the cost and weight of a PEM cell stack. The main tasks for the bipolar plates in both systems are to separate single cell in a stack, conduct current between single cells and remove heat from active areas. In addition, the BPPs distribu...

  18. Scintillator plate calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Calorimetry using scintillator plates or tiles alternated with sheets of (usually heavy) passive absorber has been proven over multiple generations of collider detectors. Recent detectors including UA1, CDF, and ZEUS have shown good results from such calorimeters. The advantages offered by scintillator calorimetry for the SSC environment, in particular, are speed (<10 nsec), excellent energy resolution, low noise, and ease of achieving compensation and hence linearity. On the negative side of the ledger can be placed the historical sensitivity of plastic scintillators to radiation damage, the possibility of nonuniform response because of light attenuation, and the presence of cracks for light collection via wavelength shifting plastic (traditionally in sheet form). This approach to calorimetry is being investigated for SSC use by a collaboration of Ames Laboratory/Iowa State University, Argonne National Laboratory, Bicron Corporation, Florida State University, Louisiana State University, University of Mississippi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and University of Wisconsin

  19. Reviewing metallic PEMFC bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Turner, J.A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-08-15

    A bipolar plate is one of the most important components in a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack and has multiple functions. Metallic bipolar plate candidates have advantages over composite rivals in excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, good mechanical strength, high chemical stability, very wide alloy choices, low cost and, most importantly, existing pathways for high-volume, high-speed mass production. The challenges with metallic bipolar plates are the higher contact resistance and possible corrosion products, which may contaminate the membrane electrode assembly. This review evaluates the candidate metallic and coating materials for bipolar plates and gives the perspective of the research trends. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Design of reinforced concrete plates and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, M.

    1984-01-01

    Nowadays, the internal forces of reinforced concrete laminar structures can be easily evaluated by the finite element procedures. The longitudinal design in each direction is not adequate, since the whole set of internal forces in each point must be concomitantly considered. The classic formulation for the design and new design charts which bring reduction of the amount of necessary reinforcement are presented. A rational reinforced concrete mathematical theory which makes possible the limit state design of plates and shells is discussed. This model can also be applied to define the constitutive relationships of laminar finite elements of reinforced concrete. (Author) [pt

  1. Transient vibration of thin viscoelastic orthotropic plates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, J.; Valeš, František; Volek, J.; Skočilas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2011), s. 98-107 ISSN 0567-7718. [International Conference on Dynamical Systems - Theory and Applications /10./. Lodz, 07.12.2009-10.12.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/0946 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : transient vibration thin plate * orthotropic * general viscoelastic standard solid Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.860, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/hn67324178846n4r/

  2. Deconvolution using thin-plate splines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, Udo v.; Gori, Silvio

    2007-01-01

    The ubiquitous problem of estimating 2-dimensional profile information from a set of line integrated measurements is tackled with Bayesian probability theory by exploiting prior information about local smoothness. For this purpose thin-plate-splines (the 2-D minimal curvature analogue of cubic-splines in 1-D) are employed. The optimal number of support points required for inversion of 2-D tomographic problems is determined using model comparison. Properties of this approach are discussed and the question of suitable priors is addressed. Finally, we illustrated the properties of this approach with 2-D inversion results using data from line-integrated measurements from fusion experiments

  3. Fracture Analyses of Cracked Delta Eye Plates in Ship Towing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangbing; Huang, Xingling; Sun, Jizheng

    2018-01-01

    Based on fracture mechanics, a safety analysis approach is proposed for cracked delta eye plates in ship towing. The static analysis model is presented when the delta eye plate is in service, and the fracture criterion is introduced on basis of stress intensity factor, which is estimated with domain integral method. Subsequently, three-dimensional finite element analyses are carried out to obtain the effective stress intensity factors, and a case is studied to demonstrate the reasonability of the approach. The results show that the classical strength theory is not applicable to evaluate the cracked plate while fracture mechanics can solve the problem very well, and the load level, which a delta eye plate can carry on, decreases evidently when it is damaged.

  4. Effect of matrix cracking and material uncertainty on composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayathri, P.; Umesh, K.; Ganguli, R.

    2010-01-01

    A laminated composite plate model based on first order shear deformation theory is implemented using the finite element method. Matrix cracks are introduced into the finite element model by considering changes in the A, B and D matrices of composites. The effects of different boundary conditions, laminate types and ply angles on the behavior of composite plates with matrix cracks are studied. Finally, the effect of material property uncertainty, which is important for composite material on the composite plate, is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. Probabilistic estimates of damage detection reliability in composite plates are made for static and dynamic measurements. It is found that the effect of uncertainty must be considered for accurate damage detection in composite structures. The estimates of variance obtained for observable system properties due to uncertainty can be used for developing more robust damage detection algorithms.

  5. Modeling particulate removal in plate-plate and wire-plate electrostatic precipitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramechecandane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the modeling of electrically charged particles in a model plate-plate and a single wire-plate electrostatic precipitator (ESP. The particle concentration distributions for both a plate-plate and a wire-plate ESP are calculated using a modified drift flux model. Numerical investigations are performed using the modified drift flux model for particle number concentration, in addition to the RNG k - ε model for the mean turbulent flow field and the Poisson equation for the electric field. The proposed model and the outlined methodology for coupling the flow field, electric field, charging kinetics and particle concentration is applied to two model precipitators that are truly representative of a wide class of commercialized ESPs. The present investigation is quite different from the earlier studies as it does not make assumptions like a homogeneous electric field or an infinite turbulent diffusivity. The electric field calculated is a strong function of position and controls the migration velocity of particles. Hence, the proposed model can be implemented in a flow solver to obtain a full-fledged solution for any kind of ESP with no limitations on the particle number concentration, as encountered in a Lagrangian approach. The effect of turbulent diffusivity on particle number concentration in a plate-plate ESP is investigated in detail and the results obtained are compared with available experimental data. Similarly, the effect of particle size/diameter and applied electric potential on the accumulative collection performance in the case of a wire-plate ESP is studied and the results obtained are compared with available numerical data. The numerical results obtained using the modified drift flux model for both the plate-plate and wire-plate ESP are in close agreement with available experimental and numerical data.

  6. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...

  7. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth / For Teens / MyPlate Food Guide What's ... and other sugary drinks. Avoid large portions . Five Food Groups Different food groups have different nutrients and ...

  8. Scintillating plate calorimeter optical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, R.; Fazely, A.; Gunasingha, R.; Imlay, R.; Lim, J.

    1990-01-01

    A major technical challenge facing the builder of a general purpose detector for the SSC is to achieve an optimum design for the calorimeter. Because of its fast response and good energy resolution, scintillating plate sampling calorimeters should be considered as a possible technology option. The work of the Scintillating Plate Calorimeter Collaboration is focused on compensating plate calorimeters. Based on experimental and simulation studies, it is expected that a sampling calorimeter with alternating layers of high-Z absorber (Pb, W, DU, etc.) and plastic scintillator can be made compensating (e/h = 1.00) by suitable choice of the ratio of absorber/scintillator thickness. Two conceptual designs have been pursued by this subsystem collaboration. One is based on lead as the absorber, with read/out of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter fibers. The other design is based on depleted uranium as the absorber with wavelength shifter (WLS) plate readout. Progress on designs for the optical readout of a compensating scintillator plate calorimeter are presented. These designs include readout of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter plates or fiber readout. Results from radiation damage studies of the optical components are presented

  9. Bending analysis of laminated composite plates using finite element ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    theory to analyze the laminated composite plates. They concluded that ...... Aeronautics and Astronautics”, Inc.1801, Chapter 8, pp. 240. Baltacıoğlu A.K .... He is working as Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical. Engineering in ...

  10. Fundamental processes in ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ion plating is a generic term applied to film deposition processes in which the substrate surface and/or the depositing film is subjected to a flux of high energy particles sufficient to cause changes in the interfacial region of film properties compared to a nonbombarded deposition. Ion plating is being accepted as an alternative coating technique to sputter deposition, vacuum evaporation and electroplating. In order to intelligently choose between the various deposition techniques, the fundamental mechanisms, relating to ion plating, must be understood. This paper reviews the effects of low energy ion bombardment on surfaces, interface formation and film development as they apply to ion plating and the implementation and applications of the ion plating process

  11. The Golosyiv plate archive digitisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, T. P.; Sergeev, A. V.; Pakuliak, L. K.; Yatsenko, A. I.

    2007-08-01

    The plate archive of the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Golosyiv, Kyiv) includes about 85 000 plates which have been taken in various observational projects during 1950-2005. Among them are about 25 000 of direct northern sky area plates and more than 600 000 plates containing stellar, planetary and active solar formations spectra. Direct plates have a limiting magnitude of 14.0-16.0 mag. Since 2002 we have been organising the storage, safeguarding, cataloguing and digitization of the plate archive. The very initial task was to create the automated system for detection of astronomical objects and phenomena, search of optical counterparts in the directions of gamma-ray bursts, research of long period, flare and other variable stars, search and rediscovery of asteroids, comets and other Solar System bodies to improve the elements of their orbits, informational support of CCD observations and space projects, etc. To provide higher efficiency of this work we have prepared computer readable catalogues and database for 250 000 direct wide field plates. Now the catalogues have been adapted to Wide Field Plate Database (WFPDB) format and integrated into this world database. The next step will be adaptation of our catalogues, database and images to standards of the IVOA. Some magnitude and positional accuracy estimations for Golosyiv archive plates have been done. The photometric characteristics of the images of NGC 6913 cluster stars on two plates of the Golosyiv's double wide angle astrograph have been determined. Very good conformity of the photometric characteristics obtained with external accuracies of 0.13 and 0.15 mag. has been found. The investigation of positional accuracy have been made with A3± format fixed bed scanner (Microtek ScanMaker 9800XL TMA). It shows that the scanner has non-detectable systematic errors on the X-axis, and errors of ± 15 μm on the Y-axis. The final positional errors are about ± 2 μm (

  12. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  13. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  14. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate

  15. Nonlinear analysis of piezoelectric nanocomposite energy harvesting plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiee, M; He, X Q; Liew, K M

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear analysis of energy harvesting from piezoelectric functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite plates under combined thermal and mechanical loadings. The excitation, which derives from harmonically varying mechanical in-plane loading, results in parametric excitation. The governing equations of the piezoelectric functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite plates are derived based on classical plate theory and von Kármán geometric nonlinearity. The material properties of the nanocomposite plate are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are assumed to be aligned, straight and have a uniform layout. The linear buckling and vibration behavior of the nanocomposite plates is obtained in the first step. Then, Galerkin’s method is employed to derive the nonlinear governing equations of the problem with cubic nonlinearities associated with mid-plane stretching. Periodic solutions are determined by using the Poincaré–Lindstedt perturbation scheme with movable simply supported boundary conditions. The effects of temperature change, the volume fraction and the distribution pattern of the SWCNTs on the parametric resonance, in particular the amplitude of vibration and the average harvested power of the smart functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite plates, are investigated through a detailed parametric study. (paper)

  16. Plate with a hole obeys the averaged null energy condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D.

    2005-01-01

    The negative energy density of Casimir systems appears to violate general relativity energy conditions. However, one cannot test the averaged null energy condition (ANEC) using standard calculations for perfectly reflecting plates, because the null geodesic would have to pass through the plates, where the calculation breaks down. To avoid this problem, we compute the contribution to ANEC for a geodesic that passes through a hole in a single plate. We consider both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions in two and three space dimensions. We use a Babinet's principle argument to reduce the problem to a complementary finite disk correction to the perfect mirror result, which we then compute using scattering theory in elliptical and spheroidal coordinates. In the Dirichlet case, we find that the positive correction due to the hole overwhelms the negative contribution of the infinite plate. In the Neumann case, where the infinite plate gives a positive contribution, the hole contribution is smaller in magnitude, so again ANEC is obeyed. These results can be extended to the case of two plates in the limits of large and small hole radii. This system thus provides another example of a situation where ANEC turns out to be obeyed when one might expect it to be violated

  17. MyPlate Daily Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost Recipes Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals MyPlate Tip Sheets Print Materials Infographics 5 Ways ...

  18. License plate recognition (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    License Plate Recognition (LPR) technology has been used for off-line automobile enforcement purposes. The technology has seen mixed success with correct reading rate as high as 60 to 80% depending on the specific application and environment. This li...

  19. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanton, Brian; Coburn, William; Pizzillo, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    ...., surface texture and coatings) that could become important at high frequency. We measure waviness and roughness of various plates to know the parameter range for smooth aluminum and rolled homogenous armor (RHA...

  20. Decagonal quasicrystal plate with elliptic holes subjected to out-of-plane bending moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lian He, E-mail: nmglilianhe@163.com [College of Mathematics Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Lab of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Hohhot 010021 (China); Liu, Guan Ting [College of Mathematics Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022 (China)

    2014-02-01

    In the present paper, we consider only the ideal elastic behavior, neglecting the dissipation associated with the atomic rearrangements. Under these conditions, the decagonal quasicrystal plate bending problems have been discussed. The Stroh-like formalism for the bending theory of decagonal quasicrystal plate is developed. The analytical solutions for problems of decagonal quasicrystal plate with elliptic hole subjected to out-of-plane bending moments are obtained directly by using the forms. The resultant bending moments around the hole boundaries are also given explicitly. When the phonon–phason coupling is absent, the results reduce to the corresponding solutions for the isotropic elastic plates.

  1. A model of breakdown in parallel-plate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte, P.

    1996-01-01

    Parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPAC's) have many desirable properties, such as a fast, large area particle detector. However, the maximum gain is limited by a form of violent breakdown that limits the usefulness of this detector, despite its other evident qualities. The exact nature of this phenomenon is not yet sufficiently clear to sustain possible improvements. A previous experimental study is complemented in the present work by a quantitative model of the breakdown phenomenon in PPAC's, based on the streamer theory. The model reproduces well the peculiar behavior of the external current observed in PPAC's and resistive-plate chambers. Other breakdown properties measured in PPAC's are also well reproduced

  2. Parametric study on nonlinear vibration of composite truss core sandwich plate with internal resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jia Nen; Liu, Jun [Tianjin Key Laboratory of the Design and Intelligent Control of the Advanced Mechatronical System, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Wei; Yao, Ming Hui [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing (China); Sun, Min [School of Science, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin (China)

    2016-09-15

    Nonlinear vibrations of carbon fiber reinforced composite sandwich plate with pyramidal truss core are investigated. The governing equation of motion for the sandwich plate is derived by using a Zig-Zag theory under consideration of geometrically nonlinear. The natural frequencies of sandwich plates with different dimensions are calculated and compared with those obtained from the classic laminated plate theory and Reddy's third-order shear deformation plate theory. The frequency responses and waveforms of the sandwich plate when 1:3 internal resonance occurs are obtained, and the characteristics of the internal resonance are discussed. The influences of layer number of face sheet, strut radius, core height and inclination angle on the nonlinear responses of the sandwich plate are analyzed. The results demonstrate that the strut radius and inclination angle mainly affect the resonance frequency band of the sandwich plate, and the layer number and core height not only influence the resonance frequency band but also significantly affect the response amplitude.

  3. Surface effects on the electroelastic responses of a thin piezoelectric plate with nanoscale thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhi; Jiang Liying

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the electroelastic responses of a thin piezoelectric plate under mechanical and electrical loads with the consideration of surface effects. Surface effects, including surface elasticity, residual surface stress and surface piezoelectricity, are incorporated into the conventional Kirchhoff plate theory for a piezoelectric plate via the surface piezoelectricity model and the generalized Young-Laplace equations. Different from the results predicted by the conventional plate theory ignoring the surface effects, the proposed model predicts size-dependent behaviours of the piezoelectric thin plate with nanoscale thickness. It is found that surface effects have significant influence on the electroelastic responses of the piezoelectric nanoplate. This work is expected to provide more accurate predictions on characterizing nanofilm or nanoribbon based piezoelectric devices in nanoelectromechanical systems. (paper)

  4. Two dimensional dynamic analysis of sandwich plates with gradient foam cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Lin; Xiao, Deng Bao; Zhao, Guiping [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical structure Strength and Vibration, School of AerospaceXi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Cho, Chong Du [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Present investigation is concerned about dynamic response of composite sandwich plates with the functionally gradient foam cores under time-dependent impulse. The analysis is based on a model of the gradient sandwich plate, in which the face sheets and the core adopt the Kirchhoff theory and a [2, 1]-order theory, respectively. The material properties of the gradient foam core vary continuously along the thickness direction. The gradient plate model is validated with the finite element code ABAQUS®. And the results show that the proposed model can predict well the free vibration of composite sandwich plates with gradient foam cores. The influences of gradient foam cores on the natural frequency, deflection and energy absorbing of the sandwich plates are also investigated.

  5. Dynamic Analysis of Thick Plates Including Deep Beams on Elastic Foundations Using Modified Vlasov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Ozgan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic analysis of foundation plate-beam systems with transverse shear deformation is presented using modified Vlasov foundation model. Finite element formulation of the problem is derived by using an 8-node (PBQ8 finite element based on Mindlin plate theory for the plate and a 2-node Hughes element based on Timoshenko beam theory for the beam. Selective reduced integration technique is used to avoid shear locking problem for the evaluation of the stiffness matrices for both the elements. The effect of beam thickness, the aspect ratio of the plate and subsoil depth on the response of plate-beam-soil system is analyzed. Numerical examples show that the displacement, bending moments and shear forces are changed significantly by adding the beams.

  6. Experimental demonstration of producing high resolution zone plates by spatial-frequency multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, W.B.; Howells, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    In an earlier publication, the possibility of producing high resolution zone plates for x-ray applications by spatial-frequency multiplication was analyzed theoretically. The theory predicted that for a daughter zone plate generated from the interference of mth and nth diffraction orders of a parent zone plate, its primary focal spot size and focal length are one (m + n)th of their counterparts of the parent zone plate, respectively. It was also shown that a zone plate with the outermost zone width of as small as 13.8 nm might be produced by this technique. In this paper, we report an experiment which we carried out with laser light (λ = 4166A) for demonstrating this technique. In addition, an outlook for producing high resolution zone plates for x-ray application is briefly discussed

  7. EXACT SOLUTION FOR TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF FG-CNT-REINFORCED MINDLIN PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mousavi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the buckling analysis of nanocomposite polymeric temperature-dependent plates reinforced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs. For the carbon-nanotube reinforced composite (CNTRC plate, uniform distribution (UD and three types of functionally graded (FG distribution patterns of SWCNT reinforcements are assumed. The material properties of FG-CNTRC plate are graded in the thickness direction and estimated based on the rule of mixture. The CNTRC is located in a elastic medium which is simulated with temperature-dependent Pasternak medium. Based on orthotropic Mindlin plate theory, the governing equations are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved by Navier method. The influences of the volume fractions of carbon nanotubes, elastic medium, temperature and distribution type of CNTs are considered on the buckling of the plate. Results indicate that CNT distribution close to top and bottom are more efficient than those distributed nearby the mid-plane for increasing the stiffness of plates.

  8. Energy flow analysis of out-of-plane vibration in coplanar coupled finite Mindlin plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available : In this paper, an Energy Flow Analysis (EFA for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates was performed to estimate their dynamic responses at high frequencies. Mindlin plate theory can consider the effects of shear distortion and rotatory inertia, which are very important at high frequencies. For EFA for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates, the wave transmission and reflection relationship for progressing out-of-plane waves (out-of-plane shear wave, bending dominant flexural wave, and shear dominant flexural wave in coplanar coupled Mindlin plates was newly derived. To verify the validity of the EFA results, numerical analyses were performed for various cases where coplanar coupled Mindlin plates are excited by a harmonic point force, and the energy flow solutions for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates were compared with the classical solutions in the various conditions.

  9. Modeling RERTR experimental fuel plates using the PLATE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Meyer, M.K.; Hofman, G.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Brazener, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Modeling results using the PLATE dispersion fuel performance code are presented for the U-Mo/Al experimental fuel plates from the RERTR-1, -2, -3 and -5 irradiation tests. Agreement of the calculations with experimental data obtained in post-irradiation examinations of these fuels, where available, is shown to be good. Use of the code to perform a series of parametric evaluations highlights the sensitivity of U-Mo dispersion fuel performance to fabrication variables, especially fuel particle shape and size distributions. (author)

  10. Plating on some difficult-to-plate metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1980-02-01

    Electrodeposition of coatings on metals such as beryllium, beryllium-copper, Kovar, lead, magnesium, thorium, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zirconium, and their alloys can be problematic. This is due in most cases to a natural oxide surface film that readily reforms after being removed. The procedures we recommend for plating on these metals rely on replacing the oxide film with a displacement coating, or etching to allow mechanical keying between the substrate and plated deposit. The effectiveness of the procedures is demonstrated by interface bond strengths found in ring-shear and conical-head tensile tests

  11. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    The product of an electroless plating process is described for plating at least one main group metal directly on a surface of a polymeric substrate comprising the steps of forming a nonaqueous solution containing a metallic salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and at least one main group metal in a negative valence state, the main group metal being selected from the group consisting of Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Si and Te, selecting an aromatic polymeric substrate reducible by the solublized salt and resistant to degration during the reaction, and carrying out a redox reaction between the salt in solution and the substrate by contacting the solution with the substrate for a sufficient time to oxidize and deposit the main group metal in elemental form to produce a plated substrate. The product is characterized by the plated metal being directly on the surface of the polymeric substrate and the alkali metal being retained in the plated substrate with the substrate being negatively charged with electrons transferred from the main group metal during the redox reaction

  12. Capacity of the circular plate condenser: analytical solutions for large gaps between the plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, T V

    2005-01-01

    A solution of Love's integral equation (Love E R 1949 Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 2 428), which forms the basis for the analysis of the electrostatic field due to two equal circular co-axial parallel conducting plates, is considered for the case when the ratio, τ, of distance of separation to radius of the plates is greater than 2. The kernel of the integral equation is expanded into an infinite series in odd powers of 1/τ and an approximate kernel accurate to O(τ -(2N+1) ) is deduced therefrom by terminating the series after an arbitrary but finite number of terms, N. The approximate kernel is rearranged into a degenerate form and the integral equation with this kernel is reduced to a system of N linear equations. An explicit analytical solution is obtained for N = 4 and the resulting analytical expression for the capacity of the circular plate condenser is shown to be accurate to O(τ -9 ). Analytical expressions of lower orders of accuracy with respect to 1/τ are deduced from the four-term (i.e., N 4) solution and predictions (of capacity) from the expressions of different orders of accuracy (with respect to 1/τ) are compared with very accurate numerical solutions obtained by solving the linear system for large enough N. It is shown that the O(τ -9 ) approximation predicts the capacity extremely well for any τ ≥ 2 and an O(τ -3 ) approximation gives, for all practical purposes, results of adequate accuracy for τ ≥ 4. It is further shown that an approximate solution, applicable for the case of large distances of separation between the plates, due to Sneddon (Sneddon I N 1966 Mixed Boundary Value Problems in Potential Theory (Amsterdam: North-Holland) pp 230-46) is accurate to O(τ -6 ) for τ ≥ 2

  13. Soft Plate and Impact Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoff, Basil

    In the field of tectonics, most of our ideas are published in journals. This is not true of other fields, such as history, in which ideas are primarily published in books. Within my own field of structural geology, I can recall only one book, Strain Fades by E. Hansen (Springer-Verlag, 1971), which presents a new idea in book form. However, even this book is more useful for its philosophical approach and particular methodology of determining directions of folding, than for its overarching idea.Enter Soft Plate and Impact Tectonics, a new book with an interesting hypothesis that has been informally discussed in the geoscience community: A fundamental tenet of plate tectonics is incorrect—namely, that the plates are rigid. This assertion is evident when looking at any mountain range, and is perhaps most clearly stated in Molnar [1988].

  14. Gentilly 2 divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, J.; Klisel, E.; McClellan, G.; Schnelder, W.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generators at the Gentilly 2 Nuclear Plant in operation since 1983 were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. After evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type dividers would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider itself was to be of a one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat bar was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider is fitted with erosion resistant inserts or weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider strength during LOCA conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design, manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  15. Chaos control for the plates subjected to subsonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Hamed; Younesian, Davood

    2016-07-01

    The suppression of chaotic motion in viscoelastic plates driven by external subsonic air flow is studied. Nonlinear oscillation of the plate is modeled by the von-Kármán plate theory. The fluid-solid interaction is taken into account. Galerkin's approach is employed to transform the partial differential equations of the system into the time domain. The corresponding homoclinic orbits of the unperturbed Hamiltonian system are obtained. In order to study the chaotic behavior of the plate, Melnikov's integral is analytically applied and the threshold of the excitation amplitude and frequency for the occurrence of chaos is presented. It is found that adding a parametric perturbation to the system in terms of an excitation with the same frequency of the external force can lead to eliminate chaos. Variations of the Lyapunov exponent and bifurcation diagrams are provided to analyze the chaotic and periodic responses. Two perturbation-based control strategies are proposed. In the first scenario, the amplitude of control forces reads a constant value that should be precisely determined. In the second strategy, this amplitude can be proportional to the deflection of the plate. The performance of each controller is investigated and it is found that the second scenario would be more efficient.

  16. NATURAL TRANSVERSE VIBRATIONS OF A PRESTRESSED ORTHOTROPIC PLATE-STRIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorychev Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article represents a new outlook at the boundary-value problem of natural vibrations of a homogeneous pre-stressed orthotropic plate-stripe. In the paper, the motion equation represents a new approximate hyperbolic equation (rather than a parabolic equation used in the majority of papers covering the same problem describing the vibration of a homogeneous orthotropic plate-stripe. The proposed research is based on newly derived boundary conditions describing the pin-edge, rigid, and elastic (vertical types of fixing, as well as the boundary conditions applicable to the unfixed edge of the plate. The paper contemplates the application of the Laplace transformation and a non-standard representation of a homogeneous differential equation with fixed factors. The article proposes a detailed representation of the problem of natural vibrations of a homogeneous orthotropic plate-stripe if rigidly fixed at opposite sides; besides, the article also provides frequency equations (no conclusions describing the plate characterized by the following boundary conditions: rigid fixing at one side and pin-edge fixing at the opposite side; pin-edge fixing at one side and free (unfixed other side; rigid fixing at one side and elastic fixing at the other side. The results described in the article may be helpful if applied in the construction sector whenever flat structural elements are considered. Moreover, specialists in solid mechanics and theory of elasticity may benefit from the ideas proposed in the article.

  17. Model to Analyze Micro Circular Plate Subjected to Electrostatic Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Tian-Jie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a distributed model with three possible static modes was presented to investigate the behavior of the plate subjected to electrostatic force and uniform hydrostatic pressure both before pull in and beyond pull in. The differential governing equation of the micro circular plate specifically used for numerical solution of the three modes, in which the singularity at the center of the micro plate did not occur, was presented based on the classical thin plate theory, Taylor's series expansion and Saint-Venant's principle. The numerical solution to the differential governing equation for the different mode was mainly attributed to solve for one unknown boundary condition and the applied voltage, which could be obtained by using a two-fold method of bisection based on the shooting method. The voltage ranges over which the three modes could exist and the points where transitions occurred between the modes were computed. Incorporating the above numerical solution to the applied voltage at the normal mode with some constrained optimization method, pull-in voltage and the corresponding pull-in position can automatically be obtained. In examples, the entire mechanical behavior of the circular plate over the operational voltage ranges was investigated and the effects of different parameters on pull-in voltage were studied. The obtained results were compared with the existing results and good agreement has been achieved.

  18. Refined Modeling of Flexural Deformation of Layered Plates with a Regular Structure Made from Nonlinear Hereditary Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovskii, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of constitutive equations of the Rabotnov nonlinear hereditary theory of creep, the problem on the rheonomic flexural behavior of layered plates with a regular structure is formu-lated. Equations allowing one to describe, with different degrees of accuracy, the stress-strain state of such plates with account of their weakened resistance to transverse shear were ob-tained. From them, the relations of the nonclassical Reissner- and Reddytype theories can be found. For axially loaded annular plates clamped at one edge and loaded quasistatically on the other edge, a simplified version of the refined theory, whose complexity is comparable to that of the Reissner and Reddy theories, is developed. The flexural strains of such metal-composite annular plates in shortterm and long-term loadings at different levels of heat action are calcu-lated. It is shown that, for plates with a relative thickness of order of 1/10, neither the classical theory, nor the traditional nonclassical Reissner and Reddy theories guarantee reliable results for deflections even with the rough 10% accuracy. The accuracy of these theories decreases at elevated temperatures and with time under long-term loadings of structures. On the basic of relations of the refined theory, it is revealed that, in bending of layered metal-composite heat-sensitive plates under elevated temperatures, marked edge effects arise in the neighborhood of the supported edge, which characterize the shear of these structures in the transverse direction

  19. Asymptotical construction of a fully coupled, Reissner–Mindlin model for piezoelectric composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Lin; Yu Wenbin

    2008-01-01

    The variational asymptotic method is used to construct a fully coupled Reissner–Mindlin model for piezoelectric composite plates with some surfaces parallel to the reference surface coated with electrodes. Taking advantage of the smallness of the plate thickness, we asymptotically split the original three-dimensional electromechanical problem into a one-dimensional through-the-thickness analysis and a two-dimensional plate analysis. The through-the-thickness analysis serves as a link between the original three-dimensional analysis and the plate analysis by providing a constitutive model for the plate analysis and recovering the three-dimensional field variables in terms of two-dimensional plate global responses. The present theory is implemented into the computer program VAPAS (variational asymptotic plate and shell analysis). The resulting model is as simple as an equivalent single-layer, first-order shear deformation theory with accuracy comparable to higher-order layerwise theories. Various numerical examples have been used to validate the present model

  20. EFFECTS OF GEOMETRIC RATIOS AND FIBRE ORIENTATION ON THE NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF LAMINATED COMPOSITE PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Attaf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to examine the influence of geometric ratios and fibre orientation on the natural frequencies of fibre-reinforced laminated composite plates using finite element method based on Yang’s theory and his collaborators. The transverse shear and rotatory inertia effects were taken into consideration in the developed Fortran computer program. It has been shown that the use of first-order displacement field provides the same accuracy as higher-order displacement field when the number of elements representing the plate structure is increased (refined mesh. However, poor precision may appear for plates with high thickness-to-side ratio h/a (thickness/side length. This discrepancy limits the application of the developed theory to thick plates (h/a<0.5. The various curves show the evolution of the dimensionless frequency (w* versus fibre orientation angle (q and illustrate the apparition of a “triple-point” phenomenon engendered by the increase of the plate aspect ratio a/b (length/width for a specific value of h/a. This point defines the maximum natural frequency and the associated fibre orientation. Also, results show that for high and/or low aspect ratios, the triple-point phenomenon does not occur. This latter is rapidly reached for thick plates than thin plates when the plate aspect ratio a/b is progressively increased.

  1. an elasticity solution for simply suported rectangular plates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MIS

    1983-09-01

    Sep 1, 1983 ... σx, σy, σz. = direct stresses ξxy, ξxz, ξyz. = shear stresses εy, εy, εz. = direct strains rxy, rxz ryz. = shear strains μ. = Poisson's ratio α = rm /Pb. = nπ/2b. R = 2 ... based on Donnell's5 thick plate theory are examined. 2. BASIC EQUATIONS. The general solution of the equations of elasticity can be expressed in.

  2. Flexure of Thick Plates Resting on Elastic Foundation Using Two-Variable Refined Plate Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouzegar Jafar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wpublikacji wykorzystano udoskonalona teorie płyty z dwiema zmiennymi do analizy grubych płyt spoczywajacych na sprezystym podłozu. Teoria ta, która zawiera tylko dwa nieznane parametry, pozwala przewidziec paraboliczna zmiennosc naprezen scinajacych. W teorii jest spełniony warunek zerowej trakcji na powierzchni płyty bez uzycia współczynnika korekcyjnego dla scinania. Stosujac zasade minimum energii potencjalnej wyprowadzono równania rzadzace dla płyt prostokatnych o prostym podparciu spoczywajacych na sprezystym podłozu Winklera. Do rozwiazania otrzymanego układu równan sprzezonych zaadoptowano metode Naviera. Obecna teoria pozwoliła rozwiazac szereg przykładowych problemów płyt przy róznych warunkach obciazenia. Porównanie otrzymanych rezultatów z uzyskanymi w innych znanych teoriach wykazuje doskonala efektywnosc stosowanej teorii w modelowaniu grubych płyt spoczywajacych na podłozu sprezystym. Przestudiowano takze wpływ modułu sprezystosci podłoza, grubosci płyty i typu obciazenia. Wyniki pokazuja, ze ugiecia płyty maleja przy wzroscie modułu sprezystosci podłoza i grubosci płyty

  3. License plate recognition using DTCNNs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Brugge, M.H; Stevens, J.H; Nijhuis, J.A G; Spaanenburg, L; Tavsanonoglu, V

    1998-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition requires a series of complex image processing steps. For practical use, the amount of data to he processed must be minimized early on. This paper shows that the computationally most intensive steps can be realized by DTCNNs. Moreover; high-level operations like

  4. Hydroelasticity of a Floating Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, W.

    2003-01-01

    The membrane forces are included in the hydroelastic analysis of a floating plate undergoing large vertical deflections in regular monochromatic multidirectional waves. The first-order vertical displacements induced by the linear wave exciting forces are calculated by the mode expansion method in...

  5. Stress state in perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visner, J.

    1977-01-01

    The method is described of photoelastic measurement of stress concentration factors (s.c.f) in plates perforated by a square, triangular and diagonal grid of circular holes and loaded by uniaxial or biaxial tensile stress. A loading equipment which was developed and its modifications are described. Stress concentration factors found are compared with theoretical and experimental results given in references. (author)

  6. Regulators of growth plate maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Joyce Adriana Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is known to play an important role in longitudinal bone growth and growth plate maturation, but the mechanism by which estrogens exert their effect is not fully understood. In this thesis this role is further explored. Chapter 1 contains a general introduction to longitudinal bone growth

  7. application of the reissners plate theory in the delamination analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    layer to another [4, 5]. However, this ... displacement transfers from one place to another and that elementary constituents is necessary in the vicinity of .... Where K stands for the search operator between ... P. A New Large Time Algorithm for.

  8. Application of the Modified Vlasov Model to the Free Vibration Analysis of Thick Plates Resting on Elastic Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Ozgan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Modified Vlasov Model is applied to the free vibration analysis of thick plates resting on elastic foundations. The effects of the subsoil depth, plate dimensions and their ratio, the value of the vertical deformation parameter within the subsoil on the frequency parameters of plates on elastic foundations are investigated. A four-noded, twelve degrees of freedom quadrilateral finite element (PBQ4 is used for plate bending analysis based on Mindlin plate theory which is effectively applied to the analysis of thin and thick plates when selective reduced integration technique is used. The first ten natural frequency parameters are presented in tabular and graphical forms to show the effects of the parameters considered in the study. It is concluded that the effect of the subsoil depth on the frequency parameters of the plates on elastic foundation is generally larger than that of the other parameters considered in the study.

  9. Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates deals with a heat transfer situation that is of significant practical importance but which is not adequately dealt with in any existing textbooks or in any widely available review papers. The aim of the book is to introduce the reader to recent studies of natural convection from narrow plates including the effects of plate edge conditions, plate inclination, thermal conditions at the plate surface and interaction of the flows over adjacent plates. Both numerical and experimental studies are discussed and correlation equations based on the results of these studies are reviewed.

  10. An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, D.K.; Kant, Tarun; Srinivas, K.; Singh, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature

  11. Subduction Drive of Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2003-12-01

    Don Anderson emphasizes that plate tectonics is self-organizing and is driven by subduction, which rights the density inversion generated as oceanic lithosphere forms by cooling of asthenosphere from the top. The following synthesis owes much to many discussions with him. Hinge rollback is the key to kinematics, and, like the rest of actual plate behavior, is incompatible with bottom-up convection drive. Subduction hinges (which are under, not in front of, thin leading parts of arcs and overriding plates) roll back into subducting plates. The Pacific shrinks because bounding hinges roll back into it. Colliding arcs, increasing arc curvatures, back-arc spreading, and advance of small arcs into large plates also require rollback. Forearcs of overriding plates commonly bear basins which preclude shortening of thin plate fronts throughout periods recorded by basin strata (100 Ma for Cretaceous and Paleogene California). This requires subequal rates of advance and rollback, and control of both by subduction. Convergence rate is equal to rates of rollback and advance in many systems but is greater in others. Plate-related circulation probably is closed above 650 km. Despite the popularity of concepts of plumes from, and subduction into, lower mantle, there is no convincing evidence for, and much evidence against, penetration of the 650 in either direction. That barrier not only has a crossing-inhibiting negative Clapeyron slope but also is a compositional boundary between fractionated (not "primitive"), sluggish lower mantle and fertile, mobile upper mantle. Slabs sink more steeply than they dip. Slabs older than about 60 Ma when their subduction began sink to, and lie down on and depress, the 650-km discontinuity, and are overpassed, whereas younger slabs become neutrally buoyant in mid-upper mantle, into which they are mixed as they too are overpassed. Broadside-sinking old slabs push all upper mantle, from base of oceanic lithosphere down to the 650, back under

  12. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CAR LICENSE PLATES RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasa Zata Dina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of vehicles on the road has increased drastically in recent years. The license plate is an identity card for a vehicle. It can map to the owner and further information about vehicle. License plate information is useful to help traffic management systems. For example, traffic management systems can check for vehicles moving at speeds not permitted by law and can also be installed in parking areas to se-cure the entrance or exit way for vehicles. License plate recognition algorithms have been proposed by many researchers. License plate recognition requires license plate detection, segmentation, and charac-ters recognition. The algorithm detects the position of a license plate and extracts the characters. Various license plate recognition algorithms have been implemented, and each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. In this research, I implement three algorithms for detecting license plates, three algorithms for segmenting license plates, and two algorithms for recognizing license plate characters. I evaluate each of these algorithms on the same two datasets, one from Greece and one from Thailand. For detecting li-cense plates, the best result is obtained by a Haar cascade algorithm. After the best result of license plate detection is obtained, for the segmentation part a Laplacian based method has the highest accuracy. Last, the license plate recognition experiment shows that a neural network has better accuracy than other algo-rithm. I summarize and analyze the overall performance of each method for comparison.

  13. Refined shear correction factor for very thick simply supported and uniformly loaded isosceles right triangular auxetic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    For moderately thick plates, the use of First order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) with a constant shear correction factor of 5/6 is sufficient to take into account the plate deflection arising from transverse shear deformation. For very thick plates, the use of Third order Shear Deformation Theory (TSDT) is preferred as it allows the shear strain distribution to be varied through the plate thickness. Therefore no correction factor is required in TSDT, unlike FSDT. Due to the complexity involved in TSDT, this paper obtains a more accurate shear correction factor for use in FSDT of very thick simply supported and uniformly loaded isosceles right triangular plates based on the TSDT. By matching the maximum deflections for this plate according to FSDT and TSDT, a variable shear correction factor is obtained. Results show that the shear correction factor for the simplified TSDT, i.e. 14/17, is least accurate. The commonly adopted shear correction factor of 5/6 in FSDT is valid only for very thin or highly auxetic plates. This paper provides a variable shear correction for FSDT deflection that matches the plate deflection by TSDT. This variable shear correction factor allows designers to justify the use of a commonly adopted shear correction factor of 5/6 even for very thick plates as long as the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. (paper)

  14. Simplified Procedure For The Free Vibration Analysis Of Rectangular Plate Structures With Holes And Stiffeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Dae Seung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thin and thick plates, plates with holes, stiffened panels and stiffened panels with holes are primary structural members in almost all fields of engineering: civil, mechanical, aerospace, naval, ocean etc. In this paper, a simple and efficient procedure for the free vibration analysis of such elements is presented. It is based on the assumed mode method and can handle different plate thickness, various shapes and sizes of holes, different framing sizes and types as well as different combinations of boundary conditions. Natural frequencies and modes are determined by solving an eigenvalue problem of a multi-degree-of-freedom system matrix equation derived by using Lagrange’s equations. Mindlin theory is applied for a plate and Timoshenko beam theory for stiffeners. The applicability of the method in the design procedure is illustrated with several numerical examples obtained by the in-house developed code VAPS. Very good agreement with standard commercial finite element software is achieved.

  15. Preliminary experiments using light-initiated high explosive for driving thin flyer plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benham, R.A.

    1980-02-01

    Light-initiated high explosive, silver acelytide - silver-nitrate (SASN), has been used to produce simulated x ray blow-off impulse loading on reentry vehicles to study the system structural response. SASN can be used to accelerate thin flyer plates to high terminal velocities which, in turn, can deliver a pressure pulse that can be tailored to the target material. This process is important for impulse tests where both structural and material response is desired. The theories used to calculate the dynamic state of the flyer plate prior to impact are summarized. Data from several experiments are presented which indicate that thin flyer plates can be properly accelerated and that there are predictive techniques available which are adequate to calculate the motion of the flyer plate. Recommendations are made for future study that must be undertaken to make the SASN flyer plate technique usable

  16. Axisymmetric buckling analysis of laterally restrained thick annular plates using a hybrid numerical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Computational Mechanics, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: malekzadeh@pgu.ac.ir; Ouji, A. [Department of Civil Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Islamic Azad University, Larestan Branch, Larestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    The buckling analysis of annular thick plates with lateral supports such as two-parameter elastic foundations or ring supports is investigated using an elasticity based hybrid numerical method. For this purpose, firstly, the displacement components are perturbed around the pre-buckling state, which is located using the elasticity theory. Then, by decomposing the plate into a set of sub-domain in the form of co-axial annular plates, the buckling equations are discretized through the radial direction using global interpolation functions in conjunction with the principle of virtual work. The resulting differential equations are solved using the differential quadrature method. The method has the capability of modeling the arbitrary boundary conditions either at the inner and outer edges of thin-to-thick plates and with different types of lateral restraints. The fast rate of convergence of the method is demonstrated and comparison studies are carried out to establish its accuracy and versatility for thin-to-thick plates.

  17. Measurement of the residual stress distribution in a thick pre-stretched aluminum plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. X.; Li, X. Q.; M, S.; Zhang, Y. C.; Gong, Y. D.

    2008-12-01

    Thick pre-stretched aluminum alloy plates are widely used in aircraft, while machining distortion caused by initial residual stress release in thick plates is a common and serious problem. To reduce the distortion, the residual stress distribution in thick plate must be measured. According to the characteristics of the thick pre-stretched aluminum alloy plate, based the elastic mechanical theory, this article deduces the modified layer-removal strain method adapting two different strain situations, which are caused by tensile and compressive stress. To validate this method, the residual stresses distribution along the thick direction of plate 2D70T351 is measured by this method, it is shown that the new method deduced in this paper is simple and accurate, and is very useful in engineering.

  18. Shell-like structures advanced theories and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Eremeyev, Victor

    2017-01-01

    The book presents mathematical and mechanical aspects of the theory of plates and shells, applications in civil, aero-space and mechanical engineering, as well in other areas. The focus relates to the following problems: • comprehensive review of the most popular theories of plates and shells, • relations between three-dimensional theories and two-dimensional ones, • presentation of recently developed new refined plates and shells theories (for example, the micropolar theory or gradient-type theories), • modeling of coupled effects in shells and plates related to electromagnetic and temperature fields, phase transitions, diffusion, etc., • applications in modeling of non-classical objects like, for example, nanostructures, • presentation of actual numerical tools based on the finite element approach.

  19. Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2008-08-22

    Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.

  20. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Beetz, C P; Steinbeck, J; Lemieux, B; Winn, D R

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of approx 0.5 to approx 25 mu m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposite...

  1. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... of academic teaching and lecturing into account....

  2. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, L.J.

    1982-09-20

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  3. A tandem parallel plate analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Nishizawa, A.; Kawasumi, Y.

    1996-11-01

    By a new modification of a parallel plate analyzer the second-order focus is obtained in an arbitrary injection angle. This kind of an analyzer with a small injection angle will have an advantage of small operational voltage, compared to the Proca and Green analyzer where the injection angle is 30 degrees. Thus, the newly proposed analyzer will be very useful for the precise energy measurement of high energy particles in MeV range. (author)

  4. Curved Folded Plate Timber Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich; Stotz, Ivo; Weinand, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the development of a Curved Origami Prototype made with timber panels. In the last fifteen years the timber industry has developed new, large size, timber panels. Composition and dimensions of these panels and the possibility of milling them with Computer Numerical Controlled machines shows great potential for folded plate structures. To generate the form of these structures we were inspired by Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding. Common paper tessellations are c...

  5. PRETREATING URANIUM FOR METAL PLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrmann, R.F.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for anodically treating the surface of uranium articles, prior to metal plating. The metal is electrolyzed in an aqueous solution of about 10% polycarboxylic acid, preferably oxalic acid, from 1 to 5% by weight of glycerine and from 1 to 5% by weight of hydrochloric acid at from 20 to 75 deg C for from 30 seconds to 15 minutes. A current density of from 60 to 100 amperes per square foot is used.

  6. Embedded adhesive connection for laminated glass plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Poulsen, S.H.; Bagger, A.

    2012-01-01

    The structural behavior of a new connection design, the embedded adhesive connection, used for laminated glass plates is investigated. The connection consists of an aluminum plate encapsulated in-between two adjacent triple layered laminated glass plates. Fastening between glass and aluminum...... usage in a design situation. The embedded connection shows promising potential as a future fastening system for load-carrying laminated glass plates....

  7. Fresnel zone plate imaging of a 252Cf spontaneous fission source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalker, K.T.; Hessel, K.R.

    1976-11-01

    The feasibility of coded aperture imaging for nuclear fuel motion monitoring is shown using Cf 252 spontaneous fission source. The theory of coded aperture imaging for Fresnel zone plate apertures is presented and design considerations for zone plate construction are discussed. Actual images are obtained which demonstrate a transverse resolution of 1.7 mm and a tomographic resolution of 1.5 millimeters. The capability of obtaining images through 12.7 mm of stainless steel is also shown

  8. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Mane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.

  9. Divertor plate for thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Sato, Keisuke; Nishio, Satoshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a divertor plate for a thermonuclear reactor, adjacent cooling pipes are electrically insulated from each other and pipes made of a gradient functional material prepared by compositing ceramics having an insulation property and metals are metallurgically joined to at least one portion of each of the cooling pipes. Electric current caused upon occurrence of plasma disruption is interrupted by the insulation portion, so that a large circuit is not formed and electromagnetic force is decreased to such a extent that the divertor plate is not ruptured. Since a header of the cooling pipes can be installed at any optional position, the installation space can be reduced. Further, since inlet and exit collection headers can be disposed on both ends of the cooling pipes, it is possible to shorten the length of the cooling pipe of the divertor plate corresponded to high heat fluxes and reduce the pressure loss on the side of coolants to about 1/2. Further, turn back portions of small radius of curvature of the cooling pipes are eliminated to reduce the cost and extend the lifetime and, in addition, protection tiles can be attached easily. (N.H.)

  10. Secure matching of Dutch car license plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunil, A.B.; Erkiny, Z.; Veugenyz, T.

    2016-01-01

    License plate matching plays an important role in applications like law enforcement, traffic management and road pricing, where the plate is first recognized and then compared to a database of authorized vehicle registration plates. Unfortunately, there are several privacy related issues that should

  11. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions

  12. Designing a licence plate for memorability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Dongen, C.J.G. van

    2005-01-01

    Good memorability of licence plates is important in those cases where licence plates are viewed for a brief period of time and the information is essential for police investigations. The purpose of the current study was to design a new Dutch licence plate that could be remembered well. A memory

  13. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjec...

  14. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected to lon...

  15. Operational test of bonded magnetocaloric plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian; Navickaité, Kristina; Neves Bez, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Bonded plates made by hot pressing La0.85Ce0.15Fe11.25Mn0.25Si1.5Hy particles and resin have been tested as active magnetic regenerators in a small scale magnetocaloric device. Firstly the plates were carefully characterised magnetically and thermally. The plates were prepared with 5 wt% resin...

  16. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben, H. Zhang

    2009-02-12

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions.

  17. Nonlinear vibrations of thin arbitrarily laminated composite plates subjected to harmonic excitations using DKT elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C. K.; Xue, David Y.; Mei, Chuh

    1993-04-01

    A finite element formulation is presented for determining the large-amplitude free and steady-state forced vibration response of arbitrarily laminated anisotropic composite thin plates using the Discrete Kirchhoff Theory (DKT) triangular elements. The nonlinear stiffness and harmonic force matrices of an arbitrarily laminated composite triangular plate element are developed for nonlinear free and forced vibration analyses. The linearized updated-mode method with nonlinear time function approximation is employed for the solution of the system nonlinear eigenvalue equations. The amplitude-frequency relations for convergence with gridwork refinement, triangular plates, different boundary conditions, lamination angles, number of plies, and uniform versus concentrated loads are presented.

  18. Source location in plates based on the multiple sensors array method and wavelet analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hong Jun; Shin, Tae Jin; Lee, Sang Kwon

    2014-01-01

    A new method for impact source localization in a plate is proposed based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and wavelet analysis. For source localization, the direction of arrival of the wave caused by an impact on a plate and the distance between impact position and sensor should be estimated. The direction of arrival can be estimated accurately using MUSIC method. The distance can be obtained by using the time delay of arrival and the group velocity of the Lamb wave in a plate. Time delay is experimentally estimated using the continuous wavelet transform for the wave. The elasto dynamic theory is used for the group velocity estimation.

  19. Source location in plates based on the multiple sensors array method and wavelet analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hong Jun; Shin, Tae Jin; Lee, Sang Kwon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    A new method for impact source localization in a plate is proposed based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and wavelet analysis. For source localization, the direction of arrival of the wave caused by an impact on a plate and the distance between impact position and sensor should be estimated. The direction of arrival can be estimated accurately using MUSIC method. The distance can be obtained by using the time delay of arrival and the group velocity of the Lamb wave in a plate. Time delay is experimentally estimated using the continuous wavelet transform for the wave. The elasto dynamic theory is used for the group velocity estimation.

  20. Low-complexity computation of plate eigenmodes with Vekua approximations and the method of particular solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Gilles; Daudet, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    This paper extends the method of particular solutions (MPS) to the computation of eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of thin plates, in the framework of the Kirchhoff-Love plate theory. Specific approximation schemes are developed, with plane waves (MPS-PW) or Fourier-Bessel functions (MPS-FB). This framework also requires a suitable formulation of the boundary conditions. Numerical tests, on two plates with various boundary conditions, demonstrate that the proposed approach provides competitive results with standard numerical schemes such as the finite element method, at reduced complexity, and with large flexibility in the implementation choices.

  1. Study of the effect of aggressive media on the long-term stability of reinforced plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelentsov, D.G.; Pochtman, Yu.M.

    1995-01-01

    Many important load-bearing structural elements that operate in agressive media are subjected to simultaneous mechanical and chemical attack. The current status of the problem of designing such members is adequately reflected. It follows from that only a few studies have been devoted to the long-term stability of reinforced plates in aggressive media, and most of them were based on structurally orthotropic theory. Such an approach makes it impossible to construct an adequate model of the deformation process. In particular, it precludes allowance for the effect of the discreteness of the reinforcement on plate stability and determination of changes in the character of deformation of the plate during service

  2. Analytical results for post-buckling behaviour of plates in compression and in shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M.

    1985-01-01

    The postbuckling behavior of long rectangular isotropic and orthotropic plates is determined. By assuming trigonometric functions in one direction, the nonlinear partial differential equations of von Karman large deflection plate theory are converted into nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The ordinary differential equations are solved numerically using an available boundary value problem solver which makes use of Newton's method. Results for longitudinal compression show different postbuckling behavior between isotropic and orthotropic plates. Results for shear show that change in inplane edge constraints can cause large change in postbuckling stiffness.

  3. Magneto-elastic dynamics and bifurcation of rotating annular plate*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yu-Da; Piao Jiang-Min; Li Wen-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, magneto-elastic dynamic behavior, bifurcation, and chaos of a rotating annular thin plate with various boundary conditions are investigated. Based on the thin plate theory and the Maxwell equations, the magneto-elastic dynamic equations of rotating annular plate are derived by means of Hamilton’s principle. Bessel function as a mode shape function and the Galerkin method are used to achieve the transverse vibration differential equation of the rotating annular plate with different boundary conditions. By numerical analysis, the bifurcation diagrams with magnetic induction, amplitude and frequency of transverse excitation force as the control parameters are respectively plotted under different boundary conditions such as clamped supported sides, simply supported sides, and clamped-one-side combined with simply-anotherside. Poincaré maps, time history charts, power spectrum charts, and phase diagrams are obtained under certain conditions, and the influence of the bifurcation parameters on the bifurcation and chaos of the system is discussed. The results show that the motion of the system is a complicated and repeated process from multi-periodic motion to quasi-period motion to chaotic motion, which is accompanied by intermittent chaos, when the bifurcation parameters change. If the amplitude of transverse excitation force is bigger or magnetic induction intensity is smaller or boundary constraints level is lower, the system can be more prone to chaos. (paper)

  4. Plate tectonics, habitability and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The role of plate tectonics in defining habitability of terrestrial planets is being increasingly discussed (e.g., Elkins-Tanton, 2015). Plate tectonics is a significantly evolved concept with a large variety of aspects. In the present context, cycling of material between near surface and mantle reservoirs is most important. But increased heat transport through mixing of cold lithosphere with the deep interior and formation of continental crust may also matter. An alternative mechanism of material cycling between these reservoirs is hot-spot volcanism combined with crust delamination. Hot-spot volcanism will transport volatiles to the atmosphere while delamination will mix crust, possibly altered by sedimentation and chemical reactions, with the mantle. The mechanism works as long as the stagnant lithosphere plate has not grown thicker than the crust and as long as volcanic material is added onto the crust. Thermal evolution studies suggest that the mechanism could work for the first 1-2 Ga of planetary evolution. The efficiency of the mechanism is limited by the ratio of extrusive to intrusive volcanism, which is thought to be less than 0.25. Plate tectonics would certainly have an advantage by working even for more evolved planets. A simple, most-used concept of habitability requires the thermodynamic stability of liquid water on the surface of a planet. Cycling of CO2between the atmosphere, oceans and interior through subduction and surface volcanism is an important element of the carbonate-silicate cycle, a thermostat feedback cycle that will keep the atmosphere from entering into a runaway greenhouse. Calculations for a model Earth lacking plate tectonics but degassing CO2, N, and H2O to form a surface ocean and a secondary atmosphere (Tosi et al, 2016) suggest that liquid water can be maintained on the surface for 4.5Ga. The model planet would then qualify as habitable. It is conceivable that the CO2 buffering capability of its ocean together with silicate

  5. Comparative thermal buckling analysis of functionally graded plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čukanović Dragan V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermal buckling analysis of functionally graded thick rectangular plates accord¬ing to von Karman non-linear theory is presented. The material properties of the functionally graded plate, except for the Poisson’s ratio, were assumed to be graded in the thickness direction, according to a power-law distribution, in terms of the volume fractions of the metal and ceramic constituents. Formulations of equilibrium and stability equations are derived using the high order shear deformation theory based on different types of shape functions. Analytical method for determination of the critical buckling temperature for uniform increase of temperature, linear and non-linear change of temperature across thickness of a plate is developed. Numeri¬cal results were obtained in МATLAB software using combinations of symbolic and numeric values. The paper presents comparative results of critical buckling tempera¬ture for different types of shape functions. The accuracy of the formulation presented is verified by comparing to results available from the literature.

  6. Cubic Zig-Zag Enrichment of the Classical Kirchhoff Kinematics for Laminated and Sandwich Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed anaylsis and examples are presented that show how to enrich the kinematics of classical Kirchhoff plate theory by appending them with a set of continuous piecewise-cubic functions. This analysis is used to obtain functions that contain the effects of laminate heterogeneity and asymmetry on the variations of the inplane displacements and transverse shearing stresses, for use with a {3, 0} plate theory in which these distributions are specified apriori. The functions used for the enrichment are based on the improved zig-zag plate theory presented recently by Tessler, Di Scuva, and Gherlone. With the approach presented herein, the inplane displacements are represented by a set of continuous piecewise-cubic functions, and the transverse shearing stresses and strains are represented by a set of piecewise-quadratic functions that are discontinuous at the ply interfaces.

  7. Edge effects in four-point direct current potential drop measurements on metal plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y; Bowler, N; Bowler, J R; Huang, Y

    2009-01-01

    Four-point direct current potential drop (DCPD) measurements are commonly used to measure the conductivity (or resistivity) of semiconductors and ferrous or non-ferrous metals. The measured electrical potential difference is often interpreted in terms of analytic expressions developed for large plates that are either 'thin' or 'thick' relative to the probe length. It is well known that the presence of the back surface of a plate leads to a solution expressed in terms of an infinite series representing the current source and its images. This approach can be generalized to account for multiple surfaces in order to obtain a solution for a finite plate, but convergence of the series is poor when the plate dimensions are similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Here, Fourier series representations of the infinite sums are obtained. It is shown that the Fourier series converge with many fewer terms than the series obtained from image theory, for plates with dimensions similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Comparing calculated results for the potential drop obtained by a four-point probe centred on finite plates of varying dimension, with those for a probe in contact with a large (laterally infinite) plate, estimates are given of the uncertainty due to edge effects in measurements on small plates interpreted using analytic formulae developed for large plates. It is also shown that these uncertainties due to edge effects are reduced, for a given plate size, if the probe pick-up points are moved closer to the current injection points, rather than adopting the common arrangement in which the four probe points are equally spaced. Calculated values of DCPD are compared with experimental data taken on aluminium and spring-steel plates of various sizes and excellent agreement is obtained.

  8. Edge effects in four-point direct current potential drop measurements on metal plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Bowler, N.; Bowler, J. R.; Huang, Y.

    2009-07-01

    Four-point direct current potential drop (DCPD) measurements are commonly used to measure the conductivity (or resistivity) of semiconductors and ferrous or non-ferrous metals. The measured electrical potential difference is often interpreted in terms of analytic expressions developed for large plates that are either 'thin' or 'thick' relative to the probe length. It is well known that the presence of the back surface of a plate leads to a solution expressed in terms of an infinite series representing the current source and its images. This approach can be generalized to account for multiple surfaces in order to obtain a solution for a finite plate, but convergence of the series is poor when the plate dimensions are similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Here, Fourier series representations of the infinite sums are obtained. It is shown that the Fourier series converge with many fewer terms than the series obtained from image theory, for plates with dimensions similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Comparing calculated results for the potential drop obtained by a four-point probe centred on finite plates of varying dimension, with those for a probe in contact with a large (laterally infinite) plate, estimates are given of the uncertainty due to edge effects in measurements on small plates interpreted using analytic formulae developed for large plates. It is also shown that these uncertainties due to edge effects are reduced, for a given plate size, if the probe pick-up points are moved closer to the current injection points, rather than adopting the common arrangement in which the four probe points are equally spaced. Calculated values of DCPD are compared with experimental data taken on aluminium and spring-steel plates of various sizes and excellent agreement is obtained.

  9. Active damping of multiferroic composite plates using 1-3 piezoelectric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattimani, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    A layer-wise shear deformation theory is used to analyze the smart damping of multiferroic composite or magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) plates. The intent of this analysis is to investigate the need for incorporating additional smart elements for controlling the vibrations of multiferroic composite plates. Active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment has been incorporated to alleviate the vibration of MEE plate. A layer of viscoelastic material is used as constrained layer for the ACLD treatment. The coupled constitutive equations of multiferroic (ferroelectric and ferromagnetic) composite materials along with the total potential energy principle are used to derive the finite element formulation for the overall multiferroic or MEE plate. Maxwell’s electrostatic and electromagnetic relations are used to compute the electric and magnetic potential distribution. Influence of obliquely reinforced piezoelectric fibers in the piezoelectric layer of the ACLD treatment has also been investigated. In order to investigate the importance of using ACLD treatment for an active damping of multiferroic or MEE plate, an active control of MEE plate has also been analyzed by providing the control voltage directly to the piezoelectric layers of the MEE substrate plate without using the ACLD treatment. The present study suggests that for an optimal control of MEE plates, the smartness element such as the ACLD treatment is essentially required.

  10. Elastoplastic Stability and Failure Analysis of FGM Plate with Temperature Dependent Material Properties under Thermomechanical Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanishk Sharma

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper explores the stability and failure response of elastoplastic Ni/Al2O3 functionally graded plate under thermomechanical load using non-linear finite element formulation based on first-order shear deformation theory and von-Karman’s nonlinear kinematics. The temperature dependent thermoelastic material properties of FGM plate are varied in the thickness direction by controlling the volume fraction of the constituent materials (i.e., ceramic and metal with a power law, and Mori-Tanaka homogenization scheme is applied to evaluate the properties at a particular thickness coordinate of FGM plate. The elastoplastic behavior of FGM plate is assumed to follow J2-plasticity with isotropic hardening, wherein the ceramic phase is considered to be elastic whereas the metal is assumed to be elastic-plastic in accordance with the Tamura-Tomota-Ozawa model. Numerical studies are conducted to examine the effects of material and geometrical parameters, viz. material in-homogeneity, slenderness and aspect ratios on the elastoplastic bucking and postbuckling behavior and the failure response of FGM plate. It is revealed that material gradation affects the stability and failure behavior of FGM plate considerably. Furthermore, it is also concluded that FGM plate with elastic material properties exhibits only stable equilibrium path, whereas the elastoplastic FGM plate shows destabilizing response after the ultimate failure point.

  11. Free vibration analysis of corroded steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami-Majd, Alireza; Rahbar-Ranji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Vibration analysis of unstiffened/stiffened plates has long been studied due to its importance in the design and condition assessments of ship and offshore structures. Corrosion is inevitable in steel structures and has been so far considered in strength analysis of structures. We studied the free vibration of pitted corroded plates with simply supported boundary conditions. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS, was used to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of corroded plates. Influential parameters including plate aspect ratio, degree of pit, one-sided/both-sided corroded plate, and different corrosion patterns were investigated. By increasing the degree of corrosion, reduction of natural frequency increases. Plate aspect ratio and plate dimensions have no influence on reduction of natural frequency. Different corrosion patterns on the surface of one-sided corroded plates have little influence on reduction of natural frequency. Ratio of pit depth over plate thickness has no influence on the reduction of natural frequency. The reduction of natural frequency in both-sided corroded plates is higher than one-sided corroded plates with the same amount of total corrosion loss. Mode shapes of vibration would change due to corrosion, except square mode shapes.

  12. Bottom nozzle for nuclear reactor fuel assembly having an adaptor plate and a coupled filtration plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, M.; Mortgat, R.

    1992-01-01

    The bottom nozzle includes an adaptor plate with openings to allow the passage of water and a filtration plate with small holes. The openings in the adaptor plate are symmetrical with regard to medians and diagonals. Within each zone, some of the openings are rectangular and some may be circular. The small holes in the filtration plate coincide with the rectangular openings in the adaptor plate

  13. METHOD OF MAKING AND PLATE CONNECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarca, P.; Shubert, C.E.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a method of joining, by welding or brazing, a tube to a plate, particularly where the tube and the plate are of different thickness or have different thermal conductivities and are subject to high temperatures. In this method the tube is inserted in the core of a plate containing an annular groove in its back face concentric with the bore and in communication with the bore. One end of the tube is welded substantially flush with the front end of the plate. Brazing alloy is placed in the groove on the back face of the plate and heat is applied to the plate and tube to melt the brazing alloy to permit the alloy to flow into the bore and bond the tube to the plate. (AEC)

  14. PWR integral tie plate and locking mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flora, B.S.; Osborne, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A locking mechanism for securing an upper tie plate to the tie rods of a nuclear fuel bundle is described. The mechanism includes an upper tie plate assembly and locking sleeves fixed to the ends of the tie rods. The tie plate is part of the upper tie plate assembly and is secured to the fuel bundle by securing the entire upper tie plate assembly to the locking sleeves fixed to the tie rods. The assembly includes, in addition to the tie plate, locking nuts for engaging the locking sleeves, retaining sleeves to operably connect the locking nuts to the assembly, a spring biased reaction plate to restrain the locking nuts in the locked position and a means to facilitate the removal of the entire assembly as a unit from the fuel bundle

  15. DETERMINATION OF CRITICAL ROTATIONAL SPEED OF CIRCULAR SAWS FROM NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF ANNULAR PLATE WITH ANALOGOUS DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Skoblar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is suitable to reduce thickness of circular saw when trying to enhance usability of wood raw material, but reducing thickness also causes reduction of permissible rotational speed which reduces sawing speed. If one increase circular saw rotational speed over permissible one the quality of machined surfaces will reduce because of enhanced vibrations. Permissible rotational speed can be calculated from critical rotational speed which can be defined from natural frequencies of the saw. In this article critical rotational speeds of standard clamped saws (with flat disk surface and without slots are calculated by using finite element method and classical theory of thin plates on annular plates. Mode shapes and natural frequencies of annular plates are determined by using Bessel functions and by using polynomial functions. Obtained results suggest that standard clamped circular saws without slots and with relatively small teeth can be determined from classical theory of thin plates for annular plates with accuracy depending on clamping ratio.

  16. Three-Dimensional Elasticity Solutions for Sound Radiation of Functionally Graded Materials Plates considering State Space Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieliang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study for sound radiation of functionally graded materials (FGM plate based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The FGM plate is a mixture of metal and ceramic, and its material properties are assumed to have smooth and continuous variation in the thickness direction according to a power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of the constituents. Based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity and state space method, the governing equations with variable coefficients of the FGM plate are derived. The sound radiation of the vibration plate is calculated with Rayleigh integral. Comparisons of the present results with those of solutions in the available literature are made and good agreements are achieved. Finally, some parametric studies are carried out to investigate the sound radiation properties of FGM plates.

  17. Vortex Dynamics around Pitching Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-29

    electrical signals are A/D converted in an ATI NetBox interface and recorded using a Java application, and are filtered in three steps. The first is a low...the plate while staying attached to the corners of the leading edge. During this process, a second vortex loop, created by the quick angular ...is a spike in CL centered around t = 0 due to non-circulatory6 effects from the angular acceleration of the wing. The amplitude of the peak is

  18. Micro plate fission chamber development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Wen Zhongwei; Lin Jufang; Jiang Li; Liu Rong; Wang Dalun

    2014-01-01

    To conduct the measurement of neutron flux and the fission rate distribution at several position in assemblies, the micro plate fission chamber was designed and fabricated. Since the requirement of smaller volume and less structure material was taken into consideration, it is convinient, commercial and practical to use fission chamber to measure neutron flux in specific condition. In this paper, the structure of fission chamber and process of fabrication were introduced and performance test result was presented. The detection efficiency is 91.7%. (authors)

  19. Non-cyanide silver plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Technic, Inc. have entered into a CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) with the goal of providing industry with an environmentally benign alternative to the presently used silver cyanide plating process. This project has been in place for about six months and results are quite promising. The main objective, that of deposition of deposits as thick as 125 um (5 mils), has been met. Property data such as stress and hardness have been obtained and the structure of the deposit has been analyzed via metallography and x-ray diffraction. These results will be presented in this paper, along with plans for future work

  20. Large deflection analysis of laminated composite plates resting on nonlinear elastic foundations by the method of discrete singular convolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltacioglu, A.K.; Civalek, O.; Akgoez, B.; Demir, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents nonlinear static analysis of a rectangular laminated composite thick plate resting on nonlinear two-parameter elastic foundation with cubic nonlinearity. The plate formulation is based on first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The governing equation of motion for a rectangular laminated composite thick plate is derived by using the von Karman equation. The nonlinear static deflections of laminated plates on elastic foundation are investigated using the discrete singular convolution method. The effects of foundation and geometric parameters of plates on nonlinear deflections are investigated. The validity of the present method is demonstrated by comparing the present results with those available in the literature. - Highlights: → Large deflection analysis of laminated composite plates are investigated. → As foundation, nonlinear elastic models have been used firstly. → The effects of three-parameter foundation are investigated in detail.

  1. Active constrained layer damping of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of functionally graded plates using piezoelectric fiber-reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, Satyajit; Ray, M C

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis has been presented for functionally graded (FG) plates integrated with a patch of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment and subjected to a temperature field. The constraining layer of the ACLD treatment is considered to be made of the piezoelectric fiber-reinforced composite (PFRC) material. The temperature field is assumed to be spatially uniform over the substrate plate surfaces and varied through the thickness of the host FG plates. The temperature-dependent material properties of the FG substrate plates are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction of the plates according to a power-law distribution while the Poisson's ratio is assumed to be a constant over the domain of the plate. The constrained viscoelastic layer of the ACLD treatment is modeled using the Golla–Hughes–McTavish (GHM) method. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory, a three-dimensional finite element model has been developed to model the open-loop and closed-loop nonlinear dynamics of the overall FG substrate plates under the thermal environment. The analysis suggests the potential use of the ACLD treatment with its constraining layer made of the PFRC material for active control of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of FG plates in the absence or the presence of the temperature gradient across the thickness of the plates. It is found that the ACLD treatment is more effective in controlling the geometrically nonlinear vibrations of FG plates than in controlling their linear vibrations. The analysis also reveals that the ACLD patch is more effective for controlling the nonlinear vibrations of FG plates when it is attached to the softest surface of the FG plates than when it is bonded to the stiffest surface of the plates. The effect of piezoelectric fiber orientation in the active constraining PFRC layer on the damping characteristics of the overall FG plates is also discussed

  2. Active constrained layer damping of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of functionally graded plates using piezoelectric fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Satyajit; Ray, M. C.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, a geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis has been presented for functionally graded (FG) plates integrated with a patch of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment and subjected to a temperature field. The constraining layer of the ACLD treatment is considered to be made of the piezoelectric fiber-reinforced composite (PFRC) material. The temperature field is assumed to be spatially uniform over the substrate plate surfaces and varied through the thickness of the host FG plates. The temperature-dependent material properties of the FG substrate plates are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction of the plates according to a power-law distribution while the Poisson's ratio is assumed to be a constant over the domain of the plate. The constrained viscoelastic layer of the ACLD treatment is modeled using the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory, a three-dimensional finite element model has been developed to model the open-loop and closed-loop nonlinear dynamics of the overall FG substrate plates under the thermal environment. The analysis suggests the potential use of the ACLD treatment with its constraining layer made of the PFRC material for active control of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of FG plates in the absence or the presence of the temperature gradient across the thickness of the plates. It is found that the ACLD treatment is more effective in controlling the geometrically nonlinear vibrations of FG plates than in controlling their linear vibrations. The analysis also reveals that the ACLD patch is more effective for controlling the nonlinear vibrations of FG plates when it is attached to the softest surface of the FG plates than when it is bonded to the stiffest surface of the plates. The effect of piezoelectric fiber orientation in the active constraining PFRC layer on the damping characteristics of the overall FG plates is also discussed.

  3. The Interaction between the Plane Wave and the Plate with Limited Height in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Lokteva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A solution of the two-dimensional task on interaction between the harmonic wave and the plate with the limited height in soil has been provided. The plate surrounded on both sides with the half-spaces filled with soil medium has been used as a vibro-absorbing obstacle. The mechanical behavior of the plate has been described by S.P. Timoshenko's shift model and the mechanical behavior of soil by a linear elasticity theory equation. The main purpose of the paper is to determine the total acceleration vector field inducted by the penetrated and radiated waves in the second half-space. The mathematical formulation of the task includes a model of upcoming wave, soil medium and plate movement equation, infinity conditions, and conditions of soil contact with obstacle. Conditions of free slip have been taken as the contact conditions between the soil and the obstacle. We have considered a closed system of equations, which includes wave equations for scalar and vector potentials, elasticity theory equations for soil mediums, Koshi's relations, physical law, and plate movement equation. The boundary conditions for the plate correspond to a hinged support. To solve this task, all functions have been expanded in trigonometric series that allowed to obtain potential values in the coefficients of the series. To define the integrations constants, the contact conditions between the obstacle and soil have been used. On the basis of the revealed potentials, we have defined displacements on the boundary between the plate and soil and in other points of the second half-space. The vibro-absorbing properties of the plate have been investigated depending on the frequency of the harmonic wave falling on the plate. From the practical point of view, this task is related to protection of buildings from vibrations formed at a distance from underground railways.

  4. Seismic gaps and plate tectonics: seismic potential for major boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, W R; Nishenko, S P; Sykes, L R; Krause, J

    1979-01-01

    The theory of plate tectonics provides a basic framework for evaluating the potential for future great earthquakes to occur along major plate boundaries. Along most of the transform and convergent plate boundaries considered in this paper, the majority of seismic slip occurs during large earthquakes, i.e., those of magnitude 7 or greater. The concepts that rupture zones, as delineated by aftershocks, tend to abut rather than overlap, and large events occur in regions with histories of both long-and short-term seismic quiescence are used in this paper to delineate major seismic gaps. The term seismic gap is taken to refer to any region along an active plate boundary that has not experienced a large thrust or strike-slip earthquake for more than 30 years. A region of high seismic potential is a seismic gap that, for historic or tectonic reasons, is considered likely to produce a large shock during the next few decades. The seismic gap technique provides estimates of the location, size of future events and origin time to within a few tens of years at best. The accompanying map summarizes six categories of seismic potential for major plate boundaries in and around the margins of the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean, South Sandwich and Sunda (Indonesia) regions for the next few decades. These six categories are meant to be interpreted as forecasts of the location and size of future large shocks and should not be considered to be predictions in which a precise estimate of the time of occurrence is specified. The categories of potential assigned here provide a rationale for assigning priorities for instrumentation, for future studies aimed at predicting large earthquakes and for making estimates of tsunami potential.

  5. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetz, Charles P.; Boerstler, Robert; Steinbeck, John; Lemieux, Bryan; Winn, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of ∼0.5 to ∼25 μm, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposited or nucleated in the channels or the first strike surface. Results on resistivity, secondary emission and gain are presented

  6. Buckling analysis for axially compressed flat plates, structural sections, and stiffened plates reinforced with laminated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Soong, T.; Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    A classical buckling analysis is developed for stiffened, flat plates composed of a series of linked plate and beam elements. Plates are idealized as multilayered orthotropic elements. Structural beads and lips are idealized as beams. The loaded edges of the stiffened plate are simply-supported and the conditions at the unloaded edges can be prescribed arbitrarily. The plate and beam elements are matched along their common junctions for displacement continuity and force equilibrium in an exact manner. Offsets between elements are considered in the analysis. Buckling under uniaxial compressive load for plates, sections, and stiffened plates is investigated. Buckling loads are the lowest of all possible general and local failure modes, and the mode shape is used to determine whether buckling is a local or general instability. Numerical correlations with existing analysis and test data for plates, sections, and stiffened plates including boron-reinforced structures are discussed. In general correlations are reasonably good.

  7. Waltz's Theory of Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole

    2009-01-01

    -empiricism and anti-positivism of his position. Followers and critics alike have treated Waltzian neorealism as if it was at bottom a formal proposition about cause-effect relations. The extreme case of Waltz being so victorious in the discipline, and yet being consistently mis-interpreted on the question of theory......, shows the power of a dominant philosophy of science in US IR, and thus the challenge facing any ambitious theorising. The article suggests a possible movement of fronts away from the ‘fourth debate' between rationalism and reflectivism towards one of theory against empiricism. To help this new agenda...

  8. Rapidly Moving Divertor Plates In A Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.

    2011-01-01

    It may be possible to replace conventional actively cooled tokamak divertor plates with a set of rapidly moving, passively cooled divertor plates on rails. These plates would absorb the plasma heat flux with their thermal inertia for ∼10-30 sec, and would then be removed from the vessel for processing. When outside the tokamak, these plates could be cooled, cleaned, recoated, inspected, and then returned to the vessel in an automated loop. This scheme could provide nearoptimal divertor surfaces at all times, and avoid the need to stop machine operation for repair of damaged or eroded plates. We describe various possible divertor plate designs and access geometries, and discuss an initial design for a movable and removable divertor module for NSTX-U.

  9. Dynamic instability of imperfect laminated sandwich plates with in-plane partial edge load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Chakrabarti

    Full Text Available Dynamic instability of laminated sandwich plates having inter-laminar imperfections with in-plane partial edge loading is studied for the first time using an efficient finite element plate model. The plate model is based on a refined higher order shear deformation plate theory, where the transverse shear stresses are continuous at the layer interfaces with stress free conditions at plate top and bottom surfaces. A linear spring-layer model is used to model the inter-laminar imperfection by considering in-plane displacement jumps at the interfaces. Interestingly the plate model having all these refined features requires unknowns at the reference plane only. However, this theory requires C1 continuity of transverse displacement (w i.e., w and its derivatives should be continuous at the common edges between two elements, which is difficult to satisfy arbitrarily in any existing finite element. To deal with this, a new triangular element developed by the authors is used in the present paper.

  10. A unified nonlocal strain gradient plate model for nonlinear axial instability of functionally graded porous micro/nano-plates reinforced with graphene platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmani, Saeid; Aghdam, Mohammad Mohammadi; Rabczuk, Timon

    2018-04-01

    By gradually changing of the porosity across a specific direction, functionally graded porous materials (FGPMs) are produced which can impart desirable mechanical properties. To enhance these properties, it is common to reinforce FGPMs with nanofillers. The main aim of the current study is to investigate the size-dependent nonlinear axial postbuckling characteristics of FGPM micro/nano-plates reinforced with graphene platelets. For this purpose, the theory of nonlocal strain gradient elasticity incorporating the both stiffness reduction and stiffness enhancement mechanisms of size effects is applied to the refined exponential shear deformation plate theory. Three different patterns of porosity dispersion across the plate thickness in conjunction with the uniform one are assumed for FGPM as an open-cell metal foam is utilized associated with the coefficients of the relative density and porosity. With the aid of the virtual work’s principle, the non-classical governing differential equations are constructed. Thereafter, an improved perturbation technique is employed to capture the size dependencies in the nonlinear load-deflection and load-shortening responses of the reinforced FGPM micro/nano-plates with and without initial geometric imperfection. It is indicated that by increasing the value of porosity coefficient, the size-dependent critical buckling loads of reinforced FGPM micro/nano-plates with all types of porosity dispersion pattern reduce, but the associated shortening may increase or decrease which depends on the type of dispersion pattern.

  11. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaohui, E-mail: lzhtrhos@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijingxbh@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopengf05@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Lv, Han, E-mail: chrislvhan@126.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Dong, Cheng, E-mail: derc007@sina.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Wenjuan, E-mail: wenjuanliu@163.com [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, No. 6 Health Street, Jining 272100 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition.

  12. Strain resolving method of composite plane plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion FUIOREA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extension of isotropic plates problem to the case of composite plates. In order to perform it, the Kirchhoff-Love hypotheses were “softened” by some additional ones. Considering the constitutive laws for composite materials the stress functions were eliminated by using Cauchy equations. As a result a partial derivative equation in displacements was obtained. Finally the boundary condition formulation was extended for the case of complex composite plates.

  13. Empirical Study of Car License Plates Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dina, Nasa Zata; Dailey, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The number of vehicles on the road has increased drastically in recent years. The license plate is an identity card for a vehicle. It can map to the owner and further information about vehicle. License plate information is useful to help traffic management systems. For example, traffic management systems can check for vehicles moving at speeds not permitted by law and can also be installed in parking areas to se-cure the entrance or exit way for vehicles. License plate recognition algorithms ...

  14. 431K/CD vehicle number plates

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    The Green Plates Service, which is responsible for issuing the 431K/CD vehicle number plates , wishes to apologise for the delay in processing applications over the past weeks. The delay is outside the Service’s control, as it is due to the recent introduction of new rules governing the vehicle registration process in France. Normal service will be resumed as soon as possible. Thank you for your understanding. GS-SEM-LS – Green Plates Service

  15. Replacement divider plate performance under LOCA loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynk, H.M.; MClellan, G.H.; Schneider, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    A primary divider plate in a nuclear steam generator is required to perform its partitioning function with a minimum of cross leakage, without degradation in operating performance and without loss of structural integrity resulting from normal and accident loading. The design of the replacement divider plate for normal operating conditions is discussed in some detail in reference 1 and 2. This paper describes the structural response of the replacement divider plate to the severe loading resulting from a burst primary pipe. The loads for which the divider plate structural performance must be evaluated are mild to severe differential pressure transients resulting from several postulated sizes and types of pipe break scenarios. In the unlikely event of a severe Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the divider plate or parts thereof must not exit the steam generator nor completely block the outlet nozzle. For the milder LOCA loads, the integrity of the divider plate and seat bars must be maintained. Analysis for the milder LOCA loads was carried out employing a conservative approach which ignores the actual interaction between the structure and the primary fluid. For these load cases it was shown that the divider plate does not become disengaged from the seat bars. For the more severe pipe breaks, the thermal-hydraulic analysis was coupled iteratively with the structural analysis, thereby taking into account divider plate deformation, in order to obtain a better prediction of the behaviour of the divider plate. In this manner substantial reduction in divider plate response to the more severe LOCA loading was achieved. It has been shown that, for the case of a postulated large LOCA (100% reactor inlet header), the disengagement of the divider plate from the seat bars resulted in an opening smaller than 1% of the divider plate area. (author)

  16. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhaohui; Li, Jing; Zhao, Pengfei; Lv, Han; Dong, Cheng; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Zhenchang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition

  17. Evaluation of korzincalloy prepared by Hohman Plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hollingshad, A. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-17

    A commercial vendor, Hohman Plating performed contract engineering work to determine the feasibility of producing pin hole free KorZincAlloy bronze material used for zinc gettering. Samples were tested for Sn plating thickness, heat treatability, and chemistry prior to being subjected to a standardized zinc exposure. The samples absorbed zinc and were examined using visual and scanning electron microscopy. Hohman Plating successfully produced KZA that met the target composition, was pin hole free, and was an effective zinc getter.

  18. Locking screw-plate interface stability in carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone proximal humerus plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hak, David J; Fader, Ryan; Baldini, Todd; Chadayammuri, Vivek B S

    2017-09-01

    Carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) plates have recently been introduced for proximal humerus fracture treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the locking screw-plate interface stability in CFR-PEEK versus stainless steel (SS) proximal humerus plates. Locking screw mechanical stability was evaluated independently in proximal and shaft plate holes. Stiffness and load to failure were tested for three conditions: (1) on-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK versus SS plates, (2) on-axis locking screw insertion, removal, and reinsertion in CFR-PEEK plates, and (3) 10-degree off-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK plates. Cantilever bending at a rate of 1 mm/minute was produced by an Instron machine and load-displacement data recorded. Shaft locking screw load to failure was significantly greater in CFR-PEEK plates compared to SS plates (746.4 ± 89.7 N versus 596.5 ± 32.6 N, p PEEK plates (p PEEK plates. The mechanical stability of locking screws in CFR-PEEK plates is comparable or superior to locking screws in SS plates.

  19. Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Nicholas G.; Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

  20. Metallized xerographic plates and their preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Xerographic plates, particularly xeroradiographic plates, suitable for soft or hard x-ray exposure require margins or edges suitable for handling and mounting. In order to fabricate such plates, it is convenient to apply a peripheral mask over the substrate during application of at least the photoconductive layer. Use of masks, however, tend to promote peripheral plate irregularities usually because of scratches or other uneveness at or under the margin of the applied mask. Such imperfections spawn corresponding electrical field irregularities which can now be minimized or avoided altogether by grounding the margins with metal overcoats

  1. Bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelman, E.; Kout, W.; Vogelaar, B.; Lenssen, J.; de Waal, E.

    The bipolar plates are in weight and volume the major part of the PEM fuel cell stack, and are also a significant contributor to the stack costs. The bipolar plate is therefore a key component if power density has to increase and costs must come down. Three cell plate technologies are expected to reach targeted cost price levels, all having specific advantages and drawbacks. NedStack has developed a conductive composite materials and a production process for fuel cell plates (bipolar and mono-polar). The material has a high electric and thermal conductivity, and can be processed into bipolar plates by a proprietary molding process. Process cycle time has been reduced to less than 10 s, making the material and process suitable for economical mass production. Other development work to increase material efficiency resulted in thin bipolar plates with integrated cooling channels, and integrated seals, and in two-component bipolar plates. Total thickness of the bipolar plates is now less than 3 mm, and will be reduced to 2 mm in the near future. With these thin integrated plates it is possible to increase power density up to 2 kW/l and 2 kW/kg, while at the same time reducing cost by integrating other functions and less material use.

  2. Line Heat-Source Guarded Hot Plate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The 1-meter guarded hot-plate apparatus measures thermal conductivity of building insulation. This facility provides for absolute measurement of thermal...

  3. No quantum friction between uniformly moving plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philbin, T G; Leonhardt, U [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tgp3@st-andrews.ac.uk

    2009-03-15

    The Casimir forces between two plates moving parallel to each other at arbitrary constant speed are found by calculating the vacuum electromagnetic stress tensor. The perpendicular force between the plates is modified by the motion but there is no lateral force on the plates. Electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations do not therefore give rise to 'quantum friction' in this case, contrary to previous assertions. The result shows that the Casimir-Polder force on a particle moving at constant speed parallel to a plate also has no lateral component.

  4. No quantum friction between uniformly moving plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philbin, T G; Leonhardt, U

    2009-01-01

    The Casimir forces between two plates moving parallel to each other at arbitrary constant speed are found by calculating the vacuum electromagnetic stress tensor. The perpendicular force between the plates is modified by the motion but there is no lateral force on the plates. Electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations do not therefore give rise to 'quantum friction' in this case, contrary to previous assertions. The result shows that the Casimir-Polder force on a particle moving at constant speed parallel to a plate also has no lateral component.

  5. Structural improvement of strengthened deck panels with externally bonded plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Jongsung; Oh, Hongseob

    2005-01-01

    Concrete bridge decks require eventual replacement and rehabilitation due to decreasing load-carrying capacity. This paper compares different strengthening design procedures that improve the usability and structural performance of bridge decks. The failure characteristics of bridge decks strengthened with various materials such as carbon fiber sheet, glass fiber sheet, steel plate, and grid CFRP and GFRP are analyzed, and the theoretical load-carrying capacities are evaluated using traditional beam and yield line theory, and punching shear analysis. The strengthening materials increase the punching shear strength of the deck and change the failure mode of the strengthened panel

  6. Imaging plates for nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Ken; Takebe, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The imaging plate (IP, hereafter) is a new opto-electronic X-ray film developed by Fuji Photo Film Co. Ltd., formed with a large area of thin flexible plastic plate coated with photo-estimulable storage phosphor (e.g. Ba F Br: Eu 2+ ). Recently, it has been found highly sensitive to soft X-ray (SR), soft electrons, and also usual alpha, beta, gamma rays and others, e.g. cosmic rays, energy heavy ions, and moreover neutrons through suitable converters inside or outside of the IP. Many types of IP are now used in various fields, such as medical examinations, auto-radiography in vivo/ in situ/ in vitro, X-ray/neutron diffraction/ radiography, electron microscopy. RI contamination, assay of ore. The IP has other striking performances, e.e. extremely low intrinsic noises, a high position resolution, high detection efficiency (100-1000 times) as high as an X-ray film), extremely wide dynamic range of dose (more than 10 5 ). Besides the thermal fading yet left unresolved materially, the only feature lacking and that one has ben longing for is the radiation identification by itself. We found out that the IP has a full potential ability of radiation identification in itself. One evidence found is that the ratio of the twin peaks of the PSL (photo-stimulated luminescence) excitation spectra indicates simply the particle energies, studied and now established. Another is that the photo-beaching provides the fluorescent responses different enough to discriminate the radiations, yet in progress with cyclotron experiments, into the usage of double labeled bio tracers

  7. Reduced and selective integration techniques in the finite element analysis of plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.J.R.; Cohen, M.; Haroun, M.

    1978-01-01

    Efforts to develop effective plate bending finite elements by reduced integration techniques are described. The basis for the development is a 'thick' plate theory in which transverse shear strains are accounted for. The variables in the theory are all kinematic, namely, displacements and independent rotations. As only C 0 continuity is required, isoparametric elements may be employed, which result in several advantages over thin plate elements. It is shown that the avoidance of shear 'locking' may be facilitated by reduced integration techniques. Both uniform and selective schemes are considered. Conditions under which selective schemes are invariant are identified, and they are found to have an advantage over uniform schemes in the present situation. It is pointed out that the present elements are not subject to the difficulties encountered by thin plate theory elements, concerning boundary conditions. For example, the polygonal approximation of curved, simply supported edges is convergent. Other topics discussed are the equivalence with mixed methods, rank deficiency, convergence criteria and useful mass 'lumping' schemes for dynamics. Numerical results for several thin plate problems indicate the high degree of accuracy attainable by the present elements. (Auth.)

  8. Free vibration response of a multilayer smart hybrid composite plate with embedded SMA wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Malekzadeh

    Full Text Available In this paper, free vibration response of a hybrid composite plate was studied. Effects of some geometrical, physical and material parameters on response of the composite plates embedded with shape memory alloy (SMA wires were investigated, which have not been reported in the literature thus far. Some of these parameters included important factors affecting free vibration response of the smart hybrid composite plates. The SMA wires were embedded within the layers of the composite laminate. First-order shear deformation theory (FSDT was utilized to obtain the governing equations of hybrid composite plates. Transverse shear and rotary inertia effects of the plate were taken into consideration. For simply-supported boundary conditions, systematic closed form solutions were obtained by Navier's technique. It was established that dynamic behavior of the smart hybrid composite plate depended on various parameters such as volume fraction, temperature dependent recovery stress and tensile pre-strain of SMA wires and aspect ratio of the laminated hybrid plate.

  9. The influence of finite cavities on the sound insulation of double-plate structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2005-06-01

    Lightweight walls are often designed as frameworks of studs with plates on each side--a double-plate structure. The studs constitute boundaries for the cavities, thereby both affecting the sound transmission directly by short-circuiting the plates, and indirectly by disturbing the sound field between the plates. The paper presents a deterministic prediction model for airborne sound insulation including both effects of the studs. A spatial transform technique is used, taking advantage of the periodicity. The acoustic field inside the cavities is expanded by means of cosine-series. The transmission coefficient (angle-dependent and diffuse) and transmission loss are studied. Numerical examples are presented and comparisons with measurement are performed. The result indicates that a reasonably good agreement between theory and measurement can be achieved.

  10. Modeling of damage evaluation in thin composite plate loaded by pressure loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudinský M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of numerical analysis of elastic damage of thin laminated long fiber-reinforced composite plate consisting of unidirectional layers which is loaded by uniformly distributed pressure. The analysis has been performed by means of the finite element method (FEM. The numerical implementation uses layered plate finite elements based on the Kirchhoff plate theory. System of nonlinear equations has been solved by means of the Newton- Raphson procedure. Evolution of damage has been solved using the return-mapping algorithm based on the continuum damage mechanics (CDM. The analysis was performed using own program created in MATLAB. Problem of laminated fiber-reinforced composite plate fixed on edges for two different materials and three different laminate stacking sequences (LSS was simulated. Evolution of stresses vs. strains and also evolution of damage variables in critical points of the structure are shown.

  11. Finite-Element Modeling of Timber Joints with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to describe the idea and the theory behind a finite-element model developed for analysis of timber trusses with punched metal plate fasteners (nail plates). The finite-element model includes the semirigid and nonlinear behavior of the joints (nonlinear nail and plate...... elements) and contact between timber beams, if any (bilinear contact elements). The timber beams have linear-elastic properties. The section forces needed for design of the joints are given directly by the finite-element model, since special elements are used to model the nail groups and the nail plate...... the behavior of the joints very well at lower load levels. At higher load levels the stiffness is overestimated due to development of cracks in the timber and the linear-elastic timber properties in the finite-element model....

  12. Design and simulation experimental study of bracket plates in steam generator for AC600 PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fuyuan; Zhang Wenqi; Ji Quankai; Zeng Xi; Xie Yongyao

    1998-01-01

    Seven-holes type bracket plate at the inlet nozzle and three-holes taper bracket plate at outlet nozzle are designed. According to 'local form and structure change' simulation theory, hydraulic models and simulators for the simulative experiments are designed. Taking water as the medium, the simulative experiments have been completed at the room temperature. The ζ-Re curves (here, ζ is the local pressure loss coefficient at the nozzles after the bracket plates are installed and Re is Reynolds number) have been got. Based on the experimental results, the computation and the analysis have been shown that. If the bracket plates are used in the steam generator (SG) of AC600 PWR, the pressure drop of primary side in the SG is about 14 percent higher than that of the 55/19 B style SG

  13. Optimal design of sandwich ribbed flat baffle plates of a circular cylindrical tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Marek; Magnucki, Krzysztof

    2005-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a sandwich ribbed flat baffle plate of a circular cylindrical tank. The paper deals with a problem of optimal thickness of this construction with a soft core. The construction is distinguished by a local axisymmetric pre-springing. The mathematical description is based on the theory of shells with analysis of disturbance of the stress membrane state. The sandwich ribbed flat baffle plate divides the tank into two chambers. One of them is loaded by uniform pressure, while the other is empty and unloaded. Dimensions of ribs, faces and the entire baffle plate have been determined with a view to minimize the mass under strength constraints. The effect of optimal thickness of this sandwich plate has been examined by means of the finite element method

  14. Stress wave calculations in composite plates using the fast Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    The protection of composite turbine fan blades against impact forces has prompted the study of dynamic stresses in composites due to transient loads. The mathematical model treats the laminated plate as an equivalent anisotropic material. The use of Mindlin's approximate theory of crystal plates results in five two-dimensional stress waves. Three of the waves are flexural and two involve in-plane extensional strains. The initial value problem due to a transient distributed transverse force on the plate is solved using Laplace and Fourier transforms. A fast computer program for inverting the two-dimensional Fourier transform is used. Stress contours for various stresses and times after application of load are obtained for a graphite fiber-epoxy matrix composite plate. Results indicate that the points of maximum stress travel along the fiber directions.

  15. On the calculation of crack propagation behavior in disks and plates using a mixed finite method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    1991-01-01

    According to the linear theory of elasticity, infinitely high stresses occur in the crack tips of cracked components. Plastic flow initiation or previous damage, however, will limit these stress singularities to an upper maximum stress for all real materials. To permit acquisition of this highly localized material behavior, while avoiding a very high physical nonlinear calculation effort for the evaluation of crack propagation behavior in disks and plates, models essentially based on Dugdale and Barenblatt are used. This involves determining the stress and displacement conditions required for the simulation of crack propagation by means of a mixed finite method introducing the disk cutting forces and plate curvatures or moments as unknown quantities. In addition to pure disk and plate problems, also coupled disk-plate problems are covered, where the coupling, on one hand, is due to the consideration of high deformations. (orig.) With 66 figs., 8 tabs [de

  16. Application of a Brittle Damage Model to Normal Plate-on-Plate Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raftenberg, Martin N

    2005-01-01

    A brittle damage model presented by Grinfeld and Wright of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory was implemented in the LS-DYNA finite element code and applied to the simulation of normal plate-on-plate impact...

  17. The Iberian Plate: myth or reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canerot, J.

    2016-10-01

    The plate tectonics theory generally leads us to consider that Iberia was an independent plate separated from Europe by the North Pyrenean Fault (NPF). The NPF has been commonly interpreted as a transform fault associated with a huge counterclockwise transverse and rotational movement that allowed the opening of the Bay of Biscay and the relative eastward motion of Iberia during the Mesozoic. According to some interpretations, this movement may have generated an interplate gap several hundreds of km wide, which led to the creation of an oceanic crust during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. However, field studies recently carried out in the Pyrenees do not support these interpretations. The North Pyrenean Fault (NPF) of Tertiary age is observed in the central and eastern Pyrenees, where pioneering researchers defined it as separating the North Pyrenean Zone from the Axial Zone.However, this fault cannot be identified in the western part of the range to the west of the Ossau valley. Consequently, the geodynamic evolution of Iberia has always been dependent on Europe, especially during the failed oceanic rifting in the Mid-Cretaceous. Indeed, during this period, a central zone of crustal thinning occupied by turbiditic basins separated the European from the Iberian continental crust, with a very localized mantle exhumation found only in the Mauleon basin. Therefore, far from being an interplate range, the Pyrenees can neither be considered as an intraplate unit. We can define this orogenic belt as resulting from the Tertiary tectonic inversion of a Mid-Cretaceous rift system. According to this new interpretation, Iberia would not have been an isolated plate but represented an unstable, outlying part of Europe. Rather than displaying the features of a rigid lithospheric unit with well-defined boundaries, Iberia grouped together different crustal blocks undergoing specific movements at particular times. During the Mesozoic, normal, reverse or strike

  18. A feedback control system for vibration of magnetostrictive plate subjected to follower force using sinusoidal shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghorbanpour Arani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the vibrational behavior of magnetostrictive plate (MsP as a smart component is studied. The plate is subjected to an external follower force and a magnetic field in which the vibration response of MsP has been investigated for both loading combinations. The velocity feedback gain parameter is evaluated to study the effect of magnetic field which is generated by the coil. Sinusoidal shear deformation theory is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial function with respect to other plate theories. Equations of motion are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved by differential quadrature method (DQM considering general boundary conditions. The effects of aspect ratio, thickness ratio, follower force and velocity feedback gain are investigated on the frequency response of MsP. Results indicate that magneto-mechanical coupling in MsM helps to control vibrational behaviors of systems such as electro-hydraulic actuator, wireless linear Motors and sensors.

  19. Modeling and analysis of waves in a heat conducting thermo-elastic plate of elliptical shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Selvamani

    Full Text Available Wave propagation in heat conducting thermo elastic plate of elliptical cross-section is studied using the Fourier expansion collocation method based on Suhubi's generalized theory. The equations of motion based on two-dimensional theory of elasticity is applied under the plane strain assumption of generalized thermo elastic plate of elliptical cross-sections composed of homogeneous isotropic material. The frequency equations are obtained by using the boundary conditions along outer and inner surface of elliptical cross-sectional plate using Fourier expansion collocation method. The computed non-dimensional frequency, velocity and quality factor are plotted in dispersion curves for longitudinal and flexural (symmetric and antisymmetric modes of vibrations.

  20. Density functional theory calculations of charge transport properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZIRAN CHEN

    2017-08-04

    Aug 4, 2017 ... properties of 'plate-like' coronene topological structures ... Keywords. Organic semiconductors; density functional theory; charge carrier mobility; ambipolar transport; ..... nology Department of Sichuan Province (Grant Number.

  1. Exact result in strong wave turbulence of thin elastic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düring, Gustavo; Krstulovic, Giorgio

    2018-02-01

    An exact result concerning the energy transfers between nonlinear waves of a thin elastic plate is derived. Following Kolmogorov's original ideas in hydrodynamical turbulence, but applied to the Föppl-von Kármán equation for thin plates, the corresponding Kármán-Howarth-Monin relation and an equivalent of the 4/5 -Kolmogorov's law is derived. A third-order structure function involving increments of the amplitude, velocity, and the Airy stress function of a plate, is proven to be equal to -ɛ ℓ , where ℓ is a length scale in the inertial range at which the increments are evaluated and ɛ the energy dissipation rate. Numerical data confirm this law. In addition, a useful definition of the energy fluxes in Fourier space is introduced and proven numerically to be flat in the inertial range. The exact results derived in this Rapid Communication are valid for both weak and strong wave turbulence. They could be used as a theoretical benchmark of new wave-turbulence theories and to develop further analogies with hydrodynamical turbulence.

  2. Steel plate reinforcement of orthotropic bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD research is focused on the reinforcement of fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks (OBD) by adding a second steel plate to the existing deck. The main idea is to stiffen the existing deck plate, which will reduce the stresses at the fatigue sensitive details and extend the fatigue

  3. Plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Corroded steel plate; plastic collapse; FEM; rough surface. ... The main aim of present work is to study plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates with irregular surfaces under tension. Non-linear finite element method ... Department of Ocean Engineering, AmirKabir University of Technology, 15914 Tehran, Iran ...

  4. DOES TUBULARIZED INCISED PLATE URETHROPLASTY FIT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    posterior or proximal hypospadias. Patient age ranged from 22 months to 9 years (mean 5.4 years). Twenty-two cases were primary, while. 10 cases were repeat cases after failed onlay procedures with preserved urethral plate. Cases with severe chordee necessitating ex- cision of the urethral plate or with a very thin.

  5. Method of nickel-plating large components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbuer, K.

    1997-01-01

    The invention concerns a method of nickel-plating components, according to which even large components can be provided with an adequate layer of nickel which is pore- and stress-free and such that water is not lost. According to the invention, the component is heated and, after heating, is pickled, rinsed, scoured, plated in an electrolysis process, and rinsed again. (author)

  6. Improved nickel plating of Inconel X-750

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, M. E.; Feeney, J. E.; Kuster, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    Electroplating technique with acid pickling provides a method of applying nickel plating on Inconel X-750 tubing to serve as a wetting agent during brazing. Low-stress nickel-plating bath contains no organic wetting agents that cause the nickel to blister at high temperatures.

  7. On the buckling of magnetothermoviscoelastic plate and an associated quadratic operator bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, M.A.

    1987-10-01

    The paper is devoted to the application of the theory of quadratic self-adjoint operator bundles to investigate the problem of oscillations and stability of an isotropic homogeneous, thermoviscoelastic ferromagnetic plate of arbitrary shape, small constant thickness and infinite electric conductivity, placed in a transverse uniform constant magnetic field and clamped along its whole boundary. 14 refs

  8. FEATURES APPLICATION CIRCUIT MOMENT FINITE ELEMENT (MSSE) NONLINEAR CALCULATIONS OF PLATES AND SHELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Bazhenov V.A.; Sacharov A.S.; Guliar A. I.; Pyskunov S.O.; Maksymiuk Y.V.

    2014-01-01

    Based MSSE created shell CE general type, which allows you to analyze the stress-strain state of axisymmetrical shells and plates in problems of physical and geometric nonlinearity. The principal nonlinear elasticity theory, algorithms for solving systems of nonlinear equations for determining the temperature and plastic deformation.

  9. FEATURES APPLICATION CIRCUIT MOMENT FINITE ELEMENT (MSSE NONLINEAR CALCULATIONS OF PLATES AND SHELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov V.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Based MSSE created shell CE general type, which allows you to analyze the stress-strain state of axisymmetrical shells and plates in problems of physical and geometric nonlinearity. The principal nonlinear elasticity theory, algorithms for solving systems of nonlinear equations for determining the temperature and plastic deformation.

  10. Wave propagation in embedded inhomogeneous nanoscale plates incorporating thermal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza; Dabbagh, Ali

    2018-04-01

    In this article, an analytical approach is developed to study the effects of thermal loading on the wave propagation characteristics of an embedded functionally graded (FG) nanoplate based on refined four-variable plate theory. The heat conduction equation is solved to derive the nonlinear temperature distribution across the thickness. Temperature-dependent material properties of nanoplate are graded using Mori-Tanaka model. The nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen is introduced to consider small-scale effects. The governing equations are derived by the means of Hamilton's principle. Obtained frequencies are validated with those of previously published works. Effects of different parameters such as temperature distribution, foundation parameters, nonlocal parameter, and gradient index on the wave propagation response of size-dependent FG nanoplates have been investigated.

  11. Blast response of corroded steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslamimajd, Alireza; RahbarRanji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Numerical results for one- and both-sided corroded steel plates subjected to blast loading are presented. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS software, is employed to determine the deformation and stress distributions. The results for the case of triangular pulse pressure on un-corroded plates are validated against literature-based data and then, detailed parametric studies are carried-out. The effects of influential parameters including, plate aspect ratio, degree of pit and different ratio of pit depth at each sides of the plate are investigated. The results show that position of pitted surface in respect to applied pressure is the most influential parameter on reduction of dynamic load carrying capacity of pitted plates. By increasing degree of pitting, reduction of dynamic load carrying capacity decrease more.

  12. Heat receiving plates in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kazunori.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a heat receiving plate structure capable of withstanding sputtering wear and retaining the thermal deformation and residual stress low upon junction and available at a reduced cost. Constitution: Junction structures between heat sinks and armours are the same as usual, whereas high melting armour (for example, made of tungsten) are used at the portion on a heat receiving plate where the thermal load and particle load are higher while materials having a heat expansion coefficient similar to that of the heat sink (stainless steel) are used at the portion where the thermal load and particle load are lower on a heat receiving plate depending on the thermal load and particle load distribution. This can reduce the thermal deformation for the entire divertor heat receiving plate to obtain a heat receiving plate of a good surface dimensional accuracy. (Takahashi, M.)

  13. High thermal load receiving heat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibutani, Jun-ichi; Shibayama, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Uchida, Takaho.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a high thermal load heat receiving plate such as a divertor plate of a thermonuclear device. The high thermal load heat receiving plate of the present invention has a cooling performance capable of suppressing the temperature of an armour tile to less than a threshold value of the material against high thermal loads applied from plasmas. Spiral polygonal pipes are inserted in cooling pipes at a portion receiving high thermal loads in the high temperature load heat receiving plate of the present invention. Both ends of the polygonal pipes are sealed by lids. An area of the flow channel in the cooling pipes is thus reduced. Heat conductivity on the cooling surface of the cooling pipes is increased in the high thermal load heat receiving plate having such a structure. Accordingly, temperature elevation of the armour tile can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  14. 2017 Bipolar Plate Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopasz, John P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benjamin, Thomas G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schenck, Deanna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-17

    The Bipolar Plate (BP) Workshop was held at USCAR1 in Southfield, Michigan on February 14, 2017 and included 63 participants from industry, government agencies, universities, and national laboratories with expertise in the relevant fields. The objective of the workshop was to identify research and development (R&D) needs, in particular early-stage R&D, for bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells for transportation applications. The focus of the workshop was on materials, manufacturing, and design aspects of bipolar plates with the goal of meeting DOE’s 2020 bipolar plate targets. Of special interest was the cost target of ≤$3/kW for the bipolar plate.

  15. Pyramidal approach to license plate segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolache, Alexandru; Trecat, Jacques C.

    1996-07-01

    Car identification is a goal in traffic control, transport planning, travel time measurement, managing parking lot traffic and so on. Most car identification algorithms contain a standalone plate segmentation process followed by a plate contents reading. A pyramidal algorithm for license plate segmentation, looking for textured regions, has been developed on a PC based system running Unix. It can be used directly in applications not requiring real time. When input images are relatively small, real-time performance is in fact accomplished by the algorithm. When using large images, porting the algorithm to special digital signal processors can easily lead to preserving real-time performance. Experimental results, for stationary and moving cars in outdoor scenes, showed high accuracy and high scores in detecting the plate. The algorithm also deals with cases where many character strings are present in the image, and not only the one corresponding to the plate. This is done by the means of a constrained texture regions classification.

  16. New technique for number-plate recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Shi, Peng-Fei

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents an alternative algorithm for number plate recognition. The algorithm consists of three modules. Respectively, they are number plate location module, character segmentation module and character recognition module. Number plate location module extracts the number plate from the detected car image by analyzing the color and the texture properties. Different from most license plate location methods, the algorithm has fewer limits to the car size, the car position in the image and the image background. Character segmentation module applies connected region algorithm both to eliminate noise points and to segment characters. Touching characters and broken characters can be processed correctly. Character recognition module recognizes characters with HHIC (Hierarchical Hybrid Integrated Classifier). The system has been tested with 100 images obtained from crossroad and parking lot, etc, where the cars have different size, position, background and illumination. Successful recognition rate is about 92%. The average processing time is 1.2 second.

  17. Ring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jara, Pascual; Torrecillas, Blas

    1988-01-01

    The papers in this proceedings volume are selected research papers in different areas of ring theory, including graded rings, differential operator rings, K-theory of noetherian rings, torsion theory, regular rings, cohomology of algebras, local cohomology of noncommutative rings. The book will be important for mathematicians active in research in ring theory.

  18. Game theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent F.

    Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....

  19. Neutron radiography using neutron imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chankow, Nares; Wonglee, Sarinrat

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aims of this research are to study properties of neutron imaging plate, to obtain a suitable condition for neutron radiography and to use the neutron imaging plate for testing of materials nondestructively. The experiments were carried out by using a neutron beam from the Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1 at a power of 1.2 MW. A BAS-ND 2040 FUJI neutron imaging plate and a MX125 Kodak X-ray film/Gadolinium neutron converter screen combination were tested for comparison. It was found that the photostimulated light (PSL) read out of the imaging plate was directly proportional to the exposure time. It was also found that radiography with neutron using the imaging plate was approximately 40 times faster than the conventional neutron radiography using x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination. The sensitivity of the imaging plate to gamma-rays was investigated by using gamma-rays from an 192 Ir and a 60 Co radiographic sources. The imaging plate was found to be 5-6 times less sensitive to gamma-rays than a FUJI BAS-MS 2040 gamma-ray imaging plate. Finally, some specimens were selected to be radiographed with neutrons using the imaging plate and the x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination in comparison to x-rays. Parts containing light elements could be clearly observed by the two neutron radiographic techniques. It could be concluded that the image quality from the neutron imaging plate was comparable to the conventional x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination but the exposure time could be approximately reduced by a factor of 40

  20. An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, D.K., E-mail: dkjha@barc.gov.in [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kant, Tarun [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Srinivas, K. [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, R.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature.

  1. String theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Hongmo.

    1987-10-01

    The paper traces the development of the String Theory, and was presented at Professor Sir Rudolf Peierls' 80sup(th) Birthday Symposium. The String theory is discussed with respect to the interaction of strings, the inclusion of both gauge theory and gravitation, inconsistencies in the theory, and the role of space-time. The physical principles underlying string theory are also outlined. (U.K.)

  2. Voltage-current characteristics of a pin-plate system with different plate configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Zhuangbo; Long, Zhengwei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the voltage-current (V-I) characteristics of a pin-plate system with four types of collection plate configurations are studied experimentally. The collection plates consider a single metal plate, a metal plate with a fly ash cake layer, a metal plate with a clean filter media and a metal plate with a dirty filter media. The results show that the clean filter media has no obvious effect on the V-I characteristics. But the dirty filter media reduces the current density because of its high resistance. The thick fly ash cake layer increase current density because of the anti-corona effect but the increment is not very obvious.

  3. Finite element analysis of a solar collector plate using two plate geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Manuel Medina Carril

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of an absorber plate in a solar collector is investigated using finite element analysis. The thermal behavior and efficiency of two absorber plate geometries are studied, using a typical solar collector with a rectangular profile as reference, and a proposed absorber plate with curved geometry. An analysis of the most important parameters involved in the design of the absorber plate was carried out, indicating that the curved geometry of the absorber plate yields an average efficiency ~25% higher than the conventional rectangular geometry. The results suggest that a curved profile made of materials such as aluminum with thermal conductivity higher than 200W/m°C, plate thickness of the order of 2-3mm and with a large density of tubes per unit area of the collector´s plate greatly benefits the thermal efficiency of the solar collector.

  4. The Influence of Flexibility Coefficient on the Size of Internal Forces and Deformations in Circular Plates on Elastic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şandru Mirela

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study which deals with the behavior of the circular plates in bending theory, considering the soil-structure interaction under Winkler's hypothesis. It was intended to illustrate the variation of internal forces and deformations according to the flexibility coefficient of plates considering three models: a fixed solid circular plate subjected to a uniformly distributed load, a fixed solid circular plate acted by a displacement applied on the exterior contour and a solid plate subjected to a temperature gradient. For this study the computation relations were written as a product between a dimensional and a non-dimensional factor, the last one indicating the variation of internal forces and deformations. For each type of action there are presented results obtained using the finite element method to illustrate the differences between this method and the analytical computation.

  5. Vortex Dynamics of Asymmetric Heave Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Curtis; Maurer, Benjamin; Polagye, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Heave plates can be used to provide reaction forces for wave energy converters, which harness the power in ocean surface waves to produce electricity. Heave plate inertia includes both the static mass of the heave plate, as well as the ``added mass'' of surrounding water accelerated with the object. Heave plate geometries may be symmetric or asymmetric, with interest in asymmetric designs driven by the resulting hydrodynamic asymmetry. Limited flow visualization has been previously conducted on symmetric heave plates, but flow visualization of asymmetric designs is needed to understand the origin of observed hydrodynamic asymmetries and their dependence on the Keulegan-Carpenter number. For example, it is hypothesized that the time-varying added mass of asymmetric heave plates is caused by vortex shedding, which is related to oscillation amplitude. Here, using direct flow visualization, we explore the relationship between vortex dynamics and time-varying added mass and drag. These results suggest potential pathways for more advanced heave plate designs that can exploit vortex formation and shedding to achieve more favorable hydrodynamic properties for wave energy converters.

  6. String theory or field theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshakov, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments, which are our concern in this review [ru

  7. Optimization of geometrical characteristics of perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radisavljevic, Igor; Balos, Sebastian; Nikacevic, Milutin; Sidjanin, Leposava

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Perforated plate are tested against 12.7 mm API projectile. ► Perforations similar to the projectile diameter offer more efficient core fracture. ► Larger perforations gave a more efficient core fragmentation. ► SEM microscopy analysis has shown a ductile fracture mode at impact point. - Abstract: In this paper, an attempt was made to design effective non-homogenous armor in form of perforated plate mounted at close distance from basic armor plate. Perforated plate with three perforation diameters: 9, 10 and 11 mm, two ligaments length: 3.5 and 4.5 mm ligaments, set at 0° and 28° angles, were combined to 13 mm basic plate and tested against 12.7 mm API ammunition. It has been shown that larger perforations gave a more efficient core fragmentation, while angled specimens were the only ones that offer full protection against five API shots when the perforated plate was placed at 100 mm from the basic plate. Perforations that are similar in size to the penetrating core diameter offer a more efficient core fracture, leading to a faster fragment separation. This may enable a smaller distance between the add-on perforated and basic plate to be used. Scanning electron microscopy analysis has shown a ductile fracture mode at impact point, with hardness values on plate basic level. On the other hand, a brittle fracture mode with a rise in local hardness measured near impact point is a result of intensive high speed plastic deformation produced by bending stresses. A drop in local hardness measured near impact point, may be the result of intensive cracking that occur due to repeated projectile impact

  8. Recent advances in seismic non-destructive testing of concrete plate like structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryden, N.; Kristensen, A.; Jovall, O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes recent advances in seismic/acoustic non-destructive testing of concrete containment walls. The presented technique is focused on the characterization of the mean stiffness (seismic velocities) and thickness of the containment wall. The Impact Echo (IE) method is a well-established technique to measure the thickness of concrete plates or to locate defects in concrete plate like structures. The method relies on a good estimate of the mean velocity through the thickness of the plate and a precisely measured thickness resonant frequency. Recently the underlying theory of the IE method has been redefined and improved based on Lamb waves in a free plate. Based on this theory we have developed a new data processing technique where both propagating and standing Lamb waves are analysed in a combined manner using multichannel data. With this approach the mean velocity through the plate thickness is evaluated by using the fundamental mode Lamb wave dispersion curves. The accuracy and detection ability of the measured resonant frequency is improved by utilizing both amplitude and phase information from the multichannel record. The method has been tested on several nuclear power plants in Sweden and Finland and proved to be more robust compared to conventional IE and surface wave measurements

  9. Vibration Characteristics of Axially Moving Titanium- Polymer Nanocomposite Faced Sandwich Plate Under Initial Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghorbanpour Arani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, vibration and instability of axially moving sandwich plate made of soft core and composite face sheets under initial tension is investigated. Single-walled carbon nano-tubes (SWCNTs are selected as a reinforcement of composite face sheets inside Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA matrix. Higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial functions than other plate theories. Based on extended rule of mixture, the structural properties of composite face sheets are taken into consideration. Motion equations are obtained by means of Hamilton’s principle and solved analytically. Influences of various parameters such as axially moving speed, volume fraction of CNTs, pre-tension, thickness and aspect ratio of sandwich plate on the vibration characteristics of moving system are discussed in details. The results indicated that the critical speed of moving sandwich plate is strongly dependent on the volume fraction of CNTs. Therefore, the critical speed of moving sandwich plate can be improved by adding appropriate values of CNTs. The results of this investigation can be used in design and manufacturing of marine vessels and aircrafts.

  10. Buckling Analysis of Edge Cracked Sandwich Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Mohammed Hussein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents mainly the buckling load of sandwich plates with or without crack for different cases. The buckling loads are analyzed experimentally and numerically by using ANSYS 15. The experimental investigation was to fabricate the cracked sandwich plate from stainless steel and PVC to find mechanical properties of stainless steel and PVC such as young modulus. The buckling load for different aspect ratio, crack length, cracked location and plate without crack found. The experimental results were compared with that found from ANSYS program. Present of crack is decreased the buckling load and that depends on crack size, crack location and aspect ratio.

  11. Applications of ion plating in metals fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.T.; Thompson, J.C.

    1974-01-01

    Use of ion plating at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to solve problems encountered in metals fabrication and processing are discussed. Three typical areas are covered. The first is the use of strike coats on various substrates for subsequent electrodeposition. The second area in which ion plating is shown to contribute to a process is in cold welding or room temperature bonding of metals. The third application involves plating U to promote safe handling, fission-product retention, and corrosion protection in nuclear reactors

  12. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  13. Fabrication of resistive plate chamber using bakelite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neog, Himangshu; Bhuyan, M.R.; Biswas, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, Rudranarayan; Rudra, Sharmili; Sahu, P.K.; Sahu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Now a days Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) is one of the most important detectors in the High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. RPC is a gas filled detector utilizing a constant and uniform electric field produced between two parallel electrode plates made of a material with high bulk resistivity e.g. glass or bakelite. RPC has good time resolution (1-2 ns) and spatial resolution (∼ cm). The high resistance of RPC plate limits the spark size produced after the ionization of gas due to the passing charged particle. This contribution discusses building of a RPC using bakelite (local sources) and the measurement of the surface resistivity of the detector

  14. Nondestructive diagnosis of multilayer electronic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matvienko, A.N.; Savin, D.O.; Yas'ko, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Methods of non-destructive tomographic investigation into multilayer printed plates using x radiation are described. Mathematic problem setting is given, experimental facility and methods for source data ecquisition are described. A special attention is paid to the consideration of the main factors differing the actual problem setting from the idealized one. Methods for accounting and correction of these factors are described. The efficiency of the approach proposed is demonstrated using the actual problems of reducing separate layers of multilayer printed plate metallization. The method developed is useful when exersizing control over multilayer printed plate production

  15. Reducing risk where tectonic plates collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Ludwig, Kristin A.

    2017-06-19

    Most of the world’s earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, and volcanic eruptions are caused by the continuous motions of the many tectonic plates that make up the Earth’s outer shell. The most powerful of these natural hazards occur in subduction zones, where two plates collide and one is thrust beneath another. The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) “Reducing Risk Where Tectonic Plates Collide—A USGS Plan to Advance Subduction Zone Science” is a blueprint for building the crucial scientific foundation needed to inform the policies and practices that can make our Nation more resilient to subduction zone-related hazards.

  16. Joining by plating: optimization of occluded angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Kan, Y.R.

    1978-11-01

    An empirical method has been developed for predicting the minimum angle required for maximum joint strength for materials joined by plating. This is done through a proposed power law failure function, whose coefficients are taken from ring shear and conical head tensile data for plating/substrate combinations and whose exponent is determined from one set of plated-joint data. Experimental results are presented for Al-Ni-Al (7075-T6) and AM363-Ni-AM363 joints, and the failure function is used to predict joint strengths for Al-Ni-Al (2024-T6), UTi-Ni-UTi, and Be-Ti-Be

  17. Diffusion zinc plating of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakovskaya, Tatiana; Goncharov, Ivan; Tukmakov, Victor; Shapovalov, Vyacheslav

    2004-01-01

    The report deals with the research on diffusion zinc plating of structural steels when replacing their cyanide cadmium plating. The results of the experiments in the open air, in vacuum, in the inert atmosphere, under various temperatures (300 - 500 deg.C) for different steel brands are presented. It is shown that diffusion zinc plating in argon or nitrogen atmosphere ensures obtaining the qualitative anticorrosion coating with insignificant change of mechanical properties of steels. The process is simple, reliable, ecology pure and cost-effective. (authors)

  18. History of internal fixation with plates (part 2): new developments after World War II; compressing plates and locked plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe; Pariat, Jacques

    2017-07-01

    The first techniques of operative fracture with plates were developed in the 19th century. In fact, at the beginning these methods consisted of an open reduction of the fracture usually followed by a very unstable fixation. As a consequence, the fracture had to be opened with a real risk of (sometimes lethal) infection, and due to unstable fixation, protection with a cast was often necessary. During the period between World Wars I and II, plates for fracture fixation developed with great variety. It became increasingly recognised that, because a fracture of a long bone normally heals with minimal resorption at the bone ends, this may result in slight shortening and collapse, so a very rigid plate might prevent such collapse. However, as a consequence, delayed healing was observed unless the patient was lucky enough to have the plate break. One way of dealing with this was to use a slotted plate in which the screws could move axially, but the really important advance was recognition of the role of compression. After the first description of compression by Danis with a "coapteur", Bagby and Müller with the AO improved the technique of compression. The classic dynamic compression plates from the 1970s were the key to a very rigid fixation, leading to primary bone healing. Nevertheless, the use of strong plates resulted in delayed union and the osteoporosis, cancellous bone, comminution, and/or pathological bone resulted in some failures due to insufficient stability. Finally, new devices represented by locking plates increased the stability, contributing to the principles of a more biological osteosynthesis while giving enough stability to allow immediate full weight bearing in some patients.

  19. Crack Detection in Armor Plates Using Ultrasonic Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meitzler, Thomas J; Smith, Gregory; Charbeneau, Michelle; Sohn, Euijung; Bienkowski, mary; Wong, Ivan; Meitzler, Allen H

    2008-01-01

    ...) plates for the purpose of crack detection is presented. The amplitudes of the vibrational modes undamaged plates are compared to the vibrational mode amplitudes of damaged plates and are shown to be clearly different...

  20. Astronomical optics and elasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaitre, Gerard Rene

    2008-01-01

    Astronomical Optics and Elasticity Theory provides a very thorough and comprehensive account of what is known in this field. After an extensive introduction to optics and elasticity, the book discusses variable curvature and multimode deformable mirrors, as well as, in depth, active optics, its theory and applications. Further, optical design utilizing the Schmidt concept and various types of Schmidt correctors, as well as the elasticity theory of thin plates and shells are elaborated upon. Several active optics methods are developed for obtaining aberration corrected diffraction gratings. Further, a weakly conical shell theory of elasticity is elaborated for the aspherization of grazing incidence telescope mirrors. The very didactic and fairly easy-to-read presentation of the topic will enable PhD students and young researchers to actively participate in challenging astronomical optics and instrumentation projects.

  1. Catalysts characteristics of Ni/YSZ core-shell according to plating conditions using electroless plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Wook; Jang, Jae-Won; Lee, Young-Jin; Kim, Jin-Ho; Jeon, Dae-Woo; Lee, Jong-Heun; Hwang, Hae-jin; Lee, Mi-Jai

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to develop an anode catalyst for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using electroless nickel plating. We have proposed a new method for electroless plating of Ni metal on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) particles. We examine the uniformity of the Ni layer on the plated core-shell powder, in addition to the content of Ni and the reproducibility of the plating. We have also evaluated the carbon deposition rate and characteristics of the SOFC anode catalyst. To synthesize Ni-plated YSZ particles, the plated powder is heat-treated at 1200 °C. The resultant particles, which have an average size of 50 μm, were subsequently used in the experiment. The size of the Ni particles and the Ni content both increase with increasing plating temperature and plating time. The X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the growth of Ni particles. After heat-treatment, Ni is oxidized to NiO, leading to the co-existence of Ni and NiO; Ni3P is also observed due to the presence of phosphorous in the plating solution. Following heat treatment for 1 h at 1200 °C, Ni is mostly oxidized to NiO. The carbon deposition rate of the reference YSZ powder is 135%, while that of the Ni-plated YSZ is 1%-6%.

  2. Linear Analytical Solutions of Mechanical Sensitivity in Large Deflection of Unsymmetrically Layered Piezoelectric Plate under Pretension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Fu Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear analytical study on the mechanical sensitivity in large deflection of unsymmetrically layered and laterally loaded piezoelectric plate under pretension is conducted. von Karman plate theory for large deflection is utilized but extended to the case of an unsymmetrically layered plate embedded with a piezoelectric layer. The governing equations thus obtained are simplified by omitting the arising nonlinear terms, yielding a Bessel or modified Bessel equation for the lateral slope. Depending on the relative magnitude of the piezoelectric effect, for both cases, analytical solutions of various geometrical responses are developed and formulated via Bessel and modified Bessel functions. The associated ultimate radial stresses are further derived following lamina constitutive law to evaluate the mechanical sensitivity of the considered plate. For a nearly monolithic plate under a very low applied voltage, the results are in good agreement with those for a single-layered case due to pure mechanical load available in literature, and thus the present approach is checked. For a two-layered unsymmetric plate made of typical silicon-based materials, a sound piezoelectric effect is illustrated particularly in a low pretension condition.

  3. VIBRATION CONTROL OF RECTANGULAR CROSS-PLY FRP PLATES USING PZT MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILEEP KUMAR K

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric materials are extensively employed in the field of structures for condition monitoring, smart control and testing applications. The piezoelectric patches are surface bonded to a composite laminate plate and used as vibration actuators. The coupling effects between the mechanical and electric properties of piezoelectric materials have drawn significant attention for their potential applications. In the present work, an analytical solution of the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate under time harmonic electrical loading is obtained and a concept is developed for an approximate dynamic model to the vibration response of the simply supported orthotropic rectangular plates excited by a piezoelectric patch of variable rectangular geometry and location. A time harmonic electric voltages with the same magnitude and opposite sign are applied to the two symmetric piezoelectric actuators, which results in the bending moment on the plate. The main objective of the work is to obtain an analytical solution for the vibration amplitude of composite plate predicted from plate theory. The results demonstrate that the vibration modes can be selectively excited and the geometry of the PZTactuator shape remarkably affects the distribution of the response among modes. Thus according to the desired degree shape control it is possible to tailor the shape, size and properly designed control algorithm of the actuator to either excite or suppress particular modes.

  4. Plate-type metamaterials for extremely broadband low-frequency sound insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Guo, Xinwei; Chen, Tianning; Yao, Ge

    2018-01-01

    A novel plate-type acoustic metamaterial with a high sound transmission loss (STL) in the low-frequency range ( ≤1000 Hz) is designed, theoretically proven and then experimentally verified. The thin plates with large modulus used in this paper mean that we do not need to apply tension to the plates, which is more applicable to practical engineering, the achievement of noise reduction is better and the installation of plates is more user-friendly than that of the membranes. The effects of different structural parameters of the plates on the sound-proofed performance at low-frequencies were also investigated by experiment and finite element method (FEM). The results showed that the STL can be modulated effectively and predictably using vibration theory by changing the structural parameters, such as the radius and thickness of the plate. Furthermore, using unit cells of different geometric sizes which are responsible for different frequency regions, the stacked panels with thickness ≤16 mm and weight ≤5 kg/m2 showed high STL below 2000 Hz. The acoustic metamaterial proposed in this study could provide a potential application in the low-frequency noise insulation.

  5. Casimir energy between two parallel plates and projective representation of the Poincaré group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Takamaru; Matsunaga, Mamoru

    2016-06-01

    The Casimir effect is a physical manifestation of zero point energy of quantum vacuum. In a relativistic quantum field theory, Poincaré symmetry of the theory seems, at first sight, to imply that nonzero vacuum energy is inconsistent with translational invariance of the vacuum. In the setting of two uniform boundary plates at rest, quantum fields outside the plates have (1 +2 )-dimensional Poincaré symmetry. Taking a massless scalar field as an example, we have examined the consistency between the Poincaré symmetry and the existence of the vacuum energy. We note that, in quantum theory, symmetries are represented projectively in general and show that the Casimir energy is connected to central charges appearing in the algebra of generators in the projective representations.

  6. Analytical study of dispersion relations for shear horizontal wave propagation in plates with periodic stubs

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-08-01

    The coupled mode theory with coupling of diffraction modes and waveguide modes is usually used on the calculations of transmission and reflection coefficients for electromagnetic waves traveling through periodic sub-wavelength structures. In this paper, I extend this method to derive analytical solutions of high-order dispersion relations for shear horizontal (SH) wave propagation in elastic plates with periodic stubs. In the long wavelength regime, the explicit expression is obtained by this theory and derived specially by employing an effective medium. This indicates that the periodical stubs are equivalent to an effective homogenous layer in the long wavelength. Notably, in the short wavelength regime, high-order diffraction modes in the plate and high-order waveguide modes in the stubs are considered with modes coupling to compute the band structures. Numerical results of the coupled mode theory fit pretty well with the results of the finite element method (FEM). In addition, the band structures\\' evolution with the height of the stubs and the thickness of the plate shows clearly that the method can predict well the Bragg band gaps, locally resonant band gaps and high-order symmetric and anti-symmetric thickness-twist modes for the periodically structured plates. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, S.

    1985-01-01

    Of all supergravity theories, the maximal, i.e., N = 8 in 4-dimension or N = 1 in 11-dimension, theory should perform the unification since it owns the highest degree of symmetry. As to the N = 1 in d = 11 theory, it has been investigated how to compactify to the d = 4 theories. From the phenomenological point of view, local SUSY GUTs, i.e., N = 1 SUSY GUTs with soft breaking terms, have been studied from various angles. The structures of extended supergravity theories are less understood than those of N = 1 supergravity theories, and matter couplings in N = 2 extended supergravity theories are under investigation. The harmonic superspace was recently proposed which may be useful to investigate the quantum effects of extended supersymmetry and supergravity theories. As to the so-called Kaluza-Klein supergravity, there is another possibility. (Mori, K.)

  8. Topos theory

    CERN Document Server

    Johnstone, PT

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on topos theory's integration of geometric and logical ideas into the foundations of mathematics and theoretical computer science, this volume explores internal category theory, topologies and sheaves, geometric morphisms, other subjects. 1977 edition.

  9. Flaw behavior in mechanically loaded clad plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, S.K.; Robinson, G.C.; Oland, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    A small crack near the inner surface of clad nuclear reactor pressure vessels is an important consideration in the safety assessment of the structural integrity of the vessel. Four-point bend tests on large plate specimens, conforming to ASTM specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steels, quenched and tempered, Mn-Mo and Mn-Mo-Ni (A533) grade B six clad and two unclad with stainless steels 308, 309 and 312 weld wires, were performed to determine the effect of cladding upon the propagation of small surface cracks subjected to stress states. Results indicated that the tough surface layer composed of cladding and/or heat-affected zone has enhanced the load-bearing capacity of plates under conditions where unclad plates have ruptured. The results are interpreted in terms of fracture mechanics. The behavior of flaws in clad reactor pressure vessels is examined in the light of the test results. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Introduction to Plate Boundaries and Natural Hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.

    2016-01-01

    A great variety of natural hazards occur on Earth, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, landslides, floods, fires, tornadoes, hurricanes, and avalanches. The most destructive of these hazards, earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, are mostly associated with tectonic plate

  11. Vibro-acoustic analysis of composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarigül, A S; Karagözlü, E

    2014-01-01

    Vibro-acoustic analysis plays a vital role on the design of aircrafts, spacecrafts, land vehicles and ships produced from thin plates backed by closed cavities, with regard to human health and living comfort. For this type of structures, it is required a coupled solution that takes into account structural-acoustic interaction which is crucial for sensitive solutions. In this study, coupled vibro-acoustic analyses of plates produced from composite materials have been performed by using finite element analysis software. The study has been carried out for E-glass/Epoxy, Kevlar/Epoxy and Carbon/Epoxy plates with different ply angles and numbers of ply. The effects of composite material, ply orientation and number of layer on coupled vibro-acoustic characteristics of plates have been analysed for various combinations. The analysis results have been statistically examined and assessed

  12. Vibro-acoustic analysis of composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigül, A. S.; Karagözlü, E.

    2014-03-01

    Vibro-acoustic analysis plays a vital role on the design of aircrafts, spacecrafts, land vehicles and ships produced from thin plates backed by closed cavities, with regard to human health and living comfort. For this type of structures, it is required a coupled solution that takes into account structural-acoustic interaction which is crucial for sensitive solutions. In this study, coupled vibro-acoustic analyses of plates produced from composite materials have been performed by using finite element analysis software. The study has been carried out for E-glass/Epoxy, Kevlar/Epoxy and Carbon/Epoxy plates with different ply angles and numbers of ply. The effects of composite material, ply orientation and number of layer on coupled vibro-acoustic characteristics of plates have been analysed for various combinations. The analysis results have been statistically examined and assessed.

  13. Modeling the hydrodynamics of Phloem sieve plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Holbrook, Noel Michele

    2012-01-01

    Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play...... understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species...... a crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly...

  14. New high voltage parallel plate analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Kawasumi, Y.; Masai, K.; Iguchi, H.; Fujisawa, A.; Abe, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A new modification on the parallel plate analyzer for 500 keV heavy ions to eliminate the effect of the intense UV and visible radiations, is successfully conducted. Its principle and results are discussed. (author)

  15. Plate performance in liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadkins, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of perforated, nozzle, and burred plates from a capacity and extraction standpoint were studied in a pulsed liquid-liquid extraction system. The experiments were conducted in a 3.8 x 10 -2 m diameter column using a mixture of aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, and uranyl nitrate as the aqueous phase, and tributyl phosphate dissolved in AMSCO 125-90 W as the organic phase. The uranium was extracted from the aqueous phase to the organic phase. A standard cartridge was made for each type of plate and consisted of an assembly of plates spaced 5.08 x 10 -2 m apart. Each plate had 3.2 x 10 -3 m holes spaced on 6.1 x 10 -3 -m centers, and contained 23% free area. 16 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  16. Heavy gauge plates for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheviet, A.; Roux, J.-H.

    1977-01-01

    The production of energy from nuclear sources leads to the building of very large vessels working under pressure at elevated temperatures, requiring very thick steel plate (from 50 mm to 300 mm). The plates necessary for the production of these vessels have to be as large as possible in order to reduce the length of welds on the vessels. Those two requirements lead to the manufacture of heavy products from 10 to 80 tons unit weight. These products are special, because their fabrication requires very big facilities and also extremely high quality of the steel. The main points are: high cleanliness; properties as homogeneous as possible. The tests carried out on industrially produced plates (especially on a plate of 200 mm thick show the level of quality that can be reached [fr

  17. Microchannel plate assembly parameters with micron gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchenkova, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Performance of chevron microchannel plate assembly with 5 and 15 μm gaps between them has been investigated. The assembly is placed into a vacuum chamber under pressure -6 Torr and irradiated by neutral He and Ar atom beams with 1.5 and 3 keV energies as well as by ultraviolet photons with 147 nm wave length. Dependence of the gain and amplitude resolution on power voltage in plates are measured. The results obtained have shown that microchannel plates permit to obtain the gain up to 3x10 7 and amplitude resolution up to 30% when detecting both atomic particles and ultraviolet photons. The assembly can be effectively used in those cases when it is necessary to use microchannel plates with curved channels

  18. White Light Photorefractive Phase Zone Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan-Mei, Gao; Si-Min, Liu

    2008-01-01

    Incoherent white light from an incandescent source is employed to fabricate volume phase zone plates in LiNbO 3 : Fe, for the first time to our knowledge, which can guide and modulate the input white light or laser light. The diffractive efficiency of the white light volume phase zone plates fabricated can reach as high as 12%. In addition, we test the volume phase zone plates by a probe beam and find that the volume phase zone plate is present in the direction perpendicular to the c-axis and absent in the direction parallel to the c-axis. This directly proves the existence of photovoltaic photorefractive anisotropy of white light

  19. 21 CFR 866.4800 - Radial immunodiffusion plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4800 Radial immunodiffusion plate. (a) Identification. A radial immunodiffusion plate for clinical use...

  20. Probability theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dorogovtsev, A Ya; Skorokhod, A V; Silvestrov, D S; Skorokhod, A V

    1997-01-01

    This book of problems is intended for students in pure and applied mathematics. There are problems in traditional areas of probability theory and problems in the theory of stochastic processes, which has wide applications in the theory of automatic control, queuing and reliability theories, and in many other modern science and engineering fields. Answers to most of the problems are given, and the book provides hints and solutions for more complicated problems.

  1. Gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.W.

    1976-01-01

    Some introductory remarks to Yang-Mills fields are given and the problem of the Coulomb gauge is considered. The perturbation expansion for quantized gauge theories is discussed and a survey of renormalization schemes is made. The role of Ward-Takahashi identities in gauge theories is discussed. The author then discusses the renormalization of pure gauge theories and theories with spontaneously broken symmetry. (B.R.H.)

  2. Comparison of closed-form and finite-element solutions of thick laminated anisotropic rectangular plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, J N; Chao, W C [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg (USA). Dept. of Engineering Science and Mechanics

    1981-04-01

    In this study the effects of reduced integration, mesh size, and element type (i.e. linear or quadratic) on the accuracy of a penalty-finite element based on the theory governing thick, laminated, anisotropic composite plates are investigated. In order to assess the accuracy of the present finite element, exact closed-form solutions are developed for cross-ply and antisymmetric angle-ply rectangular plates simply supported and subjected to sinusoidally distributed mechanical and/or thermal loadings, and free vibration.

  3. [Medical image elastic registration smoothed by unconstrained optimized thin-plate spline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Shuxiang; Chen, Wufan; Liu, Zhexing

    2003-12-01

    Elastic registration of medical image is an important subject in medical image processing. Previous work has concentrated on selecting the corresponding landmarks manually and then using thin-plate spline interpolating to gain the elastic transformation. However, the landmarks extraction is always prone to error, which will influence the registration results. Localizing the landmarks manually is also difficult and time-consuming. We the optimization theory to improve the thin-plate spline interpolation, and based on it, used an automatic method to extract the landmarks. Combining these two steps, we have proposed an automatic, exact and robust registration method and have gained satisfactory registration results.

  4. Inert gas handling in ion plating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, A.R.; Burden, M.St.J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of an investigation into the best methods for production and monitoring of the inert gas environment for ion plating systems are reported. Work carried out on Pirani gauges and high pressure ion gauges for the measurement of pressures in the ion plating region (1 - 50mtorr) and the use of furnaces for cleaning argon is outlined. A schematic of a gas handling system is shown and discussed. (UK)

  5. Selenium plating of aluminium and nickel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, N.; Shams, N.; Kamal, A.; Ashraf, A.

    1993-01-01

    Selenium exhibits photovoltaic and photoconductive properties. This makes selenium useful in the production of photocells, exposure meters for photographic use, in solar cells, etc. In commerce, selenium coated surfaces are extensively used as photo receptive drums in the xerography machines for reproducing documents. Laboratory experiments were designed to obtain selenium plating on different materials. Of the various electrodes tested for cathodic deposition, anodized aluminum and nickel plated copper were found to give good results. (author)

  6. Investigation of vertebral ''end plate sclerosis''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.W.; Mathie, A.G.; Jackson, J.E.; Hughes, S.P.F.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the association between vertebral ''end plate sclerosis'' and neck pain. A retrospective study was carried out of lateral cervical spine radiographs with a Picture Archive and Communication System (PACS). Two hundred patients' files were randomly assessed, comprising four equal groups, A to D. The mean ages of the patients were 62±7.4 years, 61±7.5 years, 40±5.6 years and 23±5.6 years respectively. In group A, all patients had symptoms of neck pain and a radiographic diagnosis of ''end plate sclerosis'' of the cervical spine. In groups B to D, asymptomatic patients were recruited and their age groups were 50-69, 30-49 and 10-29 years respectively. Using the PACS, the radiographic density and the sagittal diameter, thickness and area of the end plates at the C5 level were measured. Results and conclusions: No significant differences were found in the radiographic density of the end plates either between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups (groups A and B), or between different age groups (groups B, C and D). A significant increase in end plate area and thickness was found, however, in both group B (P<0.005) and group C (P<0.01) in comparison with group D. This indicates that the extent of end plate sclerosis increases with age. Our results suggest that the radiographic density of cervical vertebral end plates correlates neither with neck pain nor with increasing age. The radiological sign of ''end plate sclerosis'' may be over-reported, further limiting its value in the assessment of patients with cervical spondylosis. (orig.)

  7. Theoretical investigation of interaction between a rectangular plate and fractional viscoelastic foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between plates and foundations is a typical problem encountered in geotechnical engineering. The long-term plate performance is highly dependent on the rheological characteristics of ground soil. Compared with conventional linear rheology, the fractional calculus-based theory is a more powerful mathematical tool that can address this issue. This paper proposes a fractional Merchant model (FMM to investigate the time-dependent behavior of a simply supported rectangular plate on viscoelastic foundation. The correspondence principle involving Laplace transforms was employed to derive the closed-form solutions of plate response under uniformly distributed load. The plate deflection, bending moment, and foundation reaction calculated using the FMM were compared with the results obtained from the analogous elastic model (EM and the standard Merchant model (SMM. It is shown that the upper and lower bound solutions of the FMM can be determined using the EM. In addition, a parametric study was performed to examine the influences of the model parameters on the time-dependent behavior of the plate–foundation interaction problem. The results indicate that a small fractional differential order corresponds to a plate resting on a sandy soil foundation, while the fractional differential order value should be increased for a clayey soil foundation. The long-term performance of a foundation plate can be accurately simulated by varying the values of the fractional differential order and the viscosity coefficient. The observations from this study reveal that the proposed fractional model has the capability to capture the variation of plate deflection over many decades of time.

  8. Correlation potential of a test ion near a strongly charged plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bing-Sui; Xing, Xiangjun

    2014-03-01

    We analytically calculate the correlation potential of a test ion near a strongly charged plate inside a dilute m:-n electrolyte. We do this by calculating the electrostatic Green's function in the presence of a nonlinear background potential, the latter having been obtained using the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. We consider the general case where the dielectric constants of the plate and the electrolyte are distinct. The following generic results emerge from our analyses: (1) If the distance to the plate Δz is much larger than a Gouy-Chapman length, the plate surface will behave effectively as an infinitely charged surface, and the dielectric constant of the plate effectively plays no role. (2) If Δz is larger than a Gouy-Chapman length but shorter than a Debye length, the correlation potential can be interpreted in terms of an image charge that is three times larger than the source charge. This behavior is independent of the valences of the ions. (3) The Green's function vanishes inside the plate if the surface charge density is infinitely large; hence the electrostatic potential is constant there. In this respect, a strongly charged plate behaves like a conductor plate. (4) If Δz is smaller than a Gouy-Chapman length, the correlation potential is dominated by the conventional image charge due to the dielectric discontinuity at the interface. (5) If Δz is larger than a Debye length, the leading order behavior of the correlation potential will depend on the valences of the ions in the electrolyte. Furthermore, inside an asymmetric electrolyte, the correlation potential is singly screened, i.e., it undergoes exponential decay with a decay width equal to the Debye length.

  9. [Experimental study on carbon fiber reinforced plastic plate--analysis of stabilizing force required for plate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, H

    1990-11-01

    Plates currently in use for the management of bone fracture made of metal present with various problems. We manufactured carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates from Pyrofil T/530 puriplegs overlaid at cross angles of +/- 10 degrees, +/- 20 degrees, and +/- 30 degrees for trial and carried out an experimental study on rabbit tibiofibular bones using 316L stainless steel plates of comparable shape and size as controls. The results indicate the influence of CFRP plate upon cortical bone was milder than that of stainless steel plate, with an adequate stabilizing force for the repair of fractured rabbit tibiofibular bones. CFRP has the advantages over metals of being virtually free from corrosion and fatigue, reasonably radiolucent and able to meet a wide range of mechanical requirements. This would make CFRP plate quite promising as a new devices of treating fracture of bones.

  10. Modeling the hydrodynamics of phloem sieve plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Hartvig Jensen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play a crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway.

  11. Image simulation for automatic license plate recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Raja; Zhao, Yonghui; Burry, Aaron; Kozitsky, Vladimir; Fillion, Claude; Saunders, Craig; Rodríguez-Serrano, José

    2012-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) is an important capability for traffic surveillance applications, including toll monitoring and detection of different types of traffic violations. ALPR is a multi-stage process comprising plate localization, character segmentation, optical character recognition (OCR), and identification of originating jurisdiction (i.e. state or province). Training of an ALPR system for a new jurisdiction typically involves gathering vast amounts of license plate images and associated ground truth data, followed by iterative tuning and optimization of the ALPR algorithms. The substantial time and effort required to train and optimize the ALPR system can result in excessive operational cost and overhead. In this paper we propose a framework to create an artificial set of license plate images for accelerated training and optimization of ALPR algorithms. The framework comprises two steps: the synthesis of license plate images according to the design and layout for a jurisdiction of interest; and the modeling of imaging transformations and distortions typically encountered in the image capture process. Distortion parameters are estimated by measurements of real plate images. The simulation methodology is successfully demonstrated for training of OCR.

  12. Benchmark for license plate character segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gabriel Resende; da Silva, Sirlene Pio Gomes; Menotti, David; Shwartz, William Robson

    2016-09-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) has been the focus of many researches in the past years. In general, ALPR is divided into the following problems: detection of on-track vehicles, license plate detection, segmentation of license plate characters, and optical character recognition (OCR). Even though commercial solutions are available for controlled acquisition conditions, e.g., the entrance of a parking lot, ALPR is still an open problem when dealing with data acquired from uncontrolled environments, such as roads and highways when relying only on imaging sensors. Due to the multiple orientations and scales of the license plates captured by the camera, a very challenging task of the ALPR is the license plate character segmentation (LPCS) step, because its effectiveness is required to be (near) optimal to achieve a high recognition rate by the OCR. To tackle the LPCS problem, this work proposes a benchmark composed of a dataset designed to focus specifically on the character segmentation step of the ALPR within an evaluation protocol. Furthermore, we propose the Jaccard-centroid coefficient, an evaluation measure more suitable than the Jaccard coefficient regarding the location of the bounding box within the ground-truth annotation. The dataset is composed of 2000 Brazilian license plates consisting of 14000 alphanumeric symbols and their corresponding bounding box annotations. We also present a straightforward approach to perform LPCS efficiently. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation for the dataset based on five LPCS approaches and demonstrate the importance of character segmentation for achieving an accurate OCR.

  13. Waveguiding in supported phononic crystal plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J; Hladky-Hennion, A-C; Deymier, P; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Duval, F; Dubus, B; Pennec, Y

    2007-01-01

    We investigate, with the help of the finite element method, the existence of absolute band gaps in the band structure of a free-standing phononic crystal plate and of a phononic crystal slab deposited on a substrate. The two-dimensional phononic crystal is constituted by a square array of holes drilled in an active piezoelectric (PZT5A or AlN) matrix. For both matrix materials, an absolute band gap occurs in the band structure of the free-standing plate provided the thickness of the plate is on the order of magnitude of the lattice parameter. When the plate is deposited on a Si substrate, the absolute band gap still remains when the matrix of the phononic crystal is made of PZT5A. The AlN phononic crystal plate losses its gap when supported by the Si substrate. In the case of the PZT5A matrix, we also study the possibility of localized modes associated with a linear defect created by removing one row of air holes in the deposited phononic crystal plate

  14. Quantitative assessment of growth plate activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harcke, H.T.; Macy, N.J.; Mandell, G.A.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    In the immature skeleton the physis or growth plate is the area of bone least able to withstand external forces and is therefore prone to trauma. Such trauma often leads to premature closure of the plate and results in limb shortening and/or angular deformity (varus or valgus). Active localization of bone seeking tracers in the physis makes bone scintigraphy an excellent method for assessing growth plate physiology. To be most effective, however, physeal activity should be quantified so that serial evaluations are accurate and comparable. The authors have developed a quantitative method for assessing physeal activity and have applied it ot the hip and knee. Using computer acquired pinhole images of the abnormal and contralateral normal joints, ten regions of interest are placed at key locations around each joint and comparative ratios are generated to form a growth plate profile. The ratios compare segmental physeal activity to total growth plate activity on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides and to adjacent bone. In 25 patients, ages 2 to 15 years, with angular deformities of the legs secondary to trauma, Blount's disease, and Perthes disease, this technique is able to differentiate abnormal segmental physeal activity. This is important since plate closure does not usually occur uniformly across the physis. The technique may permit the use of scintigraphy in the prediction of early closure through the quantitative analysis of serial studies

  15. A Possible Differentially Shortened Strike-slip Plate Boundary: the Okhotsk Plate Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Egorov, V.; Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.

    2004-12-01

    The Okhotsk plate has been postulated based on a combination of GPS geodetic inversions (REVEL1), seimsicity, geologic and lineament data. Lying between the North American and Eurasian plates, its northwestern corner would appear to be undergoing compression in a scissors motion between the two bounding plates. Extrusion tectonics along multiple, large strike-slip faults within the Okhotsk plate itself have been suggested to allow the escape of material away from the apex of Eurasia-North America. The plate boundary between Okhotsk and North America has been suggested to be diffuse, based on widely scattered minor seismicity. However, the large, left lateral, Ulakhan fault has also been suggested as a candidate plate boundary. We present field geological and geomorphological evidence of the partitioning of deformation between the Ulakhan fault, and several parallel and oblique, linked faults. The Ulakhan fault strand appears to have a maximum displacement of 24 km based on river valley offsets and closing large pull apart basins. Some of the displacement from the Ulakhan fault appears relayed into the plate margin along oblique trending, thrust/oblique slip faults. Estimated shortening over these faults is equivalent to the amount of shortening relayed into the plate margin from the plate boundary. There may be several thrust/oblique slip faults along the Ulakhan fault, which leads to the interesting situation of a segmented, strike-slip plate boundary being actively shortened in a margin parallel direction. This may be the result of postulated extrusion of the Okhotsk plate due to North America/Eurasia convergence. Such a situation would have important consequences for the interpretation of GPS data in a plate tectonic context.

  16. Resorbable versus titanium plates for orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotry, Anirudha; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Nasser, Mona; Gill, Karanjot S

    2017-10-04

    Recognition of some of the limitations of titanium plates and screws used for the fixation of bones has led to the development of plates manufactured from bioresorbable materials. Whilst resorbable plates appear to offer clinical advantages over metal plates in orthognathic surgery, concerns remain about the stability of fixation and the length of time required for their degradation and the possibility of foreign body reactions. This review compares the use of titanium versus bioresorbable plates in orthognathic surgery and is an update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2007. To compare the effects of bioresorbable fixation systems with titanium systems used during orthognathic surgery. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 20 January 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 11) in the Cochrane Library (searched 20 January 2017); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 20 January 2017); and Embase Ovid (1980 to 20 January 2017). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register ClinicalTrials.gov (clinicaltrials.gov; searched 20 January 2017), and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (searched 20 January 2017) for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials comparing bioresorbable versus titanium fixation systems used for orthognathic surgery in adults. Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We resolved disagreement by discussion. Clinical heterogeneity between the included trials precluded pooling of data, and only a descriptive summary is presented. This review included two trials, involving 103 participants, one comparing titanium with resorbable plates and screws and

  17. Atomic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, FH

    2014-01-01

    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  18. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  19. Number theory via Representation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-09

    Number theory via Representation theory. Eknath Ghate. November 9, 2014. Eightieth Annual Meeting, Chennai. Indian Academy of Sciences1. 1. This is a non-technical 20 minute talk intended for a general Academy audience.

  20. Theroretical modelling of the plate-tubes coupling in the hydroelasticity of the perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhupanov, V.A.; Manoach, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    In the previous investigations on the perforated plate hydroelasticity the problem of the plates-tubes-liquid interaction in the process of the general structural vibration is stated. But the interaction of the vibrating plates with the tubes, passing through them, is taken into account considering the tubes only as absolutely rigid supports. This is one of the possible technical realizations. In the present article the case when the tubes are taking part in the plate motion (vibration) is studied. Two circular perforated plates are supported by the absolutely rigid wall of the modelled roundcircular reactor barrel. The distance between the plates is given. They are connected by tubes, passing through, and clamped into the perforation holes. The plates and the tubes are made by any elastic HOOKIAN material. The volume between the two plates and outwardly to the tubes, but intrinsically of the barrel is filled by ideal, compressible and heavy liquid. Evidently the liquid volume is multiconnected one. The free vibration of the whole system is considered with the purposes: i) to give a theoretical model of the plates-tubes-liquid interaction including governing equations and boundary conditions; ii) to trace the solution of the eigen-value problem for the modelled structure; iii) to underline the engineering sides of the modelling process. (orig./GL)

  1. Superstring theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Dual string theories, initially developed as phenomenological models of hadrons, now appear more promising as candidates for a unified theory of fundamental interactions. Type I superstring theory (SST I), is a ten-dimensional theory of interacting open and closed strings, with one supersymmetry, that is free from ghosts and tachyons. It requires that an SO(eta) or Sp(2eta) gauge group be used. A light-cone-gauge string action with space-time supersymmetry automatically incorporates the superstring restrictions and leads to the discovery of type II superstring theory (SST II). SST II is an interacting theory of closed strings only, with two D=10 supersymmetries, that is also free from ghosts and tachyons. By taking six of the spatial dimensions to form a compact space, it becomes possible to reconcile the models with our four-dimensional perception of spacetime and to define low-energy limits in which SST I reduces to N=4, D=4 super Yang-Mills theory and SST II reduces to N=8, D=4 supergravity theory. The superstring theories can be described by a light-cone-gauge action principle based on fields that are functionals of string coordinates. With this formalism any physical quantity should be calculable. There is some evidence that, unlike any conventional field theory, the superstring theories provide perturbatively renormalizable (SST I) or finite (SST II) unifications of gravity with other interactions

  2. String theory or field theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshakov, Andrei V

    2002-01-01

    The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of string theory in the modern picture of the physical world. Even though quantum field theory describes a wide range of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments which are our concern in this review. (reviews of topical problems)

  3. Dependence theory via game theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossi, D.; Turrini, P.

    2011-01-01

    In the multi-agent systems community, dependence theory and game theory are often presented as two alternative perspectives on the analysis of social interaction. Up till now no research has been done relating these two approaches. The unification presented provides dependence theory with the sort

  4. Effect of Plate Curvature on Blast Response of Structural Steel Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeredhi, Lakshmi Shireen Banu; Ramana Rao, N. V.; Veeredhi, Vasudeva Rao

    2018-04-01

    In the present work an attempt is made, through simulation studies, to determine the effect of plate curvature on the blast response of a door structure made of ASTM A515 grade 50 steel plates. A door structure with dimensions of 5.142 m × 2.56 m × 10 mm having six different radii of curvatures is analyzed which is subjected to blast load. The radii of curvature investigated are infinity (flat plate), 16.63, 10.81, 8.26, 6.61 and 5.56 m. In the present study, a stand-off distance of 11 m is considered for all the cases. Results showed that the door structure with smallest radius of curvature experienced least plastic deformation and yielding when compared to a door with larger radius of curvature with same projected area. From the present Investigation, it is observed that, as the radius of curvature of the plate increases, the deformation mode gradually shifts from indentation mode to flexural mode. The plates with infinity and 16.63 m radius of curvature have undergone flexural mode of deformation and plates with 6.61 and 5.56 m radius of curvature undergo indentation mode of deformation. Whereas, mixed mode of deformation that consists of both flexural and indentation mode of deformations are seen in the plates with radius of curvature 10.81 and 8.26 m. As the radius of curvature of the plate decreases the ability of the plate to mitigate the effect the blast loads increased. It is observed that the plate with smaller radius of curvature deflects most of the blast energy and results in least indentation mode of deformation. The most significant observation made in the present investigation is that the strain energy absorbed by the steel plate gets reduced to 1/3 rd when the radius of curvature is approximately equal to the stand-off distance which could be the critical radius of curvature.

  5. Modeling Open-Loop MEMS Tunneling Accelerometer Based on Circular Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jodat Kordlar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper open-loop MEMS tunneling accelerometer was modeled based on a clamped micro circular plate with a tip tunneling at its centre. Mechanical behavior of the micro plate was studied deriving governing equation based on classic Kirchhoff thin plate theory and it was discretized using Galerkin method. Dynamic response of the proposed accelerometer due to step and harmonic external excitation was studied and the magnitude of the applied acceleration was identified by measuring of the changing of tunneling current. Obtained results show that the proposed tunneling accelerometer very sensitive and it can be measure acceleration with very high resolution but very small gap of tip tunneling limit the range of measurable acceleration.

  6. Finite element analysis of actively controlled smart plate with patched actuators and sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yaqoob Yasin

    Full Text Available The active vibration control of smart plate equipped with patched piezoelectric sensors and actuators is presented in this study. An equivalent single layer third order shear deformation theory is employed to model the kinematics of the plate and to obtain the shear strains. The governing equations of motion are derived using extended Hamilton's principle. Linear variation of electric potential across the piezoelectric layers in thickness direction is considered. The electrical variable is discretized by Lagrange interpolation function considering two-noded line element. Undamped natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes are obtained by solving the eigen value problem with and without electromechanical coupling. The finite element model in nodal variables are transformed into modal model and then recast into state space. The dynamic model is reduced for further analysis using Hankel norm for designing the controller. The optimal control technique is used to control the vibration of the plate.

  7. Three-Dimensional Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Thick Plates on Pasternak Foundation with Arbitrary Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first known vibration characteristic of rectangular thick plates on Pasternak foundation with arbitrary boundary conditions on the basis of the three-dimensional elasticity theory. The arbitrary boundary conditions are obtained by laying out three types of linear springs on all edges. The modified Fourier series are chosen as the basis functions of the admissible function of the thick plates to eliminate all the relevant discontinuities of the displacements and their derivatives at the edges. The exact solution is obtained based on the Rayleigh–Ritz procedure by the energy functions of the thick plate. The excellent accuracy and reliability of current solutions are demonstrated by numerical examples and comparisons with the results available in the literature. In addition, the influence of the foundation coefficients as well as the boundary restraint parameters is also analyzed, which can serve as the benchmark data for the future research technique.

  8. Observation of parametric X-ray radiation by an imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabayashi, Y.; Shchagin, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated experimentally the application of an imaging plate for registering the angular distribution of parametric X-ray radiation. The imaging plate was used as a two-dimensional position-sensitive X-ray detector. High-quality images of the fine structure in the angular distributions of the yield around the reflection of the parametric X-ray radiation produced in a silicon crystal by a 255-MeV electron beam from a linear accelerator have been observed in the Laue geometry. A fairly good agreement between results of measurements and calculations by the kinematic theory of parametric X-ray radiation is shown. Applications of the imaging plates for the observation of the angular distribution of X-rays produced by accelerated particles in a crystal are also discussed.

  9. Viscoelastic material properties' identification using high speed full field measurements on vibrating plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudeau, A.; Pierron, F.

    2010-06-01

    The paper presents an experimental application of a method leading to the identification of the elastic and damping material properties of isotropic vibrating plates. The theory assumes that the searched parameters can be extracted from curvature and deflection fields measured on the whole surface of the plate at two particular instants of the vibrating motion. The experimental application consists in an original excitation fixture, a particular adaptation of an optical full-field measurement technique, a data preprocessing giving the curvature and deflection fields and finally in the identification process using the Virtual Fields Method (VFM). The principle of the deflectometry technique used for the measurements is presented. First results of identification on an acrylic plate are presented and compared to reference values. Details about a new experimental arrangement, currently in progress, is presented. It uses a high speed digital camera to over sample the full-field measurements.

  10. LOWLID FORMATION AND PLATE TECTONICS ON EXOPLANETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Noack, L.; Breuer, D.

    2009-12-01

    The last years of astronomical observation have opened the doors to a universe filled with extrasolar planets. Detection techniques still only offer the possibility to detect mainly Super-Earths above five Earth masses. But detection techniques do steadily improve and are offering the possibility to detect even smaller planets. The observations show that planets seem to exist in many possible sizes just as the planets and moons of our own solar system do. It is only a natural question to ask if planetary mass has an influence on some key habitability factors such as on plate tectonics, allowing us to test which exoplanets might be more likely habitable than others, and allowing us to understand if plate tectonics on Earth is a stable or a critical, instable process that could easily be perturbed. Here we present results derived from 1D parameterized thermal evolution and 2D/3D computer models, showing how planetary mass influences the propensity of plate tectonics for planets with masses ranging from 0.1 to 10 Earth masses. Lately [2, 3] studied the effect of planetary mass on the ability to break plates and hence initiate plate tectonics - but both derived results contradictory to the other. We think that one of the reasons why both studies [2, 3] are not acceptable in their current form is partly due to an oversimplification. Both treated viscosity only temperature-dependent but neglected the effect pressure has on enlarging the viscosity in the deep mantle. More massive planets have therefore a stronger pressure-viscosity-coupling making convection at high pressures sluggish or even impossible. For planets larger than two Earth masses we observe that a conductive lid (termed low-lid) forms above the core-mantle boundary and thus reduces the effective convective part of the mantle when including a pressure-dependent term into the viscosity laws as shown in [1]. Moreover [2, 3] use time independent steady state models neglecting the fact that plate tectonics is a

  11. From Plate Tectonic to Continental Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    By the early 1970s, the basics of plate tectonics were known. Although much understanding remained to be gained, as a topic of research, plate tectonics no longer defined the forefront of earth science. Not only had it become a foundation on which to build, but also the methods used to reveal it became tools to take in new directions. For me as a seismologist studying earthquakes and active processes, the deformation of continents offered an obvious topic to pursue. Obviously examining the deformation of continents and ignoring the widespread geologic evidence of both ongoing and finite deformation of crust would be stupid. I was blessed with the opportunity to learn from and collaborate with two of the best, Paul Tapponnier and Clark Burchfiel. Continental deformation differed from plate tectonics both because deformation was widespread but more importantly because crust shortens (extends) horizontally and thickens (thins), processes that can be ignored where plate tectonics - the relative motion of rigid plates - occurs. Where a plate boundary passes into a continent, not only must the forces that move plates do work against friction or other dissipative processes, but where high terrain is created, they must also do work against gravity, to create gravitational potential energy in high terrain. Peter Bird and Kenneth Piper and Philip England and Dan McKenzie showed that a two-dimensional thin viscous sheet with vertically averaged properties enabled both sources of resistance to be included without introducing excessive complexity and to be scaled by one dimensionless number, what the latter pair called the Argand number. Increasingly over the past thirty years, emphasis has shifted toward the role played by the mantle lithosphere, because of both its likely strength and its negative buoyancy, which makes it gravitationally unstable. Despite progress since realizing that rigid plates (the essence of plate tectonics) provides a poor description of continental

  12. Octanol reduces end-plate channel lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Peter W.; McBurney, Robert N.; Van Helden, Dirk

    1978-01-01

    1. Post-synaptic effects of n-octanol at concentrations of 0·1-1 mM were examined in toad sartorius muscles by use of extracellular and voltage-clamp techniques. 2. Octanol depressed the amplitude and duration of miniature end-plate currents and hence depressed neuromuscular transmission. 3. The decay of miniature end-plate currents remained exponential in octanol solutions even when the time constant of decay (τD) was decreased by 80-90%. 4. The lifetime of end-plate channels, obtained by analysis of acetylcholine noise, was also decreased by octanol. The average lifetime measured from noise spectra agreed reasonably well with the time constant of decay of miniature end-plate currents, both in control solution and in octanol solutions. 5. Octanol caused a reduction in the conductance of end-plate channels. Single channel conductance was on average about 25 pS in control solution and 20 pS in octanol. 6. In most cells the normal voltage sensitivity of the decay of miniature end-plate currents was retained in octanol solutions. The lifetime of end-plate channels measured from acetylcholine noise also remained voltage-sensitive in octanol solutions. In some experiments in which channel lifetime was exceptionally reduced the voltage sensitivity was less than normal. 7. In octanol solutions, τD was still very sensitive to temperature changes in most cells although in some the temperature sensitivity of τD was clearly reduced. Changes in τD with temperature could generally be fitted by the Arrhenius equation suggesting that a single step reaction controlled the decay of currents both in control and in octanol solutions. In some cells in which τD became less than 0·3 ms, the relationship between τD and temperature became inconsistent with the Arrhenius equation. 8. As the decay of end-plate currents in octanol solutions remains exponential, and the voltage and temperature sensitivity can be unchanged even when τD is significantly reduced, it seems likely that

  13. 21 CFR 882.4030 - Skull plate anvil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skull plate anvil. 882.4030 Section 882.4030 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4030 Skull plate anvil. (a) Identification. A skull plate anvil is a device used to form alterable skull plates in the proper shape to fit...

  14. SCDAP/RELAP5 lower core plate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coryell, E.W.; Griffin, F.P.

    1999-01-01

    The SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code is a best-estimate analysis tool for performing nuclear reactor severe accident simulations. This report describes the justification, theory, implementation, and testing of a new modeling capability which will refine the analysis of the movement of molten material from the core region to the vessel lower head. As molten material moves from the core region through the core support structures it may encounter conditions which will cause it to freeze in the region of the lower core plate, delaying its arrival to the vessel head. The timing of this arrival is significant to reactor safety, because during the time span for material relocation to the lower head, the core may be experiencing steam-limited oxidation. The time at which hot material arrives in a coolant-filled lower vessel head, thereby significantly increasing the steam flow rate through the core region, becomes significant to the progression and timing of a severe accident. This report is a revision of a report INEEL/EXT-00707, entitled ''Preliminary Design Report for SCDAP/RELAP5 Lower Core Plate Model''

  15. Preserving and Archiving Astronomical Photographic Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelaz, M. W.; Cline, J. D.

    2005-05-01

    Astronomical objects change with time. New observations complement past observations recorded on photographic plates. Analyses of changes provide essential routes to information about an object's formation, constitution and evolution. Preserving a century of photographic plate observations is thus of paramount importance. Plate collections are presently widely dispersed; plates may be stored in poor conditions, and are effectively inaccessible to both researchers and historians. We describe a planned project at Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute to preserve the collections of astronomical plates in the United States by gathering them into a single storage location. Collections will be sorted, cleaned, and cataloged on-line so as to provide access to researchers. Full scientific and historic use of the material then requires the observations themselves to be accessible digitally. The project's goal will be the availability of these data as a unique, fully-maintained scientific and educational resource. The new archive will support trans-disciplinary research such as the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere, library information science, trends in local weather patterns, and impacts of urbanization on telescope use, while the hand-written observatory logs will be a valuable resource for science historians and biographers.

  16. Spirit Begins Drive Around Home Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,829th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (Feb. 24, 2009). On Sol 1829, Spirit drove 6.29 meters (21 feet) northwestward, away from the northern edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The track dug by the dragged right-front wheel as the rover drove backward is visible in this image, receding toward the southeast. Rock layers of the northern slope of Home Plate are visible in the upper right portion of the image. In sols prior to 1829, the rover team had been trying to maneuver Spirit to climb onto the northern edge of Home Plate, ready to drive southward across the top of the plateau toward science destinations south of Home Plate. The Sol 1829 drive was the first move of a revised strategy to circle at least partway around Home Plate on the trek toward the sites south of the plateau.

  17. Well-plate freeze-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Rantanen, Jukka; Grohganz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Freeze-drying in presence of excipients is a common practice to stabilize biomacromolecular formulations. The composition of this formulation is known to affect the quality of the final product. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-drying in well-plates as a h......Abstract Context: Freeze-drying in presence of excipients is a common practice to stabilize biomacromolecular formulations. The composition of this formulation is known to affect the quality of the final product. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-drying in well......-plates as a high throughput platform for formulation screening of freeze-dried products. Methods: Model formulations consisting of mannitol, sucrose and bovine serum albumin were freeze-dried in brass well plates, plastic well plates and vials. Physical properties investigated were solid form, residual moisture......, cake collapse and reconstitution time. Results: Samples freeze-dried in well-plates had an acceptable visual cake appearance. Solid form analysis by high throughput X-ray powder diffraction indicated comparable polymorphic outcome independent of the container. The expected increase in moisture level...

  18. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, N; Cinacchi, G; Van Duijneveldt, J S; Cosgrove, T; Prescott, S W; Grillo, I; Phipps, J; Gittins, D I

    2011-01-01

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  19. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doshi, N; Cinacchi, G; Van Duijneveldt, J S; Cosgrove, T; Prescott, S W [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Grillo, I [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Phipps, J [Imerys Minerals Ltd, Par Moor Centre, Par Moor Road, Par, Cornwall PL24 2SQ (United Kingdom); Gittins, D I, E-mail: Giorgio.Cinacchi@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: J.S.van-Duijneveldt@bristol.ac.uk [Imerys Performance and Filtration Minerals Ltd, 130 Castilian Drive, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2011-05-18

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  20. Flow of nanofluid past a Riga plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Adeel, E-mail: adeelahmed@comsats.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Laboratoire J.A. Dieudonné, Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice (France); Asghar, Saleem [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Afzal, Sumaira [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-03-15

    This paper studies the mixed convection boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a vertical Riga plate in the presence of strong suction. The mathematical model incorporates the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects due to nanofluid and the Grinberg-term for the wall parallel Lorentz force due to Riga plate. The analytical solution of the problem is presented using the perturbation method for small Brownian and thermophoresis diffusion parameters. The numerical solution is also presented to ensure the reliability of the asymptotic method. The comparison of the two solutions shows an excellent agreement. The correlation expressions for skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are developed by performing linear regression on the obtained numerical data. The effects of nanofluid and the Lorentz force due to Riga plate, on the skin friction are discussed. - Highlights: • Mixed convection flow of a nanofluid past a vertical Riga plate. • The Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects due to nanofluid are incorporated. • Grinberg-term represents the wall parallel Lorentz force due to Riga plate. • The correlation expressions for skin friction, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are developed. • The effects of nanofluid and the Lorentz force on the skin friction are discussed.

  1. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roger W.; Neff, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  2. Lead plating of the low beta resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, J.M.; Corcoran, D.; Coughlin, R.; Goliak, T.; Hodgkins, D.; James, P.; Seamster, A.G.; Secora, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Plating operations were performed at the lead plating facility at SUNY, Stony Brook. Initial procedures were based on the previous experience of prototype development by Ben-Zvi and Brennan. Several attempts were made to produce satisfactory results, however the lead surfaces were consistently stained and lacked the bright metallic finish routinely achieved with the split loop resonator at SUNY. The development of a new set of procedures was initiated, aided by reports of plating success from Ben-Zvi. Controlled tests were conducted which suggested several changes in the plating parameters. Based on these results and suggestions from the staff at SUNY a new process was defined which was successful in producing the smooth reflective metallic surface known to be necessary forla optimum resonator performance. Following a successful repair of the the crack, the prototype was plated and chemically polished with the new techniques. The resultant surface was highly reflective and free of stains and particulates. The subsequent prototype cold test was successful

  3. Modeling of parallel-plate regenerators with non-uniform plate distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Buch; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    plate spacing distributions are presented in order to understand the impact of spacing non-uniformity. Simulations of more realistic distributions where the plate spacings follow normal distributions are then discussed in order to describe the deviation of the performance of a regenerator relative...

  4. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, CC

    2012-01-01

    Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko

  5. Viability Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai

  6. Finite element analysis of advanced neutron source fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luttrell, C.R.

    1995-08-01

    The proposed design for the Advanced Neutron Source reactor core consists of closely spaced involute fuel plates. Coolant flows between the plates at high velocities. It is vital that adjacent plates do not come in contact and that the coolant channels between the plates remain open. Several scenarios that could result in problems with the fuel plates are studied. Finite element analyses are performed on fuel plates under pressure from the coolant flowing between the plates at a high velocity, under pressure because of a partial flow blockage in one of the channels, and with different temperature profiles

  7. A proposed experimental search for chameleons using asymmetric parallel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrage, Clare; Copeland, Edmund J.; Stevenson, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Light scalar fields coupled to matter are a common consequence of theories of dark energy and attempts to solve the cosmological constant problem. The chameleon screening mechanism is commonly invoked in order to suppress the fifth forces mediated by these scalars, sufficiently to avoid current experimental constraints, without fine tuning. The force is suppressed dynamically by allowing the mass of the scalar to vary with the local density. Recently it has been shown that near future cold atoms experiments using atom-interferometry have the ability to access a large proportion of the chameleon parameter space. In this work we demonstrate how experiments utilising asymmetric parallel plates can push deeper into the remaining parameter space available to the chameleon.

  8. A proposed experimental search for chameleons using asymmetric parallel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, Clare; Copeland, Edmund J.; Stevenson, James A., E-mail: Clare.Burrage@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: ed.copeland@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: james.stevenson@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    Light scalar fields coupled to matter are a common consequence of theories of dark energy and attempts to solve the cosmological constant problem. The chameleon screening mechanism is commonly invoked in order to suppress the fifth forces mediated by these scalars, sufficiently to avoid current experimental constraints, without fine tuning. The force is suppressed dynamically by allowing the mass of the scalar to vary with the local density. Recently it has been shown that near future cold atoms experiments using atom-interferometry have the ability to access a large proportion of the chameleon parameter space. In this work we demonstrate how experiments utilising asymmetric parallel plates can push deeper into the remaining parameter space available to the chameleon.

  9. Defects and boundary layers in non-Euclidean plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmer, J A; Venkataramani, S C

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the behaviour of non-Euclidean plates with constant negative Gaussian curvature using the Föppl–von Kármán reduced theory of elasticity. Motivated by recent experimental results, we focus on annuli with a periodic profile. We prove rigorous upper and lower bounds for the elastic energy that scales like the thickness squared. In particular we show that are only two types of global minimizers—deformations that remain flat and saddle shaped deformations with isolated regions of stretching near the edge of the annulus. We also show that there exist local minimizers with a periodic profile that have additional boundary layers near their lines of inflection. These additional boundary layers are a new phenomenon in thin elastic sheets and are necessary to regularize jump discontinuities in the azimuthal curvature across lines of inflection. We rigorously derive scaling laws for the width of these boundary layers as a function of the thickness of the sheet. (paper)

  10. Galois Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, David A

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ". . .will certainly fascinate anyone interested in abstract algebra: a remarkable book!"—Monatshefte fur Mathematik Galois theory is one of the most established topics in mathematics, with historical roots that led to the development of many central concepts in modern algebra, including groups and fields. Covering classic applications of the theory, such as solvability by radicals, geometric constructions, and finite fields, Galois Theory, Second Edition delves into novel topics like Abel’s theory of Abelian equations, casus irreducibili, and the Galo

  11. Game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Elastoplasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hashiguchi, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    This book details the mathematics and continuum mechanics necessary as a foundation of elastoplasticity theory. It explains physical backgrounds with illustrations and provides descriptions of detailed derivation processes..

  13. Highly conductive composites for fuel cell flow field plates and bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bor Z; Zhamu, Aruna; Song, Lulu

    2014-10-21

    This invention provides a fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate having flow channels on faces of the plate, comprising an electrically conductive polymer composite. The composite is composed of (A) at least 50% by weight of a conductive filler, comprising at least 5% by weight reinforcement fibers, expanded graphite platelets, graphitic nano-fibers, and/or carbon nano-tubes; (B) polymer matrix material at 1 to 49.9% by weight; and (C) a polymer binder at 0.1 to 10% by weight; wherein the sum of the conductive filler weight %, polymer matrix weight % and polymer binder weight % equals 100% and the bulk electrical conductivity of the flow field or bipolar plate is at least 100 S/cm. The invention also provides a continuous process for cost-effective mass production of the conductive composite-based flow field or bipolar plate.

  14. The Okhotsk Plate and the Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, David; Mackey, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone transitions from spreading at rates of ~ 25mm/yr in the North Atlantic, to compression at rates of ~ 5mm/yr in the region of the Okhotsk plate. Because the pole of rotation between Eurasia and North America lies more or less on their mutual boundary, there is a linear change in rate along the boundary, and regions near the euler pole are subject to extremely low deformation rates. The Okhotsk - Eurasia - North America triple junction lies slightly south of the rotation pole, placing the Okhotsk plate entirely in a weakly contractional setting. Regions near the triple junction absorb 1mm/yr contraction. Further south, towards the shoreline of the Okhotsk sea, up to 5 mm/yr contraction may be absorbed within the plate. How shortening is accommodated across the boundary remains an open question. One possibility is wholesale extrusion of the entire Okhotsk plate (or possibly its northwestern corner) along two plate boundary strike slip faults (Eurasia-Okhostk and North America Okhotsk). The problem with this model is that the seismic record does not presently clearly support it, with the largest events distributed both within the plate interior and on its boundaries. This may suggest that instead, the Okhotsk plate, and particularly its north-western end, consists of a series of smaller blocks which shuffle against each other, partially accommodating extrusion, but also permitting some internal deformation and change of shape of the Okhotsk plate itself. We present analyses of the very sparse seismic record from the region, as well as geometric-kinematic, tectonic models of the possible deformation of northwest Okhotsk to try to better understand the different probabilities of how this slowly deforming plate boundary zone is behaving.

  15. Dual fuel gradients in uranium silicide plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, B.W. [Babock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has been able to achieve dual gradient plates with good repeatability in small lots of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates. Improvements in homogeneity and other processing parameters and techniques have allowed the development of contoured fuel within the cladding. The most difficult obstacles to overcome have been the ability to evaluate the bidirectional fuel loadings in comparison to the perfect loading model and the different methods of instilling the gradients in the early compact stage. The overriding conclusion is that to control the contour of the fuel, a known relationship between the compact, the frames and final core gradient must exist. Therefore, further development in the creation and control of dual gradients in fuel plates will involve arriving at a plausible gradient requirement and building the correct model between the compact configuration and the final contoured loading requirements.

  16. Astrometric properties of the Tautenburg Plate Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunzendorf, Jens; Meusinger, Helmut

    The Tautenburg Plate Scanner (TPS) is an advanced plate-measuring machine run by the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg (Karl Schwarzschild Observatory), where the machine is housed. It is capable of digitising photographic plates up to 30 cm × 30 cm in size. In our poster, we reported on tests and preliminary results of its astrometric properties. The essential components of the TPS consist of an x-y table movable between an illumination system and a direct imaging system. A telecentric lens images the light transmitted through the photographic emulsion onto a CCD line of 6000 pixels of 10 µm square size each. All components are mounted on a massive air-bearing table. Scanning is performed in lanes of up to 55 mm width by moving the x-y table in a continuous drift-scan mode perpendicular to the CCD line. The analogue output from the CCD is digitised to 12 bit with a total signal/noise ratio of 1000 : 1, corresponding to a photographic density range of three. The pixel map is produced as a series of optionally overlapping lane scans. The pixel data are stored onto CD-ROM or DAT. A Tautenburg Schmidt plate 24 cm × 24 cm in size is digitised within 2.5 hours resulting in 1.3 GB of data. Subsequent high-level data processing is performed off-line on other computers. During the scanning process, the geometry of the optical components is kept fixed. The optimal focussing of the optics is performed prior to the scan. Due to the telecentric lens refocussing is not required. Therefore, the main source of astrometric errors (beside the emulsion itself) are mechanical imperfections in the drive system, which have to be divided into random and systematic ones. The r.m.s. repeatability over the whole plate as measured by repeated scans of the same plate is about 0.5 µm for each axis. The mean plate-to-plate accuracy of the object positions on two plates with the same epoch and the same plate centre has been determined to be about 1 µm. This accuracy is comparable to

  17. Migration of phthalates on culture plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frohnert Hansen, Juliana; Boas, Malene; Møller Brorson, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    -well culture plates are typically used to study phthalates in cell cultures. In a pilot study, we observed evidence of phthalate migration in 24-well culture plates. As this has not previously been described, we investigated the phenomenon in more detail. Primary human thyroid epithelial cell cultures (n = 8...... cultures) were exposed to either di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) or di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Measurement of phthalate metabolites by mass spectrometry demonstrated that the short-branched DEP was able to migrate to adjacent wells when added...... to cell culture plates. DnBP also seemed to be able to migrate, unlike the long-branched DEHP or the monoester MnBP which did not seem to have this ability. High background levels of phthalate metabolites were also observed, which might compromise results from low dose phthalate studies. In conclusion...

  18. Aerodynamic drag reduction by vertical splitter plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliéron, Patrick; Kourta, Azeddine

    2010-01-01

    The capacity of vertical splitter plates placed at the front or the rear of a simplified car geometry to reduce drag, with and without skew angle, is investigated for Reynolds numbers between 1.0 × 106 and 1.6 × 106. The geometry used is a simplified geometry to represent estate-type vehicles, for the rear section, and MPV-type vehicle. Drag reductions of nearly 28% were obtained for a zero skew angle with splitter plates placed at the front of models of MPV or utility vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage of adapting the position and orientation of the splitter plates in the presence of a lateral wind. All these results confirm the advantage of this type of solution, and suggest that this expertise should be used in the automotive field to reduce consumption and improve dynamic stability of road vehicles.

  19. Aerodynamic drag reduction by vertical splitter plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillieron, Patrick [Renault Group, Research Division, Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Guyancourt (France); Kourta, Azeddine [Polytech' Orleans, Institut PRISME, ESA, Orleans (France)

    2010-01-15

    The capacity of vertical splitter plates placed at the front or the rear of a simplified car geometry to reduce drag, with and without skew angle, is investigated for Reynolds numbers between 1.0 x 10{sup 6} and 1.6 x 10{sup 6}. The geometry used is a simplified geometry to represent estate-type vehicles, for the rear section, and MPV-type vehicle. Drag reductions of nearly 28% were obtained for a zero skew angle with splitter plates placed at the front of models of MPV or utility vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage of adapting the position and orientation of the splitter plates in the presence of a lateral wind. All these results confirm the advantage of this type of solution, and suggest that this expertise should be used in the automotive field to reduce consumption and improve dynamic stability of road vehicles. (orig.)

  20. Condensation heat transfer in plate heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchal, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    An Alfa-Laval plate heat exchanger, previously tested as an evaporator, was retested as a condenser. Two series of tests with different chevron-angle plates were carried out using ammonia as a working fluid. The overall heat-transfer coefficient and pressure drop were measured, and the effects of operating parameters were determined. The experimental data were compared with theoretical predictions. In the analysis, a gravity-controlled condensation process was modeled theoretically, and the overall performance was calculated. The analysis shows that the overall heat-transfer coefficient can be predicted with an average uncertainty of about 10%. It is, however, important to consider the interfacial shear stress, because the effective friction factor is high for flow in plate heat exchangers

  1. Radon daughter plate-out onto Teflon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, E. S.; Frels, T.; Miller, E. H.; Schnee, R. W.; Street, J.

    2018-01-01

    Radiopure materials for detector components in rare event searches may be contaminated after manufacturing with long-lived 210Pb produced by the decay of atmospheric radon. Charged radon daughters deposited on the surface or implanted in the bulk of detector materials have the potential to cause noticeable backgrounds within dark matter regions of interest. Understanding the mechanics governing these background signals is therefore a paramount concern in dark matter experiments in order to distinguish a real signal from internal detector backgrounds. Teflon (i.e. PTFE) is a specific material of interest because it makes up the walls of the inner detector of many liquid noble detectors such as the LUX-ZEPLIN experiment. The rate of radon daughter plate-out onto Teflon can be orders of magnitude larger than the plate-out rate onto other materials. Mitigation of plate-out onto Teflon and steel by proximity to other materials is demonstrated.

  2. Thermo-mechanical analysis of the pressure plate of clutch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V.N. Venkata Mallikarjuna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High Temperature appears in the contact surfaces of a clutch system (friction surface and pressure plate due to the relative motion between these parts during the sliding period. These high temperatures are responsible for several failures such as pressure plate crack, pressure plate warpage etc. With the help of Finite element analysis, the sliding friction process of the pressure plate and friction during clutch engagement is simulated to get temperature field characteristics and contact pressure of pressure plate.

  3. Deformation of the Northwestern Okhotsk Plate: How is it happening?

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, D.; Fujita, K.; Mackey, K.

    2009-01-01

    The Eurasia (EU) – North America (NA) plate boundary zone across Northeast Asia still presents many open questions within the plate tectonic paradigm. Constraining the geometry and number of plates or microplates present in the plate boundary zone is especially difficult because of the location of the EU-NA euler pole close to or even upon the EU-NA boundary. One of the major challenges remains the geometry of the Okhotsk plate (OK). whose northwestern portion terminates on ...

  4. Root-Contact/Pressure-Plate Assembly For Hydroponic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carlton E.; Loretan, Philip A.; Bonsi, Conrad K.; Hill, Walter A.

    1994-01-01

    Hydroponic system includes growth channels equipped with rootcontact/pressure-plate assemblies. Pump and associated plumbing circulate nutrient liquid from reservoir, along bottom of growth channels, and back to reservoir. Root-contact/pressure-plate assembly in each growth channel stimulates growth of roots by applying mild contact pressure. Flat plate and plate connectors, together constitute pressure plate, free to move upward to accommodate growth of roots. System used for growing sweetpotatoes and possibly other tuber and root crops.

  5. Active vibration reduction by optimally placed sensors and actuators with application to stiffened plates by beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daraji, A H; Hale, J M

    2014-01-01

    This study concerns new investigation of active vibration reduction of a stiffened plate bonded with discrete sensor/actuator pairs located optimally using genetic algorithms based on a developed finite element modeling. An isotropic plate element stiffened by a number of beam elements on its edges and having a piezoelectric sensor and actuator pair bonded to its surfaces is modeled using the finite element method and Hamilton’s principle, taking into account the effects of piezoelectric mass, stiffness and electromechanical coupling. The modeling is based on the first order shear deformation theory taking into account the effects of bending, membrane and shear deformation for the plate, the stiffening beam and the piezoelectric patches. A Matlab finite element program has been built for the stiffened plate model and verified with ANSYS and also experimentally. Optimal placement of ten piezoelectric sensor/actuator pairs and optimal feedback gain for active vibration reduction are investigated for a plate stiffened by two beams arranged in the form of a cross. The genetic algorithm was set up for optimization of sensor/actuator placement and feedback gain based on the minimization of the optimal linear quadratic index as an objective function to suppress the first six modes of vibration. Comparison study is presented for active vibration reduction of a square cantilever plate stiffened by crossed beams with two sensor/actuator configurations: firstly, ten piezoelectric sensor/actuator pairs are located in optimal positions; secondly, a piezoelectric layer of single sensor/actuator pair covering the whole of the stiffened plate as a SISO system. (paper)

  6. Sensing the facet orientation in silver nano-plates using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdellatif, M.H. [Department of Nanostructures, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Physics Department, National Research Center, Elbehoos st., 12622, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Salerno, M., E-mail: marco.salerno@iit.it [Department of Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Polovitsyn, Anatolii [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Dipartimentodi Fisica, Università di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Marras, Sergio [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); De Angelis, Francesco [Department of Nanostructures, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • The surface potential of drop cast nanocrystals was measured by SKPM in ambient air. • The nanocrystal facet work function was derived by theory. • By comparing theory and experiment we distinguished the nanocrystal facets. • Nanocrystal facet control is of practical interest for optoelectronic devices. - Abstract: The work function of nano-materials is important for a full characterization of their electronic properties. Because the band alignment, band bending and electronic noise are very sensitive to work function fluctuations, the dependence of the work function of nano-scale crystals on facet orientation can be a critical issue in optimizing optoelectronic devices based on these materials. We used scanning Kelvin probe microscopy to assess the local work function on samples of silver nano-plates at sub-micrometric spatial resolution. With the appropriate choice of the substrate and based on statistical analysis, it was possible to distinguish the surface potential of the different facets of silver nano-plates even if the measurements were done in ambient conditions without the use of vacuum. A phenomenological model was used to calculate the differences of facet work function of the silver nano-plates and the corresponding shift in Fermi level. This theoretical prediction and the experimentally observed difference in surface potential on the silver nano-plates were in good agreement. Our results show the possibility to sense the nano-crystal facets by appropriate choice of the substrate in ambient conditions.

  7. Sensing the facet orientation in silver nano-plates using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdellatif, M.H.; Salerno, M.; Polovitsyn, Anatolii; Marras, Sergio; De Angelis, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The surface potential of drop cast nanocrystals was measured by SKPM in ambient air. • The nanocrystal facet work function was derived by theory. • By comparing theory and experiment we distinguished the nanocrystal facets. • Nanocrystal facet control is of practical interest for optoelectronic devices. - Abstract: The work function of nano-materials is important for a full characterization of their electronic properties. Because the band alignment, band bending and electronic noise are very sensitive to work function fluctuations, the dependence of the work function of nano-scale crystals on facet orientation can be a critical issue in optimizing optoelectronic devices based on these materials. We used scanning Kelvin probe microscopy to assess the local work function on samples of silver nano-plates at sub-micrometric spatial resolution. With the appropriate choice of the substrate and based on statistical analysis, it was possible to distinguish the surface potential of the different facets of silver nano-plates even if the measurements were done in ambient conditions without the use of vacuum. A phenomenological model was used to calculate the differences of facet work function of the silver nano-plates and the corresponding shift in Fermi level. This theoretical prediction and the experimentally observed difference in surface potential on the silver nano-plates were in good agreement. Our results show the possibility to sense the nano-crystal facets by appropriate choice of the substrate in ambient conditions.

  8. Non-linear analysis of skew thin plate by finite difference method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chi Kyung; Hwang, Myung Hwan

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a discrete analysis capability for predicting the geometrically nonlinear behavior of skew thin plate subjected to uniform pressure. The differential equations are discretized by means of the finite difference method which are used to determine the deflections and the in-plane stress functions of plates and reduced to several sets of linear algebraic simultaneous equations. For the geometrically non-linear, large deflection behavior of the plate, the non-linear plate theory is used for the analysis. An iterative scheme is employed to solve these quasi-linear algebraic equations. Several problems are solved which illustrate the potential of the method for predicting the finite deflection and stress. For increasing lateral pressures, the maximum principal tensile stress occurs at the center of the plate and migrates toward the corners as the load increases. It was deemed important to describe the locations of the maximum principal tensile stress as it occurs. The load-deflection relations and the maximum bending and membrane stresses for each case are presented and discussed

  9. Design of Stress-Strain Measuring System for Bulldozing Plate Based on Virtual Instrument Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S C; Li, J Q; Zhang, R

    2006-01-01

    Soil is a kind of discrete, multiphase compound that is composed of soil particles, liquid and air. When soil is disturbed by bulldozing plate, the mechanical behavior of the soil will become very complex. Based on the law of action and reaction, the dynamic mechanical behavior of disturbed soil was indirectly analyzed by measuring and studying the forces on the bulldozing plate by soil currently, so a stress-strain virtual measuring system for bulldozing plate, which was designed by the graphical programming language DASYLab, was used to measure the horizontal force Fz acting on the bulldozing plate. In addition, during the course of design, the experimental complexities and the interferential factors influencing on signal logging were analyzed when bulldozing plate worked, so the anti-jamming methods of hardware and software technology were adopted correlatively. In the end, the horizontal force Fz was analyzed with Error Theory, the result shown that the quantificational analysis of Fz were identical to the qualitative results of soil well, and the error of the whole test system is under 5 percent, so the tress-strain virtual measuring system was stable and credible

  10. Modeling and Chaotic Dynamics of the Laminated Composite Piezoelectric Rectangular Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the multipulse heteroclinic bifurcations and chaotic dynamics of a laminated composite piezoelectric rectangular plate by using an extended Melnikov method in the resonant case. According to the von Karman type equations, Reddy’s third-order shear deformation plate theory, and Hamilton’s principle, the equations of motion are derived for the laminated composite piezoelectric rectangular plate with combined parametric excitations and transverse excitation. The method of multiple scales and Galerkin’s approach are applied to the partial differential governing equation. Then, the four-dimensional averaged equation is obtained for the case of 1 : 3 internal resonance and primary parametric resonance. The extended Melnikov method is used to study the Shilnikov type multipulse heteroclinic bifurcations and chaotic dynamics of the laminated composite piezoelectric rectangular plate. The necessary conditions of the existence for the Shilnikov type multipulse chaotic dynamics are analytically obtained. From the investigation, the geometric structure of the multipulse orbits is described in the four-dimensional phase space. Numerical simulations show that the Shilnikov type multipulse chaotic motions can occur. To sum up, both theoretical and numerical studies suggest that chaos for the Smale horseshoe sense in motion exists for the laminated composite piezoelectric rectangular plate.

  11. Crane Scheduling for a Plate Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Odense Steel Shipyard produces the worlds largest container ships. The first process of producing the steel ships is handling arrival and storage of steel plates until they are needed in production. This paper considers the problem of scheduling two cranes that carry out the movements of plates...... into, around and out of the storage. The system is required to create a daily schedule for the cranes, but also handle possible disruptions during the execution of the plan. The problem is solved with a Simulated Annealing algorithm....

  12. Spirit Beside 'Home Plate,' Sol 1809

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images assembled into this 120-degree view southward after a short drive during the 1,809th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (February 3, 2009). Spirit had driven about 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) that sol, continuing a clockwise route around a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' In this image, the rocks visible above the rovers' solar panels are on the slope at the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  13. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  14. Instrumentation of fuel elements and fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, J.P.; Fanjas, Y.

    1993-01-01

    When controlling the behaviour of a reactor or developing a new fuel concept, it is of utmost interest to have the possibility to confirm the thermohydraulic calculations by actual measurements in the fuel elements or in the fuel plates. For years, CERCA has developed the technology and supplied its customers with fuel elements equipped with pressure or temperature measuring devices according to the requirements. Recent customer projects have led to the development of a new method to introduce thermocouples directly into the fuel plate meat instead of the cladding. The purpose of this paper is to review the various instrumentation possibilities available at CERCA. (author)

  15. Instrumentation of fuel elements and fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, J.P.; Fanjas, Y.

    1994-01-01

    When controlling the behaviour of a reactor or developing a new fuel concept, it is of utmost interest to have the possibility to confirm the thermohydraulic calculations by actual measurements in the fuel elements or in the fuel plates. For years, CERCA has developed the technology and supplied its customers with fuel elements equipped with pressure or temperature measuring devices according to the requirements. Recent customer projects have lead to the development of a new method to introduce thermocouples directly into the fuel plate meat instead of the cladding. The purpose of this paper is to review the various instrumentation possibilities available at CERCA. (author)

  16. Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W [Livermore, CA

    2012-07-10

    A ponderomotive phase plate system and method for controllably producing highly tunable phase contrast transfer functions in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for high resolution and biological phase contrast imaging. The system and method includes a laser source and a beam transport system to produce a focused laser crossover as a phase plate, so that a ponderomotive potential of the focused laser crossover produces a scattering-angle-dependent phase shift in the electrons of the post-sample electron beam corresponding to a desired phase contrast transfer function.

  17. An aluminium evaporation source for ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walley, P.A.; Cross, K.B.

    1977-01-01

    Ion plating with aluminium is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of anti-corrosion surface passivation, the usual requirements being for a layer between 12 and 50 microns in thickness, (0.0005 to 0.002). The evaporation system described here offers a number of advantages over high power electron beam sources when used for aluminium ion plating. The source consists of a resistively heated, specially shaped, boron nitride-titanium diboride boat and a metering feed system. Its main features are small physical size, soft vacuum compatibility, low power consumption and metered evaporation output. (author)

  18. Irradiation of full size UMo plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacelet, H.; Lavastre, Y.; Grasse, M.; Sacristan, P.; Languille, A.

    1999-01-01

    An important development program for a UMo MTR fuel has been launched in France. The goal of the French working group is to develop a high performing and reprocessable fuel before the end of the US return policy. This paper is focussed on the fabrication of full-sized UMo plates with LEU (Low Enriched Enrichment) and their irradiation in OSIRIS reactor which was started on the 22nd of September. The results of the plates inspection are presented here as well as the irradiation conditions. (author)

  19. Thermoelastic wave propagation in laminated composites plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dispersion of thermoelastic waves propagation in an arbitrary direction in laminated composites plates is studied in the framework of generalized thermoelasticity in this article. Three dimensional field equations of thermoelasticity with relaxation times are considered. Characteristic equation is obtained on employing the continuity of displacements, temperature, stresses and thermal gradient at the layers’ interfaces. Some important particular cases such as of free waves on reducing plates to single layer and the surface waves when thickness tends to infinity are also discussed. Uncoupled and coupled thermoelasticity are the particular cases of the obtained results. Numerical results are also obtained and represented graphically.

  20. Modelling of CMUTs with Anisotropic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, CMUTs are modelled using the isotropic plate equation and this leads to deviations between analytical calculations and FEM simulations. In this paper, the deflection profile and material parameters are calculated using the anisotropic plate equation. It is shown that the anisotropic...... calculations match perfectly with FEM while an isotropic approach causes up to 10% deviations in deflection profile. Furthermore, we show how commonly used analytic modelling methods such as static calculations of the pull-in voltage and dynamic modelling through an equivalent circuit representation can...

  1. Novel Algorithms for Astronomical Plate Analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Hudec, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, 1-2 (2011), s. 121-123 ISSN 0250-6335. [Conference on Multiwavelength Variability of Blazars. Guangzhou, 22,09,2010-24,09,2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/0997; MŠMT(CZ) ME09027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : astronomical plates * plate archives archives * astronomical algorithms Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2011

  2. Astronomical Plate Archives and Binary Blazars Studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, 1-2 (2011), s. 91-95 ISSN 0250-6335. [Conference on Multiwavelength Variability of Blazars. Guangzhou, 22,09,2010-24,09,2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/0997; MŠMT(CZ) ME09027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : astronomical plates * plate archives archives * binary blazars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2011

  3. Barrel organ of plate tectonics - a new tool for outreach and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Petr; Machek, Matěj; Šorm, Zdar

    2016-04-01

    Plate tectonics is the major geological concept to explain dynamics and structure of Earth's outer shell, the lithosphere. In the plate tectonic theory processes in the Earth lithosphere and its dynamics is driven by the relative motion and interaction of lithospheric plates. Geologically most active regions on Earth often correlate with the lithospheric plate boundaries. Thus for explaining the earth surface evolution, mountain building, volcanism and earthquake origin it is important to understand processes at the plate boundaries. However these processes associated with plate tectonics usually require significant period of time to take effects, therefore, their entire cycles cannot be directly observed in the nature by humans. This makes a challenge for scientists studying these processes, but also for teachers and popularizers trying to explain them to students and to the general public. Therefore, to overcome this problem, we developed a mechanical model of plate tectonics enabling demonstration of most important processes associated with plate tectonics in real time. The mechanical model is a wooden box, more specifically a special type of barrel organ, with hand painted backdrops in the front side. These backdrops are divided into several components representing geodynamic processes associated with plate tectonics, specifically convective currents occurring in the mantle, sea-floor spreading, a subduction of the oceanic crust under the continental crust, partial melting and volcanism associated with subduction, a formation of magmatic stripes, an ascent of mantle plume throughout the mantle, a volcanic activity associated with hot spots, and a formation and degradation of volcanic islands on moving lithospheric plate. All components are set in motion by a handle controlled by a human operator, and the scene is illuminated with colored lights controlled automatically by an electric device embedded in the box. Operation of the model may be seen on www

  4. Mandibular reconstruction using a titanium plate: the impact of radiation therapy on plate preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Janice K; Stern, Robin L; Robinson, Marilyn G; Bowers, Michael K; Kubo, Hideo D; Donald, Paul J; Rosenthal, Seth A; Fu, Karen K

    1995-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the soft tissue and bone tolerance of radiation therapy (RT) in patients undergoing radical composite resection and mandibular reconstruction using a bridging titanium plate with myocutaneous flap closure. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 1994, 47 patients with primary or recurrent oral cavity or oropharyngeal carcinomas were treated with radical composite resection and mandibular reconstruction using a bridging titanium plate with myocutaneous flap closure. Eleven patients received no RT (no RT), 10 patients received RT greater than 10 months from the time of surgery (remote RT), and 26 patients received RT within 12 weeks of surgery (perioperative RT). The radiation dose to the reconstructed mandible ranged from 45 to 75 Gy (median 63 Gy). The effect of the titanium plate on the radiation dose was measured using film dosimetry and soft tissue and bone-equivalent materials. The median follow-up was 17 months (range: 3-50 months). Results: Late complications included four patients with osteomyelitis or necrosis, two plate exposures requiring flap revision, one chronic infection, two cases of chronic pain, two fistulae, and one case of trismus and malocclusion. The crude incidence of late complications by treatment was: (a) no RT: 3 of 11 patients (27%); (b) remote RT: 2 of 10 patients (20%); and (c) perioperative RT: 9 of 26 patients (35%). One patient in the no-RT group lost the plate due to chronic pain. Five patients in the perioperative RT group also had plate loss, four due to osteomyelitis and/or necrosis, and one due to pain related to a recurrent tumor. No patients in the remote RT group had plate loss. The actuarial prosthesis preservation rate at 2 years was 88% for the no RT, 100% for the remote RT, and 57% for the perioperative RT groups (p = 0.05). Phantom dose measurements showed that for parallel opposed 6 MV photon beams, there was no significant increase in the dose proximal or distal to the plate in either a soft tissue- or

  5. Perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.; Kirtman, B.; Davidson, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    After noting some advantages of using perturbation theory some of the various types are related on a chart and described, including many-body nonlinear summations, quartic force-field fit for geometry, fourth-order correlation approximations, and a survey of some recent work. Alternative initial approximations in perturbation theory are also discussed. 25 references

  6. Need theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Need theory of happiness is linked to affect theory, which holds that happiness is a reflection of how well we feel generally. In this view, we do not "calculate" happiness but rather "infer" it, the typical heuristic being "I feel good most of the time, hence

  7. Diffraction theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwkamp, C.J.

    1954-01-01

    A critical review is presented of recent progress in classical diffraction theory. Both scalar and electromagnetic problems are discussed. The report may serve as an introduction to general diffraction theory although the main emphasis is on diffraction by plane obstacles. Various modifications of

  8. Potential Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří

    1988-01-01

    Within the tradition of meetings devoted to potential theory, a conference on potential theory took place in Prague on 19-24, July 1987. The Conference was organized by the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, with the collaboration of the Institute of Mathematics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, the Department of Mathematics, Czech University of Technology, the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists, the Czechoslovak Scientific and Technical Society, and supported by IMU. During the Conference, 69 scientific communications from different branches of potential theory were presented; the majority of them are in­ cluded in the present volume. (Papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference, its program as well as a collection of problems from potential theory will appear in a special volume of the Lecture Notes Series published by Springer-Verlag). Topics of these communications truly reflect the vast scope of contemporary potential theory. Some contributions deal...

  9. Conspiracy Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Ole; Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The paper is a contribution to current debates about conspiracy theories within philosophy and cultural studies. Wittgenstein’s understanding of language is invoked to analyse the epistemological effects of designating particular questions and explanations as a ‘conspiracy theory......’. It is demonstrated how such a designation relegates these questions and explanations beyond the realm of meaningful discourse. In addition, Agamben’s concept of sovereignty is applied to explore the political effects of using the concept of conspiracy theory. The exceptional epistemological status assigned...... to alleged conspiracy theories within our prevalent paradigms of knowledge and truth is compared to the exceptional legal status assigned to individuals accused of terrorism under the War on Terror. The paper concludes by discussing the relation between conspiracy theory and ‘the paranoid style...

  10. Field theory

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-11-08

    In these lectures I will build up the concept of field theory using the language of Feynman diagrams. As a starting point, field theory in zero spacetime dimensions is used as a vehicle to develop all the necessary techniques: path integral, Feynman diagrams, Schwinger-Dyson equations, asymptotic series, effective action, renormalization etc. The theory is then extended to more dimensions, with emphasis on the combinatorial aspects of the diagrams rather than their particular mathematical structure. The concept of unitarity is used to, finally, arrive at the various Feynman rules in an actual, four-dimensional theory. The concept of gauge-invariance is developed, and the structure of a non-abelian gauge theory is discussed, again on the level of Feynman diagrams and Feynman rules.

  11. Uncertainty theory

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Baoding

    2015-01-01

    When no samples are available to estimate a probability distribution, we have to invite some domain experts to evaluate the belief degree that each event will happen. Perhaps some people think that the belief degree should be modeled by subjective probability or fuzzy set theory. However, it is usually inappropriate because both of them may lead to counterintuitive results in this case. In order to rationally deal with belief degrees, uncertainty theory was founded in 2007 and subsequently studied by many researchers. Nowadays, uncertainty theory has become a branch of axiomatic mathematics for modeling belief degrees. This is an introductory textbook on uncertainty theory, uncertain programming, uncertain statistics, uncertain risk analysis, uncertain reliability analysis, uncertain set, uncertain logic, uncertain inference, uncertain process, uncertain calculus, and uncertain differential equation. This textbook also shows applications of uncertainty theory to scheduling, logistics, networks, data mining, c...

  12. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......, evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...

  13. The stress characteristics of plate-fin structures at the different operation parameters of LNG heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hongqiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the stresses of plate-fin structures at the different operation parameters were analyzed in actual operation process of LNG plate-fin heat exchanger based on finite element method and thermal elastic theory. Stress characteristics of plate-fin structures were investigated at the different operation parameters of that. The results show that the structural failure of plate-fin structures is mainly induced by the maximum shear stress at the brazing filler metal layer between plate and fin while by the maximum normal stress in the region of brazed joint near the fin side. And a crack would initiate in brazed joint near the fin side. The maximum normal stress is also main factor to result in the structural failure of plate-fin structures at the different temperature difference (between Natural Gas (NG and Mixture Refrigerant (MR, MR temperature and NG pressure of LNG heat exchanger. At the same time, the peak stresses obviously increase as the temperature difference, MR temperature and NG pressure increase. These results will provide some constructive instructions in the safe operation of LNG plate-fin heat exchanger in a large-scale LNG cold-box.

  14. A 2D Daubechies finite wavelet domain method for transient wave response analysis in shear deformable laminated composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, C. V.; Theodosiou, T. C.; Rekatsinas, C. S.; Saravanos, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    An efficient numerical method is developed for the simulation of dynamic response and the prediction of the wave propagation in composite plate structures. The method is termed finite wavelet domain method and takes advantage of the outstanding properties of compactly supported 2D Daubechies wavelet scaling functions for the spatial interpolation of displacements in a finite domain of a plate structure. The development of the 2D wavelet element, based on the first order shear deformation laminated plate theory is described and equivalent stiffness, mass matrices and force vectors are calculated and synthesized in the wavelet domain. The transient response is predicted using the explicit central difference time integration scheme. Numerical results for the simulation of wave propagation in isotropic, quasi-isotropic and cross-ply laminated plates are presented and demonstrate the high spatial convergence and problem size reduction obtained by the present method.

  15. Ground cross-modal impedance as a tool for analyzing ground/plate interaction and ground wave propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, L; Laulagnet, B

    2015-05-01

    An analytical approach is investigated to model ground-plate interaction based on modal decomposition and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. A finite rectangular plate subjected to flexural vibration is coupled with the ground and modeled with the Kirchhoff hypothesis. A Navier equation represents the stratified ground, assumed infinite in the x- and y-directions and free at the top surface. To obtain an analytical solution, modal decomposition is applied to the structure and a Fourier Transform is applied to the ground. The result is a new tool for analyzing ground-plate interaction to resolve this problem: ground cross-modal impedance. It allows quantifying the added-stiffness, added-mass, and added-damping from the ground to the structure. Similarity with the parallel acoustic problem is highlighted. A comparison between the theory and the experiment shows good matching. Finally, specific cases are investigated, notably the influence of layer depth on plate vibration.

  16. Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Plates with One or More Guided Edges via Bicubic B-Spline Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Si

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and accurate method is proposed for the vibration analysis of rectangular plates with one or more guided edges, in which bicubic B-spline interpolation in combination with a new type of basis cubic B-spline functions is used to approximate the plate deflection. This type of basis cubic B-spline functions can satisfy simply supported, clamped, free, and guided edge conditions with easy numerical manipulation. The frequency characteristic equation is formulated based on classical thin plate theory by performing Hamilton's principle. The present solutions are verified with the analytical ones. Fast convergence, high accuracy and computational efficiency have been demonstrated from the comparisons. Frequency parameters for 13 cases of rectangular plates with at least one guided edge, which are possible by approximate or numerical methods only, are presented. These results are new in literature.

  17. Performance analysis of smart laminated composite plate integrated with distributed AFC material undergoing geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, J.; Ashok, M. H.; Khadakbhavi, Vishwanath; Pujari, Sanjay; Nandurkar, Santosh

    2018-02-01

    The present work focuses on geometrically nonlinear transient analysis of laminated smart composite plates integrated with the patches of Active fiber composites (AFC) using Active constrained layer damping (ACLD) as the distributed actuators. The analysis has been carried out using generalised energy based finite element model. The coupled electromechanical finite element model is derived using Von Karman type nonlinear strain displacement relations and a first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). Eight-node iso-parametric serendipity elements are used for discretization of the overall plate integrated with AFC patch material. The viscoelastic constrained layer is modelled using GHM method. The numerical results shows the improvement in the active damping characteristics of the laminated composite plates over the passive damping for suppressing the geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations of laminated composite plates with AFC as patch material.

  18. Comparison of Thermal Performances between Low Porosity Perforate Plate and Flat Plate Solar Air Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hoy-Yen; Vinson, A. A.; Baljit, S. S. S.; Ruslan, M. H.

    2018-04-01

    Flat plate solar air collector is the most common collector design, which is relatively simpler to fabricate and lower cost. In the present study, perforated plate solar collector was developed to improve the system thermal performance. A glazed perforated plate of 6mm holes diameter with square geometry was designed and installed as the absorber of the collector. The influences of solar radiation intensity and mass flow rate on the thermal performance were investigated. The perforated collector was compared with the flat plate solar collector under the same operating conditions. The highest values of thermal efficiency in this study for the perforated plate (PP) and the flat plate (FP) solar collectors were 59% and 36% respectively, at solar radiation intensity of 846 Wm-2 and mass flow rate of 0.02 kgs-1. Furthermore, PP collector gave better thermal performance compared to FP collector; and compared to previous studies, the present perforated design was compatible with the flat plate with double pass designs.

  19. Wireless power transfer in the presence of metallic plates: Experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate efficient wireless power transfer between two high Q resonators, especially in a complex electromagnetic environment. In the close proximity of metallic plates, the transfer efficiency stays roughly the same as the free space efficiency with proper designs. The experimental data fits well with a coupled theory model. Resonance frequency matching, alignment of the magnetic field, and impedance matching are shown to be the most important factors for efficient wireless power transfer.

  20. Prandtl boundary layer expansions of steady Navier-Stokes flows over a moving plate

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yan; Nguyen, Toan T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the validity of the Prandtl boundary layer theory in the inviscid limit for steady incompressible Navier-Stokes flows. The stationary flows, with small viscosity, are considered on $[0,L]\\times \\mathbb{R}_{+}$, assuming a no-slip boundary condition over a moving plate at $y=0$. We establish the validity of the Prandtl boundary layer expansion and its error estimates.

  1. Coherence and polarization speckle generated by a rough-surfaced retardation plate depolarizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Takeda, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    of position introducing random phase differences between the two orthogonal components of the electric vector. Under the assumption of Gaussian statistics with zero mean, the surface model for the depolarizer of the rough-surfaced retardation plate is obtained. The propagation of the modulated fields through...... any quadratic optical system is examined within the framework of the complex ABCD matrix theory to show how the degree of coherence and polarization of the beam changes on propagation, including propagation in free space...

  2. Crane Scheduling on a Plate Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    OSS produces the worlds largest container ships. The first process of producing the steel ships is handling arrival and storage of steel plates until they are needed in production. Two gantry cranes carry out this task. The planning task is now to create a schedule of movements for the 2 cranes...

  3. Analysis of Biaxially Stressed Bridge Deck Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, Tommi Højer

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate state analysis of bridge deck plates at the intersection zone between main girders and transverse beams is complicated by biaxial membrane stresses, which may be in compression or tension in either direction depending on the bridge configuration and the specific location. This paper...

  4. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  5. Micro-channel plates and vacuum detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gys, T., E-mail: Thierry.Gys@cern.ch

    2015-07-01

    A micro-channel plate is an array of miniature electron multipliers that are each acting as a continuous dynode chain. The compact channel structure results in high spatial and time resolutions and robustness to magnetic fields. Micro-channel plates have been originally developed for night vision applications and integrated as an amplification element in image intensifiers. These devices show single-photon sensitivity with very low noise and have been used as such for scintillating fiber tracker readout in high-energy physics experiments. Given their very short transit time spread, micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes are also being used in time-of-flight and particle identification detectors. The present paper will cover the history of the micro-channel plate development, basic features, and some of their applications. Emphasis will be put on various new manufacturing processes that have been developed over the last few years, and that result in a significant improvement in terms of efficiency, noise, and lifetime performance.

  6. Light fireproof insulating plate-formed material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plum, B.A.; Juhl, L.F.

    1981-02-23

    Light fireproof insulating plates were produced by pressure processing of a mixture of rice-husk ashes with pearlite aluminium phosphate and glass wool. The corn size of pearlite is 0-5 mm., of rice-husk ashes 0-5 mm. and the fiber length of fibrous additive is about 25 mm.

  7. Baking process of thin plate carbonaceous compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimada, Toyokazu

    1987-06-27

    As a production process of a thin plate carbonaceous compact for separator of phosphoric acid fuel cell, there is a process to knead carbonaceous powder and thermosetting resin solution, to form and harden the kneaded material and then to bake, carbonize and graphitize it. However in this baking and carbonization treatment, many thin plate compacts are set in a compiled manner within a heating furnace and receive a heat treatment from their circumference. Since the above compacts to be heated tend generally to be heated from their peripheries, their baked conditions are not homogeneous easily causing the formation of cracks, etc.. As a process to heat and bake homogeneously by removing the above problematical points, this invention offers a process to set in a heating furnace a laminate consisting of the lamination of thin plate carbonaceous compacts and the heat resistant soaking plates which hold the upper and lower ends of the above lamination, to fill the upper and under peripheries of the laminate above with high heat conductive packing material and its side periphery with low heat conductive packing material respectively and to heat and sinter it. In addition, the invention specifies the high and low heat conductive packing materials respectively. (1 fig, 2 tabs)

  8. Fatigue accumulation in an oscillating plate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eleuteri, M.; Kopfová, J.; Krejčí, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2013), s. 909-923 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/2315 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : elastoplastic plate * Prandtl-Ishlinskii operator * material fatigue Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=8092

  9. Advances and Trends in Plate Buckling Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Hydrostatic State of In- Plane Stress. Instituto de Mecanica Aplicada No. 79-21 (Puerto Belgrano, Argentina), June 1979, 10 pp. (to be published). 38. Leissa...and Elastic Stability of Circular Plates With Thickness Varying in a Bilinear Fashion. Instituto de Mecanica Aplicada No. 81-23 (Puerto Belgrano

  10. MTR fuel plate qualification in OSIRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacristan, P.; Boulcourt, P.; Naury, S.; Marchard, L.; Carcreff, H.; Noirot, J.

    2005-01-01

    Qualification of new MTR fuel needs the irradiation in research reactors under representative neutronic, heat flux and thermohydraulic conditions. The experiments are performed in France in the OSIRIS reactor by irradiating MTR full size fuel plates in the IRIS device located in the reactor core. The fuel plates are easily removed from the device during the shutdown of the reactor for performing thickness measurements along the plates by means of a swelling measurement device. Beside the calculation capabilities, the experimental platform includes: the ISIS neutron mock-up for the measurement of neutron flux distribution along the plates; the γ spectrometry for the purpose of measuring the activities of the radionuclides representative of the power and the burnup and to compare with the neutronic calculation. Owing to the experience feedback, a good agreement is observed between calculation and measurement; destructive post irradiation examinations in the LECA facility (Cadarache). New irradiations with the IRIS device and at higher heat flux are under preparation for qualification of MTR fuels. (author)

  11. Photon counting with small pore microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martindale, A.; Lapington, J.S.; Fraser, G.W.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the operation of microchannel plates (MCPs) with 3.2μm diameter channels as photon counting detectors of soft X-rays. Gain and temporal resolution measurements are compared with theoretical scaling laws for channel diameter. A minimum pulse width of 264ps is observed for a two stage multiplier at a total bias voltage of ∼1930V

  12. BEPLATE emdash simulation of electrochemical plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, G.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA)); Gray, L.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Bullock, J.S. IV (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (USA))

    1990-09-01

    BEPLATE is a FORTRAN code that uses the boundary element method to simulate the electrochemical plating of material on parts, primarily rotating axisymmetric parts. A boundary element technique is used to solve for the local current density and thus the plating rate on the part, which is used to calculate the growth in the plated layer over a user-specified time step. The surface is moved to reflect this growth, and the new surface is used to generate the local current density. This cycle is repeated until the final time specified by the analyst, producing the final plated thickness. BEPLATE includes models for the polarization effects at both the part (cathode) and anode and allows the use of symmetry planes and nonconducting shields. For electroplating simulations, the part shape is normally assumed to be axisymmetric with a centerline along the z-axis. More general part shapes can be analyzed by BEPLATE if the surface growth simulation is not needed. In either case, the shield, anode, and tank geometries are not restricted to specific shapes. This report includes the information required to run BEPLATE, specifically, a brief description of the BEPLATE system including hardware and software requirements, a description of the complete simulation process, discussion of rules for generating models, and additional reference material. This system of codes consists of model generators (PIGS or PATRAN), input processor (BEPIN), the simulation code (BEPLATE) and postprocessing codes (PATRAN or CONPLOT).

  13. Fabrication procedures for HFIR control plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, G.A.; Hicks, G.R.; Knight, R.W.

    1984-10-01

    The HFIR control system uses Alclad cylindrically shaped components, which have regions containing 31 vol % Eu/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and 38 vol % Ta, respectively. Exacting control of the water passage between these components and adjacent reactor parts is mandatory, and precise dimensional control of the finished products is required. This report describes the procedures developed for manufacturing outer control plates and inner control cylinders. Results are cited which demonstrate that circular-shaped outer control plates can be produced with less than 0.025-in. variation from the specified 9.300-in. radius in any region of the plate. Other results show that, by the exercise of careful control, inner control, inner control plates can be welded into cylindrical geometry with diametrical variations held to less than +- 0.010 in. of the intended 17.846-in. average diam. The cylinders can then be explosively sized, while under compression, with diametric variations of less than 0.005 in. while controlling roundness variations to less than 0.030 in. from the specified 17.842-in. finished diam.

  14. Pretinning Nickel-Plated Wire Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-plated copper shielding for wires pretinned for subsequent soldering with help of activated rosin flux. Shield cut at point 0.25 to 0.375 in. (6 to 10 mm) from cut end of outer jacket. Loosened end of shield straightened and pulled toward cut end. Insulation of inner wires kept intact during pretinning.

  15. Scour Protection for Monopile by Concrete Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Skúlason, Magnús

    A test programme has been performed to determine the scour around a monopile for an offshore wind turbine. The foundation is protected against scour with a concrete plate with various designs. The tests should be regarded as pilot tests previous to a detailed investigation. The tests has been...

  16. Extended plate and beam demonstration home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Gunderson; Vladimir Kochkin; Xiping Wang

    2018-01-01

    An extended plate and beam (EP&B) design was developed at Home Innovation Research Labs (Upper Marlboro, Maryland) in an effort to provide traditional light-frame wall construction details that are compatible with continuous insulating sheathing. This would encourage wide-spread adoption of high-R walls and promote greater energy efficiency in new houses. The...

  17. A finite element for plates and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, A.; Feijoo, R.A.; Bevilacqua, L.

    1981-08-01

    A simple triangular finite element for plates and shells, is presented. Since the rotation fields are assumed independent of the displacement fields, the element allows one to solve thick shells problems. In the limit for thin shell, the Kirchoff-Love hypothesis is automatically satisfied, thus enlarging its range of application. (Author) [pt

  18. Fabrication procedures for HFIR control plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, G.A.; Hicks, G.R.; Knight, R.W.

    1984-10-01

    The HFIR control system uses Alclad cylindrically shaped components, which have regions containing 31 vol % Eu 2 O 3 and 38 vol % Ta, respectively. Exacting control of the water passage between these components and adjacent reactor parts is mandatory, and precise dimensional control of the finished products is required. This report describes the procedures developed for manufacturing outer control plates and inner control cylinders. Results are cited which demonstrate that circular-shaped outer control plates can be produced with less than 0.025-in. variation from the specified 9.300-in. radius in any region of the plate. Other results show that, by the exercise of careful control, inner control, inner control plates can be welded into cylindrical geometry with diametrical variations held to less than +- 0.010 in. of the intended 17.846-in. average diam. The cylinders can then be explosively sized, while under compression, with diametric variations of less than 0.005 in. while controlling roundness variations to less than 0.030 in. from the specified 17.842-in. finished diam

  19. Characterisation of a Zn / Ni Plating Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-03

    accelerated corrosion in the first stages which is then slowed down by its own product of corrosion, Zn(OH)212. Zinc hydroxide dehydrates in time to form ZnO ... Electrochemistry , 1991, 21, 642 [5] – Alfantasi, A.M., A study on the synthesis, characterization ans properties of pulse-plated ultrafine- grained Zn-Ni alloy

  20. Crustal thickness controlled by plate tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina M.; Meissner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    /gabbro–eclogite phase transition in crustal evolution and the links between lithosphere recycling, mafic magmatism, and crustal underplating. We advocate that plate tectonics processes, togetherwith basalt/gabbro–eclogite transition, limit crustal thickness worldwide by providing effective mechanisms of crustal...

  1. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  2. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  3. Designing Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Report presents overview of state of art in design techniques for flat-plate solar photovoltaic modules and arrays. Paper discusses design requirements, design analyses, and test methods identified and developed for this technology over past several years in effort to reduce cost and improve utility and reliability for broad spectrum of terrestrial applications.

  4. Shocked plate metal atom oxidation laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Koker, J.G.; Rice, W.W. Jr.; Jensen, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing metal atom oxidation lasing wherein an explosively shocked grooved metal plate produces metal vapor jets directed through an appropriate gaseous oxidizer are described. Reaction of the metal vapor with the oxidizer produces molecular species having a population inversion therein. (U.S.)

  5. Interaction of Vortex Ring with Cutting Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musta, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of a vortex ring impinging on a thin cutting plate was made experimentally using Volumetric 3-component Velocitmetry (v3v) technique. The vortex rings were generated with piston-cylinder vortex ring generator using piston stroke-to-diameter ratios and Re at 2-3 and 1500 - 3000, respectively. The cutting of vortex rings below center line leads to the formation of secondary vortices on each side of the plate which is look like two vortex rings, and a third vortex ring propagates further downstream in the direction of the initial vortex ring, which is previously showed by flow visualization study of Weigand (1993) and called ``trifurcation''. Trifurcation is very sensitive to the initial Reynolds number and the position of the plate with respect to the vortex ring generator pipe. The present work seeks more detailed investigation on the trifurcation using V3V technique. Conditions for the formation of trifurcation is analyzed and compared with Weigand (1993). The formed secondary vortex rings and the propagation of initial vortex ring in the downstream of the plate are analyzed by calculating their circulation, energy and trajectories.

  6. MTR fuel plate qualification capabilities at SCK-CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonen, E.; Jacquet, P.

    2002-01-01

    In order to enhance the capabilities of BR2 in the field of MTR fuel plate testing, a dedicated irradiation device has been designed. In its basic version this device allows the irradiation of 3 fuel plates. The central fuel plate may be replaced by a dummy plate or a plate carrying dosimeters. A first FUTURE device has been built. A benchmark irradiation has been executed with standard BR2 fuel plates in order to qualify this device. Detailed neutronic calculations were performed and the results compared to the results of the post-irradiation examinations of the plates. These comparisons demonstrate the capability to conduct a fuel plate irradiation program under requested and well-known irradiation conditions. Further improvements are presently being designed in order to extend the ranges of heat flux and surface temperature of the fuel plates that can be handled with the FUTURE device. (author)

  7. Light transmission aggregometry using pre-coated microtiter plates and a Victor X5 plate reader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, Pernille Just; Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, Camilla Brødsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Background Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) can be performed with microtiter plates (96-well LTA). When conducting LTA, an agonist is added to platelet-rich plasma and the sample is shaken for minutes after which absorbance readings are done. Platelet aggregation is detected as decrease...... in absorbance. However, the classical method is cumbersome and therefore microtiter plates can be used for concomitant testing of multiple samples. Furthermore, it would be convenient to prepare the plate in advance of platelet aggregation testing. Aim: The aim of the present study was to establish a simplified...

  8. Gain stabilized microchannel plates and a treatment method for microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Microchannel plates having increased gain and significantly improved aging characteristics are provided by forming a thin film of a cesium compound on the channel walls. In an exemplary embodiment, a suface film of cesium hydroxide is applied to the interior wall surfaces of an MCP by saturating the plate with a solution of the compound, then allowing the solvent to evaporate. The cesium hydroxide residue on the walls subsequently is converted to cesium oxide by a high temperature bake. Microchannel plates are used in image amplifiers, radiation detectors and such like equipment. (Auth.)

  9. DESI focal plate mechanical integration and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A. R.; Besuner, R. W.; Claybaugh, T. M.; Silber, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique[1]. The spectra of 40 million galaxies over 14000 sq. deg will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. This paper describes the mechanical integration of the DESI focal plate and the thermal system design. The DESI focal plate is comprised of ten identical petal assemblies. Each petal contains 500 robotic fiber positioners. Each petal is a complete, self-contained unit, independent from the others, with integrated power supply, controllers, fiber routing, and cooling services. The major advantages of this scheme are: (1) supports installation and removal of complete petal assemblies in-situ, without disturbing the others, (2) component production, assembly stations, and test procedures are repeated and parallelizable, (3) a complete, full-scale prototype can be built and tested at an early date, (4) each production petal can be surveyed and tested as a complete unit, prior to integration, from the fiber tip at the focal surface to the fiber slit at the spectrograph. The ten petal assemblies will be installed in a single integration ring, which is mounted to the DESI corrector. The aluminum integration ring attaches to the steel corrector barrel via a flexured steel adapter, isolating the focal plate from differential thermal expansions. The plate scale will be kept stable by conductive cooling of the petal assembly. The guider and wavefront sensors (one per petal) will be convectively cooled by forced flow of air. Heat will be removed from the system at ten liquid-cooled cold plates, one per petal, operating at ambient temperature. The entire focal plate structure is enclosed in an insulating shroud, which serves as a thermal barrier

  10. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  11. Risk theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidli, Hanspeter

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview of classical actuarial techniques, including material that is not readily accessible elsewhere such as the Ammeter risk model and the Markov-modulated risk model. Other topics covered include utility theory, credibility theory, claims reserving and ruin theory. The author treats both theoretical and practical aspects and also discusses links to Solvency II. Written by one of the leading experts in the field, these lecture notes serve as a valuable introduction to some of the most frequently used methods in non-life insurance. They will be of particular interest to graduate students, researchers and practitioners in insurance, finance and risk management.

  12. Mapping Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley

    This paper came about within the context of a 13-month research project, Focus Area 1 - Method and Theory, at the Center for Public Space Research at the Royal Academy of the Arts School of Architecture in Copenhagen, Denmark. This project has been funded by RealDania. The goals of the research...... project, Focus Area 1 - Method and Theory, which forms the framework for this working paper, are: * To provide a basis from which to discuss the concept of public space in a contemporary architectural and urban context - specifically relating to theory and method * To broaden the discussion of the concept...

  13. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  14. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... ante (“hidden characteristics”) as well as ex post information asymmetry (“hidden action”), and examines conditions under which various kinds of incentive instruments and monitoring arrangements can be deployed to minimize the welfare loss. Its clear predictions and broad applicability have allowed...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

  15. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting, and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... ante (‘hidden characteristics’) as well as ex post information asymmetry (‘hidden action’), and examines conditions under which various kinds of incentive instruments and monitoring arrangements can be deployed to minimize the welfare loss. Its clear predictions and broad applicability have allowed...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

  16. Anatomically contoured plates for fixation of rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottlang, Michael; Helzel, Inga; Long, William B; Madey, Steven

    2010-03-01

    : Intraoperative contouring of long bridging plates for stabilization of flail chest injuries is difficult and time consuming. This study implemented for the first time biometric parameters to derive anatomically contoured rib plates. These plates were tested on a range of cadaveric ribs to quantify plate fit and to extract a best-fit plating configuration. : Three left and three right rib plates were designed, which accounted for anatomic parameters required when conforming a plate to the rib surface. The length lP over which each plate could trace the rib surface was evaluated on 109 cadaveric ribs. For each rib level 3-9, the plate design with the highest lP value was extracted to determine a best-fit plating configuration. Furthermore, the characteristic twist of rib surfaces was measured on 49 ribs to determine the surface congruency of anatomic plates with a constant twist. : The tracing length lP of the best-fit plating configuration ranged from 12.5 cm to 14.7 cm for ribs 3-9. The corresponding range for standard plates was 7.1-13.7 cm. The average twist of ribs over 8-cm, 12-cm, and 16-cm segments was 8.3 degrees, 20.6 degrees, and 32.7 degrees, respectively. The constant twist of anatomic rib plates was not significantly different from the average rib twist. : A small set of anatomic rib plates can minimize the need for intraoperative plate contouring for fixation of ribs 3-9. Anatomic rib plates can therefore reduce the time and complexity of flail chest stabilization and facilitate spanning of flail segments with long plates.

  17. African Plate Seismicity and Gravity Field Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhii, B. P.; Nachapkin, N. I.; Milanovsky, Svet

    The analysis of connection plate of earthquakes of the African continent with Bouguer gravity anomalies is carried out. As input dataSs were used the catalog of earthquakes and numeral map of Bouguer gravity field. The catalog contains geographical coor- dinates of epicenters and magnitudes of 8027 earthquakes recorded on continent and adjacent oceanic areas for the period from 1904 to 1988 years. The values of a gravity field preset in knots of a grid with a step 1 grade. For the analysis of plate seismicity from the catalog the parameters of 6408 earthquakes were chosen, which one have taken place in the field of restricted shore line. The earthquakes fixed in a band of a concatenation of continent with the Arabian plate were excluded from the analysis. On the basis of a numeral gravity map for everyone epicenter the value of Bouguer anomaly was calculated. The allocation of epicenters of earthquakes with magnitude M is obtained depending on value of a gravity Bouguer field. The outcomes of a sta- tistical analysis testify that practically all earthquakes are associated with the areas with negative values of Bouguer gravity field. Thus in areas with values of a field -160 mgal to -100 mgal there was 80 % of all earthquakes. It is necessary to note, that the mean value of the field for the African continent is -70 mgal. Obtained result gives us the possibility to make a conclusion about connection of plate earthquakes of Africa predominantly with structural complexes of earth crust with lower density. These out- comes are in the consent with a hypothesis of one of the authors (Ryzhii B.P.) about connection of plate earthquakes hypocenters on the territory of Russia with negative values of a gravity field and heightened silica content in the Earth crust. This work was supported with RFFI grant N 00-05-65067

  18. Creep analysis of fuel plates for the Advanced Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinson, W.F.; Yahr, G.T.

    1994-11-01

    The reactor for the planned Advanced Neutron Source will use closely spaced arrays of fuel plates. The plates are thin and will have a core containing enriched uranium silicide fuel clad in aluminum. The heat load caused by the nuclear reactions within the fuel plates will be removed by flowing high-velocity heavy water through narrow channels between the plates. However, the plates will still be at elevated temperatures while in service, and the potential for excessive plate deformation because of creep must be considered. An analysis to include creep for deformation and stresses because of temperature over a given time span has been performed and is reported herein

  19. Continuity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...

  20. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges, Wilfrid

    1993-01-01

    An up-to-date and integrated introduction to model theory, designed to be used for graduate courses (for students who are familiar with first-order logic), and as a reference for more experienced logicians and mathematicians.