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Sample records for plate loading ratio

  1. Static Response of Functionally Graded Material Plate under Transverse Load for Varying Aspect Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Bhandari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functionally gradient materials (FGM are one of the most widely used materials in various applications because of their adaptability to different situations by changing the material constituents as per the requirement. Nowadays it is very easy to tailor the properties to serve specific purposes in functionally gradient material. Most structural components used in the field of engineering can be classified as beams, plates, or shells for analysis purposes. In the present study the power law, sigmoid law and exponential distribution, is considered for the volume fraction distributions of the functionally graded plates. The work includes parametric studies performed by varying volume fraction distributions and aspect ratio. The FGM plate is subjected to transverse UDL (uniformly distributed load and point load and the response is analysed.

  2. Forces and Moments on Flat Plates of Small Aspect Ratio with Application to PV Wind Loads and Small Wind Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Ortiz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve knowledge of the wind loads on photovoltaic structures mounted on flat roofs at the high angles required in high latitudes, and to study starting flow on low aspect ratio wind turbine blades, a series of wind tunnel tests were undertaken. Thin flat plates of aspect ratios between 0.4 and 9.0 were mounted on a sensitive three-component instantaneous force and moment sensor. The Reynolds numbers varied from 6 × 104 to 2 × 105. Measurements were made for angles of attack between 0° and 90° both in the free stream and in wall proximity with increased turbulence and mean shear. The ratio of drag to lift closely follows the inverse tangent of the angle of incidence for virtually all measurements. This implies that the forces of interest are due largely to the instantaneous pressure distribution around the plate and are not significantly influenced by shear stresses. The instantaneous forces appear most complex for the smaller aspect ratios but the intensity of the normal force fluctuations is between 10% and 20% in the free-steam but can exceed 30% near the wall. As the wind tunnel floor is approached, the lift and drag reduce with increasing aspect ratio, and there is a reduction in the high frequency components of the forces. It is shown that the centre of pressure is closer to the centre of the plates than the quarter-chord position for nearly all cases.

  3. Dynamic buckling of stiffened plates subjected to explosion impact loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Guo, J.; Yao, X. L.; Zhang, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamic buckling characteristics and criteria of a ship's structural stiffened plate subjected to underwater explosion impact loads are investigated in this study. Using the structural deformations observed in the experiments of underwater explosions against a plated grillage model, the mode shapes of the dynamic buckling were obtained. Through the construction of a computational model of stiffened plates subjected to an underwater explosion shock wave, the impact load was theoretically calculated and transformed into a rectangular pulse. According to the different response patterns of stiffened plates under different impact loads, a dynamic buckling criterion for the stiffened plates subjected to an explosion shock wave was proposed. Additionally, the static buckling phenomenon in the stiffened plates was analysed based on the minimum excess principle. In combination with the dynamic buckling criterion, the effects of various stiffening configurations on the dynamic and static buckling loads are discussed. The calculation results show that when the equivalent rectangular pulse is 2-3 times that of the static buckling load, the responses of the stiffened plates under the original shock load and the equivalent rectangular pulse are virtually identical. The impact load amplitude is the primary influencing factor in the dynamic buckling of stiffened plates subjected to underwater explosive impact loads. The stiffened plate aspect ratio has a substantial influence on the dynamic load factor. The analytical method and results are presented, which can be used to design stiffened optimum hull structures to enhance the dynamic load carrying capacity to withstand underwater shock damage.

  4. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates....... The obtained results indicate that the simplified analytical method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding-induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show...

  5. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected...... that the simplified method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show that the procedure has sufficient accuracy for practical...

  6. Plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahbar Ranji Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Corrosion is one of the detrimental phenomena which reduces strength of structures. It is common practice to assume a uniform thickness reduction for general corrosion. Since the actual corroded plate has rough surfaces, to estimate the remaining strength of corroded structures, typically a much higher level of accuracy is required. The main aim of present work is to study plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates with irregular surfaces under tension. Non-linear finite element method by using computer code ANSYS was employed to determine plastic collapse load. By comparing the results with uniform thickness assumption, a reduction factor was proposed. It is found that by uniform thickness assumption, plastic collapse load of corroded plates are overestimated.

  7. Post-buckling capacity of bi-axially loaded rectangular steel plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, T. H.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a detailed numerical investigation of the post-buckling behaviour of rectangular simply supported steel plates subjected to biaxial in-plane loading are presented. The Steel plates are loaded through forced edge displacements. The effects of initial imperfections, aspect ratio, plate...

  8. Non-linear analytical solutions for laterally loaded sandwich plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Hans Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This work focuses on the response of orthotropic sandwich composite plates with large deflections due to high lateral loads. The results have special application to the design of ship structures. A geometrical nonlinear theory is outlined, on the basis of the classical sandwich plate theory...... of sandwich plates subjected to high lateral loading. (C) 1997 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. Hierarchical models for failure analysis of plates bent by distributed and localized transverse loadings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erasmo CARRERA; Gaetano GIUNTA

    2008-01-01

    The failure analysis of simply supported, isotropic, square plates is addressed. Attention focuses on minimum failure load amplitudes and failure locations, von Mises' equivalent stress along the plate thickness is also addressed. Several distributed and localized loading conditions are considered. Loads act on the top of the plate. Bi-sinusoidal and uniform loads are taken into account for distributed loadings, while stepwise constant centric and off-centric loadings are addressed in the case of localized loadings. Analysis is performed considering plates whose length-to-thickness ratio a/h can be as high as 100 (thin plates) and as low as 2 (very thick plates). Results are obtained via several 2D plate models. Classical theories (CTs) and higher order models are applied. Those theories are based on polynomial approximation of the displacement field. Among the higher order theories (HOTs), HOTsd models account for the transverse shear deformations, while HOTs models account for both transverse shear and transverse normal deformations. LHOTs represent a local application of the higher order theories. A layerwise approach is thus assumed: by means of mathematical interfaces, the plate is considered to be made of several fictitious layers. The exact 3D solution is presented in order to determine the accuracy of the results obtained via the 2D models. In this way a hierarchy among the 2D theories is established. CTs provide highly accurate results for a/h greater than 10 in the case of distributed loadings and greater than 20 for localized Ioadings. Results obtained via HOTs are highly accurate in the case of very thick plates for bi-sinusoidal and centric loadings. In the case of uniform and off-centric loadings a high gradient is present in the neighborhood of the plate top. In those cases, LHOTs yield results that match the exact solution.

  10. NONLINEAR VIBRATION OF CIRCULAR SANDWICH PLATES UNDER CIRCUMJACENT LOAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Guo-jun; MA Jian-qing

    2006-01-01

    Based on yon Karman plate theory, the issue about nonlinear vibration for circular sandwich plates under circumjacent load with the loosely clamped boundary condition was researched. Nonlinear differential eigenvalue equations and boundary conditions of the problem were formulated by variational method and then their exact static solution can be got. The solution was derived by modified iteration method, so the anslytic relations between amplitude and nonlinear oscillating frequency for circular sandwich plates were obtained. When circumjacent load makes the lowest natural frequency zero,critical load is obtained.

  11. Dynamics of Shells and Fluid-Loaded Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhang

    This thesis is composed of two parts. The first part is concerned with wave propagation on elastic structures in vacuum. An asymptotic approximation is obtained for the dispersion relation of flexural waves propagating in an infinite, flat plate, with material and/or geometric properties periodic in one direction. A matrix approach is proposed to investigate waves in circular cylindrical thin shells joined with circular plates. Both the general propagator matrix and S-matrix formalisms are presented, with emphasis on the latter. The second part is devoted to structures with ambient fluid loading. The Green's function for a fluid-loaded plate under line loading is expressed as a sum of five fluid-loaded plate waves and an acoustic wave with magnitude given by an infinite integral, similar to a branch cut integral. A scattering matrix approach is presented to solve wave propagation problems on fluid-loaded plates with attached ribs. The low frequency asymptotic dispersion relation for a fluid-loaded plate with infinite number of equally spaced identical ribs is derived, from which an equation of motion for the plate is inferred which is valid also at low frequencies.

  12. The ultimate strength of doubler plate reinforced Y-joints under compression loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENQ Qi; TAN Jia-hua

    2005-01-01

    It is common practice in the offshore industry to solve the punching shear problem due to compression by using doubler plate. The finite-element method is a useful tool for studying this problem. The aim of this paper is to study the static strength of doubler plate reinforced Y-joints subjected to compression loading. The finite-element method is adopted in numerical parametric studies. The individual influences of the geometric parameters βand τd (doubler plate to chord wall thickness ratio) and ld/d1(dubler plate length to brace diameter ratio) on the ultimate strength are made clear. The results show the size of plate may have important effects on the strength of reinforced joints. It is found that the ultimate strength of Y-joints reinforced with appropriately proportioned doubler plates can be greatly improved nearly up tothree times to un-reinforced Y-joints.

  13. Plate Tearing Under Mixed Mode Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus Grau; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Felter, Christian Lotz

    2016-01-01

    Cohesive-zone finite element modeling is often the technique of choice when dealing with extensive crack growth in large-scale ductile sheet metal structures. Shell elements with in-plane dimensions much larger than the plate thickness are typically employed to discretize the structure, and thus...

  14. Buckling of laminated composite plates subjected to mechanical and thermal loads using meshless collocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sandeep; Shukla, K. K. [Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India); Shingh, Jeeoot [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology Mesra, Ranchi (India)

    2013-02-15

    Meshless collocations utilizing Gaussian and Multi quadric radial basis functions for the stability analysis of orthotropic and cross ply laminated composite plates subjected to thermal and mechanical loading are presented. The governing differential equations of plate are based on higher order shear deformation theory considering two different transverse shear stress functions. The plate governing differential equations are discretized using radial basis functions to cast a set of simultaneous equations. The convergence of both radial basis functions is studied for different values of shape parameters. Several numerical examples are undertaken to demonstrate the accuracy of present method and the effects of orthotropy ratio of the material, span to thickness ratio of the plate, and fiber orientation on critical load/temperature are also presented.

  15. Influence of plate-bone contact on cyclically loaded conically coupled locking plate failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotne, Randi; Bertollo, Nicky; Walsh, William; Dhand, Navneet K; Voss, Katja; Johnson, Kenneth A

    2014-03-01

    The maintenance of friction between locking plates and bone is not essential, so that they can be applied with a gap between the plate and underlying bone. We hypothesised that the presence of a gap under a locking plate with a conical coupling mechanism would reduce fixation stability or allow uncoupling of the locking screws from the plate. Locking plates with two conically coupled locking screws were applied to 6 pairs of adult canine femora. One of each pair had plate to bone contact and the contralateral construct had a 2 mm plate to bone gap. Constructs were cyclically loaded in cantilever bending with 10 percent incremental increases every 1000 cycles at 2 Hz, starting at 250 N. The constructs were fatigued to failure. To evaluate fatigue life of the conical coupling, testing was repeated with aluminium tubing replacing the bone, to eliminate screw-bone cutout failure. The mean sustained loads and cycles to failure in the contact group (420.80, standard error [SE] 14.97 N; 7612.00, SE 574.70 cycles) were significantly greater than in the gap group (337.50, SE 14.97 N; 4252.00, SE 574.70 cycles), (pplate fatigue and breaking, with one construct having elevation of the plate over the screw head. Elevation of locking plates with a conical coupling system by 2 mm from the bone reduced construct fatigue life but did not result in screw head uncoupling from the plate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental investigation of thermal loading of a horizontal thin plate using infrared camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y. Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the results of experimental investigations of the characteristics of thermal loading of a thin plate by discrete radiative heat sources. The carbon–steel thin plate is horizontally located above the heat sources. Temperature distribution of the plate is measured using an infrared camera. The effects of various parameters, such as the Rayleigh number, from 107 to 1011, the aspect ratio, from 0.05 to 0.2, the distance ratio, from 0.05 to 0.2, the number of heaters, from 1 to 24, the thickness ratio, from 0.003 to 0.005, and the thermal radiative emissivity, from 0.567 to 0.889 on the maximum temperature and the length of uniform temperature region on a thin plate are explored. The results indicate that the most effective parameters on the order of impact on the maximum temperature is Rayleigh number, the number of heat sources, the distance ratio, the aspect ratio, the surface emissivity, and the plate thickness ratio. Finally, the results demonstrated that there is an optimal distance ratio to maximize the region of uniform temperature on the plate.

  17. Axisymmetric Natural Frequencies of Statically Loaded Annular Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eihab M. Abdel-Rahman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical procedure to solve the axisymmetric vibration problem of statically loaded annular plates. We use the von Kármán nonlinear plate model to account for large deformations and study the effect of static deflections on the natural frequencies and mode shapes for six combinations of boundary conditions. The shooting method is used to solve the resulting eigenvalue problem. Our results show that static deformations have a significant effect on the natural frequencies and small effect on the mode shapes of the plate. Further, the results show that the presence of in-plane stresses has a significant effect on the natural frequencies.

  18. Dynamic response of clamped corrugated sandwich plates subjected to underwater impulsive loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Nan; Li, Dacheng

    2017-01-01

    Corrugated sandwich plates are widely used in marine industry because such plates have high strength-to-weight ratios and blast resistance. The laboratory-scaled fluid-structure interaction experiments are performed to demonstrate the shock resistance of corrugated sandwich plates by quantifying the permanent transverse deflection at mid-span of the plates as a function of impulsive loadings per areal mass. Sandwich structures with 6mm-thick 3003 H18 aluminum corrugated core and 5A06 face sheets subjected to underwater impulsive loadings are studied experimentally in this paper. The dynamic deformations of plates are captured with the the 3D digital imaging correlation method (DIC). The results affirm the peak deflection during the processes of dynamic deformation and the residual maximum deflection for post-mortem plates show a linear trend with the impulses per areal mass, and show sensitivity to the change of impulses. Inhomogeneous deformation for corrugated sandwich plates are show uneven rather than the perfect parabolic shapes reported in previous studies. With the increasing of intensities for impulsive loadings, the failure modes can be observed more complicated from the initial plastic deformation to debonding and crack. This paper provides valid data to quantify the peak deflection, residual deflection and failure modes as functions of impulses and geometric parameters in the future work.

  19. Behaviour of plated structures subjected to blast loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Vegard; Børvik, Tore; Langseth, Magnus

    2015-09-01

    An experimental investigation using a new shock tube facility to study blast-load effects on thin aluminium plates is presented. The shock tube is designed to expose materials and structures to extreme loading conditions, such as accidental explosions or terrorist attacks. The intensity of the loading in the present study was determined by the initial conditions of the compressed gas, i.e. volume and pressure, and the resulting loading on the target plate was compared to experimental data from explosive detonations found in the literature. The square plates were manufactured from a low-strength aluminium alloy and had an exposed area of 0.3 × 0.3 m2. Piezoelectric pressure sensors were used for pressure recordings and synchronized with two high-speed cameras operating at a frame rate of 21,000 fps in a stereoscopic setup to capture the dynamic response using a three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) technique. The experiment showed that the shock tube is capable of recreating a loading similar to that of an unconfined far-field airblast, and worked as an easily controllable alternative to explosive detonations when studying the dynamic response of structures subjected to blast loading.

  20. Buckling of Flat Thin Plates under Combined Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion DIMA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a quick methodology to determine the critical values of the forces applied to the central plane of a flat isotropic plate at which a change to the stable configuration of equilibrium occurs. Considering the variety of shapes, boundary conditions and loading combinations, the article does not intend to make an exhaustive presentation of the plate buckling. As an alternative, there will be presented only the most used configurations such as: rectangular flat thin plates, boundary conditions with simply supported (hinged or clamped (fixed edges, combined loadings with single compression or single shear or combination between them, compression and shear, with or without transverse loading, encountered at wings and control surfaces shell of fin and rudder or stabilizer and elevator. The reserve factor and the critical stresses will be calculated using comparatively two methods, namely the methodology proposed by the present article and ASSIST 6.6.2.0 – AIRBUS France software, a dedicated software to local calculations, for a simply supported plate under combined loading, compression on the both sides and shear.

  1. Optimizing rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios in orthotropic decks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Fettahoglu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Orthotropic decks are composed of deck plate, ribs, and cross-beams and are frequently used in industry to span long distances, due to their light structures and load carrying capacities. Trapezoidal ribs are broadly preferred as longitudinal stiffeners in design of orthotropic decks. They supply the required stiffness to the orthotropic deck in traffic direction. Trapezoidal ribs are chosen in industrial applications because of their high torsional and buckling rigidity, less material and welding needs. Rib width, height, spacing, thickness of deck plate are important parameters for designing of orthotropic decks. In the scope of this study, rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios are assessed by means of the stresses developed under different ratios of these parameters. For this purpose a FE-model of orthotropic bridge is generated, which encompasses the entire bridge geometry and conforms to recommendations given in Eurocode 3 Part 2. Afterwards necessary FE-analyses are performed to reveal the stresses developed under different rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios. Based on the results obtained in this study, recommendations regarding these ratios are provided for orthotropic steel decks occupying trapezoidal ribs.

  2. Passively Shunted Piezoelectric Damping of Centrifugally-Loaded Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Min, James B.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center have been investigating shunted piezoelectric circuits as potential damping treatments for turbomachinery rotor blades. This effort seeks to determine the effects of centrifugal loading on passively-shunted piezoelectric - damped plates. Passive shunt circuit parameters are optimized for the plate's third bending mode. Tests are performed both non-spinning and in the Dynamic Spin Facility to verify the analysis, and to determine the effectiveness of the damping under centrifugal loading. Results show that a resistive shunt circuit will reduce resonant vibration for this configuration. However, a tuned shunt circuit will be required to achieve the desired damping level. The analysis and testing address several issues with passive shunt circuit implementation in a rotating system, including piezoelectric material integrity under centrifugal loading, shunt circuit implementation, and tip mode damping.

  3. Buckling analysis of rectangular composite plates with rectangular cutout subjected to linearly varying in-plane loading using fem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Lakshmi Narayana; Krishnamohana Rao; R Vijaya Kumar

    2014-06-01

    A numerical study is carried out using finite element method, to examine the effects of square and rectangular cutout on the buckling behavior of a sixteen ply quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy symmetrically laminated rectangular composite plate $[0^\\circ /+45^\\circ /-45^\\circ /90^\\circ ]_{2s}$, subjected to various linearly varying in-plane compressive loads. Further, this paper addresses the effects of size of square/rectangular cutout, orientation of square/rectangular cutout, plate aspect ratio(a/b), plate length/thickness ratio(a/t), boundary conditions on the buckling bahaviour of symmetrically laminated rectangular composite plates subjected to various linearly varying in-plane compressive loading. It is observed that the various linearly varying in-plane loads and boundary conditions have a substantial influence on buckling strength of rectangular composite plate with square/rectangular cutout.

  4. Effect of contact ratio on spur gear dynamic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Chuen-Huei; Lin, Hsiang Hsi; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    A computer simulation is presented which shows how the gear contact ratio affects the dynamic load on a spur gear transmission. The contact ratio can be affected by the tooth addendum, the pressure angle, the tooth size (diametral pitch), and the center distance. The analysis presented was performed using the NASA gear dynamics code, DANST. In the analysis, the contact ratio was varied over the range 1.20 to 2.40 by changing the length of the tooth addendum. In order to simplify the analysis, other parameters related to contact ratio were held constant. The contact ratio was found to have a significant influence on gear dynamics. Over a wide range of operating speeds, a contact ratio close to 2.0 minimized dynamic load. For low contact ratio gears (contact ratio less than 2.0), increasing the contact ratio reduced the gear dynamic load. For high contact ratio gears (contact ratio = or greater than 2.0), the selection of contact ratio should take into consideration the intended operating speeds. In general, high contact ratio gears minimized dynamic load better than low contact ratio gears.

  5. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields (nonsteady winds)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques to predict the dynamic response and the structural dynamic loads of flat plate photovoltaic arrays due to wind turbulence were analyzed. Guidelines for use in predicting the turbulent portion of the wind loading on future similar arrays are presented. The dynamic response and the loads dynamic magnification factor of the two array configurations are similar. The magnification factors at a mid chord and outer chord location on the array illustrated and at four points on the chord are shown. The wind tunnel test experimental rms pressure coefficient on which magnification factors are based is shown. It is found that the largest response and dynamic magnification factor occur at a mid chord location on an array and near the trailing edge. A technique employing these magnification factors and the wind tunnel test rms fluctuating pressure coefficients to calculate design pressure loads due to wind turbulence is presented.

  6. Bending of a uniformly loaded square plate resting on unilateral edge supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yos Sompornjaroensuk

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to analyze the bending behaviors of unilaterally simply supported square plate subjected to the uniformly distributed load, and to examine the extent of receding contacts between the plate and the unilateral supports. In the present problem the mixed boundary conditions exist along the plate edges, which can be written in the form of dual series equations. These equations are further reduced to determine the solution of inhomogeneous Fredholmintegral equation of the second kind for an unknown auxiliary function by using the finite Hankel integral transform techniques.Numerical results concerning the extent of receding contact, deflection, bending moment, twisting moment, and support reaction of the plate are given and also compared with the results obtained by other available techniques. From investigations, the conclusions can be stated that (i the method used is found to be efficient for solving the problem considered, (ii the extent of contact is independent of the level of loading, but dependent on the values of Poisson’s ratio of the plate, and (iii the support reactions are proportional to the applied load.

  7. Estimating total knee replacement joint load ratios from kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Clare K; Rullkoetter, Paul J

    2014-09-22

    Accurate prediction of loads acting at the joint in total knee replacement (TKR) patients is key to developing experimental or computational simulations which evaluate implant designs under physiological loading conditions. In vivo joint loads have been measured for a small number of telemetric TKR patients, but in order to assess device performance across the entire patient population, a larger patient cohort is necessary. This study investigates the accuracy of predicting joint loads from joint kinematics. Specifically, the objective of the study was to assess the accuracy of internal-external (I-E) and anterior-posterior (A-P) joint load predictions from I-E and A-P motions under a given compressive load, and to evaluate the repeatability of joint load ratios (I-E torque to compressive force (I-E:C), and A-P force to compressive force (A-P:C)) for a range of compressive loading profiles. A tibiofemoral finite element model was developed and used to simulate deep knee bend, chair-rise and step-up activities for five patients. Root-mean-square (RMS) differences in I-E:C and A-P:C load ratios between telemetric measurements and model predictions were less than 1.10e-3 Nm/N and 0.035 N/N for all activities. I-E:C and A-P:C load ratios were consistently reproduced regardless of the compressive force profile applied (RMS differences less than 0.53e-3 Nm/N and 0.010 N/N, respectively). When error in kinematic measurement was introduced to the model, joint load predictions were forgiving to kinematic measurement error when conformity between femoral and tibial components was low. The prevalence of kinematic data, in conjunction with the analysis presented here, facilitates determining the scope of A-P and I-E joint loading ratios experienced by the TKR population.

  8. Modeling of damage evaluation in thin composite plate loaded by pressure loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudinský M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of numerical analysis of elastic damage of thin laminated long fiber-reinforced composite plate consisting of unidirectional layers which is loaded by uniformly distributed pressure. The analysis has been performed by means of the finite element method (FEM. The numerical implementation uses layered plate finite elements based on the Kirchhoff plate theory. System of nonlinear equations has been solved by means of the Newton- Raphson procedure. Evolution of damage has been solved using the return-mapping algorithm based on the continuum damage mechanics (CDM. The analysis was performed using own program created in MATLAB. Problem of laminated fiber-reinforced composite plate fixed on edges for two different materials and three different laminate stacking sequences (LSS was simulated. Evolution of stresses vs. strains and also evolution of damage variables in critical points of the structure are shown.

  9. Cerenkov and cyclotron Cerenkov instabilities in a dielectric loaded parallel plate waveguide sheet electron beam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Ding; Ding Yaogen [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-09-15

    A dielectric loaded parallel plate waveguide sheet electron beam system can be taken as a reliable model for the practical dielectric loaded rectangular waveguide sheet beam system that has a transverse cross section with a large width to height ratio. By using kinetic theory, the dispersion equations for Cerenkov and cyclotron Cerenkov instabilities in the parallel plate waveguide sheet beam system have been obtained rigorously. The dependences of the growth rate of both instabilities on the electric and structural parameters have also been investigated in detail through numerical calculations. It is worthwhile to point out that adopting an electron beam with transverse velocity can evidently improve the growth rate of Cerenkov instability, which seems like the case of cyclotron Cerenkov instability.

  10. Sex-ratio distortion driven by migration loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin-Sheng; Yeh, Francis C; He, Fangliang

    2007-12-01

    The significance of migration load in driving the evolution of recipient populations has long been documented in population genetics, but its effects have not been linked to the formation of biased sex ratios in natural populations. In this study, we develop a single-locus model to demonstrate how the migration load can shape the primary and secondary sex ratios in dioecious plants where sexual dimorphism is determined by the sex chromosomes (the XX-XY or similar systems). Our results show that migration load can generate an array of sex ratios (from the female- to male-biased primary/secondary sex ratios), depending on the selection systems at the gametophyte and sporophyte stages and on the sex ratio in the migrating seeds. Ovule abortion and the purging of maladaptive genes from the immigrating pollen at the gametophyte stage can alter the primary sex ratio and indirectly alter the secondary sex ratio. The presence of maladaptive sex-linked genes from the migrating pollen and seeds of males facilitates the outcome of the female-biased secondary sex ratios, while the presence of maladaptive sex-linked genes from the migrating seeds of females can lead to the male-biased secondary sex ratios. The detrimental effects of the Y-chromosome from the migrating pollen and seeds can enhance the formation of female-biased primary and secondary sex ratios. These theoretical predictions highlight an alternative approach to the existing sex-ratio theories for interpreting the formation of biased sex ratios in the populations that are subject to the impacts of maladaptive genes from immigrants.

  11. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an experimental analysis (boundary layer wind tunnel test) of the aerodynamic forces resulting from winds acting on flat plate photovoltaic arrays are presented. Local pressure coefficient distributions and normal force coefficients on the arrays are shown and compared to theoretical results. Parameters that were varied when determining the aerodynamic forces included tilt angle, array separation, ground clearance, protective wind barriers, and the effect of the wind velocity profile. Recommended design wind forces and pressures are presented, which envelop the test results for winds perpendicular to the array's longitudinal axis. This wind direction produces the maximum wind loads on the arrays except at the array edge where oblique winds produce larger edge pressure loads. The arrays located at the outer boundary of an array field have a protective influence on the interior arrays of the field. A significant decrease of the array wind loads were recorded in the wind tunnel test on array panels located behind a fence and/or interior to the array field compared to the arrays on the boundary and unprotected from the wind. The magnitude of this decrease was the same whether caused by a fence or upwind arrays.

  12. Thermal buckling analysis of annular FGM plate having variable thickness under thermal load of arbitrary distribution by finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghomshei, Mansour Mohieddin; Abbasi, Vahid [Islamic Azad University, Alborz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    In this paper, a finite element formulation is developed for analyzing the axisymmetric thermal buckling of FGM annular plates of variable thickness subjected to thermal loads generally distributed nonuniformly along the plate radial coordinate. The FGM assumed to be isotropic with material properties graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power-law in terms of the plate thickness coordinate, and has symmetry with respect to the plate midplane. At first, the pre-buckling plane elasticity problem is developed and solved using the finite element method, to determine the distribution of the pre-buckling in-plane forces in terms of the temperature rise distribution. Subsequently, based on Kierchhoff plate theory and using the principle of minimum total potential energy, the weak form of the differential equation governing the plate thermal stability is derived, then by employing the finite element method, the stability equations are solved numerically to evaluate the thermal buckling load factor. Convergence and validation of the presented finite element model are investigated by comparing the numerical results with those available in the literature. Parametric studies are carried out to cover the effects of parameters including thickness-to-radius ratio, taper parameter and boundary conditions on the thermal buckling load factor of the plates.

  13. DEM analyses of the whole failure process of shallow foundation in plate load test on dense sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Jiang, M. J.; Li, T.; Chen, S. L.

    2015-09-01

    Shallow foundations are widely used in civil engineering practice, but the instability mechanism is still unclear yet. Previously, the Finite Element Method (FEM) was commonly used to analyze the failure process of shallow foundations, but it meets difficulty in properly simulating the whole failure process of shallow foundation on the strain-softening material. Hence, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) is employed in this paper to study the instability mechanism of the shallow foundation via numerical plate load test with focus on the microscopic features evolution during vertical loading. In the simulation, an amplified gravity was applied to a dense granular ground to reproduce a gravity stress state at a large scale. Then, a plate was put on the granular ground to simulate the plate load test. Deformation pattern, particle velocity and distribution of void ratio in the ground were examined to illustrate the microscopic features in the whole failure process of the granular ground. The results show that: 1) There are a marked peak value and a settlement softening branch in the stress-settlement relationship. 2) The grids close to the edge of the plate are peculiarly extended and twisted. 3) Four particle motion patterns were observed in the velocity fields and the percentage of each motion pattern changes during loading. 4) The void ratio field varies during loading, and the distinguishing interface tends to be similar to Terzaghi's shear failure surface.

  14. Nonlinear vibration and buckling of circular sandwich plate under complex load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The nonlinear vibration fundamental equation of circular sandwich plate under uniformed load and circumjacent load and the loosely clamped boundary condition were established by von Karman plate theory, and then accordingly exact solution of static load and its numerical results were given. Based on time mode hypothesis and the variational method, the control equation of the space mode was derived, and then the amplitude frequency-load character relation of circular sandwich plate was obtained by the modified iteration method. Consequently the rule of the effect of the two kinds of load on the vibration character of the circular sandwich plate was investigated. When circumjacent load makes the lowest natural frequency zero, critical load is obtained.

  15. Nonlinear dynamic buckling of stiffened plates under in-plane impact load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 刘土光; 赵耀; 罗家智

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a simple solution of the dynamic buckling of stiffened plates under in-plane impact loading. Based on large deflection theory, a discretely stiffened plate model has been used. The tangential stresses of stiffeners and in-plane displacement are neglected. Appling the Hamilton's principle, the motion equations of stiffened plates are obtained. The deflection of the plate is taken as Fourier series, and using Galerkin method the discrete equations can be deduced, which can be solved easily by Runge-Kutta method. The dynamic buckling loads of the stiffened plates are obtained form Budiansky-Roth criterion.

  16. DYNAMIC BUCKLING OF STIFFENED PLATES UNDER FLUID-SOLID IMPACT LOAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 刘土光; 熊有伦; 张维衡

    2004-01-01

    A simple solution of the dynamic buckling of stiffened plates under fluid-solid impact loading is presented. Based on large deflection theory, a discretely stiffened plate model has been used. The tangential stresses of stiffeners and in-plane displacement are neglected. Applying the Hamilton' s principle, the motion equations of stiffened plates are obtained. The deflection of the plate is taken as Fourier series, and using Galerkin method,the discrete equations can be deduced, which can be solved easily by Runge-Kutta method.The dynamic buckling loads of the stiffened plates are obtained from Budiansky-Roth ( B-R )curves.

  17. Numerical prediction of the bearing capacity of plate anchors subjected to combined loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To predict the bearing capacity of plate anchors subjected to combined loads, based on the assumption that there is no separation between the plate and soil, the numerical model of the motion and transformation of the plate anchor subjected to combined loads including the normal force, tangential force and bending moment loads in ABAQUS software is set up. The numerical model is proved by comparing the calculated bearing capacity with that of analytical solution. The numerical model is used to calculate the ultimate bearing capacity of the plate anchor subjected to the combined loads including the normal force, the tangential force and bending moment. The results show that murff model is used to preferably fit the ultimate bearing capacity envelope of plate anchors subjected to combined loads.

  18. Experimental study on the stability of plate anchors in clay under cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the bearing capacity of plate anchors in clay has been studied extensively, the results considering the effects of offshore cyclic loading are relatively rare. In the present study, 1 g model tests are carried out to investigate the effect of cyclic loading on the bearing capacity of plate anchors in clay. The ultimate pullout capacity of plate anchors in clay decreases as the accumulated plastic shear strain grows due to the strain-softening of clay under cyclic loading. The load–displacement curves of these tests are presented and the effects of overburden stress and cyclic loading amplitude on the strain-softening behavior are discussed.

  19. Harmonic response of multilayered one-dimensional quasicrystal plates subjected to patch loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waksmanski, Natalie; Pan, Ernian; Yang, Lian-Zhi; Gao, Yang

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic analyses of a multilayered one-dimensional quasicrystal plate subjected to a patch harmonic loading with simply supported lateral boundary conditions are presented. The pseudo-Stroh formulation and propagator matrix method are used to obtain the exact three-dimensional response of the plate. In order to avoid resonance, the frequency of the patch loading is chosen away from the natural frequencies by introducing a small imaginary part. The patch loading is expressed in the form of a double Fourier series expansion. Comprehensive numerical results are shown for a sandwich plate with two different stacking sequences. The results reveal the influence of layering, loading area, phonon-phason coupling coefficient and input frequency. This work is the first step towards understanding quasicrystals under intricate loading conditions such as indentation and impact, and the exact closed-form solution can serve as a reference in convergence studies of other numerical methods and for verification of existing or future plate theories.

  20. Guided waves in a fluid-loaded transversely isotropic plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dispersion relations are obtained for the propagation of symmetric and antisymmetric modes in a free transversely isotropic plate. Dispersion curves are plotted for the first four symmetric modes for a magnesium plate immersed in water. The first mode is highly damped and switches over to the second mode when the normalized frequency exceeds 12.

  1. Stålplader gav dobbelt bæreevne (Steel plates doubled the load bearing capacity)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Broch

    1999-01-01

    Abstract from an examination of motor road bridge beams reinforced with steel plates on the sides and bottom. The plates doubled the load bearing capacity of the beams.......Abstract from an examination of motor road bridge beams reinforced with steel plates on the sides and bottom. The plates doubled the load bearing capacity of the beams....

  2. Determination of elasticity modulus and Poisson ratio of two onion varieties under different loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jafari Malekabadi

    2016-04-01

    before conducting the tests. Onion samples kept at room temperature (21oC. Onions of each cultivar were randomly selected. Diameters of onion were measured with a digital vernier caliper. In each run, eight onions were randomly selected and the loading test and photography were done together and the average values reported. All mechanical tests were performed using a Universal Testing Machine (UTM (Model H5KS, Tinius Olsen Company between two rigid plates. The loading was made with two constant speeds of 15 and 25 mm min-1. Deformation values were 5, 10 and 15 mm. The onions were loaded either axially or laterally until rupture point and photography were done together. The initial and current onion diameters along the y and x axes obtained by using image processing and the strains were calculated. Having axially and laterally strains of the onions, the apparent Poisson's ratio was calculated using equation presented by Figura and Teixeira 2007; Kiani Deh Kiani et al., 2009; Pallottino et al., 2011; Kabas and Ozmerzi 2008; Gladyszewska and Ciupak 2009. A factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with 8 replications was applied. The significant differences of means were compared by using the Duncan’s multiple range test at 5% significant level. SPSS 20.0 software was used for data analysis. Results and Discussion: According to the analysis of variance (Table 2, the effects of speed and displacement of loading was significant in 5% probability levels. In addition, interaction effect varieties × directions × speed along Y, varieties × directions, varieties × speed and directions × speed along X was significant in 1, 1, 5 and 5% probability levels, respectively. The average of the apparent Poisson ratio for Yellow onion was less than that obtained for the Red onion, because Red onions have softer texture than Yellow onions. Apparent Poisson ratio was obtained as 0.2623 to 0.4485 and 0.2423 to 0.4179 for Yellow and Red onions, respectively. With

  3. Comparison of 2-Dimensional and 3-Dimensional Metacarpal Fracture Plating Constructs Under Cyclic Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Eric P; Burns, Geoffrey T; Oak, Nikhil R; Lawton, Jeffrey N

    2017-03-01

    Metacarpal fractures are commonly treated by a variety of means including casting or open reduction internal fixation when unacceptable alignment is present following attempted closed reduction. Dorsal plating with either single-row 2-dimensional or double-row 3-dimensional plates has been proposed. This study's purpose was to determine if there are any differences in fixation construct stability under cyclic loading and subsequent load to failure between the lower profile 3-dimensional and the larger 2-dimensional plates in a metacarpal fracture gap sawbone model. Thirty metacarpal cortico-cancellous synthetic bones were cut with a 1.75-mm gap between the 2 fragments simulating mid-diaphyseal fracture comminution. Half of the metacarpals were plated with 2.0-mm locking 2-dimensional plates and half with 1.5-mm locking 3-dimensional plates. The plated metacarpals were mounted into a materials testing apparatus and cyclically loaded under cantilever bending for 2,000 cycles at 70 N, then 2,000 cycles at 120 N, and finally monotonically loaded to failure. Throughout testing, fracture gap sizes were measured, failure modes were recorded, and construct strength and stiffness values were calculated. All 3-dimensional constructs survived both cyclic loading conditions. Ten (67%) 2-dimensional constructs survived both loading conditions, whereas 5 (33%) failed the 120-N loading at 1377 ± 363 cycles. When loaded to failure, the 3-dimensional constructs failed at 265 N ± 21 N, whereas the 2-dimensional constructs surviving cyclic loading failed at 190 N ± 17 N. The shorter, thinner 3-dimensional metacarpal plates demonstrated increased resistance to failure in a cyclic loading model and increased load to failure compared with the relatively longer, thicker 2-dimensional metacarpal plates. The lower-profile 3-dimensional metacarpal plate fixation demonstrated greater stability for early postoperative resistance than the thicker 2-dimensional fixation, whereas the smaller

  4. Thin circular plate uniformaly loaded over a concentric elliptic path and supported on columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Bassali

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the limitations of the classical thin plate theory expressions are obtained for the small deflections of a thin isotropic circular plate uniformly loaded over a concentric ellipse and supported by four columns at the vertices of a rectangle whose sides are parallel to the axes of the ellipse. Formulae are given for the moments and shears at the centre of the plate and on the edge. Limiting cases are investigated.

  5. Analytical solutions of simply supported magnetoelectroelastic circular plate under uniform loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江英; 丁皓江; 侯鹏飞

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the axisymmetric general solutions of transversely isotropic magnetoelectroelastic media are expressed with four harmonic displacement functions at first. Then, based on the solutions, the analytical three-dimensional solutions are provided for a simply supported magnetoelectroelastic circular plate subjected to uniform loads. Finally, the example of circular plate is presented.

  6. Compression Dispersion Efficiency of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Struts At Different Load Concentration Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rakesh Kumar, Dr.P.K Mehta,Devbrat Singh, Anup Kumar Pandey, Sarvesh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure development activities in India have increased many folds in recent times. This has resulted in increase in the demand of construction materials like cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate etc. Huge quantities of concrete wastes are produced due to demolition of old structures. If recycled aggregate from this waste is used for construction purpose, it will not only make the structures economical and eco-friendly butwill also solve the problem of waste disposal.Recycling old waste concrete by crushing and grading into coarse aggregates for use in new structural concrete is drawing the attention of engineers, environmentalists and researchers since last three decades. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the compression dispersion behaviour of struts of natural coarse aggregate (NCA and recycle coarse aggregate (RCA at different load concentration ratio and aspect ratio. For the study, struts of 450 mm height and 75mm thickness with varying widths starting from 75mm to 450mm, using NCA and RCA concrete, were cast. The testing of struts was carriedout on loading frame of capacity 500 kN. The struts were tested to failure under in-plane compressive load applied through symmetrically placed steel plate (75×75×10 mm at top andbottom of the struts.

  7. Dairy cattle sustainability using the emergy methodology: Environmental loading ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Eduardo Bassan Mendes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dairy cattle activity in São Paulo State has been depressed in recent years, evidenced by the reduction of 35.47% of dairy herd between 1996 and 2008 (LUPA and 29.73% in milk production between the census of the IBGE (1995 and 2006. Activity remains in the Agricultural Production Units (UPA that have adopted more intensive systems of milk production, using animals of high genetic potential, management-intensive rotational grazing or agricultural inputs, and with the objective of profit maximization. In face of environmental pressures, the problem is to know the degree of sustainability of milk production. The objective in this work was to analyze the production of milk from a farm in the municipality of Guzolândia, São Paulo State, during the period 2005/2011, using the emergy methodology to assess the sustainability of system, calculated by Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR. The UPA Alto da Araúna is dedicated to dairy cattle adopting the system of milk production semi-intensive type B; it produces on average 650 liters of milk per day with 45 lactating cows, using 30 ha of pasture with supplemental feed and silage. It has sandy soil, classified as latossol red, yellow, ortho phase, with gently rolling slopes. The UPA is administered with business structure, aiming to profit maximization and minimization of environmental impacts, seeking to maintain economically viable activity and preserving the environment. Currently, administrative decisions have the support of operational control that collects and records information necessary to generate animal and agricultural indexes that evaluate the performance of the UPA, in addition to managerial accounting records that generate cash flow information used to evaluate the economic efficiency of the UPA. The Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR=N+F/R is obtained by the ratio of natural non-renewable resources (N plus economic resources (F by total renewable emergy (R. It is an indicator of the

  8. Axisymmetrical Nonlinear Bending and Buckling of a Circular Plate Under Large Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Chaosheng; YUE Yanling

    2005-01-01

    With the terms of the exact series solution taken as trial functions, the method of point collocation was used to calculate the large deflection of a circular plate. The axisymmetrical bending formulae were developed for the calculation of a circular plate subjected to polynomial distributed loads, a concentrated load at the center, uniform radial forces and moments along the edge or their combinations. The support may be elastic. The buckling load was calculated. Under action of uniformly distributed load, central load or their compound load, solutions were compared with those obtained by other methods. Buckling beyond critical thrust was compared with that calculated by the power series method. The method presented in this paper has advantages of wide convergent range, high precision and short computing time. Moreover, the computing time is nearly independent of the complexity of the loads.

  9. Revisiting the Nonlinear Response of a Plate to Acoustic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    measured for all tests. Displacement and velocity were measured at a point near the center of the plate with a Polytec Model PSV-400 Vibrometer. The...second point with a Polytec Model OVF-512 Fiber Optic American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 7 Vibrometer. This point was 2.25 inches

  10. Nonlinear Resonance of the Rotating Circular Plate under Static Loads in Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuda; WANG Tong

    2015-01-01

    The rotating circular plate is widely used in mechanical engineering, meanwhile the plates are often in the electromagnetic field in modern industry with complex loads. In order to study the resonance of a rotating circular plate under static loads in magnetic field, the nonlinear vibration equation about the spinning circular plate is derived according to Hamilton principle. The algebraic expression of the initial deflection and the magneto elastic forced disturbance differential equation are obtained through the application of Galerkin integral method. By mean of modified Multiple scale method, the strongly nonlinear amplitude-frequency response equation in steady state is established. The amplitude frequency characteristic curve and the relationship curve of amplitude changing with the static loads and the excitation force of the plate are obtained according to the numerical calculation. The influence of magnetic induction intensity, the speed of rotation and the static loads on the amplitude and the nonlinear characteristics of the spinning plate are analyzed. The proposed research provides the theory reference for the research of nonlinear resonance of rotating plates in engineering.

  11. Numerical Simulations of Dynamic Behavior of Polyurea Toughened Steel Plates under Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work discussed herein is to develop a nonlinear 3D finite element model to simulate dynamic behavior of polyurea toughened steel plates under impact loading. Experimental and numerical work related to model development are presented. Material properties are incorporated into numerical models to account for strain-rate effects on the dynamic behavior of polyurea and steel. One bare steel plate and four polyurea toughened steel plates were tested under impact loading using a pendulum impact device. Displacement time-history data from experimental work was used to validate the numerical models. Details on material model construction, finite element model development, and model validation are presented and discussed. Results indicate that the developed numerical models can reasonably predict dynamic response of polyurea toughened steel plates under impact loading.

  12. Possible Collapse Mode for Slender Reinforced Concrete Plates Subjected to Blast Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin; DU Xiuli; CHEN Zhen; ZENG Fanna

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the collapse mode of thin reinforced concrete (RC) plates subjected to blast load.To extend the well known plastic-mode method to analyze,not only perfectplastic plates,but also RC plates,it is needed to investigate the effect of material cracking on the collapse mode because the plate might have been cracked on both upper and lower surface before the plastic-mode fully develops,creating an unexpected type of collapse mode shape.A new failure mode is proposed and verified by numerical analysis in this paper.The new mode is a result of the material cracking and has an un-negligible effect on the reaction mechanism of the RC plate to the blast load.

  13. Approximate analysis of rigid plate loading on elastic multi-layered systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maina, JW

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Games software is well known for its capability to compute responses for uniformly distributed load acting on the surface of a multi-layered linear elastic system. In this study a method was developed to approximate rigid plate loading to be used...

  14. Propagation of the transverse normal stress in a thick plate due to distributed lateral impulsive loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oline, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical study of the elastic stresses produced in an infinite plate when struck by a high-speed object is presented. The solution is obtained by means of linear elasticity. Laplace transformation techniques are employed to solve the axisymmetric problem. The plate is loaded normal to its surface with a uniform load over a circular area. The normal stress at the wave front of the unreflected dilatation wave along the axis and its variation with the radius of loading are determined. Various facets of the problem are discussed.

  15. Influence of linear profile modification and loading conditions on the dynamic tooth load and stress of high contact ratio gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chinwai; Lin, Hsiang Hsi; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1990-01-01

    A computer simulation for the dynamic response of high-contact-ratio spur gear transmissions is presented. High contact ratio gears have the potential to produce lower dynamic tooth loads and minimum root stress but they can be sensitive to tooth profile errors. The analysis presented examines various profile modifications under realistic loading conditions. The effect of these modifications on the dynamic load (force) between mating gear teeth and the dynamic root stress is presented. Since the contact stress is dependent on the dynamic load, minimizing dynamic loads will also minimize contact stresses. It is shown that the combination of profile modification and the applied load (torque) carried by a gear system has a significant influence on gear dynamics. The ideal modification at one value of applied load will not be the best solution for a different load. High-contact-ratio gears were found to require less modification than standard low-contact-ratio gears. High-contact-ratio gears are more adversely affected by excess modification than by under modification. In addition, the optimal profile modification required to minimize the dynamic load (hence the contact stress) on a gear tooth differs from the optimal modification required to minimize the dynamic root (bending) stress. Computer simulation can help find the design tradeoffs to determine the best profile modification to satisfy the conflicting constraints of minimizing both the load and root stress in gears which must operate over a range of applied loads.

  16. Effect of plate bending on the Urey ratio and the thermal evolution of the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Geoffrey F.

    2009-10-01

    The bending of tectonic plates as they subduct causes resistance to plate motions and mantle convection. It has been proposed that this effect could keep plate velocities relatively constant with time, and it would imply relatively high mantle temperatures through much of Earth history and relatively rapid cooling at present. It also implies a low Urey ratio, compatible with that inferred from cosmochemistry. Here it is confirmed that bending resistance only plays a significant role if plate thickness is determined mainly by dehydration stiffening accompanying melting, rather than by conductive cooling. Even then the bending resistance is quite sensitive to the radius of curvature of the subducting plate. Observed radii are generally larger than the 200 km assumed in some studies, ranging up to 600 km or more. Furthermore radii of curvature tend to adjust so as to prevent bending resistance from becoming large. When these factors are accounted for, calculations show that bending resistance is unlikely to have been a large factor through Earth history, and the thermal evolution of the mantle is unlikely to have been affected very much. The resolution of the Urey ratio problem should then be sought elsewhere.

  17. A load measuring anchor plate for rock bolt using fiber optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Li, Weijie; Wang, Bo; Song, Gangbing

    2017-05-01

    Rock bolts are the devices that used to reinforce the rock masses in mining tunnels and underground excavation structures. The loading level of the rock bolt indicates the reinforcing efficiency and is able to ensure safe underground operation by giving warnings to the underground miners prior to any accidents. Therefore, it is very important to monitor the load level of the rock bolts. In this short communication, we propose a smart anchor plate, a simple but effective device that uses fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) type optic sensor, to monitor the load level of the rock bolt. Instead of measuring the stress/strain on the rock bolt, which adds more complexity, the proposed method monitors the rock bolt load by measuring the load experience on the rock bolt anchor plate. Such a configuration has the advantages of simple structure and flexible implementation. In experimental observation, the FBG instrumented anchor plate is able to observe the load of the plate with good repeatability. This test will lead to further in-depth studies involving finite element analysis as well as more complex applications.

  18. Dynamic Analysis of the Titanium Alloy Plate under Thermal-acoustic Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypersonic vehicles structures suffer complex combined loadings generally. For the thin-walled structures and thermal protection systems of the aircraft, high temperature and intensity acoustic loadings are the significant factors that leading to their break. The object of this paper is typical simply supported titanium alloy plate, the finite element method was adopted to calculate the critical thermal buckling temperature the ordinal coupling method and Newmark method were adopted to calculate the thermal-acoustic dynamic response. Based on the FEM analysis, the power spectrum densities (PSD of center point was presented. Research results show that the thermal buckling of the typical simply supported titanium alloy plate occurs easily because of the low critical thermal buckling temperature, dynamic response of the thermal buckled plate suffering acoustic loads performs strong nonlinear characteristics and complex forms of exercise.

  19. An Experimental Study of Incremental Surface Loading of an Elastic Plate: Application to Volcano Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K. K.; Zuber, M. T.

    1995-01-01

    Models of surface fractures due to volcanic loading an elastic plate are commonly used to constrain thickness of planetary lithospheres, but discrepancies exist in predictions of the style of initial failure and in the nature of subsequent fracture evolution. In this study, we perform an experiment to determine the mode of initial failure due to the incremental addition of a conical load to the surface of an elastic plate and compare the location of initial failure with that predicted by elastic theory. In all experiments, the mode of initial failure was tension cracking at the surface of the plate, with cracks oriented circumferential to the load. The cracks nucleated at a distance from load center that corresponds the maximum radial stress predicted by analytical solutions, so a tensile failure criterion is appropriate for predictions of initial failure. With continued loading of the plate, migration of tensional cracks was observed. In the same azimuthal direction as the initial crack, subsequent cracks formed at a smaller radial distance than the initial crack. When forming in a different azimuthal direction, the subsequent cracks formed at a distance greater than the radial distance of the initial crack. The observed fracture pattern may explain the distribution of extensional structures in annular bands around many large scale, circular volcanic features.

  20. On the durable critic load in creep buckling of viscoelastic laminated plates and circular cylindrical shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the first order shear deformation theory and classic buckling theory, the paper investigates the creep buckling behavior of viscoelastic laminated plates and laminated circular cylindrical shells. The analysis and elaboration of both instantaneous elastic critic load and durable critic load are emphasized. The buckling load in phase domain is obtained from governing equations by applying Laplace transform, and the instantaneous elastic critic load and durable critic load are determined according to the extreme value theorem for inverse Laplace transform. It is shown that viscoelastic approach and quasi-elastic approach yield identical solutions for these two types of critic load respectively. A transverse disturbance model is developed to give the same mechanics significance of durable critic load as that of elastic critic load. Two types of critic loads of boron/epoxy composite laminated plates and circular cylindrical shells are discussed in detail individually, and the influencing factors to induce creep buckling are revealed by examining the viscoelasticity incorporated in transverse shear deformation and in-plane flexibility.

  1. Finite Element Analysis of the Deformation of Functionally Graded Plates under Thermomechanical Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Alshorbagy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first-order shear deformation plate model, accounting for the exact neutral plane position, is exploited to investigate the uncoupled thermomechanical behavior of functionally graded (FG plates. Functionally graded materials are mainly constructed to operate in high temperature environments. Also, FG plates are used in many applications (such as mechanical, electrical, and magnetic, where an amount of heat may be generated into the FG plate whenever other forms of energy (electrical, magnetic, etc. are converted into thermal energy. Several simulations are performed to study the behavior of FG plates, subjected to thermomechanical loadings, and focus the attention on the effect of the heat source intensity. Most of the previous studies have considered the midplane neutral one, while the actual position of neutral plane for functionally graded plates is shifted and should be firstly determined. A comparative study is performed to illustrate the effect of considering the neutral plane position. The volume fraction of the two constituent materials of the FG plate is varied smoothly and continuously, as a continuous power function of the material position, along the thickness of the plate.

  2. Bauschinger effect on API 5L B and X56 steel plates under repeating bending load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Icho Y.; Korda, Akhmad A.

    2017-01-01

    During steel pipe fabrication, hot rolled coil steel will undergo coiling and uncoiling process, where the steel plate is bent repeatedly. When cyclic loading is imposed on steel, tensile and compressive stress will occur in it resulting in softening caused by Bauschinger effect. This research is focused on Bauschinger effect and cyclic loading during coiling and uncoiling process on API 5L B and API 5L X56 steel. Both types of steel were given repeated bend loading with variation in loading cycle and the curvature radius. The steel's response was then observed by using tensile testing, microhardness testing, and microstructure observation. A decrease in yield strength is observed during lower cycles and on smaller radii. After higher loading cycle, the yield strength of the steel was increased. Microhardness testing also reported similar results on the subsurface part of the steel where loading is at its highest.

  3. 2D nonlocal versus 3D bifurcation studies for biaxially loaded plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benallal, A.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to analyse how a two-dimensional second gradient plasticity model is able to reproduce the three-dimensional bifurcation behaviour for a biaxially loaded flat plate. While it is found that the simple model used here is able to capture them qualitatively for the ...

  4. Non-stationary oscillations of sandwich plates under local dynamic loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skvortsov, Vitaly; Krakhmalev, Sergey; Koysin, V.; Shipsha, Andrey

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the elastic response of composite sandwich panels to local dynamic loading. The plane and axisymmetric formulations are considered; no overall bending is assumed. The governing equations are derived using the static Lamé equations for the core and the plate Kirchoff-Love dynamic

  5. Chemotherapy affects the pattern of failure after shear loading of the proximal tibial growth plate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, B.L.; Hartel, R.M.; Jansen, H.W.B.; Verkerke, G.J.; Veth, R.P.H.; Kamps, W.A.; Hoekstra, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tibial bones are shorter and less resistant to shear forces after treatment with doxorubicin, methotrexate, or cisplatin. We investigated the pattern of failure after shear loading of the proximal tibial growth plate in rats treated with these chemotherapeutic agents. MATERIALS AND MET

  6. Vibrations of a Mindlin plate subjected to a pair of inertial loads moving in opposite directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyniewicz, Bartłomiej; Pisarski, Dominik; Bajer, Czesław I.

    2017-01-01

    A Mindlin plate subjected to a pair of inertial loads traveling at a constant high speed in opposite directions along arbitrary trajectory, straight or curved, is presented. The masses represent vehicles passing a bridge or track plates. A numerical solution is obtained using the space-time finite element method, since it allows a clear and simple derivation of the characteristic matrices of the time-stepping procedure. The transition from one spatial finite element to another must be energetically consistent. In the case of the moving inertial load the classical time-integration schemes are methodologically difficult, since we consider the Dirac delta term with a moving argument. The proposed numerical approach provides the correct definition of force equilibrium in the time interval. The given approach closes the problem of the numerical analysis of vibration of a structure subjected to inertial loads moving arbitrarily with acceleration. The results obtained for a massless and an inertial load traveling over a Mindlin plate at various speeds are compared with benchmark results obtained for a Kirchhoff plate. The pair of inertial forces traveling in opposite directions causes displacements and stresses more than twice as large as their corresponding quantities observed for the passage of a single mass.

  7. Low-frequency wave propagation in an elastic plate loaded by a two-layer fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Indeitsev, Dmitrij; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    of salty water. The former one produces fluid loading at the plate, whereas the latter one is bounded by the sea bottom. We employ classical asymptotic methods to identify significant regimes of wave motion in the compound three-component waveguide. The roles of parameters involved in the problem...

  8. ANALYSIS OF SHAKEDOWN OF FG BREE PLATE SUBJECTED TO COUPLED THERMAL-MECHANICAL LOADINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianghe Peng; Ning Hu; Hengwei Zheng; Cuirong Fang

    2009-01-01

    The static and kinematic shakedown of a functionally graded (FG) Bree plate is analyzed. The plate is subjected to coupled constant mechanical load and cyclically varying tem-perature. The material is assumed linearly elastic and nonlinear isotropic hardening with elastic modulus, yield strength and the thermal expansion coefficient varying exponentially through the thickness of the plate. The boundaries between the shakedown area and the areas of elasticity, incremental collapse and reversed plasticity are determined, respectively. The shakedown of the counterpart made of homogeneous material with average material properties is also analyzed. The comparison between the results obtained in the two cases exhibits distinct qualitative and quantitative difference, indicating the importance of shakedown analysis for FG structures. Since FG structures are usually used in the cases where severe coupled cyclic thermal and mechani-cal loadings are applied, the approach developed and the results obtained are significant for the analysis and design of such kind of structures.

  9. Elastoplastic analysis for infinite plate with centric crack loaded by two pairs of point shear forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiao-ping; LING Tong-hua

    2005-01-01

    The near crack line analysis method was used to investigate a crack loaded by two pairs of point shear forces in an infinite plate in an elastic-perfectly plastic solid, and the analytical solution was obtained. The solutions include: the unit normal vector of the elastic-plastic boundary near the crack line, the elastic-plastic stress fields near crack line, law that the length of the plastic zone along the crack line is varied with an external loads, and the bearing capacity of an infinite plate with a center crack loaded by two pairs of point shear forces. The results are sufficiently precise near the crack line because the assumptions of the small scale yielding theory have not been made and no other assumption have been taken.

  10. Global wake instabilities of low aspect-ratio flate-plates

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the linear destabilization of three-dimensional steady wakes developing behind flate plates placed normal to the incoming flow. Plates characterized by low length-to-width ratio $L$ are considered here. By varying this aspect ratio in the range $1 \\le L \\le 6$ three destabilization scenarios are identified. For very low aspect ratio $1 \\le L \\le 2$, the flow is first destabilized, when increasing the Reynolds number,by a steady global mode that breaks the top/bottom planar reflectional symmetry. The symmetric steady flow bifurcates, via a pitchfork bifurcation, towards an asymmetric steady wakes, similarly to the case of axisymmetric wakes behind sphere and disks. For long aspect ratio, $2.5 \\le L \\le 6$, the first unstable mode also breaks the top/bottom symmetry but is unsteady. A Hopf bifurcation occurs, as for the wake developing behind a two-dimensional circular cylinder. Finally an intermediate regime $2 \\le L \\le 2.5$ is found for which the flow gets first unstable to an unstead...

  11. Complex dynamics of functionally graded plates with thermal load in 1:2 internal resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Complex dynamics of the simply-supported functionally graded(FG)rectangular plates with thermal load is investigated.Based on Reddy’s third-order shear deformation theory and the von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relations,ordinary differential equations(ODEs)of the plate’s transversal oscillation are derived by using Hamilton’s principle and Galerkin’s approach.Solutions’classification of the equations in 1:2 internal resonance is analyzed.Particular results of a simplysupported aluminum-alumina rectangular FG plate are given.Effects of temperature and volume fraction on the responses’ stabilities are discussed.

  12. Analysis of the Elastic Large Deflection Behavior for Metal Plates under Nonuniformly Distributed Lateral Pressure with In-Plane Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeom Kee Paik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Galerkin method is applied to analyze the elastic large deflection behavior of metal plates subject to a combination of in-plane loads such as biaxial loads, edge shear and biaxial inplane bending moments, and uniformly or nonuniformly distributed lateral pressure loads. The motive of the present study was initiated by the fact that metal plates of ships and ship-shaped offshore structures at sea are often subjected to non-uniformly distributed lateral pressure loads arising from cargo or water pressure, together with inplane axial loads or inplane bending moments, but the current practice of the maritime industry usually applies some simplified design methods assuming that the non-uniform pressure distribution in the plates can be replaced by an equivalence of uniform pressure distribution. Applied examples are presented, demonstrating that the current plate design methods of the maritime industry may be inappropriate when the non-uniformity of lateral pressure loads becomes more significant.

  13. High-Velocity Impact Behaviour of Prestressed Composite Plates under Bird Strike Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Heimbs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical analysis of the response of laminated composite plates under high-velocity impact loads of soft body gelatine projectiles (artificial birds is presented. The plates are exposed to tensile and compressive preloads before impact in order to cover realistic loading conditions of representative aeronautic structures under foreign object impact. The modelling methodology for the composite material, delamination interfaces, impact projectile, and preload using the commercial finite element code Abaqus are presented in detail. Finally, the influence of prestress and of different delamination modelling approaches on the impact response is discussed and a comparison to experimental test data is given. Tensile and compressive preloading was found to have an influence on the damage pattern. Although this general behaviour could be predicted well by the simulations, further numerical challenges for improved bird strike simulation accuracy are highlighted.

  14. A serial sample loading system: interfacing multiwell plates with microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Tushar D; Zec, Helena C; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2012-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for novel high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. The robotic sample-handling techniques currently used in these industries, although fast, are still limited to operating in multiwell plates with the sample volumes per reaction in the microliter regime. Digital microfluidics offers an alternative for reduction in sample volume consumption for HTS but lacks a reliable technique for transporting a large number of samples to the microfluidic device. In this report, we develop a technique for serial delivery of sample arrays to a microfluidic device from multiwell plates, through a single sample inlet. Under this approach, a serial array of sample plugs, separated by an immiscible carrier fluid, is loaded into a capillary and delivered to a microfluidic device. Similar approaches have been attempted in the past, however, either with a slower sample loading device such as a syringe pump or vacuum-based sample loading with limited driving pressure. We demonstrated the application of our positive-pressure-based serial sample loading (SSL) system to load a series of sample plugs into a capillary. The adaptability of the SSL system to generate sample plugs with a variety of volumes in a predictable manner was also demonstrated.

  15. Characterization of surface damage of a solid plate under tensile loading using nonlinear Rayleigh waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This letter reports experimental observation of a direct correlation between the acoustic nonlinearity parameter (NP) measured with nonlinear Rayleigh waves and the accumulation of plasticity damage in an AZ31 magnesium alloy plate specimen.Rayleigh waves are generated and detected with wedge transducers,and the NPs are measured at different stress levels.The results show that there is a significant increase in the NPs with monotonic tensile loads surpassing the material's yielding stress.The research sugge...

  16. Determination of Rock Mass Modulus Using the Plate Loading Method at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Riggins, M.

    1999-08-02

    A suite of plate loading tests has recently been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Fielding of these in situ tests as well as other approaches undertaken for the determination of rock mass modulus are described. The various methodologies are evaluated and their data compared. Calculation by existing empirical methods and numerical modeling are compared to each other as well as to field data.

  17. Response of a circular steel plate with different weld geometries subject to impact loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer L.W.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic response of clamped circular steel plates was experimentally investigated under impact loading. The experiments were performed using a high energy drop weight machine with a 5 ton drop weight, which falls from a height of 0.8 m and results in a total impact energy of 40 kJ. Target plates of 10 mm thickness and 580 mm diameter were welded in three different geometrical configurations of weld elements on the lower side. The impact process was carried out using a hemispherical punch. The force was registered by strain gages on the punch. A full dynamic strain field measurement was applied on the tension side using two high speed cameras. The evaluation of the strain field was carried out with the speckle photography technique. The effect of cracks and welding on the deformation and failure behavior was studied using pre-cracked disks and plates with welded webs, welded circular discs and also with a weld seam only. The failure of the plates was registered using the high speed cameras and from the force signal. The results are analyzed and discussed regarding the behavior of the material and component under high rate loading.

  18. Effect of stiffness and thickness ratio of host plate and piezoelectric patches on reduction of the stress concentration factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesharaki, Javad Jafari; Madani, Seyed Ghasem; Golabi, Sa'id

    2016-09-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of stiffness ratio and thickness ratio on reducing stress concentration factor using piezoelectric patches in a rectangular plate with a hole, as a classical shape. Various locations of actuators and induction of positive/negative strains into the host plate are investigated and the best location of patches is presented. The study investigated the ratio effects and piezoelectric patches bounded on a rectangular host plate having various thicknesses and materials. Results show that the best position of actuators varies based on values of thickness and stiffness ratios of the host plate and piezoelectric patches. Also, the location of maximum stress concentration is transmitted from top and bottom of the hole to another point around the edge by changing the location of the piezoelectric actuators. To verify the results, some experimental tests are applied. The results show good agreement between the finite element analysis and experimental tests.

  19. Phenomenological model for torsional galloping of an elastic flat plate due to hydrodynamic loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FERNANDES Antonio Carlos; ARMANDEI Mohammadmehdi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the torsional galloping phenomenon, an instability type flow-induced oscillation, in an elastic stru-cture due to hydrodynamic loads into the water current. The structure applied here is a rectangular flat plate with an elastic axis in its mid-chord length. The elasticity is provided by torsion spring. The flat plate has only one degree of freedom which is rotation in pure yaw about its axis. It is observed that as the current speed is higher than a critical velocity, the flat plate becomes unstable. The instability leads to torsional galloping occurrence, as a result of which the flat plate begins to yaw about the elastic axis. By testing two different chord lengths each with several torsion spring rates, the flat plate behavior is investigated and three different responses are recognized. Then, a phenomenological model is developed with the original kernel in the form of the van der Pol-Duffing equa-tion. The model explains these three responses observed experimentally.

  20. Signal-intensity-ratio MRI accurately estimates hepatic iron load in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Rostoker

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This pilot study shows that liver iron determination based on signal-intensity-ratio MRI (Rennes University algorithm very accurately identifies iron load in hemodialysis patients, by comparison with liver histology.

  1. Effects of aspect ratio and concentration on rheology of epoxy suspensions containing model plate-like nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, K. L.; Takahara, A. [International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Hawkins, S.; Sue, H.-J., E-mail: hjsue@tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Miyamoto, M. [Kaneka US Materials Research Center, Kaneka America Holdings, Inc., College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Hexagonal 2-dimensional α-zirconium phosphate crystals were prepared with lateral diameters ranging from 110 nm to 1.5 μm to investigate the effect of particle size on suspension rheology. The nanoplatelets were exfoliated to individual sheets with monodisperse thickness and dispersed in a Newtonian epoxy fluid. The steady shear response of dilute and semi-dilute suspensions was measured and compared to expressions obtained from theory for infinitely dilute suspensions. For suspensions containing the smaller nanoplatelets, aspect ratio ∼160, the low shear rate viscosity and transition to shear thinning behavior were well described by theory for loadings up to 0.5 vol. %. The agreement was improved by assuming a moderate polydispersity in lateral diameter, ∼30%–50%, which is consistent with experimental observation. For the higher aspect ratio nanoplatelets, good agreement between theory and experiment was observed only at high shear rates. At lower shear rate, theory consistently over-predicted viscosity, which was attributed to a progressive shift to non-isotropic initial conditions with increasing particle size. The results suggest that at a fixed Peclet number, there is an increasing tendency for the nanoplatelets to form transient, local stacks as particle size increases. The largest particles, aspect ratio ∼2200, showed unusual shear thinning and thickening behaviors that were attributed to particle flexibility. The findings demonstrate the surprising utility of theory for infinitely dilute suspensions to interpret, and in some cases quantitatively describe, the non-Newtonian viscosity of real suspensions containing high aspect ratio plate-like particles. A simple framework is proposed to interpret deviations from ideal behavior based on the local and collective behavior of the suspended nanoplatelets.

  2. Fatigue in Welded High-Strength Steel Plate Elements under Stochastic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Petersen, R.I.; Martinez, L. Lopez

    1999-01-01

    The present project is a part of an investigation on fatigue in offshore structures in high-strength steel. The fatigue life of plate elements with welded attachments is studied. The material used has a yield stress of ~ 810-840 MPa, and high weldability and toughness properties. Fatigue test...... series with constant amplitude loading and with various types of stochastic loading have been carried through on test specimens in high-strength steel, and - for a comparison - on test specimens in conventional offshore structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 400-410 MPa.A comparison between constant...... amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results shows shorter fatigue lives in variable amplitude loading than should be expected from the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula. Furthermore, in general longer fatigue lives were obtained for the test specimens in high-strength steel than those...

  3. Lithospheric flexure under the Hawaiian volcanic load: Internal stresses and a broken plate revealed by earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Fred W.

    2016-04-01

    Several lines of earthquake evidence indicate that the lithospheric plate is broken under the load of the island of Hawai`i, where the geometry of the lithosphere is circular with a central depression. The plate bends concave downward surrounding a stress-free hole, rather than bending concave upward as with past assumptions. Earthquake focal mechanisms show that the center of load stress and the weak hole is between the summits of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea where the load is greatest. The earthquake gap at 21 km depth coincides with the predicted neutral plane of flexure where horizontal stress changes sign. Focal mechanism P axes below the neutral plane display a striking radial pattern pointing to the stress center. Earthquakes above the neutral plane in the north part of the island have opposite stress patterns; T axes tend to be radial. The M6.2 Honomu and M6.7 Kiholo main shocks (both at 39 km depth) are below the neutral plane and show radial compression, and the M6.0 Kiholo aftershock above the neutral plane has tangential compression. Earthquakes deeper than 20 km define a donut of seismicity around the stress center where flexural bending is a maximum. The hole is interpreted as the soft center where the lithospheric plate is broken. Kilauea's deep conduit is seismically active because it is in the ring of maximum bending. A simplified two-dimensional stress model for a bending slab with a load at one end yields stress orientations that agree with earthquake stress axes and radial P axes below the neutral plane. A previous inversion of deep Hawaiian focal mechanisms found a circular solution around the stress center that agrees with the model. For horizontal faults, the shear stress within the bending slab matches the slip in the deep Kilauea seismic zone and enhances outward slip of active flanks.

  4. Calculation method of composite foundation sedimentation of grouting pile with cover plate under embankment load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾长存; 洪昌地; 马文彬; 李雪平

    2008-01-01

    Grouting pile is a new soft soil foundation treatment method with characteristics such as no vibration, no noise, no soil compaction, light construction machines and quick construction velocity and so on. At present, study on reinforcement mechanism and design calculation method of composite foundation of grouting pile is initially started without design specifications, so it is usually required to draw on design specifications of stump pile when designing composite foundation of grouting pile while grouting pile has its characteristics and difference although reinforcement mechanisms and construction processes of two types of piles are similar. Sedimentation formula of composite foundation of grouting pile with cover plate is educed and a suitable deformation mode is proposed by aiming to deformation characteristics of composite foundation of grouting pile with cover plate under embankment load on basis of relevant sedimentation theories of composite foundation by combination of characteristics of composite foundation of grouting pile. The sedimentation calculation formula of grouting pile with cover plate under embankment load is educed according to balance relation of force and displacement coordination conditions by elastic theory and sedimentation calculation model established is validated by sedimentation monitoring documents of one expressway in China.

  5. An Asymptotic Approach for the Elastodynamic Problem of a Plate under Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Michalopoulou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach is presented for analyzing the transient elastodynamic problem of a plate under an impact loading. The plate is considered to be in the form of a long strip under plane strain conditions. The loading is taken as a concentrated line force applied normal to the plate surface. It is assumed that this line force is suddenly applied and maintained thereafter (i.e., it is a Heaviside step function of time. Inertia effects are taken into consideration and the problem is treated exactly within the framework of elastodynamic theory. The approach is based on multiple Laplace transforms and on certain asymptotic arguments. In particular, the one-sided Laplace transform is applied to suppress time dependence and the two-sided Laplace transform to suppress the dependence upon a spatial variable (along the extent of the infinite strip. Exact inversions are then followed by invoking the asymptotic Tauber theorem and the Cagniard-deHoop technique. Various extensions of this basic analysis are also discussed.

  6. Free and forced vibration control of piezoelectric FGM plate subjected to electro-mechanical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Priyanka A.; Bajoria, Kamal M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates the free and forced vibration analysis of a newly introduced metal based functionally graded (FG) plate integrated with a piezoelectric actuator and sensor at the top and bottom faces respectively. The material properties of the FG plate are assumed to be graded along the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fraction of the constituents, while the Poisson ratio is assumed to be constant. The plate is simply supported at all edges. The finite element model is based on higher order shear deformation theory (HOST), the von Karman hypothesis and degenerated shell elements. The displacement component of the present model is expanded in Taylor’s series in terms of the thickness co-ordinate. The Hamilton principle is used to derive the equation of motion for the piezoelectric functionally graded material (FGM) plate. The free and forced vibration analysis of the simply supported piezoelectric FG plate is carried out to present the effect of the power law index and the piezoelectric layer. The present analysis is carried out on a newly introduced FGM, which is a mixture of aluminum and stainless steel. Stainless steel is a high strength material but it can rust in extreme cases, and aluminum does not rust but it is a low strength material. The FGM exhibits corrosion resistance as well as the high strength property in a single material. This new FGM will definitely help in the construction as well as the metal industry.

  7. Study on buckling and ultimate strength of a rectangular plate under combined inplane load; Kumiawase mennai kaju wo ukeru kukeiban no zakutsu saishu kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikubo, M.; Yao, T.; Varghese, B. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Elasto-plasticity analysis by using the finite element method was performed on a case that bi-axial compression and shear act on a thick rectangular plate, and applicability of the plasticity correction method was discussed. In the discussion, an investigation was made on effect of the loading method of a load on correlation between initial yield strength and ultimate strength of a rectangular plate under bi-axial compression. The analytical result from the finite element method was compared with estimated values derived by using the plasticity correction method with regard to the buckling strength. The result obtained may be summarized as follows: the effect of the loading method for combined load on the correlation between the initial yield strength and the ultimate strength is small; an approximation expression was derived for the upper limit of maximum initial bend of a deck panel of an actual vessel; the plasticity correction method for buckling strength as specified by classification societies has a certain applicability as a method to estimate ultimate strength on the safety side against plate thickness in a range of the upper limit of initial bend of an actual vessel; however, this method may estimate strength higher than the actual value depending on load ratio, hence attention is required. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Low-frequency wave propagation in an elastic plate loaded by a two-layer fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Indeitsev, Dmitrij; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    In several technical applications, for example, in the Arctic off-shore oil industry, it is necessary to predict waveguide properties of floating elastic plates in contact with a relatively thin layer of water, which has a non-uniform density distribution across its depth. The issue of particular...... concern is propagation of low-frequency waves in such a coupled waveguide. In the present paper, we assume that an inhomogeneous fluid may be modelled as two homogeneous, inviscid and incompressible layers with slightly different densities. The lighter layer of fresh water lies on top of the heavier layer...... of salty water. The former one produces fluid loading at the plate, whereas the latter one is bounded by the sea bottom. We employ classical asymptotic methods to identify significant regimes of wave motion in the compound three-component waveguide. The roles of parameters involved in the problem...

  9. Topology optimization for elastic base under rectangular plate subjected to moving load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilavyan Samvel H.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution optimization of elastic material under elastic isotropic rectangular thin plate subjected to concentrated moving load is investigated in the present paper. The aim of optimization is to damp its vibrations in finite (fixed time. Accepting Kirchhoff hypothesis with respect to the plate and Winkler hypothesis with respect to the base, the mathematical model of the problem is constructed as two-dimensional bilinear equation, i.e. linear in state and control function. The maximal quantity of the base material is taken as optimality criterion to be minimized. The Fourier distributional transform and the Bubnov-Galerkin procedures are used to reduce the problem to integral equality type constraints. The explicit solution in terms of two- dimensional Heaviside‘s function is obtained, describing piecewise-continuous distribution of the material. The determination of the switching points is reduced to a problem of nonlinear programming. Data from numerical analysis are presented.

  10. Three-dimensional effects on cracked discs and plates under nominal Mode III loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Campagnolo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The existence of three-dimensional effects at cracks has been known for many years, but understanding has been limited, and for some situations still is. Understanding improved when the existence of corner point singularities and their implications became known. Increasingly powerful computers made it possible to investigate three-dimensional effects numerically in detail. Despite increased understanding, threedimensional effects are sometimes ignored in situations where they may be important. The purpose of the present contribution is to review the study carried out by the same authors in some recent investigations, in which a coupled fracture mode generated by anti-plane loading of a straight through-the-thickness crack in linear elastic discs and plates has been analysed by means of accurate 3D finite element (FE models. The results obtained from the highly accurate finite element analyses have improved understanding of the behaviour of through cracked components under anti-plane loading. The influence of plate bending is increasingly important as the thickness decreases. It appears that a new field parameter, probably a singularity, is needed to describe the stresses at the free surfaces. Discussion on whether KIII tends to zero or infinity as a corner point is approached is futile because KIII is meaningless at a corner point. The intensity of the local stress and strain state through the thickness of the cracked components has been evaluated by using the strain energy density (SED averaged over a control volume embracing the crack tip. The SED has been considered as a parameter able to control fracture in some previous contributions and can easily take into account also coupled three-dimensional effects. Calculation of the SED shows that the position of the maximum SED in the discs case is a function of the thickness. In the plates case instead the position of the maximum SED is independent of plate thickness, contrary to disc results.

  11. Ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface of steel-backed Al-graphite semi-solid bonding plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; DU Yun-hui; LIU Han-wu; ZHANG Jun; ZENG Da-ben; BA Li-min

    2007-01-01

    The ratio of Fe-Al compound at the bonding interface of solid steel plate to Al-7graphite slurry was used to characterize the interfacial structure of steel-Al-7graphite semi-solid bonding plate quantitatively. The relationship between the ratio of Fe-Al compound at interface and bonding parameters (such as preheat temperature of steel plate. solid fraction of Al-7graphite slurry and rolling speed) was established by artificial neural networks perfectly. The results show that when the bonding parameters are 516 ℃ for preheat temperature of steel plate, 32.5% for solid fraction of Al-7graphite slurry and 12 mm/s for rolling speed.the reasonable ratio of Fe-Al compound corresponding to the largest interfacial shear strength of bonding plate is obtained to be 70.1%.This reasonable ratio of Fe-Al compound is a quantitative criterion of interfacial embrimement, namely, when the ratio of Fe-Al compound at intefface is larger than 70.1%.interfacial embrittlement will occur.

  12. Buckling And Postbuckling Of An Imperfect Plate Subjected To The Shear Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psotný Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability analysis of an imperfect plate subjected to the shear load is presented. To solve this problem, a specialized computer program based on FEM has been created. The nonlinear finite element method equations are derived from the variational principle of minimum of total potential energy. To obtain the nonlinear equilibrium paths, the Newton-Raphson iteration algorithm is used. Corresponding levels of the total potential energy are defined. Special attention is paid to the influence of imperfections on the post-critical buckling mode. Obtained results are compared with those gained using ANSYS system.

  13. The emergence of seismic cycles from stress feedback between intra-plate faulting and far-field tectonic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Byung-Dal; Capitanio, Fabio A.

    2016-08-01

    Using numerical modeling we show the emergence of cyclic slip behavior of faults from stress feedback through an idealized fault, its surrounding plates and far-field tectonic stress. The tectonic stress is exerted on the fault through a force applied along an idealized plate margin, acting on the fault, resulting from the interactions of viscous embedding and external plates. We find that, in such coupled system, the interaction of plates results into feedback with periodic deformation, slip along the fault and episodic plate margin motions. The viscosity of the embedding and loading plates primarily control the stress-loading time and hence the slip recurrence interval. For an Earth-like range of lithospheric viscosities, we derive a power-law with negative exponent, -0.99 to -0.5, scaling the recurrence period with loading-rate, providing an explanation for the observables from paleoseismology and geodesy. The feedback between single fault and far-field stress that arises from interactions of deforming plates provides a context to understand the earthquake cycle within continents, while reconciling the short-term seismic deformation to the long-term plate tectonics frame.

  14. Comminuted supracondylar femoral fractures: a biomechanical analysis comparing the stability of medial versus lateral plating in axial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Briffa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of medial and lateral plating of a medially comminuted supracondylar femoral fracture. A supracondylar femoral fracture model comparing two fixation methods was tested cyclically in axial loading. One-centimetre supracondylar gap osteotomies were created in six synthetic femurs approximately 6 cm proximal to the knee joint. There were two constructs investigated: group 1 and group 2 were stabilized with an 8-hole LC-DCP, medially and laterally, respectively. Both construct groups were axially loaded. Global displacement (total length, wedge displacement, bending moment and strain were measured. Medial plating showed a significantly decreased displacement, bending moment and strain at the fracture site in axial loading. Medial plating of a comminuted supracondylar femur fracture is more stable than lateral plating.

  15. NON-LINEAR DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF THERMOELASTIC CIRCULAR PLATE WITH VARYING THICKNESS SUBJECTED TO NON- CONSERVATIVE LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongmin; GAO Jingbo; LI Huixia; LIU Hongzhao

    2008-01-01

    The non-linear dynamic behaviors of thermoelastic circular plate with varying thickness subjected to radially uniformly distributed follower forces are considered. Two coupled non-linear differential equations of motion for this problem are derived in terms of the transverse deflection and radial displacement component of the mid-plane of the plate. Using the Kantorovich averaging method, the differential equation of mode shape of the plate is derived, and the eigenvalue problem is solved by using shooting method. The eigencurves for frequencies and critical loads of the circular plate with unmovable simply supported edge and clamped edge are obtained. The effects of the variation of thickness and temperature on the frequencies and critical loads of the thermoelastic circular plate subjected to radially uniformly distributed follower forces are then discussed.

  16. Linking trading ratio with TMDL (total maximum daily load) allocation matrix and uncertainty analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H X

    2008-01-01

    An innovative approach for total maximum daily load (TMDL) allocation and implementation is the watershed-based pollutant trading. Given the inherent scientific uncertainty for the tradeoffs between point and nonpoint sources, setting of trading ratios can be a contentious issue and was already listed as an obstacle by several pollutant trading programs. One of the fundamental reasons that a trading ratio is often set higher (e.g. greater than 2) is to allow for uncertainty in the level of control needed to attain water quality standards, and to provide a buffer in case traded reductions are less effective than expected. However, most of the available studies did not provide an approach to explicitly address the determination of trading ratio. Uncertainty analysis has rarely been linked to determination of trading ratio.This paper presents a practical methodology in estimating "equivalent trading ratio (ETR)" and links uncertainty analysis with trading ratio determination from TMDL allocation process. Determination of ETR can provide a preliminary evaluation of "tradeoffs" between various combination of point and nonpoint source control strategies on ambient water quality improvement. A greater portion of NPS load reduction in overall TMDL load reduction generally correlates with greater uncertainty and thus requires greater trading ratio. The rigorous quantification of trading ratio will enhance the scientific basis and thus public perception for more informed decision in overall watershed-based pollutant trading program.

  17. Blast response of centrally and eccentrically loaded flat-, U-, and V-shaped armored plates: comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, J.; Kunc, R.; Prebil, I.

    2017-07-01

    Light armored vehicles (LAVs) can be exposed to blast loading by landmines or improvised explosive devices (IEDs) during their lifetime. The bottom hull of these vehicles is usually made of a few millimeters of thin armored plate that is the vehicle's weak point in a blast-loading scenario. Therefore, blast resistance and blast load redirection are very important characteristics in providing adequate vehicle as well as occupant protection. Furthermore, the eccentric nature of loading caused by landmines was found to be omitted in the studies of simplified structures like beams and plates. For this purpose, blast wave dispersion and blast response of centrally and eccentrically loaded flat-, U-, and V-shaped plates are examined using a combined finite-element-smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (FE-SPH) model. The results showed that V-shaped plates better disperse blast waves for any type of loading and, therefore, can be successfully applied in LAVs. Based on the results of the study and the geometry of a typical LAV 6× 6, the minimum angle of V-shaped plates is also determined.

  18. Blast response of centrally and eccentrically loaded flat-, U-, and V-shaped armored plates: comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, J.; Kunc, R.; Prebil, I.

    2016-12-01

    Light armored vehicles (LAVs) can be exposed to blast loading by landmines or improvised explosive devices (IEDs) during their lifetime. The bottom hull of these vehicles is usually made of a few millimeters of thin armored plate that is the vehicle's weak point in a blast-loading scenario. Therefore, blast resistance and blast load redirection are very important characteristics in providing adequate vehicle as well as occupant protection. Furthermore, the eccentric nature of loading caused by landmines was found to be omitted in the studies of simplified structures like beams and plates. For this purpose, blast wave dispersion and blast response of centrally and eccentrically loaded flat-, U-, and V-shaped plates are examined using a combined finite-element-smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (FE-SPH) model. The results showed that V-shaped plates better disperse blast waves for any type of loading and, therefore, can be successfully applied in LAVs. Based on the results of the study and the geometry of a typical LAV 6× 6 , the minimum angle of V-shaped plates is also determined.

  19. FINITE DIFFERENCE ANALYSIS OF ACOUSTIC REFLECTION AND RADIATION FROM FLUID-LOADED PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵汉中

    2003-01-01

    A finite difference/boundary integral procedure to determine the acoustic reflected pressure from a fluid-loaded bi-laminate plate is described. The bi-laminate is composed of a piezoelectric layer and an elastic layer in contact with the fluid. The plate is either of finite length and held at its two ends in an acoustically hard baffle or of infinite length with periodically etched electrodes.In the numerical model, the fluid pressure at fluid/solid interface is replaced by a continuum of point sources weighted by the normal acceleration of the elastic plate, and the governing equation system is solved in the solid domain. It is demonstrated that an appropriate applied voltage potential across the baffled piezoelectric layer has the effect of cancelling the reflected pressure at any chosen field points,and a piecewise constant voltage potential with properly chosen amplitude and phase in the periodic structure has the effect of cancelling the fundamental propagating mode of the reflected waves.

  20. Optimization of structural parameters for spatial flexible redundant manipulators with maximum ratio of load to mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xu-ping; YU Yue-qing

    2005-01-01

    Optimization of structural parameters aimed at improving the load carrying capacity of spatial flexible redundant manipulators is presented in this paper. In order to increase the ratio of load to mass of robots, the cross-sectional parameters and constructional parameters are optimized respectively. The cross-sectional and configurational parameters are optimized simultaneously. The numerical simulation of a 4R spatial manipulator is performed. The results show that the load capacity of robots has been greatly improved through the optimization strategies proposed in this paper.

  1. Failure characteristics of a thin metallic sandwich plate with metallic sheared dimple cores under low-velocity impact loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Dong Gyu; Jeong, Woo Chul [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The functionality and the performance of a lightweight sandwich plate with periodic cellular metal (PCM) cores are influenced by failure characteristics of the lightweight sandwich plate. The goal of this paper is to investigate the failure characteristics of a thin metallic sandwich plate with metallic sheared dimple cores under low-velocity impact loading through nonlinear finite element analysis. The influence of the imperfection mode of the cores on the impact response of a thin sandwich plate is examined to obtain a proper simulation model. Repeated finite element analyses are performed to examine the failure modes of the sandwich plate for different impact conditions. Normalized impact parameters are defined in order to generalize a dynamic failure map (DFM). DFMs of the thin metallic sandwich plate have been estimated via the regression analysis of critical impact conditions for each failure mode. In addition, the influence of the normalized impact parameters on the failure mode has been investigated using the DFM.

  2. Effect Of Compression Ratio On The Performance Of Diesel Engine At Different Loads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Reddy G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Variable compression ratio (VCR technology has long been recognized as a method for improving the automobile engine performance, efficiency, fuel economy with reduced emission. The main feature of the VCR engine is to operate at different compression ratio, by changing the combustion chamber volume, depending on the vehicle performance needs .The need to improve the performance characteristics of the IC Engine has necessitated the present research. Increasing the compression ratio to improve on the performance is an option. The compression ratio is a factor that influences the performance characteristics of internal combustion engines. This work is an experimental investigation of the influence of the compression ratio on the brake power, brake thermal efficiency, brake mean effective pressure and specific fuel consumption of the Kirloskar variable compression ratio duel fuel engine. Compression Ratios of 14, 15, 16 and 18 and engine loads of 3kg to 12 kg, in increments of 3kg, were utilized for Diesel.

  3. Lithospheric flexure under the Hawaiian volcanic load: Internal stresses and a broken plate revealed by earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Fred W.

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of earthquake evidence indicate that the lithospheric plate is broken under the load of the island of Hawai`i, where the geometry of the lithosphere is circular with a central depression. The plate bends concave downward surrounding a stress-free hole, rather than bending concave upward as with past assumptions. Earthquake focal mechanisms show that the center of load stress and the weak hole is between the summits of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea where the load is greatest. The earthquake gap at 21 km depth coincides with the predicted neutral plane of flexure where horizontal stress changes sign. Focal mechanism P axes below the neutral plane display a striking radial pattern pointing to the stress center. Earthquakes above the neutral plane in the north part of the island have opposite stress patterns; T axes tend to be radial. The M6.2 Honomu and M6.7 Kiholo main shocks (both at 39 km depth) are below the neutral plane and show radial compression, and the M6.0 Kiholo aftershock above the neutral plane has tangential compression. Earthquakes deeper than 20 km define a donut of seismicity around the stress center where flexural bending is a maximum. The hole is interpreted as the soft center where the lithospheric plate is broken. Kilauea's deep conduit is seismically active because it is in the ring of maximum bending. A simplified two-dimensional stress model for a bending slab with a load at one end yields stress orientations that agree with earthquake stress axes and radial P axes below the neutral plane. A previous inversion of deep Hawaiian focal mechanisms found a circular solution around the stress center that agrees with the model. For horizontal faults, the shear stress within the bending slab matches the slip in the deep Kilauea seismic zone and enhances outward slip of active flanks.

  4. Experimental investigation of a large aspect ratio flat plate encountering a steam-wise gust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulleners, Karen; Mancini, Peter; Jones, Anya

    2015-11-01

    While humans are capable of mimicking, and even outperform, the kinematic capabilities of natural flyers, birds and insects are still way ahead of us when it comes to anticipating and dealing with turbulent and gusty flow conditions. To tailor and improve flight control capabilities of low Reynolds number flyers in real weather, we need to bridge this gap of knowledge. As a first step, we experimentally studied the aerodynamic influence of a simplified stream-wise gust on a large aspect ratio flat plate. The experiments were conduction in the 7 × 1 . 5 × 1 m3 towing tank at UMD which was equipped with a 4-axis computer-controlled motion system. The effect of a stream-wise gust was simulated by accelerating or decelerating the wing to a new constant velocity after an initial constant surge. A high-speed camera and light sheet optics were attached to the tow carriage allowing for time-resolved particle image velocimetry along the entire motion in addition to direct force measurements. A proper orthogonal decomposition of the flow field was carried out to study the time scales related to changes induced by the sudden acceleration or deceleration in addition to analyzing the size, position and trajectory of prominent vortices and associated forces during the gust encounter.

  5. Leading-edge vortex burst on a low-aspect-ratio rotating flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Albert; Jones, Anya R.

    2016-08-01

    This study experimentally investigates the phenomenon of leading-edge-vortex burst on rotating flat plate wings. An aspect-ratio-2 wing was driven in pure rotation at a Reynolds number of Re=2500 . Of primary interest is the evolution of the leading-edge vortex along the wing span over a single-revolution wing stroke. Direct force measurements of the lift produced by the wing revealed a single global lift maximum relatively early in the wing stroke. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry was applied to several chordwise planes to quantify the structure and strength of the leading-edge vortex and its effect on lift production. This analysis revealed opposite-sign vorticity entrainment into the core of the leading-edge vortex, originating from a layer of secondary vorticity along the wing surface. Coincident with the lift peak, there emerged both a concentration of opposite vorticity in the leading-edge-vortex core, as well as axial flow stagnation within the leading-edge-vortex core. Planar control volume analysis was performed at the midspan to quantify the contributions of vorticity transport mechanisms to the leading-edge-vortex circulation. The rate of circulation annihilation by opposite-signed vorticity entrainment was found to be minimal during peak lift production, where convection balanced the flux of vorticity resulting in stagnation and eventually reversal of axial flow. Finally, vortex burst was found to be correlated with swirl number, where bursting occurs at a swirl threshold of Sw<0.6 .

  6. The effect of the elliptical ratio on the tubular energy absorber subjected to lateral loading under quasistatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroutaji, A.; Olabi, A. G.

    2010-06-01

    Tubular systems are proposed to be used as energy absorber because they are cheap and easy to manufacture; recently some researchers use the elliptical tube as energy absorber. In this work, the influence of elliptical ratio (r =D1/D2) on energy absorption capability and load carrying capacity and stress of mild steel elliptical tubes has been investigated both experimentally and numerically, the experimental analyses conducted by using Zwick Type BT1-FB050TN testing instrument. This machine is universal instrument for performing tensile test and compression test, Fig (1) and bending test and it is consider as an important machine for measuring the mechanical properties of materials and structures. The loading frame consist of two vertical lead screws, a moving crosshead and an upper and lower bearing plate which bears the load of the lead screws. The maximum capacity of the loading frame attached to the table mounted unit is 50KN In this study a velocity between 310mm/min was applied to the moving component to ensure the quasistatic conditions whereas velocities between 0.5mm/min and 15 mm/min have been used by many researchers to simulate the quasi-static lateral compression of tubes between various indenters [1-2]. In addition to the experimental work, computational method using ANSYS is used to predict the loading and response of such tubes where series of models was performed with elliptical ratios ranging from 0.5 to 1.5. Comparison of numerical and experimental forcedeflection response is presented. It has been found that with changing the elliptical ratio of the tube the loaddeflection curve change and this leads to change the energy absorbed by tube, the changing of the geometrical shape of the tube leads to change the volume of this tube and hence the mass. By reducing the elliptical ratio to 0.5 the tube will absorb 43.3% more energy and the system will gain 102% more in terms of specific energy, fig (2).

  7. The effect of the elliptical ratio on the tubular energy absorber subjected to lateral loading under quasistatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olabi A.G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tubular systems are proposed to be used as energy absorber because they are cheap and easy to manufacture; recently some researchers use the elliptical tube as energy absorber. In this work, the influence of elliptical ratio (r =D1/D2 on energy absorption capability and load carrying capacity and stress of mild steel elliptical tubes has been investigated both experimentally and numerically, the experimental analyses conducted by using Zwick Type BT1-FB050TN testing instrument. This machine is universal instrument for performing tensile test and compression test, Fig (1 and bending test and it is consider as an important machine for measuring the mechanical properties of materials and structures. The loading frame consist of two vertical lead screws, a moving crosshead and an upper and lower bearing plate which bears the load of the lead screws. The maximum capacity of the loading frame attached to the table mounted unit is 50KN In this study a velocity between 310mm/min was applied to the moving component to ensure the quasistatic conditions whereas velocities between 0.5mm/min and 15 mm/min have been used by many researchers to simulate the quasi-static lateral compression of tubes between various indenters [1-2]. In addition to the experimental work, computational method using ANSYS is used to predict the loading and response of such tubes where series of models was performed with elliptical ratios ranging from 0.5 to 1.5. Comparison of numerical and experimental forcedeflection response is presented. It has been found that with changing the elliptical ratio of the tube the loaddeflection curve change and this leads to change the energy absorbed by tube, the changing of the geometrical shape of the tube leads to change the volume of this tube and hence the mass. By reducing the elliptical ratio to 0.5 the tube will absorb 43.3% more energy and the system will gain 102% more in terms of specific energy, fig (2.

  8. Dynamic response of geometrically nonlinear, elastic rectangular plates under a moving mass loading by inclusion of all inertial components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofooei, Fayaz R.; Enshaeian, Alireza; Nikkhoo, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Dynamic deformations of beams and plates under moving objects have extensively been studied in the past. In this work, the dynamic response of geometrically nonlinear rectangular elastic plates subjected to moving mass loading is numerically investigated. A rectangular von Karman plate with various boundary conditions is modeled using specifically developed geometrically nonlinear plate elements. In the available finite element (FE) codes the only way to distinguish between moving masses from moving loads is to model the moving mass as a separate entity. However, these procedures still do not guarantee the inclusion of all inertial effects associated with the moving mass. In a prepared finite element code, the plate elements are developed using the conventional nonlinear methods, i.e., Total Lagrangian technique, but all inertial components associated with the travelling mass are taken into account. Since inertial components affect the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices of the system as the moving mass traverses the plate, appropriate time increments shall be selected to avoid numerical instability. The dynamic response of the plate induced by the moving mass is evaluated and compared to previous studies. Also, unlike the existing FE programs, the different inertial components of the normal contact force between the moving mass and the plate are computed separately to substantiate the no-separation assumption made for the moving mass. Also, it is observed that for large moving mass velocities, the peak plate deformation occurs somewhere away from the plate center point. Under the two extreme in-plane boundary conditions considered in this study, it is shown that if the geometrical nonlinearity of plate is accounted for, the deformations obtained would be less than the case with classical linear plate theory.

  9. The effect of aspect ratio on vortex rings within the wake of impulsively-started flat plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, John; Rival, David

    2014-11-01

    Vortex pinch-off has been the focus of many studies since it was first observed for vortices produced via piston-cylinder arrangements. Minimal work has been performed on other vortex generation methods. The current study investigates vortex rings behind impulsively-started circular, square, and elliptical flat plates. Preliminary force and PIV measurements show temporal/spatial similarities between vortex growth in the wake of the circular and square plates. Forces and vortex evolution are also shown to be strongly coupled; the presence of stable wake vortex rings results in a reduction of plate drag. For all three plates, pinch-off is initiated by the formation of a positive pressure gradient on the leeward side of the plate, which terminates mass transport to the vortex. It is hypothesized that an increase in aspect ratio (AR) from unity results in isolated vortex lines with non-uniform vorticity along the leading edges. Strong spanwise velocity gradients and stretching near the plate tips facilities vortex detachment. Results from experiments on rectangular plates with varying ARs are discussed and the effect of stretching and tilting in the tip region is investigated. The United States Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  10. A study of ground-structure interaction in dynamic plate load testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzina, Bojan B.; Nintcheu Fata, Sylvain

    2002-10-01

    A mathematical treatment is presented for the forced vertical vibration of a padded annular footing on a layered viscoelastic half-space. On assuming a depth-independent stress distribution for the interfacial buffer, the set of triple integral equations stemming from the problem is reduced to a Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. The solution method, which is tailored to capture the stress concentrations beneath footing edges, is highlighted. To cater to small-scale geophysical applications, the model is used to investigate the near-field effects of ground-loading system interaction in dynamic geotechnical and pavement testing. Numerical results indicate that the uniform-pressure assumption for the contact load between the composite disc and the ground which is customary in dynamic plate load testing may lead to significant errors in the diagnosis of subsurface soil and pavement conditions. Beyond its direct application to non-intrusive site characterization, the proposed solution can be used in the seismic analysis of a variety of structures involving annular foundation geometries.

  11. Generalized equations of finite difference method in the problems of dynamic load calculation for thin bending plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabbasov Radek Fatykhovich

    Full Text Available Bending plate is widely used in the construction of large-span structures. Its advantage is light weight, industrial production, low cost and easy installation. Implementing the algorithm for calculating bending plates in engineering practice is an important issue of the construction science. The generalized equations of finite difference method is a new trend in the calculation of building construction. FDM with generalized equation provides additional options for an engineer along with other methods (FEM. In the article the algorithm for dynamic calculation of thin bending plates basing on FDM was developed. The computer programs for dynamic calculation were created on the basis of the algorithm. The authors come to the conclusion that the more simple equations of FDM can be used in case of solving the impulse load problems in dynamic load calculation of thin bending plate.

  12. Low-Stress Upper Plate Near Subduction Zones and Implications for Temporal Changes in Loading Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Hu, Y.; Yoshida, K.

    2016-12-01

    Subduction megathrusts are weak, often with effective friction coefficients as low as 0.03. Consequently, differential stress (S1 - S3) in the nearby upper plate is low. Compression due to plate coupling and tension due to gravity are in a subtle balance that can be tipped by small perturbations. For example, the 2011 M=9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, which has a rupture-zone-average stress drop of only a few MPa, switched offshore margin-normal stress from compression to tension and affected seismicity pattern and stress directions of various parts of the land area. The low differential stress is also reflected in spatial variations of stresses, such as with changes in topography. In the Andes, crustal earthquake focal mechanisms change from thrust-faulting in low-elevation areas to normal-faulting in high-elevation areas. Given the lack of evidence for a pervasively weak crust, the low differential stress may indicate that in general the crust near subduction zones is not critically stressed. If so, crustal earthquakes do not represent pervasive failure but only local failure due to stress, material, and fluid pressure heterogeneity. If distributed permanent deformation that creates topography is not the norm, it either happens in brief episodes or took place in the past. The outer wedge may enter a compressively or extensionally critical state due to coseismic strengthening or weakening, respectively, of the shallow megathrust in largest interplate earthquakes. Temporal changes in loading forces must occur also at much larger temporal and spatial scales in response to changes in the nature of the subducting plate and other tectonic conditions. We propose that submarine wedges and high topography in the upper plate attain their geometry in geologically brief episodes of high differential stress. They normally stay in a low-stress stable state, but their geometry often reflects high-stress episodes of critical states in the past. In other words, rocks have a sustained

  13. Stress intensity factors of eccentric cracks in bi-materials plate under mode I loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, A. E. [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Bi-material plates were generally used to joint electronic devices or mechanical components requiring dissimilar materials to be attached. During services, mechanical failure can be occurred due to the formation of cracks at the interfacial joint or away from the centre. Generally, linear elastic fracture mechanics approach is used to characterize these cracks based on stress intensity factors (SIF). Based on the literature survey, the SIFs for the central cracks were easily available. However, the SIFs for eccentric cracks were difficult to obtain. Therefore, this paper presented the SIFs for eccentric cracks subjected to mode I tension loading. Three important parameters were used such as relative crack depth, a/L, relative offset distance, b/L and elastic mismatch, E{sub 1}/E{sub 2} or α. It was found that such parameters significantly affected the characteristic of SIFs and it was depend on the location of cracks.

  14. Extended end-plate connection subjected to monotonic loading: Experimental analysis and FEM simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureşan, Ioana Cristina; Bâlc, Roxana

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of a statically monotonic loaded extended end-plate connection, with preloaded high strength bolts, that was carried out at Laboratory of Faculty of Civil Engineering from Cluj-Napoca. A finite element model using the software package Abaqus [1] was developed in parallel. In order to calibrate the numerical model, the results were analyzed on the basis of moment-rotation curves, stress distribution state and the failure mode of connection. Then, a study was conducted on the numerical model by using a high strength steel (HSS) and changing the stiffness and strength characteristics of some elements. Validation of the numerical modeling was performed against the experimental results and it can be seen that good agreements exist in general.

  15. Three-dimensional wake topology and propulsive performance of low-aspect-ratio pitching-rolling plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyu; Dong, Haibo

    2016-07-01

    The wake topology and propulsive performance of low-aspect-ratio plates undergoing a pitching-rolling motion in a uniform stream were numerically investigated by an in-house immersed-boundary-method-based incompressible Navier-Stokes equation solver. A detailed analysis of the vortical structures indicated that the pitching-rolling plate produced double-loop vortices with alternating signs from its trailing edge every half period. These vortices then shed and further evolved into interconnected "double-C"-shaped vortex rings, which eventually formed a bifurcating wake pattern in the downstream. As the wake convected downstream, there was a slight deflection in the spanwise direction to the plate tip, and the contained vortex ring size gradually increased. In addition, the analysis of the propulsive performance indicated that the shedding process of the double-loop vortices led to two peaks in the lift and thrust force production per half cycle. The observation of the double peaks in the force production is in agreement with previous flapping wing studies. Simulations were also used to examine the variations in the wake structures and propulsive performance of the plates over a range of major parameters. The aforementioned vortex structures were found to be quite robust over a range of Strouhal numbers, Reynolds numbers, and plate aspect ratios.

  16. Numerical modeling of mechanical behavior of multilayered composite plates with defects under static loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepanov, V. V.; Serovaev, G. S.

    2017-06-01

    Evaluation of the mechanical state of a structure or its components in the process of operation based on detection of internal damages (damage detection) becomes especially important in such rapidly developing spheres of production as machine building, aerospace industry, etc. One of the most important features of these industries is the application of new types of materials among which polymer based composite materials occupy a significant position. Hence, they must have sufficient operational rigidity and strength. However, defects of various kinds may arise during the manufacture. Delamination is the most common defect in structures made from composite materials and represents a phenomenon that involves the complex fracture of layers and interlayer compounds. Among the reasons of delamination occurrence are: disposition of anti-adhesive lubricants, films; insufficient content of binder, high content of volatile elements; violation of the molding regime; poor quality of anti-adhesive coating on the surface of the tooling. One of the effective methods for analyzing the influence of defects is numerical simulation. With the help of numerical methods, it is possible to track the evolution of various parameters when the defect size and quantity change. In the paper, a multilayered plate of an equally resistant carbon fiber reinforced plastic was considered, with a thickness of each layer equal to 0.2 mm. Various static loading cases are studied: uniaxial tension, three and four-point bending. For each type of loading, a numerical calculation of the stress-strain state was performed for healthy and delaminated plates, with different number and size of the defects. Contact interaction between adjacent surfaces in the zone of delamination was taken into account.

  17. Safety Analysis of the Patch Load Resistance of Plate Girders: Influence of Model Error and Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Shahabian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to undertake a statistical study to evaluate the accuracy of nine models that have been previously proposed for estimating the ultimate resistance of plate girders subjected to patch loading. For each model, mean errors and standard errors, as well as the probability of underestimating or overestimating patch load resistance, are estimated and the resultant values are compared one to another. Prior to that, the models are initially calibrated in order to improve interaction formulae using an experimental data set collected from the literature. The models are then analyzed by computing design factors associated with a target risk level (probability of exceedance. These models are compared one to another considering uncertainties existed in material and geometrical properties. The Monte Carlo simulation method is used to generate random variables. The statistical parameters of the calibrated models are calculated for various coefficients of variations regardless of their correlation with the random resistance variables. These probabilistic results are very useful for evaluating the stochastic sensitivity of the calibrated models.

  18. Numerical modeling of nonlinear deformation and buckling of composite plate-shell structures under pulsed loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrosimov, N. A.

    1999-11-01

    Nonlinear three-dimensional problems of dynamic deformation, buckling, and posteritical behavior of composite shell structures under pulsed loads are analyzed. The structure is assumed to be made of rigidly joined plates and shells of revolution along the lines coinciding with the coordinate directions of the joined elements. Individual structural elements can be made of both composite and conventional isotropic materials. The kinematic model of deformation of the structural elements is based on Timoshenko-type hypotheses. This approach is oriented to the calculation of nonstationary deformation processes in composite structures under small deformations but large displacements and rotation angles, and is implemented in the context of a simplified version of the geometrically nonlinear theory of shells. The physical relations in the composite structural elements are based on the theory of effective moduli for individual layers or for the package as a whole, whereas in the metallic elements this is done in the framework of the theory of plastic flow. The equations of motion of a composite shell structure are derived based on the principle of virtual displacements with some additional conditions allowing for the joint operation of structural elements. To solve the initial boundary-value problem formulated, an efficient numerical method is developed based on the finite-difference discretization of variational equations of motion in space variables and an explicit second-order time-integration scheme. The permissible time-integration step is determined using Neumann's spectral criterion. The above method is especially efficient in calculating thin-walled shells, as well as in the case of local loads acting on the structural element, when the discretization grid has to be condensed in the zones of rapidly changing solutions in space variables. The results of analyzing the nonstationary deformation processes and critical loads are presented for composite and isotropic

  19. Air loads on a rigid plate oscillating normal to a fixed surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beltman, W.M.; Hoogt, van der P.J.M.; Spiering, R.M.E.J.; Tijdeman, H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical and experimental investigation on a rigid, rectangular plate oscillating in the proximity of a fixed surface. The plate is suspended by springs. The airloads generated by the oscillating motion of the plate are determined. Due to the fact that the plate is rigid

  20. Stiffness Analysis of Nail-Plate Joints Subjected to Short-Term Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob

    with beams connected in joints with glue or a mechanical fastener. The types of mechanical fasteners are: nails, staples, bolts, dowels, screws and nail-plates. Bolts and dowels are generally applied to joints in solid structures, and the other fasteners are used in all kinds of light structures. Especially...... types of plates. There are two main types of nail-plates: steel plates perforated with holes in which separate nails are used and steel plates perforated by a stamping machine, so the nails are made from the plate, see figur 1.2 on page 7. This type is sometimes called "punching metal plate...

  1. Ductile Tearing of Thin Aluminum Plates Under Blast Loading. Predictions with Fully Coupled Models and Biaxial Material Response Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gullerud, Arne S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haulenbeek, Kimberly K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reu, Phillip L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The work presented in this report concerns the response and failure of thin 2024- T3 aluminum alloy circular plates to a blast load produced by the detonation of a nearby spherical charge. The plates were fully clamped around the circumference and the explosive charge was located centrally with respect to the plate. The principal objective was to conduct a numerical model validation study by comparing the results of predictions to experimental measurements of plate deformation and failure for charges with masses in the vicinity of the threshold between no tearing and tearing of the plates. Stereo digital image correlation data was acquired for all tests to measure the deflection and strains in the plates. The size of the virtual strain gage in the measurements, however, was relatively large, so the strain measurements have to be interpreted accordingly as lower bounds of the actual strains in the plate and of the severity of the strain gradients. A fully coupled interaction model between the blast and the deflection of the structure was considered. The results of the validation exercise indicated that the model predicted the deflection of the plates reasonably accurately as well as the distribution of strain on the plate. The estimation of the threshold charge based on a critical value of equivalent plastic strain measured in a bulge test, however, was not accurate. This in spite of efforts to determine the failure strain of the aluminum sheet under biaxial stress conditions. Further work is needed to be able to predict plate tearing with some degree of confidence. Given the current technology, at least one test under the actual blast conditions where the plate tears is needed to calibrate the value of equivalent plastic strain when failure occurs in the numerical model. Once that has been determined, the question of the explosive mass value at the threshold could be addressed with more confidence.

  2. Lateral load-carrying capacity analyses of composite shear walls with double steel plates and filled concrete with binding bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德源; 刘凌飞; 朱立猛

    2016-01-01

    A method is developed to predict the lateral load-carrying capacity of composite shear walls with double steel plates and filled concrete with binding bars (SCBs). Nonlinear finite element models of SCBs were established by using the finite element tool, Abaqus. Tie constraints were used to connect the binding bars and the steel plates. Surface-to-surface contact provided by the Abaqus was used to simulate the interaction between the steel plate and the core concrete. The established models could predict the lateral load-carrying capacity of SCBs with a reasonable degree of accuracy. A calculation method was developed by superposition principle to predict the lateral load-carrying capacity of SCBs for the engineering application. The concrete confined by steel plates and binding bars is under multi-axial compression; therefore, its shear strength was calculated by using the Guo-Wang concrete failure criterion. The shear strength of the steel plates of SCBs was calculated by using the von Mises yielding criterion without considering buckling. Results of the developed method are in good agreement with the testing and finite element results.

  3. Experimental studies on the deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pengwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading are studied by using high-speed 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC. An equivalent device consist of a gas gun and a water anvil tube was used to supplying an exponentially decaying pressure in lieu of explosive detonation which acted on the panel specimen. The thin metal plate is clamped on the end of the shock tube by a flange. The deformation and rupture process of the metal plates subject to underwater shock waves are recorded by two high-speed cameras. The shape, displacement fields and strain fields of the metal plates under dynamic loading are obtained by using VIC-3D digital image correlation software. The strain gauges also were used to monitor the structural response on the selected position for comparison. The DIC data and the strain gauges results show a high level of correlation, and 3D-DIC is proven to be an effective method to measure 3D full-field dynamic response of structures under underwater impact loading. The effects of pre-notches on the failure modes of thin circular plate were also discussed.

  4. Application of Approximation Full-Load Distribution Method to Pass Scheduling on Plate Mill With Hydro-Bending System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-lei; ZHANG Qi-sheng; ZHAO Zhong; TIAN Yong; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2006-01-01

    The influence of positive bending system on plate crown control was researched. The approximation full-load distribution method for pass scheduling was put forward. This method can not only make full use of the mill capacity with decreased pass number, but also give quality product of excellent flatness.

  5. Comparison Between Two Solutions Based on the Relationship of Load-deflection Character of a Large Deflection Rubber Circular Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段浩; 胡宗武; 杨赪石; 黎佑铭

    2003-01-01

    The rubber circular plate is considered as a kind of membrane. Based on the character that there existsno bending-moment inside a membrane, the geometric behavior of the rubber circular plate in expanding state wasdescribed with the aid of a group of mathematic method. The relationship between deflection and load was attainedby means of calculating stress and strain inside the curved-surface of rubber plate. Meantime, based on Henckymethod, the relationship between deflection and load was attained and considered as the Hencky solution. The dif-ferent results given rise by the two different resolving methods were compared. The deviation results from theHencky method was discussed, and a kind of correcting method was put forward.

  6. Sensitivity of inertial particle response on turbulent duct flows to mass loading ratio and Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafane, Laura; Banko, Andrew; Elkins, Chris; Eaton, John

    2016-11-01

    The momentum coupled dynamics of particles and turbulence are experimentally investigated in a vertical fully developed turbulent square duct flow of air laden with Nickel particles. Significant preferential concentration is present for the Stokes numbers investigated, which vary from 3 to 30 based on the Kolmogorov time scale. Higher order measures of preferential concentration, such as the sizes and shapes of clusters and voids, are analyzed for increasing mass loading ratios. The mass loadings chosen span the one-way and two-way coupled regimes, while the volume loading is kept low. The effect of Stokes number and mass loading is also evaluated for particle velocity statistics and compared to the unladen gas statistics. Planar laser scattering is used to record instantaneous particle images in the center of the duct. Preferential concentration statistics are computed from box counting and Voronoi tessellation algorithms. PIV and PTV techniques are used to calculate particle velocity statistics. The analysis is extended to the near wall region in the logarithmic layer for the case of low mass loading. These results are compared to those from the duct center to assess the effects of strong carrier phase inhomogeneity on the particle distributions. This Material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0002373-1.

  7. Analogy between slow flow in channels with porous walls and flexure of simply suspended plates under uniform load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare

    2012-11-01

    The effect porous walls are important in the study of biological pipe flows due to the presence of semipermeable cell walls and in industrial filtration applications. Here, we consider slow flow of a viscous incompressible liquid in a channel of constant but arbitrary cross section shape, driven by non-uniform suction or injection through the porous channel walls. A similarity transformation reduces the Navier-Stokes equations to a set of coupled equations for the velocity potential in two dimensions. When the channel aspect ratio and Reynolds number are both small, the problem reduces to solving the biharmonic equation with constant forcing in two dimensions. With the relevant boundary conditions, determining the velocity field in a porous channels is thus equivalent to solving for the vertical displacement of a simply suspended thin plate under uniform load. This allows us to provide analytic solutions for flow in porous channels whose cross-section is e.g. a rectangle or an equilateral triangle, and provides a general framework for the extension of Berman flow (Journal of Applied Physics 24(9), p. 1232, 1953) to three dimensions.

  8. Elastic-plastic analytical solution for centric crack loaded by two pairs of point shear forces in finite plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiao-ping; LING Tong-hua

    2006-01-01

    The near crack line analysis method was used to investigate a centric crack loaded by two pairs of point shear forces in a finite plate, and the analytical solution was obtained. The solution includes the unit normal vector of the elastic-plastic boundary near the crack line, the elastic-plastic stress fields near the crack line, the variations of the length of the plastic zone along the crack line with an external load, and the bearing capacity of a finite plate with a centric crack loaded by two pairs of point shear forces. The results are sufficiently precise near the crack line because the assumptions of small scale yielding theory have not been made and no other assumptions are taken.

  9. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  10. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  11. Fatigue strength of bilayered ceramics under cyclic loading as a function of core veneer thickness ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibner, Aurora Clark; Kelly, J Robert

    2016-03-01

    Minimal evidence is available concerning the appropriate thickness of each layer in bilayered ceramic systems. The purpose of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of core-veneer thickness ratios on the fatigue strength of a bonded bilayered ceramic system. Specimens of Ivoclar Porcelain System (IPS) e.max lithium disilicate were fabricated with core/veneer thicknesses of 0.5/1.0 mm, 0.75/0.75 mm, 1.0/0.5 mm, and 1.5/0.0 mm. All specimens were cemented to bases of a dentin-like material. Each specimen was cyclically loaded by a 2-mm-diameter G10 piston in water. Loads ranging from 10 N to the target load were applied at a frequency of 20 Hertz for 500,000 cycles. If cracked, the next specimen was cycled at a lower load; if not cracked, at a higher load (step size of 25 N). Mean and standard deviations of fatigue loads for the different core thicknesses were 0.5-mm core 610.94 N ±130.11; 0.75-mm core 600.0 N ±132.80; 1.0-mm core 537.50 N ±41.67; a Nd 1.5-mm core 501.14 N ±70.12. All veneered groups were significantly stronger than the full thickness group (ANOVA, Pcore groups (χ(2) test, Pcores increases the fatigue strength of the biceramic system. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bearing Capacity of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE Reinforced Sand Using Plate Load Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Aly K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here is a study to examine the improvement in bearing capacity of coastal sand of Trivandrum, Kerala, India using high density polyethylene (HDPE /woven fabric as reinforcement in discrete layers. The bearing capacity was evaluated using plate load test. The effect of reinforcement configurations like sheet reinforcement (sanded with adhesive, with adhesive and sheet alone and strip reinforcement (single and grid pattern are investigated. The test parameters chosen for the present study are, depth of topmost layer of reinforcement layer below footing, compacted density and number of layers of reinforcement etc. From the tests, it has been observed that sheet reinforcement is more effective than sheet sanded with adhesive and strip reinforcements. It is found that the synthetic adhesive gives no binding action at the interface of the reinforcement and soil. But it is to be noted that the sheet with adhesive dried has a marked influence on the bearing capacity especially at lower densities. The strip reinforcements in single pattern is considered to be a favorable choice for minimum reinforcement. The strip reinforcement in single or grid pattern gives sufficient improvement in strength.

  13. Interference fit effect on holed single plates loaded with tension-tension stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Croccolo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of interference fit coupling on the fatigue strength of holed plates. The effect was investigated both experimentally and numerically. Axial fatigue tests have been carried out on holed specimens made of high performance steel (1075MPa of Ultimate strength and 990MPa of Yield strength with or without a pin, made of the same material, press fitted into their central hole. Three different conditions have been investigated: free hole specimens, specimens with 0.6% of nominal specific interference and specimens with 2% of nominal specific interference. The experimental stress-life (S–N curves pointed out an increased fatigue life of the interference fit specimens compared with the free hole ones. The numerical investigation was performed in order to analyse the stress fields by applying an elastic plastic 2D simulation with a commercial Finite Element software. The stress history and distribution along the contact interference of the fitted samples indicates a significant reduction of the local stress range due to the externally applied loading (remote stress since a residual and compressive stress field is generated by the pin insertion.

  14. Modelling and control of Base Plate Loading subsystem for The Motorized Adjustable Vertical Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsahperi, N. M. H.; Ahmad, S.; Fuad, A. F. M.; Mahmood, I. A.; Toha, S. F.; Akmeliawati, R.; Darsivan, F. J.

    2017-03-01

    Malaysia National Space Agency, ANGKASA is an organization that intensively undergoes many researches especially on space. On 2011, ANGKASA had built Satellite Assembly, Integration and Test Centre (AITC) for spacecraft development and test. Satellite will undergo numerous tests and one of it is Thermal test in Thermal Vacuum Chamber (TVC). In fact, TVC is located in cleanroom and on a platform. The only available facilities for loading and unloading the satellite is overhead crane. By utilizing the overhead crane can jeopardize the safety of the satellite. Therefore, Motorized vertical platform (MAVeP) for transferring the satellite into the TVC with capability to operate under cleanroom condition and limited space is proposed to facilitate the test. MAVeP is the combination of several mechanisms to produce horizontal and vertical motions with the ability to transfer the satellite from loading bay into TVC. The integration of both motions to elevate and transfer heavy loads with high precision capability will deliver major contributions in various industries such as aerospace and automotive. Base plate subsystem is capable to translate the horizontal motion by converting the angular motion from motor to linear motion by using rack and pinion mechanism. Generally a system can be modelled by performing physical modelling from schematic diagram or through system identification techniques. Both techniques are time consuming and required comprehensive understanding about the system, which may expose to error prone especially for complex mechanism. Therefore, a 3D virtual modelling technique has been implemented to represent the system in real world environment i.e. gravity to simulate control performance. The main purpose of this technique is to provide better model to analyse the system performance and capable to evaluate the dynamic behaviour of the system with visualization of the system performance, where a 3D prototype was designed and assembled in Solidworks

  15. Study of stress ratio effect on titanium alloy fatigue under high-frequency loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voznyj, T.S.; Gurvich, Yu.V.; Kirillov, V.I.; Troyan, I.A. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Problem Prochnosti)

    1983-02-01

    Endurance of two titanium alloys, OT4 type ..cap alpha..-alloy and VT6 martensite class, (..cap alpha..+..beta..)-alloy was studied under symmetric and asymmetric tension-compression at 10 kHz frequency and room temperature using a magnetostriction resonance device. The tests were carried out in the air without water cooling usual in high-frequency tests, since a very low hysteresis dissipation of energy was observed under cyclic loading near the fatigue limit of these titanium alloys. Fatigue curves are obtained on the basis of 10/sup 9/ cycles. The ratio is found for the endurance limit based on 10/sup 7/ and 10/sup 8/ cycles to the ultimate strength under symmetric loading. An equation is given which satisfactorily describes limiting amplitude diagrams, and its coefficients are analyzed.

  16. Flight Loads Prediction of High Aspect Ratio Wing Aircraft Using Multibody Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Castellani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A framework based on multibody dynamics has been developed for the static and dynamic aeroelastic analyses of flexible high aspect ratio wing aircraft subject to structural geometric nonlinearities. Multibody dynamics allows kinematic nonlinearities and nonlinear relationships in the forces definition and is an efficient and promising methodology to model high aspect ratio wings, which are known to be prone to structural nonlinear effects because of the high deflections in flight. The multibody dynamics framework developed employs quasi-steady aerodynamics strip theory and discretizes the wing as a series of rigid bodies interconnected by beam elements, representative of the stiffness distribution, which can undergo arbitrarily large displacements and rotations. The method is applied to a flexible high aspect ratio wing commercial aircraft and both trim and gust response analyses are performed in order to calculate flight loads. These results are then compared to those obtained with the standard linear aeroelastic approach provided by the Finite Element Solver Nastran. Nonlinear effects come into play mainly because of the need of taking into account the large deflections of the wing for flight loads computation and of considering the aerodynamic forces as follower forces.

  17. cortisol/cortisone ratio as a valid tool of training load monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Bouaziz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of selected physiological and perceptual measures for monitoring training load and fatigue was studied in 16 male elite rugby sevens players during a 6-week intense training block (IT and 2-week tapering (TAP. Daily training load (TL and strain (TS as well as weekly total score of fatigue (TSF were quantified respectively by the session-rating of perceived exertion (RPE method and an 8-item questionnaire. Also, testing was performed and 24 h urinary cortisol (C, cortisone (Cn, adrenaline (A and noradrenalin (NA excretion was measured before (T0 and after the IT (T1 and after the TAP (T2. The TL, TS and TSF increased during the IT and decreased during the TAP, in conjunction with a significant drop and improvement, respectively, of performance standards during the two periods. At T1, C and Cn levels increased while A and NA levels decreased, resulting in a higher C/Cn ratio and lower A/NA ratio, respectively. At T2, both C/Cn and A/NA returned to baseline values. The changes in C/Cn ratio, after the 6-week IT, were more closely related to mean TL, TS and TSF (r=0.75-0.76 vs. r=0.48-0.58, p<0.01 and to changes in the majority of performance measures than to A/NA ratio. Only the changes in C/Cn ratio after the 2-week TAP were related to mean TL, TS and TSF (r=0.61-0.68, p<0.01. The changes in hormone levels, training strain and performance standards reflected the physical and mental stressors of training, with complete recovery, as indicated by physiological homeostasis, achieved after an appropriate tapering period.

  18. Three Dimensional Parametric Analyses on Effect of Fibre Orientation for Stress Concentration Factor in Fibrous Composite Cantilever Plate with Central Circular Hole under Transverse Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE ABSTRACT: A number of analytical and numerical techniques are available for the two dimensional study of stress concentration around the hole(s in isotropic and composite plates subjected to in-plane or transverse loading conditions. The information on the techniques for three dimensional analyses of stress concentration factor (SCF around the hole in isotropic and composite plates subjected to transverse loading conditions is, however, limited. The present work emphasizes on the effect of fibre orientation (q on the stress concentration factor in fibrous composite plates with central circular hole under transverse static loading condition. The work is carried out for cantilever fibrous composite plates. The effects of thickness -to- width (T/A and diameter-to-width (D/A ratios upon SCF at different fibre orientation are studied. Plates of four different composite materials were considered for hole analysis in order to determine the sensitivity of SCF with elastic constants. Deflections in transverse direction were calculated and analysed. All results are presented in graphical form and discussed. The finite element formulation and its analysis were carried out using ANSYS package.ABSTRAK: Terdapat pelbagai teknik analitikal dan numerical untuk kajian tumpuan tegasan dua dimensi di sekeliling lubang-lubang dalam komposit isotropik dan plat pada satah atau keadaan bebanan melintang. Bagaimanapun, maklumat mengenai kaedah analisis tiga dimensi untuk faktor ketumpatan tegasan (SCF sekitar lubang dalam komposit isotropik dan plat pada keadaan bebanan melintang adalah terhad. Kertas ini menekankan kesan orientasi gentian (q pada faktor tumpuan tegasan dalam komposit plat bergentian dengan lubang berpusat di bawah keadaan bebanan melintang. Kajian ini dilkukan untuk cantilever plat komposit bergentian. Kesan ketebalan terhadap kelebaran plat (T/A dan diameter terhadap kelebaran komposit (D/A dengan SCF

  19. Power training using pneumatic machines vs. plate-loaded machines to improve muscle power in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Anoop T; Gandia, Kristine; Jacobs, Kevin A; Streiner, David L; Eltoukhy, Moataz; Signorile, Joseph F

    2017-08-10

    Power training has been shown to be more effective than conventional resistance training for improving physical function in older adults; however, most trials have used pneumatic machines during training. Considering that the general public typically has access to plate-loaded machines, the effectiveness and safety of power training using plate-loaded machines compared to pneumatic machines is an important consideration. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of high-velocity training using pneumatic machines (Pn) versus standard plate-loaded machines (PL). Independently-living older adults, 60years or older were randomized into two groups: pneumatic machine (Pn, n=19) and plate-loaded machine (PL, n=17). After 12weeks of high-velocity training twice per week, groups were analyzed using an intention-to-treat approach. Primary outcomes were lower body power measured using a linear transducer and upper body power using medicine ball throw. Secondary outcomes included lower and upper body muscle muscle strength, the Physical Performance Battery (PPB), gallon jug test, the timed up-and-go test, and self-reported function using the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and an online video questionnaire. Outcome assessors were blinded to group membership. Lower body power significantly improved in both groups (Pn: 19%, PL: 31%), with no significant difference between the groups (Cohen's d=0.4, 95% CI (-1.1, 0.3)). Upper body power significantly improved only in the PL group, but showed no significant difference between the groups (Pn: 3%, PL: 6%). For balance, there was a significant difference between the groups favoring the Pn group (d=0.7, 95% CI (0.1, 1.4)); however, there were no statistically significant differences between groups for PPB, gallon jug transfer, muscle muscle strength, timed up-and-go or self-reported function. No serious adverse events were reported in either of the groups. Pneumatic and plate-loaded

  20. BUCKLING ANALYSIS UNDER COMBINED LOADING OF THIN-WALLED PLATE ASSEMBLIES USING BUBBLE FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Xuanneng; Zou Yinsheng; Zhou Xuhong

    2000-01-01

    Bubble functions are finite element modes that are zero on the boundary of the element but nonzero at the other point. The present paper adds bubble functions to the ordinary Complex Finite Strip Method(CFSM) to calculate the elastic local buckling stress of plates and plate assemblies. The results indi cate that the use of bubble functions greatly improves the convergence of the Finite Strip Method(FSM) in terms of strip subdivision, and leads to much smaller storage required for the structure stiffness and stability matrices. Numerical examples are given, including plates and plate structures subjected to a combination of longitudinal and transverse compression, bending and shear. This study illustrates the power of bubble func tions in solving stability problems of plates and plate structures.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF 6061 T651 ALUMINUM PLATES SUBJECTED TO HIGH-VELOCITY IMPACT LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren ÖZŞAHİN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic response of single or multi-layered metal armor systems subjected to kinetic energy pro-jectiles was investigated in many experimental, theoretical and numerical studies.In this study, 6061 T651 aluminum plates impacted by 9 mm bullets were investigated. Microstructural investigations have been carried out using optical microscopy. Microhardness values were used to determine the strength behavior of the plates. Influence of the plate thickness and impact velocity on the microstructure has been evaluated. It was concluded from the study that thinner plates are more prone to deformation hardening with high penetration depth values even at low impact velocities while thick plates are more susceptible to thermal softening with less penetration depths. Maximum hardness values were obtained just below the impact zone in both plate thicknesses.

  2. A Cooperative Test of the Load/Unload Response Ratio Proposed Method of Earthquake Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, J. E.; Tullis, T. E.

    2004-12-01

    The Load/Unload Response Ratio (LURR) method is a proposed technique to predict earthquakes that was first put forward by Yin in 1984 (Yin, 1987). LURR is based on the idea that when a region is near failure, there is an increase in the rate of seismic activity during loading of the tidal cycle relative to the rate of seismic activity during unloading of the tidal cycle. Typically the numerator of the LURR ratio is the number, or the sum of some measure of the size (e.g. Benioff strain), of small earthquakes that occur during loading of the tidal cycle, whereas the denominator is the same as the numerator except it is calculated during unloading. LURR method suggests this ratio should increase in the months to year preceding a large earthquake. Regions near failure have tectonic stresses nearly high enough for a large earthquake to occur, thus it seems more likely that smaller earthquakes in the region would be triggered when the tidal stresses add to the tectonic ones. However, until recently even the most careful studies suggested that the effect of tidal stresses on earthquake occurrence is very small and difficult to detect. New studies have shown that there is a tidal triggering effect on shallow thrust faults in areas with strong tides from ocean loading (Tanaka et al., 2002; Cochran et al., 2004). We have been conducting an independent test of the LURR method, since there would be important scientific and social implications if the LURR method were proven to be a robust method of earthquake prediction. Smith and Sammis (2003) also undertook a similar study. Following both the parameters of Yin et al. (2000) and the somewhat different ones of Smith and Sammis (2003), we have repeated calculations of LURR for the Northridge and Loma Prieta earthquakes in California. Though we have followed both sets of parameters closely, we have been unable to reproduce either set of results. A general agreement was made at the recent ACES Workshop in China between research

  3. A discrete particle approach to simulate the combined effect of blast and sand impact loading of steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børvik, T.; Olovsson, L.; Hanssen, A. G.; Dharmasena, K. P.; Hansson, H.; Wadley, H. N. G.

    2011-05-01

    The structural response of a stainless steel plate subjected to the combined blast and sand impact loading from a buried charge has been investigated using a fully coupled approach in which a discrete particle method is used to determine the load due to the high explosive detonation products, the air shock and the sand, and a finite element method predicts the plate deflection. The discrete particle method is based on rigid, spherical particles that transfer forces between each other during collisions. This method, which is based on a Lagrangian formulation, has several advantages over coupled Lagrangian-Eulerian approaches as both advection errors and severe contact problems are avoided. The method has been validated against experimental tests where spherical 150 g C-4 charges were detonated at various stand-off distances from square, edge-clamped 3.4 mm thick AL-6XN stainless steel plates. The experiments were carried out for a bare charge, a charge enclosed in dry sand and a charge enclosed in fully saturated wet sand. The particle-based method is able to describe the physical interactions between the explosive reaction products and soil particles leading to a realistic prediction of the sand ejecta speed and momentum. Good quantitative agreement between the experimental and predicted deformation response of the plates is also obtained.

  4. Computational Film Cooling Effectiveness of Dual Trench Configuration on Flat Plate at Moderate Blowing Ratios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antar M.M.Abdala; Qun Zheng; Fifi N.M.Elwekeel; Ping Dong

    2013-01-01

    In the present work,computational simulations was made using ANSYS CFX to predict the improvements in film cooling performance with dual trench.Dual-trench configuration consists of two trenches together,one wider trench and the other is narrow trench that extruded from the wider one.Several blowing ratios in the range (0.5∶5) were investigated.The pitch-to-diameter ratio of 2.775 is used.By using the dual trench configuration,the coolant jet impacted the trench wall two times allowing increasing the spreading of coolant laterally in the trench,reducing jet velocity and jet completely covered on the surface.The results indicate that this configuration increased adiabatic effectiveness as blowing ratio increased.The spatially averaged adiabatic effectiveness reached 57.6% for at M=2.No observed film blow-offat all blowing ratios.The adiabatic film effectiveness of dual trench case outperformed the narrow trench case,laidback fan-shaped hole,fan-shaped hole and cylinder hole at different blowing ratios.

  5. Appropriate Coupling Solvers for the Numerical Simulation of Rolled Homogeneous Armor Plate Response Subjected to Blast Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad Zaidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rolled homogeneous armor (RHA plate subjected to blast loading is a complex problem involving the nonlinear fluid-structure interaction. The numerical techniques using the spatial discretization scheme that has been provided as a solver in the AUTODYN computer code will be used in this study in order to predict the RHA response subjected to explosive (TNT blast loading. The final deflection will be used as a reference in order to identify the suitable solver for both materials RHA and TNT; then the plastic deformation will be chosen in the simulation process. Instead of using the same solver for RHA and TNT domains, the optimization of solver can be achieved if it is only used in an appropriate domain, or in other words, a different domain will be using different solver. The solvers, which were available in AUTODYN, were used in the analysis of impact and explosion or fluid-structure interaction. Therefore, in this paper, we will determine the suitable solver for both materials (TNT and RHA plate, and the appropriate interaction coupling solver will be obtained. Defining TNT and RHA plates using the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian solver has found the best coupling solver for this case study when compared with existing experimental data. This coupling solver will be used for future analysis in simulating blast-loading phenomena.

  6. Cortical bone development under the growth plate is regulated by mechanical load transfer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, E.J.M.; Hannink, G.J.; Ruimerman, R.; Buma, P.; Burger, E.H.; Huiskes, R.

    2006-01-01

    Longitudinal growth of long bones takes place at the growth plates. The growth plate produces new bone trabeculae, which are later resorbed or merged into the cortical shell. This process implies transition of trabecular metaphyseal sections into diaphyseal sections. We hypothesize that the developm

  7. Tracking the evolution of mantle sources with incompatible element ratios in stagnant-lid and plate-tectonic planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, Kent C.; Shearer, Charles K.

    2017-09-01

    The distribution of high field strength incompatible element ratios Zr/Nb, Nb/Th, Th/Yb and Nb/Yb in terrestrial oceanic basalts prior to 2.7 Ga suggests the absence or near-absence of an enriched mantle reservoir. Instead, most oceanic basalts reflect a variably depleted mantle source similar in composition to primitive mantle. In contrast, basalts from hydrated mantle sources (like those associated with subduction) exist from 4 Ga onwards. The gradual appearance of enriched mantle between 2 and 3 Ga may reflect the onset and propagation of plate tectonics around the globe. Prior to 3 Ga, Earth may have been in a stagnant-lid regime with most basaltic magmas coming from a rather uniform, variably depleted mantle source or from a non-subduction hydrated mantle source. It was not until the extraction of continental crust and accompanying propagation of plate tectonics that ;modern type; enriched and depleted mantle reservoirs developed. Consistent with the absence of plate tectonics on the Moon is the near absence of basalts derived from depleted (DM) and enriched (EM) mantle reservoirs as defined by the four incompatible element ratios of this study. An exception are Apollo 17 basalts, which may come from a mixed source with a composition similar to primitive mantle as one end member and a high-Nb component as the other end member. With exception of Th, which requires selective enrichment in at least parts of the martian mantle, most martian meteorites can be derived from sources similar to terrestrial primitive mantle or by mixing of enriched and depleted mantle end members produced during magma ocean crystallization. Earth, Mars and the Moon exhibit three very different planetary evolution paths. The mantle source regions for Mars and the Moon are ancient and have HFS element signatures of magma ocean crystallization well-preserved, and differences in these signatures reflect magma ocean crystallization under two distinct pressure regimes. In contrast, plate

  8. The constraint method: A new finite element technique. [applied to static and dynamic loads on plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C.; Szabo, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    An approch to the finite element method which utilizes families of conforming finite elements based on complete polynomials is presented. Finite element approximations based on this method converge with respect to progressively reduced element sizes as well as with respect to progressively increasing orders of approximation. Numerical results of static and dynamic applications of plates are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the method. Comparisons are made with plate elements in NASTRAN and the high-precision plate element developed by Cowper and his co-workers. Some considerations are given to implementation of the constraint method into general purpose computer programs such as NASTRAN.

  9. Fabrication of High Aspect Ratio Micro-Penning-Malmberg Gold Plated Silicon Trap Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Narimannezhad, Alireza; Weber, Marc H; Lynn, Kelvin G

    2013-01-01

    Acquiring a portable high density charged particles trap might consist of an array of micro-Penning-Malmberg traps (microtraps) with substantially lower end barriers potential than conventional Penning-Malmberg traps [1]. We report on the progress of the fabrication of these microtraps designed for antimatter storage such as positrons. The fabrication of large length to radius aspect ratio (1000:1) microtrap arrays involved advanced techniques including photolithography, deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of silicon wafers to achieve through-vias, gold sputtering of the wafers on the surfaces and inside the vias, and thermal compression bonding of the wafers. This paper describes the encountered issues during fabrication and addresses geometry errors and asymmetries. In order to minimize the patch effects on the lifetime of the trapped positrons, the bonded stacks were gold electroplated to achieve a uniform gold surface. We show by simulation and analytical calculation that how positrons confinement time depen...

  10. Measurement of buckling load for metallic plate columns in severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Byeongnam, E-mail: jo@vis.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Sagawa, Wataru, E-mail: sagawa@vis.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Okamoto, Koji, E-mail: okamoto@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Buckling load was experimentally measured in a wide range of temperature up to 1200 °C. • Two different test methods for measuring buckling failure load were suggested and compared. • Creep buckling under compressive load was performed to explain results of buckling tests. • Reduced buckling load was explained by effects of creep buckling, geometrical imperfection, and thermal stress. • Buckling processes were visualized by a high speed camera. - Abstract: In severe accidents, a reactor pressure vessel, its components, and piping have to be under extremely high temperature and high pressure conditions, which results in failure modes like rupture by internal pressure, buckling, creep, and their combinations. In this study, buckling (failure) load was experimentally measured for metallic columns under the compressive force from room temperature up to 1200 °C. A stainless steel was chosen to be a test material to measure the buckling load. Two different test methods were employed to explore the effect of thermal history of the material on the buckling load. Particularly, the effect of creep under a compressive load was considered as a reason for the reduced buckling load at high temperatures. Additionally, finite element simulations were also conducted to predict buckling load for both an ideal column and a column with geometrical imperfection as well. Moreover, buckling process was visualized using a high speed camera to understand buckling processes.

  11. Lithospheric Rheology Constrained by Loading of the Hawaiian Islands and its Implications for the Dynamics of Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, S.; Watts, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Lithospheric rheology is important for understanding crustal and lithospheric dynamics, and the conditions for plate tectonics. For example, numerical modeling studies suggest that plate tectonics emerge from the dynamics of mantle convection when a small coefficient of friction (significantly to match the observations, together with frictional coefficient in the range from 0.1 to 0.7. However, the small coefficient of friction weakens the shallow part of the lithosphere so much that it causes the minima in strain rate and stress to occur at too large depths to be consistent with the depth distribution of seismicity at Hawaii. Our results therefore suggest that the coefficient of friction is between 0.25 and 0.7. Finally, maximum lithospheric stress under Hawaiian loads is about 100-200 MPa for models that match the observations, and this stress may be viewed as the largest lithospheric stress on the Earth.

  12. Displacement analysis of a bend plate test with mechanical loading and laser heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, P.S.

    1997-09-01

    The surface displacment of a steel plate caused by a permanent deformation as a result of local yielding was modeled by a finite element analysis. The local yielding occurs when a small area of the plate is heated by a laser beam. The calculated displacments are in good agreement with the preliminary experimental data obtained using a bend specimen with laser heating at the University of Alabama at Huntsville. It has been shown computuationally and optically that the relative displacments are less than 1mm near the laser heated area of the specimen. The results demonstrate that the experimental approach is a feasible technique for determining the residual stress under multiaxial stress field.

  13. Simplification of the Plasma Load of Negative-Pulse-Bias Source Used in Arc Ion Plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong QI; Ninghui WANG; Guoqiang LIN; Zhenfeng DING

    2003-01-01

    Based on the voltage and current fluctuating phenomenon in the arc plasma load under the negative-pulse-bias, usingthe plasma physics theory and analysis of computer simulation expatiates that the nature of plasma load in vacuumarc plasma is a capacitance

  14. Experimental study on the wave loads of twin-plate breakwater under oblique waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Qian; HUANG Guoxing; ZHANG Ningchuan; LI Longxiang; SHAO Zhongan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, systematic physical model tests were performed to investigate the wave forces on the twin-plate breakwater under irregular waves. Based on the experimental results, the effects of the relative plate widthB/L, wave heightHs/D and incident angleθ0 on the wave forces were analyzed and discussed. The results showed that: (1) The envelopes of the total wave pressure were generally symmetrical along the direction of plate width under the incident angles (θ0) being 0°, 15°, 30°, 45° and 60°. In particular, the envelopes of wave pressure atθ0=30° were larger than all other cases. (2) The synchronous pressure distribution of the breakwater under oblique wave action was more complicated comparing to the normal incident waves. (3) Based on data analysis, an empirical formula was obtained to estimate the total vertical force of the twin-plate breakwater. This empirical formula can be a good reference for the design basis of engineering applications under specified wave conditions.

  15. Fatigue Modeling for Superelastic NiTi Considering Cyclic Deformation and Load Ratio Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtabi, Mohammad J.; Shamsaei, Nima

    2017-08-01

    A cumulative energy-based damage model, called total fatigue toughness, is proposed for fatigue life prediction of superelastic NiTi alloys with various deformation responses (i.e., transformation stresses), which also accounts for the effects of mean strain and stress. Mechanical response of superelastic NiTi is highly sensitive to chemical composition, material processing, as well as operating temperature; therefore, significantly different deformation responses may be obtained for seemingly identical NiTi specimens. In this paper, a fatigue damage parameter is proposed that can be used for fatigue life prediction of superelastic NiTi alloys with different mechanical properties such as loading and unloading transformation stresses, modulus of elasticity, and austenite-to-martensite start and finish strains. Moreover, the model is capable of capturing the effects of tensile mean strain and stress on the fatigue behavior. Fatigue life predictions using the proposed damage parameter for specimens with different cyclic stress responses, tested at various strain ratios (R ɛ = ɛ min /ɛ max) are shown to be in very good agreement with the experimentally observed fatigue lives.

  16. A boundary-integral model for drop deformation between two parallel plates with non-unit viscosity ratio drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, P. J. A.; Anderson, P. D.

    2008-10-01

    A boundary-integral method is presented for drop deformation between two parallel walls for non-unit viscosity ratio systems. To account for the effect of the walls the Green's functions are modified and all terms for the double-layer potential are derived. The full three-dimensional implementation is validated, and the model is shown to be accurate and consistent. The method is applied to study drop deformation in shear flow. An excellent match with small-deformation theory is found at low capillary numbers, and our results match with other BIM simulations for pressure-driven flows. For shear flow with moderate capillary numbers, we see that the behavior of a low-viscosity drop is similar to that of drop with a viscosity ratio of unity. High-viscosity drops, on the other hand, are prevented from rotating in shear flow, which results in a larger deformation, but less overshoot in the drop axes is observed. In contrast with unconfined flow, high-viscosity drops can be broken in shear flow between parallel plates; for low-viscosity drops the critical capillary number is higher in confined situations.

  17. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  18. Lithospheric loading by the 1896 Riku-u earthquake, northern Japan: implications for plate flexure and asthenospheric rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, W.; Matsuda, T.; Kato, T.; Rundle, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    Under favorable circumstances the time-dependent aseismic deformation resulting from the loading of the lithosphere by the stress drop of large dip slip earthquakes can be used to determine both the effective elastic plate thickness and the asthenospheric viscosity. The deformation has several similarities with the deflection of the lithosphere by surface loads and with movements due to postglacial rebound. Level changes obtained in the 80 years since the M = 7.5, 1896 Riku-u earthquake, an intraplate thrust event in northern Honshu, provide convincing evidence that asthenospheric readjustments are responsible for the observed movements. Leveling surveys crossing the zone of surface faulting have been repeated five times since 1900 and delineate a localized depression that has subsided at a continually decreasing rate. The depression is centered close to the 1896 faulting, and its shape and width, about 75 km, are matched by our model using a plate thickness of 30 km. The decaying subsidence rate constrains the viscosity of the uppermost asthenosphere to be 1 x 1020 P. A linear viscous rheology matches the observed decay quite well, although measurements are sparse during the several decades following the earthquake. -Authors

  19. A Serial Sample Loading System: Interfacing Multi-well plates with Microfluidic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Rane, Tushar D.; Zec, Helena; Wang, Jeff Tza-Huei

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for novel high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. The robotic sample handling techniques currently used in these industries, although fast, are still limited to operating in multi-well plates with the sample volumes per reaction in the microliter regime. Digital microfluidics offers an alternative for reduction in sample volume consumption for HTS but lacks a reliable technique for transporting large num...

  20. Experimental Structural Dynamic Response of Plate Specimens Due to Sonic Loads in a Progressive Wave Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Juan F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to assess the repeatability of experiments at NASA Langley's Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) facility and to use these experiments to validate numerical models. Experiments show that power spectral density (PSD) curves were repeatable except at the resonant frequencies, which tended to vary between 5 Hz to 15 Hz. Results show that the thinner specimen had more variability in the resonant frequency location than the thicker sample, especially for modes higher than the first mode in the frequency range. Root Mean Square (RMS) tended to be more repeatable. The RMS behaved linearly through the SPL range of 135 to 153 dB. Standard Deviations (STDs) of the results tended to be relatively low constant up to about 147 dB. The RMS results were more repeatable than the PDS results. The STD results were less than 10% of the RMS results for both the 0.125 in (0.318 cm) and 0.062 in (0.1588 cm) thick plate. The STD of the PSD results were around 20% to 100% of the mean PSD results for non-resonant and resonant frequencies, respectively, for the 0.125 in (0.318 cm) thicker plate and between 25% to 125% of the mean PSD results, for nonresonant and resonant frequencies, respectively, for the thinner plate.

  1. Prevalence of Oral Manifestations and Their Association with CD4/CD8 Ratio and HIV Viral Load in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Gaurav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to determine the prevalence of oral manifestations in an HIV infected population from south India and evaluate their association with HIV viral load and CD4/CD8 ratio. Intraoral examination of 103 patients, whose CD4/CD8 ratio was available, were conducted. HIV viral loads were available for thirty patients only. The prevalence of oral manifestations was 80.6% (83/103. The most common oromucosal lesion was erythematous candidiasis (EC (38.8% followed by melanotic hyperpigmentation (35.9%. Patients having any oral manifestation had a mean CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.24. EC had positive predictive value of 85.0% for CD4/CD8 ratio 20,000 copies/mL (20,000 copies/mL.

  2. The comparative study for the isotropic and orthotropic circular plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C.; Tomescu, G.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of study is static bending analysis of an isotropic circular plate using analytical method i.e. Classical Plate Theory, Finite Element software ANSYS and experimental methods. The diameter of circular plate, material properties, like modulus of elasticity (E), poissons ratio (µ) and intensity of loading is assumed at the initial stage of research work. In comparison with this plane plate we analyze a plate of same dimensions and charge, but having ribs, to see the advantage of the rigidify. The two plates are fixed supported subjected to uniformly distributed load.

  3. Impacts of Ventilation Ratio and Vent Balance on Cooling Load and Air Flow of Naturally Ventilated Attics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Shen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of ventilation ratio and vent balance on cooling load and air flow of naturally ventilated attics are studied in this paper using an unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD model. Buoyancy-driven turbulent ventilations in attics of gable-roof residential buildings are simulated for typical summer conditions. Ventilation ratios from 1/400 to 1/25 combined with both balanced and unbalanced vent configurations are investigated. The modeling results show that the air flows in the attics are steady and exhibit a general streamline pattern that is qualitatively insensitive to the variations in ventilation ratio and vent configuration. The predicted temperature fields are characterized by thermal stratification, except for the soffit regions. It is demonstrated that an increase in ventilation ratio will reduce attic cooling load. Compared with unbalanced vent configurations, balanced attic ventilation is shown to be the optimal solution in both maximizing ventilating flow rate and minimizing cooling load for attics with ventilation ratio lower than 1/100. For attics with ventilation ratios greater than 1/67, a configuration of large ridge vent with small soffit vent favors ventilating air flow enhancement, while a configuration of small ridge vent with large soffit vent results in the lowest cooling energy consumption.

  4. Evaluation of formaldehyde emission from particleboard using the large chamber and desiccator method at various loading ratios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUE Ze-li; WANG Fei-bin; MA Ling-fei; Furuno Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    We studied formaldehyde emission from uncoated particleboard with 16-mm thickness using the large chamber and the desiccator method.A chamber of 28.4 m3 was installed to simulate a mobile home.The formaldehyde off-gassing properties of particleboard were evaluated using the chamber.The relationship between the concentration obtained by the chamber and the values by the desiccator test was discussed in this study under different conditions of conditioning day,air exchange,and loading ratio.These two methods were compared and discussed regarding the formaldehyde emission level.Three loading ratios,0.429 m2/m3,0.264 m2/m3,and 0.132 m2/m3,were chosen to represent different applications of particleboard products.There was strong correlation between emissions and air exchange rates at equal product-loading ratios in the large chamber,the related coefficient R2 exceeded 0.90.There was also an indication of a generic correlation between the large chamber and the two-hour desiccator test with a single product designated loading ratio,air exchange rate,and climatic conditions.

  5. Damage Simulation in Non-Crimp Fabric Composite Plates Subjected to Impact Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Bogert, Philip B.; Aitharaju, Venkat; Aashat, Satvir; Kia, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Progressive failure analysis (PFA) of non-crimp fabric (NCF) composite laminates subjected to low velocity impact loads was performed using the COmplete STress Reduction (COSTR) damage model implemented through VUMAT and UMAT41 user subroutines in the frame works of the commercial finite element programs ABAQUS/Explicit and LS-DYNA, respectively. To validate the model, low velocity experiments were conducted and detailed correlations between the predictions and measurements for both intra-laminar and inter-laminar failures were made. The developed material and damage model predicts the peak impact load and duration very close with the experimental results. Also, the simulation results of delamination damage between the ply interfaces, in-plane matrix damages and fiber damages were all in good agreement with the measurements from the non-destructive evaluation data.

  6. Dynamic analysis of isotropic nanoplates subjected to moving load using state-space method based on nonlocal second order plate theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nami, Mohammad Rahim [Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Janghorban, Maziar [Islamic Azad University, Marvdash (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this work, dynamic analysis of rectangular nanoplates subjected to moving load is presented. In order to derive the governing equations of motion, second order plate theory is used. To capture the small scale effects, the nonlocal elasticity theory is adopted. It is assumed that the nanoplate is subjected to a moving concentrated load with the constant velocity V in the x direction. To solve the governing equations, state-space method is used to find the deflections of rectangular nanoplate under moving load. The results obtained here reveal that the nonlocality has significant effect on the deflection of rectangular nanoplate subjected to moving load.

  7. Development of a Highly Portable Plate Loading Device and In Situ Modulus Measurements in Weak Rock Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallu, Raj R.; Keffeler, Evan R.; Watters, Robert J.; Warren, Sean N.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, underground mines in Nevada are increasingly exploiting in weak mineralized zones at greater depths that are intensely fractured and highly altered. The mechanical behavior of these rock masses ranges between weak rock and very stiff soil. A common limitation for design of underground mining excavations in these types of rock masses is absence of in situ geotechnical data. This limitation is generally overcome by estimating in situ mechanical behavior from empirical relationships so that the continuum-based numerical methods can be used to evaluate ground support designs. Because of the cost, time, and specialized equipment involved, historically in situ tests have not been performed in these underground mines. Predictive rock mass modulus relationships that are currently available in the literature are derived from field testing of predominantly good-quality rock masses. Consequently, there is limited confidence in using these models for rock masses with Rock Mass Ratings less than 45. In order to overcome some of these limitations, a portable plate loading device (PPLD) was designed and fabricated. The PPLD allows one to perform low cost and relatively quick in situ deformability tests to be performed on weak rock masses in underground mines. Test procedures and data reduction methods were developed to limit potential sources of error associated with the PPLD test. A total of fourteen plate loading tests were performed in weak rock masses at two different active underground mines in Nevada, USA. The resulting the test data were compared to eight published empirical rock mass modulus relationships to determine which, if any, of these relationships are sufficiently accurate for estimating modulus in similar geotechnical conditions. Only two of these relationships were found to be sufficient for first-order estimations of in situ modulus.

  8. On plane stress state and stress free deformation of thick plate with FGM interface under thermal loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szubartowski, Damian; Ganczarski, Artur

    2016-10-01

    This paper demonstrates the plane stress state and the stress free thermo-elastic deformation of FGM thick plate under thermal loading. First, the Sneddon-Lockett theorem on the plane stress state in an isotropic infinite thick plate is generalized for a case of FGM problem in which all thermo-mechanical properties are optional functions of depth co-ordinate. The proof is based on application of the Iljushin thermo-elastic potential to displacement type system of equations that reduces it to the plane stress state problem. Then an existence of the purely thermal deformation is proved in two ways: first, it is shown that the unique solution fulfils conditions of simultaneous constant temperature and linear gradation of thermal expansion coefficient, second, proof is based directly on stress type system of equations which straightforwardly reduces to compatibility equations for purely thermal deformation if only stress field is homogeneous in domain and at boundary. Finally, couple examples of application to an engineering problem are presented.

  9. Gust load alleviation wind tunnel tests of a large-aspect-ratio flexible wing with piezoelectric control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Bi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An active control technique utilizing piezoelectric actuators to alleviate gust-response loads of a large-aspect-ratio flexible wing is investigated. Piezoelectric materials have been extensively used for active vibration control of engineering structures. In this paper, piezoelectric materials further attempt to suppress the vibration of the aeroelastic wing caused by gust. The motion equation of the flexible wing with piezoelectric patches is obtained by Hamilton’s principle with the modal approach, and then numerical gust responses are analyzed, based on which a gust load alleviation (GLA control system is proposed. The gust load alleviation system employs classic proportional-integral-derivative (PID controllers which treat piezoelectric patches as control actuators and acceleration as the feedback signal. By a numerical method, the control mechanism that piezoelectric actuators can be used to alleviate gust-response loads is also analyzed qualitatively. Furthermore, through low-speed wind tunnel tests, the effectiveness of the gust load alleviation active control technology is validated. The test results agree well with the numerical results. Test results show that at a certain frequency range, the control scheme can effectively alleviate the z and x wingtip accelerations and the root bending moment of the wing to a certain extent. The control system gives satisfying gust load alleviation efficacy with the reduction rate being generally over 20%.

  10. Flexural edge waves generated by steady-state propagation of a loaded rectilinear crack in an elastically supported thin plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, Andrea; Radi, Enrico; Lanzoni, Luca

    2017-08-01

    The problem of a rectilinear crack propagating at constant speed in an elastically supported thin plate and acted upon by an equally moving load is considered. The full-field solution is obtained and the spotlight is set on flexural edge wave generation. Below the critical speed for the appearance of travelling waves, a threshold speed is met which marks the transformation of decaying edge waves into edge waves propagating along the crack and dying away from it. Yet, besides these, and for any propagation speed, a pair of localized edge waves, which rapidly decay behind the crack tip, is also shown to exist. These waves are characterized by a novel dispersion relation and fade off from the crack line in an oscillatory manner, whence they play an important role in the far field behaviour. Dynamic stress intensity factors are obtained and, for speed close to the critical speed, they show a resonant behaviour which expresses the most efficient way to channel external work into the crack. Indeed, this behaviour is justified through energy considerations regarding the work of the applied load and the energy release rate. Results might be useful in a wide array of applications, ranging from fracturing and machining to acoustic emission and defect detection.

  11. Functionalized Nano-Film Microchannel Plate: A Single High Aspect Ratio Device for High Resolution, Low Noise Astronomical Imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is to apply proven nano-film technology to enable Microchannel plate (MCP) devices to be manufactured on a range of insulating substrates and...

  12. Functionalized Nano-Film Microchannel Plate: A Single High Aspect Ratio Device for High Resolution, Low Noise Astronomical Imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atomic layer deposited functional nano-film technology is used to manufacture Microchannel plate (MCP) devices capable of high gain / low ion feedback operation, on...

  13. Steel plates and concrete filled composite shear walls related nuclear structural engineering: Experimental study for out-of-plane cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaohu [The College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Li, Xiaojun, E-mail: beerli@vip.sina.com [The College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Based on the program of CAP1400 nuclear structural engineering, the out-of-plane seismic behavior of steel plate and concrete infill composite shear walls (SCW) was investigated. 6 1/5 scaled specimens were conducted which consist of 5 SCW specimens and 1 reinforced concrete (RC) specimen. The specimens were tested under out-of-plane cyclic loading. The effect of the thickness of steel plate, vertical load and the strength grade of concrete on the out-of-plane seismic behavior of SCW were analyzed. The results show that the thickness of steel plate and vertical load have great influence on the ultimate bearing capacity and lateral stiffness, however, the influence of the strength grade of concrete was little within a certain range. SCW is presented to have a better ultimate capacity and lateral stiffness but have worse ductility in failure stage than that of RC. Based on the experiment, the cracking load of concrete infill SCW was analyzed in theory. The modified calculation formula of the cracking load was made, the calculated results showed good agreement with the test results. The formula can be used as the practical design for the design of cracking loads.

  14. Performance graphs for solar-savings fraction vs. load-collector ratio for selected cities in the South

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, D.W.; Winkler, G.A.

    1981-06-01

    A graphical presentation is provided of Solar Savings Fraction (SFF) versus Load Collector Ratio (LCR) for 14 southern cities. Individual plots are shown for five standard passive systems: direct gain, Trombe wall, water wall, Type A sunspace, and Type B sunspace. Both uninsulated and night-insulated systems are considered for a total of ten plots per site. Instructions for using the graphs to estimate Solar Savings Fraction and annual auxiliary energy consumption are also included.

  15. The effect of the elliptical ratio on the tubular energy absorber subjected to lateral loading under quasistatic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Olabi A.G.; Baroutaji A.

    2010-01-01

    Tubular systems are proposed to be used as energy absorber because they are cheap and easy to manufacture; recently some researchers use the elliptical tube as energy absorber. In this work, the influence of elliptical ratio (r =D1/D2) on energy absorption capability and load carrying capacity and stress of mild steel elliptical tubes has been investigated both experimentally and numerically, the experimental analyses conducted by using Zwick Type BT1-FB050TN testing instrument. This m...

  16. A comparative computational investigation on the effects of randomly distributed general corrosion on the post-buckling behaviour of uniaxially loaded plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khedmati, Mohammad Reza; Nouri, Zorareh Hadj Mohammad Esmaeil; Roshanali, Mohammad Mahdi [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Post-buckling behaviour and ultimate strength of imperfect corroded steel plates used in ships and other related marine structures are investigated. Nonlinear elastic-plastic large deflection finite element analyses are performed on corroded steel plates. General corrosion wastage is considered to be distributed randomly on either one or both surfaces of the analyzed plates. The effects of general corrosion are introduced into the finite element models using a random thickness surface model. The effects of corroded plate parameters on the plate post-buckling and ultimate strengths are evaluated in detail. It was realized that the aspect ratio and thickness (slenderness) of the corroded plates affects their strength characteristics. Age of the plate models affects mainly their post-buckling-strength regimes and degrades their buckling/ultimate strength. Also, nonlinear post-buckling characteristics of the plates suffering either one-side or both-side random corrosion exhibit some differences. Finally, simple empirical formulations are proposed in order to give rough estimations of the ultimate strength of randomly corroded plates.

  17. Hormonal modulation of novelty processing in women: Enhanced under working memory load with high dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-to-dehydroepiandrosterone ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale, Sónia; Selinger, Lenka; Martins, João Martin; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; Escera, Carles

    2016-11-10

    Several studies have suggested that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) may enhance working memory and attention, yet current evidence is still inconclusive. The balance between both forms of the hormone might be crucial regarding the effects that DHEA and DHEAS exert on the central nervous system. To test the hypothesis that higher DHEAS-to-DHEA ratios might enhance working memory and/or involuntary attention, we studied the DHEAS-to-DHEA ratio in relation to involuntary attention and working memory processing by recording the electroencephalogram of 22 young women while performing a working memory load task and a task without working memory load in an audio-visual oddball paradigm. DHEA and DHEAS were measured in saliva before each task. We found that a higher DHEAS-to-DHEA ratio was related to enhanced auditory novelty-P3 amplitudes during performance of the working memory task, indicating an increased processing of the distracter, while on the other hand there was no difference in the processing of the visual target. These results suggest that the balance between DHEAS and DHEA levels modulates involuntary attention during the performance of a task with cognitive load without interfering with the processing of the task-relevant visual stimulus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coupled Effect of Expansion Ratio and Blade Loading on the Aerodynamics of a High-Pressure Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gaetani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The need of a continuous improvement in gas turbine efficiency for propulsion and power generation, as well as the more demanding operating conditions and power control required to these machines, still ask for great efforts in the design and analysis of the high pressure section of the turbo-expander. To get detailed insights and improve the comprehension of the flow physics, a wide experimental campaign has been performed in the last ten years at Politecnico di Milano on the unsteady aerodynamics of a high-pressure turbine stage considering several operating conditions. This paper presents and discusses the experimental results obtained for the stage operating with different expansion ratios and rotor loading. The turbine stage under study is representative of a modern high-pressure turbine and can be operated in both subsonic and transonic conditions. The experimental tools applied for the current research represents the state of the art when unsteady investigations are foreseen. The detailed flow field, the blade–rows interaction and the overall performance are described and discussed; efforts have been devoted to the discussion of the various contribution to the overall stage efficiency. The direct effects of the expansion ratio, affecting the Reynolds and the Mach numbers, have been highlighted and quantified; similarly, the indirect effects, accounting for a change in the rotor loading, have been commented and quantified as well, thanks to a dedicated set of experiments where different rotor loadings at the same expansion ratio have been prescribed.

  19. The Effects of Load Ratio on Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth of Aluminum Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, John Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The integrity of nearly all engineering structures are threatened by the presence of cracks. Structural failure occurs if a crack larger than a critical size exists. Although most well designed structures initially contain no critical cracks, subcritical cracks can grow to failure under fatigue loading, called fatigue crack growth (FCG). Because it is impossible or impractical to prevent subcritical crack growth in most applications, a damage tolerant design philosophy was developed for cr...

  20. Compressive loading at the end plate directly regulates flow and deformation of the basivertebral vein: an analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hsiang-Ho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic diseases and infections frequently involve the spine. This is the result of seeding of the vertebral body by tumor cells or bacteria delivered by venous blood from Batson's plexus, which is hypothesized to enter the vertebral body via the epidural veins. Isolated spinal segments deform significantly at the bony end plate when under compression. This deformation could cause a volume change of the vertebral body and may be accompanied by retrograde flow of venous blood. To date, this process has not been investigated quantitatively. The purpose of this study was to determine the volume changes of the vertebral body and basivertebral vein for a vertebral body under compression. Methods A three-dimensional finite element mesh model of the L4 segment with both adjacent discs was modified from a 3-D computed tomography scan image. An octagon representing the basivertebral vein was introduced into the center of the vertebral body in the model. Four compressive orientations (1500 N were applied on the top disc. The volume change of the vertebral body model and the basivertebral vein were then computed. Results The volume change of the vertebral body was about 0.1 cm3 (16.3% of the basivertebral vein for the four loading conditions. The maximum cross-sectional area reductions of the basivertebral vein and volume reduction were 1.54% and 1.02%, for uniform compression. Conclusion Our study quantified the small but significant volume change of a modeled vertebral body and cross-sectional areas and that of the basivertebral vein, due to the inward bulging of the end plate under compression. This volume change could initiate the reverse flow of blood from the epidural venous system and cause seeding of tumors or bacterial cells.

  1. Influence of Hold Time and Stress Ratio on Cyclic Creep Properties Under Controlled Tension Loading Cycles of Grade 91 Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Park, Jae Young; Jang, Jin Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ekaputra, I Made Wicaksana; Kim, Seon Jin [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Influences of hold time and stress ratio on cyclic creep properties of Grade 91 steel were systemically investigated using a wide range of cyclic creep tests, which were performed with hold times (HTs) of 1 minute, 3 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 20 minutes, and 30 minutes and stress ratios (R) of 0.5, 0.8, 0.85, 0.90, and 0.95 under tension loading cycles at 600°C. Under the influence of HT, the rupture time increased to HT = 5 minutes at R = 0.90 and R = 0.95, but there was no influence at R = 0.50, 0.80, and 0.85. The creep rate was constant regardless of an increase in the HT, except for the case of HT = 5 minutes at R = 0.90 and R = 0.95. Under the influence of stress ratio, the rupture time increased with an increase in the stress ratio, but the creep rate decreased. The cyclic creep led to a reduction in the rupture time and an acceleration in the creep rate compared with the case of monotonic creep. Cyclic creep was found to depend dominantly on the stress ratio rather than on the HT. Fracture surfaces displayed transgranular fractures resulting from microvoid coalescence, and the amount of microvoids increased with an increase in the stress ratio. Enhanced coarsening of the precipitates in the cyclic creep test specimens was found under all conditions.

  2. Optimizing loading path and die linetype of large length-to-diameter ratio metal stator screw lining hydroforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝效华; 石昌帅; 童华

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet the high temperature environment requirement of deep and superdeep well exploitation, a technology of large length-to-diameter ratio metal stator screw lining meshing with rotor is presented. Based on the elastic-plasticity theory, and under the consideration of the effect of tube size, material mechanical parameters, friction coefficient and loading paths, the external pressure plastic forming mechanical model of metal stator screw lining is established, to study the optimal loading path of metal stator lining tube hydroforming process. The results show that wall thickness reduction of the external pressure tube hydroforming (THF) is about 4%, and three evaluation criteria of metal stator screw lining forming quality are presented: fillet stick mold coefficient, thickness relative error and forming quality coefficient. The smaller the three criteria are, the better the forming quality is. Each indicator has a trend of increase with the loading rate reducing, and the adjustment laws of die arc transition zone equidistance profile curve are acquired for improving tube forming quality. Hence, the research results prove the feasibility of external pressure THF used for processing high-accuracy large length-to-diameter ratio metal stator screw lining, and provide theoretical basis for designing new kind of stator structure which has better performance and longer service life.

  3. FATIGUE DAMAGE CALCULATED BY RATIO-METHOD TO METALLIC MATERIALS WITH SMALL CRACK UNDER UNSYMMETRIC CYCLIC LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yangui; LIU Xiang; ZHANG Changsheng; TAN Yanhua

    2006-01-01

    Based on the standpoint to take for the crack size also to be a damage variable like the damage variable, by means of the two-directions coordinate system, several new calculation equations on the small crack growth rate are suggested for describing the elastic-plastic behavior of some metallic materials. And the estimation formulas of life are also suggested relative to varied small crack size at each loading history, which is unsymmetric cyclic loading. In the calculation method, as a loaded stress-strain parameter to adopt the ratio with plastic strain range to elastic strain range, and as the material constants using the typical material parameters in damage calculation expression, a new concept of the compositive material constant, which has functional relation with the typical material constants, average stress, average strain, critical loading time is given out. In addition, the fatigue damage of a part of car is put up to calculate as an example, its calculation results are accordant with the Landgraf's equation, and calculation precision is more rigorous, so could avoid unnecessary fatigue tests and will be of practical significance on saving times, manpower and capitals,as well as the convenience for engineering applications.

  4. Effect of load ratio, testing frequency, temperature, moisture, notch and stacking sequence on the fatigue resistance of woven CFRP laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Lani, Frédéric; 6th International Conference on Fatigue of Composite ICFC2015

    2015-01-01

    A woven CFRP composite laminate has been thoroughly characterized under fatigue. Over 150 tests were performed in order to address the effect of sample geometry (Open Hole Tension, Open Hole Compression, Plain Compression, …), testing frequency (5Hz, 30Hz) with and without cooling system, load ratio (R=10., R=-1., R=0.1), temperature (RT and 120°C), moisture intake (50% RH and 85+% RH at RT), notch (Open Hole Vs. Plain Specimen), stacking sequence (3 different stacking sequences) on the measu...

  5. Influence of the Saturation Ratio on Concrete Behavior under Triaxial Compressive Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan-Dung Vu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When a concrete structure is subjected to an impact, the material is subjected to high triaxial compressive stresses. Furthermore, the water saturation ratio in massive concrete structures may reach nearly 100% at the core, whereas the material dries quickly on the skin. The impact response of a massive concrete wall may thus depend on the state of water saturation in the material. This paper presents some triaxial tests performed at a maximum confining pressure of 600 MPa on concrete representative of a nuclear power plant containment building. Experimental results show the concrete constitutive behavior and its dependence on the water saturation ratio. It is observed that as the degree of saturation increases, a decrease in the volumetric strains as well as in the shear strength is observed. The coupled PRM constitutive model does not accurately reproduce the response of concrete specimens observed during the test. The differences between experimental and numerical results can be explained by both the influence of the saturation state of concrete and the effect of deviatoric stresses, which are not accurately taken into account. The PRM model was modified in order to improve the numerical prediction of concrete behavior under high stresses at various saturation states.

  6. A Comparison of Vibroacoustic Response of Isotropic Plate with Attached Discrete Patches and Point Masses Having Different Thickness Variation with Different Taper Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of sound radiation behavior of plate in air medium with attached discrete patches/point masses having different thickness variations with different taper ratio of 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 is analysed. Finite element method is used to find the vibration characteristics while Rayleigh integral is used to predict the sound radiation characteristics. Minimum peak sound power level obtained is at a taper ratio of 0.6 with parabolic increasing-decreasing thickness variation for plate with four discrete patches. At higher taper ratio, linearly increasing-decreasing thickness variation is another alternative for minimum peak sound power level suppression with discrete patches. It is found that, in low frequency range, average radiation efficiency remains almost the same, but near first peak, four patches or four point masses cause increase in average radiation efficiency; that is, redistribution of point masses/patches does have effect on average radiation efficiency at a given taper ratio.

  7. Impact of seed loading ratio on the growth kinetics of mono-ammonium phosphate under isothermal batch crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Bingwen; Yang, Haotian; Ding, Yigang [Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-02-15

    The effect of seed load ratio on the growth kinetics of Mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) under isothermal batch crystallization was investigated quantitatively. A direct parameter estimation method was proposed and applied to extract the growth kinetic parameters from a simple crystallization model using our experimental solution concentration decline data. The method assured the globally best parameters to be obtained and was found less sensitive to experimental errors. The linear growth constants k{sub g} and the growth order g were found to be in the range of 1,000-2,600 μm·min{sup -1} and 0.93-1.12, respectively, for MAP crystallized at 40 .deg. C. Both parameters decreased significantly with increase of seed load ratio and k{sub g} even showed a strong linear decline trend. The effective crystallization time also decreased with the seed mass. The proposed methodology could be extended to study the effect of other operation variables such as temperature and initial supersaturation on the crystal growth rate.

  8. Effect of Stress Ratio and Loading Frequency on the Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of Smooth Steel Wire in Different Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songquan Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of loading condition and corrosion solution on the corrosion fatigue behavior of smooth steel wire were discussed. The results of polarization curves and weight loss curves showed that the corrosion of steel wire in acid solution was more severe than that in neutral and alkaline solutions. With the extension of immersion time in acid solution, the cathodic reaction of steel wire gradually changed from the reduction of hydrogen ion to the reduction of oxygen, but was always the reduction of hydrogen ion in neutral and alkaline solutions. The corrosion kinetic parameters and equivalent circuits of steel wires were also obtained by simulating the Nyquist diagrams. In corrosion fatigue test, the effect of stress ratio and loading frequency on the crack initiation mechanism was emphasized. The strong corrosivity of acid solution could accelerate the nucleation of crack tip. The initiation mechanism of crack under different conditions was summarized according to the side and fracture surface morphologies. For the crack initiation mechanism of anodic dissolution, the stronger the corrosivity of solution was, the more easily the fatigue crack source formed, while, for the crack initiation mechanism of deformation activation, the lower stress ratio and higher frequency would accelerate the generation of corrosion fatigue crack source.

  9. Solar dynamic modules for Space Station Freedom: The relationship between fine-pointing control and thermal loading of the aperture plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Roger D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic simulations of Space Station Freedom (SSF) configured with solar dynamic (SD) power modules were performed. The structure was subjected to Space Shuttle docking disturbances, while being controlled with a 'natural' vibration and tracking control approach. Three control cases were investigated for the purpose of investigating the relationship between actuator effort, SD pointing, and thermal loading on the receiver aperture plate. Transient, one-dimensional heat transfer analyses were performed to conservatively predict temperatures of the multi-layered receiver aperture plate assembly and thermal stresses in its shield layer. Results indicate that the proposed aperture plate is tolerant of concentrated flux impingement during short-lived structural disturbances. Pointing requirements may be loosened and the requirement control torques lessened from that previously specified. Downsizing and simplifying the joint drive system should result in a considerable savings mass.

  10. Influence of filling ratio and working fluid thermal properties on starting up and heat transferring performance of closed loop plate oscillating heat pipe with parallel channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weixiu; Pan, Lisheng

    2017-02-01

    Using ethanol or acetone as the working fluid, the performance of starting up and heat transfer of closed-loop plate oscillating heat pipe with parallel channels (POHP-PC) were experimentally investigated by varying filling ratio, inclination, working fluids and heating power. The performance of the tested pulsating heat pipe was mainly evaluated by thermal resistance and wall temperature. Heating copper block and cold water bath were adopted in the experimental investigations. It was found that oscillating heat pipe with filling ratio of 50% started up earlier than that with 70% when heating input was 159.4 W, however, it has similar starting up performance with filling ratio of 50% as compared to 70% on the condition of heat input of 205.4 W. And heat pipe with filling ratio of 10% could not start up but directly transit to dry burning. A reasonable filling ratio range of 35%‒70% was needed in order to achieve better performance, and there are different optimal filling ratios with different heating inputs - the more heating input, the higher optimal filling ratio, and vice versa. However, the dry burning appeared easily with low filling ratio, especially at very low filling ratio, such as 10%. And higher filling ratio, such as 70%, resulted in higher heat transfer ( dry burning ) limit. With filling ratio of 70% and inclination of 75°, oscillating heat pipe with acetone started up with heating input of just 24W, but for ethanol, it needed to be achieved 68 W, Furthermore, the start time with acetone was similar as compared to that with ethanol. For steady operating state, the heating input with acetone was about 80 W, but it transited to dry burning state when heating input was greater than 160 W. However, for ethanol, the heating input was in vicinity of 160 W. Furthermore, thermal resistance with acetone was lower than that with ethanol at the same heating input of 120 W.

  11. A numerical analysis of stress intensity factors for cracks emanating from an elliptical hole in a rectangular plate under biaxial loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Concerns with stress intensity factors for cracks emanating from an elliptical hole in a rectangular plate under biaxial loads by means of a boundary element method which consists of non-singular displacement discontinuity element presented by Crouch and Starfied[6] and crack-tip displacement discontinuity elements proposed by the author. In the boundary elenent implementation the left or the right crack-tip displacement discontinuity element is placed locally at the corresponding left or right crack tip on top of the constant displacement discontinuity elements that cover the entire crack surface and other boundaries. The present numerical results further illustrate that the present numerical approach is very effective and accurate for calculating stress intensity factors of complex cracks in a finite plate and can reveal the effect of the biaxial load and the cracked body geometry on stress intensity factors.

  12. Effect of aspect ratio on large amplitude free vibrations of simply supported and clamped rectangular Mindlin plates using coupled displacement field method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskar, K. Krishna; Saheb, K. Meera [University College of Engineering, Kakinada (India)

    2017-05-15

    We propose a novel method, known as Coupled displacement field (CDF) method, an alternative to study large amplitude free vibration behavior of moderately thick rectangular plates. An admissible trial function was assumed for one of the variables, say, the total rotations (in both X, Y directions). The function for lateral displacement field is derived in terms of the total rotations with the help of coupling equations, where the two independent variables become dependent on one another. This method makes use of the energy formulation, where it contains only half the number of undetermined coefficients when compared with conventional Rayleigh-Ritz method. The vibration problem is simplified significantly due to the reduction in number of undetermined coefficients. The frequency -amplitude relationship for the moderately thick rectangular plates with various aspect ratios for all edges simply supported and clamped boundary conditions was obtained. Closed form expressions for linear and nonlinear fundamental frequency parameters were derived.

  13. Approach to Deep Plate Loading Test of Self-reaction Force Method%自反力法深层平板载荷试验探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓伟; 林泽耿; 刘炳凯

    2014-01-01

    This article took a project of Guangdong as an example, introduced the technique of deep plate loading test of self-reaction force method in detail,and compared with the traditional method of deep plate loading test,and finally,problems that need to pay attention to deep plate loading test of self-reaction force method were put forward from the processing technology at the bottom of testing hole,keeping test hole straight,keeping stability of hole wall,and so on.%以广东某工程为例,详细介绍采用自反力法进行深层平板载荷试验测试技术,并将该方法与传统法深层平板载荷试验进行比较,最后从测试孔的孔底处理技术、测孔保直、孔壁稳定等方面提出采用自反力法进行深层平板载荷试验需要注意的问题。

  14. Effects of feedstock carbon to nitrogen ratio and organic loading on foaming potential in mesophilic food waste anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimu, Musa Idris; Mohd Ghazi, Tinia Idaty; Harun, Mohd Razif; Idris, Azni

    2015-05-01

    Foaming problem which occurred occasionally during food waste (FW) anaerobic digestion (AD) was investigated with the Malaysian FW by stepwise increase in organic loading (OL) from 0.5 to 7.5 g VS/L. The FW feedstock with carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 17 was upgraded to C/N ratio of 26 and 30 by mixing with other wastes. The digestion which was carried out at 37 °C in 1-L batch reactors showed that foam formation initiated at OL of 1.5 g VS/L and was further enhanced as OL of feedstock was increased. The digestion foaming reached its maximum at OL of 5.5 g VS/L and did not increase further even when OL was increased to 7.5 g VS/Ld. Increase in the C/N ratio of feedstock significantly enhanced the microbial degradation activity, leading to better removal of foam causing intermediates and reduced foaming in the reactor by up to 60%.

  15. Charts for Determining Preliminary Values of Span-load, Shear, Bending-moment, and Accumulated-torque Distributions of Swept Wings of Various Taper Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollner, Bertram C

    1948-01-01

    Contains charts for use in determining preliminary values of the spanwise-load, shear, bending-moment, and accumulated-torque distributions of swept wings. The charts are based on strip theory and include four aerodynamic-load distributions, two section-moment distributions, and two inertia-load distributions. The taper ratios considered cover the range from 1.0 to 0 and the results are applicable to any angle of sweep.

  16. Influence of Cooling to Heating Load Ratio on Optimal Supply Water and Air Temperatures in an Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karino, Naoki; Shiba, Takashi; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Ito, Koichi

    In planning an air conditioning system, supply water and air temperatures are important factors from the viewpoint of energy saving and cost reduction. For example, lower temperature supply water and air for space cooling reduce the coefficient of performance of a refrigeration machine, and increase the thickness of heat insulation material. However, they enable larger temperature differences, and reduce equipment sizes and power demand. It is also an important subject to evaluate the effect of the supply water and air temperatures on energy saving and cost reduction on the annual basis by considering not only cooling but also heating loads. The purposes of this paper are to propose an optimal planning method for an air conditioning system with large temperature difference, and to analyze the effect of supply water and air temperatures on the long-term economics through a numerical study for an office building. As a result, it is shown that the proposed method effectively determines supply water and air temperatures, and the influence of the cooling to heating load ratio on the long-term economics is clarified.

  17. Stiffness of sphere–plate contacts at MHz frequencies: dependence on normal load, oscillation amplitude, and ambient medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vlachová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The stiffness of micron-sized sphere–plate contacts was studied by employing high frequency, tangential excitation of variable amplitude (0–20 nm. The contacts were established between glass spheres and the surface of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM, where the resonator surface had been coated with either sputtered SiO2 or a spin-cast layer of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA. The results from experiments undertaken in the dry state and in water are compared. Building on the shifts in the resonance frequency and resonance bandwidth, the instrument determines the real and the imaginary part of the contact stiffness, where the imaginary part quantifies dissipative processes. The method is closely analogous to related procedures in AFM-based metrology. The real part of the contact stiffness as a function of normal load can be fitted with the Johnson–Kendall–Roberts (JKR model. The contact stiffness was found to increase in the presence of liquid water. This finding is tentatively explained by the rocking motion of the spheres, which couples to a squeeze flow of the water close to the contact. The loss tangent of the contact stiffness is on the order of 0.1, where the energy losses are associated with interfacial processes. At high amplitudes partial slip was found to occur. The apparent contact stiffness at large amplitude depends linearly on the amplitude, as predicted by the Cattaneo–Mindlin model. This finding is remarkable insofar, as the Cattaneo–Mindlin model assumes Coulomb friction inside the sliding region. Coulomb friction is typically viewed as a macroscopic concept, related to surface roughness. An alternative model (formulated by Savkoor, which assumes a constant frictional stress in the sliding zone independent of the normal pressure, is inconsistent with the experimental data. The apparent friction coefficients slightly increase with normal force, which can be explained by nanoroughness. In other words, contact splitting

  18. 斜荷载冲击层合板的响应研究%Study on the dynamic response of composite laminated plates under inclined loads impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡辉; 郑敏毅; 郭源君; 孙光永

    2011-01-01

    为了分析层合板受到斜荷载冲击时的响应,基于Kirchhoff经典层合板理论从平衡微分方程出发推导层合板振动的控制微分方程,利用模态叠加原理求解层合板振动控制微分方程得到层合板的位移、速度和加速度的响应.给出算例,分析了冲击力的大小、冲击的角度、板的尺寸等参数对接触面上最大剪应力的影响,并给出了剪应力在接触面上的分布情况.%The study was present, that on the dynamic response of composite laminated plates under inclined loads impact. Base on Kirchhoff classical composite laminated plated theory, the dynamic control differential equation of the composite laminated plates was established by the equilibrium differential equation. The dynamic response values relate to the structure displacement, speed and acceleration are obtained by using modal superposition methods to solve the dynamic control differential equation of the composite laminated plates. An example was given to show that the impact force, the angle of inclined loads and the length of the plate affect the maximal shearing stress of the contact surface. The distribution of the shearing stress of the contact surface is given.

  19. Study on Bearing Capacity of Circular Tubular T-Joints with Collar-Plate Reinforcement Loaded by In-Plane Bending Load%平面内弯矩作用下环口板加强T型圆钢管节点的承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德胜; 杨冬平; 蔡艳青; 龙凤乐; 牛更奇; 邵永波

    2014-01-01

    环口板加固管节点是一种比较新颖的加固方法,施工方便快捷而且加固效果显著。运用有限元方法对平面内弯矩作用下的环口板加固 T 型圆钢管节点的极限承载力进行了研究。对环口板加固 T 型圆钢管节点的面内弯曲承载力进行了参数分析,参数包括支管直径与主管直径比β,主管直径与2倍主管壁厚的比γ,环口板厚度与主管管壁厚之比τc 和环口板长度与支管直径之比 lc/d1等计算。结果表明,采用适当尺寸的环口板加固后的 T 型管节点的承载力相对于未加固 T 型管节点的承载力得到显著提高。改变环口板的厚度相对于改变环口板的长度对静力强度的提高更有效。最后,在参数分析的基础上提出了环口板加强型 T 型圆钢管节点在平面内弯矩作用下的承载力计算公式。%Collar plate reinforcement is a new method for reinforcing tubular joints, and it is of fast fabrication and effective. Finite element method is used to investigate the static strength of collar plate reinforced circular hollow section (CHS) T-joints subjected to in-plane bending load. A study is conducted to analyze the effect of geometrical parameters, i.e. brace-to-chord diameter ratio β, collar-plate to chord wall thickness ratio τc, and collar-plate length to brace diameter ratio lc/d1, on the static strength of tubular T-joints. It is found that significant strength enhancement can be achieved for a collar plate reinforced tubular joint through suitable size design comparing with the un-reinforced one. Compared to the length of the collar plate, the thicknesses of the collar plate is more effective for improving the static strength of the T-joints. Finally, a parametric equation for predicting the load bearing capacity of circular tubular T-joints with collar plate reinforcement subjected to in-plane bending load is presented.

  20. Influence of the Metal Volume Fraction on the maximum deflection and impact load of GLARE plates subjected to low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikakis, GSE; Savaidis, A.; Zalimidis, P.; Tsitos, S.

    2016-11-01

    Fiber-metal laminates are hybrid composite materials, consisting of alternating metal layers bonded to fiber-reinforced prepreg layers. GLARE (GLAss REinforced) belongs to this new family of materials. GLARE is the most successful fiber-metal laminate up to now and is currently being used for the construction of primary aerospace structures, such as the fuselage of the Airbus A380 air plane. Impact properties are very important in aerospace structures, since impact damage is caused by various sources, such as maintenance damage from dropped tools, collision between service cars or cargo and the structure, bird strikes and hail. The principal objective of this article is to evaluate the influence of the Metal Volume Fraction (MVF) on the low velocity impact response of GLARE fiber-metal laminates. Previously published differential equations of motion are employed for this purpose. The low velocity impact behavior of various circular GLARE plates is predicted and characteristic values of impact variables, which represent the impact phenomenon, are evaluated versus the corresponding MVF of the examined GLARE material grades. The considered GLARE plates are subjected to low velocity impact under identical impact conditions. A strong effect of the MVF on the maximum impact load and a significant effect on the maximum plate deflection of GLARE plates has been found.

  1. Visuospatial information processing load and the ratio between parietal cue and target P3 amplitudes in the Attentional Network Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Dimitri M; Pontes, Monique; Pontes, Adailton T; Mourao-Junior, Carlos A; Vieira, Juliana; Quero Cunha, Carla; Tamborino, Tiago; Galhanone, Paulo R; deAzevedo, Leonardo C; Lazarev, Vladimir V

    2017-04-24

    In ERP studies of cognitive processes during attentional tasks, the cue signals containing information about the target can increase the amplitude of the parietal cue P3 in relation to the 'neutral' temporal cue, and reduce the subsequent target P3 when this information is valid, i.e. corresponds to the target's attributes. The present study compared the cue-to-target P3 ratios in neutral and visuospatial cueing, in order to estimate the contribution of valid visuospatial information from the cue to target stages of the task performance, in terms of cognitive load. The P3 characteristics were also correlated with the results of individuals' performance of the visuospatial tasks, in order to estimate the relationship of the observed ERP with spatial reasoning. In 20 typically developing boys, aged 10-13 years (11.3±0.86), the intelligence quotient (I.Q.) was estimated by the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests from the WISC-III. The subjects performed the Attentional Network Test (ANT) accompanied by EEG recording. The cued two-choice task had three equiprobable cue conditions: No cue, with no information about the target; Neutral (temporal) cue, with an asterisk in the center of the visual field, predicting the target onset; and Spatial cues, with an asterisk in the upper or lower hemifield, predicting the onset and corresponding location of the target. The ERPs were estimated for the mid-frontal (Fz) and mid-parietal (Pz) scalp derivations. In the Pz, the Neutral cue P3 had a lower amplitude than the Spatial cue P3; whereas for the target ERPs, the P3 of the Neutral cue condition was larger than that of the Spatial cue condition. However, the sums of the magnitudes of the cue and target P3 were equal in the spatial and neutral cueing, probably indicating that in both cases the equivalent information processing load is included in either the cue or the target reaction, respectively. Meantime, in the Fz, the analog ERP components for both the cue and target

  2. Buckling strength of square composite plates with geometrical imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Christian; Jensen, Christian; Hayman, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Tests have been performed on square composite plates under in-plane compression. Theplateshad a width-to-thickness ratio close to the value for which the elastic critical load and the load for compres-sive fibre failure over a complete section would be equal, giving the maximum sensitivity to ini...

  3. Analyzing the effects of size of hole on Plate failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzad, Mohammadzadeh; Noh, Hyukchun [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The load at critical point in which an infinitesimal increase in load can make the plate to buckle, is buckling load. When a plate element is subjected to direct compression, bending, shear, or a combination of these stresses in its plane, the plate may buckle locally before the member as a whole becomes unstable or before the yield stress of the material is reached. Holes can either increase or decrease critical load of a plate depending on its position and geometry. The presence of holes in plates will change the strength and stiffness, so the amounts of stress and its distribution which induce strain and buckling will be changed. This study deals with studying the buckling of plate with holes using finite element method(FEM). Buckling is one of the main reasons for steel members to fail during service life time. As plates are frequently used in the structures of nuclear power plants and in some cases making holes in plates is necessary, it is necessary to assay the capacity of the plates especially in terms of buckling. FEM is a useful approach which makes the plate analysis be performed with ease. This study relates the buckling load of plates with through-thickness holes to a dimensionless parameter (D/a). By increasing D/a ratio, the amount of plate strength is observed to be decreased. After D/a=0.5, the rate of decreasing is observed to be increased drastically. Therefore, it is better to use ratio D/a less than or equal to 0.5. As a further study, it is possible to investigate other aspects such as different thickness, different positions and so on.

  4. 高厚径比HDI板电镀能力研究%Plating ability Of HDI with high aspect ratio item

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班向东

    2013-01-01

    With the development of information technology, more layers, thickness, aperture smaller, thicker wiring denser PCB needs PCB manufacturers put forward higher requirements. High aspect ratio and BMV plating are two different processing direction of PCB plating, and the two requirements of both the product processing is the dififculty of electroplating. So to ifnd a balance between the two is very important. Through the experiment, we found the electroplating parameters, achieved the balance of the blind holes.%随着信息技术的不断发展,层数更多、板厚更厚、孔径更小、布线更密的PCB需求给PCB生产厂家提出的更高的要求。高纵横比与盲孔电镀是PCB电镀的两个不同的加工方向,而这两种要求并存的产品加工是电镀的难点,因此找到两者之间的平衡点至关重要。本文通过实验,找到两者兼顾的电镀参数,达到通盲孔兼顾的效果。

  5. Influence of modulation period and modulation ratio on structure and mechanical properties of TiBN/CrN coatings deposited by multi-arc ion plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, S.Y.; Yan, S.J.; Han, B. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Materials of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, 430072 Wuhan (China); Yang, B. [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 430072 Wuhan (China); Lin, B.Z.; Zhang, Z.D.; Ai, Z.W. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Materials of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, 430072 Wuhan (China); Pelenovich, V.O. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Materials of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, 430072 Wuhan (China); Institute of Ion-Plasma and Laser Technologies, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, 700135 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Fu, D.J., E-mail: djfu@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Materials of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, 430072 Wuhan (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • TiBN/CrN multilayers were synthesized with varied modulation period and ratio. • The maximum hardness of 38.6 GPa is observed at Λ = 11.7 nm and R = 5:1. • The lowest multilayer COF of 0.32 is lower than that of CrN (0.56). • The wear rate of the coatings is improved and related to H/E and H{sup 3}/E{sup *2} ratios. - Abstract: TiBN/CrN multilayered superlattice coatings with modulation periods Λ (bilayer thickness) ranging from 22.5 to 4.2 nm and modulation ratio R (the thickness ratio of CrN and TiBN layers) ranging from 6:1 to 3:1 were synthesized using an industrial-scale cathodic arc ion plating system in an Ar–N{sub 2} gas mixture. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoindention were employed to investigate the influence of modulation period and ratio on microstructure and mechanical properties of the multilayers. The sharp interfaces and nanoscale multilayered modulation were confirmed by TEM. TiBN/CrN multilayer coatings were crystallized with orientations at the (1 1 1), (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) crystallographic planes and the microstructure was strengthened at (2 0 0) preferred orientation. The maximum hardness of 38.6 GPa and elastic modulus of 477 GPa were obtained at Λ = 11.7 nm and R = 5:1. The lowest value of the friction coefficient at 0.32 sliding against a WC-Co ball was obtained at a bilayer period of 11.7 nm, compared to those of the coatings with other modulation periods and monolithic coatings. The wear rate of the multilayered coatings was also lower than those of the monolithic CrN and TiBN coatings.

  6. Cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin increases freezability of buffalo bull (Bubalus bubalis spermatozoa by increasing cholesterol to phospholipid ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Rajoriya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to investigate the effect of cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin (CLC on freezability of buffalo spermatozoa. Materials and Methods: Murrah buffalo bull semen samples with progressive motility of 70% and greater were used. After the evaluation of motility and livability, four equal fractions of semen samples were made. Group I was kept as control and diluted with Tris, whereas Group II, III and IV were treated with CLC solution at the rate of 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg/ml respectively to obtain 120 × 106 sperm/ml as final spermatozoa concentration. The aliquots of all the groups were incubated for action of CLC, followed by dilution and freezing. Evaluation at pre-freeze and post-thaw stage of progressive motility, viability and level of cholesterol and phospholipid was done. Results: The mean cholesterol content (μg/100 × 106 spermatozoa of Group I, II, III and IV at pre-freeze stage was 21.55±0.63, 49.56±1.38, 55.67±0.45 and 47.79±1.01 and at post-thaw stage were 13.18±0.45, 34.27±0.71, 36.21±0.48 and 33.68±0.56, respectively. At pre-freeze stage, cholesterol content was significantly (p<0.01 higher in Group III in comparison to other groups. The mean cholesterol and phospholipids content of fresh sperm was 24.14±0.58 and 51.13±0.66 μg/100 × 106 sperm cells, respectively, and C/P ratio of spermatozoa at fresh stage was 0.47±0.067. Conclusion: CLC treatment maintains the C/P ratio and plays an important role in maintaining membrane architecture of spermatozoa. Hence, addition of CLC may be helpful in increasing freezability of buffalo spermatozoa by increasing the C/P ratio of spermatozoa.

  7. Polymer-supported palladacycles: efficient reagents for synthesis of benzopyrans with palladium recovery. Relationship among resin loading, Pd:P ratio, and reactivity of immobilized palladacycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, John C; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Genliang; Malinakova, Helena C

    2006-01-06

    [reaction: see text] Oxapalladacycles were immobilized on polystyrene-divinylbenzene supports and treated with 3-aryl-2-propynoates or 1-alkyl-1,2-propadienes to afford 2H-1-benzopyrans in yields superior to those for solution-phase experiments. Isolation of benzopyrans was facilitated, and 71-80% of the palladium was recovered. Effects of resin loading with phosphorus and palladium were studied, and the optimum immobilized palladacycles featuring a medium loading with P (1.35 mmol P/g) and a high loading with Pd (Pd:P ratio 1:1.7) were identified. Resins with higher swelling capacities were more reactive.

  8. Effect of load ratio and saltwater corrosive environment on the initiation life of fatigue of 10Ni5CrMoV steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing; Yi, Hong; Xu, Jian; Gen, Liming; Chen, Luyun

    2017-09-01

    Fatigue initiation life has been studied with 10CrNi5MoV steel for use in ocean engineering at different load ratios and in different environmental media. The microstructure and micro-topography have been observed and analyzed by means of SEM, EDS and EBSD. Our findings indicate that, the initiation life of 10Ni5CrMoV steel in seawater is shorter than that in air, and the difference in longevity is larger with the increasing of load ratio. Corrosion pits had a great influence on initial corrosion fatigue life.

  9. Experimental and Theoretical Analysis for a Fluid-Loaded, Simply Supported Plate Covered by a Damping and Decoupling Composite Acoustic Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baihua Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a vibroacoustic response model for a fluid-loaded, simply supported rectangular plate covered by a composite acoustic coating consisting of damping and decoupling layers. The model treated the damping layer and base plate as a unified whole under pure bending moments and the decoupling layer as a three-dimensional, isotropic, linear elastic solid. The validity of the model was verified by both numerical analysis and experiments and was shown to accurately extend previous studies that were limited to a plate covered by a single damping or decoupling layer with an evaluation confined solely to numerical analysis. The trends of the numerical and experimental results are generally consistent, with some differences due to the influences of water pressure and the frequency dependence of the material parameters, which are not taken into account by the numerical analysis. Both experimental and numerical results consistently show that the radiated noise reduction effect of the composite coating is superior to that of single-type coatings, which is attributed to the fact that the composite coating combines the merits of both the high vibration suppression performance of the damping layer and the superior vibration isolation performance of the decoupling layer.

  10. Large-surface-area diamond (111) crystal plates for applications in high-heat-load wavefront-preserving x-ray crystal optics

    CERN Document Server

    Stoupin, S; Butler, J E; Kolyadin, A V; Katrusha, A

    2016-01-01

    We report fabrication and results of high-resolution X-ray topography characterization of diamond single crystal plates with a large surface area (10$\\times$10 mm$^2$) and (111) crystal surface orientation for applications in high-heat-load X-ray crystal optics. The plates were fabricated by laser cutting of the (111) facets of diamond crystals grown using high-pressure high-temperature method. The intrinsic crystal quality of a selected 3$\\times$7~mm$^2$ crystal region of one of the studied samples was found to be suitable for applications in wavefront-preserving high-heat-load crystal optics. The wavefront characterization was performed using sequential X-ray diffraction topography in the pseudo plane wave configuration and data analysis using rocking curve topography. The variation of the rocking curve width and peak position measured with a spatial resolution of 13$\\times$13 $\\mu m^2$ over the selected region were found to be less than one microradian.

  11. Large-surface-area diamond (111) crystal plates for applications in high-heat-load wavefront-preserving X-ray crystal optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Antipov, Sergey; Butler, James E; Kolyadin, Alexander V; Katrusha, Andrey

    2016-09-01

    Fabrication and results of high-resolution X-ray topography characterization of diamond single-crystal plates with large surface area (10 mm × 10 mm) and (111) crystal surface orientation for applications in high-heat-load X-ray crystal optics are reported. The plates were fabricated by laser-cutting of the (111) facets of diamond crystals grown using high-pressure high-temperature methods. The intrinsic crystal quality of a selected 3 mm × 7 mm crystal region of one of the studied samples was found to be suitable for applications in wavefront-preserving high-heat-load crystal optics. Wavefront characterization was performed using sequential X-ray diffraction topography in the pseudo plane wave configuration and data analysis using rocking-curve topography. The variations of the rocking-curve width and peak position measured with a spatial resolution of 13 µm × 13 µm over the selected region were found to be less than 1 µrad.

  12. Tunability of band structures in a two-dimensional magnetostrictive phononic crystal plate with stress and magnetic loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shunzu; Shi, Yang [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China attached to the Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Sciences, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Gao, Yuanwen, E-mail: ywgao@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China attached to the Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Sciences, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2017-03-26

    Considering the magneto-mechanical coupling of magnetostrictive material, the tunability of in-plane wave propagation in two-dimensional Terfenol-D/epoxy phononic crystal (PC) plate is investigated theoretically by the plane wave expansion method. Two Schemes, i.e. magnetic field is rotated in x–y plane and x–z plane, are studied, respectively. The effects of amplitude and direction of magnetic field, pre-stress and geometric parameters are discussed. For Scheme-I, band gap reaches the maximum at an optimal angle 45° of magnetic field. However, the optimal angle is 0° for Scheme-II, because band gap decreases monotonically until disappears with the increasing angle. For both cases, higher-order band gaps generate and become stronger as magnetic field amplitude increases, while increasing compressive pre-stress has the opposite effect. Meanwhile, filling fraction plays a key role in controlling band gaps. These results provide possibility for intelligent regulation and optimal design of PC plates. - Highlights: • The in-plane wave propagation in phononic crystal thin plate is tuned theoretically. • Magnetostrictive material is introduced in the study. • The effects of magnetic field and pre-stress are considered. • The variations of band gaps with external stimuli are discussed.

  13. Anomalously High Isotope Ratio 3He/4He and Tritium in Deuterium-Loaded Metal: Evidence for Nuclear Reaction in Metal Hydrides at Low Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Song-Sheng; HE Ming; WU Shao-Yong; QI Bu-Jia

    2012-01-01

    Anomalous 3He/4He ratios in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are observed to be about 1-4x10-1, much greater than the values (<10~4) in natural objects. Control experiments with the deuterium-unloaded titanium sample and original industrial deuterium gas are also carried out, but no anomalous 3He/4He values are observed. In addition, anomalous tritium in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are also observed. To explain the excess 3He and tritium in the deuterium-loaded titanium samples, it is required that the deuteron-induced nuclear reaction occurs in the samples at low temperature.%Anomalous 3He/4He ratios in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are observed to be about 1-4×10-1,much greater than the values (≤10-4) in natural objects.Control experiments with the deuterium-unloaded titanium sample and original industrial deuterium gas are also carried out,but no anomalous 3He/4He values are observed.In addition,anomalous tritium in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are also observed.To explain the excess 3He and tritium in the deuterium-loaded titanium samples,it is required that the deuteron-induced nuclear reaction occurs in the samples at low temperature.

  14. Effects of load ratio, R, and test temperature on high cycle fatigue behavior of nano-structured Al-4Y-4Ni-X alloy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shabasy, Adel B., E-mail: ashabasy@hotmail.com [Department of Design and Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11517 (Egypt); Hassan, Hala A. [Department of Design and Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11517 (Egypt); Lewandowski, John J. [Department of Material' s Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Nanostructured Al-4Y-4Ni-X composites created by extruding atomized amorphous powders at different extrusion ratios were tested under high cycle bending fatigue at load ratios, R=0.1, 0.33 and -1 at room temperature, 149 Degree-Sign C and 260 Degree-Sign C. Increasing the extrusion ratio generally improved the fatigue life and the fatigue limits were well in excess of that obtained on conventional aluminum alloys at all temperatures tested. The fatigue limits obtained in this work were also compared to previously reported values for a nanostructured composite Al-Gd-Ni-Fe alloy produced via similar means.

  15. Experimental research on the mixed sand ratio and initial dry density of weathered sand improved expansive soil free load swelling rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jun; Yang Zhi; Zhang Guodong; Tang Yunwei; Chen Hongping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, through the indoor free load swelling rate test, expansive soil in a section of a first- class highway reconstruction project in Yichang City was studied. It emphatically analyzed the interrelations among free load swelling rate, non-load time, the proportion of mixed sand and initial dry density. Experimen- tal studies have shown that: Free load swelling deformation is mainly divided into three stages of rapid expan- sion, slow expansion and final stability; when the initial dry density is constant, free load swelling rate of the weathered sand modified soil will reduce rapidly before they slow down with the increase of sand proportion, and weathered sand modified soil free load swelling rate is not sensitive to the large amount of sand mixed; in the same mixed sand ratio, weathered sand modified soil free load swelling rate increases rapidly with the in- crease of initial dry density, there is a good linear correlation between them. To take appropriate control of the initial dry density during the expansive soil subgrade construction helps to reduce its swelling deformation and ensures the stability of the embankment.

  16. Self-cleaning properties of cement plates loaded with N,C-modified TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janus, Magdalena, E-mail: mjanus@zut.edu.pl [Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, ul. Pułaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin (Poland); Department of Sanitary Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, al. Piastów 50, 70-310 Szczecin (Poland); Zatorska, Justyna, E-mail: jkarolczyk@zut.edu.pl [Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, ul. Pułaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin (Poland); Czyżewski, Adam, E-mail: aczyzewski@zut.edu.pl [Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, ul. Pułaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin (Poland); Bubacz, Kamila, E-mail: kbubacz@zut.edu.pl [Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, ul. Pułaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin (Poland); Kusiak-Nejman, Ewelina, E-mail: ekusiak@zut.edu.pl [Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, ul. Pułaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin (Poland); Morawski, Antoni W., E-mail: amor@zut.edu.pl [Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, ul. Pułaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin (Poland)

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We studied self-cleaning properties of cement plaster containing 1, 5 and 10 wt% of photocatalysts. • Characteristic of TiO{sub 2}-N,C photocatalyst was presented. • Obtained materials decomposed azo dye under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: The photocatalytic activity of cement pastes containing nitrogen and carbon co-modified TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts (TiO{sub 2}-N,C) were evaluated trough the degradation of model organic water contaminate (Reactive Red 198) under UV–vis light source. It was found that cement plates containing TiO{sub 2}-N,C photocatalysts exhibited higher photocatalytic efficiency than those containing unmodified TiO{sub 2}.

  17. Calculation of load sharing ratio and settlement of bidirectional reinforced composite foundation under embankment loads%路堤荷载下双向增强复合地基荷载分担比及沉降计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明华; 刘猛; 张锐; 龙军

    2014-01-01

    According to the working characteristics of the bidirectional reinforced composite foundation under embankment loads, the embankment and composite foundation in the equivalent reinforced range of a single pile are regarded as a typical analysis element. The large deflection circular ring thin plate is introduced to simulate the combined effect of“flexible raft”and“tensioned membrane”of the reinforced mattress. And the layered property of the foundation soil is considered based on the assumed model for the relative displacement between the pile and the soil. A mechanical model with consideration of deformation compatibility between the embankment, reinforcement and pile-soil reinforcement area is established based on the above operation, and the methods for calculating the load sharing ratio and settlement are proposed respectively. Field tests are used to verify the proposed method and the influence of the factors such as height of embankment, width of pile cap and tensile modulus of reinforcement on the position of neutral point, differential settlement and maximum tensile stress in the middle plane. The comparative results indicate the proposed method is feasible to be used in the practice.%针对路堤荷载下双向增强复合地基受力变形特性,以单桩有效影响范围内的路堤与复合地基为分析对象,引入大挠度环形薄板考虑加筋垫层的“柔性筏板效应”与“拉膜效应”,同时通过假定桩土相对位移模式,考虑地基成层性,从而建立了路堤、水平加筋体、桩体、桩间土协调变形三维模型,获得了路堤荷载作用下双向增强复合地基的荷载分担比及沉降计算方法。采用某工程试验数据对该计算方法进行验证,同时分析了路堤高度、桩帽宽度、筋材抗拉模量对中性点位置、桩土差异沉降以及复合薄板中面最大拉应力的影响,结果表明该方法所求得的荷载分担比及沉降与实测值较为接近,证明了其合理性。

  18. Experimental evaluation of the effect of compression ratio on performance and emission of SI engine fuelled with gasoline and n-butanol blend at different loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinu Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Never ending demand for efficient and less polluting engines have always inspired newer technologies. Extensive study has been done on variable compression ratio, a promising in-cylinder technology, in the recent past. The present work is an experimental investigation to examine the variation of different parameters such as brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and emissions with respect to change in compression ratio in a single-cylinder carbureted SI engine at different loads with two different fuels. Experiments were conducted at three different compression ratios (CR = 7:1, 8.5:1 and 10:1. The fuels used in this study are pure gasoline and 20% n-butanol blend (B20 in gasoline. The results showed that brake thermal efficiency increases with CR at all loads. Further, the experimental results showed the scope of improving the part-load efficiency of SI engine by adopting the concept of variable compression ratio (VCR technology, especially when fuels with better anti-knock characteristics are used. The uncertainty analysis of the experiments based on the specifications of the equipment used is also tabulated.

  19. Forced Response of Polar Orthotropic Tapered Circular Plates Resting on Elastic Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ansari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forced axisymmetric response of polar orthotropic circular plates of linearly varying thickness resting on Winkler type of elastic foundation has been studied on the basis of classical plate theory. An approximate solution of problem has been obtained by Rayleigh Ritz method, which employs functions based upon the static deflection of polar orthotropic circular plates. The effect of transverse loadings has been studied for orthotropic circular plate resting on elastic foundation. The transverse deflections and bending moments are presented for various values of taper parameter, rigidity ratio, foundation parameter, and flexibility parameter under different types of loadings. A comparison of results with those available in literature shows an excellent agreement.

  20. Multi-Objective Flight Control for Drag Minimization and Load Alleviation of High-Aspect Ratio Flexible Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Chaparro, Daniel; Drew, Michael; Swei, Sean

    2017-01-01

    As aircraft wings become much more flexible due to the use of light-weight composites material, adverse aerodynamics at off-design performance can result from changes in wing shapes due to aeroelastic deflections. Increased drag, hence increased fuel burn, is a potential consequence. Without means for aeroelastic compensation, the benefit of weight reduction from the use of light-weight material could be offset by less optimal aerodynamic performance at off-design flight conditions. Performance Adaptive Aeroelastic Wing (PAAW) technology can potentially address these technical challenges for future flexible wing transports. PAAW technology leverages multi-disciplinary solutions to maximize the aerodynamic performance payoff of future adaptive wing design, while addressing simultaneously operational constraints that can prevent the optimal aerodynamic performance from being realized. These operational constraints include reduced flutter margins, increased airframe responses to gust and maneuver loads, pilot handling qualities, and ride qualities. All of these constraints while seeking the optimal aerodynamic performance present themselves as a multi-objective flight control problem. The paper presents a multi-objective flight control approach based on a drag-cognizant optimal control method. A concept of virtual control, which was previously introduced, is implemented to address the pair-wise flap motion constraints imposed by the elastomer material. This method is shown to be able to satisfy the constraints. Real-time drag minimization control is considered to be an important consideration for PAAW technology. Drag minimization control has many technical challenges such as sensing and control. An initial outline of a real-time drag minimization control has already been developed and will be further investigated in the future. A simulation study of a multi-objective flight control for a flight path angle command with aeroelastic mode suppression and drag

  1. The effect of water loading on the urinary ratio of cortisone to cortisol in healthy subjects and a new approach to the evaluation of the ratio as an index for in vivo human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokawa, Akitomo; Takasaka, Toru; Shibasaki, Hiromi; Kasuya, Yasuji; Kawashima, Soko; Yamada, Akira; Furuta, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Factors that give rise to a large variation in the urinary ratio of free cortisone to cortisol (UFE/UFF) were investigated to accurately estimate 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2) activity in humans in vivo. A water loading test was first carried out in two healthy subjects to examine the effect of water intake or urine volume on the urinary ratio of free cortisone to cortisol (UFE/UFF). The ratio was found to increase by water loading. We also examined urinary concentrations and amounts of cortisol, cortisone, creatinine, Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-), and urine volume, as possible factors affecting the urinary ratio (UFE/UFF), in 60 urine samples obtained from 15 healthy volunteers. Among these factors tested, the urinary concentration of cortisol was most highly correlated with the UFE/UFF ratio (r=-0.858), indicating that the in vivo activity of 11β-HSD2 (UFE/UFF) should fluctuate with the changes of the urinary concentration of cortisol. Based on the findings, we proposed a new estimation method of in vivo activity of 11β-HSD2 in humans, using the UFE/UFF ratio correlated with the urinary concentration of cortisol (UFE/UFF-cortisol concentration). Taking into consideration the intra-individual variabilities in the urinary concentration of cortisol, there were no significant within-day variations in 11β-HSD2 activity. The findings indicate that 11β-HSD2 activities can be accurately evaluated by simply measuring free cortisol and cortisone concentrations in spot urine samples. Furthermore, administrations of glycyrrhetinic acid in three healthy volunteers were performed to confirm the usefulness of the present assessment for the activity of 11β-HSD2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Balancing the Power-to-Load Ratio for a Novel Variable Geometry Wave Energy Converter with Nonideal Power Take-Off in Regular Waves: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Alan D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    This work attempts to balance power absorption against structural loading for a novel variable geometry wave energy converter. The variable geometry consists of four identical flaps that will be opened in ascending order starting with the flap closest to the seafloor and moving to the free surface. The influence of a pitch motion constraint on power absorption when utilizing a nonideal power take-off (PTO) is examined and found to reduce the losses associated with bidirectional energy flow. The power-to-load ratio is evaluated using pseudo-spectral control to determine the optimum PTO torque based on a multiterm objective function. The pseudo-spectral optimal control problem is extended to include load metrics in the objective function, which may now consist of competing terms. Separate penalty weights are attached to the surge-foundation force and PTO control torque to tune the optimizer performance to emphasize either power absorption or load shedding. PTO efficiency is not included in the objective function, but the penalty weights are utilized to limit the force and torque amplitudes, thereby reducing losses associated with bidirectional energy flow. Results from pseudo-spectral control demonstrate that shedding a portion of the available wave energy can provide greater reductions in structural loads and reactive power.

  3. Stiffness Analysis and Improvement of Bolt-Plate Contact Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study it was shown that, a simplified expression for the stiffness of the plate member in a bolt-plate assembly can be found. The stiffnesses of the bolt and the connected plates are the primary quantities that control the lifetime of a dynamically loaded connection. The present study...... of stiffnesses is extended to include different material parameters by including the influence of Poisson's ratio. Two simple practical formulas are suggested and their accuracies are documented for different bolts and different material (Poisson's ratio). Secondly, the contact analysis between the bolt head...... and the plate is extended by the possibility of designing a gap, that is, a nonuniform distance between the bolt and plate before prestressing. Designing the gap function generates the possibility for a better stress field by which the stiffness of the bolt is lowered, and at the same time the stiffness...

  4. J-integral in the description of fatigue crack growth rate induced by different ratios of torsion to bending Loading in AlCu4Mg1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozumek, D.; Macha, E. [Opole University of Technology, Department of Mechanics and Machine Design, Opole (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    The paper presents the results of tests on fatigue crack growth under proportional torsion with bending in AlCu4Mg1 aluminium alloy. Specimens with rectangular cross-sections and stress concentrator in the form of external one-sided sharp notch were used. The tests were performed under the different ratios of torsion to bending moments. The results of the experimental tests have been described by a nonlinear formula based on {delta}J-integral range. The tests have shown that the change of ratio of torsion to bending moments from 0.58 to 1.73 caused an increase in crack growth rate. It has been shown that at the constant loading and the change of stress ratio (R) from - 1 to 0, the fatigue crack growth rate also increases. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Time-dependent fracture probability of bilayer, lithium-disilicate-based, glass-ceramic, molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusavice, Kenneth J; Jadaan, Osama M; Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine F

    2013-11-01

    Recent reports on bilayer ceramic crown prostheses suggest that fractures of the veneering ceramic represent the most common reason for prosthesis failure. The aims of this study were to test the hypotheses that: (1) an increase in core ceramic/veneer ceramic thickness ratio for a crown thickness of 1.6mm reduces the time-dependent fracture probability (Pf) of bilayer crowns with a lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic core, and (2) oblique loading, within the central fossa, increases Pf for 1.6-mm-thick crowns compared with vertical loading. Time-dependent fracture probabilities were calculated for 1.6-mm-thick, veneered lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation in the central fossa area. Time-dependent fracture probability analyses were computed by CARES/Life software and finite element analysis, using dynamic fatigue strength data for monolithic discs of a lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic core (Empress 2), and ceramic veneer (Empress 2 Veneer Ceramic). Predicted fracture probabilities (Pf) for centrally loaded 1.6-mm-thick bilayer crowns over periods of 1, 5, and 10 years are 1.2%, 2.7%, and 3.5%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 1.0 (0.8mm/0.8mm), and 2.5%, 5.1%, and 7.0%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 0.33 (0.4mm/1.2mm). CARES/Life results support the proposed crown design and load orientation hypotheses. The application of dynamic fatigue data, finite element stress analysis, and CARES/Life analysis represent an optimal approach to optimize fixed dental prosthesis designs produced from dental ceramics and to predict time-dependent fracture probabilities of ceramic-based fixed dental prostheses that can minimize the risk for clinical failures. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  6. Simulation analysis for dynamic response of sandwich plates under moving load%移动荷载作用下夹层板的动力学响应仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾伟; 张劲夫; 邓子辰; 侯秀慧

    2011-01-01

    Based on the laminated plate theory,sandwich plate is equivalent to an orthotropic plate, where the equivalent rigidities of four sandwich plates including solid metal core, metal foam core,hexagonal honeycomb core and metal corrugated core are calculated respectively.Then the orthotropic plate theory and modal superposition principle are applied for response calculation of the four sandwich plates.And the dynamic responses of the different sandwich plates under moving load are analyzed and compared.Thus valuable results are obtained that the sandwich plate of hexagonal honeycomb core is superior to the other three ones and solid metal core is the worst under moving load.The findings will provide guidelines for bridge and railway engineering applications.%应用层合板理论将夹层板等效为一个正交各向异性板,分别计算出了实体金属夹芯、金属泡沫夹芯、正六边形蜂窝夹芯、金属波纹板夹芯四种夹层板的等效刚度,再应用正交各向异性板理论和模态叠加原理分析了这四种夹层板在移动荷载作用下的动力学响应,并对此做了比较分析,得出移动荷载作用下正六边形蜂窝夹层板相对于其它三种夹层板更具有优越性,而实体金属夹层板是这四种夹层板中承载能力最差的.所得结果对桥梁,公路的建设具有一定的指导意义.

  7. Training loads and injury risk in Australian football-differing acute: chronic workload ratios influence match injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David L; Blanch, Peter; Ong, Kok-Leong; Crossley, Kay M; Crow, Justin; Morris, Meg E

    2017-08-01

    (1) To investigate whether a daily acute:chronic workload ratio informs injury risk in Australian football players; (2) to identify which combination of workload variable, acute and chronic time window best explains injury likelihood. Workload and injury data were collected from 53 athletes over 2 seasons in a professional Australian football club. Acute:chronic workload ratios were calculated daily for each athlete, and modelled against non-contact injury likelihood using a quadratic relationship. 6 workload variables, 8 acute time windows (2-9 days) and 7 chronic time windows (14-35 days) were considered (336 combinations). Each parameter combination was compared for injury likelihood fit (using R(2)). The ratio of moderate speed running workload (18-24 km/h) in the previous 3 days (acute time window) compared with the previous 21 days (chronic time window) best explained the injury likelihood in matches (R(2)=0.79) and in the immediate 2 or 5 days following matches (R(2)=0.76-0.82). The 3:21 acute:chronic workload ratio discriminated between high-risk and low-risk athletes (relative risk=1.98-2.43). Using the previous 6 days to calculate the acute workload time window yielded similar results. The choice of acute time window significantly influenced model performance and appeared to reflect the competition and training schedule. Daily workload ratios can inform injury risk in Australian football. Clinicians and conditioning coaches should consider the sport-specific schedule of competition and training when choosing acute and chronic time windows. For Australian football, the ratio of moderate speed running in a 3-day or 6-day acute time window and a 21-day chronic time window best explained injury risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Screw angulation affects bone-screw stresses and bone graft load sharing in anterior cervical corpectomy fusion with a rigid screw-plate construct: a finite element model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mozammil; Natarajan, Raghu N; Fayyazi, Amir H; Braaksma, Brian R; Andersson, Gunnar B J; An, Howard S

    2009-12-01

    Anterior corpectomy and reconstruction with bone graft and a rigid screw-plate construct is an established procedure for treatment of cervical neural compression. Despite its reliability in relieving symptoms, there is a high rate of construct failure, especially in multilevel cases. There has been no study evaluating the biomechanical effects of screw angulation on construct stability; this study investigates the C4-C7 construct stability and load-sharing properties among varying screw angulations in a rigid plate-screw construct. A finite element model of a two-level cervical corpectomy with static anterior cervical plate. A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of an intact C3-T1 segment was developed and validated. From this intact model, a fusion model (two-level [C5, C6] anterior corpectomy) was developed and validated. After corpectomy, allograft interbody fusion with a rigid anterior screw-plate construct was created from C4 to C7. Five additional FE models were developed from the fusion model corresponding to five different combinations of screw angulations within the vertebral bodies (C4, C7): (0 degrees, 0 degrees), (5 degrees, 5 degrees), (10 degrees, 10 degrees), (15 degrees, 15 degrees), and (15 degrees, 0 degrees). The fifth fusion model was termed as a hybrid fusion model. The stability of a two-level corpectomy reconstruction is not dependent on the position of the screws. Despite the locked screw-plate interface, some degree of load sharing is transmitted to the graft. The load seen by the graft and the shear stress at the bone-screw junction is dependent on the angle of the screws with respect to the end plate. Higher stresses are seen at more divergent angles, particularly at the lower level of the construct. This study suggests that screw divergence from the end plates not only increases load transmission to the graft but also predisposes the screws to higher shear forces after corpectomy reconstruction. In particular, the inferior screw

  9. Research of the load distribution in the wave kinematic reducer with a modified tooth profile and dependence of the load abilities in proportion to its gear ratio and overall dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, D. L.; Nikulin, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, there are many types of reducers based on work of gear trains, which transfer torque. The most popular reducers are with such type of gearing as an involute gear, a worm drive and an eccentrically cycloid gear. A new type of the reducer will be represented in this work. It is a wave reducer with the modified profile of the tooth close to the profile of the tooth of Novikov gearing. So such reducers can be widely used in drives of difficult technical mechanisms, for example, in mechatronics, robotics and in drives of exact positioning. In addition, the distribution of loading in gearing of teeth of a reducer was analyzed in this paper. It proves that the modified profile of the tooth allows distributing loading to several teeth in gearing. As a result, an admissible loading ability of a reducer becomes higher. The aim of the research is to define a possibility to reduce overall dimensions of a reducer without changing the gear ratio or to increase the gear ratio without changing overall dimensions. So, the result of this work will be used in further research.

  10. Microbial community structure and function in response to the shift of sulfide/nitrate loading ratio during the denitrifying sulfide removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cong; Li, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Fan; Liu, Qian; Zhao, You-Kang; Zhou, Ji-Zhong; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Influence of acetate-C/NO3(-)-N/S(2-) ratio to the functional microbial community during the denitrifying sulfide removal process is poorly understood. Here, phylogenetic and functional bacterial community for elemental sulfur (S(0)) recovery and nitrate (NO3(-)) removal were investigated with the switched S(2-)/NO3(-) molar ratio ranged from 5/2 to 5/9. Optimized S(2-)/NO3(-) ratio was evaluated as 5/6, with the bacterial genera predominated with Thauera, Enterobacter, Thiobacillus and Stappia, and the sqr gene highly expressed. However, insufficient or high loading of acetate and NO3(-) resulted in the low S(0) recovery, and also significantly modified the bacterial community and genetic activity. With S(2-)/NO3(-) ratio of 5/2, autotrophic S(2-) oxidization genera were dominated and NO3(-) reduction activity was low, confirmed by the low expressed nirK gene. In contrast, S(2-)/NO3(-) ratio switched to 5/8 and 5/9 introduced diverse heterotrophic nitrate reduction and S(0) over oxidization genera in accompanied with the highly expressed nirK and sox genes.

  11. The use of the carbon/nitrogen ratio and specific organic loading rate as tools for improving biohydrogen production in fixed-bed reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélida del Pilar Anzola-Rojas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of the carbon/nitrogen (C/N ratio on the hydrogen production from sucrose-based synthetic wastewater in upflow fixed-bed anaerobic reactors. C/N ratios of 40, 90, 140, and 190 (g C/g N were studied using sucrose and urea as the carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. An optimum hydrogen yield of 3.5 mol H2 mol−1 sucrose was obtained for a C/N ratio of 137 by means of mathematical adjustment. For all C/N ratios, the sucrose removal efficiency reached values greater than 80% and was stable after the transient stage. However, biogas production was not stable at all C/N ratios as a consequence of the continuous decreasing of the specific organic loading rate (SOLR when the biomass accumulated in the fixed-bed, causing the proliferation of H2-consuming microorganisms. It was found that the application of a constant SOLR of 6.0 g sucrose g−1 VSS d−1 stabilized the system.

  12. Large deflection analysis of skew plates under uniformly distributed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    load-deflection plane to show the effect of skew angle, aspect ratio and boundary condition. ... by edge 1, 2, 3 and 4 on the plate boundaries in Figures 1(a)-1(d). ... one-dimensional coordinate functions along normalized coordinate are shown ...

  13. Behaviour of plate anchorage in plate-reinforced composite coupling beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, W Y; Li, Lingzhi; Su, R K L; Pam, H J

    2013-01-01

    As a new alternative design, plate-reinforced composite (PRC) coupling beam achieves enhanced strength and ductility by embedding a vertical steel plate into a conventionally reinforced concrete (RC) coupling beam. Based on a nonlinear finite element model developed in the authors' previous study, a parametric study presented in this paper has been carried out to investigate the influence of several key parameters on the overall performance of PRC coupling beams. The effects of steel plate geometry, span-to-depth ratio of beams, and steel reinforcement ratios at beam spans and in wall regions are quantified. It is found that the anchorage length of the steel plate is primarily controlled by the span-to-depth ratio of the beam. Based on the numerical results, a design curve is proposed for determining the anchorage length of the steel plate. The load-carrying capacity of short PRC coupling beams with high steel ratio is found to be controlled by the steel ratio of wall piers. The maximum shear stress of PRC coupling beams should be limited to 15 MPa.

  14. Influence of dye loading time and electrolytes ratio on the performance spin coated ZnO photoanode based dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrik Singh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ZnO photoanode for dye sensitized solar cell sythesized by sol-gel spin coating method. XRD pattern confirmed the film is crystalline in nature and crystallite size calculated was 45.8 nm. The grain size from SEM image of ZnO is 66.3nm. Trnsmission of ZnO thin film was observed 75-92% in wavelength range from 400-800nm. The effieciency for for dye loaded 6 and 12 hours time were 0.38 and 0.44 respectively. In case of electrolytes ratio the maximum effieciency and fill factor were 0.44 and 0.49 respectively.

  15. 冲击载荷下加筋板非线性瞬态分析%Transient Responses of Stiffened Plates under Lateral Impact Load by Semi-analytic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 刘土光; 刘增荣; 刘敬喜

    2003-01-01

    本文用半解析的方法分析了横向冲击载荷下加筋板的非线性瞬态响应.考虑膜力的存在,忽略筋截面上的剪切应力,引人板的应力函数,采用离散加筋板模型,运用能量原理建立加筋板的动响应控制方程.假设挠度为双级数形式,运用迦辽金法,将加筋板的动响应方程转化为一个多自由度的动力系统,采用数值方法来求解.本文最后给出了几个模型的计算结果.%This paper presents a simple and efficient semi - analytic method to solve the response of stiff-ened plates under lateral impact load. Applying the discrete stiffened plates model, the motion equations ofstiffened plate is deduced using Hamilton's variation principle. Based on the large deformation theory, theyon Karman kinematic relations of the plate and stiffener are considered in the formula. The stress functionsand the deflection of the plate are taken as double Fourier series. The motion equations expressed by deflec-tion are obtained with the Galerkin method, and solved by numerical approach. Examples are given for thenon - linear transient response of stiffened plates tinder lateral impact, and parametric studies are alsoperformed for various stiffener/plate geometric parameters and impact load configurations.

  16. Numerical simulation analysis for sandwich plate system under collision load%夹层板系统碰撞性能数值仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红; 张延昌; 岳亚霖

    2014-01-01

    Sandwich plate system(SPS) with superior mechanical performance has been widely used in ship repairing. The core has good buffer function so that it can be used as crashworthiness structures. Based on ABAQUS, the crashworthiness of SPS under collision load was analyzed, such as damage deformation, collision force and energy absorption. Then the crashworthiness of SPS was compared with stiffened plate and folded sandwich panel. At last, the influence of structural parameters on the crashworthiness of SPS was analyzed. The results show that SPS has better crashworthiness than the other two structures. Structural parameters have effects on the crashworthiness of SPS to some extent. With face thickness rising, the energy absorption of upper and lower faces rises obviously, while the specific energy decreases. With core height rising, the energy absorption of upper face and core rises obviously, and the specific energy of upper face rises fastest.%夹层板系统( SPS)具有优越的力学性能,在修船中应用广泛。夹芯层具有很好的缓冲作用,可作为耐撞结构应用于船舶结构设计,提高其耐撞性能。基于非线性有限元软件ABAQUS分析SPS在碰撞冲击载荷下的结构损伤变形、碰撞力和能量吸收等力学行为,并对比分析其与加筋板架、折叠式夹层板的碰撞性能,最后研究了自身结构尺寸参数对其碰撞性能的影响。研究表明,SPS具有良好的碰撞性能,优于加筋板架和折叠式夹层板。 SPS自身结构参数对其碰撞性能有一定影响,面板厚度增加,上下面板吸能明显增加,比能随着面板厚度的增加呈下降趋势,对夹芯层的吸能及比能影响不明显。夹芯层高度增加,夹芯层和上面板吸能明显增加,上面板比能增加最快,对夹芯层和下面板的比能影响不明显。

  17. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  18. Organic loading rate and food-to-microorganism ratio shape prokaryotic diversity in a demo-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali-Rezende, Juliana; Araújo, Juliana C; Almeida, Paulo G S; Chernicharo, Carlos A L; Sanz, José L; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Nascimento, Andréa M A

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the microbial community in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating domestic wastewater (DW) during two different periods of organic loading rate (OLR) and food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratio. 16S rDNA clone libraries were generated, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analyses were performed. Fluctuations in the OLR and F/M ratio affected the abundance and the composition of the UASB prokaryotic community, mainly at the species level, as well as the performance of the UASB reactor. The qPCR analysis suggested that there was a decrease in the bacterial cell number during the rainy season, when the OLR and F/M ratio were lower. However, the bacterial diversity was higher during this time, suggesting that the community degraded more diversified substrates. The diversity and the abundance of the archaeal community were higher when the F/M ratio was lower. Shifts in the methanogenic community composition might have influenced the route of methane production, with methane produced by acetotrophic methanogens (dry season), and by hydrogenotrophic, methylotrophic and acetotrophic methanogens (rainy season). This study revealed higher levels of bacterial diversity, metabolic specialization and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of the DW UASB reactor during the rainy season.

  19. Effects of feedstock ratio and organic loading rate on the anaerobic mesophilic co-digestion of rice straw and cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Liu, Shengchu; Mi, Li; Li, Zhidong; Yuan, Yuexiang; Yan, Zhiying; Liu, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of feedstock ratio and organic loading rate (OLR) on the anaerobic mesophilic co-digestion of rice straw (RS) and cow manure (CM), batch tests (2.5L) were carried out at volatile solid (VS) ratios of 0:1, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, and 1:0 (RS/CM), and continuous bench experiments (40 L) were carried out at OLRs of 3.0, 3.6, 4.2, 4.8, 6.0, 8.0, and 12.0 kg VS/(m(3) d) with optimal VS ratio. The optimal VS ratio was found to be 1:1. Stable and efficient co-digestion with average specific biogas production of 383.5L/kg VS and volumetric biogas production rate of 2.30 m(3)/(m(3) d) was obtained at an OLR of 6 kg VS/(m(3) d). Anaerobic co-digestion was severely inhibited by the accumulation of volatile fatty acids instead of ammonia when the OLR was 12 kg VS/(m(3) d). Further, significant foaming was observed at OLR ⩾ 8 kg VS/(m(3) d).

  20. Characteristics and cytotoxicity of folate-modified curcumin-loaded PLA-PEG micellar nano systems with various PLA:PEG ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Quoc Thong; Le, Mai Huong; Le, Thi Thu Huong; Tran, Thi Hong Ha; Xuan, Phuc Nguyen; Ha, Phuong Thu

    2016-06-30

    Targeting delivery system use natural drugs for tumor cells is an appealing platform help to reduce the side effects and enhance the therapeutic effects of the drug. In this study, we synthesized curcumin (Cur) loaded (D, L Poly lactic - Poly ethylenglycol) micelle (Cur/PLA-PEG) with the ratio of PLA/PEG of 3:1 2:1 1:1 1:2 and 1:3 (w/w) and another micelle modified by folate (Cur/PLA-PEG-Fol) for targeting cancer therapy. The PLA-PEG copolymer was synthesized by ring opening polymerization method. After loading onto the micelle, solubility of Cur increased from 0.38 to 0.73mgml(-1). The average size of prepared Cur/PLA-PEG micelles was from 60 to 69nm (corresponding to the ratio difference of PLA/PEG) and the drug encapsulating efficiency was from 48.8 to 91.3%. Compared with the Cur/PLA-PEG micelles, the size of Cur/PLA-PEG-Fol micelles were from 80 to 86nm and showed better in vitro cellular uptake and cytotoxicity towards HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of the NPs however depends much on the PEG component. The results demonstrated that Folate-modified micelles could serve as a potential nano carrier to improve solubility, anti-cancer activity of Cur and targeting ability of the system.

  1. Effect of stress ratio on long life fatigue behavior of Ti-Al alloy under flexural loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Hong-qian; TAO Hua; SHAO Ren-ping; B.CLAUDE

    2008-01-01

    A new ultrasonic three-point bending fatigue test device was introduced to investigate fatigue life ranging up to 1010 cycles and associated fracture behavior of Ti-Al alloy. Tests were performed at a frequency of 20kHz with stress ratio R=0.5 and R=0.7 at ambient temperature in air. Three groups of specimens with different surface roughness were applied to investigate the effect of surface roughness on fatigue life. Furthermore, optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for microstructure characteristic and fracture surface analysis. The S-N curves obtained show that fatigue failure occurs in the range of 105-1010 cycles, and the asymptote of S-N curve inclines slightly in very high cycle regime, but is not horizontal for R=0.5. Fatigue limit appears after 108 cycles for R=0.7. Surface roughness (the maximum roughness is no more than 3μm) has no influence on the fatigue properties in the high cycle regime. A detailed investigation on fatigue fracture surface shows that the Ti-Al alloy studied here is a binary alloy in the microstructure composed of α2-Ti3Al and γ-Ti-Al with fully lamellar microstructure. Fractography shows that fatigue failures are mostly initiated on the surface of specimens, also, in very high cycle regime, subsurface fatigue crack initiation can be found. Interlamellar fatigue crack initiation is predominant in the Ti-Al alloy with fully lamellar structure. Fatigue crack growth is mainly in transgranular mode.

  2. FEM buckling analysis of quasi-isotropic symmetrically laminated rectangular composite plates with a square/rectangular cutout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, A. Lakshmi [Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Bangalore (India); Rao, Krishnamohana [JNTUH, Hyderabad (India); Kumar, R. Vijaya [Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Bangalor (India)

    2013-05-15

    A numerical study was conducted using the finite element method to determine the effects of square and rectangular cutouts on the buckling behavior of a 16-ply quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy symmetrically laminated rectangular composite plate. The square/ rectangular cutouts were subjected to uniaxial compression loading. This study addresses the effects of the size of the square/rectangular cutout, orientation of the square/rectangular cutout, plate aspect ratio (a/b), and plate length/thickness ratio (a/t) on the buckling behavior of the symmetrically laminated rectangular composite plate under uniaxial compression loading. Buckling loads were computed for seven different quasi-isotropic laminate configurations [0 .deg. /+45 .deg. /-45 .deg. /90 .deg. ]{sub 2s}, [15 .deg. /+60 .deg. /-30 .deg. /-75 .deg. ]{sub 2s}, [30 .deg. /+75 .deg. /-15 .deg. /-60 .deg. ]{sub 2s}, [45 .deg. /+90 .deg. /0 .deg. /-45 .deg. ]{sub 2s}, [60 .deg. /-75 .deg. /+15 .deg. /-30 .deg. ]{sub 2s}, [75 .deg. /-60 .deg. /+30 .deg. /-15 .deg. ]{sub 2s}, [90 .deg. /-45 .deg. /+45 .deg. / .deg. 0 .deg. ]{sub 2s}. Results showed that the magnitudes of the buckling loads decrease with increasing cutout positioned angle as well as c/b and d/b ratios for plates with a rectangular cutout. The symmetrically laminated quasi-isotropic [0 .deg. /+45 .deg. /-45 .deg. /90 .deg. ]{sub 2s} composite plate is stronger than all other symmetrically analyzed laminated quasi-isotropic composite plates. The magnitudes of the buckling loads of a rectangular composite plate with square/rectangular cutout decrease with increasing plate aspect ratio (a/b) and plate length/thickness (a/t) ratio.

  3. A high order theory for uniform and laminated plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, K. H.; Christensen, R. M.; Wu, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    A theory of plate deformation is derived which accounts for the effects of transverse shear deformation, transverse normal strain, and a nonlinear distribution of the in-plane displacements with respect to the thickness coordinate. The theory is compared with lower order plate theories through application to a particular problem involving a plate acted upon by a sinusoidal surface pressure. Comparison is also made with exact elasticity solution of this problem. It is found that when the ratio of the characteristic length of the load pattern to the plate thickness is of the order of unity, lower order theories are inadequate and the present high order theory is required to give meaningful results. Results are given for the bending of symmetric cross-ply and angle-ply laminates. Comparison with exact elasticity solutions indicates that the present plate theory is sufficiently accurate for predicting the behavior of thick laminates.

  4. Simultaneous nitrate and organic matter removal from salmon industry wastewater: the effect of C/N ratio, nitrate concentration and organic load rate on batch and continuous process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huiliñir, C; Hernández, S; Aspé, E; Roeckel, M

    2012-06-30

    Although simultaneous denitrification-anaerobic digestion has been studied extensively, the use of salmon effluents as organic matter source has received little attention. This study evaluated the effect of C/N ratio, nitrate concentration, and organic load rate (OLR) on simultaneous nitrate and organic matter removal using salmon effluents. The study was carried out in a batch reactor with suspended biomass at 37 °C and pH 7.5, and in continuous biofilm tubular reactors at 37 °C fed with a mixture of a synthetic substrate and a saline protein-rich salmon-plant effluent. The results of the batch and continuous experiments showed that nitrate abatement was greater than 95% at all the studied C/N ratios, without effect of the C/N ratio on NO(3)(-)-N transformation and ammonia production. An increase of nitrate concentration increased organic matter consumption as well as the hydrolytic rate. The organic matter reduction varied between 88% and 40% in the continuous process. For a continuous process, the increase of the OLR decreases the removal of organic matter.

  5. Controlling Laminate Plate Elastic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mareš, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to express the relation of a measure of laminate plate stiffness with respect to the fiber orientation of its plies. The inverse of the scalar product of the lateral displacement of the central plane and lateral loading of the plate is the measure of laminate plate stiffness. In the case of a simply supported rectangular laminate plate this measure of stiffness is maximized, and the optimum orientation of its plies is searched.

  6. Physical meaning and prediction efficiency of the load/unload response ratio of rocks in strain-weakening phase before failure*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许昭永; 杨润海; 王彬; 赵晋明; 王赟赟; 梅世蓉

    2002-01-01

    Rock experiment results indicate that the load/unload response ratio (LURR) of rocks expressed via strain energy may have singular or negative value after the stress in the rock reaches its maximum before rock failure or when the rock goes into the strain-weakening phase. The universality of this phenomenon is discussed. Expressed via strain or strain energy and the travel time of P wave, the variation form of the reciprocal of LURR during the process of rock failure preparation is derived. The results show that after a sharp decrease the reciprocal of LURR reaches its minimum when the main fracture of the rock is about to appear. This feature can be taken as an indication that the rock main fracture is impending.

  7. An FT-IR study of NO adsorption over Cu-exchanged MFI catalysts. Effect of Si/Al ratio, copper loading and catalyst pre-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, C.; Ribeiro, M.F.; Abreu, C. [Grupo de Zeolitos, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Murphy, D.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wales Cardiff, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Poignant, F.; Saussey, J.; Lavalley, J.C. [Laboratoire de Catalyse et Spectrochimie - ISMRA, Universite de Caen, URA 414, Caen (France)

    1998-03-06

    NO adsorption, at room temperature, has been studied by infrared spectroscopy on copper MFI catalysts with different Si/Al ratios and copper loadings. The relative amount of the overall Cu{sup 2+}-NO and Cu{sup +}-NO complexes has been evaluated for each catalyst, as well as that of the different Cu{sup 2+}-NO components. ESR spectra have also been recorded in order to check the different Cu{sup 2+} coordinations. It clearly appears that square planar copper sites predominate for high Cu/Al catalysts. A comparison with reactivity data, relative to SCR of NO by propene, under an excess of oxygen, strongly suggests that these sites are involved in the considered reaction

  8. Static load cycle testing of a low-aspect-ratio four-inch wall, TRG-type structure, TRG-5-4 (1. 0, 0. 56)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Bennett, J.G.; Dunwoody, W.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Baker, W.E. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-11-01

    This report is the second in a series of test reports that details the quasi-static cyclic testing of low height-to-length aspect ratio reinforced concrete structures. The test structures were designed according to the recommendations of a technical review group for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored Seismic Category I Structures Program. The structure tested and reported here had 4-in.-thick shear and end walls, and the elastic deformation was dominated by shear. The background of the program and previous results are given for completeness. Details of the geometry, material property tests, construction history, ultrasonic testing, and modal testing to find the undamaged dynamic characteristics of the structures are given. Next, the static test procedure and results in terms of stiffness and load deformation behavior are given. Finally, results are shown relative to other known results, and conclusions are presented. 33 refs., 140 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Effect of organic load and nutrient ratio on the operation stability of the moving bed bioreactor for kraft mill wastewater treatment and the incidence of polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, G; Villamar, C A; Martínez, M; Vidal, G

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of organic load rate (OLR) and nutrient ratio on operation stability of the moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) for kraft mill wastewater treatment, analyzing the incidence of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production. The MBBR operating strategy was to increase OLR from 0.25 ± 0.05 to 2.41 ± 0.19 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) between phases I and IV. The BOD(5):N:P ratio (100:5:1 and 100:1:0.2) was evaluated as an operation strategy for phases IV to V. A stable MBBR operation was found when the OLR was increased during 225 days in five phases. The maximum absolute fluorescence against the proportion of cells accumulating PHA was obtained for an OLR of 2.41 ± 0.19 kg COD m(-3)d(-1) and a BOD(5):N:P relationship of 100:1:0.2. The increase of PHA biosynthesis is due to the increased OLR and is not attributable to the increased cell concentration, which is maintained constant in stationary status during bioreactor biosynthesis.

  10. Compression Ratio Adjuster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    New mechanism alters compression ratio of internal-combustion engine according to load so that engine operates at top fuel efficiency. Ordinary gasoline, diesel and gas engines with their fixed compression ratios are inefficient at partial load and at low-speed full load. Mechanism ensures engines operate as efficiently under these conditions as they do at highload and high speed.

  11. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  12. Vibrations and instabilities of thin rectangular plates separated by fluid medium with applications to the plate type heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gi-Man, Kim [Kum-Oh National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-31

    Due to the prohibition law for using preon gas, many items in engineering field, specially heat exchanger, should be redesigned. The newly designed heat exchanger such a plate type heat exchanger is known to have a good efficiency in exchanging heat. From view of structures of a plate type heat exchanger, thin tube are used instead of circular pipe and the path of the fluid is developed for the high efficiency of the heat exchange by varying the array of tubes. The principal problem in the design of the plate heat exchanger is the potentiality of structural instabilities due to the fluid loading effect during operations. Excessive plate deflections would eventually result in permanent deformation or collapse which would cause an obstruction of the fluid flow in the narrow channels. In this study, a fluid-structural interaction model was developed to investigate analytically the static and dynamic instabilities that have been observed in flat plate heat exchanger. The model consist of two flat plates separated by water. The effects of the internal fluid in the channel was studied. As results, the natural frequency coefficients were investigated for the plate aspect ratios, channel heights, and boundary conditions. For the design criteria in plate type heat exchanger, the critical flow velocities which cause the responses of a plate were defined for divergence, resonance and flutter phenomena. (author). 25 refs. 2 tabs. 48 figs.

  13. Origami - Folded Plate Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates new methods of designing folded plate structures that can be built with cross-laminated timber panels. Folded plate structures are attractive to both architects and engineers for their structural, spatial, and plastic qualities. Thin surfaces can be stiffened by a series of folds, and thus not only cover space, but also act as load bearing elements. The variation of light and shadow along the folded faces emphasizes the plas...

  14. Large Deflections of Elastic Rectangular Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdolsky, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    It is known that elastic large deflections of thin plates are governed by von Karman nonlinear equations. The analytical solution of these equations in the general case is unfeasible. Samuel Levy, in 1942, showed that large deflections of the rectangular plate can be expressed as a double series of sine-shaped harmonics (deflection harmonics). However, this method gave no way of creating the computer algorithm of solving the problem. The stress function expression taken in the Levy's method must be revised to find the approach that takes into account of all possible products of deflection coefficients. The algorithm of solving the problem for the rectangular plate with an arbitrary aspect ratio under the action of the lateral distributed load is reported in this paper. The approximation of the plate deflection is taken in the form of double series proposed by Samuel Levy. However, the expression for the stress function is presented in the form that incorporates products of deflection coefficients in the explicit form in distinction to the Levy's expression. The number of harmonics in the deflection expression may be arbitrary. The algorithm provides composing the system of governing cubic equations, which includes the deflection coefficients in the explicit form. Solving the equation system is based on using the principle of minimum potential energy. A method of the gradient descent is applied to find the equilibrium state of the plate as the minimum point of the potential energy. A computer program is developed on the basis of the present algorithm. Numerical examples carried out for the plate model with 16 deflection harmonics illustrate the potentialities of the program. The results of solving the examples are presented in the graphical form for the plates with a different aspect ratio and may be used under designing thin-walled elements of airplane and ship structures.

  15. The effects of conformity and load in total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, M S; Horz, S; Spalinger, E; Stachowiak, G W; Gächter, A

    2000-06-01

    The effects of different conformity ratios and loads on the ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene stress levels acting on knee implants were examined using a nonlinear, finite element analysis. The contact condition between a rigid cylinder with a radius of 30 mm and a polyethylene plate was modeled. Nonlinear behavior of polyethylene was assumed. The polyethylene plate was constructed with varying radii, with a minimal thickness of 6 mm and with a width of 40 mm. The ratio of the cylinder radius to the radius of the polyethylene plate was defined as the conformity ratio; a conformity ratio of 0 represented a flat tibial inlay, whereas the highest ratio modeled of 0.99 was nearly conforming. The conformity ratios modeled were 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 0.95, and 0.99. The loads applied were 1000 N, 2000 N, 3000 N, 4000 N, 5000 N, and 6000 N. The effects of different conformity ratios and loads on the contact area (mm2), the compressive surface stress (MPa), the shear stress (MPa), and the von Mises stress (MPa) were investigated. It was found that all of these parameters were affected by changes to the conformity ratio and to a lesser extent by load changes. That is, increasing the load from 3000 N to 6000 N resulted in a surface and shear stress increase lower than the increase in stress caused by the small change of the conformity ratio from 0.99 to 0.95. The effect of an increasing conformity ratio on the reduction in stress was more pronounced for conformity ratios above 0.8. In addition, the effect of a load increase for a flat tibial inlay was two times greater than for one with near full conformity.

  16. Study on buckling and plastic collapse behavior of a continuous stiffened plate subjected to in-plane compression loads; Mennai asshuku kaju wo ukeru renzoku bodo panel no zakutsu sosei hokai kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, T.; Fujikubo, M.; Yanagihara, D. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-04-10

    A hull structure is constituted by thin panels, and reinforced longitudinally and laterally by stiffened members to increase the effectiveness of the structure. In order to attain findings on buckling and plastic collapse behavior of stiffened plates, this paper describes analysis of elasto-plastic large deflection by using the finite element method on thin stiffened plates having flat-bars and angle-bars. The analysis includes the case of an aspect ratio being 5.0 and the case to consider welding residual stress. Considerations were given on cross sectional shape, panel aspect ratio and effects of initial welding imperfections against the buckling and plastic collapse behavior of the stiffened plates. The angle-bars tend to cause secondary buckling more easily because it has greater bending and twisting rigidity, and stronger constraint against deflection than the flat-bars. When the aspect ratio is larger and the span is longer, the ultimate strength declines, and the withstand power after the ultimate strength decreases rapidly. Existence of the residual stress tends to make the secondary buckling occur more easily. The secondary buckling affects little the withstand power after the ultimate strength. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Thermal Stress Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates using Shear Flexible Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ganapathi

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Using degree Centigrade shear flexible QUAD-9 plate element, stresses and deflections in composite laminated plates due to thermal loads analysed. A formulation based on first order shear deformation theory has been employed for the analysis. The effects of various parameters, such as ply-angle, number of layers, thickness and aspect ratios on stresses and deflections are brought out. The present formulation is being extended for studying composite shell structures.

  18. ALE方法分析爆炸载荷作用下圆板动力反直观行为%Anomalous Response of a Circular Plate Under Blast Loading with the ALE Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴桂英; 梁利平; 李鑫

    2009-01-01

    运用ANSYS/LS-DYNA软件对TNT炸药爆炸后,空气冲击波作用下弹塑性圆板的动力反直观行为进行了数值模拟. 采用任意拉格朗日-欧拉算法(ALE算法),将炸药、空气和板进行有限元离散,在考虑材料屈服极限及应变率效应对动力反直观行为影响的情况下,分别取全模型和1/4模型进行比较. 结果表明,用ALE流-固耦合方法研究爆炸载荷作用下结构反直观行为是行之有效的;材料性能、板厚度对动力反直观行为有较大影响,只有材料的屈服极限较低且厚度较薄的板,容易发生反直观行为;同时,在数值分析时需要考虑应变率的效应.%Anomalous response of elastic-plastic circular plate subjected to TNT air blast loading is studied using LS-DYNA as the numerical tool. TNT. air and plate are taken as varied finite elements with ALE arithmetic comparing full model and 1/4 model. Yield stress and strain rate have been considered for anomalous responses. It is found by numerical analyses that ALE arithmetic is a better method for structural anomalous dynamic behavior under blast loading. Material parameters and the thickness of the plate have influence on anomalous response. Anomalous response of the plate appeared easily when yield stress is lower and the thickness of plate thinner. Strain rate should be considered for numerical simulation of anomalous response under blast loading.

  19. Effects of an oral superoxide dismutase enzyme supplementation on indices of oxidative stress, proviral load, and CD4:CD8 ratios in asymptomatic FIV-infected cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Craig B; Lehman, Tracy L; McCord, Kelly W

    2008-10-01

    This study was designed to test the effect of antioxidant supplementation on feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected felines. Six acutely FIV-infected cats (> or =16 weeks post-inoculation) were given a propriety oral superoxide dismutase (SOD) supplement (Oxstrin; Nutramax Laboratories) for 30 days. Following supplementation, the erythrocyte SOD enzyme concentration was significantly greater in the supplemented FIV-infected group than the uninfected control group or the unsupplemented FIV-infected group. The CD4+ to CD8+ ratio increased significantly (0.66-0.88) in the SOD supplemented FIV-infected cats but not in the unsupplemented FIV-infected cats. Proviral load and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in leukocyte cell types did not change significantly following supplementation. Antioxidant supplementation resulted in an increase in SOD levels, confirming the oral bioavailability of the compound in FIV-infected cats. This result warrants further investigation with trials of antioxidant therapy in FIV-infected cats that are showing clinical manifestations of their disease, as well as in other feline patients where oxidative stress likely contributes to disease pathogenesis, such as diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure.

  20. 方孔蜂窝夹层板在爆炸载荷下的吸能特性%Energy absorption characteristics of a square hole honeycomb sandwich plate under blast loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓磊; 王安稳; 毛柳伟; 李魁彬

    2012-01-01

    The deformation mechanism and energy absorption characteristics of a square hole honeycomb sandwich plate under blast loading were analyzed with finite element numerical simulation method. With the given per unit area mass, cell size and core height, by comparing sandwich plate's energy absorptivity and face sheets's maximum deflection under different core relative densities, the optimal core relative density of the sandwich plate was obtained. It was shown that with this relative density, the core has the highest energy absorptivity, the minimum deflection in the bottom face sheet and the sandwich plate has superior shock resistance. Furthermore, the effects of geometrical parameters including cell size, core web thickness, core height and face sheet thickness on the energy absorptivity were discussed to obtain the optimal sandwich plate structure.%通过有限元数值模拟方法,对方孔蜂窝夹层板在爆炸冲击载荷下的变形机理和吸能特性进行了分析.在单位面积质量以及夹层板芯层薄壁间距、高度给定的情况下,通过对不同夹芯层相对密度下夹层板的吸能率以及上、下面板最大变形的比较,得出了最优的夹芯层相对密度.在此相对密度下,夹芯层吸能率最高,下面板变形最小,夹层板的抗冲击性能最优.同时还讨论了夹层板芯层薄壁间距、厚度、高度以及面板厚度对其各部分吸能率的影响,以得到最优化的夹层板结构.

  1. Elastic plate spallation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oline, L.; Medaglia, J.

    1972-01-01

    The dynamic finite element method was used to investigate elastic stress waves in a plate. Strain displacement and stress strain relations are discussed along with the stiffness and mass matrix. The results of studying point load, and distributed load over small, intermediate, and large radii are reported. The derivation of finite element matrices, and the derivation of lumped and consistent matrices for one dimensional problems with Laplace transfer solutions are included. The computer program JMMSPALL is also included.

  2. Tailoring the Blast Exposure Conditions in the Shock Tube for Generating Pure, Primary Shock Waves: The End Plate Facilitates Elimination of Secondary Loading of the Specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Matthew; Skotak, Maciej; Misistia, Anthony; Kahali, Sudeepto; Sundaramurthy, Aravind; Chandra, Namas

    2016-01-01

    The end plate mounted at the mouth of the shock tube is a versatile and effective implement to control and mitigate the end effects. We have performed a series of measurements of incident shock wave velocities and overpressures followed by quantification of impulse values (integral of pressure in time domain) for four different end plate configurations (0.625, 2, 4 inches, and an open end). Shock wave characteristics were monitored by high response rate pressure sensors allocated in six positions along the length of 6 meters long 229 mm square cross section shock tube. Tests were performed at three shock wave intensities, which was controlled by varying the Mylar membrane thickness (0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 inch). The end reflector plate installed at the exit of the shock tube allows precise control over the intensity of reflected waves penetrating into the shock tube. At the optimized distance of the tube to end plate gap the secondary waves were entirely eliminated from the test section, which was confirmed by pressure sensor at T4 location. This is pronounced finding for implementation of pure primary blast wave animal model. These data also suggest only deep in the shock tube experimental conditions allow exposure to a single shock wave free of artifacts. Our results provide detailed insight into spatiotemporal dynamics of shock waves with Friedlander waveform generated using helium as a driver gas and propagating in the air inside medium sized tube. Diffusion of driver gas (helium) inside the shock tube was responsible for velocity increase of reflected shock waves. Numerical simulations combined with experimental data suggest the shock wave attenuation mechanism is simply the expansion of the internal pressure. In the absence of any other postulated shock wave decay mechanisms, which were not implemented in the model the agreement between theory and experimental data is excellent.

  3. 砂浆板冲击破坏试验研究%Damage tests for a cement mortar plate under shock load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾培英; 邓昌; 章道生; 汤雷; 王建

    2015-01-01

    通过锤击、均匀冲击荷载试验,采用逐级递增循环冲击加载方式,研究冲击荷载下砂浆板的破坏特征及冲击力、冲击能与最大加速度响应间关系。试验表明,二种冲击作用均使砂浆板跨中区域出现贯穿裂缝,呈脆性劈裂破坏形态,均匀冲击作用下破坏位置与跨中有一定偏移;锤击力时程经历主冲击、次冲击、卸载三阶段,加速度响应随锤击力增加而增加,裂缝贯穿后冲击力、加速度响应大幅减小;均匀冲击下加速度有二组响应区,响应随冲击能增加而增加,当冲击能达一定程度时响应大幅减小;继续增加冲击能,响应又会增加,并较快发生劈裂破坏,响应大幅减小;支座螺栓松动能缓冲部分冲击作用。%Hammering and uniform shock tests of a cement mortar plate were conducled.The opposite sides of the plate were elastic supports.Through cyclic shocks with amplitude increasing,the failure features,the relationship between shock force and acceleration response,and the relationship between impact energy and acceleration response of the plate were studied.The results showed that a transverse crack nearby the midspan of the plate appears,its failure state is brittle splitting;the location of failure offsets the midspan under uniform shock;time history curves of the hammering force include three stages of major shock,secondary shock and unloading;the acceleration response of the plate increases with increase in the hammering force,however,the hammering force and acceleration response decrease obviously after the transverse crack appears;there are two groups of acceleration response regions under uniform shock;the acceleration response increases with increase in impact energy;once impact energy reaches a certain level,the acceleration response decreases obviously;if impact energy continuously increases,the acceleration response increases again,brittle splitting failure occurs

  4. Investigations on the effects of CoO{sub x} to MoO{sub x} ratio and CoO{sub x}-MoO{sub x} loading on methane decomposition into carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Siang-Piao [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, S.P.S. Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); School of Engineering, Monash University, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 46150 Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia); Yeoh, Wei-Ming; Lee, Kim-Yang [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, S.P.S. Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Rahman, E-mail: chrahman@eng.usm.m [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, S.P.S. Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2009-11-20

    The effects of CoO{sub x} to MoO{sub x} ratio and loading amount of CoO{sub x}-MoO{sub x} for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts on methane decomposition into carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated. The reaction was performed in a fixed-bed vertical reactor at 700 deg. C. It has been shown that a small amount of molybdenum added brought about considerable increases in carbon yield. The highest carbon yield was recorded for the catalyst CoO{sub x}:MoO{sub x} with weight ratio of 8:2. The examination of catalyst activity and carbon morphology reveals that an increase in the molybdenum content reduced the carbon yield and formed CNTs of smaller diameter and narrower diameter distribution. The study also shows that CoO{sub x}-MoO{sub x} loading determines the yield of carbon and the diameter of CNTs. The yield of carbon reached the maximum at 30 wt% loading, and subsequent increases in the loading amount decreased the yield. In addition, severe agglomeration of CoO{sub x}-MoO{sub x} alloy particles for high loaded CoO{sub x}-MoO{sub x}-containing catalysts led to the formation of larger alloy clusters that grew CNTs with comparatively larger diameters.

  5. Experiment and analysis of coal sample destruction precursor based on load-unload response ratio%基于加卸载响应比的煤样破坏前兆实验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙珍玉; 高芸

    2013-01-01

    基于加卸载响应比理论,实验研究了煤样在加卸载过程中声发射与电磁辐射的响应比特征,得出如下结论:①在单轴加卸载过程中,声发射与电磁辐射的加卸载响应比能比较好地反映煤样的稳定状态,煤样状态稳定时加卸载响应比较低,反之升高.②加卸载响应比增加到峰值之后,煤样开始遵循自身的演化规律,在发生宏观破坏之前加卸载响应比有明显的“急剧增长-迅速回落”过程,可以通过这一特征来预测煤样的宏观破坏.③由于煤样的不均匀性,加卸载响应比峰值时间与发生宏观破坏时间不一致,在应用加卸载响应比方法进行灾变预测时,应充分考虑煤岩不均匀程度,根据具体情况确定特征时间的尺度.实验结果表明,通过声发射和电磁辐射加卸载响应比预测煤岩动力灾害具有一定的可行性.%The paper researched and analyzed response ratio characteristics of acoustic emission and electromagnetic radiation of coal sample in load-unload by experiment based on load-unload response ratio theory,and got conclusions:① Load-unload response ratio of acoustic emission and electromagnetic radiation can well reflect stable state of coal samples in process of homotaxial load-unload,and load-unload response ratio is lower when coal sample status is stable,otherwise is higher.② The coal samples will begin to follow itself evolution rule after the load-unload response ratio increased to peak,and the loadunload response ratio has process "sharp growth-quickly down" before the coal samples break,which can be used to predict macroscopic damage of the coal sample.③Peak time and macroscopic damage time of the load-unload response ratio is inconsistent because of inhomogeneity of the coal sample,so when method of load-unload response ratio is used to predict disaster,uneven degree of coal and rock should be considered to determine characteristic time.The experiment results show that

  6. Automatic genomics: a user-friendly program for the automatic designing and plate loading of medium-throughput qPCR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejas, Sergio; Alvarez, Rebeca; Dopazo, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) remains the method of choice for gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression studies. Many laboratories wish to automate some or all of the steps of medium-throughput qPCR experiments through the use of various types of liquid handling robots. However, it is not uncommon to find cases in which scripts provided by the robot supplier are too rigid for user-specific applications, do not include all the desired options, or are too complicated to be modified by a nonprofessional programmer. Here, we present Automatic Genomics, a program that allows users with a limited programming background to automate medium-throughput qPCR experiments by using commercially available liquid-handling robots. The user is able to optimize the plate design in terms of number of genes, number of samples, and controls.

  7. The buckling response of symmetrically laminated composite plates having a trapezoidal planform area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radloff, H. D., II; Hyer, M. W.; Nemeth, M. P.

    1994-08-01

    analytical results regarding the buckling load and the prebuckling plate stiffness. However, the experimental results show that for some cases the analysis underpredicts the number of halfwaves in the buckled mode shape. In the context of the definitions of taper ratio and aspect ratio used in this study, it is concluded that the buckling load always increases as taper ratio increases for a given aspect ratio for plates having simply supported boundary conditions on the parallel ends. There are combinations of plate geometry and ply stackling sequences, however, that reverse this trend for plates having clamped boundary conditions on the parallel ends such that an increase in the taper ratio causes a decrease in the buckling load. The clamped boundary conditions on the parallel ends of the plate are shown to increase the buckling load compared to simply supported boundary conditions. Also, anisotropy (the D16 and D26 terms) is shown to decrease the buckling load and skew the buckled mode shape for both the simply supported and clamped boundary conditions.

  8. Stress concentration analysis in functionally graded plates with elliptic holes under biaxial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawakol A. Enab

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Stress concentration factors (SCFs at the root of an elliptic hole in unidirectional functionally graded material (UDFGM plates under uniaxial and biaxial loads are predicted. ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL was used to build the finite element models for the plates and to run the analysis. A parametric study is performed for several geometric and material parameters such as the elliptic hole major axis to plate width ratio, the elliptical shape factor, the gradation direction of UDFGM. It is shown that, SCF in the finite plate can be significantly reduced by choosing the proper distribution of the functionally graded materials. The present study may provide designers an efficient way to estimate the hole effect on plate structures made of functionally graded materials.

  9. Buckling analysis of thick isotropic plates by using exponential shear deformation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyad A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an exponential shear deformation theory is presented for the buckling analysis of thick isotropic plates subjected to uniaxial and biaxial in-plane forces. The theory accounts for a parabolic distribution of the transverse shear strains across the thickness, and satisfies the zero traction boundary conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the plate without using shear correction factors. Governing equations and associated boundary conditions of the theory are obtained using the principle of virtual work. The simply supported thick isotropic square plates are considered for the detailed numerical studies. A closed form solutions for buckling analysis of square plates are obtained. Comparison studies are performed to verify the validity of the present results. The effects of aspect ratio on the critical buckling load of isotropic plates is investigated and discussed.

  10. Embedded adhesive connection for laminated glass plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Poulsen, S.H.; Bagger, A.

    2012-01-01

    The structural behavior of a new connection design, the embedded adhesive connection, used for laminated glass plates is investigated. The connection consists of an aluminum plate encapsulated in-between two adjacent triple layered laminated glass plates. Fastening between glass and aluminum...... usage in a design situation. The embedded connection shows promising potential as a future fastening system for load-carrying laminated glass plates....

  11. Experimental research on behavior of 460 MPa high strength steel I-section columns under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaojiao; Shi, Gang; Shi, Yongjiu

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the seismic behavior of I-section columns made of 460 MPa high strength steel (HSS), six specimens were tested under constant axial load and cyclic horizontal load. The specimens were designed with different width-to-thickness ratios and loaded under different axial load ratios. For each specimen, the failure mode was observed and hysteretic curve was measured. Comparison of different specimens on hysteretic characteristic, energy dissipation capacity and deformation capacity were further investigated. Test results showed that the degradation of bearing capacity was due to local buckling of flange and web. Under the same axial load ratio, as width-to-thickness ratio increased, the deformation area of local buckling became smaller. And also, displacement level at both peak load and failure load became smaller. In addition, the full extent of hysteretic curve, energy dissipation capacity, ultimate story drift angle decreased, and capacity degradation occurred more rapidly with the increase of width-to-thickness ratio or axial load ratio. Based on the capacity of story drift angle, limiting values which shall not be exceeded are suggested respectively for flange and web plate of 460 MPa HSS I-section columns when used in SMFs and in IMFs in the case of axial load ratio no more than 0.2. Such values should be smaller when the axial load ratio increases.

  12. Standard Test Method for Measuring the Curved Beam Strength of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite - (View Full Text) D6416/D6416M-01(2007) Standard Test Method for Two-Dimensional Flexural Properties of Simply Supported Sandwich Composite Plates Subjected to a Distributed Load

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    Standard Test Method for Measuring the Curved Beam Strength of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite - (View Full Text) D6416/D6416M-01(2007) Standard Test Method for Two-Dimensional Flexural Properties of Simply Supported Sandwich Composite Plates Subjected to a Distributed Load

  13. Influence of Intake Phase on Part Load Performance for High Expansion Ratio Gasoline Engine%进气相位对高膨胀比汽油机部分负荷特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨弢; 杜爱民; 万玉; 李萌萌

    2012-01-01

    One-dimensional simulation model of 1. 8 L natural aspirated gasoline engine was built to study the influence of intake phase on part load performance for high expansion ratio gasoline engine. The cycle with high expansion ratio was carried out based on the original engine and the working performance at different speeds and loads was simulated and calculated. The results show that, compared with the later intake valve closing, the late intake vale closing is more beneficial to reduce pumping loss, improve thermal efficiency and fuel economy at part load.%为研究进气相位对高膨胀比汽油机部分负荷性能的影响,建立了某1.8L自然吸气汽油发动机一维仿真模型,在原始机型的基础上执行高膨胀比循环,模拟计算了不同转速、不同负荷下高膨胀比循环工作性能,结果显示,在部分负荷时,相对于较大的进气门迟闭角,较小的进气门迟闭角更有利于降低部分负荷泵气损失、提高热效率、改善燃油经济性.

  14. Buckling analysis of partially corroded steel plates with irregular surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmad Rahbar-Ranji

    2014-04-01

    Corrosion is a long-term, inevitable process, lessens the thickness and load carrying capacity of structures. Old steel structures are more vulnerable to buckling, yielding and fracture due to corrosion. In lieu of a detailed analysis, average thickness assumption is employed for general type of corrosion. However, the estimation of load carrying capacity reduction of corroded structures typically need a much higher level of accuracy, since the actual corroded plates would have irregular surfaces. The objective of this article is to determine the effect of general corrosion on reduction of elastic buckling strength of both-sided partially corroded plates with irregular surfaces. Eigenvalue analysis using finite element method is employed for Euler stress calculation of corroded plates. The effects of different influential parameters are investigated and it is found that, aspect ratio of plate, location of corroded area, standard deviation of thickness diminution and concentration of corrosion have influence on reduction of elastic buckling strength. Reduction of elastic buckling strength is very sensitive to the amount of corrosion loss. The higher the amount of corrosion loss, the more reduction of elastic buckling strength.

  15. Tandem-ring dwell time ratio in Nigeria: dose comparisons of two loading patterns in standard high-dose-rate brachytherapy planning for cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT), the source dwell times and dwell positions are essential treatment planning parameters. An optimal choice of these factors is fundamental to obtain the desired target coverage with the lowest achievable dose to the organs at risk (OARs). This study evaluates relevant dose parameters in cervix brachytherapy in order to assess existing tandem-ring dwell time ratio used at the first HDR BT center in Nigeria, and compare it with an alternative s...

  16. Closed-form solutions for free vibration of rectangular FGM thin plates resting on elastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T. F.; Xing, Y. F.

    2016-12-01

    This article presents closed-form solutions for the frequency analysis of rectangular functionally graded material (FGM) thin plates subjected to initially in-plane loads and with an elastic foundation. Based on classical thin plate theory, the governing differential equations are derived using Hamilton's principle. A neutral surface is used to eliminate stretching-bending coupling in FGM plates on the basis of the assumption of constant Poisson's ratio. The resulting governing equation of FGM thin plates has the same form as homogeneous thin plates. The separation-of-variables method is adopted to obtain solutions for the free vibration problems of rectangular FGM thin plates with separable boundary conditions, including, for example, clamped plates. The obtained normal modes and frequencies are in elegant closed forms, and present formulations and solutions are validated by comparing present results with those in the literature and finite element method results obtained by the authors. A parameter study reveals the effects of the power law index n and aspect ratio a/ b on frequencies.

  17. Closed-form solutions for free vibration of rectangular FGM thin plates resting on elastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T. F.; Xing, Y. F.

    2016-09-01

    This article presents closed-form solutions for the frequency analysis of rectangular functionally graded material (FGM) thin plates subjected to initially in-plane loads and with an elastic foundation. Based on classical thin plate theory, the governing differential equations are derived using Hamilton's principle. A neutral surface is used to eliminate stretching-bending coupling in FGM plates on the basis of the assumption of constant Poisson's ratio. The resulting governing equation of FGM thin plates has the same form as homogeneous thin plates. The separation-of-variables method is adopted to obtain solutions for the free vibration problems of rectangular FGM thin plates with separable boundary conditions, including, for example, clamped plates. The obtained normal modes and frequencies are in elegant closed forms, and present formulations and solutions are validated by comparing present results with those in the literature and finite element method results obtained by the authors. A parameter study reveals the effects of the power law index n and aspect ratio a/b on frequencies.

  18. Specificity of the Acute Tryptophan and Tyrosine Plus Phenylalanine Depletion and Loading Tests Part II: Normalisation of the Tryptophan and the Tyrosine Plus Phenylalanine to Competing Amino Acid Ratios in a New Control Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla A.-B. Badawy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Current formulations for acute tryptophan (Trp or tyrosine (Tyr plus phenylalanine (Phe depletion and loading cause undesirable decreases in ratios of Trp or Tyr + Phe to competing amino acids (CAA, thus undermining the specificities of these tests. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA cause these unintended decreases, and lowering their content in a new balanced control formulation in the present study led to normalization of all ratios. Four groups (n = 12 each of adults each received one of four 50 g control formulations, with 0% (traditional, 20%, 30%, or 40% less of the BCAA. The free and total [Trp]/[CAA] and [Phe + Tyr]/[BCAA + Trp] ratios all decreased significantly during the first 5 h following the traditional formulation, but were fully normalized by the formulation containing 40% less of the BCAA. We recommend the latter as a balanced control formulation and propose adjustments in the depletion and loading formulations to enhance their specificities for 5-HT and the catecholamines.

  19. (1)H relaxivity of water in aqueous suspensions of Gd(3+)-loaded NaY nanozeolites and AlTUD-1 mesoporous material: the influence of Si/Al ratio and pore size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norek, Małgorzata; Neves, Isabel C; Peters, Joop A

    2007-07-23

    The results of a (1)H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) and EPR study on aqueous suspensions of Gd(3+)-loaded NaY nanozeolites and AlTUD-1 mesoporous material are described. Upon increase of the Si/Al ratio from 1.7 to 4.0 in the Gd(3+)-loaded zeolites, the relaxation rate per mM Gd(3+) (r1) at 40 MHz and 25 degrees C increases from 14 to 27 s(-)1 mM(-1). The NMRD and EPR data were fitted with a previously developed two-step model that considers the system as a concentrated aqueous solution of Gd(3+) in the interior of the zeolite that is in exchange with the bulk water outside the zeolite. The results show that the observed increase in relaxivity can mainly be attributed to the residence lifetime of the water protons in the interior of the material, which decreased from 0.3 to 0.2 micros, upon the increase of the Si/Al ratio. This can be explained by the decreased interaction of water with the zeolite walls as a result of the increased hydrophobicity. The importance of the exchange rate of water between the inside and the outside of the material was further demonstrated by the relatively high relaxivity (33 s(-1) mM(-1) at 40 MHz, 25 degrees C) observed for a suspension of the Gd(3+)-loaded mesoporous material AlTUD-1. Unfortunately, Gd(3+) leaches rather easily from that material, but not from the Gd(3+)-loaded NaY zeolites, which may have potential as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

  20. Analysis of Sigmoid Functionally Graded Material (S-FGM Nanoscale Plates Using the Nonlocal Elasticity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Young Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a nonlocal elasticity theory, a model for sigmoid functionally graded material (S-FGM nanoscale plate with first-order shear deformation is studied. The material properties of S-FGM nanoscale plate are assumed to vary according to sigmoid function (two power law distribution of the volume fraction of the constituents. Elastic theory of the sigmoid FGM (S-FGM nanoscale plate is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and first-order shear deformation theory. The equations of motion of the nonlocal theories are derived using Hamilton’s principle. The nonlocal elasticity of Eringen has the ability to capture the small scale effect. The solutions of S-FGM nanoscale plate are presented to illustrate the effect of nonlocal theory on bending and vibration response of the S-FGM nanoscale plates. The effects of nonlocal parameters, power law index, aspect ratio, elastic modulus ratio, side-to-thickness ratio, and loading type on bending and vibration response are investigated. Results of the present theory show a good agreement with the reference solutions. These results can be used for evaluating the reliability of size-dependent S-FGM nanoscale plate models developed in the future.

  1. Calcul des efforts de deuxième ordre à très haute fréquence sur des plates-formes à lignes tendues Computing High-Frequency Second Order Loads on Tension Leg Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le problème considéré ici est celui de l'évaluation des efforts excitateurs de deuxième ordre (en mode somme, c'est-à-dire prenant place aux sommes deux à deux des fréquences de houle sur des plates-formes à lignes tendues. Ces efforts sont tenus pour responsables de comportements résonnants (en roulis, tangage et pilonnement observés lors d'essais en bassin et pourraient réduire sensiblement la durée de vie en fatigue des tendons. Des résultats sont tout d'abord présentés pour une structure simplifiée, consistant en 4 cylindres verticaux reposant sur le fond marin. L'intérêt de cette géométrie est que tous les calculs peuvent être menés à terme de façon quasi analytique. Les résultats obtenus permettent d'illustrer le haut degré d'interaction entre les colonnes, et la faible décroissance du potentiel de diffraction de deuxième ordre avec la profondeur. On présente ensuite des résultats pour une plate-forme réelle, celle de Snorre. Tension Leg Platforms (TLP's are now regarded as a promising technology for the development of deep offshore fields. As the water depth increases however, their natural periods of heave, roll and pitch tend to increase as well (roughly to the one-half power, and it is not clear yet what the maximum permissible values for these natural periods can be. For the Snorre TLP for instance, they are only about 2. 5 seconds, which seems to be sufficiently low since there is very limited free wave energy at such periods. Model tests, however, have shown some resonant response in sea states with peak periods of about 5 seconds. Often referred to as springing , this resonant motion can severely affect the fatigue life of tethers and increase their design loads. In order to calculate this springing motion at the design stage, it is necessary to identify and evaluate both the exciting loads and the mechanisms of energy dissipation. With the help of the French Norwegian Foundation a joint effort was

  2. Risk factors for breakage of biodegradable plate systems after bilateral sagittal split mandibular setback surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Izumi; Igawa, Kaori; Nagata, Jyunko; Yoshida, Maho; Baba, Takashi; Ichiki, Takeshi; Kondoh, Yudai; Takamori, Koichi; Kashima, Koji; Sakoda, Sumio

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with breakage of biodegradable plate systems after bilateral sagittal split mandibular setback. We studied 169 Japanese adults (62 men, 107 women; age range 16-53 years) with deformities of the jaw diagnosed as mandibular prognathism. All patients were treated by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) with 2 biodegradable fixation plates and screws at the anterior mandibular ramus. We collected the following data from the medical records and radiological findings: sex; age; degree of setback; presence of asymmetry; presence of open bite; operation; design of the plate; operating time; and blood loss. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to find the factors that were independently associated with the dependent variable: breakage of the biodegradable plate system. In 10 of the 169 patients (6%) the biodegradable plate system for the BSSO broke. Factors that influenced whether or not the biodegradable plate system fractured were if they were asymmetrical (odds ratio (OR) 5.35; P=0.02) and had an open bite (OR 5.20; P=0.02). Asymmetry or open bite was significantly associated with breaks in the biodegradable plate system. Biodegradable plates should be used only when loading is minimal.

  3. Ensaios estáticos de flexão e rigidez em placas do tipo sistema dinâmico do quadril (DHS Static load test on dynamic hip system (DHS plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar isolada e comparativamente placas do tipo sistema dinâmico do quadril (DHS de dois fabricantes nacionais, analisar estatisticamente seus resultados e demonstrar a falta de determinantes para sua fabricação. MÉTODOS: Foram realizados ensaios estáticos de flexão em cinco placas DHS do fabricante I (grupo I e em igual quantidade do mesmo modelo do fabricante II (grupo II, sendo todas fabricadas em aço inoxidável austenítico ASTM F 138, com quatro furos e angulação de 135º. Utilizou-se máquina servohidráulica MTS, modelo Test Star II®, com capacidade de carga de 10 toneladas e controle de deslocamento. Foram obtidos dados da carga aplicada (P em função do deslocamento vertical do pistão (L, cuja velocidade foi 5 mm/min. Os ensaios foram interrompidos após atingir a deflexão vertical máxima especificada pelas normas dos ensaios. RESULTADOS: Grupo I: resistência de flexão, 161,4 ± 17,2 kgf rigidez, 64,5 ± 1,8 kgf/mm, ductilidade, > 25,4 mm. Grupo II: resistência de flexão, 124,7 ± 4,4, rigidez 59,6 ± 2,3, ductilidade > 25,4 mm. Para análise estatística foi adotado o teste de Mann-Whitney e a determinação de significância foi de 5% (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate, both individually and comparatively, dynamic hip system-type plates marketed by two local manufacturers, to statistically analyze its results and show the lack of parameters for its manufacturing. METHODS: Static tests of flexion were carried out in five DHS plates of the manufacturer I (I group I and in equal quantity of the same model of the manufacturer II (I group II, being all made in stainless austenitic ASTM F 138 steel, with four holes and a 135º angle. A servo-hydraulic MTS machine, Test Star II model, was used with a load capacity of 10 tons and dislocation control. The data were obtained from the applied load (P as a function of the vertical dislocation of the piston (L, whose speed was 5mm/min. The tests were shutdown after reaching

  4. Light splitting with imperfect wave plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jarom S; Archibald, James L; Durfee, Dallin S

    2017-02-01

    We discuss the use of wave plates with arbitrary retardances, in conjunction with a linear polarizer, to split linearly polarized light into two linearly polarized beams with an arbitrary splitting fraction. We show that for non-ideal wave plates, a much broader range of splitting ratios is typically possible when a pair of wave plates, rather than a single wave plate, is used. We discuss the maximum range of splitting fractions possible with one or two wave plates as a function of the wave plate retardances, and how to align the wave plates to achieve the maximum splitting range possible when simply rotating one of the wave plates while keeping the other one fixed. We also briefly discuss an alignment-free polarization rotator constructed from a pair of half-wave plates.

  5. Waves in Periodic Dissipative Laminate Metamaterial Generated by Plate Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Navarro, Pedro; Benson, David; Nesterenko, Vitali

    2015-06-01

    Waves generated by plate impact loading of Al/W laminates with different size of cell were investigated numerically depending on the impactor/cell mass ratio. The materials model took into account viscoplastic behavior of materials. It was observed that this mass ratio has a direct impact on the structure of stress pulses traveling through the composite. At the small impactor/cell mass ratio travelling waves closely resembling solitary waves were quickly formed near the impacted surface. They propagate as quasistationary weakly attenuating localized pulses. The properties of these pulses were satisfactory described based on a theoretical model using dispersive and nonlinear parameters of the materials similar to solitary solutions for the Korteweg-de Vries equation (KdV). The temperature at given pressure at the maximum is dramatically different then the temperature corresponding to the shock wave at the same pressure reflecting a different paths of loading. Increase of impactor/cell mass ratio results in the train of solitary like pulses which number increased with the increase of the impactor/cell mass ratio. At large impactor/cell mass ratio oscillatory stationary shock waves were formed. The leading front of these stationary shock waves was closely described by a solitary like pulse observed at small impactor/cell mass ratio. One of the authors (PFN) was supported by UCMexus Fellowship

  6. Parametric Influence on Thermal Performance of Flat Plate Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong-hai; KHANDEKAR Sameer; GROLL Manfred

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on a flat plate closed loop pulsating heat pipes. It consisted of total 40 channels with square cross section (2 × 2 mm2, 165 mm long) machined directly on an aluminum plate(180× 120×3mm3 ), which was covered by a transparent plate. The working fluid employed was ethanol. As the results, the influence parameters of thermal performance were investigated, such as filling ratio, heat load and operational orientations etc. Filling ratio was found to be a critical parameter, and its effect was rather complicated. According to its values the PHP plate could have four distinct working zones with different operational characteristics and heat transfer performance. The effect of heat load on thermal performance was found to be positive, and in general,increasing the heat load would improve heat transfer performance. In order to analyze the effect of gravity on thermal performance, three different heat modes and total seven tilt angles were tested and compared. Successful operation at all orientations with respect to gravity was also achieved.

  7. Structural Stability and Dynamics of FGM Plates Using an Improved 8-ANS Finite Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weon-Tae Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available I investigate the vibration and buckling analysis of functionally graded material (FGM structures, using a modified 8-node shell element. The properties of FGM vary continuously through the thickness direction according to the volume fraction of constituents defined by sigmoid function. The modified 8-ANS shell element has been employed to study the effect of power law index on dynamic analysis of FGM plates with various boundary conditions and buckling analysis under combined loads, and interaction curves of FGM plates are carried out. To overcome shear and membrane locking problems, the assumed natural strain method is employed. In order to validate and compare the finite element numerical solutions, the reference results of plates based on Navier’s method, the series solutions of sigmoid FGM (S-FGM plates are compared. Results of the present study show good agreement with the reference results. The solutions of vibration and buckling analysis are numerically illustrated in a number of tables and figures to show the influence of power law index, side-to-thickness ratio, aspect ratio, types of loads, and boundary conditions in FGM structures. This work is relevant to the simulation of wing surfaces, aircrafts, and box structures under various boundary conditions and loadings.

  8. A feedback control system for vibration of magnetostrictive plate subjected to follower force using sinusoidal shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghorbanpour Arani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the vibrational behavior of magnetostrictive plate (MsP as a smart component is studied. The plate is subjected to an external follower force and a magnetic field in which the vibration response of MsP has been investigated for both loading combinations. The velocity feedback gain parameter is evaluated to study the effect of magnetic field which is generated by the coil. Sinusoidal shear deformation theory is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial function with respect to other plate theories. Equations of motion are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved by differential quadrature method (DQM considering general boundary conditions. The effects of aspect ratio, thickness ratio, follower force and velocity feedback gain are investigated on the frequency response of MsP. Results indicate that magneto-mechanical coupling in MsM helps to control vibrational behaviors of systems such as electro-hydraulic actuator, wireless linear Motors and sensors.

  9. Explosive scarf welding of aluminum to copper plates and their interface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashani, J.Z.; Bagheri, S.M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran)

    2009-09-15

    Explosive welding was used to produce scarf joint between aluminum and copper plates. This process is known as explosive scarf welding (ESW). In a scarf joint, the final bond interface is oblique. In this study, chamfered end of aluminum and copper plates were joined explosively and named scarf joint, employing changes in chamfered angle at different stand-off distance and explosive loading. The geometry of scarf joint enables consideration of both flyer and base plate thickness and explosive loading and the effects on mechanical properties of interface such as bond shear strength and micro-hardness can be investigated. Mathematical models developed on the interface properties of scarf joint to make relationship between the bond shear strength and explosive loading ratio. To check the adequacy of developed models, mechanical properties of interface, such as bond shear strength was predicted and compared with actual values in explosive cladding process. The results show reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions. Consequently, mathematical model which is based on scarf joints, can predict bond shear strength of cladding metals under desired explosive loading and flyer plate thickness. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Sprengschweissen von Aluminium - Kupferplatten und ihre Grenzflaecheneigenschaften. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Size-dependent axisymmetric vibration of functionally graded circular plates in bifurcation/limit point instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoori, A. R.; Vanini, S. A. Sadough; Salari, E.

    2017-04-01

    In the present paper, vibration behavior of size-dependent functionally graded (FG) circular microplates subjected to thermal loading are carried out in pre/post-buckling of bifurcation/limit-load instability for the first time. Two kinds of frequently used thermal loading, i.e., uniform temperature rise and heat conduction across the thickness direction are considered. Thermo-mechanical material properties of FG plate are supposed to vary smoothly and continuously throughout the thickness based on power law model. Modified couple stress theory is exploited to describe the size dependency of microplate. The nonlinear governing equations of motion and associated boundary conditions are extracted through generalized form of Hamilton's principle and von-Karman geometric nonlinearity for the vibration analysis of circular FG plates including size effects. Ritz finite element method is then employed to construct the matrix representation of governing equations which are solved by two different strategies including Newton-Raphson scheme and cylindrical arc-length method. Moreover, in the following a parametric study is accompanied to examine the effects of the several parameters such as material length scale parameter, temperature distributions, type of buckling, thickness to radius ratio, boundary conditions and power law index on the dimensionless frequency of post-buckled/snapped size-dependent FG plates in detail. It is found that the material length scale parameter and thermal loading have a significant effect on vibration characteristics of size-dependent circular FG plates.

  11. Solving the problem of elasticity for round thick plates at axially symmetric strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy Hvertsev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An exact solution of the equations of elasticity for round plates loaded axially symmetric. The problem of bending round plates, which are under the influence of normal forces attached to any law to load any type of resistance. It is shown that pasture circular plate under axially symmetric load leads to appearance of temperature field.

  12. Impact behaviour of stiffened steel plates

    OpenAIRE

    Sølvernes, Sindre Hellem

    2015-01-01

    The impact behavior of stiffened steel plates subjected to impact loading from concentrated loads was studied experimentally and numerically. Both dynamic and quasi-static tests of stiffened steel plates with geometry adopted from a typical external deck area on an offshore platform were conducted. The quasi-static tests were performed to study the relationship between dynamic impact behavior and the corresponding static ones. All tests were carried out in scale 1:4. To allow the executio...

  13. Optimum design of load ratio between bearings in rational alignment of propulsion shaft%推进轴系合理校中轴承负荷比优化及轴线设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新宝; 耿宝龙; 杨一帆

    2013-01-01

    To improve the straight alignment and the rational alignment method, a rational alignment method of the propulsive shafting was proposed, which can ensure the ratio of the load of the forward stern-tube bearing to the load of the afterward stern-tube bearing to be the optimal. The shaft-line of a running propulsive shaft was optimized and the shaft alignment calculation was carried out for the model of a simplified propulsive shaft. The result illustrate that if load-ratio is in the scope of 1/2~ 1/3, the shaft-line is curvilinear and all bearings of propulsion shaft are not in a straight-line, and the vertical bearing slope of the afterward stern-tube bearing (to reference of straight-line) is more than 3.5×10-4 rad.%针对推进轴系直线校中方法的缺陷和目前轴承负荷法校中方法的局限性,提出了满足艉管前后轴承的负荷比最佳的轴系合理校中设计方法.对旋转时的轴线进行优化设计,并对一个简化轴系模型进行校中计算,计算结果显示:艉管前后轴承的负荷比在1/2~1/3的范围内时,全轴系的轴线是曲线且轴承不是都在一条直线上,后轴承对设计轴线的偏离量较大;艉管后轴承支撑点处截面转角超过了3.5× 10-4 rad.

  14. Bending and buckling behavior analysis of foamed metal circular plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jian Ling; Ma, Lian Sheng; Zhang, Lu; De Su, Hou

    2016-07-04

    This paper establishes a density gradient model along the thickness direction of a circular plate made of foamed material. Based on the first shear deformation plate theory, the result is deduced that the foamed metal circular plate with graded density along thickness direction yields axisymmetric bending problem under the action of uniformly distributed load, and the analytical solution is obtained by solving the governing equation directly. The analyses on two constraint conditions of edge radial clamping and simply supported show that the density gradient index and external load may affect the axisymmetric bending behavior of the plate. Then, based on the classical plate theory, the paper analyzes the behavior of axisymmetric buckling under radial pressure applied on the circular plate. Shooting method is used to obtain the critical load, and the effects of gradient nature of material properties and boundary conditions on the critical load of the plate are analyzed.

  15. CLAD Algorithm of Rolling Force Ratio Load Distribution on Hot Strip Mill%热连轧机轧制力成比例负荷分配的CLAD算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维刚; 刘相华

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm called change load ratio by adjusting draft(CLAD) was presented to achieve on-line optimal setting of roll force ratio draft scheduling of hot strip mill.The key point was to minimize the difference between current rolling force ratios and goal rolling force ratios by adjusting draft deviation of different finishing mills.According to the principle of rolling force ratio,non-linear equations were established.Combined with assumptions,the coefficient matrix was simplified to a diagonal matrix,and the iterative formula and convergence condition of the proposed new algorithm were derived by mathematical method.An empirical interpolation method was proposed to determine the initial value of draft scheduling and make the convergence speed of CLAD faster.Simulation experiments for typical rolled strips of BAOSTEEL showed that the new algorithm can be used in on-line pass schedule calculation with the advantages such as fast computing speed and excellent convergence performance.%为了实现热连轧精轧机组负荷分配的在线优化设定,提出一种轧制力成比例负荷分配的新算法CLAD算法(change load ratio by adjusting draft).其要点是通过调整压下量的偏差来使当前轧制力与目标轧制力的偏差最小化.根据轧制力成比例原则建立非线性方程组,结合假设条件,将系数矩阵简化为对角阵,经数学推导给出了新算法的迭代公式和收敛条件.提出一种经验插值法确定初始值,使得负荷分配迭代计算能快速收敛.对宝钢典型轧制案例的模拟计算验证了新算法具有计算速度快、收敛性好等优点,可用于在线计算.

  16. Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Material Plates Using Higher Order Shear Deformation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sidda Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prime aim of the present study is to present analytical formulations and solutions for the buckling analysis of simply supported functionally graded plates (FGPs using higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT without enforcing zero transverse shear stresses on the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. It does not require shear correction factors and transverse shear stresses vary parabolically across the thickness. Material properties of the plate are assumed to vary in the thickness direction according to a power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. The equations of motion and boundary conditions are derived using the principle of virtual work. Solutions are obtained for FGPs in closed-form using Navier’s technique. Comparison studies are performed to verify the validity of the present results from which it can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and efficient in predicting the buckling behavior of functionally graded plates. The effect of side-to-thickness ratio, aspect ratio, modulus ratio, the volume fraction exponent, and the loading conditions on the critical buckling load of FGPs is also investigated and discussed.

  17. Assessment of vehicular live load and load factors for design of short-span bridges according to the new Egyptian Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem M. Seliem

    2015-04-01

    The study shows that concrete box-girders designed according to ECP-201:2012 and ECP-201:2003 using the ultimate limit state method yield almost the same demand. Despite the increase in the VLL of ECP-201:2012, and consequently the live load forces, concrete I-shaped girder bridges will be subjected to less total factored internal forces in comparison to ECP-201:2003 This is attributed to the interaction between the live to dead loads ratio and the load combinations. Design of composite steel plate girder bridges according to ECP-201:2012 using the allowable stress design method yields over designed sections.

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  19. Stability of Three-Layered Annular Plate with Composite Facings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlus, D.

    2017-02-01

    Paper presents the behaviour of three-layered annular plates subjected to loads acting in plate plane. Plates are composed of laminated fibre-reinforced composite facings and foam core. The static and dynamic parameters of plate critical state were evaluated. The sensitivity of composite structure of plate to the acting of quickly increasing in time loads is shown. The problem has been solved numerically using the finite element method. Results have been compared with ones obtained for plate models with isotropic layers. These plate models have also been calculated solving formulated task analytically and numerically by means of the finite difference method. Solutions to the problem concern the axisymmetrical and asymmetrical plate buckling modes. Numerous presented tables and figures create the image of the stability behaviour of examined composite plates.

  20. Analysis of environmental loads of the steelworks on scrap ratio of the basic oxygen furnace%转炉废钢比对钢铁企业的环境影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志甲; 徐子义; 孙欢欢

    2013-01-01

    根据某钢铁公司转炉废钢比的现状和国际上的水平,确定了提高转炉废钢比的2个可行方案.利用生命周期评价方法,评估了某钢铁公司在不同方案下环境负荷变化情况,结果表明:提高转炉废钢比能够减少企业的铁矿石、能源、水资源的消耗和污染物排放,影响最大的3个指标是铁矿石消耗和PM10、SOx排放.%Two scenarios of scarp ratio of the basic oxygen furnace were supposed based on situation of the steelworks and international advanced ratio. The changes of the environmental loads of the steelworks were assessed by life cycle assessment. The results show the assumption of iron ore,energy,water and emissions of the steelworks can be induced by rising of the scrap ratio. The top three of changes is the assumption of iron ore,the emissions of PM10 and SOx.

  1. 基于物流费用分摊比例的闭环供应链模型%Model for closed-loop supply chain based on the loading ratio of logistics cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    公彦德; 李帮义; 刘涛

    2011-01-01

    家电零售商为制造商提供丰富的销售渠道之时,也给制造商带来大量具有盘剥性质的费用成本.针对这一现象,将第三方物流服务商引入到闭环供应链系统中来,通过分析正向和逆向物流费用在制造商和零售商之间的分担比例,发现零售商承担的正向或逆向物流费用比例越大,则供应链节点企业的利润均会得到提高,从而通过设置合理的分摊比例,可以达到优化供应链的目的.另外进一步分析了非合作博弈下的外包策略及步骤,发现运用物流费用分摊比例的大小可以进行外包决策;在合作决策下,为了避免合作失败的风险,运用不对称的NASH协商模型设计了供应链系统的利益分配方法及步骤,最后通过数值算例进一步加以说明.%At present, retailer proposes rich marketing channel for manufacturer, but the unfairness is appeared.So third party logistics service provider is introduced to closed loop supply chain system, and the price of forward logistics service and reverse logistics service is shared by manufacturer and retailer. It is found the loading ratio of service price for retailer is larger, enterprises' profit is also improved. Outsourcing strategy is given with loading ratio of service price, decision maker can make outsourcing decisions by loading ratio under non-cooperative game. In order to avoid cooperative risk, supply chain coordination method is given by Nash negotiation model. Finally conclusions are verified with an example.

  2. ANALYTICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN EIGENVALUES OF CIRCULAR PLATE BASED ON VARIOUS PLATE THEORIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the mathematical similarity of the axisymmetric eigenvalue problems of a circular plate between the classical plate theory(CPT), the first-order shear deformation plate theory(FPT) and the Reddy's third-order shear deformation plate theory(RPT), analytical relations between the eigenvalues of circular plate based on various plate theories are investigated. In the present paper, the eigenvalue problem is transformed to solve an algebra equation. Analytical relationships that are expressed explicitly between various theories are presented. Therefore, from these relationships one can easily obtain the exact RPT and FPT solutions of critical buckling load and natural frequencyfor a circular plate with CPT solutions. The relationships are useful for engineering application, and can be used to check the validity, convergence and accuracy of numerical results for the eigenvalue problem of plates.

  3. The concept of locking plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronier, P; Pietu, G; Dujardin, C; Bigorre, N; Ducellier, F; Gerard, R

    2010-05-01

    After a short historical review of locking bone plates since their inception more than a century ago to the success of the concept less than 15 years ago with today's plates, the authors present the main locking mechanisms in use. In the two broad categories - plates with fixed angulation and those with variable angulation - the screw head is locked in the plate with a locknut by screwing in a threaded chamber on the plate or by screwing through an adapted ring. The authors then provide a concrete explanation, based on simple mechanical models, of the fundamental differences between conventional bone plates and locking plates and why a locking screw system presents greater resistance at disassembly, detailing the role played by the position and number of screws. The advantages of epiphyseal fixation are then discussed, including in cases of mediocre-quality bone. For teaching purposes, the authors also present assembly with an apple fixed with five locking screws withstanding a 47-kg axial load with no resulting disassembly. The principles of plate placement are detailed for both the epiphysis and diaphysis, including the number and position of screws and respect of the soft tissues, with the greatest success assured by the minimally invasive and even percutaneous techniques. The authors then present the advantages of locking plates in fixation of periprosthetic fractures where conventional osteosynthesis often encounters limited success. Based on simplified theoretical cases, the economic impact in France of this type of implant is discussed, showing that on average it accounts for less than 10% of the overall cost of this pathology to society. Finally, the possible problems of material ablation are discussed as well as the means to remediate these problems.

  4. Plate shell structures - statics and stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the basic structural system, statics and spatial stability of plate shells. The structural system can be considered as a single layer of planar elements, where each element only transfers in-plane (membrane) forces to its neighbouring elements. External out-of-plane loads...... are carried into the structure as in-plane forces by plate action in each element. These in-plane forces are then carried through the plate structure to the supports as in-plane forces by membrane action. The consequence is that the spatial stability of the structure can be simply analysed by considering...... the plate system as only subject to in-plane loads. The stability of such systems is based on the fact that each plane element is held fixed in space by three fixed support lines and that these support lines can be provided by three plane neighbour elements. This means that the spatial stability of a plate...

  5. Stability Problems for Plates with Short-Term Damageability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoroshun, L. P.; Babich, D. V.

    2001-02-01

    The problem on stability of plates with microdamages simulated by hollow randomly dispersed micropores is considered. Two approaches are proposed to investigate the stability of plates weakened by microdamages. These approaches are based on models well known from the theory of stability of elastoplastic bodies — the concepts of tangent-modulus loading and continuous loading

  6. Linear and nonlinear buckling analysis of a locally stretched plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilardj, Madina; Ikhenzzen, Ghania [University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene (U.S.T.H.B), Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Merssager, Tanguy; Kanit, Toufik [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille Universite Lille 1, Cite ScientifiqueVilleneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)

    2016-08-15

    Uniformly stretched thin plates do not buckle unless they are in special boundary conditions. However, buckling commonly occurs around discontinuities, such as cracks, cuts, narrow slits, holes, and different openings, of such plates. This study aims to show that buckling can also occur in thin plates that contain no defect or singularity when the stretching is local. This specific stability problem is analyzed with the finite element method. A brief literature review on stretched plates is presented. Linear and nonlinear buckling stress analyses are conducted for a partially stretched rectangular plate, and various load cases are considered to investigate the influence of the partial loading expanse on the critical tensile buckling load. Results are summarized in iso-stress areas, tables and graphs. Local stretching on one end of the plate induces buckling in the thin plate even without geometrical imperfection.

  7. Effect of filler content on the properties of expanded- graphite-based composite bipolar plates for application in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masand, Aakash; Borah, Munu; Pathak, Abhishek K.; Dhakate, Sanjay R.

    2017-09-01

    Minimization of the weight and volume of a hydrogen-based PEM fuel cell stack is an essential area of research for the development and commercialization of PEMFCs for various applications. Graphite-based composite bipolar plates have significant advantages over conventional metallic bipolar plates due to their corrosion resistivity and low cost. On the other hand, expanded graphite is seen to be a potential candidate for facilitating the required electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of bipolar plates with a low density. Therefore, in the present study, the focus is on minimization of the high loading of graphite and optimizes its composition to meet the target properties of bipolar plates as per the USDOE target. Three types of expanded graphite (EG)-phenolic-resin-based composite bipolar plates were developed by partially replacing the expanded graphite content with natural graphite (NG) and carbon black as an additional filler. The three types of composite plate with the reinforcing constituent ratio EG:NG:R (25:25:50) give a bending strength of 49 MPa, a modulus of ~6 GPa, electrical conductivity  >100 S cm‑1, a shore hardness of 55 and a bulk density of 1.55 g/cc. The 50 wt% loading of resin is sufficient to wet the 50 wt% filler content in the composite plate. This study gives an insight into using hybrid reinforcements in order to achieve the desired properties of bipolar plates.

  8. The buckling response of symmetrically laminated composite plates having a trapezoidal planform area. M.S. Thesis Interim Report No. 98, Aug. 1990 - May 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radloff, H. D., II; Hyer, M. W.; Nemeth, M. P.

    1994-01-01

    analytical results regarding the buckling load and the prebuckling plate stiffness. However, the experimental results show that for some cases the analysis underpredicts the number of halfwaves in the buckled mode shape. In the context of the definitions of taper ratio and aspect ratio used in this study, it is concluded that the buckling load always increases as taper ratio increases for a given aspect ratio for plates having simply supported boundary conditions on the parallel ends. There are combinations of plate geometry and ply stackling sequences, however, that reverse this trend for plates having clamped boundary conditions on the parallel ends such that an increase in the taper ratio causes a decrease in the buckling load. The clamped boundary conditions on the parallel ends of the plate are shown to increase the buckling load compared to simply supported boundary conditions. Also, anisotropy (the D16 and D26 terms) is shown to decrease the buckling load and skew the buckled mode shape for both the simply supported and clamped boundary conditions.

  9. 超高速撞击作用下 C/SiC 薄板抗冲击特性研究%Impact resistance characteristics of C/SiC plate under hypervelocity load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨扬; 徐绯; 寇剑锋; 汤忠斌

    2014-01-01

    The impact resistance of thermal protective system is an important determinant for the safety service of space airplane in orbit.Based on impact experiments,a debris cloud structure model of plain-woven C/SiC composite under impact load was proposed and analysed qualitatively,in which the special axial columnar high energy zone of C/SiC debris cloud was emphasized.Based on the Autodyn orthotropic composite model,the material parameters were derived, whose rationality was verified by the comparison of numerical results with the experimental results.The residual velocity of projectile,the axial average velocity and the distributed angle of debris cloud were selected as the main characteristic parameters according to the debris cloud characteristics of C/SiC composite.Taking Al spherical projectile as the impacting object,the impact resistance of a C/SiC plate was analysed and assessed under various conditions.%针对空天飞行器热防护系统抗冲击性能,基于已得实验结果对冲击载荷作用的平纹编织C/SiC复合材料薄板碎片云团结构定性建模及分析,获得 C /SiC 碎片云中特殊轴向柱状高能区。基于 Autodyn 正交各向异性材料模型推导材料参数并与实验对比,验证模型及参数的合理性。据 C /SiC 碎片云团特点选取弹丸剩余速度、碎片云轴向平均速度及分散角作为主要特征参数,并以球形 Al 弹丸薄板撞击模型为对象,对超高速撞击多种工况 C /SiC 面板的抗冲击性能进行规律分析及评估。

  10. Analytical solution for multilayer plates using general layerwise plate theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Đorđe M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with closed-form solution for static analysis of simply supported composite plate, based on generalized laminate plate theory (GLPT. The mathematical model assumes piece-wise linear variation of in-plane displacement components and a constant transverse displacement through the thickness. It also include discrete transverse shear effect into the assumed displacement field, thus providing accurate prediction of transverse shear stresses. Namely, transverse stresses satisfy Hook's law, 3D equilibrium equations and traction free boundary conditions. With assumed displacement field, linear strain-displacement relation, and constitutive equations of the lamina, equilibrium equations are derived using principle of virtual displacements. Navier-type closed form solution of GLPT, is derived for simply supported plate, made of orthotropic laminae, loaded by harmonic and uniform distribution of transverse pressure. Results are compared with 3D elasticity solutions and excellent agreement is found.

  11. Dynamic Response of Three-Layered Annular Plate with Imperfections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlus Dorota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the imperfection sensitivity of annular plate with three-layered structure. The plate composed of thin elastic facings and a thicker elastic core is loaded in facing plane. The classical issue of a three-layered plate was solved for dynamic deflection problem using the approximation methods: orthogonalization and finite difference. The solution includes the axisymmetric and asymmetric plate modes of the dynamic stability loss. The evaluation of the rate of plate sensitivity to imperfection of plate preliminary geometry has been enriched by the analysis of plate models built of finite elements. The ABAQUS program has been used. The numerous calculation results in the form of deflection characteristics, buckling modes, values of critical parameters create the view of response of dynamic plate structure with different rate of imperfection and linear in time loading growth, too.

  12. Coupling between plate vibration and acoustic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frendi, Abdelkader; Maestrello, Lucio; Bayliss, Alvin

    1993-01-01

    A detailed numerical investigation of the coupling between the vibration of a flexible plate and the acoustic radiation is performed. The nonlinear Euler equations are used to describe the acoustic fluid while the nonlinear plate equation is used to describe the plate vibration. Linear, nonlinear, and quasi-periodic or chaotic vibrations and the resultant acoustic radiation are analyzed. We find that for the linear plate response, acoustic coupling is negligible. However, for the nonlinear and chaotic responses, acoustic coupling has a significant effect on the vibration level as the loading increases. The radiated pressure from a plate undergoing nonlinear or chaotic vibrations is found to propagate nonlinearly into the far field. However, the nonlinearity due to wave propagation is much weaker than that due to the plate vibrations. As the acoustic wave propagates into the far field, the relative difference in level between the fundamental and its harmonics and subharmonics decreases with distance.

  13. Target Loading from a Submerged Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wardlaw

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pressure on a flat plate suspended over a submerged detonation is measured and simulated. Calculation and experiment are in relatively good agreement, although there is variation in experimental results and simulations are sensitive, near the centerline, to the computational details. This sensitivity is linked to the instability of the accelerating plume, typical of a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The plate loading features an initial force at plate center, followed by an expanding circular loading pattern. The initial load is due to plume impact, while the circular load arises from the impact of water transported up the edges of the explosion cavity.

  14. Reliability assessment of different plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in functionally graded plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkash, Milad; Azhari, Mojtaba; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The importance of elastic wave propagation problem in plates arises from the application of ultrasonic elastic waves in non-destructive evaluation of plate-like structures. However, precise study and analysis of acoustic guided waves especially in non-homogeneous waveguides such as functionally graded plates are so complicated that exact elastodynamic methods are rarely employed in practical applications. Thus, the simple approximate plate theories have attracted much interest for the calculation of wave fields in FGM plates. Therefore, in the current research, the classical plate theory (CPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT) are used to obtain the transient responses of flexural waves in FGM plates subjected to transverse impulsive loadings. Moreover, comparing the results with those based on a well recognized hybrid numerical method (HNM), we examine the accuracy of the plate theories for several plates of various thicknesses under excitations of different frequencies. The material properties of the plate are assumed to vary across the plate thickness according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents. In all analyses, spatial Fourier transform together with modal analysis are applied to compute displacement responses of the plates. A comparison of the results demonstrates the reliability ranges of the approximate plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in FGM plates. Furthermore, based on various examples, it is shown that whenever the plate theories are used within the appropriate ranges of plate thickness and frequency content, solution process in wave number-time domain based on modal analysis approach is not only sufficient but also efficient for finding the transient waveforms in FGM plates.

  15. Histomorphological change of growth plate under asymmetrical loading in porcine scoliosis model%幼猪脊柱侧凸模型中椎体生长板组织学变化的定量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑欣; 邱勇; 钱邦平; 孙旭; 王斌; 俞扬; 朱泽章

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the histological changes of vertebral growth plates under asymmetrical loading in porcine scoliosis model (PSM).Methods A total of 13 female Yorkshire pigs with an age of 6 weeks and a weight range of 6 8 kg were selected.In PSM group,8 pigs were instrumented and tethered ipsilaterally through 3 separate incisions.After 8 weeks,posterior instrumentation was removed.The animals were observed for 8 more weeks.In control group,internal fixation of spine was performed without tethering.After sacrificing,spines were harvested for histological study.The specimens were embedded in paraffin,decalcified and stained by hematoxylin & eosin (HE) for histomorphometry.The thickness of hypertrophic zone in iliac cartilage,area and number of chondrocytes in cell-nest and number of proliferative chondrocytes were analyzed by ImagePro Plus.Results In PSM group,7 pigs developed idiopathic-type scoliosis.The mean coronal Cobb's angle was 27.8 postoperatively and progressed to 59.3 after a tethering period of 8 weeks.The average scoliosis was 55.2 at an average of 8 weeks after tethering removal.No scoliosis was found in control group.In PSM group,the number of chondrocytes of hypertrophic zones was fewer at concave side than that at convex side.And irregular arrangement of chondrocytes was present in hypertrophic zones.In PSM group,inter-side thickness of hypertrophic zone differed significantly (convex:460.3 ±26.0μm,concave:318.5 ± 72.1 μm,P<0.05).No inter-side differenee existed between growth plate in control group (left:480.4 ± 93.4μm,right:521.5 ± 117.8 μm,P>0.05).At convex side,average area of cell-nest and average number of cells in cell-nest were larger than those at concave side in PSM group (18 269.6 ± 3 717.4 vs 9 719.0 ± 1 979.7 μm2,P<0.05;12.9 ± 2.5 vs 8.3 ± 1.0,P<0.05).However,no inter-side difference existed between number of proliferative chondrocytes (convex:139.0 ± 44.7,concave:125.0 ± 24.0,P>0.05).In control group

  16. Response to Concentrated Moving Masses of Elastically Supported Rectangular Plates Resting on Winkler Elastic Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awodola T. O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic response to moving concentrated masses of elastically supported rectangular plates resting on Winkler elastic foundation is investigated in this work. This problem, involving non-classical boundary conditions, is solved and illustrated with two common examples often encountered in engineering practice. Analysis of the closed form solutions shows that, for the same natural frequency (i the response amplitude for the moving mass problem is greater than that one of the moving force problem for fixed Rotatory inertia correction factor R0 and foundation modulus F0, (ii The critical speed for the moving mass problem is smaller than that for the moving force problem and so resonance is reached earlier in the former. The numerical results in plotted curves show that, for the elastically supported plate, as the value of R0 increases, the response amplitudes of the plate decrease and that, for fixed value of R0, the displacements of the plate decrease as F0 increases. The results also show that for fixed R0 and F0, the transverse deflections of the plates under the actions of moving masses are higher than those when only the force effects of the moving load are considered. Hence, the moving force solution is not a save approximation to the moving mass problem. Also, as the mass ratio Γ approaches zero, the response amplitude of the moving mass problem approaches that one of the moving force problem of the elastically supported rectangular plate resting on constant Winkler elastic foundation.

  17. Biomechanical Properties of 3-Dimensional Printed Volar Locking Distal Radius Plate: Comparison With Conventional Volar Locking Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jae; Jo, Young-Hoon; Choi, Wan-Sun; Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Bong-Gun; Kim, Joo-Hak; Lee, Kwang-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the biomechanical properties of a new volar locking plate made by 3-dimensional printing using titanium alloy powder and 2 conventional volar locking plates under static and dynamic loading conditions that were designed to replicate those seen during fracture healing and early postoperative rehabilitation. For all plate designs, 12 fourth-generation synthetic composite radii were fitted with volar locking plates according to the manufacturers' technique after segmental osteotomy. Each specimen was first preloaded 10 N and then was loaded to 100 N, 200 N, and 300 N in phases at a rate of 2 N/s. Each construct was then dynamically loaded for 2,000 cycles of fatigue loading in each phase for a total 10,000 cycles. Finally, the constructs were loaded to a failure at a rate of 5 mm/min. All 3 plates showed increasing stiffness at higher loads. The 3-dimensional printed volar locking plate showed significantly higher stiffness at all dynamic loading tests compared with the 2 conventional volar locking plates. The 3-dimensional printed volar locking plate had the highest yield strength, which was significantly higher than those of 2 conventional volar locking plates. A 3-dimensional printed volar locking plate has similar stiffness to conventional plates in an experimental model of a severely comminuted distal radius fracture in which the anterior and posterior metaphyseal cortex are involved. These results support the potential clinical utility of 3-dimensional printed volar locking plates in which design can be modified according the fracture configuration and the anatomy of the radius. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A new refined theory of plates with transverse shear deformation for moderately thick and thick plates

    CERN Document Server

    Valle, Jose Miguel Martinez

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new refined shear deformation plate theory which possesses a series of desirable features, the most salient of which are as follows: (i) The loads, which are generally considered to be applied on the middle surface of the plate, act on the upper surface of the plate; (ii) The equations are applicable to the calculation of the stresses in isotropic plates and provide the same order of accuracy as several theories with second order shear deformation effects; (iii) It constitutes a theory, in the sense defined by Love, since it gives easy expressions for application to problems in different fields in architecture and civil engineering

  19. Dual fuel gradients in uranium silicide plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, B.W. [Babock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has been able to achieve dual gradient plates with good repeatability in small lots of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates. Improvements in homogeneity and other processing parameters and techniques have allowed the development of contoured fuel within the cladding. The most difficult obstacles to overcome have been the ability to evaluate the bidirectional fuel loadings in comparison to the perfect loading model and the different methods of instilling the gradients in the early compact stage. The overriding conclusion is that to control the contour of the fuel, a known relationship between the compact, the frames and final core gradient must exist. Therefore, further development in the creation and control of dual gradients in fuel plates will involve arriving at a plausible gradient requirement and building the correct model between the compact configuration and the final contoured loading requirements.

  20. Dynamic performance of angle-steel concrete columns under low cyclic loading-I: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenzhong; Ji, Jing

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes low cyclic loading testing of nine angle-steel concrete column (ASCC) specimens. In the tests, the influence of the shear-span ratio, axial compression ratio and shear steel plate ratio on the hysteretic behavior, energy dissipation, strength degradation, stiffness degradation, skeleton curve and ductility of the ASCCs is studied. Based on the test results, some conclusions are presented. The P- Δ and sectional M — ϕ hysteretic models for the ASCCs are presented in a companion paper (Zheng and Ji, 2008).

  1. Dynamic performance of angle-steel concrete columns under low cyclic loading-I: Experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Wenzhong; Ji Jing

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes low cyclic loading testing of nine angle-steel concrete column (ASCC) specimens. In the tests, the influence of the shear-span ratio, axial compression ratio and shear steel plate ratio on the hysteretic behavior, energy dissipation, strength degradation, stiffness degradation, skeleton curve and ductility of the ASCCs is studied. Based on the test results, some conclusions are presented. The P-Δ and sectional M-(Φ) hysteretic models for the ASCCs are presented in a companion paper (Zheng and Ji, 2008).

  2. Chaotic Motion of Corrugated Circular Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Large deflection theory of thin anisotropic circular plates was used to analyze the bifurcation behavior and chaotic phenomena of a corrugated thin circular plate with combined transverse periodic excitation and an in-plane static boundary load. The nonlinear dynamic equation for the corrugated plate was derived by employing Galerkin's technique. The critical conditions for occurrence of the homoclinic and subharmonic bifurcations as well as chaos were studied theoretically using the Melnikov function method. The chaotic motion was also simulated numerically using Maple, with the Poincaré map and phase curve used to evaluate when chaotic motion appears. The results indicate some chaotic motion in the corrugated plate. The method is directly applicable to chaotic analysis of an isotropic circular plate.

  3. Problem of Electromagnetoviscoelasticity for Multiply Connected Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloerov, S. A.; Samodurov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    A method for solving the problem of electromagnetoviscoelasticity for multiply connected plates is proposed. The small-parameter method is used to reduce this problem to a recursive sequence of problems of electromagnetoelasticity, which are solved by using complex potentials. A procedure is developed to determine, using complex potentials, approximations of the basic characteristics (stresses, electromagnetic-field strength, electromagnetic-flux density) of the electromagnetoelastic state at any time after application of a load. A plate with an elliptic hole is considered as an example. The variation in the electromagnetoelastic state of the multiply connected plate with time is studied

  4. Numerical analysis of cross shear plate rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The rolling process is widely applied for industrial production of metal plates. In conventional plate rolling the two work rolls are rotating at the same peripheral speed. By introducing a specific difference in the speed of the two work rolls, cross shear rolling is introduced forming a central...... are in the roll gap, the position and the size of the shear zone and the rolling load are calculated. Experimental results are presented verifying the calculations. The numerical analysis facilitates a better understanding of the mechanics in cross shear plate rolling....

  5. Consideration on buckling and plastic breakdown strength characteristics of a steel plate with surface layers of ultra fine grain microstructure (SUF); Hyoso chosairyu koban no zakutsu sosei hokai kyodo tokusei ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, M.; Yao, T.; Yajima, H.; Miyamoto, H.; Morita, S. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ogihara, Y.; Ishikawa, T. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Buckling and plastic breakdown strength characteristics of a structure fabricated by using new steel plates with surface layer made into ultra fine grain structure were analyzed and discussed by using a belt plate buckling and plasticity test and the finite element method. The tested steel plate has a thickness of 25 mm, and was fabricated for ocean vessel use, with surface layers on both sides of about 1/6 of the whole thickness having been made an ultra fine grain structure. As a result of a belt steel buckling and plasticity test on a steel plate with surface ratio of 29%, both of the initial yield stress and the buckling stress were found increased by about 4 to 10% as compared with a steel plate having surface ratio of 0%. An analysis by using the finite element method was made on square steel plates with a length of 80 cm, a width of 100 cm, and thicknesses of 12 mm and 24 mm. A result was obtained that, in the case of surface layer ratio of 33%, both of the initial yield stress and the maximum load withstanding force were higher by 5 to 16% than the case of surface ratio of 0%. Similar rise in strength was shown also in bend preventing plates which are basic constituting members of a vessel. 6 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Analysis of Biaxially Stressed Bridge Deck Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, Tommi Højer

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate state analysis of bridge deck plates at the intersection zone between main girders and transverse beams is complicated by biaxial membrane stresses, which may be in compression or tension in either direction depending on the bridge configuration and the specific location. This paper...... presents a detailed investigation of the ultimate capacity of simply supported plates subjected to biaxial loads. The full interaction domain of combinations of compressive and tensile loads has been investigated including a large number of imperfections. It was found that non-standard imperfection modes...

  7. Processless offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mahović Poljaček

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.

  8. Redesign of Indonesian-made osteosynthesis plates to enhance their mechanical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewo, P; van der Houwen, E B; Suyitno; Marius, R; Magetsari, R; Verkerke, G J

    2015-02-01

    Mechanical properties determined by fatigue strength, ductility, and toughness are important measures for osteosynthesis plates in order to tolerate some load-bearing situations caused by muscle contractions and weight-bearing effects. Previous study indicated that Indonesian-made plates showed lower mechanical strength compared to the European AO standard plate. High stress under load-bearing situations often starts from surface of the plate; we therefore refined the grain size of the surface by using shot peening and surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). Single cycle bending tests showed that shot-peened and SMAT-treated plates had significantly higher load limit and bending stress compared to the original plates (pIndonesian-made plates can be improved upon SMAT treatment leading to significant enhancement of mechanical strength thus is comparable to the standard plate. Our findings highlight the benefits of SMAT treatment to improve mechanical strength of Indonesian-made osteosynthesis plates.

  9. Transient motion of thick anisotropic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, Adnan H.; Taylor, Timothy W.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses are developed for the response of anisotropic plate strips to a transient load. The load is taken in the form of a line load of normal stress on the surface or within the body of the strip. The characteristic free vibrational modes of the strip are derived and used to derive the secular equation for this case in closed form and to isolate the mathematical conditions for symmetric and antisymmetric wave mode propagation in completely separate terms. The applied loads are expanded in terms of these normal modes and the response of the plate is obtained by superposition of the appropriate components. Material systems of higher symmetry are contained implicitly in the analysis.

  10. Mechanical properties of Indonesian-made narrow dynamic compression plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewo, P; van der Houwen, E B; Sharma, P K; Magetsari, R; Bor, T C; Vargas-Llona, L D; van Horn, J R; Busscher, H J; Verkerke, G J

    2012-09-01

    Osteosynthesis plates are clinically used to fixate and position a fractured bone. They should have the ability to withstand cyclic loads produced by muscle contractions and total body weight. The very high demand for osteosynthesis plates in developing countries in general and in Indonesia in particular necessitates the utilisation of local products. In this paper, we investigated the mechanical properties, i.e. proportional limit and fatigue strength of Indonesian-made Narrow Dynamic Compression Plates (Narrow DCP) as one of the most frequently used osteosynthesis plates, in comparison to the European AO standard plate, and its relationship to geometry, micro structural features and surface defects of the plates. All Indonesian-made plates appeared to be weaker than the standard Narrow DCP because they consistently failed at lower stresses. Surface defects did not play a major role in this, although the polishing of the Indonesian Narrow DCP was found to be poor. The standard plate showed indications of cold deformation from the production process in contrast to the Indonesian plates, which might be the first reason for the differences in strength. This is confirmed by hardness measurements. A second reason could be the use of an inferior version of stainless steel. The Indonesian plates showed lower mechanical behaviour compared to the AO-plates. These findings could initiate the development of improved Indonesian manufactured DCP-plates with properties comparable to commonly used plates, such as the standard European AO-plates.

  11. Transmission of Sound Through Double-Plate Panel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Andersen, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, a finite-element model of a double-plate panel is implemented to investigate the transmission of sound through a simple lightweight structure. A numerical study is performed of the following three coupling configurations: 1) Structure-borne sound via plate......-stud-plate structures without air inclusions; 2) transmission via the plate-stud-plate structure including the internal acoustic medium; 3) transmission via plate-air-plate connections in a double-leaf panel with no structural coupling between the two plates. A fully coupled analysis is performed in which solid finite...... elements are adopted for the structure, whereas the acoustic medium is discretized into fluid continuum elements. The computations are carried out in frequency domain in the low frequency range and the load acts as a diffuse sound field on one side of the panel....

  12. Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee

    2005-12-22

    took the initial steam reforming plate-reactor concept and advanced it towards an integrated fuel processing system. A substantial amount of modeling was performed to guide the catalyst development and prototype hardware design and fabrication efforts. The plate-reactor mechanical design was studied in detail to establish design guidelines which would help the plate reactor survive the stresses of repeated thermal cycles (from start-ups and shut-downs). Integrated system performance modeling was performed to predict system efficiencies and determine the parameters with the most significant impact on efficiency. In conjunction with the modeling effort, a significant effort was directed towards catalyst development. CESI developed a highly active, sulfur tolerant, coke resistant, precious metal based reforming catalyst. CESI also developed its own non-precious metal based water-gas shift catalyst and demonstrated the catalysts durability over several thousands of hours of testing. CESI also developed a unique preferential oxidation catalyst capable of reducing 1% CO to < 10 ppm CO over a 35 C operating window through a single pass plate-based reactor. Finally, CESI combined the modeling results and steam reforming catalyst development efforts into prototype hardware. The first generation 3kW(e) prototype was fabricated from existing heat-exchanger plates to expedite the fabrication process. This prototype demonstrated steady state operation ranging from 5 to 100% load conditions. The prototype also demonstrated a 20:1 turndown ratio, 10:1 load transient operation and rapid start-up capability.

  13. Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee

    2005-12-22

    took the initial steam reforming plate-reactor concept and advanced it towards an integrated fuel processing system. A substantial amount of modeling was performed to guide the catalyst development and prototype hardware design and fabrication efforts. The plate-reactor mechanical design was studied in detail to establish design guidelines which would help the plate reactor survive the stresses of repeated thermal cycles (from start-ups and shut-downs). Integrated system performance modeling was performed to predict system efficiencies and determine the parameters with the most significant impact on efficiency. In conjunction with the modeling effort, a significant effort was directed towards catalyst development. CESI developed a highly active, sulfur tolerant, coke resistant, precious metal based reforming catalyst. CESI also developed its own non-precious metal based water-gas shift catalyst and demonstrated the catalysts durability over several thousands of hours of testing. CESI also developed a unique preferential oxidation catalyst capable of reducing 1% CO to < 10 ppm CO over a 35 C operating window through a single pass plate-based reactor. Finally, CESI combined the modeling results and steam reforming catalyst development efforts into prototype hardware. The first generation 3kW(e) prototype was fabricated from existing heat-exchanger plates to expedite the fabrication process. This prototype demonstrated steady state operation ranging from 5 to 100% load conditions. The prototype also demonstrated a 20:1 turndown ratio, 10:1 load transient operation and rapid start-up capability.

  14. Numerical Study of the Effect of Presence of Geometric Singularities on the Mechanical Behavior of Laminated Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khechai, Abdelhak; Tati, Abdelouahab; Guettala, Abdelhamid

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, an effort is made to understand the effects of geometric singularities on the load bearing capacity and stress distribution in thin laminated plates. Composite plates with variously shaped cutouts are frequently used in both modern and classical aerospace, mechanical and civil engineering structures. Finite element investigation is undertaken to show the effect of geometric singularities on stress distribution. In this study, the stress concentration factors (SCFs) in cross-and-angle-ply laminated as well as in isotropic plates subjected to uniaxial loading are studied using a quadrilateral finite element of four nodes with thirty-two degrees-of-freedom per element. The varying parameters such as the cutout shape and hole sizes (a/b) are considered. The numerical results obtained by the present element are compared favorably with those obtained using the finite element software Freefem++ and the analytic findings published in literature, which demonstrates the accuracy of the present element. Freefem++ is open source software based on the finite element method, which could be helpful to study and improving the analyses of the stress distribution in composite plates with cutouts. The Freefem++ and the quadrilateral finite element formulations will be given in the beginning of this paper. Finally, to show the effect of the fiber orientation angle and anisotropic modulus ratio on the (SCF), number of figures are given for various ratio (a/b).

  15. Under Wind Load Function the Curtain Wall Aluminum Plate Internal Force and Distortion Calculation%风荷载作用下幕墙铝板内力和变形的计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛伙南

    2012-01-01

    The survey of unit type curtain wall is researched. Using the ANSYS software, the internal force and displacement of the unit type plate structure which are composed of the trough type aluminum plate and S stiffening ribs (portal type frame) are calculated. The stiffening rib and the aluminum plate corner partial rivet loosens by the rigid joint turns the hinge point is studied. The computation model is built and its biggest internal force and displacement are obtained. Finally, the practical application is in troduced.%阐述了槽型铝板和加劲肋构成的单元式幕墙的内力及变形计算.采用ANSYS软件对单元板块由槽型铝板与5条加劲肋组成的结构的内力和变形进行计算,研究了加劲肋转角处由于局部铆钉松脱由刚结点变成铰接点后其计算模型发生改变的应力及位移计算,最后介绍实际应用.

  16. Outer rise seismicity of the subducting Nazca Plate: Plate stress distribution, fault orientation and plate hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barama, Louisa

    Subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate drives frequent and sometimes large magnitude earthquakes. During the past 40 years, significant numbers of outer rise earthquakes have occurred in the offshore regions of Colombia and Chile. In this study, we investigate the distribution of stress due to lithospheric bending and the extent of faults within the subducting plate. To calculate more accurate epicenters and to constrain which earthquakes occurred within the outer rise, we use hypocentroidal decomposition to relocate earthquakes with Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) solutions occurring after 1976 offshore Colombia and Chile. We determine centroid depths of outer rise earthquakes by inverting teleseismic P-, SH-, and SV- waveforms for earthquakes occurring from 1993 to 2014 with Mw ≥ 5.5. In order to further constrain the results of the waveform inversion, we estimate depths by comparing earthquake duration, amplitude, and arrival times for select stations with waveforms with good signal to noise ratios. Our results indicate that tensional earthquakes occur at depths down to 13 km and 24 km depth beneath the surface in the Colombia and Chile regions, respectively. Since faulting within the outer rise can make the plate susceptible to hydration and mantle serpentinization, we therefore infer the extent of possible hydration of the Nazca plate to extend no deeper than the extent of tensional outer rise earthquakes.

  17. Modeling natural convection heat transfer from perforated plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zan WU; Wei LI; Zhi-jian SUN; Rong-hua HONG

    2012-01-01

    Staggered pattern perforations are introduced to isolated isothermal plates,vertical parallel isothermal plates,and vertical rectangular isothermal fins under natural convection conditions.The performance of perforations was evaluated theoretically based on existing correlations by considering effects of ratios of open area,inclined angles,and other geometric parameters.It was found that staggered pattern perforations can increase the total heat transfer rate for isolated isothermal plates and vertical parallel plates,with low ratios of plate height to wall-to-wall spacing (H/s),by a factor of 1.07 to 1.21,while only by a factor of 1.03 to 1.07 for vertical rectangular isothermal fins,and the magnitude of enhancement is proportional to the ratio of open area.However,staggered pattern perforations are detrimental to heat transfer enhancement of vertical parallel plates with large H/s ratios.

  18. CAD-CAM plates versus conventional fixation plates for primary mandibular reconstruction: A biomechanical in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendenbach, Carsten; Sellenschloh, Kay; Gerbig, Lucca; Morlock, Michael M; Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta; Smeets, Ralf; Heiland, Max; Huber, Gerd; Hanken, Henning

    2017-09-01

    CAD/CAM reconstruction plates have become a viable option for mandible reconstruction. The aim of this study was to determine whether CAD/CAM plates provide higher fatigue strength compared with conventional fixation systems. 1.0 mm miniplates, 2.0 mm conventional locking plates (DePuy Synthes, Umkirch, Germany), and 2.0 mm CAD/CAM plates (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium/DePuy Synthes) were used to reconstruct a polyurethane mandible model (Synbone, Malans, CH) with cortical and cancellous bone equivalents. Mastication was simulated via cyclic dynamic testing using a universal testing machine (MTS, Bionix, Eden Prairie, MN, USA) until material failure reached a rate of 1 Hz with increasing loads on the left side. No significant difference was found between the groups until a load of 300 N. At higher loads, vertical displacement differed increasingly, with a poorer performance of miniplates (p = 0.04). Plate breakage occurred in miniplates and conventional locking plates. Screw breakage was recorded as the primary failure mechanism in CAD/CAM plates. Stiffness was significantly higher with the CAD/CAM plates (p = 0.04). CAD/CAM plates and reconstruction plates provide higher fatigue strength than miniplates, and stiffness is highest in CAD/CAM systems. All tested fixation methods seem sufficiently stable for mandible reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Design Optimization and Structural Performance Evaluation of Plate Girder Bridge Constructed Using a Turn-Over Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi-Ha Eom

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent trend in bridge construction has been the optimization of the cost-to-performance ratio. The most effective way to optimize the cost-to-performance ratio is to maximize the efficiency of the superstructure. Currently, many bridge engineers and designers favor two- or three- girder plate superstructures, due to their cost advantages. However, research on the performance enhancements of the I-type girder in two- or three- girder plate bridges is lacking. One of the most important performance improvement technologies for the I-type girder is the “preflex” method. In the preflex method, the specimen is inverted during the construction process to apply prestressed cambering to the specimen by using self-weight. However, a problem with the preflex construction method is difficulty with inverting the girder/plate system during the concrete curing process. Therefore, a new inverting system called Turn-Over (TO wheel was proposed. Using TO wheels, wider variations to the I-type girder design can be achieved. Using this TO construction method, various cross sectional designs of girder plate systems can be considered due to its easiness in inverting the girder/plate system. In this study, the location of concrete confinement sections between the steel I-beams and concrete plates was varied in an I-girder cross-sectional design. Design parameters included effective height, flange thickness, flange width, confining concrete section width, etc. From this study, the optimum cross-sectional design of the I-girder/concrete plate system was achieved. Then, a single 20 m TO girder/plate system and two 20 m TO girder bridges were constructed and tested to evaluate their performance. From the test, failure behavior, load carrying capacity, crack pattern, etc., are obtained. The results are discussed in detail in this paper.

  20. THERMAL FRACTURE OF FUNCTIONALLY GRADED PLATE WITH PARALLEL SURFACE CRACKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuezhong Feng; Zhihe Jin

    2009-01-01

    This work examines the fracture behavior of a functionally graded material (FGM) plate containing parallel surface cracks with alternating lengths subjected to a thermal shock. The thermal stress intensity factors (TSIFs) at the tips of long and short cracks are calculated using a singular integral equation technique. The critical thermal shock △T_c that causes crack initiation is calculated using a stress intensity factor criterion. Numerical examples of TSIFs and △T_c for an Al_2O_3/Si_3N_4 FGM plate are presented to illustrate the effects of thermal property gradation, crack spacing and crack length ratio on the TSIFs and △T_c. It is found that for a given crack length ratio, the TSIFs at the tips of both long and short cracks can be reduced significantly and △T_c can be enhanced by introducing appropriate material gradation. The TSIFs also decrease dramatically with a decrease in crack spacing. The TSIF at the tips of short cracks may be higher than that for the long cracks under certain crack geometry conditions. Hence, the short cracks instead of long cracks may first start to grow under the thermal shock loading.

  1. Flexural Vibration Characteristics of Initially Stressed Composite Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Daripa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of localised in-plane load on the flexural vibration characteristics of isotropic and composite plates have been studied using a four-noded shear flexible high precision plate bending finite element. First, the critical buckling loads of such plates subjected to partial or concentrated compressive loads were calculated, then the linear and nonlinear flexural vibration frequencies were obtained. Limited parametric study was carried out to study the influences of location and distribution of tensile or compressive in-plane load on the vibration frequencies of such plates.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(1, pp.106-111, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.117

  2. Dowel Type Connections with Slotted-in Steel Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Clorius, Christian Odin; Damkilde, Lars;

    1999-01-01

    In the Eurocode the strength of dowel type connectors is determined according to the theory of plasticity. When the loading is in the grain direction the strength is well predicted by the plasticity theory. However, when the loading is in the transverse direction splitting may supervene plastic f...... failure, as is shown in test series on smaller specimens with slotted-in steel plates. The scope of the present investigation is to trace the effect of eccentric transverse loading of full scale connections with slotted-in steel plates primarily loaded in the grain direction....

  3. On the Effects of Temperature and Loading Frequency on the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate of G91 Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongbum; Park, Changgyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jonghoon; Lim, Byeongsoo [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bumjoon [Osan Univ., Osan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The material data of fatigue crack growth and creep crack growth for robust structural integrity evaluations lacks in Subsection NH while it provides material properties of G91 steel for design purposes at high temperature conditions. Creep-fatigue crack initiation and growth tests for a G91 tubular specimen, including a machined defect, have been performed by Kim and it attempted to assess a high temperature crack behavior of G91 side plate specimen by Lee. The fatigue crack growth tests of a G91 compact tension (CT) specimen were performed by Kim at three different temperatures (500 .deg. C, 550 .deg. C, and 600 .deg. C), three loading frequencies (0.1Hz, 1Hz, and 20Hz), and two loading ratio values of 0.1 and 0.3, respectively; thus total 18 test conditions were applied. In this study, complementary tests were performed for selected 8 test conditions among total 18 test conditions to assess the effects of temperature and loading frequency on the fatigue crack growth rate of G91 steel and the test results were discussed. It is known that the fatigue crack growth rate increases as loading frequency decreases, as temperature increases, and load ratio (R) increases, it depends on the test conditions and relative sensitivity. In this study, the fatigue crack growth tests for a G91 compact tension specimen were performed for a various loading frequencies, loading ratios, and temperatures. As shown in Fig. 5 ∼ Fig. 10, it was confirmed that the fatigue crack growth rate increases apparently as temperature increases. The effects of loading frequency and load ratio were assessed by comparing above results and it was found that the fatigue crack growth increases as loading frequency decreases from 20Hz to 0.1Hz and load ratio increases from 0.1 to 0.3. Collected data for high temperature fatigue crack growth of G91 steel would be utilized for the structural integrity assessment of SFR components.

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. ... vegetables . Now in one of the small sections, put grains and starchy foods. See this list of ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... 2016 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  7. Food guide plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chips or cookies. VEGETABLES: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Vegetables can be raw, fresh, ... as a snack. FRUITS: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits can be fresh, canned, ...

  8. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  13. The sound transmission of finite ribbed plates using a variational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Many lightweight structures consist of plates being stiffened by ribs. The rib stiffeners can significantly change the vibration field and the radiation behavior of the structure. These type of structures has thus often been studied in the past. However, there is a lack of simplified expressions...... for the sound transmission of these structures. Therefore, simplified expressions for the sound transmission of finite single leaf ribbed plates are derived, using a variational technique based on integral equations of the fluid loaded plate....

  14. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reset Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing ... en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes. ...

  16. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  17. Solution of non-rectangular plates with macroelement method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyavskyy, Mykhaylo; Rosinski, Krystian

    2017-03-01

    New approach to static analysis of thin non-rectangular arbitrarily loaded plates, called the macroelement method, has been developed in this paper. Macroelement is a rectangular plate which entirely contains real plate. The mathematical model of macroelement was built. The equilibrium equations are performed for macroelement and boundary conditions are written on the line corresponding to contour of real plate in the nodes which are zero points of trigonometric functions, included in the macroelement model. The load is applied only to separate nodes on the surface of real plate, whereas the complement of a plate to macroelement is unloaded. Analysis of construction is reduced to solving a system of linear algebraic equations. The method provides better accuracy compared to finite element method and requires less equations. There is trapeze plate clamped at inclined edge and simply supported at opposite one considered in this paper. The other edges of the plate are free. Uniformly distributed load on the surface of real plate is taken into account.

  18. Postbuckling analysis of variable stiffness composite plates using a finite element-based perturbation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, T.; IJsselmuiden, S.T.; Abdalla, M.M.; Jansen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    Modern fiber placement machines allow laminates with spatially varying stiffness properties to be manufactured. In earlier research, the authors optimized variable stiffness plates for maximum buckling load, demonstrating significant improvements in load-carrying capacity. In aerospace applications,

  19. Angular shear plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  20. Elastic buckling strength of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmad Rahbar-Ranji

    2013-02-01

    Corrosion makes structures more vulnerable to buckling and yielding failures. It is common practice to assume a uniform thickness reduction for general corrosion. To estimate the remaining strength of corroded structures, typically a much higher level of accuracy is required, since the actual corroded structures have irregular surfaces. Elastic buckling of simply supported rectangular corroded plates are studied with one- and both-sided irregular surfaces. Eigenvalue analysis by using finite element method (FEM) is employed for computing Euler stress. The influence of various geometric and corrosion characteristics are investigated and it is found that the aspect ratio of the plate, the average thickness diminution, the standard deviation of thickness diminution and the amount of corrosion loss have influence on the reduction of buckling strength of the corroded plates. Buckling strength of one- and both-sided corroded plates are the same. In plates with low value of aspect ratio, reduction of buckling strength is negligible. Reduction of buckling strength is more prominent in plates with higher aspect ratio. Reduction of buckling strength is very sensitive to the amount of corrosion loss; the higher the amount of corrosion loss, the more reduction of buckling strength. Reduction of buckling strength is less sensitive to the standard deviation of thickness diminution.

  1. Energy modelling of PREMIO platform, an architecture dedicated to dynamic load management on electric grid; Modelisation energetique de la plate-forme PREMIO, une architecture dediee a la gestion dynamique de la charge sur le reseau electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougnol, P.; Imbert, P. [ParisTech et l' Institut EIFER, 75 (France); Chartres, S. [Institut EIFER (France); Normand, O. [EDF R and D/EIFER (France)

    2010-01-15

    The cluster of competencies CapEnergies in co-founding with the PACA region launched PREMIO project in 2008. This project aims at implementing a local, innovative and replicable energy architecture that optimizes dynamic load management in order to diminish constraints on power grid and CO{sub 2} emissions. Technical, economical, environmental and sociological impacts of this technology are a strategic issue for project partners that elaborate the business models and future energy policies.The model developed in the frame of PREMIO project provides at local scale (district to city) a method to assess the impact of PREMIO architecture on load curve, CO{sub 2} emissions and energy savings. A case study realised in Lambesc (PACA region) simulates two deployment scenarios of manageable systems: 100% and 50% of the territory consumption, storage and production usages. The exploitation of these results gives prospects to improve this model. (authors)

  2. Effect of Rolling Parameters on Plate Curvature during Snake Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Yao; XIE Shuisheng; XIONG Baiqing; HUANG Guojie; CHENG Lei

    2012-01-01

    In order to predict the plate curvature during snake rolling,FE model was constructed based on plane strain assumption.The accuracy of the FE model was verified by the comparison between the plate curvature conducted by FE model and experiment respectively.By using FE model,the effect of offset distance,speed ratio,reduction,roll radius and initial plate thickness on the plate curvature during snake rolling was investigated.The experimental results show that,a proper offsetting distance can efficiently decrease plate curvature,however an excessive offsetting distance will increase plate curvature.A larger speed ratio,reduction will cause a large plate curvature,however a larger roll radius has effect to reduce plate curvature.Plate which undergoes a larger reduction and plate with a larger initial thickness always need a larger offset distance to keep the plate the minimum plate curvature,but for a larger roll radius a smaller offset distance is needed.

  3. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...... the fatigue loads, the rotor, blades and tower moments are presented. The fatigue loads are evaluated using rainflow counting described in detail in Ref. [1]. The 1Hz equivalent load ranges are calculated at different wind speeds. All information regarding the instrumentation is collected in [ref 4] and [ref...

  4. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Beetz, C P; Steinbeck, J; Lemieux, B; Winn, D R

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of approx 0.5 to approx 25 mu m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposite...

  5. Comparison on Hole-Edge Stress Field of Resin Matrix Composite Plates with Elliptical and Round Hole Considering Different Loads and Materials%不同材料及荷载下含椭圆和圆孔树脂基复合材料板孔边应力场比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成; 铁瑛; 赵华东; 郑艳萍

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at the common resin matrix composite plate with round or elliptical hole in practical engineering, the calculation model based on the Mathematica is set up. Through the calculation of composite plates with the round or elliptical hole under different load conditions, a comparison between two kinds of holes stress distribution is done. Moreover, taking two kinds of material for example, calculation of hole-edge stress under different load is carried out. The complete comparisons on the influence which material have on the hole-edge stress field are also carried out.It provides a theory for optimization of the structural shape and geometrical size of flywheel for energy storage.%针对实际工程中常见的含圆孔和椭圆孔的树脂基复合材料板,建立基于Mathematica的计算模型,对带有圆形和椭圆孔的复合材料板,在不同荷载作用下进行计算,对两种孔形应力分布作比较。而且以两种不同材料含孔板为例,对不同荷载作用下的孔边应力进行计算,并对材料对孔边应力场的影响作较为全面的比较。为在实际工程中对孔形、材料以及所受外荷载进行合理选择提供理论依据。

  6. RC beam strengthened with pre-stressed CFP under the secondary load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Bang-yun; YUAN Guang-lin; ZHU Dan-yu

    2008-01-01

    Feasibility of using pre-stressed carbon fiber plates to strengthen reinforced concrete beams was studied. Based on the characteristics of carbon fiber plates, we developed a pre-stress clamp and a device for applying the pre-stress. Contrast tests were conducted between ordinary carbon fiber plates and a pre-stressed carbon fiber plate and between secondary loaded carbon fiber plates and a concrete beam strengthened with a secondary loaded carbon fiber plate. On this basis, we analyzed the failure pattern,the width of cracks and their distribution, the cracking load, the yield load, the limit load and the relation between load and deflection. The results indicate that using pre-stressed carbon fiber plates to strengthen concrete beams is feasible and effective.

  7. Displacements and stresses in bending of circular perforated plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasiu, C.; Sorohan, St.

    2016-08-01

    The flat plates, perforated by a large number of holes are widely used in the engineering, especially in the component of the process equipment. Strength calculations and experimental methods used in the actual literature for study perforated plates, do not present the problem in all its complexity for stress distribution and displacements. Research and doctoral theses in last decades, with methods characteristic of the respective periods were engaged either perforated plates considered infinite and requested the median plane or rarely, plate loaded normal to the median plane, with a small number of holes. In this work the stress distribution and displacement is presented for a circular plate perforated by 96 holes arranged in a grid of squares, simply supported on the outline and loaded through a central concentrated force or by uniformly distributed load. It conducted a numerical analysis by finite element method (FEM) with a proper meshing of the plate and an experimental study by holographic interferometry. Holographic interferometry method permits to measure, with high accuracy, extremely small displacements and comparing the results with those obtained by FEM becomes sustainable. Supplementary, an analysis of a non-perforated plate with the same dimensions and stiffness, similar loaded, was performed, determining the coefficient of stress concentration for a particular arrangement of holes.

  8. [Structure of allostatic load in railway workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhova, S G; Pfaf, V F; Muraseyeva, E V; Akhsanova, E R; Prigorovskaya, T S; At'kov, O Yu

    2016-01-01

    The authors studied allostatic load in railway workers, as an indicator of stress effect. Analysis covered biomarkers that form allostatic load index, and their ratio for variable allostatic load index levels. Moderate allostatic load appeared to prevail in the examinees group. Findings are that systolic and diastolic blood pressure, general cholesterol and hemoglobin make major contribution into allostatic load index. Comparison covered models of allostatic load index calculation for variable biomarkers sets.

  9. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regardi...

  10. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...

  11. Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Micro-electromechanical Circular Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chia Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the hybrid differential transformation and finite difference method is applied to analyze the dynamic behavior of the nonlinear micro-electromechanical circular plate actuated by combined DC / AC loading schemes. The analysis takes account of the axial residual stress and hydrostatic pressure acting on micro circular plate upper surface. The dynamic response of the plate as a function of the magnitude of the AC driving voltage is explored. Moreover, the effect of the initial gap height on the pull-in voltage of the plate is systematically explored.

  12. Analysis of BY-106 pump pit cover plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1994-11-14

    A new cover for the pump pit of Tank 241-BY-106 has been designed to allow the rotary core exhauster to be hooked up without requiring pit entry, riser modification, or equipment removal. The new pit cover is necessary to allow installation of two risers for reducing exposure, contamination, and waste. Computer analysis indicates that the safety margin of the pit cover plate with two risers is adequate. The computer stress model and input files are attached. The pit cover plate is a replacement for an existing plate; therefore seismic and wind loads were considered for the plate only.

  13. Highly curved microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Cully, S.; Warren, J.; Gaines, G. A.; Priedhorsky, W.; Bloch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Several spherically curved microchannel plate (MCP) stack configurations were studied as part of an ongoing astrophysical detector development program, and as part of the development of the ALEXIS satellite payload. MCP pairs with surface radii of curvature as small as 7 cm, and diameters up to 46 mm have been evaluated. The experiments show that the gain (greater than 1.5 x 10 exp 7) and background characteristics (about 0.5 events/sq cm per sec) of highly curved MCP stacks are in general equivalent to the performance achieved with flat MCP stacks of similar configuration. However, gain variations across the curved MCP's due to variations in the channel length to diameter ratio are observed. The overall pulse height distribution of a highly curved surface MCP stack (greater than 50 percent FWHM) is thus broader than its flat counterpart (less than 30 percent). Preconditioning of curved MCP stacks gives comparable results to flat MCP stacks, but it also decreases the overall gain variations. Flat fields of curved MCP stacks have the same general characteristics as flat MCP stacks.

  14. Flexural Behavior of Posttensioned Flat Plates Depending on Tendon Layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sook Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the experimental results on the flexural behavior and deflections of posttensioned concrete flat plates depending on tendon layout. One reinforced concrete flat plate and two posttensioned concrete flat plates were manufactured and tested. One-way posttensioning layout and two-way posttensioning layout were considered in this paper. The load-deflection behavior and modes of crack are presented from the test results. Posttension systems effectively controlled crack and deflection. One-way and two-way posttensioning layouts both showed similar maximum load. However, serviceability improved with two-way posttensioning layout compared to one-way posttensioning layout. Also, the yield-line theory was applied to predict the ultimate load for the posttensioned flat plates. The comparison between the test results and estimation by yield-line analysis generally showed good agreement.

  15. Vibration analysis of composite laminate plate excited by piezoelectric actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials can be used as actuators for the active vibration control of smart structural systems. In this work, piezoelectric patches are surface bonded to a composite laminate plate and used as vibration actuators. A static analysis based on the piezoelectricity and elasticity is conducted to evaluate the loads induced by the piezoelectric actuators to the host structure. The loads are then employed to develop the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate excited by piezoelectric patches subjected to time harmonic voltages. An analytical solution of the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate under time harmonic electrical loading is obtained and compared with finite element results to validate the present approach. The effects of location and exciting frequency of piezoelectric actuators on the vibration response of the laminate plate are investigated through a parametric study. Numerical results show that modes can be selectively excited, leading to structural vibration control.

  16. Pure and aerated water entry of a flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z. H.; Causon, D. M.; Qian, L.; Mingham, C. G.; Mai, T.; Greaves, D.; Raby, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of the entry of a rigid square flat plate into pure and aerated water. Attention is focused on the measurement and calculation of the slamming loads on the plate. The experimental study was carried out in the ocean basin at Plymouth University's COAST laboratory. The present numerical approach extends a two-dimensional hydro-code to compute three-dimensional hydrodynamic impact problems. The impact loads on the structure computed by the numerical model compare well with laboratory measurements. It is revealed that the impact loading consists of distinctive features including (1) shock loading with a high pressure peak, (2) fluid expansion loading associated with very low sub-atmospheric pressure close to the saturated vapour pressure, and (3) less severe secondary reloading with super-atmospheric pressure. It is also disclosed that aeration introduced into water can effectively reduce local pressures and total forces on the flat plate. The peak impact loading on the plate can be reduced by half or even more with 1.6% aeration in water. At the same time, the lifespan of shock loading is prolonged by aeration, and the variation of impulse is less sensitive to the change of aeration than the peak loading.

  17. Study on a constant-tip-speed-ratio operation of wind power generation system. Effect of load control system on dynamic behavior; Furyoku hatsuden system no hensoku seigyo unten ni kansuru kenkyu. Fuka seigyokei ga system no rikigakuteki kyodo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, T.; Yamaguchi, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Y. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Hashizume, T.; Ota, E. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1998-06-01

    The effect that the set data of the load control system in a wind power generation system exerts on the dynamic behavior of a system was investigated. The wind power generation system consists of a hybrid wind turbine with combined Darrieus and Savonius rotors, load with a generator and battery in the center, and a controller. A constant-tip-speed ratio operation that holds the circumferential speed ratio in which the power coefficient is maximized irrespective of the change in wind velocity was used to extract and convert the wind energy more effectively. In a high-wind velocity area, the system is operated at a fixed speed, and the increase in rotation is suppressed to protect the wing strength. In a large system, the response characteristics are only slightly improved by the limited load operation range and influenced rotor inertial. Power cannot be fully extracted even if the control system is changed in setting, and the applicability to the wind situation remains low. During the actual operation, the adjustment value of the control system should be set so that the output operation is satisfactorily possible in the specified load operation range, that is, the change in the instantaneous value of an effective power coefficient indicates almost flat gain characteristics in frequency characteristics. 14 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Numerical analysis of cross shear plate rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The rolling process is widely applied for industrial production of metal plates. In conventional plate rolling the two work rolls are rotating at the same peripheral speed. By introducing a specific difference in the speed of the two work rolls, cross shear rolling is introduced forming a central...... shear zone between the forward and backward slip zones in the deformation zone thus lowering the rolling load. A numerical analysis of the cross shear rolling process is carried out based on the slab method adopting Wanheim and Bay's general friction model. The pressure distribution along the contact...

  19. Diffuse oceanic plate boundaries: Strain rates, vertically averaged rheology, and comparisons with narrow plate boundaries and stable plate interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Richard G.

    Diffuse plate boundaries occur in both oceanic and continental lithosphere and cover ≈ 15% of Earth's solid surface. The fastest plate speeds accommodated across diffuse oceanic plate boundaries are ≈ 15 mm/yr. The smallest strain rates averaged across narrow plate boundaries are at least 102 times larger than the largest strain rates across diffuse oceanic plate boundaries and at least 102 times larger than those across stable plate interiors. The effective viscosity (ηeff) of the lithosphere is estimated from the ratio of vertically averaged shear stresses to strain rates for three tectonic settings: (i) oceanic transform fault zones, for which ηeff = 3 ×1016 to 5×1019 Pa s, comparable to estimates for the asthenosphere, (ii) diffuse oceanic plate boundaries, for which ηeff = 1×1023 to 6×l023 Pa s, ≈ 10 times larger than for diffuse continental plate boundaries, and (iii) stable plate interiors, for which ηeff = 1x1024 to 2×1027 Pa s. The rheology of oceanic lithosphere over times longer than earthquake cycles is modeled as a plastic layer overlying a layer that deforms by creeping flow [Martinod and Davy, 1992]. Oceanic lithosphere deforms when the yield strength of the upper lithosphere is exceeded. The vertically averaged rheology of deforming oceanic lithosphere can be approximated by a power-law fluid for which ɛ. ∝ (τs)n where ɛ. is the rate of shear strain and τs is the shear stress. If the ratio of the yield strength of the upper lithosphere to the force required to deform the lower lithosphere at a strain rate of 10-16 s-1 is varied from 10-2 to 102 , the calculated value of n varies from ≈3 to ≈300. The map-view aspect ratio of a deforming zone in a thin sheet of power-law fluid is proportional to n-½ [England et al., 1985]. A profile of displacement versus distance inferred from a seismic profile across the Central Indian Basin (India-Capricorn diffuse oceanic plate boundary), where the lithosphere is about 60-Myr old

  20. Elastic stability of superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded orthogonally corrugated core sandwich plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper concerns the elastic buckling behavior of a newly developed superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded (SPF/DB) orthogonally corrugated core sandwich plate. Uniaxial buckling loads were calculated for this type of sandwich plate with simply supported edges by using orthotropic sandwich plate theory. The buckling behavior of this sandwich plate was then compared with that of an SPF/DB unidirectionally corrugated core sandwich plate under conditions of equal structural density. It was found that the buckling load for the former was considerably higher than that of the latter.

  1. A Study of the Efficiency of High-strength, Steel, Cellular-core Sandwich Plates in Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aldie E , Jr; Semonian, Joseph W

    1956-01-01

    Structural efficiency curves are presented for high-strength, stainless-steel, cellular-core sandwich plates of various proportions subjected to compressive end loads for temperatures of 80 F and 600 F. Optimum proportions of sandwich plates for any value of the compressive loading intensity can be determined from the curves. The efficiency of steel sandwich plates of optimum proportions is compared with the efficiency of solid plates of high-strength steel and aluminum and titanium alloys at the two temperatures.

  2. Entropy generation in the flow system generated in between two parallel plates due to bivertical motion of the top plate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmet Z Sahin; Bekir S Yilbas

    2009-06-01

    Thermodynamic irreversibility in the flow system provides information on the energy and power losses in the system. Minimization of entropy generation in the flow system enables for the parametric optimization of the system operation. In the present study, parallel plates, in between, filled with the fluid are considered. The fluid motion resulted from the bi-vertical compression of the top plate of the parallel plates is examined. The entropy generation rate in the flow system is formulated after considering the constant movement of the top plate, constant applied load, and the combination of the constant velocity and applied load to the top plate. The optimum operating conditions related to the fluid motion in between the parallel plates is determined through the entropy analysis. It is found that the combination of the constant velocity and the constant applied load resulted in the low entropy generation rate.

  3. 肋环型单层曲板网壳结构的风振响应及等效静风荷载%Wind-induced response and equivalent static wind load of single-layer Geiger lattice shell with curved plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯若强; 丁静鹄; 李庆祥; 叶继红

    2012-01-01

    The wind pressure and the wind-induced vibration of a single-layer Geiger lattice shell with curved plate are analyzed. Different methods are used to calculate the equivalent static wind load, and the calculation accuracy are compared. The results of the wind tunnel experiment show that the wind pressure is mostly negative on the single-layer Geiger lattice shell with curved plate. But under the 90° wind direction, because of the flow obstruction of the front building, the positive pressure appears on some area of the roof s edge. The wind-induced response analysis results show that many modes make contribution to the structural wind-induced response, and the higher modes should be considered. Subjected to the fluctuating wind load, the mode coupling should be considered in order to obtain a good accuracy of the wind-induced response for all the structural nodes. If only the accuracy of the larger displacement is needed, the square root sum of square(SRSS) method which ignores the mode coupling can be also used. It is found that both the load-response correlation (LRC) with inertia force method and the modified LRC method for calculating the equivalent static wind load of the single-layer Geiger lattice shell with curved plate can ensure the equivalence of the largest displacements rather than all the nodal displacements.%分析了肋环型单层曲板网壳结构的风荷载和风振响应,并对采用不同方法计算结构等效静风荷载的精度进行了比较.风洞试验结果表明:肋环型单层曲板网壳结构屋面主要受负风压作用;但在90°风向角下,由于体育馆受前方入口建筑的影响,屋盖边缘局部出现正风压.风振响应分析结果表明:有多阶振型参与结构的风致振动,高阶模态影响不可忽略;为保证结构表面所有节点位移准确,结构的模态耦合项不能忽略.但如果只保证较大位移处的准确性,忽略模态耦合项的SRSS方法也是可取的.利用LRC惯性力法和

  4. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  5. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  8. Minimum wall pressure coefficient of orifice plate energy dissipater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-zheng Ai; Jia-hong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Orifice plate energy dissipaters have been successfully used in large-scale hydropower projects due to their simple structure, convenient construction procedure, and high energy dissipation ratio. The minimum wall pressure coefficient of an orifice plate can indirectly reflect its cavitation characteristics:the lower the minimum wall pressure coefficient is, the better the ability of the orifice plate to resist cavitation damage is. Thus, it is important to study the minimum wall pressure coefficient of the orifice plate. In this study, this coefficient and related parameters, such as the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate diameter to the flood-discharging tunnel diameter;the relative thickness, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate thickness to the tunnel diameter;and the Reynolds number of the flow through the orifice plate, were theoretically analyzed, and their relationships were obtained through physical model experiments. It can be concluded that the minimum wall pressure coefficient is mainly dominated by the contraction ratio and relative thickness. The lower the contraction ratio and relative thickness are, the larger the minimum wall pressure coefficient is. The effects of the Reynolds number on the minimum wall pressure coefficient can be neglected when it is larger than 105. An empirical expression was presented to calculate the minimum wall pressure coefficient in this study.

  9. Minimum wall pressure coefficient of orifice plate energy dissipater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-zheng AI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orifice plate energy dissipaters have been successfully used in large-scale hydropower projects due to their simple structure, convenient construction procedure, and high energy dissipation ratio. The minimum wall pressure coefficient of an orifice plate can indirectly reflect its cavitation characteristics: the lower the minimum wall pressure coefficient is, the better the ability of the orifice plate to resist cavitation damage is. Thus, it is important to study the minimum wall pressure coefficient of the orifice plate. In this study, this coefficient and related parameters, such as the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate diameter to the flood-discharging tunnel diameter; the relative thickness, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate thickness to the tunnel diameter; and the Reynolds number of the flow through the orifice plate, were theoretically analyzed, and their relationships were obtained through physical model experiments. It can be concluded that the minimum wall pressure coefficient is mainly dominated by the contraction ratio and relative thickness. The lower the contraction ratio and relative thickness are, the larger the minimum wall pressure coefficient is. The effects of the Reynolds number on the minimum wall pressure coefficient can be neglected when it is larger than 105. An empirical expression was presented to calculate the minimum wall pressure coefficient in this study.

  10. Locking plate osteosynthesis of clavicle fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridberg, Marie; Ban, Ilija; Issa, Zaid

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Locking plate osteosynthesis has become the preferred method for operative treatment of clavicle fractures. The method offers stable fixation, and would theoretically be associated with a low rate of fracture-related complications and reoperations. However, this remains to be explored...... in a large cohort, and our purpose was to assess the overall rates of complications and reoperations following locking plate osteosynthesis of mid-shaft clavicle fractures. METHODS: We identified all locking plate osteosynthesis of mid-shaft clavicle fractures operated upon in our department from January...... 2008 to November 2010 (n = 114). Nine patients did not attend the follow-up at our institution. The study group of 105 fractures (104 patients, 86 males) had a median age of 36 years (14-75 years). Follow-up ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 years. No patients were allowed to load the upper extremity for six...

  11. 桩帽设计中的厚板分析%THICK PLATE ANALYSIS WITH APPLICATION TO PILE CAP DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑榕明; 张勇慧

    2004-01-01

    The thick plate is commonly used for the pile cap and the transfer plate, and a proper analysis of it can greatly affect the cost of the thick plate. In actual practice, soft support condition is sometimes adopted by engineers for modeling of thick plates. In this paper, the limitations of soft support in the determination of deflection and bending moment with very thick plates are studied. The distribution of superstructure loadings to pile caps and piles is also carefully investigated.

  12. Notch sensitivity jeopardizes titanium locking plate fatigue strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wo-Jan; Chao, Ching-Kong; Wang, Chun-Chin; Lin, Jinn

    2016-12-01

    Notch sensitivity may compromise titanium-alloy plate fatigue strength. However, no studies providing head-to-head comparisons of stainless-steel or titanium-alloy locking plates exist. Custom-designed identically structured locking plates were made from stainless steel (F138 and F1314) or titanium alloy. Three screw-hole designs were compared: threaded screw-holes with angle edges (type I); threaded screw-holes with chamfered edges (type II); and non-threaded screw-holes with chamfered edges (type III). The plates' bending stiffness, bending strength, and fatigue life, were investigated. The stress concentration at the screw threads was assessed using finite element analyses (FEA). The titanium plates had higher bending strength than the F1314 and F138 plates (2.95:1.56:1) in static loading tests. For all metals, the type-III plate fatigue life was highest, followed by type-II and type-I. The type-III titanium plates had longer fatigue lives than their F138 counterparts, but the type-I and type-II titanium plates had significantly shorter fatigue lives. All F1314 plate types had longer fatigue lives than the type-III titanium plates. The FEA showed minimal stress difference (0.4%) between types II and III, but the stress for types II and III was lower (11.9% and 12.4%) than that for type I. The screw threads did not cause stress concentration in the locking plates in FEA, but may have jeopardized the fatigue strength, especially in the notch-sensitive titanium plates. Improvement to the locking plate design is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure in a single continuously stirred tank reactor process: Limits in co-substrate ratios and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Carlos; Muñoz, Noelia; Rico, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure was investigated with the aim of determining the treatment limits in terms of the cheese whey fraction in feed and the organic loading rate. The results of a continuous stirred tank reactor that was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 days showed that the co-digestion process was possible with a cheese whey fraction as high as 85% in the feed. The efficiency of the process was similar within the range of the 15-85% cheese whey fraction. To study the effect of the increasing loading rate, the HRT was progressively shortened with the 65% cheese whey fraction in the feed. The reactor efficiency dropped as the HRT decreased but enabled a stable operation over 8.7 days of HRT. At these operating conditions, a volumetric methane production rate of 1.37 m(3) CH4 m(-3) d(-1) was achieved.

  14. [Angle-fixed plate fixation or double-plate osteosynthesis in fractures of the proximal humerus: a biomechanical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessmann, Martin H; Korner, Jan; Hofmann, Alexander; Sternstein, Werner; Rommens, Pol M

    2008-06-01

    Internal fixation of fractures of the proximal humerus needs a high stability of fixation to avoid secondary loss of fixation. This is especially important in osteoporotic bone. In an experimental study, the biomechanical properties of the angle-fixed Philos plate (internal fixator) and a double-plate osteosynthesis using two one-third tubular plates were assessed. The fracture model was an unstable three-part fracture (AO type B2). Eight pairs of human cadaveric humeri were submitted to axial load and torque. In the first part of the study, it was assessed to which degree the original stiffness of the humeri could be restored after the osteotomy by the osteosynthesis procedure. Subsequently, subsidence during 200 cycles of axial loading and torque was analysed. During axial loading, the Philos plate was significantly stiffer and showed less irreversible deformation. Two double-plate fixations, but none of the Philos plate osteosynthesis, failed. During torsion, there were no significant differences between the two implants. From the biomechanical point of view, the angle-fixed Philos plate represents the implant of choice for the surgical fixation of highly unstable three-part fractures of the proximal humerus, as the internal fixator system is characterised by superior biomechanical properties.

  15. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  16. Stereovision measurement of surface deformation of sandwich plates with aluminum foam cores under high speed impact loading%高速冲击荷载作用后泡沫铝夹层板表观变形立体视觉测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单宝华; 张博一; 严雨

    2015-01-01

    To measure the surface deformation of sandwich plates with aluminum foam cores under high speed impact loading,a stereovision-based surface deformation measurement method was presented.The normalized gray cross-correlation coefficient with the mean value removed was selected to realize area matching.The maximum and minimum parallactic restrictions were acquired by adjusting the disparity range to eliminate the false parallax,and other four constraints were combined with the former to optimize the disparity map.Then 3D point clouds were calculated according to a parallel binocular stereovision model,and the surface deformation profile curves were acquired by using Delaunay triangulation.Moreover,the stereovision 3D measurement system for surface deformation was integrated based on MATLAB,and the precision and comparison experiments for distance measurement were conducted to testify the validity and reliability of the proposed method.The surface deformation 3D measurement test of aluminum foam cores sandwich plates under high speed impact loading was also performed with the integrated system.The results indicate that the reconstructed 3D surface can accurately display the surface deformation of sandwich plates.Accordingly,a brand new approach is achieved to measure surface deformation of target board under high speed impact loading.%针对高速冲击荷载作用后泡沫铝夹层板表观变形测量需要,研究基于立体视觉的表观变形三维测量方法。选择去均值归一化灰度互相关系数(NCCC)进行区域匹配,通过调整视差范围消除虚假误差,以实现最大最小视差约束;并综合使用5种约束优化视差图。据平行双目立体视觉模型计算三维点云坐标,用 Delaunay 三角剖分获得表观变形曲面。基于 MATLAB 平台集成表观变形立体视觉三维测量系统,进行距离测量精度及比较试验证明该方法的有效性及可靠性。用集成系统完成高速冲击荷载作

  17. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature.

  18. Ex vivo biomechanical comparison of a 3.5 mm locking compression plate applied cranially and a 2.7 mm locking compression plate applied medially in a gap model of the distal aspect of the canine radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Justin M; Kapatkin, Amy S; Garcia, Tanya C; Stover, Susan M

    2013-10-01

    To compare a medially applied 2.7 mm locking compression plate (LCP) to a cranially applied 3.5 mm LCP in a cadaveric distal radial fracture gap model. In vitro mechanical testing of paired cadaveric limbs Paired radii (n = 8) stabilized with either a 2.7 mm LCP medially or a 3.5 mm LCP cranially. Simulated distal radial comminuted fractures were created and stabilized with an LCP plate on the cranial surface in 1 limb, and on the medial surface in the contralateral limb. Gap stiffness, gap strain, and failure properties were compared between cranial and medial plate positions. Limb constructs were axially loaded, cyclically through 4 conditions that allowed mediolateral or craniocaudal bending at walk and trot loads, before monotonic failure loading. The effects of plate position on mechanical variables were assessed using paired t-tests. Gap stiffness was greater for cranial plate constructs than medial plate constructs for axial loading with mediolateral bending, but lower with craniocaudal bending. However, in loading that facilitated craniocaudal bending the medial plate construct also had bending apparent in the mediolateral direction. Gap strains for the different conditions followed similar trends as stiffness. Cranial plate constructs had significantly higher monotonic stiffness, yield, and failure loads. The larger, cranially applied LCP was biomechanically superior to the smaller, medially applied LCP in our distal radial fracture gap model, however the medial plate was superior to the cranial plate in cyclic loading allowing craniocaudal bending. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  19. Plating in Top Agar

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    1. Warm plates to room temperature before use. Cold plates causes the top agar to solidify irregularly. DO not warm plates to 37° as the top agar will take forever to solidify. - Prepare top agar as the appropriate liquid medium with 0.7% agar. Keeping 100 mL bottles is convenient. For phages, use λ top agar, which is less rich and yields bigger plaques. - Melt top agar in the microwave completely. Allow the agar to boil after liquification; incompletely melted agar looks liquid, but is...

  20. Design Modification & Failure Analysis of a Driven Plate/Friction Plate of a Clutch using FEA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marella. Veerendra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Clutch is device which is used to transmit power one component to another. It is a device used to connect the driving shaft to a driven shaft, so that the driven shaft may be started or stopped at will, without stopping the driving shaft. A clutch thus provides an interruptible connection between two rotating shafts Clutches allow a high inertia load to be stated with a small power. The engine power transmitted to the system through the clutch. The failure of such a critical component during service can stall the whole application. The objective of present project is to do analysis on driven plate of a clutch which is often fails during the operation. In this present research work analysis is conducted on driven plate of a clutch used in TATA Vehicle. There are so many complaints are noted against the failure of clutch during heavy loads. The driven main plate failed normally during its operation due to cyclic loading. For this reason we designed the driven plate and modeled in Pro-E and analyzed using FEA package in the process of designing and analyzing the actual design is changed to lower down the failure values. And the design may suggest to the company.

  1. 钢板和碳纤维布加固不同损伤状态下受弯构件的荷载试验研究%Load Experiment of Flexural Members Reinforced by Steel Plate and Carbon Fiber Sheet in Different Damaged States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保定; 薛保贵; 翟科玮

    2014-01-01

    Based on the destructive load experiment of the flexural members by steel plate and carbon fiber sheet in sound state and normal service limit damaged state,the deflection,crack and strain development status and changes of the flexural members reinforced by steel plate and carbon fiber sheet were studied. Comparing the difference of the bending bearing limit capacity,and other indicators with flexural members each other by different way of strengthening in sound state and normal service limit damaged state,evaluating the reinforcement effect comprehensively,the results show as follows. Two kinds of reinforcement measures have significant effect in improving the flexural capacity of the reinforced concrete flexural members in different damaged states. But the effect in sound state is superior to that in damaged state. The effect of the reinforcement by steel plate is superior to that by carbon fiber sheet.%基于钢板加固和碳纤维布加固完好状态下和正常使用极限损伤状态下的受弯构件的破坏荷载试验,研究钢筋混凝土受弯构件在采用粘贴钢板加固和粘贴碳纤维布加固措施后,其挠度、裂缝及应变等的发展变化规律。对比分析完好状态下和正常使用极限损伤状态下采用不同的加固方式,受弯构件极限承载力提高幅度的差异并将受弯构件的其他力学控制指标进行对比分析,综合检验评定其加固效果。试验结果表明:两种加固措施对提高在不同损伤状态下的钢筋混凝土受弯构件的抗弯承载力都具有显著效果,但完好情况下的加固效果优于受损情况,钢板加固措施优于碳纤维布加固。

  2. Optimization of a clamped plate silencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunqi; Han, Jun; Huang, Lixi

    2007-02-01

    A previous theoretical study [L. Huang, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 2628-2638 (2006)] shows that, in a duct, a simply supported plate covering a side-branch rigid cavity can function effectively as a wave reflector over a broad range of low to medium frequencies. In this study, analytical formulation is extended to the boundary condition of clamped plate, which is easier to implement in practice. The theoretical model is tested experimentally using balsawood, which has a very high stiffness to mass ratio. The spectral peaks and shapes of the measured TL are in agreement with those calculated theoretically, attempts are also made to account for the considerable sound absorption in the rig. Further numerical studies based on the validated model show that, for a uniform plate, the optimal stopband is narrower and the lower band limit is worse than that of the simply supported configuration. However, a wave reflector using nonuniform, clamped plates with thinner ends out-performs the simply supported configuration in every aspect. Analyses show that the improvement is attributed to the increased acoustic radiation efficiency over the bulk length of the nonuniform plate, which behaves more like a rigid plate.

  3. Fatigue crack detection in a plate girder using Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, D. W.; Oppenheim, I. J.; Wu, Wei; Zheng, Peng

    2007-04-01

    We report on the application of wafer-type PZT transducers to the detection of flaws in steel plate girders. In these experiments one transducer is used to emit a pulse and the second receives the pulse and reflections from nearby boundaries, flaws, or discontinuities (pitch-catch mode). In this application there will typically be numerous reflections observed in the undamaged structure. A major challenge is to recognize new reflections caused by fatigue cracks in the presence of these background reflections. A laboratory specimen plate girder was fabricated at approximately half scale, 910 mm deep with an h/t ratio of 280 for the web and a b/t ratio of 16 for the flanges, and with transverse stiffeners fabricated with a web gap at the tension flange. Two wafer-type transducers were mounted on the web approximately 175 mm from the crack location, one on each side of the stiffener. The transducers were operated in pitch-catch mode, excited by a windowed sinusoid to create a narrowband transient excitation. The transducer location relative to the crack corresponded to a total included angle of roughly 30 degrees in the path reflecting from the crack. Cyclic loading was applied to develop a distortion-induced fatigue crack in the web at the web gap location. After appearance of the crack, ultrasonic measurements were performed at a range of center frequencies below the cutoff frequency of the A1 Lamb wave mode. Subsequently the crack was extended mechanically to simulate crack growth under primary longitudinal (bending) stress and the measurements were repeated. Direct differencing of the signals showed arrivals at times corresponding to reflection from the crack location, growing in amplitude as the crack was lengthened mechanically. These results demonstrate the utility of Lamb waves for crack detection even in the presence of numerous background reflections.

  4. Geometrically nonlinear behavior of piezoelectric laminated plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitch, Oded

    2005-08-01

    The geometrically nonlinear behavior of piezo-laminated plates actuated with isotropic or anisotropic piezoelectric layers is analytically investigated. The analytical model is derived using the variational principle of virtual work along with the lamination and plate theories, the von Karman large displacement and moderate rotation kinematic relations, and the anisotropic piezoelectric constitutive laws. A solution strategy that combines the approach of the method of lines, the advantages of the finite element concept, and the variational formulation is developed. This approach yields a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with nonlinear boundary conditions, which are solved using the multiple-shooting method. Convergence and verification of the model are examined through comparison with linear and nonlinear results of other approximation methods. The nonlinear response of two active plate structures is investigated numerically. The first plate is actuated in bending using monolithic piezoceramic layers and the second one is actuated in twist using macro-fiber composites. The results quantitatively reveal the complicated in-plane stress state associated with the piezoelectric actuation and the geometrically nonlinear coupling of the in-plane and out-of-plane responses of the plate. The influence of the nonlinear effects ranges from significant stiffening in certain combinations of electrical loads and boundary conditions to amplifications of the induced deflections in others. The paper closes with a summary and conclusions.

  5. The role of viscoelasticity in subducting plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, R. J.; Moresi, L.-N.; Capitanio, F. A.

    2014-11-01

    of tectonic plates into Earth's mantle occurs when one plate bends beneath another at convergent plate boundaries. The characteristic time of deformation at these convergent boundaries approximates the Maxwell relaxation time for olivine at lithospheric temperatures and pressures, it is therefore by definition a viscoelastic process. While this is widely acknowledged, the large-scale features of subduction can, and have been, successfully reproduced assuming the plate deforms by a viscous mechanism alone. However, the energy rates and stress profile within convergent margins are influenced by viscoelastic deformation. In this study, viscoelastic stresses have been systematically introduced into numerical models of free subduction, using both the viscosity and shear modulus to control the Maxwell relaxation time. The introduction of an elastic deformation mechanism into subduction models produces deviations in both the stress profile and energy rates within the subduction hinge when compared to viscous only models. These variations result in an apparent viscosity that is variable throughout the length of the plate, decreasing upon approach and increasing upon leaving the hinge. At realistic Earth parameters, we show that viscoelastic stresses have a minor effect on morphology yet are less dissipative at depth and result in an energy transfer between the energy stored during bending and the energy released during unbending. We conclude that elasticity is important during both bending and unbending within the slab hinge with the resulting stress loading and energy profile indicating that slabs maintain larger deformation rates at smaller stresses during bending and retain their strength during unbending at depth.

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy vegetables and a ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... 4/Box) Taking the guesswork out of portion control has never been easier. It can be a ...

  8. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  9. MyPlate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our stage of life, situations, preferences, access to food, culture, traditions, and the personal decisions we make over time. All your food and beverage choices count. MyPlate offers ideas and ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: September ...

  11. Designing Assemblies Of Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables ...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... serving of dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... been easier. It can be a challenge to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best- ...

  16. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic ... to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  18. Propagation of Flexural Mode AE Signals in GR/EP Composite Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, W. H.; Gorman, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    It has been documented that AE signals propagate in thin plates as extensional and flexural plate modes. This was demonstrated using simulated AE sources (pencil lead breaks) by Gorman on thin aluminum and gr/ep composite plates and by Gorman and Prosser on thin aluminum plates. A typical signal from a pencil lead break source which identifies these two modes is shown. AE signals from transverse matrix cracking sources in gr/ep composite plates were also shown to propagate as plate modes by Gorman and Ziola. Smith showed that crack growth events in thin aluminum plates under spectrum fatigue loading produced signals that propagated as plate modes. Additionally, Prosser et al. showed that AE signals propagated as plate modes in a thin walled composite tube.

  19. Elasticity solutions for functionally graded plates in cylindrical bending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bo; DING Hao-jiang; CHEN Wei-qiu

    2008-01-01

    The plate theory of functionally graded materials suggested by Mian and Spencer is extended to analyze the cylindrical bending problem of a functionally graded rectangular plate subject to uniform load. The expansion formula for displacements is adopted. While keeping the assumption that the material parameters can vary along the thickness direction in an arbitrary fashion, this paper considers orthotropic materials rather than isotropic materials. In addition, the traction-free condition on the top surface is replaced with the condition of uniform load applied on the top surface. The plate theory for the particular case of cylindrical bending is presented by considering an infinite extent in the y-direction. Effects of boundary conditions and material inhomogeneity on the static response of functionally graded plates are investigated through a numerical example.

  20. Fractal multifiber microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lee M.; Feller, W. B.; Kenter, Almus T.; Chappell, Jon H.

    1992-01-01

    The construction and performance of microchannel plates (MCPs) made using fractal tiling mehtods are reviewed. MCPs with 40 mm active areas having near-perfect channel ordering were produced. These plates demonstrated electrical performance characteristics equivalent to conventionally constructed MCPs. These apparently are the first MCPs which have a sufficiently high degree of order to permit single channel addressability. Potential applications for these devices and the prospects for further development are discussed.

  1. Convenient contrast enhancement by a hole-free phase plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malac, Marek; Beleggia, Marco; Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Decrease of the irradiation dose needed to obtain a desired signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved by Zernike phase-plate imaging. Here we present results on a hole-free phase plate (HFPP) design that uses the incident electron beam to define the center of the plate, thereby eliminating the need...... for high precision alignment and with advantages in terms of ease of fabrication. The Zernike-like phase shift is provided by a charge distribution induced by the primary beam, rather than by a hole in the film. Compared to bright-field Fresnel-mode imaging, the hole-free phase plate (HFPP) results in two...

  2. Anterolateral Versus Medial Plating of Distal Extra-articular Tibia Fractures: A Biomechanical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirolo, Joseph M; Behn, Anthony W; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Bishop, Julius A

    2015-09-01

    Both medial and anterolateral plate applications have been described for the treatment of distal tibia fractures, each with distinct advantages and disadvantages. The objective of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of medial and anterolateral plating constructs used to stabilize simulated varus and valgus fracture patterns of the distal tibia. In 16 synthetic tibia models, a 45° oblique cut was made to model an Orthopedic Trauma Association type 43-A1.2 distal tibia fracture in either a varus or valgus injury pattern. Each fracture was then reduced and plated with a precontoured medial or anterolateral distal tibia plate. The specimens were biomechanically tested in axial and torsional loading, cyclic axial loading, and load to failure. For the varus fracture pattern, medial plating showed less fracture site displacement and rotation and was stiffer in both axial and torsional loading (Ptibia fractures.

  3. High voltage load resistor array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, Monty Ray [Smithfield, VA

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  4. Closed-form solution for free vibration of piezoelectric coupled annular plates using Levinson plate theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Hashemi, Sh.; Es'haghi, M.; Karimi, M.

    2010-04-01

    Free vibration analysis of annular moderately thick plates integrated with piezoelectric layers is investigated in this study for different combinations of soft simply supported, hard simply supported and clamped boundary conditions at the inner and outer edges of the annular plate on the basis of the Levinson plate theory (LPT). The distribution of electric potential along the thickness direction in the piezoelectric layer is assumed as a sinusoidal function so that the Maxwell static electricity equation is approximately satisfied. The differential equations of motion are solved analytically for various boundary conditions of the plate. In this study the closed-form solution for characteristic equations, displacement components of the plate and electric potential are derived for the first time in the literature. To demonstrate the accuracy of the present solution, comparison studies is first carried out with the available data in the literature and then natural frequencies of the piezoelectric coupled annular plate are presented for different thickness-radius ratios, inner-outer radius ratios, thickness of piezoelectric, material of piezoelectric and boundary conditions. Present analytical model provides design reference for piezoelectric material application, such as sensors, actuators and ultrasonic motors.

  5. Vibration and Buckling of Web Plate of the Plate Girder

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 和雄; 呉, 明強; 中澤, 聡志; 筑紫, 宏之

    1998-01-01

    The vibration and buckling of the web of the plate girder are studied in this paper. The small deflection theory of the thin plate is used. The finite strip method is employed to solve vibration and buckling of the plate girder. Natural frequenies of buckling properties are shown for various plate girder bridges.

  6. Longitudinal wave motion in width-constrained auxetic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the longitudinal wave velocity in auxetic plates in comparison to conventional ones, in which the plate is constrained from motion in the width direction. By taking into account the thickness change of the plate and its corresponding change in density, the developed wave velocity is casted not only as a function of Young’s modulus and density, but also in terms of Poisson’s ratio and longitudinal strain. Results show that density and thickness variations compensate for one another when the Poisson’s ratio is positive, but add up when the Poisson’s ratio is negative. Results also reveal that the classical model of longitudinal wave velocity for the plate is accurate when the Poisson’s ratio is about 1/3; at this Poisson’s ratio the influence from density and thickness variations cancel each other. Comparison between the current corrected model and the density-corrected Rayleigh-Lamb model reveals a number of consistent trends, while the discrepancies are elucidated. If the plate material possesses a negative Poisson’s ratio, the deviation of the actual wave velocity from the classical model becomes significant; auxeticity suppresses and enhances the wave velocity in compressive and tensile impacts, respectively. Hence the use of the corrected model is proposed when predicting longitudinal waves in width-constrained auxetic plates, and auxetic materials can be harnessed for effectively controlling wave velocities in thin-walled structures.

  7. Iron load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Cassarà

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research addressed the main role of hepcidin in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, while this mechanism could be relevant in causing iron load in Thalassemia Intermedia and Sickle-Cell Anemia, its role in Thalassemia Major (TM is marginal. This is mainly due to the high impact of transfusional requirement into the severe increase of body iron. Moreover, the damage of iron load may be worsened by infections, as HCV hepatitis, or liver and endocrinological damage. One of the most relevant associations was found between splenectomy and increase of risk for mortality due,probably, to more severe iron load. These issues suggest as morbidity and mortality of this group of patients they do not depend only by our ability in controlling heart damage but even in preventing or treating particular infections and complications. This finding is supported by the impairment of survival curves in patients with complications different from heart damage. However, because, during recent years different direct and indirect methods to detect iron overload in patients affected by secondary hemochromatosis have been implemented, our ability to maintain under control iron load is significantly improved. Anyway, the future in iron load management remains to be able to have an iron load map of our body for targeting chelation and other medical treatment according to the single organ damage.

  8. THE NEW STRUCTURE OF A PLATE-PILE FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMORODOV О. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In the construction of high-rise buildings with significant loads on foundations and bedding at the base of not rocky soils tend to use the most common pile foundation to reduce the deformation and correspond to regulations [1] on the maximum permissible deformation. Monitoring of the stress-strain state (SSS pile foundations constructed buildings shows the existing reserves of bearing capacity on the one hand - soil bases of the second group of limit states, on the other - the foundation of the first group of limit states by regulating the SSS foundation during construction and exploitation. Therefore, are increasingly using more progressive structure of foundations consisting of piles and of plate, as well as methods for their construction [2 - 10], however, in their design there are a number of disadvantages associated with the ambiguity of the application of methods for the calculation of such structures, which allows to do only partial conclusions and recommendations. Purpose. Is proposing the new structure of a plate-pile foundation, which overcomes the drawbacks of the existing design solutions and methods of consruction their, as well as is proposing an engineering method of a determination of basic parameters. Conclusion. Is proposes the new structure of a plate-pile foundation and the method of a determination of basic parameters his in the design of a soil base to the maximum permissible deformation Su buildings. Efficiency of application this type plate-pile foundation obtained by rational distribution resistance between a plate and piles, when under load from the building to the first work fully incorporated plate that allows maximum deformed for plate, and then the piles - due to of the hinge connection with the plate. Thus, depending on the maximum permissible deformation for buildings resistance of plate part of a full load of more than 50%, that significantly reduces the consumption of concrete.

  9. Free vibration analysis of rectangular plates with central cutout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanak Kalita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A nine-node isoparametric plate element in conjunction with first-order shear deformation theory is used for free vibration analysis of rectangular plates with central cutouts. Both thick and thin plate problems are solved for various aspect ratios and boundary conditions. In this article, primary focus is given to the effect of rotary inertia on natural frequencies of perforated rectangular plates. It is found that rotary inertia has significant effect on thick plates, while for thin plates the rotary inertia term can be ignored. It is seen that the numerical convergence is very rapid and based on comparison with experimental and analytical data from literature, it is proposed that the present formulation is capable of yielding highly accurate results. Finally, some new numerical solutions are provided here, which may serve as benchmark for future research on similar problems.

  10. Impact Damage of 3D Orthogonal Woven Composite Circular Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Changgan; Sun, Baozhong; Qiu, Yiping; Gu, Bohong

    2007-11-01

    The damages of 3D orthogonal woven composite circular plate under quasi-static indentation and transverse impact were tested with Materials Test System (MTS) and modified split Hopkinson bar (SHPB) apparatus. The load vs. displacement curves during quasi-static penetration and impact were obtained to study the energy absorption of the composite plate. The fluctuation of the impact stress waves has been unveiled. Differences of the load-displacement curves between the quasi-static and impact loading are discussed. This work also aims at establishing a unit-cell model to analyze the damage of composites. A user material subroutine which named VUMAT for characterizing the constitutive relationship of the 3-D orthogonal woven composite and the damage evolution is incorporated with a finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit to simulate the impact damage process of the composite plates. From the comparison of the load-displacement curves and energy absorption curves of the composite plate between experimental and FEM simulation, it is shown that the unit-cell model of the 3D woven composite and the VUMAT combined with the ABAQUS/Explicit can calculate the impact responses of the circular plate precisely. Furthermore, the model can also be extended to simulate the impact behavior of the 3D woven composite structures.

  11. Transmission of Sound Through Double-Plate Panel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Andersen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, a finite-element model of a double-plate panel is implemented to investigate the transmission of sound through a simple lightweight structure. A numerical study is performed of the following three coupling configurations: 1) Structure-borne sound via plate-stud-plate structu......In the present paper, a finite-element model of a double-plate panel is implemented to investigate the transmission of sound through a simple lightweight structure. A numerical study is performed of the following three coupling configurations: 1) Structure-borne sound via plate...... elements are adopted for the structure, whereas the acoustic medium is discretized into fluid continuum elements. The computations are carried out in frequency domain in the low frequency range and the load acts as a diffuse sound field on one side of the panel....

  12. Friction pull plug welding: dual chamfered plate hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Edmond R. (Inventor); Cantrell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Friction Pull Plug Welding (FPPW) is a solid state repair process for defects up to one inch in length, only requiring single sided tooling (OSL) for usage on flight hardware. Early attempts with FPPW followed the matching plug/plate geometry precedence of the successful Friction Push Plug Welding program, however no defect free welds were achieved due to substantial plug necking and plug rotational stalling. The dual chamfered hole has eliminated plug rotational stalling, both upon initial plug/plate contact and during welding. Also, the necking of the heated plug metal under a tensile heating/forging load has been eliminated through the usage of the dual chamfered plate hole.

  13. Thermal Analysis of Thin Plates Using the Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, G. K.; Iu, V. P.; Liu, X. L.

    2010-05-01

    The isotropic thermal plate is analyzed with finite element method. The solution procedure is presented. The elementary stiffness matrix and loading vector are derived rigorously with variation principle and the principle of minimum potential energy. Numerical results are obtained based on the derived equations and tested with available exact solutions. The problems in the finite element analysis are figured out. It is found that the finite element solutions can not converge as the number of elements increases around the corners of the plate. The derived equations presented in this paper are fundamental for our further study on more complicated thermal plate analysis.

  14. X-/Ka-band dichroic plate noise temperature reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veruttipong, W.; Lee, P.

    1994-11-01

    The X-/Ka-band (8.4 GHz/32.0 GHz) dichroic plate installed as DSS 13 contributes an estimated 3 K to the system noise temperature at 32.0 GHz. Approximately 1 percent of the Ka-band incident field is reflected by the plate into the 300-K environment of the DSS-13 pedestal room. A low-cost, easily implemented method of reducing the noise temperature is presented. Using a curved reflector, the reflected field can be re-focused into an 80-K cold load, reducing the noise temperature contribution of the dichroic plate by about 2 K.

  15. Thermally Induced Principal Parametric Resonance in Circular Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Nayfeh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of large-amplitude vibrations of a simply supported circular flat plate subjected to harmonically varying temperature fields arising from an external heat flux (aeroheating for example. The plate is modeled using the von Karman equations. We used the method of multiple scales to determine an approximate solution for the case in which the frequency of the thermal variations is approximately twice the fundamental natural frequency of the plate; that is, the case of principal parametric resonance. The results show that such thermal loads produce large-amplitude vibrations, with associated multi-valued responses and subcritical instabilities.

  16. The problem of isotropic rectangular plate with four clamped edges

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Erdem İmrak; Ismail Gerdemeli

    2007-06-01

    The examination of the exact solution of the governing equation of the rectangular plate is important for many reasons. This report discusses in exact solution of the governing equation of an isotropic rectangular plate with four clamped edges. A numerical method for clamped isotropic rectangular plate under distributed loads and an exact solution of the governing equation in terms of trigonometric and hyperbolic function are given. Finally, an illustrative example is given and the results are compared with those reported earlier. This method is found to be easier and effective. The results show reasonable agreement with other available results, but with a simpler and practical approach.

  17. Plate tectonics, habitability and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The role of plate tectonics in defining habitability of terrestrial planets is being increasingly discussed (e.g., Elkins-Tanton, 2015). Plate tectonics is a significantly evolved concept with a large variety of aspects. In the present context, cycling of material between near surface and mantle reservoirs is most important. But increased heat transport through mixing of cold lithosphere with the deep interior and formation of continental crust may also matter. An alternative mechanism of material cycling between these reservoirs is hot-spot volcanism combined with crust delamination. Hot-spot volcanism will transport volatiles to the atmosphere while delamination will mix crust, possibly altered by sedimentation and chemical reactions, with the mantle. The mechanism works as long as the stagnant lithosphere plate has not grown thicker than the crust and as long as volcanic material is added onto the crust. Thermal evolution studies suggest that the mechanism could work for the first 1-2 Ga of planetary evolution. The efficiency of the mechanism is limited by the ratio of extrusive to intrusive volcanism, which is thought to be less than 0.25. Plate tectonics would certainly have an advantage by working even for more evolved planets. A simple, most-used concept of habitability requires the thermodynamic stability of liquid water on the surface of a planet. Cycling of CO2between the atmosphere, oceans and interior through subduction and surface volcanism is an important element of the carbonate-silicate cycle, a thermostat feedback cycle that will keep the atmosphere from entering into a runaway greenhouse. Calculations for a model Earth lacking plate tectonics but degassing CO2, N, and H2O to form a surface ocean and a secondary atmosphere (Tosi et al, 2016) suggest that liquid water can be maintained on the surface for 4.5Ga. The model planet would then qualify as habitable. It is conceivable that the CO2 buffering capability of its ocean together with silicate

  18. Orifice plate cavitation mechanism and its influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-zheng AI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The orifice plate energy dissipater is an economic and highly efficient dissipater. However, there is a risk of cavitaion around the orifice plate flow. In order to provide references for engineering practice, we examined the cavitation mechanism around the orifice plate and its influencing factors by utilizing mathematical analysis methods to analyze the flow conditions around the orifice plate in view of gas bubble dynamics. Through the research presented in this paper, the following can be observed: The critical radius and the critical pressure of the gas nucleus in orifice plate flow increase with its initial state parameter ; the development speed of bubbles stabilizes at a certain value after experiencing a peak value and a small valley value; and the orifice plate cavitation is closely related to the distribution of the gas nucleus in flow. For computing the orifice plate cavitation number, we ought to take into account the effects of pressure fluctuation. The development time of the gas nucleus from the initial radius to the critical radius is about 10-7-10-5 s; therefore, the gas nucleus has sufficient time to develop into bubbles in the negative half-cycle of flow fluctuation. The orifice critical cavitation number is closely related to the orifice plate size, and especially closely related with the ratio of the orifice plate radius to the tunnel radius. The approximate formula for the critical cavitation number of the square orifice plate that only considers the main influencing factor was obtained by model experiments.

  19. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  20. A test procedure for determining the influence of stress ratio on fatigue crack growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J. H.; Wei, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    A test procedure is outlined by which the rate of fatigue crack growth over a range of stress ratios and stress intensities can be determined expeditiously using a small number of specimens. This procedure was developed to avoid or circumvent the effects of load interactions on fatigue crack growth, and was used to develop data on a mill annealed Ti-6Al-4V alloy plate. Experimental data suggest that the rates of fatigue crack growth among the various stress ratios may be correlated in terms of an effective stress intensity range at given values of K max. This procedure is not to be used, however, for determining the corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of alloys when nonsteady-state effects are significant.

  1. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles P. E-mail: NanoSystem@aol.com; Boerstler, Robert; Steinbeck, John; Lemieux, Bryan; Winn, David R. E-mail: winn@fair1.fairfield.edu

    2000-03-11

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of {approx}0.5 to {approx}25 {mu}m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposited or nucleated in the channels or the first strike surface. Results on resistivity, secondary emission and gain are presented.

  2. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetz, Charles P.; Boerstler, Robert; Steinbeck, John; Lemieux, Bryan; Winn, David R.

    2000-03-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of ˜0.5 to ˜25 μm, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200°C, also compatible with high-temperture brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposited or nucleated in the channels or the first strike surface. Results on resistivity, secondary emission and gain are presented.

  3. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  4. Vibration and Acoustic Response of Rectangular Sandwich Plate under Thermal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the vibration and acoustic response of a rectangular sandwich plate which is subjected to a concentrated harmonic force under thermal environment. The critical buckling temperature is obtained to decide the thermal load. The natural frequencies and modes as well as dynamic responses are acquired by using the analytical formulations based on equivalent non-classical theory, in which the effects of shear deformation and rotational inertia are taken into account. The rise of thermal load decreases the natural frequencies and moves response peaks to the low-frequency range. The specific features of sandwich plates with different formations are discussed subsequently. As the thickness ratio of facing to core increases, the natural frequencies are enlarged, and the response peaks float to the high-frequency region. Raising the Young's modulus of the core can cause the similar trends. The accuracy of the theoretical method is verified by comparing its results with those computed by the FEM/BEM.

  5. Energy absorption ratio of rubber material under dynamic impact load%动态冲击荷载作用下橡胶材料吸能率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 郑鹏飞; 刘陈; 高原

    2012-01-01

    橡胶材料作为一种高分子复合材料,具有很好的减震吸能特性,在防护结构设计中通常作为重要的吸能减震材料.采用改进的SHPB试验装置,对3种不同配比的橡胶材料进行了试验研究,结果表明:橡胶的应变率效应十分明显,橡胶的硬度是影响吸能率的重要因素.%The rubber material, as a polymer composite material, has good shock absorption characteristics. It is usually used as an important absorption and damping material in protection structure design. Improved Hopkinson device was used to study the dynamic performance of three different proportion of rubber materials. The results show that the strain rate effect of rubber material is very obvious and the hardness is the important factor of energy absorption ratio.

  6. Mercury and Selenium in Muscle and Target Organs of Scalloped Hammerhead Sharks Sphyrna lewini of the SE Gulf of California: Dietary Intake, Molar Ratios, Loads, and Human Health Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergés-Tiznado, Magdalena E; Márquez-Farías, Fernando; Lara-Mendoza, Raúl E; Torres-Rojas, Yassir E; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Bojórquez-Leyva, Humberto; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Selenium and mercury were evaluated in muscle, liver, kidney, brain, and the stomach contents of juvenile scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini. Se:Hg molar ratios were calculated. The average Hg levels in muscle ranged from 0.12 to 1.17 μg/g (wet weight); Hg was 1. Correlations were found for Hg in muscle with size, age, and weight, and also for Hg in liver with size, age, and weight. Hg in muscle was significantly positive correlated to Hg in brain as well as Hg in liver was correlated to Hg in kidney. The highest Hg in preys was for carangid fishes; scombrid and carangid fishes contributed with the highest Se levels. Results suggest that more than 98 % of the total Hg and 62 % of Se end up in muscle and might be affected by factors, such as geographical area, age, size, and feeding habits. The muscle of S. lewini should be consumed by people cautiously so as not to exceed the recommended intake per week.

  7. Magnetic fluid based squeeze film between porous annular curved plates with the effect of rotational inertia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh C Shah; S R Tripathi; M V Bhat

    2002-03-01

    The squeeze film behaviour between rotating annular plates was analysed theoretically when the curved upper plate with a uniform porous facing approached the impermeable and flat lower plate, considering a magnetic fluid lubricant in the presence of an external magnetic field oblique to the plates. Expressions were obtained for pressure and load capacity; and response time is given by a differential equation. The increases in pressure and load capacity depended only on the magnetization. However, the increase in response time depended on magnetization, fluid inertia and speed of rotation of the plates.

  8. Composition of the continental plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilluly, J.

    1954-01-01

    The structures of continental plates and of oceanic basins suggested by several seismologists are utilized to estimate the relative volumes of sial and sima in the earth's crust. It seems that sial of the composition of the average igneous rock constitutes fully 26% and perhaps as much as 43% of the total crust. This ratio is far higher than seems likely if the sial had been entirely derived through fractional crystallization of a basaltic magma. The relative paucity of intermediate rocks as compared with granite and gabbro in the crust points in the same direction. The tentative conclusion is reached that the sial owes a large part of its volume to some process other than fractional crystallization of basalt-possibly to the emanation of low-melting constituents such as water, silica, potassa, soda, and alumina directly from the mantle to the crust. ?? 1954 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Biomechanical Evaluation of the Fixation Methods for Transcondylar Fracture of the Humerus:ONI Plate Versus Conventional Plates and Screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimamura,Yasunori

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    We biomechanically evaluated the bone fixation rigidity of an ONI plate (Group I during fixation of experimentally created transcondylar humerus fractures in cadaveric elbows, which are the most frequently observed humeral fractures in the elderly, and compared it with the rigidity achieved by 3 conventional fixation methods:an LCP reconstruction plate 3.5 using a locking mechanism (Group II, a conventional reconstruction plate 3.5 (CRP with a cannulated cancellous screw (Group III, and a CRP with 2 cannulated cancellous screws (CS in a crisscross orientation (Group IV. In the axial loading test, the mean failure loads were:Group I, 98.9+/-32.6;Group II, 108.5+/-27.2;Group III, 50.0+/-7.5;and Group IV, 34.5+/-12.2 (N. Group I fixations failed at a significantly higher load than those of Groups III and IV (p0.05. In the extension loading test, the mean failure loads were:Group I, 34.0+/-12.4;Group II, 51.0+/-14.8;Group III, 19.3+/-6.0;and Group IV, 14.7+/-3.1 (N. Group IV fixations showed a significantly lower failure load than those of Group I (p0.05. The fixation rigidities against mechanical loading by the ONI plate and LCP plate were comparable. These results suggested that an ONI system might be superior to the CRP and CS method, and comparable to the LCP method in terms of fixation rigidity for distal humerus fractures.

  10. Mechanical response of a capacitive microsensor under thermal load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Waleed; Nayfeh, Ali H.

    2007-08-01

    A considerable fraction of commercial sensors are electrostatically actuated. Many sensor diaphragms are operated in different thermal environments that affect their performance. Because the interplay between the thermal and electrostatic loadings is of interest to designers, in this work we investigate such an interplay. We start with the coupled heat conduction equation and the Saint-Venant plate model. We use nondimensional analysis to show that the dissipation and the elastic coupling vary on a slow scale and hence they can be neglected. Consequently, the heat equation is uncoupled from the plate equation. We consider the case in which the temperature at the boundary is kept at a constant value above the ambient temperature. Substituting the resulting temperature distribution into the plate equation yields an equation with an equivalent compressive load and an electrostatic load due to a DC voltage. Then, a reduced-order model is used to investigate the influence of the dual loading on the plate deflection and their interplay.

  11. License plate detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, Michael; Klopovsky, Yuri; Silinskis, Normunds

    2013-12-01

    A novel algorithm for vehicle license plates localization is proposed. The algorithm is based on pixel intensity transition gradient analysis. Near to 2500 natural-scene gray-level vehicle images of different backgrounds and ambient illumination was tested. The best set of algorithm's parameters produces detection rate up to 0.94. Taking into account abnormal camera location during our tests and therefore geometrical distortion and troubles from trees this result could be considered as passable. Correlation between source data, such as license Plate dimensions and texture, cameras location and others, and parameters of algorithm were also defined.

  12. Flow structure on a rotating plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozen, C.A.; Rockwell, D. [Lehigh University, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The flow structure on a rotating plate of low aspect ratio is characterized well after the onset of motion, such that transient effects are not significant, and only centripetal and Coriolis accelerations are present. Patterns of vorticity, velocity contours, and streamline topology are determined via quantitative imaging, in order to characterize the leading-edge vortex in relation to the overall flow structure. A stable leading-edge vortex is maintained over effective angles of attack from 30 to 75 , and at each angle of attack, its sectional structure at midspan is relatively insensitive to Reynolds number over the range from 3,600 to 14,500. The streamline topology, vorticity distribution, and circulation of the leading-edge vortex are determined as a function of angle of attack, and related to the velocity field oriented toward, and extending along, the leeward surface of the plate. The structure of the leading-edge vortex is classified into basic regimes along the span of the plate. Images of these regimes are complemented by patterns on crossflow planes, which indicate the influence of root and tip swirl, and spanwise flow along the leeward surface of the plate. Comparison with the equivalent of the purely translating plate, which does not induce the foregoing flow structure, further clarifies the effects of rotation. (orig.)

  13. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, N.; Cinacchi, G.; van Duijneveldt, J. S.; Cosgrove, T.; Prescott, S. W.; Grillo, I.; Phipps, J.; Gittins, D. I.

    2011-05-01

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  14. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doshi, N; Cinacchi, G; Van Duijneveldt, J S; Cosgrove, T; Prescott, S W [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Grillo, I [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Phipps, J [Imerys Minerals Ltd, Par Moor Centre, Par Moor Road, Par, Cornwall PL24 2SQ (United Kingdom); Gittins, D I, E-mail: Giorgio.Cinacchi@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: J.S.van-Duijneveldt@bristol.ac.uk [Imerys Performance and Filtration Minerals Ltd, 130 Castilian Drive, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2011-05-18

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  15. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  16. Buckling Analysis of Unidirectional PolymerMatrix Composite Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad Kadhim Uleiwi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the estimation of critical load of unidirectional polymer matrix composite plates by using experimental and finite element techniques at different fiber angles and fiber volume fraction of the composite plate.Buckling analysis illustrated that the critical load decreases in nonlinear relationship with the increase of the fiber angle and that it increases with the increase of the fiber volume fraction.The results show that the maximum value of the critical load is (629.54 N/m at (? = 0? and (Vf = 40 % for the finite element method, while the minimum value of the critical load is (49 N/m at (? = 90? and (Vf = 10 % for the experimental results. The results also indicated that the maximum difference between the finite element analysis and experimental work is about (11 % at ( ? = 0? and (Vf = 40 %

  17. 温和地区阳台壁挂式平板型太阳能热水器水量配比优化%Optimization of tank-volume-to-collector-area ratio for balcony wall-mounted flat-plate solar water heater in mild region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏生贤; 胡粉娥; 晏翠琼

    2016-01-01

    thermal performance of the flat-plate type solar energy water heater has been studied globally. In order to ensure the efficient operation of the solar water heater and user's demand to the terminal temperature of a tank, the countries all over the world with different climate have given different recommended value for water-mass-to-collector-area ratio (the ratio is abbreviated as MAR) of the flat-plate solar water heater. However, China has a vast territory and its climate is complex. The value range of recommended value from literatures is too large to be used to practical application. The main residential buildings in large and medium-sized cities are mostly high-rise buildings. The solar water heater installed on roof can only meet hot water use for the top six to eight floors. The application of the balcony wall-mounted solar water heater is one of the effective ways to solve hot water needs for the rest of users in high-rise buildings. Based on the typical meteorological data of nine cities in mild region of China, the values of MAR of the balcony wall-mounted flat-plate solar water heater have been calculated by using the established mathematical model. The water tank terminal temperature of 60℃, the collector angle of 60°-90° and the azimuth angle of 0-90° were used in model analysis. Calculation results for south-facing balcony wall-mounted solar water heater in mild region showed that the appropriate MAR of spring, summer, autumn, winter and the whole year was 28-51, 21-41, 31-53, 37-57 and 31-47 kg/m2, respectively. For convenience of practical application, the linear regression relation between seasonal and annual average MAR and the tilt angle for south-facing balcony wall-mounted solar water heater. The correlation coefficients between them were greater than 0.99. In this paper, we introduced a new concept “azimuth factor of MAR” which was easy to calculate MAR for the collector with different azimuth angle. For the non-south-facing balcony wall

  18. Interacting wakes of a narrow and a wide flat plate in tandem arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacışevki, H; Teimourian, A, E-mail: hasan.hacisevki@emu.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eastern Mediterranean University, Mağusa, North Cyprus, Mersin 10 (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    Flow structures behind two different sized flat plates in tandem arrangement normal to flow at high Reynolds number have been investigated experimentally. A narrow flat plate, as a control plate, has been placed upstream of a wide plate to investigate the interacting wakes behind the wide flat plate. The near wake downstream of the wide plate has been measured by employing constant-temperature hot wire anemometer, quantitatively. The effects of different width ratio (h/D) range from 0.1 to 1.0 together with gap ratio (g/D) ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 have been probed. It was found that Strouhal number variation is directly proportional to gap ratio between the plates. Moreover, it was observed that turbulent kinetic energy production is mostly contributed by transverse normal turbulent stress and therefore follows the transverse stress pattern rather than the stream wise stress. (paper)

  19. Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中柱; 邵成刚; 罗俊

    1999-01-01

    The Casimir effect between metal plate and dielectric plate is discussed with 1+1-dimensional potential model without using cut-off method. Calculation shows that the Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate is determined not only by the potential V0, the dielectric thickness and the distance α between the metal plate and dielectric plate, but also by the dimension of the vessel. When α is far less than the dimension of the vessel, the Casimir force Fc∝α(-1); conversely Fc∝α-2. This result is significant for Casimir force experiment.

  20. Energy flow in plate assembles by hierarchical version of finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachulec, Marcin; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    method has been proposed. In this paper a modified hierarchical version of finite element method is used for modelling of energy flow in plate assembles. The formulation includes description of in-plane forces so that planes lying in different planes can be modelled. Two examples considered are: L......-corner of two rectangular plates an a I-shaped plate girder made of five plates. Energy distribution among plates due to harmonic load is studied and the comparison of performance between the hierarchical and standard finite element formulation is presented....

  1. Dynamic Response of Stiffened Plates with Holes Subjected to Shock Waves and Fragments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦; 张庆明; 黄风雷

    2004-01-01

    The power field of shock waves and fragments is analyzed and set up, and the damage modes of stiffened plates are put forward. According to the structural characters of the stiffened plates investigated and the properties of the shock waves and fragments, the experiments on the shock waves acting on the stiffened plates (penetrated and non-penetrated by fragments) are mainly conducted. The dynamic response rules of stiffened plates with holes under shock waves and fragments loading are obtained. The results show that the penetration of fragments into stiffened plates hardly affects their deformation produced by shock waves.

  2. Phase-shifted reflective coherent gradient sensor for measuring Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of polished alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kang; Xie, Huimin; Fan, Bozhao

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of Ni-Cr Alloy are measured using phase-shifted reflective coherent gradient sensing (CGS) method. Three-point bending experiment is applied to obtain the Young's modulus by measuring the specimen out-of-plane displacement slopes. Bending experiment of a circular plate with fixed edges loaded by a centric concentrated force is applied to obtain the specimen bending stiffness. The Poisson's ratio is then solved by substituting the bending stiffness into Young's modulus. The results show that the phase-shifted reflective CGS method is valid for measuring Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of metals and alloys. In addition, the reflective specimen surfaces are obtained with precision finishing operations and the polishing parameters are optimized for CGS measurement. This method is more effective than the reflecting film transfer method, which is widely used in previous studies.

  3. Development of microtitre plates for electrokinetic assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, J. P. H.; Goater, A. D.; Menachery, A.; Pethig, R.; Rizvi, N. H.

    2007-02-01

    Electrokinetic processes have wide ranging applications in microsystems technology. Their optimum performance at micro and nano dimensions allows their use both as characterization and diagnostic tools and as a means of general particle manipulation. Within analytical studies, measurement of the electrokinesis of biological cells has the sensitivity and selectivity to distinguish subtle differences between cell types and cells undergoing changes and is gaining acceptance as a diagnostic tool in high throughput screening for drug discovery applications. In this work the development and manufacture of an electrokinetic-based microtitre plate is described. The plate is intended to be compatible with automated sample loading and handling systems. Manufacturing of the microtitre plate, which employs indium tin oxide microelectrodes, has been entirely undertaken using excimer and ultra-fast pulsed laser micromachining due to its flexibility in materials processing and accuracy in microstructuring. Laser micromachining has the ability to rapidly realize iterations in device prototype design while also having the capability to be scaled up for large scale manufacture. Device verification is achieved by the measurement of the electrorotation and dielectrophoretic properties of yeast cells while the flexibility of the developed microtitre plate is demonstrated by the selective separation of live yeast from polystyrene microbeads.

  4. Fiber Concrete under Temperature Drop Load with Stochastic FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Feng; ZHANG Wen-jin

    2008-01-01

    Plain concrete plate and fiber concrete plate subjected to temperature drop load were analyzed on stochastic finite element method (FEM). It is found that fibers can enhance concrete ability to resist temperature drop load for improving concrete's fracture energy and deferring the crack process. It is found for concrete not to improve apparently its tensile strength and fracture energy is recommended to be its appraisal parameter.

  5. On the rotation and pitching of flat plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yaqing; Ji, Sheng; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2016-11-01

    Wind tunnel experiments were performed to characterize the flow-induced rotation and pitching of various flat plates as a function of the thickness ratio, the location of the axis of rotation and turbulence levels. High-resolution telemetry, laser tachometer, and hotwire were used to get time series of the plates motions and the signature of the wake flow at a specific location. Results show that a minor axis offset can induce high-order modes in the plate rotation under low turbulence due to torque unbalance. The spectral decomposition of the flow velocity in the plate wake reveals the existence of a dominating high-frequency mode that corresponds to a static-like vortex shedding occurring at the maximum plate pitch, where the characteristic length scale is the projected width at maximum pitch. The plate thickness ratio shows inverse relation with the angular velocity. A simple model is derived to explain the linear relation between pitching frequency and wind speed. The spectra of the plate rotation show nonlinear relation with the incoming turbulence, and the dominating role of the generated vortices in the plate motions.

  6. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  7. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  8. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder for

  9. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  10. Analysis of single blow effectiveness in non-uniform parallel plate regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Buch; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Engelbrecht, Kurt;

    2011-01-01

    Non-uniform distributions of plate spacings in parallel plate regenerators have been found to induce loss of performance. In this paper, it has been investigated how variations of three geometric parameters (the aspect ratio, the porosity, and the standard deviation of the plate spacing) affects...... this loss in a single blow model of a parallel-plate regenerator. Simple analytical functions for the magnitude and the time scale of the reduction of performance are presented and compared to numerical results....

  11. Dynamic Behaviors of Axially Moving Viscoelastic Plate with Varying Thicknessn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yinfeng; WANG Zhongmin

    2009-01-01

    Structural components of varying thickness draw increasing attention these days due to economy and light-weight considerations. In view of the absence of research in vibration analysis of viscoelastic plate with varying thickness, this study devotes to investigate the dynamic behaviors of axially moving viscoelastic plate with varying thickness. Based on the thin plate theory and the two-dimensional viscoelastic differential constitutive relation, the differential equation of motion of the axially moving viscoelastic rectangular plate is derived, the plate constituted by Kelvin-Voigt model has linearly varying thickness in the y-direction. The dimensionless complex frequencies of axially moving viscoelastic plate with four edges simply supported are calculated by the differential quadrature method, curves of real parts and imaginary parts of the first three-order dimensionless complex frequencies versus dimensionless moving speed are obtained, the effects of the aspect ratio, thickness ratio, the dimensionless moving speed and delay time on the dynamic behaviors of the axially moving viscoelastic rectangular plate with varying thickness are analyzed. When other parameters keep constant, with the decrease of thickness ratio, the real parts of the first three-order natural frequencies decrease, and the critical divergence speeds of various modes decrease too, moreover, whether the delay time is large or small, the frequencies are all complex numbers.

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage diabetes. Healthy Recipes: ... to your day with this guide. Ways to Give: Wear Your Cause on Your Sleeve - ...

  14. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured Product Precise Portions® Go Healthy Travel Pack (4/Box) Taking the guesswork ... you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing lid is offered in ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing lid is offered in a 4-pack. Whether ... Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor ...

  20. INL HIP Plate Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. H. Park; C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue

    2010-02-01

    This document outlines the process used to bond monolithic fuel plates by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). This method was developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. These foils have been used in a number of irradiation experiments in support of the United States Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program.

  1. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... somewhere in between, you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: ... Cost of Diabetes Advocate Toolkit Call to Congress Research & ...

  3. Numerical Simulation of Concrete Plate Damaged Under Explosive Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUAN Shi; JIANG Guoping; Chen Shengming; TANG Xiangqian

    2006-01-01

    The grisliness after-effects can be induced by explosion accident with the collapsing of the structures,the demolishing of the equipments and the casualty of the human beings.Isolation belt constructed between the blast point and the construction is one of the useful design schemes for blast resistance.The nonlinear procedure ANSYS/LSDYNA970 is used to simulate the contact deronation and the isolation belt of blast resistance filled with the air or water respectively.The results indicate that the maximal damage can be caused by the contact detonation,and the isolation belt of blast resistent filled with water can reduce the damage greatly.

  4. Temperature Effects on Hybrid Composite Plates Under Impact Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin SAYER

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, impact responses of carbon-glass fiber/epoxy (hybrid composites were investigated under various temperatures and increasing impact energies. The increasing impact energies were applied to the specimens at various temperatures as -20, 0, 20 and 40 oC until perforation took place of specimens. Those specimens are composed by two types of fiber orientation with eight laminates hybrid composites. An Energy profiling diagram, used for showing the relationship between impact and absorbed energy, has been used to obtain penetration and perforation thresholds of hybrid composites. Beside those, temperature effects on impact characteristics such as maximum contact force (Fmax, total deflection (d and maximum contact duration (t were also presented in figures. Finally, glass and carbon fibers exhibited more brittle characteristics at -20 oC according to other temperatures. So, perforation threshold of each hybrid composites at -20 oC was found higher than other temperatures. Keywords : Hybrid composite

  5. Simulation of Lamb wave reflections at plate edges using the semi-analytical finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Z A B; Gabbert, U

    2012-09-01

    In typical Lamb wave simulation practices, effects of plate edge reflections are often not considered in order to simplify the wave signal interpretations. Methods that are based on infinite plates such as the semi-analytical finite element method is effective in simulating Lamb waves as it excludes the effect of plate edges. However, the inclusion of plate edges in a finite plate could render this method inapplicable, especially for transient response simulations. Here, by applying the ratio of Lamb mode reflections at plate edges, and representing the reflection at plate edges using infinite plate solutions, the semi-analytical finite element method can be applied for transient response simulation, even when the plate is no longer infinite.

  6. Influence of Subducting Plate Geometry on Upper Plate Deformation at Orogen Syntaxes: A Thermomechanical Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettesheim, Matthias; Ehlers, Todd; Whipp, David

    2016-04-01

    Syntaxes are short, convex bends in the otherwise slightly concave plate boundaries of subduction zones. These regions are of scientific interest because some syntaxes (e.g., the Himalaya or St. Elias region in Alaska) exhibit exceptionally rapid, focused rock uplift. These areas have led to a hypothesized connection between erosional and tectonic processes (top-down control), but have so far neglected the unique 3D geometry of the subducting plates at these locations. In this study, we contribute to this discussion by exploring the idea that subduction geometry may be sufficient to trigger focused tectonic uplift in the overriding plate (a bottom-up control). For this, we use a fully coupled 3D thermomechanical model that includes thermochronometric age prediction. The downgoing plate is approximated as spherical indenter of high rigidity, whereas both viscous and visco-plastic material properties are used to model deformation in the overriding plate. We also consider the influence of the curvature of the subduction zone and the ratio of subduction velocity to subduction zone advance. We evaluate these models with respect to their effect on the upper plate exhumation rates and localization. Results indicate that increasing curvature of the indenter and a stronger upper crust lead to more focused tectonic uplift, whereas slab advance causes the uplift focus to migrate and thus may hinder the emergence of a positive feedback.

  7. Stress measurement in thick plates using nonlinear ultrasonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Zeynab, E-mail: zabbas5@uic.edu, E-mail: dozevin@uic.edu; Ozevin, Didem, E-mail: zabbas5@uic.edu, E-mail: dozevin@uic.edu [University of Illinois at Chicago, Civil and Materials Engineering, 842 W Taylor Street ERF 2095, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    In this paper the interaction between nonlinear ultrasonic characteristics and stress state of complex loaded thick steel plates using fundamental theory of nonlinear ultrasonics is investigated in order to measure the stress state at a given cross section. The measurement concept is based on phased array placement of ultrasonic transmitter-receiver to scan three angles of a given cross section using Rayleigh waves. The change in the ultrasonic data in thick steel plates is influenced by normal and shear stresses; therefore, three measurements are needed to solve the equations simultaneously. Different thickness plates are studied in order to understand the interaction of Rayleigh wave penetration depth and shear stress. The purpose is that as the thickness becomes smaller, the shear stress becomes negligible at the angled measurement. For thicker cross section, shear stress becomes influential if the depth of penetration of Rayleigh wave is greater than the half of the thickness. The influences of plate thickness and ultrasonic frequency on the identification of stress tensor are numerically studied in 3D structural geometry and Murnaghan material model. The experimental component of this study includes uniaxial loading of the plate while measuring ultrasonic wave at three directions (perpendicular, parallel and angled to the loading direction). Instead of rotating transmitter-receiver pair for each test, a device capable of measuring the three angles is designed.

  8. Stress measurement in thick plates using nonlinear ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Zeynab; Ozevin, Didem

    2015-03-01

    In this paper the interaction between nonlinear ultrasonic characteristics and stress state of complex loaded thick steel plates using fundamental theory of nonlinear ultrasonics is investigated in order to measure the stress state at a given cross section. The measurement concept is based on phased array placement of ultrasonic transmitter-receiver to scan three angles of a given cross section using Rayleigh waves. The change in the ultrasonic data in thick steel plates is influenced by normal and shear stresses; therefore, three measurements are needed to solve the equations simultaneously. Different thickness plates are studied in order to understand the interaction of Rayleigh wave penetration depth and shear stress. The purpose is that as the thickness becomes smaller, the shear stress becomes negligible at the angled measurement. For thicker cross section, shear stress becomes influential if the depth of penetration of Rayleigh wave is greater than the half of the thickness. The influences of plate thickness and ultrasonic frequency on the identification of stress tensor are numerically studied in 3D structural geometry and Murnaghan material model. The experimental component of this study includes uniaxial loading of the plate while measuring ultrasonic wave at three directions (perpendicular, parallel and angled to the loading direction). Instead of rotating transmitter-receiver pair for each test, a device capable of measuring the three angles is designed.

  9. The effect of fatigue cracks on fastener flexibility, load distribution, and fatigue crack growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Zachary Layne

    Fatigue cracks typically occur at stress risers such as geometry changes and holes. This type of failure has serious safety and economic repercussions affecting structures such as aircraft. The need to prevent catastrophic failure due to fatigue cracks and other discontinuities has led to durability and damage tolerant methodologies influencing the design of aircraft structures. Holes in a plate or sheet filled with a fastener are common fatigue critical locations in aircraft structure requiring damage tolerance analysis (DTA). Often, the fastener is transferring load which leads to a loading condition involving both far-field stresses such as tension and bending, and localized bearing at the hole. The difference between the bearing stress and the tensile field at the hole is known as load transfer. The ratio of load transfer as well as the magnitude of the stresses plays a significant part in how quickly a crack will progress to failure. Unfortunately, the determination of load transfer in a complex joint is far from trivial. Many methods exist in the open literature regarding the analysis of splices, doublers and attachment joints to determine individual fastener loads. These methods work well for static analyses but greater refinement is needed for crack growth analysis. The first fastener in a splice or joint is typically the most critical but different fastener flexibility equations will all give different results. The constraint of the fastener head and shop end, along with the type of fastener, affects the stiffness or flexibility of the fastener. This in turn will determine the load that the fastener will transfer within a given fastener pattern. However, current methods do not account for the change in flexibility at a fastener as the crack develops. It is put forth that a crack does indeed reduce the stiffness of a fastener by changing its constraint, thus lessening the load transfer. A crack growth analysis utilizing reduced load transfer will result in

  10. Proximal Humeral Fractures: A Biomechanical Comparison of Locking Plate Constructs in a Cadaveric 3-Part Fracture Model

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to biomechanically compare, under cyclic loading conditions, fracture site motion, humeral head collapse, and intra-articular hardware penetration in simulated 3-part osteoporotic proximal humeral fractures stabilized with 1 of 2 locking-plate constructs. We performed fixation on simulated 3-part proximal humeral fractures in 10 pairs of cadaveric osteoporotic humeri with a Hand Innovations S3 Proximal Humerus Plate (S3 plate) or an LCP Proximal Humerus Plate (LCP...

  11. Retrofitting of RC Slabs Against Explosive Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chengqing; OEHLERS Deric John; XIA Shaohua

    2006-01-01

    With the increase of terrorist bomb attacks on buildings,there is a need to develop advanced retrofitting techniques to strengthen structures against blast loads.Currently,several guidelines including an Australian version for retrofitting reinforced concrete (RC) structures are available for the design of retrofitting systems against seismic and monotonic loads using steel or fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) plates that can be either adhesively bonded to the surface or near surface mounted to the concrete cover.However,none of these guidelines provide advice suitable for retrofitting structures subjected to blast loads.In this paper,numerical models are used to simulate the performance of retrofitted RC slabs subjected to blast loads.Airblast pressure distributions on the surface of the slabs estimated in a previous study are used as input in the analysis.A material damage model developedpreviously for concrete and an elastoplastic model for steel bars are employed in this research for modelling reinforced concrete behaviour due to explosive loads.The material models and blast loading are coded into a finite element computer program LS-DYNA3D to do the analysis.With the numerical model,parametric studies are conducted to investigate RC slabs retrofitted by either externally bonded or near-surface mounted plates or GFRP sheets subjected to blast loads.Discussion is made on the effectiveness of the retrofitting system for RC slabs against blast loads.

  12. Minimum Plate Thickness in High-Speed Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The minimum plate thickness requirements specified by the classification societies for high-speed craft are supposed to ensure adequate resistance to impact loads such as collision with floating objects and objects falling on the deck. The paper presents analytical methods of describing such impact...

  13. Studies of the buckling of composite plates in compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, B.; Berggreen, Christian; Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    As part of the MARSTRUCT Network of Excellence on Marine Structures, a series of studies has been carried out into the buckling of glass fibre reinforced polymer plates with in-plane compression loading. The studies have included fabrication and testing of square, laminated panels with various...

  14. Studies of the Buckling of Composite Plates in Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, B.; Berggreen, Christian; Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Network of Excellence on Marine Structures (MARSTRUCT), a series of studies has been carried out into the buckling of glass-fibre-reinforced polymer plates with in-plane compression loading. The studies have included fabrication and testing of square, laminated panels with various...

  15. A biomechanical evaluation of a Hybrid Dynamic Compression Plate and a CastLess Arthrodesis Plate for pancarpal arthrodesis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeson, Richard L; Goodship, Allen E; Arthurs, Gareth I

    2012-08-01

    To determine mechanical differences between two plates with different requirements for supplementary casting after pancarpal arthrodesis (PCA): the Veterinary Instrumentation Hybrid Dynamic Compression Plate (HDCP), and the OrthoMed CastLess Arthrodesis Plate (CLP). In vitro mechanical analysis. HDCP(n = 10), CLP(10). Single-cycle load to failure using a materials-testing machine and cyclic loading between 38 and 380 N ± 5% to simulate estimated in vivo loads until failure or 10(6) cycles. Single-cycle to failure: bending stiffness was significantly higher for the HDCP(2269 ± 175 N/mm) than CLP(1754 ± 88 N/mm; P Bending structural stiffness was higher for the HDCP(3.8 ± 0.3 Nm(2) ) versus CLP(2.9 ± 0.2 Nm(2) ; P= .0022). A difference between the 2 plates for bending strength was not demonstrated; HDCP= 13.9 ± 1.4 Nm, CLP13.2 ± 0.5 Nm (P= .24). Cyclic Loading: no failures occurred with either plate type when plates were cycled to 10(6) cycles. There is no mechanical advantage in bending resistance afforded by the CLPover the HDCP. Fatigue failure of either plate during the convalescent period of an estimated 150,000-250,000 cycles is unlikely. Based on the bending performance, there is no evidence to support the use of the CLPover the HDCPfor castless PCA. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  16. Random vibrations of composite beams and plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnaser, Ahmad Shehadeh

    In this study, a generalized modal approach is presented to solve more general vibration problems of composite beams and plates. The coupled systems of partial differential equations, representing the equations of motion, are uncoupled into modal equations by utilizing the eigenfunctions of the system and its adjoint. A method is presented to obtain these eigenfunctions for beams with arbitrary boundary conditions and for plates with Levy-type boundary conditions. The forced vibration solutions obtained by this method are then used to calculate the random response characteristics of beams and plates subjected to spatially and temporally correlated random loads. In the analysis of beams, both symmetric cross-ply and angle-ply configurations have been considered. In the symmetric cross-ply configuration with no torsional loads, of course, the warping effects are absent. The angle-ply case, however, includes torsion-warping effects and coupled bending-torsion motions. A simple displacement field is introduced to reflect warping in the third-order shear deformation theory. In the analysis of plates two configurations of the laminates have also been considered: symmetric cross-ply and antisymmetric angle-ply. At this time, these are the only two configurations which can be solved by the closed-form modal analysis approach for the Levy-type boundary conditions. In both cases of the beams and plates, the numerical results with and without shear deformations are obtained and compared. The result for no shear deformation theory are obtained with the classical lamination theory. The results have also been obtained for the first-order shear deformation theory with a somewhat simpler displacement field which has been commonly used in the past. The numerical results are obtained for the global response quantities such as frequencies, displacements, and crossing rates as well as for the local response quantities such as normal and shear stresses across a cross section. The

  17. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth > For Teens > MyPlate Food Guide Print ... other sugary drinks. Avoid oversized portions. continue Five Food Groups Different food groups meet different nutrition needs. ...

  18. What Are Growth Plate Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plate injuries are:  Falling down  Competitive sports (like football)  Recreational activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are:  Child abuse  Injury from extreme cold (for ...

  19. The propagation characteristics of the plate modes of acoustic emission waves in thin aluminum plates and thin graphite/epoxy composite plates and tubes. Ph.D. Thesis - Johns Hopkins Univ., 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, William H.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic emission was interpreted as modes of vibration in plates. Classical plate theory was used to predict dispersion curves for the two fundamental modes and to calculate the shapes of flexural waveforms produced by vertical step function loading. There was good agreement between theoretical and experimental results for aluminum. Composite materials required the use of a higher order plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) to get good agreement with the measured velocities. Four composite plates with different laminate stacking sequences were studied. The dispersion curves were determined from phase spectra of the time dependent waveforms. Plate modes were shown to be useful for determining the direction of source motion. Aluminum plates were loaded by breaking a pencil lead against their surface. By machining slots at angles to the plane of a plate, the direction in which the force acted was varied. Changing the source motion direction produced regular variations in the waveforms. To demonstrate applicability beyond simple plates, waveforms produced by lead breaks on a thin walled composite tube were also shown to be interpretable as plate modes. The tube design was based on the type of struts proposed for Space Station Freedom's trussed structures.

  20. Ongoing glacial-isostatic adjustment and present-day motion of tectonic plates

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The effect of glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA) on the motion of tectonic plates is usually neglected. Employing a recently developed numerical approach, we examine the effect of glacial loading on the motion of the Earth’s main tectonic plates where we consider an elastic lithosphere of laterally variable strength and the plates losely connected by low viscous zones. Aim of the paper is to show the physical processes which controls the GIA induced horizontal motion and to assess the impact ...