WorldWideScience

Sample records for plate incorporation test

  1. Evaluation of Five Jet Fuels in the Salmonella-Escherichia coli / Microsome Plate Incorporation Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2010-0138 Evaluation of Five Jet Fuels in the Salmonella-Escherichia coli / Microsome Plate Incorporation Assay Edward S...31 Jul 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Five Jet Fuels in the Salmonella-Escherichia coli / Microsome Plate Incorporation Assay 5a...the Salmonella typhimurium-Escherichia coli/ microsome plate incorporation assay. The assay was performed using the plate incorporation procedure

  2. Corrosion test cell for bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, Kirk R.

    2002-01-01

    A corrosion test cell for evaluating corrosion resistance in fuel cell bipolar plates is described. The cell has a transparent or translucent cell body having a pair of identical cell body members that seal against opposite sides of a bipolar plate. The cell includes an anode chamber and an cathode chamber, each on opposite sides of the plate. Each chamber contains a pair of mesh platinum current collectors and a catalyst layer pressed between current collectors and the plate. Each chamber is filled with an electrolyte solution that is replenished with fluid from a much larger electrolyte reservoir. The cell includes gas inlets to each chamber for hydrogen gas and air. As the gases flow into a chamber, they pass along the platinum mesh, through the catalyst layer, and to the bipolar plate. The gas exits the chamber through passageways that provide fluid communication between the anode and cathode chambers and the reservoir, and exits the test cell through an exit port in the reservoir. The flow of gas into the cell produces a constant flow of fresh electrolyte into each chamber. Openings in each cell body is member allow electrodes to enter the cell body and contact the electrolyte in the reservoir therein. During operation, while hydrogen gas is passed into one chamber and air into the other chamber, the cell resistance is measured, which is used to evaluate the corrosion properties of the bipolar plate.

  3. Orion Boiler Plate Airdrop Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Ricardo A.; Evans, Carol T.

    2013-01-01

    On the 29th of February 2012 the Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project attempted to perform an airdrop test of a boilerplate test article for the second time. The first attempt (Cluster Development Test 2, July 2008) to deliver a similar boilerplate from a C-17 using the Low Velocity Air Drop (LVAD) technique resulted in the programmer parachute failing to properly inflate, the test article failing to achieve the desired test initiation conditions, and the test article a total loss. This paper will pick up where the CDT-2 failure investigation left off, describing the test technique that was adopted, and outline the modeling that was performed to gain confidence that the second attempt would be successful. The second boiler plate test (Cluster Development Test 3-3) was indeed a complete success and has subsequently been repeated several times, allowing the CPAS project to proceed with the full scale system level development testing required to integrate the hardware to the first Entry Flight Test vehicle as well as go into the Critical Design Review with minimum risk and a mature design.

  4. Vortex Simulation of Axisymmetrical Flows in Cylindrical Geometries.Part II:Application to Pipes Incorporating an Orifice Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Random Vortex Method extended to an axisymmetrical flow is used in the study of the flow field inside pipes incorporating an orifice plate with different contraction ratios and different inlet velocity profiles.Three test-cases,each having experimental measurements available in the literature,are studied,.In particular,instantaneous and average velocity fields along with the turbulent statistics for high Reynolds number flows are computed and compared to the corresponding experimental results These comparisons show the ability and the limitations of the method.The results of the numerical simulations are used in the physical analysis of the flow fields and thus allow for a better understanding of the dynamics of the flow in pipes incorporating an orifice plate.

  5. A non-classical Mindlin plate model incorporating microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.-L.; Zhang, G. Y.

    2016-07-01

    A non-classical model for a Mindlin plate resting on an elastic foundation is developed in a general form using a modified couple stress theory, a surface elasticity theory and a two-parameter Winkler-Pasternak foundation model. It includes all five kinematic variables possible for a Mindlin plate. The equations of motion and the complete boundary conditions are obtained simultaneously through a variational formulation based on Hamilton's principle, and the microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects are treated in a unified manner. The newly developed model contains one material length-scale parameter to describe the microstructure effect, three surface elastic constants to account for the surface energy effect, and two foundation parameters to capture the foundation effect. The current non-classical plate model reduces to its classical elasticity-based counterpart when the microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects are all suppressed. In addition, the new model includes the Mindlin plate models considering the microstructure dependence or the surface energy effect or the foundation influence alone as special cases, recovers the Kirchhoff plate model incorporating the microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects, and degenerates to the Timoshenko beam model including the microstructure effect. To illustrate the new Mindlin plate model, the static bending and free vibration problems of a simply supported rectangular plate are analytically solved by directly applying the general formulae derived.

  6. Tests of a Novel Design of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, B; Freund, B; Neubüser, C; Onel, Y; Repond, J; Schlereth, J; Xia, L

    2015-01-01

    A novel design of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), using only a single resistive plate, is being proposed. Based on this design, two large size prototype chambers were constructed and were tested with cosmic rays and in particle beams. The tests confirmed the viability of this new approach. In addition to showing an improved single-particle response compared to the traditional 2-plate design, the novel chambers also prove to be suitable for calorimetric applications.

  7. Quantitative tests for plate tectonics on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaula, W. M.; Phillips, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative comparisons are made between the characteristics of plate tectonics on the earth and those which are possible on Venus. Considerations of the factors influencing rise height and relating the decrease in rise height to plate velocity indicate that the rate of topographic dropoff from spreading centers should be about half that on earth due to greater rock-fluid density contrast and lower temperature differential between the surface and interior. Statistical analyses of Pioneer Venus radar altimetry data and global earth elevation data is used to identify 21,000 km of ridge on Venus and 33,000 km on earth, and reveal Venus ridges to have a less well-defined mode in crest heights and a greater concavity than earth ridges. Comparison of the Venus results with the spreading rates and associated heat flow on earth reveals plate creation rates on Venus to be 0.7 sq km/year or less and indicates that not more than 15% of Venus's energy is delivered to the surface by plate tectonics, in contrast to values of 2.9 sq km a year and 70% for earth.

  8. C6 plate puncture testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangoethem, Douglas J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cordova, Theresa Elena [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reu, Phillip L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-04-01

    There are numerous scenarios where critical systems could be subject to penetration by projectiles or fixed objects (e.g., collision, natural disaster, act of terrorism, etc.). It is desired to use computational models to examine these scenarios and make risk-informed decisions; however, modeling of material failure is an active area of research, and new models must be validated with experimental data. The purpose of this report is to document the experimental work performed from FY07 through FY08 on the Campaign Six Plate Puncture project. The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data on the puncture and penetration of metal plates for use in model validation. Of particular interest is the PLH failure model also known as the multilinear line segment model. A significant amount of data that will be useful for the verification and validation of computational models of ductile failure were collected during this project were collected and documented herein; however, much more work remains to be performed, collecting additional experimental data that will further the task of model verification.

  9. Innovative design of composite structures: Design, manufacturing, and testing of plates utilizing curvilinear fiber trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, M. W.; Rust, R. J.; Waters, W. A., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    As a means of improving structural design, the concept of fabricating flat plates containing holes by incorporating curvilinear fiber trajectories to transmit loads around the hole is studied. In the present discussion this concept is viewed from a structural level, where access holes, windows, doors, and other openings are of significant size. This is opposed to holes sized for mechanical fasteners. Instead of cutting the important load-bearing fibers at the hole edge, as a conventional straightline design does, the curvilinear design preserves the load-bearing fibers by orienting them in smooth trajectories around the holes, their loading not ending abruptly at the hole edge. Though the concept of curvilinear fiber trajectories has been studied before, attempts to manufacture and test such plates have been limited. This report describes a cooperative effort between Cincinnati Milacron Inc., NASA Langley Research Center, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University to design, manufacture, and test plates using the curvilinear fiber trajectory concept. The paper discusses details of the plate design, details of the manufacturing, and a summary of results from testing the plates with inplane compressive buckling loads and tensile loads. Comparisons between the curvilinear and conventional straightline fiber designs based on measurements and observation are made. Failure modes, failure loads, strains, deflections, and other key responses are compared.

  10. Characterization of Rubbers from Spherical Punch - Plate Indentation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Carmen Ciornei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubber plates with different compositions and hardness were tested by continuous indentation, using a spherical punch and hysteretic phenomenon was evidenced. The experimental data interpolation with polynomial functions is accurate and permits estimation of the lost work during loading cycles. The interpolation by power law functions is more convenient by using less parameters and having a form accepted in literature. From the rubbers tested, two were considered to present good damping properties.

  11. Color-discrimination threshold determination using pseudoisochromatic test plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiva eJurasevska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We produced a set of pseudoisochromatic plates for determining individual color-difference thresholds to assess test performance and test properties, and analyzed the results. We report a high test validity and classification ability for the deficiency type and severity level (comparable to that of the fourth edition of the Hardy–Rand–Rittler (HRR test. We discuss changes of the acceptable chromatic shifts from the protan and deutan confusion lines along the CIE xy diagram, and the high correlation of individual color-difference thresholds and the red–green discrimination index. Color vision was tested using an Oculus HMC anomaloscope, a Farnsworth D15, and an HRR test on 273 schoolchildren, and 57 other subjects with previously diagnosed red–green color-vision deficiency.

  12. Plate coil thermal test bench for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) carousel cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, LeEllen; Murga, Gaizka; Montijo, Guillermo; Hauth, David

    2014-08-01

    Analyses have shown that even a white-painted enclosure requires active exterior skin-cooling systems to mitigate dome seeing which is driven by thermal nonuniformities that change the refractive index of the air. For the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) Enclosure, this active surface temperature control will take the form of a system of water cooled plate coils integrated into the enclosure cladding system. The main objective of this system is to maintain the surface temperature of the enclosure as close as possible to, but always below, local ambient temperature in order to mitigate this effect. The results of analyses using a multi-layer cladding temperature model were applied to predict the behavior of the plate coil cladding system and ultimately, with safety margins incorporated into the resulting design thermal loads, the detailed designs. Construction drawings and specifications have been produced. Based on these designs and prior to procurement of the system components, a test system was constructed in order to measure actual system behavior. The data collected during seasonal test runs at the DKIST construction site on Haleakalā are used to validate and/or refine the design models and construction documents as appropriate. The test fixture was also used to compare competing hardware, software, components, control strategies, and configurations. This paper outlines the design, construction, test protocols, and results obtained of the plate coil thermal test bench for the DKIST carousel cooling system.

  13. Endurance test for mini-plate fuel rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Heung June; Yang, Sun Kyu; Park, Jong Man; Kim, Chang Kyu; Ryu, Jeong Soo

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the pressure drop, vibration and endurance test results for mini-plate fuel rig which were designed by KAERI and fabricated by Daewoo Precision Co. From the pressure drop test results, it is noted that the flow velocity across the fuel rig corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 6.78 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the fuel rig ranges from 14 to 19 Hz. RMZ (Root Mean Square) displacement for the fuel rig is less than 7 {mu}m, and the maximum displacement is less than 20 {mu}m. Based on the endurance rest results, the appreciable fretting wear for the fuel rig is not observed but the small amount of wear was observed at the interface region between the mini-plates and upper housing cap as well as at the slot regions of a bottom endplate interfacing with the bottom guide arms. (author). 4 refs., 10 tabs., 33 figs.

  14. Improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source for system-level testing of remote optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we describe an improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source which has been developed and utilized for the characterization and calibration of remote optical sensors. This source is unique in that it can be used in situ, in both ambient and thermal-vacuum environments, allowing it to follow the sensor throughout its testing cycle. The performance of the original flat plate radiometric source was presented at the 2009 SPIE1. Following the original efforts, design upgrades were incorporated into the source to improve both radiometric throughput and uniformity. The pre-thermal-vacuum (pre-TVAC) testing results of a spacecraft-level optical sensor with the improved flat plate illumination source, both in ambient and vacuum environments, are presented. We also briefly discuss potential FPI configuration changes in order to improve its radiometric performance. Keywords: Calibration, radiometry, remote sensing, source.

  15. An adjustable parallel-plate capacitor instrument—Test of the theoretical capacitance formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Beau; Baker, Emily; Farwell, Austin; Foster, Harrison; Gao, Xiaohan; Gruber, Benjamin; Jones, Erica; Vu, Dennis; Xu, Sonya; Ye, Jingbo

    2016-09-01

    We describe an adjustable parallel-plate capacitor apparatus designed for use in an undergraduate laboratory that permits precise variation of plate separation distances and overlap area. Two experiments are performed with the device to test the ideal capacitor formula derived from Gauss's Law. After correcting for edge effects and minor plate tilt, the device yields capacitance values within 3% of theoretical values.

  16. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  17. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  18. Is plate tectonis withstanding the test of time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Shields

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the theory of plate tectonics was first proposed thirty years ago, some problems have arisen in its practical application. These call into question its fundamental assumptions of horizontal plate motion, hotspot fixity, true polar wander, Panthalassa, and the Earth’s constant size while leaving seafloor spreading and subduction intact. A rapidity expanding earth solves these problems and privides an alternative viewpoint worth reconsidering.

  19. A novel hot-plate test sensitive to hyperalgesic stimuli and non-opioid analgesics

    OpenAIRE

    T.R. Lavich; Cordeiro, R S B; Silva,P.M.R.; M.A. Martins

    2005-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the classical constant-temperature hot-plate test is insensitive to cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In the current study, we developed a variant of the hot-plate test procedure (modified hot-plate (MHP) test) to measure inflammatory nociception in freely moving rats and mice. Following left and right hind paw stimulation with a phlogogen and vehicle, respectively, the animals were placed individually on a hot-plate surface at 51ºC and the withdrawal latency for each paw ...

  20. Ridge-spotting: A new test for Pacific absolute plate motion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Paul; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-06-01

    Relative plate motions provide high-resolution descriptions of motions of plates relative to other plates. Yet geodynamically, motions of plates relative to the mantle are required since such motions can be attributed to forces (e.g., slab pull and ridge push) acting upon the plates. Various reference frames have been proposed, such as the hot spot reference frame, to link plate motions to a mantle framework. Unfortunately, both accuracy and precision of absolute plate motion models lag behind those of relative plate motion models. Consequently, it is paramount to use relative plate motions in improving our understanding of absolute plate motions. A new technique called "ridge-spotting" combines absolute and relative plate motions and examines the viability of proposed absolute plate motion models. We test the method on six published Pacific absolute plate motions models, including fixed and moving hot spot models as well as a geodynamically derived model. Ridge-spotting reconstructs the Pacific-Farallon and Pacific-Antarctica ridge systems over the last 80 Myr. All six absolute plate motion models predict large amounts of northward migration and monotonic clockwise rotation for the Pacific-Farallon ridge. A geodynamic implication of our ridge migration predictions is that the suggestion that the Pacific-Farallon ridge may have been pinned by a large mantle upwelling is not supported. Unexpected or erratic ridge behaviors may be tied to limitations in the models themselves or (for Indo-Atlantic models) discrepancies in the plate circuits used to project models into the Pacific realm. Ridge-spotting is promising and will be extended to include more plates and other ocean basins.

  1. Test Method for High β Particle Emission Rate of 63Ni Source Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Li-feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of measurement difficulties of β particle emission rate of Ni-63 source plate used for Ni-63 betavoltaic battery, a relative test method of scintillation current method was erected according to the measurement principle of scintillation detector.β particle emission rate of homemade Ni-63 source plate was tested by the method, and the test results were analysed and evaluated, it was initially thought that scintillation current method was a feasible way of testing β particle emission rate of Ni-63 source plate with high β particle emission rate.

  2. Methods for testing Zernike phase plates and a report on silicon-based phase plates with reduced charging and improved ageing characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Michael; Meng, Xing; Hsieh, Chyongere; Roussie, James; Striemer, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Imaging with Zernike phase plates is increasingly being used in cryo-TEM tomography and cryo-EM single-particle applications. However, rapid ageing of the phase plates, together with the cost and effort in producing them, present serious obstacles to widespread adoption. We are experimenting with phase plates based on silicon chips that have thin windows; such phase plates could be mass-produced and made available at moderate cost. The windows are coated with conductive layers to reduce charging, and this considerably extends the useful life of the phase plates compared to traditional pure-carbon phase plates. However, a compromise must be reached between robustness and transmission through the phase-plate film. Details are given on testing phase-plate performance by means of imaging an amorphous thin film and evaluating the power spectra of the images.

  3. Cosmic ray tests of large area Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    An, S; Kim, J; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A; Zuyeuski, R

    2007-01-01

    We have built Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) with six gas gaps and an active area of . The signals are generated on 2.5 cm wide copper pickup strips; these are read out at each end thus allowing the position of the hit along the strip to be obtained from the time difference. Using three of these chambers we have set up a cosmic tracking system in a similar manner as planned for the Extreme Energy Events (EEE) project. The details of the set-up are presented in this paper. In addition we discuss the time and position resolution of these MRPCs measured using cosmic rays.

  4. Brownian motion of a charged test particle in vacuum between two conducting plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongwei; Chen, Jun

    2004-12-01

    The Brownian motion of a charged test particle caused by quantum electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations between two perfectly conducting plates is examined and the mean squared fluctuations in the velocity and position of the test particle are calculated. Our results show that the Brownian motion in the direction normal to the plates is reinforced in comparison to that in the single plate case. The effective temperature associated with this normal Brownian motion could be three times as large as that in the single plate case. However, the negative dispersions for the velocity and position in the longitudinal directions, which could be interpreted as reducing the quantum uncertainties of the particle, acquire positive corrections due to the presence of the second plate, and are thus weakened.

  5. Brownian motion of a charged test particle in vacuum between two conducting plates

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, H; Yu, Hongwei; Chen, Jun

    2004-01-01

    The Brownian motion of a charged test particle caused by quantum electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations between two perfectly conducting plates is examined and the mean squared fluctuations in the velocity and position of the test particle are calculated. Our results show that the Brownian motion in the direction normal to the plates is reinforced in comparison to that in the single-plate case. The effective temperature associated with this normal Brownian motion could be three times as large as that in the single-plate case. However, the negative dispersions for the velocity and position in the longitudinal directions, which could be interpreted as reducing the quantum uncertainties of the particle, acquire positive corrections due to the presence of the second plate, and are thus weakened.

  6. 78 FR 33132 - Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... COMMISSION Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test... Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test Reactors.'' This guide... plate-type uranium-aluminum fuel elements used in research and test reactors (RTRs). ADDRESSES: Please...

  7. What is needed to incorporate clinical pharmacogenetic tests into the practice of psychopharmacotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Jose; Spina, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    This editorial considers two questions in psychopharmacotherapy: 1) What is needed to market pharmacogenetic tests in the US, since the US appears to lead other countries? and 2) What is needed for US-marketed pharmacogenetic tests to be incorporated by prescribers into long-term practice? US marketing of pharmacogenetic tests requires 1) understanding the pharmacological complexity of drug response, 2) modifying the oversight of non-FDA regulatory agencies, 3) clarifying the FDA's role and 4) promoting innovative marketing. The incorporation of pharmacogenetic tests into long-term practice requires 1) not jeopardizing pharmacogenetic testing by short-sighted marketing of non-validated tests, 2) educating prescribers about benefits, 3) educating patients about limitations and 4) considering the differences between isolated testing and generalized testing incorporating big data.

  8. Guarded Flat Plate Cryogenic Test Apparatus and Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Johnson, Wesley L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A test apparatus for thermal energy measurement of disk-shaped test specimens has a cold mass assembly locatable within a sealable chamber with a guard vessel having a guard chamber to receive a liquid fluid and a bottom surface to contact a cold side of a test specimen, and a test vessel having a test chamber to receive a liquid fluid and encompassed on one side by a center portion of the bottom surface shared with the guard vessel. A lateral wall assembly of the test vessel is closed by a vessel top, the lateral wall assembly comprising an outer wall and an inner wall having opposing surfaces that define a thermal break including a condensable vapor pocket to inhibit heat transfer through the lateral wall from the guard vessel to the test vessel. A warm boundary temperature surface is in thermal communication with a lower surface of the test specimen.

  9. Comparative evaluation of Rose Bengal plate agglutination test, mallein test, and some conventional serological tests for diagnosis of equine glanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naureen, Abeera; Saqib, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulan; Hussain, Muhammad H; Asi, Muhammad N

    2007-07-01

    The Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBT) was evaluated for the diagnosis of equine glanders, and its diagnostic efficiency was compared with that of mallein and other serological tests, including indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), complement fixation test (CFT), and modified counter immunoelectrophoresis test (mCIET). Sera from 70 naturally infected culture-positive, 96 potentially exposed cohorts, and 110 healthy equines were tested. All tests but mCIET showed 100% specificity when testing the sera from glanders-negative equines. The calculated sensitivities of RBT, IHAT, CFT, mCIET, and mallein test when testing culture-positive equines were 90.0, 97.1, 91.4, 81.4, and 75.7%, respectively. The RBT was significantly (P glandered and nonglandered animals, the highest agreement (0.987) was found between RBT and CFT followed by RBT and IHAT (0.940), RBT and mallein test (0.871), and RBT and mCIET (0.852). Because the RBT is simpler and rapid to perform, the inclusion of the test as a supplementary test for the diagnosis of glanders in field conditions is recommended.

  10. Results of fracture mechanics tests on PNC SUS 304 plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.; Blackburn, L.D.

    1985-08-01

    PNC provided SUS 304 plate to be irradiated in FFTF at about 400/sup 0/C to a target fluence of 5 x 10/sup 21/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV). The actual irradiation included two basically different exposure levels to assure that information would be available for the exposure of interest. After irradiation, tensile properties, fatigue-crack growth rates and J-integral fracture toughness response were determined. These same properties were also measured for the unirradiated material so radiation damage effects could be characterized. This report presents the results of this program. It is expected that these results would be applicable for detailed fracture analysis of reactor components. Recent advances in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics enable reasonably accurate predictions of failure conditions for flawed stainless steel components. Extensive research has focused on the development of J-integral-based engineering approach for assessing the load carrying capacity of low-strength, high-toughness structural materials. Furthermore, Kanninen, et al., have demonstrated that J-integral concepts can accurately predict the fracture response for full-scale cracked structures manufactured from Type 304 stainless steel.

  11. Development of nondestructive testing techniques for plated-through holes in multilayer printed circuit boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, P. L.; Mcmurtrey, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a nondestructive test with the capability to interrogate plated-through holes as small as 0.51 millimeters inside diameter is discussed. The system can detect defects such as holes, voids, cracks, and thin spots that reduce the current carrying capability of plates-through interconnects by 20 percent or more. Efforts were directed toward the design and fabrication of magnetic circuitry mutual coupling probes and to evaluate the effectiveness of these devices for detecting in multilayer board plated-through holes.

  12. Assembly and tests of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) for the CMS barrel detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Gabriella Pugliese, Bari

    2006-01-01

    The pictures 1-3 show some assembly steps of Resistive Plate Chambers in Bari and their tests with cosmic rays (4-6: moving RPC to the test towers; 7-8 cosmic tests). Pictures 9-10 show assembly and tests in Sofia, 11 shows RPC coupling with drift tubes at ISR and 12-13 tests at the CMS site at CERN.

  13. A reciprocating pin-on-plate test-rig for studying friction materials for holding brakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Drago, Nicola; Klit, Peder

    2014-01-01

    -on-plate test-rig for studying the evolution of wear by monitoring the pin height reduction using Eddy-current proximity sensors is presented. Moreover, a new mechanism for recording the friction force is suggested. Apart from the design of the test-rig, friction force and wear rate measurements for two...

  14. Functions for patch test in finite element analysis of the Mindlin plate and the thin cylindrical shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Current patch test for Mindlin plate element only satisfies the zero shear deformation condition.The patch test of non-zero constant shear for Mindlin plate problem cannot be performed.For shell element, the patch test does not even exist.Based on the theory of enhanced patch test proposed by Chen W J (2006),the authors proposed the enhanced patch test function for Mindlin plate and thin cylindrical shell elements.This enhanced patch test function can be used to assess the convergence of the Mindlin plate and cylindrical thin shell elements.

  15. High Velocity Tensile Test for Thin Plate Specimen with One Bar Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Masaaki

    In order to design thin-walled impact-resistant structure, for example, an automotive body, dynamic behavior of thin plate is essential. So far, except for laminated composite materials, high velocity tensile test of thin plate specimen did not attract impact researchers' and engineers' attention very much. In this paper, the previous thin plate specimen assembly for the one bar method was improved. The one bar method has been utilized for cylindrical specimens of various solid materials and is known as an effective high velocity tensile testing technique. Unfortunately, the previous assembly introduced a tremendous initial peak on stress-strain curves, even for aluminum alloys. With a new specimen assembly, stress-strain curves for IF (Interstitial-atom Free) steel and 7075-T6 aluminum alloy obtained by the one bar method were almost equivalent to those obtained by the tensile version of the split Hopkinson pressure bar method.

  16. Industrial Test of High Strength Steel Plates Free Boron Q890D Used for Engineering Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruifeng; Liu, Zetian; Gao, Jun

    The chemistry composition, process parameters and the test results of Q890D free boron high strength steel plate used for engineering machinery was studied. The 16 40 mm thickness steel plates with good mechanical properties that was yield strength of 930 970 MPa, tensile strength of 978 1017 MPa, elongation of 13.5 15%, the average impact energy value of more than 100 J were developed by improving steel purity, adopting the reasonable controlled rolling and cooling process, using reasonable off-line quenching and tempering process. The test plates have good crack resistance in 60 °C preheat temperature condition because of that there are no any cracks in the surfaces, cross-section and roots of welding joints.

  17. Digitizer of astronomical plates at Shanghai Astronomical Observatory and its performance test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong; Zhao, Jian-Hai; Tang, Zheng-Hong; Shang, Zheng-Jun

    2017-02-01

    Before CCD detectors were widely employed in observational astronomy, the main method of detection was the use of glass astrophotographic plates. Astronomical plates have been used to record information on the position and activity of celestial bodies for more than 100 years. There are about 30 000 astronomical plates in China, and the digitization of astronomical plates is of great significance for permanent preservation and to make full use of these valuable observation data. A digitizer with high precision and high measuring speed is a key piece of equipment for carrying out the task of digitizing these astronomical plates. A digitizer for glass astrophotographic plates was developed jointly by Shanghai Astronomical Observatory and Nishimura Co., Ltd of Japan. The digitizer’s hardware was manufactured by Nishimura Co., Ltd, and the performance test, error corrections as well as image processing of the digitizer were carried out by Shanghai Astronomical Observatory. The main structure and working mode of the digitizer are introduced in this paper. A performance test shows that brightness uniformity of illumination within the measuring area is better than 0.15%, the repeatability of digitized positions is better than 0.2 µm and the repeatability of digitized brightness is better than 0.01 instrumental magnitude. The systematic factors affecting digitized positions, such as lens distortion, the actual optical resolution, non-linearity of guide rails, non-uniformity of linear motors in the mobile platform, deviation of the image mosaic, and non-orthogonality between the direction of scanning and camera linear array, are calibrated and evaluated. Based on an astronomical plate with a size of 300mm × 300mm, which was digitized at different angles, the conversion residuals of positions of common stars on different images were investigated. The results show that the standard deviations of the residuals are better than 0.9 µm and the residual distribution is almost

  18. Beam test results on double-gap resistive plate chambers proposed for CMS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbrescia, M.; Bruno, G.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Lamanna, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Ranieri, A.; Romano, F.; Gianini, G.; Ratti, S. P.; Vitulo, P.

    Resistive Plate Chambers were tested in a muon and pion beam to study the performances at different running conditions. Results on a first chamber built without the linseed oil treatment of the bakelite surfaces are presented together with an evaluation of the local effects due to the spacers. These results are extrapolated to the conditions expected at LHC.

  19. Beam Test Results on Resistive Plate Chambers for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, Marcello; Calaeo, A; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lammana, G; Loddo, Flavio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; Natali, Sergio; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Puglise, G; Ranieri, Riccardo; Ratti, Sergio P; Romano, Francesco; Vitulo, Paolo

    1998-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers were tested in a muon and a pion beam to study the performances at different running conditions. Results on a first chamber built without the linseed oil treatment of the bakelite surfaces are presented together with an evaluation of the local effects dut to spacers. These results are extrapolated to the conditions expected at LHC.

  20. 77 FR 16868 - Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... COMMISSION Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test Reactors,'' is temporarily identified... verifying the quality of plate-type uranium-aluminum fuel elements used in research and test reactors (RTRs...

  1. Incorporation of vertical permeability test results in vertical miscible flood design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillund, G.N.; Kamal, M.

    1983-01-01

    The original analysis of the Bigoray Nisku B Pool miscible flood indicated potential coning problems related to the level of vertical permeability. This work presents the results of a vertical permeability test which were incorporated into a coning study. Additional reservoir data along with the rate information from the coning study will be used to revise the original reservoir simulation prediction and depletion strategy.

  2. Performance test of a plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young-Sang; Bae, Jin-Ho; Kim, Hoe-Woong; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    A plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor that uses the A0-mode leaky Lamb waves has been developed for under-sodium viewing of the reactor core and in-vessel structures in the sodiumcooled fast reactor. A new ultrasonic waveguide sensor that has beryllium (Be) and nickel (Ni) coating layers on its surfaces is proposed for the enhancement of the ultrasonic beam radiation and wetting capabilities in sodium. The sodium test facility with a glove box system and a sodium test loop has been designed and constructed to carry out the performance test of the developed ultrasonic waveguide sensor in a sodium environment. A 1.7 m long ultrasonic waveguide sensor with beryllium and nickel coating layers was designed and manufactured. The performance tests were carried out to evaluate the ultrasonic beam radiation characteristics and C-scan imaging resolution of the plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium.

  3. Quantification of biofilm in microtiter plates: overview of testing conditions and practical recommendations for assessment of biofilm production by staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanović, Srdjan; Vuković, Dragana; Hola, Veronika; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Djukić, Slobodanka; Cirković, Ivana; Ruzicka, Filip

    2007-08-01

    The details of all steps involved in the quantification of biofilm formation in microtiter plates are described. The presented protocol incorporates information on assessment of biofilm production by staphylococci, gained both by direct experience as well as by analysis of methods for assaying biofilm production. The obtained results should simplify quantification of biofilm formation in microtiter plates, and make it more reliable and comparable among different laboratories.

  4. A novel hot-plate test sensitive to hyperalgesic stimuli and non-opioid analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Lavich

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the classical constant-temperature hot-plate test is insensitive to cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In the current study, we developed a variant of the hot-plate test procedure (modified hot-plate (MHP test to measure inflammatory nociception in freely moving rats and mice. Following left and right hind paw stimulation with a phlogogen and vehicle, respectively, the animals were placed individually on a hot-plate surface at 51ºC and the withdrawal latency for each paw was determined simultaneously in measurements performed at 15, 60, 180, and 360 min post-challenge. Plantar stimulation of rats (250 and 500 µg/paw and mice (125-500 µg/paw with carrageenan led to a rapid hyperalgesic response of the ipsilateral paw that reached a plateau from 15 to 360 min after challenge. Pretreatment with indomethacin (4 mg/kg, ip inhibited the phenomenon at all the times analyzed. Similarly, plantar stimulation of rats and mice with prostaglandin E2 (0.5 and 1 µg/paw also resulted in rapid hyperalgesia which was first detected 15 min post-challenge. Finally, we observed that the MHP test was more sensitive than the classical Hargreaves' test, being able to detect about 4- and 10-fold lower doses of prostaglandin E2 and carrageenan, respectively. In conclusion, the MHP test is a simple and sensitive method for detecting peripheral hyperalgesia and analgesia in rats and mice. This test represents a low-cost alternative for the study of inflammatory pain in freely moving animals.

  5. A novel hot-plate test sensitive to hyperalgesic stimuli and non-opioid analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavich, T R; Cordeiro, R S B; Silva, P M R; Martins, M A

    2005-03-01

    It is widely accepted that the classical constant-temperature hot-plate test is insensitive to cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In the current study, we developed a variant of the hot-plate test procedure (modified hot-plate (MHP) test) to measure inflammatory nociception in freely moving rats and mice. Following left and right hind paw stimulation with a phlogogen and vehicle, respectively, the animals were placed individually on a hot-plate surface at 51 degrees C and the withdrawal latency for each paw was determined simultaneously in measurements performed at 15, 60, 180, and 360 min post-challenge. Plantar stimulation of rats (250 and 500 microg/paw) and mice (125-500 microg/paw) with carrageenan led to a rapid hyperalgesic response of the ipsilateral paw that reached a plateau from 15 to 360 min after challenge. Pretreatment with indomethacin (4 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited the phenomenon at all the times analyzed. Similarly, plantar stimulation of rats and mice with prostaglandin E2 (0.5 and 1 microg/paw) also resulted in rapid hyperalgesia which was first detected 15 min post-challenge. Finally, we observed that the MHP test was more sensitive than the classical Hargreaves' test, being able to detect about 4- and 10-fold lower doses of prostaglandin E2 and carrageenan, respectively. In conclusion, the MHP test is a simple and sensitive method for detecting peripheral hyperalgesia and analgesia in rats and mice. This test represents a low-cost alternative for the study of inflammatory pain in freely moving animals.

  6. The high surface energy of NiO {110} facets incorporated into TiO2 hollow microspheres by etching Ti plate for enhanced photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Cui, Hongzhi; Song, Xiaojie; Wei, Na; Tian, Jian

    2017-02-01

    We present a rational design for the controllable synthesis of NiO/TiO2 hollow microspheres (NTHMs) with Ti plate via a one-pot template-free synthesis strategy. Specifically, to enhance the formation of hollow microspheres, part of the titanium source is provided by the Ti plate. The hollow spherical NiO/TiO2 particles possess unique microstructural characteristics, namely, a higher specific surface area (∼65.82 m2 g-1), a larger mesoporous structure (∼7.79 nm), and hierarchical nanoarchitectures connected with mesopores within the shell (monodispersed size of ∼1 μm and shell thickness of ∼80 nm). In addition, as a cocatalyst for improved catalytic activity, the incorporated NiO nanoparticles with exposed high surface energy {110} facets displayed an outstanding performance. It has been proven that this facile nanostructure possesses remarkably high photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities. The main mechanism for enhancement of photocatalytic activity is attributed to the construction of p-n junctions with an inner electric field between TiO2 and NiO, which can dramatically enhance the separation efficiency of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs. This strategy could be applied to fabricate mixed metal oxide hollow microspheres toward the photoelectrochemical catalysis.

  7. Testing the Corrosion Behaviour of Plated Aluminum Strips for Heat Exchangers Operating in the Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Marek; Opyrchał, Mieczysław; Kłyszewski, Andrzej; Żelechowski, Janusz

    The automotive industry uses heat exchangers made of aluminum alloys. The radiators for an engine cooling system comprise elements (tubes) in which the coolant flows. These elements are made of AlMn alloys (e.g. AlMn or AlMnCu), while ribs are made from the sheet metal plated with AlSi alloys. While in service, the heat exchangers are exposed to harsh weather conditions, hence the need to ensure that the individual elements of the design are adequately protected from corrosion. One of the ways to obtain this protection is by modification of the chemical composition of aluminum alloys used in the manufacture of radiators. In this study, corrosion tests were carried out to characterise the investigated materials in terms of their corrosive behavior. The experiments included measurements of corrosion potential, testing of corrosion resistance in neutral salt spray, and electrochemical studies of selected plated AlMn alloy strips with different chemical composition.

  8. Incorporation of vertical permeability test results in vertical miscible flood design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillund, G.N.; Kamal, M.

    1984-03-01

    The original analysis of the Bigoray Nisku B miscible flood in Alberta, Canada indicated potential coning problems related to the level of vertical permeability. This paper presents the results of a vertical permeability test which were incorporated into a coning study. Additional reservoir data, along with the rate information from the coning study, will be used to revise the original reservoir simulation prediction and depletion strategy.

  9. Standardized solar simulator tests of flat plate solar collectors. 1: Soltex collector with two transparent covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F.

    1975-01-01

    A Soltex flat plate solar collector was tested with a solar simulator for inlet temperatures of 77 to 201 F, flux levels of 240 and 350 Btu/hr-sq ft, a collant flow rate of 10.5 lb/hr sq ft, and incident angles of 0 deg, 41.5 deg, and 65.2 deg. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle.

  10. Direct tests of micro channel plates as the active element of a new shower maximum detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronzhin, A., E-mail: ronzhin@fnal.gov [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Los, S.; Ramberg, E. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Apresyan, A.; Xie, S.; Spiropulu, M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kim, H. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    We continue the study of micro channel plates (MCP) as the active element of a shower maximum (SM) detector. We present below test beam results obtained with MCPs detecting directly secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. The MCP efficiency to shower particles is close to 100%. The time resolution obtained for this new type of the SM detector is at the level of 40 ps.

  11. Application of patch test in meshless analysis of continuously non-homogeneous piezoelectric circular plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staňák P.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proposed paper presents application of the patch test for meshless analysis of piezoelectric circular plate with functionally graded material properties. Functionally graded materials (FGM are the special class of composite materials with continuous variation of volume fraction of constituents in predominant direction. Patch test analysis is an important tool in numerical methods for addressing the convergence. Meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG method together with moving least-squares (MLS approximation scheme is applied in the analysis. No finite elements are required for approximation or integration of unknown quantities. Circular plate is considered as a 3-D axisymmetric piezoelectric solid. Considering the axial symmetry, the problem is reduced to a 2-dimensinal one. Displacement and electric potential fields are prescribed on the outer boundaries in order to reach the state of constant stress field inside the considered plate as required by the patch test and the governing equations. Values of prescribed mechanical and electrical fields must be determined in order to comply with applied FGM gradation rule. Convergence study is performed to assess the considered meshless approach and several conclusions are finally presented.

  12. Standard Test Method for Mechanical Hydrogen Embrittlement Evaluation of Plating/Coating Processes and Service Environments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes mechanical test methods and defines acceptance criteria for coating and plating processes that can cause hydrogen embrittlement in steels. Subsequent exposure to chemicals encountered in service environments, such as fluids, cleaning treatments or maintenance chemicals that come in contact with the plated/coated or bare surface of the steel, can also be evaluated. 1.2 This test method is not intended to measure the relative susceptibility of different steels. The relative susceptibility of different materials to hydrogen embrittlement may be determined in accordance with Test Method F1459 and Test Method F1624. 1.3 This test method specifies the use of air melted AISI E4340 steel per SAE AMS-S-5000 (formerly MIL-S-5000) heat treated to 260 – 280 ksi (pounds per square inch x 1000) as the baseline. This combination of alloy and heat treat level has been used for many years and a large database has been accumulated in the aerospace industry on its specific response to exposure...

  13. Lithospheric deformation in the Africa-Iberia plate boundary: Improved neotectonic modeling testing a basal-driven Alboran plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neres, M.; Carafa, M. M. C.; Fernandes, R. M. S.; Matias, L.; Duarte, J. C.; Barba, S.; Terrinha, P.

    2016-09-01

    We present an improved neotectonic numerical model of the complex NW Africa-SW Eurasia plate boundary segment that runs from west to east along the Gloria Fault up to the northern Algerian margin. We model the surface velocity field and the ongoing lithospheric deformation using the most recent version of the thin-shell code SHELLS and updated lithospheric model and fault map of the region. To check the presence versus the absence of an independently driven Alboran domain, we develop two alternative plate models: one does not include an Alboran plate; another includes it and determines the basal shear tractions necessary to drive it with known velocities. We also compare two alternative sets of Africa-Eurasia velocity boundary conditions, corresponding to geodetic and geological-scale averages of plate motion. Finally, we perform an extensive parametric study of fault friction coefficient, trench resistance, and velocities imposed in Alboran nodes. The final run comprises 5240 experiments, each scored to geodetic velocities (estimated for 250 stations and here provided), stress direction data, and seismic strain rates. The model with the least discrepancy to the data includes the Alboran plate driven by a basal WSW directed shear traction, slightly oblique to the westward direction of Alboran motion. We provide estimates of long-term strain rates and slip rates for the modeled faults, which can be useful for further hazard studies. Our results support that a mechanism additional to the Africa-Eurasia convergence is required to drive the Alboran domain, which can be related to subduction processes occurring within the mantle.

  14. Reliability and Lifetime Prediction of Remote Phosphor Plates in Solid-State Lighting Applications Using Accelerated Degradation Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.; Van Driel, W.D.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2015-01-01

    A methodology, based on accelerated degradation testing, is developed to predict the lifetime of remote phosphor plates used in solid-state lighting (SSL) applications. Both thermal stress and light intensity are used to accelerate degradation reaction in remote phosphor plates. A reliability model,

  15. Can ultrasound of plantar plate have normal appearance with a positive drawer test?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Eloy de Avila [Affiliated Professor, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM-Unifesp), São Paulo (Brazil); Mann, Tania Szejnfeld [Medical Assistant of Medicine and Surgery of the Foot and Ankle Group, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Puchnick, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.ddi@epm.br [Professor and Coordinator of Educational and Research Support, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Tertulino, Franklin de Freitas [Postgraduate Physician, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Cannato, Camila Testoni [Resident Physician, Department of Surgery, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Nery, Caio [Associate Professor, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Corrêa [Associate Professor, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •We evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound to identify and measure the plantar plate. •We correlate ultrasound findings with those of physical examination and MRI. •Ultrasound and MRI measures of plantar plate were positively correlated. •Ultrasound is efficient in identifying and measuring plantar plate. •Ultrasound may complement physical examination. •Young asymptomatic subjects can present a grade I positive drawer test. -- Abstract: Objectives: The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the reliability of ultrasound (US) examination in the identification and measurement of the metatarsophalangeal plantar plate (MTP-PP) in asymptomatic subjects and (2) to establish the correlation of US findings with those of physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), once it is an important tool in the evaluation of the instability syndrome of the second and third rays. Materials and Methods: US examinations of the second and third MTP-PPs were performed in eight asymptomatic volunteers, totaling 32 MTP joints, by three examiners with different levels of experience in musculoskeletal US. Plantar plate dimensions, integrity and echogenicity, the presence of ruptures, and confidence level in terms of structure identification were determined using conventional US. Vascular flow was assessed using power Doppler. US data were correlated with data from physical examination and MRI. Results: MTP-PPs were ultrasonographically identified in 100% of cases, always showing homogeneous hyperechoic features and no detectable vascular flow on power Doppler, with 100% certainty in identification for all examiners. There was excellent US inter-observer agreement for longitudinal measures of second and third toe MTP-PPs and for transverse measures of the second toe MTP-PP. The MTP drawer test was positive for grade 1 MTP instability in 34.4% of joints with normal US results. Transverse MTP-PP measures were significantly higher in individuals with positive

  16. A test of present-day plate geometries for northeast Asia and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demets, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Alternative geometries for the present-day configuration of plate boundaries in northeast Asia and Japan are tested using NUVEL-1 and 256 horizontal earthquake slip vectors from the Japan and northern Kuril trenches. Statistical analysis of the slip vectors is used to determine whether the North American, Eurasian, or Okhotsk plate overlies the trench. Along the northern Kuril trench, slip vectors are well-fit by the NUVEL-1 Pacific-North America Euler pole, but are poorly fit by the Pacific-Eurasia Euler pole. Results for the Japan trench are less conclusive, but suggest that much of Honshu and Hokkaido are also part of the North American plate. The simplest geometry consistent with the trench slip vectors is a geometry in which the North American plate extends south to 41 deg N, and possibly includes northern Honshu and southern Hokkaido. Although these results imply that the diffuse seismicity that connects the Lena River delta to Sakhalin Island and the eastern Sea of Japan records motion between Eurasia and North America, onshore geologic and seismic data define an additional belt of seismicity in Siberia that cannot be explained with this geometry. Assuming that these two seismic belts constitute evidence for an Okhotsk block, two published kinematic models for motion of the Okhotsk block are tested. The first model, which predicts motion of up to 15 mm/yr relative to North America, is rejected because Kuril and Japan trench slip vectors are fit more poorly than for the simpler geometry described above. The second model gives a good fit to the trench slip vectors, but only if Okhotsk-North America motion is slower than 5 mm/yr.

  17. Deliverable 4.6: Data of the guided ditching tests for permanent deformation (aluminium and composite plates)

    OpenAIRE

    Iafrati, Alessandro; Olivieri, Flavio; Santos, Victor Hugo; Grizzi, Silvano; Fortunati, Marco; Ortolani, Fabrizio; Mauro, Luca

    2014-01-01

    In the present report the data of the guided ditching tests of the plates which were expected to undergo permanent deformations are presented and discussed briefly. Before going into the details of the data, some aspects of the experimental setup which were specific for tests on the deformable plates are provided. The last section is devoted to the presentation of the data of the DASSAULT specimen tested at the high speed ditching facility.

  18. Pilot Experimental Tests on Punching Shear Strength of Flat Plates Reinforced with Stirrups Punching Shear Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Flat plates are favor structure systems usually used in parking garages and high-rise buildings due to its simplicity for construction. However, flat plates have some inherent structural problems, due to high shear stress surrounding the supporting columns which cause a catastrophic brittle type of failure called "Punching Shear Failure". Several solutions are used to avoid punching shear failure, including the use of drop panels or punching shear reinforcement. The latter is being a more sophisticated solution from the structural ductility, the architectural and the economical point of view. This study aims at investigating the effect of stirrups as shear reinforcement in enhancing the punching strength of interior slab-column connections. A total of four full-scale interior slab-column connections were tested up to failure. All slabs had a side length of 1700 mm and 160 mm thickness with 200 mm x 200 mm square column. The test parameters were the presence of shear reinforcement and stirrups concentration around the supporting column. The test results showed that the distribution of stirrups over the critical punching shear zone was an efficient solution to enhance not only the punching shear capacity but also the ductility of the connection. Furthermore, the concentrating of stirrups shear reinforcement in the vicinity of the column for the tested slabs increases the punching shear capacity by 13 % compared to the uniform distribution at same amount of shear reinforcement.

  19. Uncertainty of pin height measurement for the determination of wear in pin-on-plate test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drago, Nicola; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Poulios, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    machine (CMM), achieving an expanded measurement uncertainty (k = 2) better than 1 mm. A simple dedicated fixture adaptable to workshop environment was developed and its metrological capability investigated, estimating an average uncertainty of measurement in the order of 5 mm (k = 2). Fixture......The paper concerns measurement of pin height for the determination of wear in a pin-on-plate (POP) or pin-on-disc (POD) test, where a pin is mounted on a holder that can be fixed on the test rig and removed for measurements. The amount of wear is assessed as difference of pin height before...... and after the test, using the distance between holder plane and pin friction plane as measurand. A series of measurements were performed in connection with POP testing of different friction material pins mounted on an aluminium holder. Pin height measurements were carried out on a coordinate measuring...

  20. Test and characterization of multigap resistive plate chambers for the EEE project

    CERN Document Server

    Bossini, E

    2016-01-01

    The Extreme Energy Events project is based on the deployment of cosmic-ray telescopes in Italian high schools with the active contribution of students and teachers. Each telescope is made by three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers readout by strips. With around 50 telescopes already built and others under construction, specific systems to test and characterize the chambers are needed. In this article I will present a flexible and software-configurable solution to perform chamber efficiency studies with a set of scintillators and hardware to automatically scan detector strips to identify electrical issues. Both systems can provide accurate information but at the same time they can be easily operated by students.

  1. Test and characterization of multigap resistive plate chambers for the EEE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossini, E.; EEE Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Extreme Energy Events project is based on the deployment of cosmic-ray telescopes in Italian high schools with the active contribution of students and teachers. Each telescope is made by three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers readout by strips. With around 50 telescopes already built and others under construction, specific systems to test and characterize the chambers are needed. In this article I will present a flexible and software-configurable solution to perform chamber efficiency studies with a set of scintillators and hardware to automatically scan detector strips to identify electrical issues. Both systems can provide accurate information but at the same time they can be easily operated by students.

  2. Incorporating quality control activities in scrum in relation to the concept of test backlog

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MUHAMMAD AAMIR; MUHAMMAD NAEEM AHMED KHAN

    2017-07-01

    Scrum has become popular among the agile methodologies due to the substantial support that it provides to the project management teams. The scrum process delivers quick functionality in the form of sprints.Most of the quality assurance and quality control activities are skipped in scrum because of its short lifecycleand due to the absence of a dedicated quality assurance team. The development team pays more attention to delivery of products according to the customer satisfaction, and the parameters used for this type of assessment are the story success criteria and user acceptance testing. Only acceptance testing and integration testing are not sufficient to achieve a quality product. There is still a clamouring need felt to incorporate other quality control activities in scrum to achieve a quality product. In this work, we have made an attempt to implement the quality control activities in the scrum philosophy by introducing the concept of test backlog. The enhanced scrum model provides quality assessment methodology on the basis of frequency of remaining functional bugs. The concept of test backlog proposed in this study aims at implementing state of the art testing process in scrum. A case study was carried out to validate the model, which produced satisfactory results. Besides, we conducted a survey to access the state of the quality control in scrum. The proposed model and case study results are reported herein

  3. Incorporating S-shaped testing-effort functions into NHPP software reliability model with imperfect debugging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiuying Li; Haifeng Li; Minyan Lu

    2015-01-01

    Testing-effort (TE) and imperfect debugging (ID) in the reliability modeling process may further improve the fitting and pre-diction results of software reliability growth models (SRGMs). For describing the S-shaped varying trend of TE increasing rate more accurately, first, two S-shaped testing-effort functions (TEFs), i.e., delayed S-shaped TEF (DS-TEF) and inflected S-shaped TEF (IS-TEF), are proposed. Then these two TEFs are incorporated into various types (exponential-type, delayed S-shaped and in-flected S-shaped) of non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) SRGMs with two forms of ID respectively for obtaining a series of new NHPP SRGMs which consider S-shaped TEFs as wel as ID. Final y these new SRGMs and several comparison NHPP SRGMs are applied into four real failure data-sets respectively for investigating the fitting and prediction power of these new SRGMs. The experimental results show that: (i) the proposed IS-TEF is more suitable and flexible for describing the consumption of TE than the previous TEFs; (i ) incorporating TEFs into the inflected S-shaped NHPP SRGM may be more effective and appropriate compared with the exponential-type and the delayed S-shaped NHPP SRGMs; (i i) the inflected S-shaped NHPP SRGM con-sidering both IS-TEF and ID yields the most accurate fitting and prediction results than the other comparison NHPP SRGMs.

  4. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Souce for System-Level Testing of Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the development of an improved vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source used for characterizing and calibrating remote optical sensors, in situ, throughout their testing period. The original flat plate radiometric source was developed for use by the VIIRS instrument during the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). Following this effort, the FPI has had significant upgrades in order to improve both the radiometric throughput and uniformity. Results of the VIIRS testing with the reconfigured FPI are reported and discussed.

  5. Characterization tests of a new parallel plate ionization chamber for use in electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonato, Fernanda B. C.; Sakuraba, Roberto K.; da Cruz, José Carlos; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2014-11-01

    Linear accelerators with electron beams are used in several Brazilian hospitals. Consequently, there is an increasing demand for parallel-plate ionization chambers, to be utilized for dosimetry of electron beams. In Brazil, the commercial ionization chambers utilized are imported. The ionization chambers have usually a simple construction, using different materials and geometries. A homemade ionization chamber was developed to be used in electron beams of linear accelerator. The ionization chamber body is made of acrylic and the collecting electrode is painted with graphite powder mixed with nail polish. Several tests were applied, and the results showed values better than the limits established by the international recommendations, except for the polarity effect test, but the response of the developed ionization chamber, for this test, is similar in relation to the response of other commercial ionization chambers from the literature.

  6. Fabrication and testing of U-7Mo monolithic plate fuel with Zircaloy cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, E. E.; Robinson, A. B.; Porter, D. L.; Wachs, D. M.; Finlay, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Nuclear fuel designs are being developed to replace highly enriched fuel used in research and test reactors with fuels of low enrichment. In the most challenging cases, U-(7-10 wt%)Mo monolithic plate fuels are proposed. One of the considered designs includes aluminum-alloy cladding, which provides some challenges in fabrication and fuel/cladding interaction during service. Zircaloy cladding, specifically Zry-4, was investigated as an alternative cladding, and development of a fabrication method was performed by researchers with the Comisión Nacionalde Energia Atómica (CNEA) in Argentina, resulting in test fuel plates (Zry-4 clad U-7Mo) which were subsequently tested in the Advanced Test Reactor in Idaho. Because Zry-4 and U-(7-10)Mo have similar high-temperature mechanical properties, fabrication was simplified in that the fuel foil and cladding could be co-rolled and bonded. The challenge was to prevent a thermal-expansion mismatch, which could destroy the fuel/cladding bond before complete bonding was achieved; the solution was to prevent the composites from cooling significantly during or between roll passes. The final product performed very well in-reactor, showing good bonding, very little fuel/cladding interaction-either from fabrication or in-reactor testing-and little swelling, especially no detectable heterogeneous bubble formation at the fuel/cladding interface tested to a fission density of up to 2.7E+21 (average) fissions/cm3, 3.8E+21 (peak).

  7. Determining the fibrillar orientation of bast fibres with polarized light microscopy: the modified Herzog test (red plate test) explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, E; Holst, B

    2013-11-01

    The identification of bast fibre samples, in particular, bast fibres used in textiles, is an important issue in archaeology, criminology and other scientific fields. One of the characteristic features of bast fibres is their fibrillar orientation, referred to as Z- or S twist (or alternatively right- and left-handed fibres). An empirical test for determining the fibrillar orientation using polarized light microscopy has been known in the community for many years. It is referred to as the modified Herzog test or red plate test. The test has the reputation for never producing false results, but also for occasionally not working. However, so far, no proper justification has been provided in the literature that the 'no false results' assumption is really correct and it has also not been clear up till now, why the method sometimes does not work. In this paper, we present an analytical model for the modified Herzog test, which explains why the test never gives a false result. We also provide an explanation for why the Herzog test sometimes does not work: According to our model, the Herzog test will not work if none of the three distinct layers in the secondary cell wall is significantly thicker than the others.

  8. Determining the fibrillar orientation of bast fibres with polarized light microscopy: the modified Herzog test (red plate test) explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAUGAN, E; HOLST, B

    2013-01-01

    The identification of bast fibre samples, in particular, bast fibres used in textiles, is an important issue in archaeology, criminology and other scientific fields. One of the characteristic features of bast fibres is their fibrillar orientation, referred to as Z- or S twist (or alternatively right- and left-handed fibres). An empirical test for determining the fibrillar orientation using polarized light microscopy has been known in the community for many years. It is referred to as the modified Herzog test or red plate test. The test has the reputation for never producing false results, but also for occasionally not working. However, so far, no proper justification has been provided in the literature that the ‘no false results’ assumption is really correct and it has also not been clear up till now, why the method sometimes does not work. In this paper, we present an analytical model for the modified Herzog test, which explains why the test never gives a false result. We also provide an explanation for why the Herzog test sometimes does not work: According to our model, the Herzog test will not work if none of the three distinct layers in the secondary cell wall is significantly thicker than the others. PMID:24020614

  9. Design, construction and testing of a liquid-heating flat-plate solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, R E

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to design, construct, and test a liquid-heating flat-plate solar collector. From the literature search, information was gathered concerning the basic components of the collector, the different processes and materials that can be used in the construction of these components, and their advantages and disadvantages. The literature search also revealed a method used to measure the performance of the collector in terms of efficiency and heat output. Design considerations were then listed for each of the major components as well as the collector as a single unit. Then, each component was designed, taking into consideration the final assembly of the completed unit. Detailed designs were required for the absorber plate and the box and frame assembly because of their complexity in construction and assembly. Once the components were designed, the construction details were arranged in a logical sequence, again considering the final assembly of the unit. The collector was then carefully constructed and assembled following the design details. After the solar collector was assembled completely, tests were made, data were obtained and recorded, and a collector performance curve was developed.

  10. An Intelligent Tap Test as AN Inspection Tool for Corrosion in Chequer Plate Floors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. M.; Smith, J. W.

    2002-11-01

    The "coin-tap" test has the ability to indicate damage in a structural element due to a localized change of stiffness or damping. The change in vibration signature may be detected by ear or more precisely by measurement of the dynamic contact force. A method for discriminating between measurements made on sound and damaged structures is presented. An unsupervised neural network algorithm is used for recognizing the differences between contact force patterns. The method is used for non-destructive inspection of corrosion damage to steel chequer plate floors in industrial buildings. It is shown that the intelligent tap test is a useful and practical diagnostic tool for detecting localized damage in structures.

  11. More Than Just Accuracy: A Novel Method to Incorporate Multiple Test Attributes in Evaluating Diagnostic Tests Including Point of Care Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Weigl, Bernhard; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Ide, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Current frameworks for evaluating diagnostic tests are constrained by a focus on diagnostic accuracy, and assume that all aspects of the testing process and test attributes are discrete and equally important. Determining the balance between the benefits and harms associated with new or existing tests has been overlooked. Yet, this is critically important information for stakeholders involved in developing, testing, and implementing tests. This is particularly important for point of care tests (POCTs) where tradeoffs exist between numerous aspects of the testing process and test attributes. We developed a new model that multiple stakeholders (e.g., clinicians, patients, researchers, test developers, industry, regulators, and health care funders) can use to visualize the multiple attributes of tests, the interactions that occur between these attributes, and their impacts on health outcomes. We use multiple examples to illustrate interactions between test attributes (test availability, test experience, and test results) and outcomes, including several POCTs. The model could be used to prioritize research and development efforts, and inform regulatory submissions for new diagnostics. It could potentially provide a way to incorporate the relative weights that various subgroups or clinical settings might place on different test attributes. Our model provides a novel way that multiple stakeholders can use to visualize test attributes, their interactions, and impacts on individual and population outcomes. We anticipate that this will facilitate more informed decision making around diagnostic tests.

  12. Evaluation of glycerin as preserving agent of chicken serum for plate agglutination test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES de Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum is widely used for the purpose of monitoring and diagnosis support for most of poultry diseases. In the case of the serum plate agglutination test (SPA, commonly used to detect antibodies for Salmonella Pullorum (SP, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS, serum cannot be frozen because it may result in false positive. Without freezing, serum can last only for a few days. In this experiment, glycerin was evaluated as a serum preservering agent. About 50 samples for each disease and analyzed by SPA test previously were separated. Glycerin was added to serum from commercial chickens, with and without antibodies for SP, MG and MS, in the proportion of 1:1 (serum:glycerin and kept at refrigerated conditions (2 to 8 ºC. For four years they were tested by the SPA, initially weekly, afterward monthly and then annually. The results show that serum with glycerin give consistent and valid results according to the kind of antibodies present for the period tested. Sera that glycerin was not added to, the results were valid only for the first week. From the second week on, microbial growth affected the test results of the sera without glycerin. Our investigation shows that glycerin can be used to preserve chicken serum for SPA under refrigerated conditions. It is an easy, simple and cheap procedure that can extend serum shelf life, useful mainly for control sera.

  13. A diagnostic model incorporating P50 sensory gating and neuropsychological tests for schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Chi Shan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Endophenotypes in schizophrenia research is a contemporary approach to studying this heterogeneous mental illness, and several candidate neurophysiological markers (e.g. P50 sensory gating and neuropsychological tests (e.g. Continuous Performance Test (CPT and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST have been proposed. However, the clinical utility of a single marker appears to be limited. In the present study, we aimed to construct a diagnostic model incorporating P50 sensory gating with other neuropsychological tests in order to improve the clinical utility. METHODS: We recruited clinically stable outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria of schizophrenia and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Participants underwent P50 sensory gating experimental sessions and batteries of neuropsychological tests, including CPT, WCST and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III. RESULTS: A total of 106 schizophrenia patients and 74 healthy controls were enrolled. Compared with healthy controls, the patient group had significantly a larger S2 amplitude, and thus poorer P50 gating ratio (gating ratio = S2/S1. In addition, schizophrenia patients had a poorer performance on neuropsychological tests. We then developed a diagnostic model by using multivariable logistic regression analysis to differentiate patients from healthy controls. The final model included the following covariates: abnormal P50 gating (defined as P50 gating ratio >0.4, three subscales derived from the WAIS-III (Arithmetic, Block Design, and Performance IQ, sensitivity index from CPT and smoking status. This model had an adequate accuracy (concordant percentage = 90.4%; c-statistic = 0.904; Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness-of-Fit Test, p = 0.64>0.05. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest study to date using P50 sensory gating in subjects of Chinese ethnicity and the first to use P50 sensory gating along with other neuropsychological tests

  14. Evaluation of protective ensemble thermal characteristics through sweating hot plate, sweating thermal manikin, and human tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Powell, Jeffery B; Roberge, Raymond J; Shepherd, Angie; Coca, Aitor

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive capability of fabric Total Heat Loss (THL) values on thermal stress that Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) ensemble wearers may encounter while performing work. A series of three tests, consisting of the Sweating Hot Plate (SHP) test on two sample fabrics and the Sweating Thermal Manikin (STM) and human performance tests on two single-layer encapsulating ensembles (fabric/ensemble A = low THL and B = high THL), was conducted to compare THL values between SHP and STM methods along with human thermophysiological responses to wearing the ensembles. In human testing, ten male subjects performed a treadmill exercise at 4.8 km and 3% incline for 60 min in two environmental conditions (mild = 22°C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and hot/humid = 35°C, 65% RH). The thermal and evaporative resistances were significantly higher on a fabric level as measured in the SHP test than on the ensemble level as measured in the STM test. Consequently the THL values were also significantly different for both fabric types (SHP vs. STM: 191.3 vs. 81.5 W/m(2) in fabric/ensemble A, and 909.3 vs. 149.9 W/m(2) in fabric/ensemble B (p values are significantly different from the actual THL potential of the PPE ensemble tested on STM, (2) physiological benefits from wearing a more breathable PPE ensemble may not be feasible with incremental THL values (SHP test) less than approximately 150-200 W·m(2), and (3) the effects of thermal environments on a level of heat stress in PPE ensemble wearers are greater than ensemble thermal characteristics.

  15. Simple solutions to false results with plate/slide agglutination tests in diagnosis of infectious diseases of man and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Hari Mohan; Chothe, Shubhada; Kaur, Paviter

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a new Superagglutination test for serodiagnosis of infectious diseases. It differs from conventional plate/slide agglutination tests (PAT/SAT) by three additional steps: prior staining of serum antibody by adding a dye and addition of diluted biotinylated antiglobulin and avidin in sequence after mixing the antigen with the test serum. The new steps circumvent the problems of false positive and false negative results of PAT/SAT. In serodiagnosis of brucellosis, Superagglutination test had higher positive predictive value and specificity than Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT) and higher negative predictive value and sensitivity than RBPT, STAT, ELISA and Complement Fixation Test (CFT).•Superagglutination is a simple, accurate and economic screening test for infections.•More specificity, sensitivity, positive & negative predictive value than RBPT, STAT.•More sensitivity, negative predictive value than ELISA and Complement Fixation Test.

  16. Direct tests of a pixelated microchannel plate as the active element of a shower maximum detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apresyan, A.; Los, S.; Pena, C.; Presutti, F.; Ronzhin, A.; Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S.

    2016-08-01

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We report our studies of microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCPs) as the active element of a shower-maximum detector. We present test beam results obtained using Photonis XP85011 to detect secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. We focus on the use of the multiple pixels on the Photonis MCP in order to find a transverse two-dimensional shower distribution. A spatial resolution of 0.8 mm was obtained with an 8 GeV electron beam. A method for measuring the arrival time resolution for electromagnetic showers is presented, and we show that time resolution better than 40 ps can be achieved.

  17. Testing micro-channel plate detectors for the particle identification upgrade of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo Garcia, L

    2012-01-01

    The TORCH, Time of internally Reflected Cherenkov Light, is proposed for the high luminosity upgrade of the LHCb experiment. The detector combines Time-of-Flight and Cherenkov techniques to achieve positive pi/K/p separation on a >= 3 sigma level in the momentum range below 10 GeV/c. The required time resolution is <= 50 ps for single photon signal. In a preliminary R\\&D phase, we have shown that already commercially available micro-channel plate tubes with 8 x 8 channels fulfil the requirements. Timing properties of the tubes have been investigated with a pulsed laser diode in single photon regime. Key results from these laboratory tests are reported. An excellent timing resolution of <40 ps is achieved with an efficiency of similar to 90\\%. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct tests of a pixelated microchannel plate as the active element of a shower maximum detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apresyan, A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Los, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Pena, C.; Presutti, F. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Ronzhin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-08-21

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We report our studies of microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCPs) as the active element of a shower-maximum detector. We present test beam results obtained using Photonis XP85011 to detect secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. We focus on the use of the multiple pixels on the Photonis MCP in order to find a transverse two-dimensional shower distribution. A spatial resolution of 0.8 mm was obtained with an 8 GeV electron beam. A method for measuring the arrival time resolution for electromagnetic showers is presented, and we show that time resolution better than 40 ps can be achieved.

  19. Conclusions and recommendations for the testing of flat-plate solar collector thermal performance and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waksman, D.; Thomas, W. C.

    1984-12-01

    The results of studies, by the National Bureau of Standards, of the reliability and durability of eight different types of flat plate solar collectors representative of equipment available in 1977 are reported. The installations were made in four sites believed to typify various U.S. climates. The stability of the thermal performance and material properties was tracked, and measured again after moving the units inside for exposure to artificial sunlight. The stagnation measurement techniques employed to evaluate the collectors were judged adequate, provided the tests are made on-site and out of doors. It is noted that the instrumentation used to gather sufficient data for valid analyses may experience performance decrements due to the necessarily long monitoring intervals, i.e., several years.

  20. An investigation of the typical corrosion parameters used to test polymer electrolyte fuel cell bipolar plate coatings, with titanium nitride coated stainless steel as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, A.; Kongstein, O. E.; Hamilton, P. J.; Oedegaard, A.; Svenum, I. H.; Cooke, K.

    2015-07-01

    Stainless steel bipolar plates (BPP) for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have good manufacturability, durability and low costs, but inadequate corrosion resistance and elevated interfacial contact resistance (ICR) in the fuel cell environment. Thin film coatings of titanium nitride (TiN) of 1 μm in thickness, were deposited by means of physical vapour deposition (PVD) process on to stainless steel (SS) 316L substrates and were evaluated, in a series of tests, for their level of corrosion protection and ICR. In the ex-situ corrosion tests, variables such as applied potential, experimental duration and pH of the sulphate electrolyte at 80 °C were altered. The ICR values were found to increase after exposure to greater applied potentials and electrolytes of a higher pH. In terms of experimental duration, the ICR increased most rapidly at the beginning of each experiment. It was also found that the oxidation of TiN was accelerated after exposure to electrolytes of a higher pH. When coated BPPs were incorporated into an accelerated fuel cell test, the degradation of the fuel cell cathode resembled the plates that were tested at the highest anodic potential (1.4 VSHE).

  1. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy - A flat-plate copper collector with parallel mylar striping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are reported for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in a solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  2. Design and testing of a fluorescence glucose sensor which incorporates a bioinductive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H C; Ahmed, J

    2004-01-01

    One main hurdle in the development of implantable biosensors is that their lifetime is limited by scar tissue formation around the implant. One way to ameliorate this issue would be to use a bioinductive coating to allow normal tissue ingrowth around the sensor. Here, we report design, development and in vitro testing of a prototype fluorescence-based glucose sensor that incorporates a bioinductive material at its tip. Glucose is sensed via a fluorescence-based assay system (Amplex reagent) which is confined to a small chamber separated from the bulk glucose solution by a semipermeable membrane. Excitation is provided by a 530 nm laser, while the emitted light is detected by a photomultiplier tube. In vitro testing of this prototype was done in the presence and absence of a bioinductive material covering the membrane at the sensor/solution interface. In response to a step change in glucose concentration, the output of the sensor increased linearly over time due to accumulation of fluorescent marker molecules as glucose diffused into the recording chamber. The slope of this response increased linearly with increasing glucose concentration, with a sensitivity if 2.1 x 10(-4) V/min per ml glucose/dl solution. The presence of the bioinductive layer did not alter the function of the sensor at the lowest glucose concentrations tested, although responses to higher concentrations saturated, presumably because of depletion of the Amplex reagent within the chamber. In summary, we report that the use of a bioinductive material in an implantable biosensor does not appreciably alter sensor function.

  3. A pulse-shaping technique to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials subjected to plate-impact tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forquin, Pascal; Zinszner, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Owing to their significant hardness and compressive strengths, ceramic materials are widely employed for use with protective systems subjected to high-velocity impact loadings. Therefore, their mechanical behaviour along with damage mechanisms need to be significantly investigated as a function of loading rates. However, the classical plate-impact testing procedures produce shock loadings in the brittle sample material which cause unrealistic levels of loading rates. Additionally, high-pulsed power techniques and/or functionally graded materials used as flyer plates to smooth the loading pulse remain costly, and are generally difficult to implement. In this study, a shockless plate-impact technique based on the use of either a wavy-machined flyer plate or buffer plate that can be produced by chip-forming is proposed. A series of numerical simulations using an explicit transient dynamic finite-element code have been performed to design and validate the experimental testing configuration. The calculations, conducted in two-dimensional (2D) plane-strain or in 2D axisymmetric modes, prove that the `wavy' contact surface will produce a pulse-shaping effect, whereas the buffer plate will produce a homogenizing effect of the stress field along the transverse direction of the sample. In addition, `wavy-shape' geometries of different sizes provide an easy way to change the level of loading rate and rise time in an experimentally tested ceramic specimen. Finally, when a shockless compression loading method is applied to the sample, a Lagrangian analysis of data is made possible by considering an assemblage of ceramic plates of different thicknesses in the target, so the axial stress-strain response of the brittle sample material can be provided. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  4. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-11-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fail apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  5. Evaluation of Electroless-Nickel Plated Polypropylene under Thermal Cycling and Mechanical Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Ajibola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The electroless-nickel composite (ENC consisting of bright metallic electroless-nickel (EN and dull electroless-nickel-phosphorus (EN-P were deposited on the polypropylene (PP substrate from the sodium hypophosphite baths. The ENC plated specimens were subjected to abrasive wear-adhesion test of 1750, 3500, 7000 and 14000 cycles; thermal cycle-adhesion tests, and tensile strength and creep tests. The deposition of ENC influenced the strength and creep strain properties of the PP. The maximum stress σ of 118 (MPa was obtained from EN-PP specimen at strain  of 0.1 mm/mm as compared with the PP having stress σ of 36 (MPa at strain  of 0.07 mm/mm before failure The surface appearances and microstructures of ENC film on PP substrates were examined under the higher resolution metallurgical microscope with digital camera and microscopic camera. The composition of ENC film was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses (Jeol JSM-7600F Field Emission SEM/EDX, The micrographs and spectra lines data generated were used to interpret the results.

  6. Bearing Capacity of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE Reinforced Sand Using Plate Load Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Aly K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here is a study to examine the improvement in bearing capacity of coastal sand of Trivandrum, Kerala, India using high density polyethylene (HDPE /woven fabric as reinforcement in discrete layers. The bearing capacity was evaluated using plate load test. The effect of reinforcement configurations like sheet reinforcement (sanded with adhesive, with adhesive and sheet alone and strip reinforcement (single and grid pattern are investigated. The test parameters chosen for the present study are, depth of topmost layer of reinforcement layer below footing, compacted density and number of layers of reinforcement etc. From the tests, it has been observed that sheet reinforcement is more effective than sheet sanded with adhesive and strip reinforcements. It is found that the synthetic adhesive gives no binding action at the interface of the reinforcement and soil. But it is to be noted that the sheet with adhesive dried has a marked influence on the bearing capacity especially at lower densities. The strip reinforcements in single pattern is considered to be a favorable choice for minimum reinforcement. The strip reinforcement in single or grid pattern gives sufficient improvement in strength.

  7. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fail apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  8. Complete Initial Scoping Tests on the Incorporation of Novel Loaded Iodine Getters into GCM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garino, Terry J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Croes, Kenneth James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-18

    This study encompasses initial scoping tests on the incorporation of a novel iodine loaded getter material into the Sandia developed low temperature sintering glass ceramic material (GCM) waste form. In particular, we studied the PNNL Ag-I-Aerogel. Optical microscopy indicates inhomogenous samples based on particle sizes and variations in color (AgI vs Ag/AgO on silica). TGA/MS data when heated in air indicates loss of iodine and organics (CO2) between 250-450°C a total of ~15wt% loss, with additional / small iodine loss when during 550°C hold for 1 hr. TGA/MS data when heated in N2 indicates less organic and slightly less iodine loss below 550°C, with no loss of iodine in 550°C 1 hour hold. Furthermore, a substantial mass loss of sulfur containing compounds is observed (m/e of 34 and 36) between 150 – 550°C in both air and N2 sintering atmospheres. In an effort to capture iodine lost to volatilization during heating (at temps below glass sintering temperature of 550°C), we added 5 wt% Ag flake to the AgIaerogel. Resulting data indicates the iodine is retained with the addition of the Ag flake, resulting in only a small iodine loss (< 1wt%) at ~350°C. No method of curtailing loss of sulfur containing compounds due to heating was successful in this scoping study.

  9. Are Teacher Perspectives Useful? Incorporating EFL Teacher Feedback in the Development of a Large-Scale International English Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Youngsoon

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study incorporating English teachers' perspectives into the development of a large-scale international English assessment, the recently developed "TOEFL Junior"® Comprehensive test. It discusses how stakeholder feedback gathered during test development supports the validity argument for score…

  10. The study of fix composite panel and steel plates on testing stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, A.; Płaczek, M.; Wachna, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the practical possibilities of strength verification analysis of composite materials used in the manufacture of selected components of railway wagons are presented. Real laboratory stand for measurements in a scale controlled by PLC controller were made. The study of different types of connections of composite materials with sheet metal is presented. In one of the chapter of this paper principles construction of testing stand with pneumatic cylinder were presented. Mainly checking of displacements and stresses generated on the sheet as a result of pneumatic actuators load for composite boards was carried out. The use of the controller with operating panel allows to easy programming testing cycle. The user can define the force generated by the actuator by change of air pressure in cylinder. Additionally the location of acting cylinders and their jump can be changed by operator. The examination of the volume displacements was done by displacement sensor, and the tensile strain gauge. All parameters are written in CatmanEasy - data acquisition software. This article presents the study of stresses and displacements in the composite plates joined with sheet metal, in summary of this article, the authors compare the obtained results with the computer simulation results in the article: "Simulation of stresses in an innovative combination of composite with sheet".

  11. A study of ground-structure interaction in dynamic plate load testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzina, Bojan B.; Nintcheu Fata, Sylvain

    2002-10-01

    A mathematical treatment is presented for the forced vertical vibration of a padded annular footing on a layered viscoelastic half-space. On assuming a depth-independent stress distribution for the interfacial buffer, the set of triple integral equations stemming from the problem is reduced to a Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. The solution method, which is tailored to capture the stress concentrations beneath footing edges, is highlighted. To cater to small-scale geophysical applications, the model is used to investigate the near-field effects of ground-loading system interaction in dynamic geotechnical and pavement testing. Numerical results indicate that the uniform-pressure assumption for the contact load between the composite disc and the ground which is customary in dynamic plate load testing may lead to significant errors in the diagnosis of subsurface soil and pavement conditions. Beyond its direct application to non-intrusive site characterization, the proposed solution can be used in the seismic analysis of a variety of structures involving annular foundation geometries.

  12. Analysis and seismic tests of composite shear walls with CFST columns and steel plate deep beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Jianwei; Xu, Fangfang

    2013-12-01

    A composite shear wall concept based on concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns and steel plate (SP) deep beams is proposed and examined in this study. The new wall is composed of three different energy dissipation elements: CFST columns; SP deep beams; and reinforced concrete (RC) strips. The RC strips are intended to allow the core structural elements — the CFST columns and SP deep beams — to work as a single structure to consume energy. Six specimens of different configurations were tested under cyclic loading. The resulting data are analyzed herein. In addition, numerical simulations of the stress and damage processes for each specimen were carried out, and simulations were completed for a range of location and span-height ratio variations for the SP beams. The simulations show good agreement with the test results. The core structure exhibits a ductile yielding mechanism characteristic of strong column-weak beam structures, hysteretic curves are plump and the composite shear wall exhibits several seismic defense lines. The deformation of the shear wall specimens with encased CFST column and SP deep beam design appears to be closer to that of entire shear walls. Establishing optimal design parameters for the configuration of SP deep beams is pivotal to the best seismic behavior of the wall. The new composite shear wall is therefore suitable for use in the seismic design of building structures.

  13. Preparation, Characterization and Tests of Incorporation in Stem Cells of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, P. S.; Britos, T. N.; Li, L. M.; Li, L. D. S.

    2015-05-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been produced and used as contrast-enhancing agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnostic use in a wide range of maladies including cardiovascular, neurological disorders, and cancer. The reasons why these SPIONs are attractive for medical purposes are based on their important and unique features. The large surface area of the nanoparticles and their manipulation through an external magnetic field are features that allow their use for carrying a large number of molecules such as biomolecules or drugs. In this scenario, the present work reports on the synthesis and characterization of SPIONs and in vitro MRI experiments to increase their capacity as probes for MRI applications on stem cells therapy. Initially, the SPIONs were prepared through the co-precipitation method using ferrous and ferric chlorides in acidic solution. The SPIONs were coated with two thiolmolecules such as mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) and cysteine (Cys) (molar ratio SPIONs:ligand = 1:20), leading to the formation of a stable aqueous dispersion of thiolated nanoparticles (SH-SPIONs). The SH-SPIONs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results showed that the SH-SPIONs have a mean diameter of 14 nm and display superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. Preliminary tests of incorporation of SH-SPIONs were evaluated stem cells. The results showed that the thiolated nanoparticles have no toxic effects for stem cells and successfully internalized and enhance the contrast in MRI.

  14. HV Test of the CTS Edgeless Silicon Detector in Vacuum and Close to a Grounded Plate

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, Vladimir; Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2007-01-01

    The TOTEM Roman Pot Silicon sensors will be operated in vacuum to minimise the mechanical stress of the thin metal window which separates the detector package from the ultra high vacuum of the beam. To approach the beam axis as close as possible the detectors will be mounted with their edge at a distance of the order 100 - 200 um from the thin metal window. As the detectors will be run in overdepletion mode to allow the full charge collection within the shaping time of the readout electronics, there will be a potential drop of more than 100 V across their edge. Moreover this potential drop might need to be further increased with the accumulated radiation dose. The main goals of the tests described in this note are: - Characterisation of the voltage-current characteristics when the detector edge is in the direct vicinity of a grounded metal plate which simulates the above mentioned vacuum window; - Demonstration of the detector operation in vacuum at different pressures.

  15. Testing Absolute Plate Reference Frames and the Implications for the Generation of Geodynamic Mantle Heterogeneity Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, G. E.; Bunge, H.; Schuberth, B. S.; Müller, D.; Talsma, A.; Moder, C.

    2010-12-01

    Several absolute reference frames for Cretaceous-Tertiary plate tectonic reconstructions have been proposed over the last decade. They include reference frames based on hotspot tracks displaying age progression, and assuming either fixed or moving hotspots, as well as palaeomagnetically-based reference frames, a subduction reference frame and hybrid reference frames. All these alternative reference frames imply a particular history of the location of subduction zones through time, the associated subduction history, and the evolution of mantle heterogeneity via the mixing of subducted slab material with the mantle. Therefore it is possible to evaluate the observed distribution of subducted slab material in the mantle versus that predicted by a forward geodynamic model in which the plate kinematic history given by a particular absolute plate is coupled with a mantle convection model. We present a comparison of five alternative absolute plate motion models in terms of their consequences for global deep mantle structure by utilizing the 3-D spherical finite element mantle convection code TERRA, coupled with the global plate tectonic reconstruction software GPlates. We impose global palaeo-plate boundaries and plate velocities back to 140 Ma as surface boundary conditions for each absolute rotation model and forward model the associated subduction history. The correlation of seismic tomography with the predicted present-day mantle structure from each of plate models is then assessed using well-imaged slabs. We will present and discuss a comparison of geodynamically predicted mantle heterogeneity and seismic tomography to infer the robustness of each absolute reference frame through time, thus providing additional constraints for the integration of plate tectonics and mantle dynamics.

  16. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum antibody by ELISA and serum plate agglutination test of laying chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zulfekar Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG is important avian pathogen responsible for chronic respiratory disease of chicken and turkeys, which result in large economic loss for the poultry industry. The objectives of this study were determination of seroprevalence of MG antibody of commercial layer chicken at laying period in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 563 blood samples were collected randomly from selected commercial layer chickens at laying period during the period from July to December, 2013. Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA and serum plate agglutination (SPA test were performed to detect the presence of antibodies against MG. Results: Of 563 samples, 64.47% and 56.13% showed an overall prevalence of MG antibodies in iELISA and SPA test respectively. Prevalence of MG was recorded the highest (69.63% at 50-55 weeks of age compared with lowest (53.26% at 56-61 weeks of age (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.05 effect of breed were observed in the seroprevalence of MG infection in layer birds in the present study. The overall, 68.77%, 63.74% and 59.37% prevalence were found respectively in sonali, ISA Brown and White leg horn. The prevalence of MG antibodies was the highest (70.13% in December followed by November (68%, October (65.67%, August (63.46%, September (58.54% and July (51.78% month. The seroprevalence of MG antibodies was higher (69.63% in most of the large flocks and lower (56.82% in small flocks. Conclusion: Therefore, might be suggested that the commercial layer farms should be routinely checked to monitor MG infection and the reactor birds should be culled since MG organism has the potential to transmit vertically. The correlation between MG antibody in month and flock size was not significant (p=0.359 and p=0.868, respectively.

  17. Incorporation of vertical permeability test results in vertical miscible flood design and operation. Vol. 83-34-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillund, G.N.; Kamal, M.

    1983-01-01

    The original analysis of the Bigoray Nisku B miscible flood indicated potential coning problems related to the level of vertical permeability. This paper presents the results of a vertical permeability test which were incorporated into a coning study. Additional reservoir data along with the rate information from the coning study will be used to revise the original reservoir simulation prediction and depletion strategy.

  18. Test and evaluation of Fern Engineering Company, Incorporated, solar heating and hot water system. [structural design criteria and system effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Tests, test results, examination and evaluation by Underwriters Laboratory, Inc., of a single family solar heating and hot water system consisting of collector, storage, control, transport, and data acquisition are presented. The structural characteristics of the solar flat plate collectors were evaluated according to snow and wind loads indicated in various building codes to determine their suitability for use both Michigan and Pennsylvania where prototype systems were installed. The flame spread classification of the thermal insulation is discussed and the fire tests conducted on components are described. The operation and dielectrics withstand tests of the energy transport module indicate the module is capable of rated air delivery. Tests of the control panel indicate the relay coil temperatures exceed the temperature limits allowed for the insulating materials involved.

  19. Development of a Titanium Plate for Mandibular Angle Fractures with a Bone Defect in the Lower Border: Finite Element Analysis and Mechanical Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rangel Goulart

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to develop a plate to treat mandibular angle fractures using the finite element method and mechanical testing. Material and Methods: A three-dimensional model of a fractured mandible was generated using Rhinoceros 4.0 software. The models were exported to ANSYS®, in which a static application of displacement (3 mm was performed in the first molar region. Three groups were assessed according to the method of internal fixation (2 mm system: two non-locking plates; two locking plates and a new design locking plate. The computational model was transferred to an in vitro experiment with polyurethane mandibles. Each group contained five samples and was subjected to a linear loading test in a universal testing machine. Results: A balanced distribution of stress was associated with the new plate design. This plate modified the mechanical behavior of the fractured region, with less displacement between the fractured segments. In the mechanical test, the group with two locking plates exhibited greater resistance to the 3 mm displacement, with a statistically significant difference when compared with the new plate group (ANOVA, P = 0.016. Conclusions: The new plate exhibited a more balanced distribution of stress. However, the group with two locking plates exhibited greater mechanical resistance.

  20. The Study of Analgesic Effects of Leonurus cardiaca L. in Mice by Formalin, Tail Flick and Hot Plate Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee-Asl, Masoume; Sabour, Mandana; Nikoui, Vahid; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Bakhtiarian, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Leonurus cardiaca, commonly known as motherwort, is a member of the Lamiaceae family. It has a number of interesting biological activities, for example, sedative and hypotensive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of alcoholic extract of aerial part of Leonurus cardiaca on nociceptive response using formalin, tail flick, and hot plate tests in mice. The acute treatment of mice with an ethanolic extract at doses of 500 and 250 mg/kg by intraperitoneal administration produced a significant antinociceptive in the first and second phases of formalin test, respectively. The hot plate and tail flick tests showed an increase in the antinociceptive effect at dose 500 mg/kg. These results suggest that Leonurus cardiaca possesses central and peripheral antinociceptive actions.

  1. Standard Test Method for Water Penetration of Flat Plate Solar Collectors by Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1986-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the resistance of flat plate solar collectors to water penetration when water is applied to their outer surfaces with a static air pressure at the outer surface higher than the pressure at the interior of the collector. 1.2 This test method is applicable to any flat plate solar collector. 1.3 The proper use of this test method requires a knowledge of the principles of pressure and deflection measurement. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary information is contained in Section 6.

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EFFICACY OF ROSE BENGAL PLATE TEST (I{BPT AND SERUM AGGLUTINATION TEST (SAT FOR DETECTING THE INCIDENE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN BUFFALOES (Bubolus bubolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Ali Zahid, Ishtiaq Ahmad and Umer Hayat

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT were applied for the diagnosis of brucellosis in 240 buffaloes maintained at organized livestock farms in Punjab, to measure their comparative efficacy. Based on RBPT and SAT, 11.25 (n=27 and 10.42 percent (n=25 buffaloes were found seropositive, 11.67 (n 28 and 4.58 percent (n= 11 animals showed doubtful results, while 77.08 (n= 185 and 85 percept (n= 204 animals were found seronegative, respectively. Rose Bengal Plate Test detected higher percentages of seropositive, doubtful and seronegative cases than those detected by Serum Agglutination Test, which showed lower percentages or seropositive, doubtful and seronegative cases. This study indicated that SAT is more sensitive and reliable diagnostic test for the detection of Brucella aborlus, antibodies in buffaloes.

  3. DEM analyses of the whole failure process of shallow foundation in plate load test on dense sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Jiang, M. J.; Li, T.; Chen, S. L.

    2015-09-01

    Shallow foundations are widely used in civil engineering practice, but the instability mechanism is still unclear yet. Previously, the Finite Element Method (FEM) was commonly used to analyze the failure process of shallow foundations, but it meets difficulty in properly simulating the whole failure process of shallow foundation on the strain-softening material. Hence, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) is employed in this paper to study the instability mechanism of the shallow foundation via numerical plate load test with focus on the microscopic features evolution during vertical loading. In the simulation, an amplified gravity was applied to a dense granular ground to reproduce a gravity stress state at a large scale. Then, a plate was put on the granular ground to simulate the plate load test. Deformation pattern, particle velocity and distribution of void ratio in the ground were examined to illustrate the microscopic features in the whole failure process of the granular ground. The results show that: 1) There are a marked peak value and a settlement softening branch in the stress-settlement relationship. 2) The grids close to the edge of the plate are peculiarly extended and twisted. 3) Four particle motion patterns were observed in the velocity fields and the percentage of each motion pattern changes during loading. 4) The void ratio field varies during loading, and the distinguishing interface tends to be similar to Terzaghi's shear failure surface.

  4. Three-contrast, metal test pattern (Snellen E-plate) in evaluation of imaging techniques in clinical chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, H.

    A metal test pattern based on a minified Snellen-type E-plate was evaluated in testing six imaging techniques for chest radiography. The device consisted of three contrast zones and it was attached to the patient's back over the right lung during chest radiography. The values for visual detectability of the E-figures were compared with the film scores obtained by grading the radiographs with respect to visibility of diagnostically important anatomic details. The test plate proved to be a simple, quick and reproducible tool for testing several imaging techniques at the same time. The E-plate results were similar to those of the visual grading analysis in most respects. A few discrepancies existed, which were probably due to the inability of the test pattern to fully consider the effect of motion unsharpness and varying scattering conditions within the human thorax, as well as to great differences in roentgen ray absorption properties between Au and tissues. (orig.).

  5. Evaluation of plate type fuel elements by eddy current test method; Avaliacao de combustiveis nucleares tipo placa pelo metodo de correntes parasitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frade, Rangel Teixeira

    2015-07-01

    Plate type fuel elements are used in MTR research nuclear reactors. The fuel plates are manufactured by assembling a briquette containing the fissile material inserted in a frame, with metal plates in both sides of the set, to act as a cladding. This set is rolled under controlled conditions in order to obtain the fuel plate. In Brazil, this type of fuel is manufactured by IPEN and used in the IEA-R1 reactor. After fabrication of three batches of fuel plates, 24 plates, one of them is taken, in order to verify the thickness of the cladding. For this purpose, the plate is sectioned and the thickness measurements are carried out by using optical microscopy. This procedure implies in damage of the plate, with the consequent cost. Besides, the process of sample preparation for optical microscopy analysis is time consuming, it is necessary an infrastructure for handling radioactive materials and there is a generation of radioactive residues during the process. The objective of this study was verify the applicability of eddy current test method for nondestructive measurement of cladding thickness in plate type nuclear fuels, enabling the inspection of all manufactured fuel plates. For this purpose, reference standards, representative of the cladding of the fuel plates, were manufactured using thermomechanical processing conditions similar to those used for plates manufacturing. Due to no availability of fuel plates for performing the experiments, the presence of the plate’s core was simulated using materials with different electrical conductivities, fixed to the thickness reference standards. Probes of eddy current testing were designed and manufactured. They showed high sensitivity to thickness variations, being able to separate small thickness changes. The sensitivity was higher in tests performed on the reference standards and samples without the presence of the materials simulating the core. For examination of the cladding with influence of materials simulating the

  6. Detection of plating defects using ultrasonic and eddy current test methods; Nachweis von Plattierungsfehlern mit Ultraschall- und Wirbelstromverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waidele, H.; Knoch, P. [MPA, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany); Gersinska, R. [BfS Salzgitter (Germany); Brenner, W.; Seidenkranz, T. [TUeV Sued (Germany); Csapo, G.; Just, T. [TUeV Nord (Germany); Weiss, R. [IzfP Saarbruecken (Germany); Rathgeb, W. [IntelligeNDT, Erlangen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The validity of ultrasonic and eddy current testing of austenitic platings of reactor pressure vessels was investigated in the context of a project funded by the Federal Radiation Protection Office (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz). In the first phase, test specimens with natural defects were fabricated at MPA Stuttgart; in the second phase, plating defects were introduced in a MPA large-size vessel. Measurements showed that most plating defects will be detected by standard ultrasonic testing. The highest accuracy was achieved by a combination of ultrasonic and eddy current testing. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen eines vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz gefoerderten Vorhabens wurde die Aussagefaehigkeit von Ultraschall- und Wirbelstrompruefungen an austenitischen Plattierungen von Reaktordruckbehaeltern untersucht. In der ersten Phase des Vorhabens wurden an der MPA Stuttgart Testkoerper mit natuerlichen Fehlern im Plattierungsbereich gefertigt, in einer zweiten Phase wurden Plattierungsfehler in den MPA-Grossbehaelter eingebracht. Die Messungen haben gezeigt, dass die meisten Plattierungsfehler mit Ultraschall-Standardprueftechniken nachweisbar sind, wobei die groesste Aussagekraft bei einer Kombination von Ultraschall- und Wirbelstrompruefung gegeben ist. (orig.)

  7. Displacement analysis of a bend plate test with mechanical loading and laser heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, P.S.

    1997-09-01

    The surface displacment of a steel plate caused by a permanent deformation as a result of local yielding was modeled by a finite element analysis. The local yielding occurs when a small area of the plate is heated by a laser beam. The calculated displacments are in good agreement with the preliminary experimental data obtained using a bend specimen with laser heating at the University of Alabama at Huntsville. It has been shown computuationally and optically that the relative displacments are less than 1mm near the laser heated area of the specimen. The results demonstrate that the experimental approach is a feasible technique for determining the residual stress under multiaxial stress field.

  8. Development of eddy current testing probe for thick-walled metal plate and quantitative evaluation of cracks

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, K; Uchimoto, T; Takagi, T

    2003-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the crack detection of thick-walled non-magnetic metal plates by eddy current testing, which is difficult because of Kelvin skin effect generally. The purpose of this research is the development of an new eddy current testing probe for cracks in thick-walled plates and crack shapes quantitative evaluation. The probe was designed, based on the numerical computation using 3D fast eddy current code. The advantages of this new probe are strong eddy current on the back of specimens and gentle decrement of eddy current in the thickness direction. Through experiments, we confirmed that this probe can detect the back artificial defect with 0.5 mm thickness on IN-CONEL 718 specimen with 7.0 mm thickness. Reconstruction of crack shapes was performed based on the experimental results with the inverse problem code developed by authors. The length and depth of reconstructed defects approximately agree with those of real crack. (author)

  9. Standarized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A steel flat-plate collector with two transparent covers and a proprietary coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator are given. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperature and flux level.

  10. Synthesis of Rh/Macro-Porous Alumina Over Micro-Channel Plate and Its Catalytic Activity Tests for Diesel Reforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Yeon Baek; Kim, Yong Sul; Park, No-Kuk; Lee, Tae Jin

    2015-11-01

    Macro-porous Al2O3 as the catalytic support material was synthesized using colloidal polystyrene spheres over a micro-channel plate. The colloidal polystyrene spheres were used as a template for the production of an ordered macro porous material using an alumina nitrate solution as the precursor for Al2O3. The close-packed colloidal crystal array template method was applied to the formulation of ordered macro-porous Al2O3 used as a catalytic support material over a micro-channel plate. The solvent in the mixture solution, which also contained the colloidal polystyrene solution, aluminum nitrate solution and the precursor of the catalytic active materials (Rh), was evaporated in a vacuum oven at 50 degrees C. The ordered polystyrene spheres and aluminum salt of the solid state were deposited over a micro channel plate, and macro-porous Al2O3 was formed after calcination at 600 degrees C to remove the polystyrene spheres. The catalytic activity of the Rh/macro-porous alumina supported over the micro-channel plate was tested for diesel reforming.

  11. Requirements and testing methods for surfaces of metallic bipolar plates for low-temperature PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendras, P.; Lötsch, K.; von Unwerth, T.

    2017-03-01

    To reduce emissions and to substitute combustion engines automotive manufacturers, legislature and first users aspire hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Up to now the focus of research was set on ensuring functionality and increasing durability of fuel cell components. Therefore, expensive materials were used. Contemporary research and development try to substitute these substances by more cost-effective material combinations. The bipolar plate is a key component with the greatest influence on volume and mass of a fuel cell stack and they have to meet complex requirements. They support bending sensitive components of stack, spread reactants over active cell area and form the electrical contact to another cell. Furthermore, bipolar plates dissipate heat of reaction and separate one cell gastight from the other. Consequently, they need a low interfacial contact resistance (ICR) to the gas diffusion layer, high flexural strength, good thermal conductivity and a high durability. To reduce costs stainless steel is a favoured material for bipolar plates in automotive applications. Steel is characterized by good electrical and thermal conductivity but the acid environment requires a high chemical durability against corrosion as well. On the one hand formation of a passivating oxide layer increasing ICR should be inhibited. On the other hand pitting corrosion leading to increased permeation rate may not occur. Therefore, a suitable substrate lamination combination is wanted. In this study material testing methods for bipolar plates are considered.

  12. Usability testing of e-learning: an approach incorporating co-discovery and think-aloud

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebesin, TF

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available . This paper presents the application and refinement of the framework for usability testing of interactive e-learning applications proposed by Masemola & de Villiers. In a pioneering usability testing study, researchers investigate the effectiveness...

  13. Multifunctional polymeric nanocomposites fabricated by incorporation of exfoliated graphene nanoplatelets and their application in bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xian

    The focus of this research is to investigate the potential of using exfoliated graphene nanoplatelets, GNP, as the multifunctional nano-reinforcement in fabricating polymer/GNP nanocomposites and then explore their prospective applications in bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Firstly, HDPE (high density polyethylene)/GNP nanocomposites were fabricated using the conventional compounding method of melt-extrusion followed by injection molding. The mechanical properties, crystallization behaviors, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity of the resulting HDPE/GNP nanocomposites were evaluated as a function of GNP concentration. Results showed that HDPE/GNP nanocomposites exhibit equivalent flexural modulus and strength to HDPE composites filled with other commercial reinforcements but they have superior impact strength. By investigating the crystallization behavior of HDPE/GNP nanocomposites, it was found that GNP is a good nucleating agent at low loading levels and as a result can significantly increase crystallization temperature and crystallinity of HDPE. At high GNP loadings, however, the close proximity of GNP particles retards the crystallization process. The thermal stability and thermal conductivity of HDPE/GNP nanocomposites were significantly enhanced due to the excellent thermal properties of GNP. Meanwhile, results indicated that the percolation threshold of these nanocomposites prepared by the conventional melt-extrusion and injection molding is relatively high at around 10--15 vol% GNP loading. To enhance the electrical conductivity of HDPE/GNP nanocomposites, two special processing methods named solid state ball milling (SSBM) and solid state shear pulverization (SSSP) were studied. The mechanism by which SSBM and SSSP are capable of producing lower percolation or higher electrical conductivity is to coat the polymer surface by GNP platelets which facilitate the formation of conductive networks

  14. Test of a four-gap resistive plate chamber with cosmic muons and high-rate gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.K.; Shin, S.S.; Hong, B.; Jhang, G.; Jeong, M.S.; Jo, M.; Cho, S.W.; Joo, E.; Kim, C.; Kim, H.C. [Department of Physics and Korea Detector Laboratory, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K.S., E-mail: kslee0421@korea.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Korea Detector Laboratory, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K.S.; Lee, S.; Lee, S.K.; Lim, J.K.; Moon, D.H.; Shim, H.H.; Sim, K.S. [Department of Physics and Korea Detector Laboratory, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-11

    We report a new development of a phenolic four-gap resistive plate chamber (RPC) for use as a high-rate particle trigger in high-energy physics experiments. In the current study, a prototype RPC equipped with four 1-mm-thick gaps made from high-pressure-laminated (HPL) resistive plates has been designed and built. The current detector R and D aims to reduce the probability of radiation-induced degradation of the core detector components of the RPCs, the gas gaps, as well as to improve the detection rate capability. The detector characteristics of the four-gap RPC were obtained though a series of tests with cosmic muons and gamma rays and were compared with those of the typical 2-mm thick double-gap RPCs currently used in the CMS experiment at the LHC and in the PHENIX experiment at the RHIC.

  15. Incorporating human papillomavirus testing into cytological screening in the era of prophylactic vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Maribel; Sasieni, Peter; Cuzick, Jack

    2011-10-01

    Screening for, and treatment of, pre-cancerous cervical lesions has lead to dramatic reductions in cervical cancer in many countries. In all cases, cervical screening has been based on cytology, but that is beginning to change. Research studies, including randomised trials, clearly show that human papillomavirus (HPV) testing could be used to prevent a greater proportion of cervical cancer within a practical screening programme. Meanwhile, young adolescents are being vaccinated against HPV in developed countries, but cervical screening should continue for many years because it will take decades before most of those targeted by screening have been vaccinated. In the HPV vaccination era, the rate of cervical disease will decrease, and so will the positive predictive value of cytology. The screening characteristics of HPV testing make it the preferred choice for primary screening. However, questions regarding how to use HPV testing to screen vaccinated and unvaccinated women in the future remain unanswered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Male perspectives on incorporating men into antenatal HIV counseling and testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Katz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male partner involvement in antenatal voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT has been shown to increase uptake of interventions to reduce the risk of HIV transmission in resource-limited settings. We aimed to identify methods for increasing male involvement in antenatal VCT and determine male correlates of accepting couple counseling in these settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We invited women presenting to a Nairobi antenatal clinic to return with their male partners for individual or couples VCT. Male attitudes towards VCT and correlates of accompanying female partners to antenatal clinic and receiving couple counseling were determined. Of 1,993 women who invited their partner, 313 (16% returned with their partners to ANC. Men attending antenatal clinic were married (>99%, employed (98%, and unlikely to report prior HIV testing (14%. Wanting an HIV test (87% or health information (11% were the most commonly cited reasons for attending. Most (95% men who came to antenatal clinic accepted HIV testing and 39% elected to receive counseling as a couple. Men who received counseling with partners were younger, had fewer children, and were less knowledgeable about prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT than those who received counseling individually (p<0.05. Only 27% of men stated they would prefer HIV testing at a site other than the ANC. There was agreement between male and female reports for sociodemographic characteristics; however, men were more likely to report HIV preventive behaviors and health communication within the partnership than their partners (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Offering VCT services to men at antenatal clinic with options for couple and individual counseling is an important opportunity and acceptable strategy for increasing male involvement in PMTCT and promoting male HIV testing.

  17. Test and Numerical Analysis for Penetration Residual Velocity of Bullet Considering Failure Strain Uncertainty of Composite Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Myungseok; Lee, Minhyung [Sejong Univ., Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The ballistic performance data of composite materials is distributed due to material inhomogeneity. In this paper, the uncertainty in residual velocity is obtained experimentally, and a method of predicting it is established numerically for the high-speed impact of a bullet into laminated composites. First, the failure strain distribution was obtained by conducting a tensile test using 10 specimens. Next, a ballistic impact test was carried out for the impact of a fragment-simulating projectile (FSP) bullet with 4ply ([0/90]s) and 8ply ([0/90/0/90]s) glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) plates. Eighteen shots were made at the same impact velocity and the residual velocities were obtained. Finally, simulations were conducted to predict the residual velocities by using the failure strain distributions that were obtained from the tensile test. For this simulation, two impact velocities were chosen at 411.7m/s (4ply) and 592.5m/s (8ply). The simulation results show that the predicted residual velocities are in close agreement with test results. Additionally, the modeling of a composite plate with layered solid elements requires less calculation time than modeling with solid elements.

  18. Experimental tests of irradiation-anneal-reirradiation effects on mechanical properties of RPV plate and weld materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, J.R. [Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Charpy-V (C{sub V}) notch ductility and tension test properties of three reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel materials were determined for the 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) irradiated (I), 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) irradiated + 454{degree}C (850{degree}F)-168 h postirradiation annealed (IA), and 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) reirradiated (IAR) conditions. Total fluences of the I condition and the IAR condition were, respectively, 3.33 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} and 4.18 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV. The irradiation portion of the IAR condition represents an incremental fluence increase of 1. 05 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV, over the I-condition fluence. The materials (specimens) were supplied by the Yankee Atomic Electric Company and represented high and low nickel content plates and a high nickel, high copper content weld deposit prototypical of the Yankee-Rowe reactor vessel. The promise of the IAR method for extending the fluence tolerance of radiation-sensitive steels and welds is clearly shown by the results. The annealing treatment produced full C{sub V} upper shelf recovery and full or nearly full recovery in the C{sub V} 41 J (30 ft-lb) transition temperature. The C{sub V} transition temperature increases produced by the reirradiation exposure were 22% to 43% of the increase produced by the first cycle irradiation exposure. A somewhat greater radiation embrittlement sensitivity and a somewhat greater reirradiation embrittlement sensitivity was exhibited by the low nickel content plate than the high nickel content plate. Its high phosphorus content is believed to be responsible. The IAR-condition properties of the surface vs. interior regions of the low nickel content plate are also compared.

  19. Development of three dimensional Eulerian numerical procedure toward plate-mantle simulation: accuracy test by the fluid rope coiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, M.; Kameyama, M.; Kageyama, A.

    2007-12-01

    Reproducing a realistic plate tectonics with mantle convection simulation is one of the greatest challenges in computational geophysics. We have developed a three dimensional Eulerian numerical procedure toward plate-mantle simulation, which includes a finite deformation of the plate in the mantle convection. Our method, combined with CIP-CSLR (Constrained Interpolation Profile method-Conservative Semi-Lagrangian advection scheme with Rational function) and ACuTE method, enables us to solve advection and force balance equations even with a large and sharp viscosity jump, which marks the interface between the plates and surrounding upper mantle materials. One of the typical phenomena represented by our method is a fluid rope coiling event, where a stream of viscous fluid is poured onto the bottom plane from a certain height. This coiling motion is due to delicate balances between bending, twisting and stretching motions of fluid rope. In the framework of the Eulerian scheme, the fluid rope and surrounding air are treated as a viscosity profile which differs by several orders of magnitude. Our method solves the complex force balances of the fluid rope and air, by a multigrid iteration technique of ACuTE algorithm. In addition, the CIP-CSLR advection scheme allows us to obtain a deforming shape of the fluid rope, as a low diffusive solution in the Eulerian frame of reference. In this presentation, we will show the simulation result of the fluid rope coiling as an accuracy test for our simulation scheme, by comparing with the simplified numerical solution for thin viscous jet.

  20. Experimental testing of various heat transfer structures in a flat plate thermal energy storage unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Maike; Fiß, Michael; Klemm, Torsten

    2016-05-01

    For solar process heat applications with steam as the working fluid and varying application parameters, a novel latent heat storage concept has been developed using an adaptation of a flat plate heat exchanger as the storage concept. Since the pressure level in these applications usually does not exceed 30 bar, an adaptation with storage material chambers arranged between heat transfer medium chambers is possible. Phase change materials are used as the storage medium, so that the isothermal evaporation of steam during discharging of the storage is paired with the isothermal solidification of the storage material. Heat transfer structures can be inserted into the chambers to adjust the power level for a given application. By combining the required number of flat plate heat exchanger compartments and inserting the appropriate heat transfer structure, the design can easily be adjusted for the required power level and capacity for a specific application. Within this work, the technical feasibility of this concept is proven. The dependence of the operating characteristics on the geometry of the heat exchanger is identified. A focus is on varying the power density by integrating conductive heat structures in the PCM.

  1. Computing Critical Values of Exact Tests by Incorporating Monte Carlo Simulations Combined with Statistical Tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vexler, Albert; Kim, Young Min; Yu, Jihnhee; Lazar, Nicole A; Hutson, Aland

    2014-12-01

    Various exact tests for statistical inference are available for powerful and accurate decision rules provided that corresponding critical values are tabulated or evaluated via Monte Carlo methods. This article introduces a novel hybrid method for computing p-values of exact tests by combining Monte Carlo simulations and statistical tables generated a priori. To use the data from Monte Carlo generations and tabulated critical values jointly, we employ kernel density estimation within Bayesian-type procedures. The p-values are linked to the posterior means of quantiles. In this framework, we present relevant information from the Monte Carlo experiments via likelihood-type functions, whereas tabulated critical values are used to reflect prior distributions. The local maximum likelihood technique is employed to compute functional forms of prior distributions from statistical tables. Empirical likelihood functions are proposed to replace parametric likelihood functions within the structure of the posterior mean calculations to provide a Bayesian-type procedure with a distribution-free set of assumptions. We derive the asymptotic properties of the proposed nonparametric posterior means of quantiles process. Using the theoretical propositions, we calculate the minimum number of needed Monte Carlo resamples for desired level of accuracy on the basis of distances between actual data characteristics (e.g. sample sizes) and characteristics of data used to present corresponding critical values in a table. The proposed approach makes practical applications of exact tests simple and rapid. Implementations of the proposed technique are easily carried out via the recently developed STATA and R statistical packages.

  2. Synergistic interaction of gabapentin with tiagabine in the hot-plate test in mice: an isobolographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Kołacz, Agnieszka; Wojda, Ewa; Czuczwar, Mirosław; Przesmycki, Krzysztof; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2009-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining the analgesic effect of gabapentin and tiagabine, two antiepileptic drugs that were administered alone and in combination at a fixed ratio of 1:1, in the acute thermal pain model (hot-plate test) in mice. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the dose-response relationships between logarithms of antiepileptic drug doses and their resultant maximum possible antinociceptive effects in the mouse hot-plate test. From linear equations, we calculated doses that increased the antinociceptive effect by 50% (ED(50) values) for gabapentin, tiagabine and their combination. The type of interaction between gabapentin and tiagabine was assessed using the isobolographic analysis. Results indicated that both antiepileptic drugs produced the definite antinociceptive effect, and the experimentally derived ED(50) values for gabapentin and tiagabine, when applied alone, were 504.4 mg/kg and 5.67 mg/kg, respectively. With isobolography, the experimentally derived ED(50 mix) value for the fixed ratio combination of 1:1 was 139.31 mg/kg and significantly differed from the theoretically calculated ED(50 add) value, which was 255.04 mg/kg (p < 0.05), indicating the synergistic interaction between gabapentin and tiagabine in the hot-plate test in mice. In conclusion, the combination of tiagabine with gabapentin at a fixed ratio of 1:1 exerted a synergistic interaction in the mouse model of nociceptive pain. If the results from this study could be extrapolated to clinical settings, the combination of tiagabine with gabapentin might be beneficial for pain relief in humans.

  3. Performance testing of a long-strip two-end readout multi-gap resistive plate chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Bin; WANG Yi; LUO Ming; LI Yuan-Jing; CHENG Jian-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) is a new generation of gas detector with good tim-ing and spacial resolution, whose technique is widely applied in some recent high energy (nuclear) physics experiments. In this letter, we report a long-strip two-end readout MRPC and its test beam performance. The measurements show that the long-strip performs a transmission line characteristic and the impedance is independent of the length of strip. The MRPC module we developed is presented to gain a timing resolution of~80 ps and a spacial resolution of ~6.4 mm. The possible application of the MRPC is also discussed.

  4. Invasive Candidiasis in Various Patient Populations: Incorporating Non-Culture Diagnostic Tests into Rational Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius J. Clancy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mortality rates due to invasive candidiasis remain unacceptably high, in part because the poor sensitivity and slow turn-around time of cultures delay the initiation of antifungal treatment. β-d-glucan (Fungitell and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based (T2Candida assays are FDA-approved adjuncts to cultures for diagnosing invasive candidiasis, but their clinical roles are unclear. We propose a Bayesian framework for interpreting non-culture test results and developing rational patient management strategies, which considers test performance and types of invasive candidiasis that are most common in various patient populations. β-d-glucan sensitivity/specificity for candidemia and intra-abdominal candidiasis is ~80%/80% and ~60%/75%, respectively. In settings with 1%–10% likelihood of candidemia, anticipated β-d-glucan positive and negative predictive values are ~4%–31% and ≥97%, respectively. Corresponding values in settings with 3%–30% likelihood of intra-abdominal candidiasis are ~7%–51% and ~78%–98%. β-d-glucan is predicted to be useful in guiding antifungal treatment for wide ranges of populations at-risk for candidemia (incidence ~5%–40% or intra-abdominal candidiasis (~7%–20%. Validated PCR-based assays should broaden windows to include populations at lower-risk for candidemia (incidence ≥~2% and higher-risk for intra-abdominal candidiasis (up to ~40%. In the management of individual patients, non-culture tests may also have value outside of these windows. The proposals we put forth are not definitive treatment guidelines, but rather represent starting points for clinical trial design and debate by the infectious diseases community. The principles presented here will be applicable to other assays as they enter the clinic, and to existing assays as more data become available from different populations.

  5. HESI pilot project: Testing a qualitative approach for incorporating exposure into alternatives assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggs, Bill; Arnold, Scott; Burns, Thomas J.;

    Committee, which consists of scientists from academia, industry, government, and NGOs, has developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach. Conducting such a comparison can screen for alternatives that are expected to have a higher exposure potential, which could trigger a higher-tiered, more-quantitative...... exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical and product exposure information in a qualitative AA comparison. Starting from existing hazard AAs, a series of four exposure examples were examined to test the concept, to understand...... the effort required, and to determine the value of exposure data in AA decision-making. The group has developed ingredient and product parameter categorization to support comparisons between chemicals and methodology to address data quality. The ingredient parameters include a range of physicochemical...

  6. Field tests of Fibre Bragg Grating sensors incorporated into CFRP for Railway Bridge strengthening condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Kerrouche, Abdelfathe; Leighton, J

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results obtained from an unusual situation in structural monitoring – a ‘test-to-destruction’, measuring strain using a series of fibre Bragg gratings (FBG) sensors on a decommissioned concrete Railway Bridge in Örnsköldsvik, Sweden. The study formed part of the FP6 EU funded...... the study, the FBG sensors were continuously monitored, allowing the incremental increases in the strain to be seen and through the yield point of the carbon composite reinforcement. The sensors were able to follow the resulting induced changes in strain of over a range in excess of 4000µε. The measurements...... reinforcements used in remedial repair and for monitoring better the performance of existing bridge structures....

  7. Antinociceptive effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine in the hot-plate test in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestehave, Sara; Munro, Gordon; Pedersen, Tina Brønnum; Abelson, Klas S P

    2016-09-27

    Researchers performing experiments on animals should always strive towards the refinement of experiments, minimization of stress and provision of better animal welfare. An adequate analgesic strategy is important to improve post-operative recovery and welfare in laboratory rats and mice. In addition, it is desirable to provide post-operative analgesia using methods that are minimally invasive and stressful. This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of orally administered buprenorphine ingested in Nutella® in comparison with subcutaneous buprenorphine administration. By exposing the animal to a thermal stimulus using a hot plate, significant antinociceptive effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine administered in Nutella® were demonstrated. This was evident at doses of 1.0 mg/kg 60 and 120 min post administration (P Nutella® in a 10-fold higher dose, as well as approximately 60 min earlier, than with the more commonly employed subcutaneous route of administration.

  8. Topography of Venus and earth - A test for the presence of plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.; Yuter, S. E.; Solomon, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons of earth and Venus topography by use of Pioneer/Venus radar altimetry are examined. Approximately 93% of the Venus surface has been mapped with a horizontal resolution of 200 km and a vertical resolution of 200 m. Tectonic troughs have been indicated in plains regions which cover 65% of Venus, and hypsometric comparisons between the two planets' elevation distributions revealed that while the earth has a bimodal height distribution, Venus displays a unimodal configuration, with 60% of the planet surface within 500 m of the modal planet radius. The effects of mapping the earth at the same resolution as the Venus observations were explored. Continents and oceans were apparent, and although folded mountains appeared as high spots, no indications of tectonic activity were discernible. A NASA Venus Orbiting Imaging radar is outlined, which is designed to detect volcanoes, folded mountain ranges, craters, and faults, and thereby allow definition of possible plate-tectonic activity on Venus.

  9. Topography of Venus and earth - A test for the presence of plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.; Yuter, S. E.; Solomon, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons of earth and Venus topography by use of Pioneer/Venus radar altimetry are examined. Approximately 93% of the Venus surface has been mapped with a horizontal resolution of 200 km and a vertical resolution of 200 m. Tectonic troughs have been indicated in plains regions which cover 65% of Venus, and hypsometric comparisons between the two planets' elevation distributions revealed that while the earth has a bimodal height distribution, Venus displays a unimodal configuration, with 60% of the planet surface within 500 m of the modal planet radius. The effects of mapping the earth at the same resolution as the Venus observations were explored. Continents and oceans were apparent, and although folded mountains appeared as high spots, no indications of tectonic activity were discernible. A NASA Venus Orbiting Imaging radar is outlined, which is designed to detect volcanoes, folded mountain ranges, craters, and faults, and thereby allow definition of possible plate-tectonic activity on Venus.

  10. Characteristics and optimization of 4H-SiC MESFET with a novel p-type spacer layer incorporated with a field-plate structure based on improved trap models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Kun; Chai Changchun; Yang Yintang; Jia Hujun; Zhang Xianjun; Chen Bin

    2011-01-01

    A novel structure of 4H-SiC MESFETs is proposed that focuses on surface trap suppression.Characteristics of the device have been investigated based on physical models for material properties and improved trap models.By comparing with the performance of the well-utilized buried-gate incorporated with a field-plate (BG-FP) structure,it is shown that the proposed structure improves device properties in comprehensive aspects.A p-type spacer layer introduced in the channel layer suppresses the surface trap effect and reduces the gate-drain capacitance (Cgd) under a large drain voltage.A p-type spacer layer incorporated with a field-plate improves the electric field distribution on the gate edge while the spacer layer induces less Cgd than a conventional FP.For microwave applications,4H-SiC MESFET for the proposed structure has a larger gate-lag ratio in the saturation region due to better surface trap isolation from the conductive channel.For high power applications,the proposed structure is able to endure higher operating voltage as well.The maximum saturation current density of 460 mA/mm is yielded.Also,the gate-lag ratio under a drain voltage of 20 V is close to 90%.In addition,5% and 17.8% improvements in fT and fmax are obtained compared with a BG-FP MESFET in AC simulation,respectively.Parameters and dimensions of the proposed structure are optimized to make the best of the device for microwave applications and to provide a reference for device design.

  11. Characteristics and optimization of 4H-SiC MESFET with a novel p-type spacer layer incorporated with a field-plate structure based on improved trap models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Kun; Chai Changchun; Yang Yintang; Jia Hujun; Zhang Xianjun; Chen Bin, E-mail: sk88205853@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices of the Ministry of Education, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2011-07-15

    A novel structure of 4H-SiC MESFETs is proposed that focuses on surface trap suppression. Characteristics of the device have been investigated based on physical models for material properties and improved trap models. By comparing with the performance of the well-utilized buried-gate incorporated with a field-plate (BG-FP) structure, it is shown that the proposed structure improves device properties in comprehensive aspects. A p-type spacer layer introduced in the channel layer suppresses the surface trap effect and reduces the gate-drain capacitance (C{sub gd}) under a large drain voltage. A p-type spacer layer incorporated with a field-plate improves the electric field distribution on the gate edge while the spacer layer induces less C{sub gd} than a conventional FP. For microwave applications, 4H-SiC MESFET for the proposed structure has a larger gate-lag ratio in the saturation region due to better surface trap isolation from the conductive channel. For high power applications, the proposed structure is able to endure higher operating voltage as well. The maximum saturation current density of 460 mA/mm is yielded. Also, the gate-lag ratio under a drain voltage of 20 V is close to 90%. In addition, 5% and 17.8% improvements in f{sub T} and f{sub max} are obtained compared with a BG-FP MESFET in AC simulation, respectively. Parameters and dimensions of the proposed structure are optimized to make the best of the device for microwave applications and to provide a reference for device design. (semiconductor devices)

  12. Costs of genetic testing: Supporting Brazilian Public Policies for the incorporating of molecular diagnostic technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Paixão Schlatter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies and describes the operating costs associated with the molecular diagnosis of diseases, such as hereditary cancer. To approximate the costs associated with these tests, data informed by Standard Operating Procedures for various techniques was collected from hospital software and a survey of market prices. Costs were established for four scenarios of capacity utilization to represent the possibility of suboptimal use in research laboratories. Cost description was based on a single site. The results show that only one technique was not impacted by rising costs due to underutilized capacity. Several common techniques were considerably more expensive at 30% capacity, including polymerase chain reaction (180%, microsatellite instability analysis (181%, gene rearrangement analysis by multiplex ligation probe amplification (412%, non-labeled sequencing (173%, and quantitation of nucleic acids (169%. These findings should be relevant for the definition of public policies and suggest that investment of public funds in the establishment of centralized diagnostic research centers would reduce costs to the Public Health System.

  13. Analysis of the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin method with optimal test functions for the Reissner-Mindlin plate bending model

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) method with optimal test functions when applied to solve the Reissner-Mindlin model of plate bending. We prove that the hybrid variational formulation underlying the DPG method is well-posed (stable) with a thickness-dependent constant in a norm encompassing the L2-norms of the bending moment, the shear force, the transverse deflection and the rotation vector. We then construct a numerical solution scheme based on quadrilateral scalar and vector finite elements of degree p. We show that for affine meshes the discretization inherits the stability of the continuous formulation provided that the optimal test functions are approximated by polynomials of degree p+3. We prove a theoretical error estimate in terms of the mesh size h and polynomial degree p and demonstrate numerical convergence on affine as well as non-affine mesh sequences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In Vitro Dissolution Tests of Plutonium and Americium Containing Contamination Originating From ZPPR Fuel Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William F. Bauer; Brian K. Schuetz; Gary M. Huestis; Thomas B. Lints; Brian K. Harris; R. Duane Ball; Gracy Elias

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the extent of internal dose is of concern whenever workers are exposed to airborne radionuclides or other contaminants. Internal dose determinations depend upon a reasonable estimate of the expected biological half-life of the contaminants in the respiratory tract. One issue with refractory elements is determining the dissolution rate of the element. Actinides such as plutonium (Pu) and Americium (Am) tend to be very refractory and can have biological half-lives of tens of years. In the event of an exposure, the dissolution rates of the radionuclides of interest needs to be assessed in order to assign the proper internal dose estimates. During the November 2011 incident at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) involving a ZPPR fuel plate, air filters in a constant air monitor (CAM) and a giraffe filter apparatus captured airborne particulate matter. These filters were used in dissolution rate experiments to determine the apparent dissolution half-life of Pu and Am in simulated biological fluids. This report describes these experiments and the results. The dissolution rates were found to follow a three term exponential decay equation. Differences were noted depending upon the nature of the biological fluid simulant. Overall, greater than 95% of the Pu and 93% of the Am were in a very slow dissolving component with dissolution half-lives of over 10 years.

  15. Invited article: a test-facility for large-area microchannel plate detector assemblies using a pulsed sub-picosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard; Chollet, Matthieu; Elagin, Andrey; Oberla, Eric; Vostrikov, Alexander; Wetstein, Matthew; Obaid, Razib; Webster, Preston

    2013-06-01

    The Large Area Picosecond Photodetector Collaboration is developing large-area fast photodetectors with time resolution tests on bare 8 in.-square MCP plates or into a smaller chamber for tests on 33-mm circular substrates. We present the experimental setup, detector calibration, data acquisition, analysis tools, and typical results demonstrating the performance of the test facility.

  16. Design, Fabrication and Testing of Fixture for Implementation of a New Approach to Incorporate Tool tilting in Friction Stir Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awang Mokhtar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is solid-state process for joining materials by using frictional heat generated due to rotating tool along the weld line. Since its invention about two decades ago, wide spread use of FSW is still restricted due to very expensive purpose built FSW machines available in the market. As an alternative, a milling machine can be used to carry out the FSW depending on the capabilities of the machine. In cases where milling machines have a fixed head, limitation of zero degree tool tilt angle results in substantial defects (e.g. tunnel defect in weldments. The objective of this study is to design and fabricate an adjustable-angle fixture to incorporate tool tilting in a CNC milling machine with fixed spindle head. The testing of the fabricated fixture is then carried out by running the FSW experiments at different tilt angles.

  17. Two-Dimensional Mapping of the Calculated Fission Power for the Full-Size Fuel Plate Experiment Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, G. S.; Lillo, M. A.

    2009-08-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administrations (NNSA) Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program assigned to the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) the responsibility of developing and demonstrating high uranium density research reactor fuel forms to enable the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) in research and test reactors around the world. A series of full-size fuel plate experiments have been proposed for irradiation testing in the center flux trap (CFT) position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). These full-size fuel plate tests are designated as the AFIP tests. The AFIP nominal fuel zone is rectangular in shape having a designed length of 21.5-in (54.61-cm), width of 1.6-in (4.064-cm), and uniform thickness of 0.014-in (0.03556-cm). This gives a nominal fuel zone volume of 0.482 in3 (7.89 cm3) per fuel plate. The AFIP test assembly has two test positions. Each test position is designed to hold 2 full-size plates, for a total of 4 full-size plates per test assembly. The AFIP test plates will be irradiated at a peak surface heat flux of about 350 W/cm2 and discharged at a peak U-235 burn-up of about 70 at.%. Based on limited irradiation testing of the monolithic (U-10Mo) fuel form, it is desirable to keep the peak fuel temperature below 250°C to achieve this, it will be necessary to keep plate heat fluxes below 500 W/cm2. Due to the heavy U-235 loading and a plate width of 1.6-in (4.064-cm), the neutron self-shielding will increase the local-to-average-ratio (L2AR) fission power near the sides of the fuel plates. To demonstrate that the AFIP experiment will meet the ATR safety requirements, a very detailed 2-dimensional (2D) Y-Z fission power profile was evaluated in order to best predict the fuel plate temperature distribution. The ability to accurately predict fuel plate power and burnup are essential to both the design of the AFIP tests as well as evaluation of the irradiated fuel performance. To support this need, a detailed MCNP Y

  18. First joint test beam of CMS Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    Paolo Giacomelli

    2001-01-01

    The first full size muon drift tube chamber ever built for the CMS barrel with the final cell design (constructed at CIEMAT, Madrid) was succesfully tested with a muon beam in September 2001 at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN. For the first time also both muon detectors for the CMS barrel (DT + RPC) were coupled together. The results of this test were fully succesful and confirmed the excellent performance of both detectors together in a radiation environment.

  19. Tests and Evaluation of Upgraded Flat-Plate and Waffle-Slab Floor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    tested in the LBLG. The LBLG (Figure 2.J9) is a large, three-dimensional device designed pri- marily to test underground protective structures...34 Report AIWL-TR-74-102, Octo- ber 1974, Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N. Mex . 9. M. E. Criswell; "Strength and Behavior of...35th St. Commander, Air Force Weapons Laboratory, AFSC Chicago, Ill. 60616 ATTN: SUL, Technical Library Kirtland Air Force Base, N. Mex . 87117 Director

  20. Investigation of Thermal Performance of Flat Plate and Evacuated Tubular Solar Collectors According to a New Dynamic Test Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Wang, Zhifeng; Fan, Jianhua;

    2012-01-01

    obtain fluid thermal capacitance in data processing. Then theoretical analysis and experimental verification are carried out to investigate influencing factors of obtaining accurate and stable second order term. A flat plate and ETC solar collector are compared using both the new dynamic method......A new dynamic test method is introduced. This so called improved transfer function method features on two new collector parameters. One is time term which can indicate solar collector's inner heat transfer ability and the other is a second order term of collector mean fluid temperature which can...... and a standard method. The results show that the improved function method can accurately and robustly estimate these two kinds of solar collectors....

  1. Defect Localization Capabilities of a Global Detection Scheme: Spatial Pattern Recognition Using Full-field Vibration Test Data in Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeb, A. F.; Prabhu, M.; Arnold, S. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a conceptually simple approach, based on the notion of defect energy in material space has been developed and extensively studied (from the theoretical and computational standpoints). The present study focuses on its evaluation from the viewpoint of damage localization capabilities in case of two-dimensional plates; i.e., spatial pattern recognition on surfaces. To this end, two different experimental modal test results are utilized; i.e., (1) conventional modal testing using (white noise) excitation and accelerometer-type sensors and (2) pattern recognition using Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), a full field method capable of analyzing the mechanical vibration of complex structures. Unlike the conventional modal testing technique (using contacting accelerometers), these emerging ESPI technologies operate in a non-contacting mode, can be used even under hazardous conditions with minimal or no presence of noise and can simultaneously provide measurements for both translations and rotations. Results obtained have clearly demonstrated the robustness and versatility of the global NDE scheme developed. The vectorial character of the indices used, which enabled the extraction of distinct patterns for localizing damages proved very useful. In the context of the targeted pattern recognition paradigm, two algorithms were developed for the interrogation of test measurements; i.e., intensity contour maps for the damaged index, and the associated defect energy vector field plots.

  2. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy-a flat-plate collector with a single-tube serpentine flow distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S.

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficienty is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  3. Laboratory Test for Measurement of Adhesion Strength of Spray Ice to Coated Flat Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    became trapped within the ice. After the by test group 612 during icing due to nozzle freezeup sprayer was turned off, the unfrozen water became and the...indicated if and when nozzle freezeup occurred. Short and the push block increased as the block moved for- duration peaks in the nozzle temperature occurred...either nozzle freezeup and conse- bond strength of each sample. Notice, in Figure 2 1. the quent efforts to thaw, the application of more insulation

  4. Critical assessment of precracked specimen configuration and experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domack, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    A research program was conducted to critically assess the effects of precracked specimen configuration, stress intensity solutions, compliance relationships and other experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate. Modified compact and double beam wedge-loaded specimens were tested and analyzed to determine the threshold stress intensity factor and stress corrosion crack growth rate. Stress intensity solutions and experimentally determined compliance relationships were developed and compared with other solutions available in the literature. Crack growth data suggests that more effective crack length measurement techniques are necessary to better characterize stress corrosion crack growth. Final load determined by specimen reloading and by compliance did not correlate well, and was considered a major source of interlaboratory variability. Test duration must be determined systematically, accounting for crack length measurement resolution, time for crack arrest, and experimental interferences. This work was conducted as part of a round robin program sponsored by ASTM committees G1.06 and E24.04 to develop a standard test method for stress corrosion testing using precracked specimens.

  5. Simulation analysis of impact tests of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs against aircraft impact and its validation with experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammad.sadiq@pnra.org [Center for Nuclear Safety (CNS), Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA), PO Box 1912, Islamabad (Pakistan); Xiu Yun, Zhu, E-mail: lyzhuxiuyun@163.com [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center (NSC), Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Beijing (China); Rong, Pan, E-mail: panrong@chinansc.cn [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center (NSC), Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Beijing (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Simulation analysis is carried out with two constitutive concrete models. • Winfrith model can better simulate nonlinear response of concrete than CSCM model. • Performance of steel plate concrete is better than reinforced concrete. • Thickness of safety related structures can be reduced by adopting steel plates. • Analysis results, mainly concrete material models should be validated. - Abstract: The steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete structures are used in nuclear power plants for protection against impact of an aircraft. In order to compare the impact resistance performance of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs panels, simulation analysis of 1/7.5 scale model impact tests is carried out by using finite element code ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The damage modes of all finite element models, velocity time history curves of the aircraft engine and damage to aircraft model are compared with the impact test results of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slab panels. The results indicate that finite element simulation results correlate well with the experimental results especially for constitutive winfrith concrete model. Also, the impact resistance performance of steel plate reinforced concrete slab panels is better than reinforced concrete slab panels, particularly the rear face steel plate is very effective in preventing the perforation and scabbing of concrete than conventional reinforced concrete structures. In this way, the thickness of steel plate reinforced concrete structures can be reduced in important structures like nuclear power plants against impact of aircraft. It also demonstrates the methodology to validate the analysis procedure with experimental and analytical studies. It may be effectively employed to predict the precise response of safety related structures against aircraft impact.

  6. Some tests of flat plate photovoltaic module cell temperatures in simulated field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J. S.; Rathod, M. S.; Paslaski, J.

    1981-01-01

    The nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules is an important characteristic. Typically, the power output of a PV module decreases 0.5% per deg C rise in cell temperature. Several tests were run with artificial sun and wind to study the parametric dependencies of cell temperature on wind speed and direction and ambient temperature. It was found that the cell temperature is extremely sensitive to wind speed, moderately so to wind direction and rather insensitive to ambient temperature. Several suggestions are made to obtain data more typical of field conditions.

  7. Assessment of the Resistance of a Polymethylmethacrylate (Pmma Dynamic Compression Plate (DCP Prototype Tested on Osteotomized Canine Femurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Cardona R.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Femur fractures are the most frequent long bone fractures in small animals. Due to the femur’s anatomical position, it is difficult to immobilize, and therefore internal fixations are very useful. Dynamic compression plates (DCP provide high stability, are durable, minimize fragment movement and promote primary healing of the bone. Advantages of this treatment include anatomical reconstruction, early mobility and carrying capacity of the affected limb. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA is an acrylic resin that has proved very useful in bone tumor treatment, cranial deformation prosthesis, percutaneous vertebroplasty and testicular prosthesis in animals. The purpose of this study was to manufacture DCP-PMMA and test its resistance to the different forces present in a fracture. Forty-eight (48 3.5MM x 4-hole DCP were made from an alginate mold. Six (6 femurs were obtained from canine cadavers zeighing from 10 to 20 kg, which underwent osteotomy simulating an oblique fracture. The plates were subsequently positioned in the osteotomized bones to submit them to the various forces involved in a fracture. The DCP-PMMA resisted a torque force of 2.83 newton/metres and a compression and flexion force of 0.21 kilonewton. The obtained resistance of the DCP-PMMA was an average of 20 kg per force. The results of this study show that it is possible to make a DCP-PMMA 3.5 mm x 4-hole, the resistance of which is of 20 kg against the three applied forces, and that it can be used to stabilize long bone fractures subjected to a pressure of less than 20 kg.

  8. Testing of Ni-plated ferritic steel interconnect in SOFC stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.A.; Dinesen, A.R.; Korcakova, L.

    2006-01-01

    Stack tests were run at 850 °C for periods from 80 hours to 1,150 hours to develop contacting procedures and at the same time evaluate the performance of a 5 μm electroplated nickel coating on a ferritic Fe22Cr interconnect. The metallic nickel coating reacted relatively quickly during the initial...... heating to 1,030 °C. During this time, 20–70 μm thick surface layers of austenitic steel were formed, which were covered by a 1–4 μm chromia layer on the anode side and by a layer of mixed Cr-Fe-Ni-spinels over a 1–4 μm chromia layer on the cathode side. The microstructure and composition...

  9. Status of the NASA-Lewis flat-plate collector tests with a solar simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F. F.

    1974-01-01

    Simulator test results of 15 collector types are reported. Collectors are given performance ratings according to their use for pool heating, hot water, absorption A/C or heating and solar Rankine machines. Collectors found to be good performers in the above categories, except for pool heating, were a black nickel coated, 2 glass collector, and a black paint 2 glass collector containing a mylar honeycomb. For pool heating, a black paint, one glass collector was found to be the best performer. Collector performance parameters of 5 collector types were determined to aid in explaining the factors that govern performance. The two factors that had the greatest effect on collector performance were the collector heat loss and the coating absorptivity.

  10. Geo-energy Test Beds: part of the European Plate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael; Schofield, David; Luton, Christopher; Haslinger, Florian; Henninges, Jan; Giardini, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    For 2020, the EU has committed to cutting its greenhouse gas emissions to 20% below 1990 levels and further cuts are being decided for 2050. This commitment is one of the headline targets of the Europe 2020 growth strategy and is being implemented through binding legislation. This decarbonisation of the EU economy is one dimension of an overall EU energy and climate framework that is mutually interlinked with the need to ensure energy security, promote a fully integrated energy market, promote energy efficiency and promote research innovation and competitiveness. Power generation will have to take a particularly large part in emissions reductions (-54 to -68% by 2030 and -93 to -99% by 2050), mainly by focussing on increasing surface renewables (wind, tidal and solar) but also on carbon capture and storage on fossil fuel and biofuel power plants, shale gas, nuclear and geothermal power. All the above generation technologies share common geological challenges around containment, safety and environmental sustainability. In a densely populated continent, this means that high levels of subsurface management are needed to fully realise the energy potential. In response to this need, across Europe, public and private sector funded, experimental test and monitoring facilities and infrastructures (Geo-energy Test Beds, GETB) are being developed. These GETB investigate the processes, technology and practices that facilitate the sustainable exploitation of Geo-energy resources and are of intense interest to the public and regulators alike. The vision of EPOS IP Work Package 17 (wp17) is to promote research and innovation in Geo-energy that reflects core European energy priorities through provision of virtual access to data and protocols and trans-national access to GETB experiments. This will be achieved through provision of access to continuous strategic observations, promotion of the integrated use of data and models from European GETB, development of underpinning research

  11. Biocompatibility Analyses of Al₂O₃-Treated Titanium Plates Tested with Osteocyte and Fibroblast Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smargiassi, Alberto; Bertacchini, Jessika; Checchi, Marta; Cavani, Francesco; Ferretti, Marzia; Palumbo, Carla

    2017-06-16

    Osseointegration of a titanium implant is still an issue in dental/orthopedic implants durable over time. The good integration of these implants is mainly due to their surface and topography. We obtained an innovative titanium surface by shooting different-in-size particles of Al₂O₃ against the titanium scaffolds which seems to be ideal for bone integration. To corroborate that, we used two different cell lines: MLO-Y4 (murine osteocytes) and 293 (human fibroblasts) and tested the titanium scaffolds untreated and treated (i.e., Al₂O₃ shot-peened titanium surfaces). Distribution, density, and expression of adhesion molecules (fibronectin and vitronectin) were evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal microscope (CM). DAPI and fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies were used to highlight nuclei, fibronectin, and vitronectin, under CM; cell distribution was analyzed after gold-palladium sputtering of samples by SEM. The engineered biomaterial surfaces showed under SEM irregular morphology displaying variously-shaped spicules. Both SEM and CM observations showed better outcome in terms of cell adhesion and distribution in treated titanium surfaces with respect to the untreated ones. The results obtained clearly showed that this kind of surface-treated titanium, used to manufacture devices for dental implantology: (i) is very suitable for cell colonization, essential prerequisite for the best osseointegration, and (ii) represents an excellent solution for the development of further engineered implants with the target to obtain recovery of stable dental function over time.

  12. Assessment of a 96-Well Plate Assay of Quantitative Drug Susceptibility Testing for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Zheng, Yang; Zhao, Bing; van den Hof, Susan; Cobelens, Frank; Zhao, YanLin

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of the Sensitire MYCOTB MIC Plate (MYCOTB) which could measure the twelve anti-tuberculosis drugs susceptibility on one 96-wells plate. Methods A total of 140 MDR-TB strains and 60 non-MDR strains were sub-cultured and 193 strains were finally tested for drug resistance using MYCOTB and agar proportion method (APM) and another 7 strains failed of subculture. The drugs included ofloxacin (Ofx), moxifloxacin (Mfx), rifampin (RFP), amikacin (Am), rifabutin (Rfb), para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), ethionamide (Eth), isoniazid (INH), kanamycin (Km), ethambutol (EMB), streptomycin (Sm), and cycloserine(Cs). The categorical agreement, conditional agreement, sensitivity and specificity of MYCOTB were assessed in comparison with APM. For strains with inconsistent results between MYCOTB and APM, the drug resistance related gene fragments were amplified and sequenced: gyrA for Ofx and Mfx; rpoB for RFP and Rfb; embB for EMB; rpsl for Sm; katG and the promoter region of inhA for INH, ethA and the promoter region of inhA for Eth. The sequence results were compared with results of MYCOTB and APM to analyze the consistency between sequence results and MYCOTB or APM. Results The categorical agreement between two methods for each drug ranged from 88.6% to 100%. It was the lowest for INH (88.6%). The sensitivity and specificity of MYCOTB ranged from 71.4% to 100% and 84.3% to 100%, respectively. The sensitivity was lowest for Cs(71.4%), EMB at 10μg/ml (80.0%) and INH at 10.0μg/ml (84.6%). The specificity was lowest for Rfb (84.3%). Overall discordance between the two phenotypic methods was observed for 96 strains, of which 63 (65.6%) were found susceptible with APM and resistant with MYCOTB and the remaining 33(34.4%) strains were resistant by APM and susceptible with MYCOTB. 34/52 (65.4%) sequenced APM susceptible and MYCOTB resistant(APM-S/MYCOTB-R) strains had mutations or insertions in the amplified regions. 20/30 (66.7%) sequenced APM

  13. Design of High Frequency Induction Plate Forming Test-Bed%高频感应弯板成形试验台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘守法; 范平

    2012-01-01

    Specific to the present situation of the lack of high frequency induction plate forming experimental equipment at home and abroad, a high frequency induction plate forming test梑ed was designed to conduct high frequency induction plate forming test,which will be helpful to study the law of the high frequency induction plate forming.The finite element analysis for tine plate forming model was conducted with Ansys software and the plate forming test was also completed on the test-bed under the scam parameters After comparing the bending angle curves of the finite element analysis with the experimental,it is observed that the two bending angle curves are basically the same to each other and the bending angle error between the simulation and the test is kss than 12.1%.%针对国内外高频感应弯板成形试验设备缺乏现状,设计了弯板成形试验台,用于进行高频感应弯板成形试验,进而有助于研究高频感应弯板成形规律.利用Ansys软件对弯板成形模型进行了有限元分析,并利用试验台进行了相同参数下板料成形试验,将有限元分析得到的折弯角度曲线与试验得到的实际折弯角度曲线进行了对比,结果表明:有限元分析得到的板料折弯角度曲线与试验得到的板料折弯角度曲线基本相同,二者折弯角度偏差小于12.1%.

  14. Multi-channel, probe colorimeter for use with the micr-ELISA test, which makes use of disposable flat-bottom microhemagglutination plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, C H; Blanchflower, W J

    1979-04-01

    We describe a multiprobe colorimeter that permits the reading of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in situ, by use of microhemagglutination plates. The use of dipping probes eliminates interference from meniscus effects and air-bubble entrapment. Detailed validation tests have been done and potential sources of inaccuracy identified.

  15. Microstructural Characterization of a Mg Matrix U-Mo Dispersion Fuel Plate Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor to High Fission Density: SEM Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Miller, Brandon D.; Gan, Jian; Robinson, Adam B.; Medvedev, Pavel G.; Madden, James W.; Moore, Glenn A.

    2016-06-01

    Low-enriched (U-235 reactors. In most cases, fuel plates with Al or Al-Si alloy matrices have been tested in the Advanced Test Reactor to support this development. In addition, fuel plates with Mg as the matrix have also been tested. The benefit of using Mg as the matrix is that it potentially will not chemically interact with the U-Mo fuel particles during fabrication or irradiation, whereas with Al and Al-Si alloys such interactions will occur. Fuel plate R9R010 is a Mg matrix fuel plate that was aggressively irradiated in ATR. This fuel plate was irradiated as part of the RERTR-8 experiment at high temperature, high fission rate, and high power, up to high fission density. This paper describes the results of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of an irradiated fuel plate using polished samples and those produced with a focused ion beam. A follow-up paper will discuss the results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Using SEM, it was observed that even at very aggressive irradiation conditions, negligible chemical interaction occurred between the irradiated U-7Mo fuel particles and Mg matrix; no interconnection of fission gas bubbles from fuel particle to fuel particle was observed; the interconnected fission gas bubbles that were observed in the irradiated U-7Mo particles resulted in some transport of solid fission products to the U-7Mo/Mg interface; the presence of microstructural pathways in some U-9.1 Mo particles that could allow for transport of fission gases did not result in the apparent presence of large porosity at the U-7Mo/Mg interface; and, the Mg-Al interaction layers that were present at the Mg matrix/Al 6061 cladding interface exhibited good radiation stability, i.e. no large pores.

  16. Quantitative computed tomography as a test of endurance for evaluation of bony plates; Utilizacao da tomografia computadorizada quantitativa como teste de resistencia para avaliacao de placas osseas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo Filho, E.V.; Costa, L.A.V.S.; Oliveira, D.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Freitas, P.M.C. [Escola de Veterinaria - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, M.W.; Costa, F.S. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco - Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    Quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the radiodensity of bony plates. The CT scans provided information regarding radiodensity of bony plates and allowed to verify the uniformity of bone mineral density in their scope. The proposed methodology should be considered as another tool for determining the resistance of these biomaterials. (author)

  17. The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulu, Thomas D; Kanui, Titus I; Towett, Philemon K

    2014-01-01

    -plate, and the formalin tests. The effects of co-administration of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, and the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone were also investigated. Oxotremorine and epibatidine induced a significant, dose-dependent antinociceptive effect...... in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests, respectively. The effects of oxotremorine and epibatidine were blocked by atropine and mecamylamine, respectively. In all three nociceptive tests, naloxone in combination with oxotremorine or epibatidine enhanced the antinociceptive effects of the drugs....... The present study demonstrated that stimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors produces antinociceptive effects in the naked-mole rat. The reversal effect of atropine and mecamylamine suggests that this effect is mediated by cholinergic receptors. As naloxone increases the antinociceptive effects...

  18. Approach to Deep Plate Loading Test of Self-reaction Force Method%自反力法深层平板载荷试验探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓伟; 林泽耿; 刘炳凯

    2014-01-01

    This article took a project of Guangdong as an example, introduced the technique of deep plate loading test of self-reaction force method in detail,and compared with the traditional method of deep plate loading test,and finally,problems that need to pay attention to deep plate loading test of self-reaction force method were put forward from the processing technology at the bottom of testing hole,keeping test hole straight,keeping stability of hole wall,and so on.%以广东某工程为例,详细介绍采用自反力法进行深层平板载荷试验测试技术,并将该方法与传统法深层平板载荷试验进行比较,最后从测试孔的孔底处理技术、测孔保直、孔壁稳定等方面提出采用自反力法进行深层平板载荷试验需要注意的问题。

  19. Comparison of Buffered, Acidified Plate Antigen to Standard Serologic Tests for the Detection of Serum Antibodies to Brucella abortus in Elk (Cervus canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, P Ryan; Edwards, William H; Hennager, Steven G; Block, Jean F; Yates, Angela M; Ebel, Eric; Knopp, Douglas J; Fuentes-Sanchez, Antonio; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Kientz, Rebecca L; Simunich, Marilyn

    2015-07-01

    Brucellosis (caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus) is a zoonotic disease endemic in wild elk (Cervus canadensis) of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, US. Because livestock and humans working with elk or livestock are at risk, validated tests to detect the B. abortus antibody in elk are needed. Using the κ-statistic, we evaluated the buffered, acidified plate antigen (BAPA) assay for agreement with the results of the four serologic tests (card test [card], complement fixation test [CF], rivanol precipitation plate agglutination test [RIV], standard plate agglutination test [SPT]) that are approved by the US Department of Agriculture for the detection of the B. abortus antibody in elk. From 2006 to 2010, serum samples collected from elk within B. abortus-endemic areas (n = 604) and nonendemic areas (n = 707) and from elk culture-positive for B. abortus (n = 36) were split and blind tested by four elk serum diagnostic laboratories. κ-Values showed a high degree of agreement for the card (0.876), RIV (0.84), and CF (0.774) test pairings and moderate agreement for the SPT (0.578). Sensitivities for the BAPA, card, RIV, CF, and SPT were 0.859, 0.839, 0.899, 1.00, and 0.813, whereas specificities were 0.986, 0.993, 0.986, 0.98, and 0.968, respectively. The positive predictive values and the negative predictive values were calculated for 2.6%, 8.8%, and 16.2% prevalence levels. These findings suggest the BAPA test is a suitable screening test for the B. abortus antibodies in elk.

  20. A Method to Develop Neck Injury Criteria to Aid Design and Test of Escape Systems Incorporating Helmet Mounted Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    severity strains and muscle tears to high severity cervical spine fractures and ligament ruptures (Buhrman and Perry, 1994). Perhaps this finding...recommendations for future research. 17 II. Background “The cervical spine is one of the most complex structures in the human skeleton and its...pathways and thresholds on the neck muscles, ligaments, tendons, and vertebrae . The incorporation of helmets and HMDs spawned research by the DoD

  1. Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel Part II: Plate bending test and proposal of a simplified evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Masanori, E-mail: ando.masanori@jaea.go.jp; Takaya, Shigeru, E-mail: takaya.shigeru@jaea.go.jp

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel is proposed. • A simplified evaluation method is also proposed for the codification. • Both proposed evaluation method was validated by the plate bending test. • For codification, the local stress and strain behavior was analyzed. - Abstract: In the present study, to develop an evaluation procedure and design rules for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints, a method for evaluating the creep-fatigue life of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints was proposed based on finite element analysis (FEA) and a series of cyclic plate bending tests of longitudinal and horizontal seamed plates. The strain concentration and redistribution behaviors were evaluated and the failure cycles were estimated using FEA by considering the test conditions and metallurgical discontinuities in the weld joints. Inelastic FEA models consisting of the base metal, heat-affected zone and weld metal were employed to estimate the elastic follow-up behavior caused by the metallurgical discontinuities. The elastic follow-up factors determined by comparing the elastic and inelastic FEA results were determined to be less than 1.5. Based on the estimated elastic follow-up factors obtained via inelastic FEA, a simplified technique using elastic FEA was proposed for evaluating the creep-fatigue life in Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. The creep-fatigue life obtained using the plate bending test was compared to those estimated from the results of inelastic FEA and by a simplified evaluation method.

  2. Bond-slip behavior of CFRP plate-concrete interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, D. Y.; Park, S. K.; Hong, S. N.

    2011-11-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of the bond performance between a CFRP plate and concrete with respect to various compressive strengths of concrete and bond lengths of the CFRP plate as parameters. To consider stress conditions in the tensile zone of reinforced concrete (RC) structures, double-lap axial tension tests were conducted for eight specimens with CFRP plates bonded to concrete prisms. In addition, a simple linear bond-slip model for the CFRP plate/concrete joints, developed from the bond tests, was used. To verify the model proposed, a total of seven RC beams were strengthened with CFRP plates and tested in flexure employing various bond lengths, strengthening methods, and numbers of CFRP plates. A nonlinear finite-element analysis, with the bond-slip model incorporated in the DIANA program, was performed for the strengthened RC beams. Also, the results of flexural test and analytical predictions are found to be in close agreement in terms of yield and ultimate loads and ductility.

  3. Tests of new physics from precise measurements of the Casimir pressure between two gold-coated plates

    CERN Document Server

    Decca, R S; Klimchitskaya, G L; Krause, D E; López, D; Mostepanenko, V M

    2007-01-01

    A micromechanical torsion oscillator has been used to strengthen the limits on new Yukawa forces by determining the Casimir pressure between two gold-coated plates. By significantly reducing the random errors and obtaining the electronic parameters of the gold coatings, we were able to conclusively exclude the predictions of large thermal effects below 1 $\\mu$m and strengthen the constraints on Yukawa corrections to Newtonian gravity in the interaction range from 29.5 nm to 86 nm.

  4. Experimental tests of irradiation-anneal-reirradiation effects on mechanical properties of RPV plate and weld materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States); Hawthorne, J.R. [Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States); Rochau, G.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The Charpy-V (C{sub v}) notch ductility and tensile properties of three reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel materials were determined for the 288 C (550 F) irradiated (I), 288 C (550 F) irradiated + 454 C (850 F) - 168 h postirradiation annealed (IA), and 288 C (550 F) reirradiated (IAR) conditions. Total fluences of the I condition and the IAR condition were, respectively, 3.33 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} and 4.18 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV. The irradiation portion of the IAR condition represents an incremental fluence increase of 1.05 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV, over the I-condition fluence. The annealing treatment produced full C{sub v} upper shelf recovery and full or nearly full recovery in the C{sub v} 41 J (30 ft-lb) transition temperature. The C{sub v} transition temperature increases produced by the reirradiation exposure were 22% to 43% of the increase produced by the first cycle irradiation exposure. A somewhat greater radiation embrittlement sensitivity and a somewhat greater reirradiation embrittlement sensitivity were exhibited by the low nickel content plate than the high nickel content plate. The IAR-condition properties of the surface vs. interior regions of the low nickel content plate are also compared.

  5. The Test and Study of RPC Capping Plate Bearing Capacity and Crack Resistance%RPC盖板承载力与抗裂性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄旭毅; 吴伟

    2013-01-01

      以京沪高速铁路三标段曲阜 RPC 混凝土盖板厂为依托,介绍 WDW -10型微机监测高强道板抗弯承载力试验机的开发和设计情况,并对 RPC 盖板承载力与抗裂性进行试验研究。%  The paper briefs the development and the design of the type WDW – 10 microcomputer - moni-tored high strength side walk slab bending resistant bearing capacity tester by relying on Qufu RPC Cap -ping Plate Precast Factory for the Bid 3 section of the Beijing - Shanghai High Speed Railway .Both test and study of RPC capping plate bearing capacity and crack resistance have been performed .

  6. Diagnostic performance and costs of contingent screening models for trisomy 21 incorporating non-invasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Susannah; O'Leary, Peter; Dickinson, Jan E; Suthers, Graeme K

    2017-08-01

    Contingent screening for trisomy 21 using non-invasive prenatal testing has the potential to reduce invasive diagnostic testing and increase the detection of trisomy 21. To describe the diagnostic and economic performance of prenatal screening models for trisomy 21 that use non-invasive prenatal testing as a contingent screen across a range of combined first trimester screening risk cut-offs from a public health system perspective. Using a hypothetical cohort of 300 000 pregnancies, we modelled the outcomes of 25 contingent non-invasive prenatal testing screening models and compared these to conventional screening, offering women with a high-risk (1 > 300) combined first trimester screening result an invasive test. The 25 models used a range of risk cut-offs. High-risk women were offered invasive testing. Intermediate-risk women were offered non-invasive prenatal testing. We report the cost of each model, detection rate, costs per diagnosis, invasive tests per diagnosis and the number of fetal losses per diagnosis. The cost per prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21 using the conventional model was $51 876 compared to the contingent models which varied from $49 309-66 686. The number of diagnoses and cost per diagnosis increased as the intermediate-risk threshold was lowered. Results were sensitive to trisomy 21 incidence, uptake of testing and cost of non-invasive prenatal testing. Contingent non-invasive prenatal testing models using more sensitive combined first trimester screening risk cut-offs than conventional screening improved the detection rate of trisomy 21, reduced procedure-related fetal loss and could potentially be provided at a lower cost per diagnosis than conventional screening. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Plate Penetration Tests of the 2000 lb Bomb G. P. (Low Drag) Type EX-11, Mod 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    1952-04-07

    ly. lÄmt%,sfi?r’ noch in« t .-J prcviflti» impact*. ’ --r^^*g^<----y • - ^’ jfe*V_. T>c •’•I .1 Bi^.-„ Ijtitttli ’bnUusr.-Otirjr- V -fe...plate • fe~ Thickness at impact __ . # OBLIQUITY ~’£0*~ MIL UL1M: U0/h, Impact-dimensions [9"_X £ɛ - TENETKÄT1ÖN ~ * flaking

  8. 侵彻多层钢靶板过载测试技术%Overload Testing Technology of Penetrating Multi-Layer Steel Target Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美云; 王敬斌; 王丹; 石庚辰

    2016-01-01

    针对在弹丸侵彻钢靶板过程中高过载带来的问题,研究了一种能够抗高冲击作用的弹丸侵彻多层钢靶板过载测试装置。该装置采用灌封、多层材料组合缓冲以及二次电源的措施,能保证测试装置抗高冲击作用和可靠工作。对弹丸侵彻多层钢靶板的过载特性进行了测试,结果表明所研究的测试装置能够可靠获取与记录弹丸穿过各层靶板时的加速度。%This paper presented a testing device with the ability of resisting high shock while penetrating multi-layer steel target plate to guarantee the high overload problem with plate process in the projectile penetrating steel target. Combined with potting technology, multi-layer shock absorb materials and secondary electrical power source,the device shows resistance to high shock and the ability of reliable working.Experiments on overload characteristic further proved that the device can collect and store the acceleration of penetrating multi-layer target plate with high reliability.

  9. Vehicle License Plate Recognition Syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi,R. B. Dubey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  10. Geochemical and biological impacts on trace and minor element incorporation in foraminiferal test carbonate. Geologica Ultraiectina (320)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dueñas Bohórquez, A.D.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837806

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, massive release of CO2 has affected both global climate and ocean chemistry. To predict future impacts, mankind relies on numerical modeling of the Earth system. To test whether such models reliably describe climate and ocean change as a function of

  11. Geochemical and biological impacts on trace and minor element incorporation in foraminiferal test carbonate. Geologica Ultraiectina (320)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dueñas Bohórquez, A.D.B.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, massive release of CO2 has affected both global climate and ocean chemistry. To predict future impacts, mankind relies on numerical modeling of the Earth system. To test whether such models reliably describe climate and ocean change as a function of

  12. Click yes to consent: Acceptability of incorporating informed consent into an internet-based testing program for sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark; Bonnell, Amanda; Farrell, Janine; Haag, Devon; Bondyra, Mark; Unger, David; Elliot, Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Autonomous use of online health care services without interaction with a health care provider challenges existing models for achieving informed consent (IC); current examinations of this issue have focused on commercial direct-to-consumer genetic testing. As IC is integral to publicly funded clinical testing services, we incorporated pre-test concepts necessary for IC in GetCheckedOnline (GCO), British Columbia's online sexually transmitted and blood-borne infection (STBBI) testing service. We assessed the acceptability of this IC step and its design options among potential users during usability testing of GCO. English-speaking participants≥19years were recruited from Craigslist and among provincial STI clinic clients for usability testing of an early version of GCO, which included a consent webpage presenting 8 pre-test statements for review prior to completing testing. Participants were interviewed regarding their acceptability, perceptions, and understanding of the consent page; transcripts were analyzed thematically. We conducted 13 interviews (9 males, 4 females; 9 self-identified as heterosexual; all had previously tested for STBBI). We identified three main themes: i) the meaning of IC (consent page viewed as important and for protection of individual and organization; participants demonstrated varying understandings of specific components); ii) the impact of previous experience on understanding IC (participants understood difference between online and in-person testing; IC concepts were better understood by participants with more testing experience); iii) the role of website design on achieving IC (design of page to disrupt speedy click-throughs was valued and demonstrated seriousness of the consent page). Our careful attention to both content and design of the consent page of GCO was highly valued by potential users of the service, and effective in disrupting routinization of consent on websites. We argue that principles of IC apply equally in online

  13. A Review of the Application of Body-on-a-Chip for Drug Test and Its Latest Trend of Incorporating Barrier Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoyi; Yu, Yanqiu

    2016-10-01

    High-quality preclinical bioassay models are essential for drug research and development. We reviewed the emerging body-on-a-chip technology, which serves as a promising model to overcome the limitations of traditional bioassay models, and introduced existing models of body-on-a-chip, their constitutional details, application for drug testing, and individual features of these models. We put special emphasis on the latest trend in this field of incorporating barrier tissue into body-on-a-chip and discussed several remaining challenges of current body-on-a-chip.

  14. Surface structure biomimetic design and performance testing of slippery trapping plate used for controlling agricultural insect%致灾农业昆虫捕集滑板表面结构仿生构建与性能验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立新; 黄风山; 周强

    2015-01-01

    (16.0-18.0 KV) for 100-120 s. With the incorporation of the high voltage electrostatic, the flaky graphite was absorbed to the blind holes of substrate and attached tightly. To test the function of the biomimetic slippery trapping plate, attachment forces of adult locust (Locusta migratoria manilensis) were measured with an insect micro-force measurement system in July 2015. The system mainly consisted of a force transducer (1-PW4C3), a signal conditioning module (SCXI-1520), a data acquisition platform (PCI-6221), and data-processing & displaying software. The locust was connected to the force transducer (along load direction) using a thin thread (12 cm long) fastened its neck position, and then put on the tested surface. The locust climbed on the tested surface along the load direction of the force transducer. When the thin thread started to pull, the locust crawled ahead frantically to attempt to break away from this restriction, so generated attachment forces and their maximal values were recorded. The results showed that values of attachment force provided by locust on bionic slippery trapping plate ranged from 328.7 mN to 458.3 mN, whereas on slippery surface ranged from 307.3 mN to 397.1 mN. Attachment force of locust on bionic slippery trapping plate (402.9±26.1 mN) was barely 1.1 times than that on slippery surface (361.9±25.5 mN), suggesting the biomimetic slippery trapping plate bore rather similar function as the slippery surface, thereby achieved the protected biomimetic results. The obtained conclusion provides theoretical and technical references to biomimetic development of slippery trapping plate used for controlling agricultural insect.

  15. Interest of retro-anal levator plate myorrhaphy in selected cases of descending perineum syndrome with positive anti-sagging test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beco Jacques

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levator plate sagging (LPS, usually called descending perineum syndrome, is one of the main defects encountered in perineology. This defect is classically associated with colo-proctologic functional troubles (dyschesia and anal incontinence but can also induce perineodynia, gynaecological and lower urinary tract symptoms. Methods A retrospective case series of nine female patients (mean age: 44.3 underwent an isolated retro-anal levator plate myorrhaphy (RLPM to treat symptomatic LPS confirmed by rectal examination and/or Perineocaliper®. An anti-sagging test (support of the posterior perineum must significantly improve the symptoms that were resistant to conservative treatment. The effect of the procedure on the symptoms of the 3 axes of the perineum (urological, colo-proctologic and gynecological and on perineodynia was evaluated during a follow up consultation more than 9 months after surgery. The effect of RLPM on the position of the anal margin and on the levator plate angle was studied using rectal examination, Perineocaliper® and retro-anal ultrasound. Results Before surgery, anti-sagging tests were positive for dyschesia, urinary urgency and pain. After a mean follow-up of 16.1 months, RLPM resolved or improved 2/2 cases of stress urinary incontinence, 3/5 of urinary urgency, 3/4 of dysuria, 3/3 of anal incontinence, 7/8 of dyschesia, 3/4 of cystocele, 4/5 of rectocele, 5/8 of dyspareunia and 6/7 of perineodynia. Rectal examination showed a complete suppression of sagging in 4 patients and an improvement in the 5 others. The mean reduction of perineal descent was 1.08 cm (extremes: 0–1.5. Using retro-anal ultrasound of the levator plate, the mean reduction of sagging was 12.67 degrees (extremes: 1 – 21. Conclusion Anti-sagging tests can be used before surgery to simulate the effect of RLPM. This surgical procedure seems to improve stress urinary incontinence, frequency, nocturia, urgency, dysuria, anal

  16. [Incorporation of an organic MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using independent data sources]. [MAGIC Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1992-09-01

    A project was initiated in March, 1992 to (1) incorporate a rigorous organic acid representation, based on empirical data and geochemical considerations, into the MAGIC model of acidification response, and (2) test the revised model using three sets of independent data. After six months of performance, the project is on schedule and the majority of the tasks outlined for Year 1 have been successfully completed. Major accomplishments to data include development of the organic acid modeling approach, using data from the Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC), and coupling the organic acid model with MAGIC for chemical hindcast comparisons. The incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC can account for much of the discrepancy earlier observed between MAGIC hindcasts and paleolimnological reconstructions of preindustrial pH and alkalinity for 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Additional work is on-going for model calibration and testing with data from two whole-catchment artificial acidification projects. Results obtained thus far are being prepared as manuscripts for submission to the peer-reviewed scientific literature.

  17. License plate detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, Michael; Klopovsky, Yuri; Silinskis, Normunds

    2013-12-01

    A novel algorithm for vehicle license plates localization is proposed. The algorithm is based on pixel intensity transition gradient analysis. Near to 2500 natural-scene gray-level vehicle images of different backgrounds and ambient illumination was tested. The best set of algorithm's parameters produces detection rate up to 0.94. Taking into account abnormal camera location during our tests and therefore geometrical distortion and troubles from trees this result could be considered as passable. Correlation between source data, such as license Plate dimensions and texture, cameras location and others, and parameters of algorithm were also defined.

  18. Optimization of Saltcake Removal Flowsheet at SRS through Incorporation of Testing and In-Tank Waste Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Adam G. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Tihey, John R. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Saltcake removal at SRS may be performed for several reasons: to provide space for evaporator operation (i.e., to precipitate more salt in the drop tank), to provide feed for salt processing (i.e. immobilize the waste), or to remove the salt for tank closure. Many different salt dissolution techniques have been employed in the 40 years that SRS has been performing salt removal, from a basic “Add, Sit, Remove” method (water is added on top of the saltcake and time is allowed for diffusion), to performing interstitial liquid removal, or using mixing devices to promote contact with the liquid. Lessons learned from previous saltcake removal campaigns, in addition to testing and modeling, have led to opportunities for improvements to the overall saltcake removal process. This includes better understanding of salt properties and behavior during dissolution; the primary concerns for salt dissolution are the release of radiolytic hydrogen and criticality prevention (post-dissolution). Recent developments in salt dissolution include the reuse of dilute supernate and a semi-continuous dissolution (SCD) process, where low volume mixing eductors are used to deliver water near the surface of the saltcake at the same rate as the salt solution is removed and transferred to a receipt tank.

  19. Applying the digital-image-correlation technique to measure the deformation of an old building’s column retrofitted with steel plate in an in situ pushover test

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shih-Heng Tung; Ming-Hsiang Shih; Wen-Pei Sung

    2014-06-01

    An in situ pushover test is carried out on an old building of Guan-Miao elementary school in south Taiwan. Columns of this building are seismically retrofitted with steel plate. The DIC (digital-image-correlation) technique is used to measure the deformation of the retrofitted column. The result shows that the DIC technique can be successfully applied to measure the relative displacement of the column. Additionally, thismethod leads to the measurement of relative displacements formany points on the column simultaneously. Hence, the column deformation curve, rotation and curvature can be determined using interpolation method. The resulting curvaturediagram reveals that the phenomenon of plastic hinge occurs at about 2% storey drift ratio, and that the DIC technique can be applied to measure column deformation in a full scale in situ test.

  20. Multiregional evaluation of the SimPlate heterotrophic plate count method compared to the standard plate count agar pour plate method in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R W; Osborne, K; Barnes, G; Jolliff, C; Zamani, D; Roll, B; Stillings, A; Herzog, D; Cannon, S; Loveland, S

    2000-01-01

    A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0. 95; y = 0.99X + 0.06).

  1. Multiregional Evaluation of the SimPlate Heterotrophic Plate Count Method Compared to the Standard Plate Count Agar Pour Plate Method in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, R. Wayne; Osborne, Karen; Barnes, Gary; Jolliff, Carol; Zamani, Dianna; Roll, Bruce; Stillings, Amy; Herzog, David; Cannon, Shelly; Loveland, Scott

    2000-01-01

    A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35°C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0.95; y = 0.99X + 0.06).

  2. Incorporation of Model and Parameter Uncertainty in Predicting Radionuclide Fluxes from the Climax Granite Intrusive, Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, D. M.; Pohlmann, K. F.; Pohll, G. M.; Chapman, J. B.; Ye, M.

    2006-12-01

    The Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit requires the use of numerical models to predict radionuclide flux rates from three subsurface nuclear tests conducted in a fractured rock mass. Modeling flow and transport in the Climax granite intrusive (CGI) is unique; while attributes of rock fractures have been extensively characterized in subsurface tunnel and drift complexes, information on the saturated flow system, including the position of the water table within the CGI, is largely unknown. A modified version of the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model of Belcher et al. (2004) with refined discretization in the area of the CGI is used to provide boundary conditions and a calibration target for a local-scale stochastic continuum fracture flow and transport model. Uncertainty in the Climax DVRFS model is addressed by including five different geologic framework models, each weighted according to expert elicitation. Five ground water recharge models are then applied to each of the five geologic models, resulting in a total of 25 geologic/recharge models. The CGI fracture flow model consists of 3-D discrete fracture networks, randomly distributed according to probability distribution functions for fracture location, orientation, length and permeability. The networks are directly mapped onto a 3-D finite-difference grid and MODFLOW is used to simultaneously solve for fluid flow within the fracture network and rock matrix. Flow model calibration involved matching the geometric mean of total fluid flux through 200 Monte Carlo fracture network realizations to flux computed in the subsection of the Climax DVRFS model representing the area of the local-scale model domain. By maintaining a constant log_10 mean and variance of fracture conductivity, fracture density was altered until the geometric mean of flux from all 200 network realizations is within +/- 5% of the target flux from the regional model. Variability in flux for individual realizations

  3. Development of the nanotiter plate for use in antibody and cell array technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdutt, Devin; Lui, Rodney; Davies, Kerrie; Boswell, Rod W.; dos Remedios, Cristobal G.; Charles, Christine; Bilek, Marcela M.; McKenzie, David R.

    2005-02-01

    The design and fabrication of biomedical tools using techniques common in microelectronics is becoming established procedure. In our research, we use gaseous plasma dry etching to form microstructures on silicon wafers. These are intended for use in capturing and binding antibodies and live cells in an array to be used in High Throughput Screening (HTS) and High Content Screening (HCS) of new pharmaceuticals. We call this new arraying plate the "Nanotiter" plate. The benefit of our design (100 x 100 wells in a 25 x 25 mm array) over current 96-, 384- and 1056-well microtiter plates are that the number of samples (wells) that can be tested in one plate scan can be substantially increased, the wells can be rapidly and effectively washed, and the well surfaces can be modified to modulate ligand binding. Simple crowding of wells on a plate can result in cross contamination of samples in adjacent wells during the washing. Furthermore, motile cells may migrate between the wells. 1056 microtiter plates currently cannot be washed, and washing 384 plates is problematic. Our design incorporates plasma-deposited polymers that functionally bind antibodies (or other proteins) in but not between wells. Furthermore, the wells can be shaped to minimize cell migration. Inverting the plate on a wash solution allows unbound cells to simply fall away under gravity thus minimising the contamination of adjacent wells. Thus, our Nanotiter plate represents a substantial improvement over existing technology.

  4. Calculation of cracking moment of wind-proof plate and test study%防风板开裂弯矩计算及试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元; 王起才; 郭健; 赵鹏

    2013-01-01

    The property of the cross section influences the cracking moment of the wind-shield plate, which further determines the loading scheme of the static loading test. The paper started the research with the help of the existing calculation method and computational theory,and with a reference to the force-bearing features of the plate and relevant schematic diagram of calculation,a formula for the calculation of cracking moment was eventually concluded. A comparison of the experimental values and calculation values indicates that the formula arrived is of high accuracy and its in-situ application produced effective result.%为了确定防风板静载试验的加载方案,需根据防风板截面特性计算开裂弯矩。本文立足已有开裂弯矩计算方法及计算理论,通过分析防风板的受力特点,根据恰当的应力计算图式,推导了防风板的开裂弯矩计算公式。试验值与计算值对比结果表明,用本文公式计算的开裂弯矩具有可靠的精确度,现场试验的应用效果良好。

  5. Investigation and performance tests of a new parallel plate ionization chamber with double sensitive volume for measuring diagnostic X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, B.; Zamani Zeinali, H.; Soltani, J.; Negarestani, A.; Shahvar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Medical diagnostic equipment, like diagnostic radiology and mammography require a dosimeter with high accuracy for dosimetry of the diagnostic X-ray beam. Ionization chambers are suitable instruments for dosimetry of diagnostic-range X-ray beams because of their appropriate response and high reliability. This work introduces the design and fabrication of a new parallel plate ionization chamber with a PMMA body, graphite-coated PMMA windows (0.5 mm thick) and a graphite-foil central electrode (0.1 mm thick, 0.7 g/cm3 dense). This design improves upon the response characteristics of existing designs through the specific choice of materials as well as the appropriate size and arrangement of the ionization chamber components. The results of performance tests conducted at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry laboratory in Karaj-Iran demonstrated the short and long-term stability, the low leakage current, the low directional dependence, and the high ion collection efficiency of the design. Furthermore, the FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations confirmed the low effect of central electrode on this new ionization chamber response. The response characteristics of the parallel plate ionization chamber presented in this work makes the instrument suitable for use as a standard dosimeter in laboratories.

  6. Investigation and performance tests of a new parallel plate ionization chamber with double sensitive volume for measuring diagnostic X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, B., E-mail: babak_sharifi88@yahoo.com [Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zamani Zeinali, H. [Application of Radiation Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltani, J.; Negarestani, A. [Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahvar, A. [Application of Radiation Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-11

    Medical diagnostic equipment, like diagnostic radiology and mammography require a dosimeter with high accuracy for dosimetry of the diagnostic X-ray beam. Ionization chambers are suitable instruments for dosimetry of diagnostic-range X-ray beams because of their appropriate response and high reliability. This work introduces the design and fabrication of a new parallel plate ionization chamber with a PMMA body, graphite-coated PMMA windows (0.5 mm thick) and a graphite-foil central electrode (0.1 mm thick, 0.7 g/cm{sup 3} dense). This design improves upon the response characteristics of existing designs through the specific choice of materials as well as the appropriate size and arrangement of the ionization chamber components. The results of performance tests conducted at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry laboratory in Karaj-Iran demonstrated the short and long-term stability, the low leakage current, the low directional dependence, and the high ion collection efficiency of the design. Furthermore, the FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations confirmed the low effect of central electrode on this new ionization chamber response. The response characteristics of the parallel plate ionization chamber presented in this work makes the instrument suitable for use as a standard dosimeter in laboratories.

  7. INL HIP Plate Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. H. Park; C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue

    2010-02-01

    This document outlines the process used to bond monolithic fuel plates by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). This method was developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. These foils have been used in a number of irradiation experiments in support of the United States Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program.

  8. A new medium for determining the total plate count in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C F; Townsend, D E

    1999-12-01

    SimPlate for Total Plate Count-Color Indicator (TPC-CI, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, Me.) is a new medium that incorporates the redox dye resazurin to detect and quantify bacteria in food. Enumeration is achieved by the most probable number method using a SimPlate device. Viable bacteria are detected in each well of the SimPlate device by the biochemical reduction of resazurin, which is blue, to the pink resorufin or the clear dihydroresorufin indicators. Results after 24 h of incubation for TPC-CI are highly correlated with standard plate count agar after 48 h of incubation. Correlation coefficients from studies conducted at five laboratories ranged from 0.94 to 0.98 in side-by-side comparisons against standard plate count agar. Four additional test sites, using alternative methods for determining the aerobic plate count in food, reported similar results in comparison studies (r = 0.91 to 0.97). The slopes from linear regression analysis at all sites ranged from 0.91 to 0.98, with y intercepts ranging from 0.11 to 0.84. Samples used for the validation of TPC-CI included raw food products (i.e., liver and grains), which may contain natural enzymes that interfere with enzyme-based detection methods. No interference was seen from the foods tested. These results suggest that TPC-CI is a suitable alternative to existing plate count methods and has reduced incubation time.

  9. Impact Damage of 3D Orthogonal Woven Composite Circular Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Changgan; Sun, Baozhong; Qiu, Yiping; Gu, Bohong

    2007-11-01

    The damages of 3D orthogonal woven composite circular plate under quasi-static indentation and transverse impact were tested with Materials Test System (MTS) and modified split Hopkinson bar (SHPB) apparatus. The load vs. displacement curves during quasi-static penetration and impact were obtained to study the energy absorption of the composite plate. The fluctuation of the impact stress waves has been unveiled. Differences of the load-displacement curves between the quasi-static and impact loading are discussed. This work also aims at establishing a unit-cell model to analyze the damage of composites. A user material subroutine which named VUMAT for characterizing the constitutive relationship of the 3-D orthogonal woven composite and the damage evolution is incorporated with a finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit to simulate the impact damage process of the composite plates. From the comparison of the load-displacement curves and energy absorption curves of the composite plate between experimental and FEM simulation, it is shown that the unit-cell model of the 3D woven composite and the VUMAT combined with the ABAQUS/Explicit can calculate the impact responses of the circular plate precisely. Furthermore, the model can also be extended to simulate the impact behavior of the 3D woven composite structures.

  10. Test beam results of micro channel plates in 'ionisation mode' for the detection of single charged particle and electromagnetic showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnyakov, A.; Barnyakov, M. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, pr. Akademika Lavrentieva, 11, Novosibirsk, (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, str. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, (Russian Federation); Brianza, L.; Ghezzi, A.; Gotti, C.; Govoni, P.; Martelli, A.; Marzocchi, B.; Pigazzini, S.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Trevisani, N. [Universita di Milano Bicocca and INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca,, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126, Milano, (Italy); Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Gelli, S.; Jorda Lope, C.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Pernie, L.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F. [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' and INFN, Sezione di Roma1, P.le A. Moro 1, I-00044 Rome, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    IMCP is an R and D project aimed at the exploitation of secondary emission of electrons from the surface of microchannel plates (MCP) for fast timing of showers in high rate environments. The usage of MCPs in 'ionisation' mode has long been proposed and is used extensively in ion time-of-flight mass spectrometers. What has not been investigated in depth is their use to detect the ionizing component of showers. The fast time resolution of MCPs exceeds anything that has been previously used in calorimeters, and, if exploited effectively, could aid in the event reconstruction at high luminosities. Results from tests with electrons with energies up to 150 GeV of MCP devices with different characteristics will be presented, in particular detection efficiency and time resolution. (authors)

  11. The effects of diazepam on the behavioral structure of the rat's response to pain in the hot-plate test: anxiolysis vs. pain modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, Maurizio; Sorbera, Filippina; Santangelo, Andrea; Crescimanno, Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, by means of quantitative and multivariate analyses, the effects of diazepam on the behavioral structure of the rat's response to pain in the hot-plate test as well as whether such changes are associated with drug-induced effects on anxiety and/or nociception. To this purpose, ten groups of male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with saline, diazepam (0.25, 0.5 and 2 mg/kg), FG-7142 (1, 4 and 8 mg/kg) or morphine (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg). The mean number and mean latency to first appearance were calculated for each behavioral component. In addition, multivariate cluster and adjusted residual analyses based on the elaboration of transition matrices were performed. Three main behavioral categories were identified: exploratory (walking, sniffing), primary noxious-evoked (hind paw licking, front paw licking, shaking/stamping) and escape (climbing, jumping). Although no significant modifications in the latencies of the primary noxious-evoked components were induced by treatment with diazepam or FG-7142, significant effects were provoked by morphine treatment. Multivariate analyses showed that diazepam-induced anxiolysis redirected the rat's behavior toward a more purposeful and effective escape strategy. In contrast, the high level of anxiety induced by FG-7142 caused the behavioral structure to become disorganized and not purposefully oriented. Changes in the organization of behavioral components were observed in morphine-treated animals and mainly consisted of modifications in the primary noxious-evoked and escape components. The findings suggest that the effects of diazepam on the structure of the rat's response to pain in the hot-plate test are more likely attributable to anxiolysis than pain modulation.

  12. 砂浆板冲击破坏试验研究%Damage tests for a cement mortar plate under shock load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾培英; 邓昌; 章道生; 汤雷; 王建

    2015-01-01

    通过锤击、均匀冲击荷载试验,采用逐级递增循环冲击加载方式,研究冲击荷载下砂浆板的破坏特征及冲击力、冲击能与最大加速度响应间关系。试验表明,二种冲击作用均使砂浆板跨中区域出现贯穿裂缝,呈脆性劈裂破坏形态,均匀冲击作用下破坏位置与跨中有一定偏移;锤击力时程经历主冲击、次冲击、卸载三阶段,加速度响应随锤击力增加而增加,裂缝贯穿后冲击力、加速度响应大幅减小;均匀冲击下加速度有二组响应区,响应随冲击能增加而增加,当冲击能达一定程度时响应大幅减小;继续增加冲击能,响应又会增加,并较快发生劈裂破坏,响应大幅减小;支座螺栓松动能缓冲部分冲击作用。%Hammering and uniform shock tests of a cement mortar plate were conducled.The opposite sides of the plate were elastic supports.Through cyclic shocks with amplitude increasing,the failure features,the relationship between shock force and acceleration response,and the relationship between impact energy and acceleration response of the plate were studied.The results showed that a transverse crack nearby the midspan of the plate appears,its failure state is brittle splitting;the location of failure offsets the midspan under uniform shock;time history curves of the hammering force include three stages of major shock,secondary shock and unloading;the acceleration response of the plate increases with increase in the hammering force,however,the hammering force and acceleration response decrease obviously after the transverse crack appears;there are two groups of acceleration response regions under uniform shock;the acceleration response increases with increase in impact energy;once impact energy reaches a certain level,the acceleration response decreases obviously;if impact energy continuously increases,the acceleration response increases again,brittle splitting failure occurs

  13. Standard performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 3-7/8 inches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes, and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  14. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 5 5/8 inches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  15. Comparison of the SimPlate coliform and Escherichia coli test with Petrifilm, three-tube MPN, and VRBA + MUG methods for enumerating coliforms and E. coli in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D E; Irving, R L; Naqui, A

    1998-04-01

    SimPlate for coliforms and Escherichia coli (CEc) is a new method for the detection and quantification of coliforms and E. coli in food. Internal validation of the method was carried out at IDEXX Laboratories (Westbrook, ME) with 180 food samples representing a variety of different food matrices and compared against three-tube MPN (most probable number), VRBA (violet red bile agar) + MUG, and Petrifilm (E. coli count) methods. SimPlate CEc was highly correlated with each of these methods for the quantification of coliform bacteria (r > or = 0.90). An insignificant number of food samples were found to contain E. coli; therefore, no meaningful correlation data could be generated. Four hundred forty-four additional food samples were tested at five collaborating laboratories for the presence of coliforms E. coli using SimPlate CEc and either VRBA + MUG or Petrifilm (E. coli count). Regression analysis of data from SimPlate for CEc versus Petrifilm E. coli count plates generated correlation coefficients (r) of at least 0.89 for total coliforms and at least 0.90 for generic E. coli. Correlation coefficients between SimPlate for CEc and VRBA + MUG data were at least 0.90 for coliforms and at least 0.86 for E. coli. SimPlate for CEc demonstrated better recovery of E. coli than Petrifilm when high populations of bacteria were present. E. coli was not detected in 20 or 50 (40%) raw milk samples tested by the Petrifilm method due to the presence of interfering coliform and noncoliform bacteria. It is concluded that SimPlate for CEc is a suitable alternative for determining numbers of coliform bacteria and E. coli in food.

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  17. Spanish Picture Vocabulary Test. Prueba Ilustrada de vocabulario Espanol. An Adaptation of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Manual [and] Plates. Research Project 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Florence D.; And Others

    The Spanish Picture Vocabulary Test was designed to provide a Spanish-language translation of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test which would be suitable for Spanish-speaking Puerto Rican school-children in New York City. The 300 stimulus words were translated according to a consensus of linguists and persons of Puerto Rican descent, and were…

  18. Comparison of Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination, Standard tube agglutination and Indirect ELISA tests for detection of Brucella antibodies in Cows and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Ghodasara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 180 serum samples (107 cows, 73 buffaloes from cases of abortion and various reproductive disorders were collected for detection of Brucella antibody by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT, Serum Tube Agglutination Test (STAT and indirect- ELISA (i-ELISA. The overall prevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.21%, 16.00% and 24.30% in cows 9.59%, 12.33% and 26.03% in buffaloes respectively. Overall seroprevalence of Brucellosis in cases of abortion, R.O.P. by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.32%, 16.04% and 32.08% respectively. When three serological tests were compared, seropositivity was found highest by i-ELISA (25%, followed by STAT (14.45% and RBPT (10.56%. The results shows higher prevalence of brucellosis in cases of abortion and R.O.P., while at lower level from various reproductive disorders as detected serologically indicating endemicity of the infection in villages around Anand city, Gujarat. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 61-64

  19. Flavor-postingestive consequence associations incorporate the behaviorally opposing effects of positive reinforcement and anticipated satiety: implications for interpreting two-bottle tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Z S; Weingarten, H P

    1996-09-01

    Rats consuming distinctively flavored solutions containing different numbers of calories learn to associate each flavor with the ensuing postingestive effects ("flavor-postingestive consequence learning"). The hallmark of such learning is preferential consumption of one of the flavors in two-bottle tests (both flavors presented in nutrient-identical solutions). Two experiments were conducted to characterize the relationship between the number of calories associated with flavors and subsequent preferences in two-bottle tests. In Experiment 1, three groups of rats each associated distinctive flavors with real-fed sugar and with sham-fed sugar. The groups differed in the concentration of sucrose (8%, 14%, 24%) with which they were trained. In two-bottle tests rats trained with 8% sucrose preferred the real-fed flavor, whereas rats trained with 24% sucrose preferred the sham-fed flavor. Rats trained with 14% sucrose were intermediate to the other groups. In Experiment 2, two groups of rats associated distinctive flavors with two concentrations of real-fed sucrose. In two-bottle tests, the group trained with 1% and 5% sucrose preferred the flavor paired with the higher concentration, whereas the group trained with 5% and 30% sucrose preferred the flavor paired with the lower concentration. These findings suggest that flavor-postingestive consequence learning incorporates both positive reinforcement, which has the behavioral effect of increasing intake of the associated flavor, and anticipated satiety, which has the behavioral effect of suppressing intake of the associated flavor. When a flavor is associated with relatively few calories, the positive reinforcing effect predominates over anticipated satiety. However, when a flavor is associated with a greater number of calories, anticipated satiety predominates over the positive reinforcing effect.

  20. Biocompatibility Analyses of Al2O3-Treated Titanium Plates Tested with Osteocyte and Fibroblast Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Smargiassi, Alberto; Bertacchini, Jessika; Checchi, Marta; Cavani, Francesco; Ferretti, Marzia; Palumbo, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Osseointegration of a titanium implant is still an issue in dental/orthopedic implants durable over time. The good integration of these implants is mainly due to their surface and topography. We obtained an innovative titanium surface by shooting different-in-size particles of Al2O3 against the titanium scaffolds which seems to be ideal for bone integration. To corroborate that, we used two different cell lines: MLO-Y4 (murine osteocytes) and 293 (human fibroblasts) and tested the titanium sc...

  1. Initial Testing for the Recommendation of Improved Gas Metal Arc Welding Procedures for HY-80 Steel Plate Butt Joints at Norfolk Naval Shipyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    FOR THE RECOMMENDATION OF IMPROVED GAS METAL ARC WELDING PROCEDURES FOR HY-80 STEEL PLATE BUTT JOINTS AT NORFOLK NAVAL SHIPYARD by Veronika J...FOR THE RECOMMENDATION OF IMPROVED GAS METAL ARC WELDING PROCEDURES FOR HY-80 STEEL PLATE BUTT JOINTS AT NORFOLK NAVAL SHIPYARD 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...gas metal arc welding, submarine, hull cut, butt joint, weld, shielding gas, HY-80 steel , plate 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 53 16. PRICE CODE 17

  2. Evaluation of the limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotter, Susan L.; Wood, Roger; McWeeny, David J.

    A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjuction with a Gram negative bacteria (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 15°C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment and during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeasts and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds.

  3. Biocompatibility Analyses of Al2O3-Treated Titanium Plates Tested with Osteocyte and Fibroblast Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smargiassi, Alberto; Bertacchini, Jessika; Checchi, Marta; Cavani, Francesco; Ferretti, Marzia; Palumbo, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Osseointegration of a titanium implant is still an issue in dental/orthopedic implants durable over time. The good integration of these implants is mainly due to their surface and topography. We obtained an innovative titanium surface by shooting different-in-size particles of Al2O3 against the titanium scaffolds which seems to be ideal for bone integration. To corroborate that, we used two different cell lines: MLO-Y4 (murine osteocytes) and 293 (human fibroblasts) and tested the titanium scaffolds untreated and treated (i.e., Al2O3 shot-peened titanium surfaces). Distribution, density, and expression of adhesion molecules (fibronectin and vitronectin) were evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal microscope (CM). DAPI and fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies were used to highlight nuclei, fibronectin, and vitronectin, under CM; cell distribution was analyzed after gold-palladium sputtering of samples by SEM. The engineered biomaterial surfaces showed under SEM irregular morphology displaying variously-shaped spicules. Both SEM and CM observations showed better outcome in terms of cell adhesion and distribution in treated titanium surfaces with respect to the untreated ones. The results obtained clearly showed that this kind of surface-treated titanium, used to manufacture devices for dental implantology: (i) is very suitable for cell colonization, essential prerequisite for the best osseointegration, and (ii) represents an excellent solution for the development of further engineered implants with the target to obtain recovery of stable dental function over time. PMID:28621746

  4. Isolation of phages for phage therapy: a comparison of spot tests and efficiency of plating analyses for determination of host range and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan Mirzaei, Mohammadali; Nilsson, Anders S

    2015-01-01

    Phage therapy, treating bacterial infections with bacteriophages, could be a future alternative to antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. There are, however, several problems to be solved, mainly associated to the biology of phages, the interaction between phages and their bacterial hosts, but also to the vast variation of pathogenic bacteria which implies that large numbers of different phages are going to be needed. All of these phages must under present regulation of medical products undergo extensive clinical testing before they can be applied. It will consequently be of great economic importance that effective and versatile phages are selected and collected into phage libraries, i.e., the selection must be carried out in a way that it results in highly virulent phages with broad host ranges. We have isolated phages using the Escherichia coli reference (ECOR) collection and compared two methods, spot testing and efficiency of plating (EOP), which are frequently used to identify phages suitable for phage therapy. The analyses of the differences between the two methods show that spot tests often overestimate both the overall virulence and the host range and that the results are not correlated to the results of EOP assays. The conclusion is that single dilution spot tests cannot be used for identification and selection of phages to a phage library and should be replaced by EOP assays. The difference between the two methods can be caused by many factors. We have analysed if the differences and lack of correlation could be caused by lysis from without, bacteriocins in the phage lysate, or by the presence of prophages harbouring genes coding for phage resistance systems in the genomes of the bacteria in the ECOR collection.

  5. Numerical Simulations of Dynamic Behavior of Polyurea Toughened Steel Plates under Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work discussed herein is to develop a nonlinear 3D finite element model to simulate dynamic behavior of polyurea toughened steel plates under impact loading. Experimental and numerical work related to model development are presented. Material properties are incorporated into numerical models to account for strain-rate effects on the dynamic behavior of polyurea and steel. One bare steel plate and four polyurea toughened steel plates were tested under impact loading using a pendulum impact device. Displacement time-history data from experimental work was used to validate the numerical models. Details on material model construction, finite element model development, and model validation are presented and discussed. Results indicate that the developed numerical models can reasonably predict dynamic response of polyurea toughened steel plates under impact loading.

  6. S/Ka Dichroic Plate with Rounded Corners for NASA's 34-m Beam-Waveguide Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veruttipong, W.; Khayatian, B.; Imbriale, W.

    2016-02-01

    An S-/Ka-band frequency selective surface (FSS) or a dichroic plate is designed, manufactured, and tested for use in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) 34-m beam-waveguide (BWG) antennas. Due to its large size, the proposed dichroic incorporates a new design feature: waveguides with rounded corners to cut cost and allow ease of manufacturing the plate. The dichroic is designed using an analysis that combines the finite-element method (FEM) for arbitrarily shaped guides with the method of moments and Floquet mode theory for periodic structures. The software was verified by comparison with previously measured and computed dichroic plates. The large plate was manufactured with end-mill machining. The RF performance was measured and is in excellent agreement with the analytical results. The dichroic has been successfully installed and is operational at DSS-24, DSS-34, and DSS-54.

  7. Comparison of the compact dry TC method with the standard pour plate method (AOAC official method 966.23) for determining aerobic colony counts in food samples: Performance-tested method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaka, Hidemasa; Mizuochi, Shingo; Teramura, Hajime; Nirazuka, Tadanobu

    2005-01-01

    Compact Dry TC qualifies as a rapid method kit for determining aerobic colony counts in foods. The plates are presterilized and contain culture medium and a cold-soluble gelling agent. The medium is rehydrated by inoculating 1 mL diluted sample into the center of the self-diffusible medium and allowing the solution to diffuse by capillary action. The plates can then be incubated and the colonies counted without any additional steps. The Compact Dry TC method was validated with 5 different raw meats. The performance tests were conducted at 35 degrees and 30 degrees C. In all required performance studies, no apparent differences were observed between the Compact Dry TC method and the Standard Pour Plate method (AOAC Official Method 966.23) for the detection level of aerobic microorganisms. For the accuracy claim (n = 60), a correlation factor of r2(35) = 0.9977 (35 degrees C) and r2(30) = 0.9932 (30 degrees C) could be assigned, as stated in the application for "Performance Tested Method." Quality consistency and storage robustness studies, showed no significant variations in plate count results with different production lots or plates of diverse storage age.

  8. Levator plate upward lift and levator muscle strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostaminia, Ghazaleh; Peck, Jennifer; Quiroz, Lieschen; Shobeiri, S. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of study was to compare digital palpation with the levator plate lift measured by endovaginal and transperineal dynamic ultrasound. Methods Dynamic transperineal and endovaginal ultrasound were performed as part of multicompartmental pelvic floor functional assessment. Patients were instructed to perform Kegels while a probe captured the video clip of the levator plate movement at rest and during contraction in 2D mid-sagittal posterior view. We measured the distance between the levator plate and the probe on endovaginal ultrasound as well as the distance between the levator plate and the gothic arch of the pubis in transperineal ultrasound. The change in diameter (lift) and a levator plate lift ratio (lift / rest) x 100) were calculated. Pelvic floor muscle strength was assessed by digital palpation and divided into functional and non-functional groups using the Modified Oxford Scale (MOS). Mean differences in levator plate upward lifts were compared by MOS score using student t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results 74 women were available for analysis. The mean age was 55 (SD±11.9). When measured by vaginal dynamic ultrasound, mean values of the lift and lift/rest ratio increased with increasing MOS score (ANOVA p=0.09 and p=0.04, respectively). When MOS scores were categorized to represent non-functional (MOS 0-1) and functional (MOS 2-5) muscle strength groups, the mean values of the lift (3.2 mm vs. 4.6 mm, p=0.03) and lift/rest ratio (13% vs 20%, p=0.01) were significantly higher in women with functional muscle strength. All patients with ≥ 30% lift detected by vaginal ultrasound had functional muscle strength. Conclusions Greater levator plate lift ratio detected by dynamic endovaginal ultrasound was associated with higher muscle strength as determined by MOS. This novel measurement can be incorporated into ultrasound evaluation of the levator ani function. PMID:26333568

  9. Metallographic studies of electron beam welded copper plates. EBSD studies of the cross-sections and determination of EBSD reference curves by EB-welded tensile test samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karhula, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    2013-07-15

    This work is part of Posiva's spent nuclear fuel disposal canister sealing development. Posiva has welded series of plate welding experiments at Patria Aviation Facilities. At Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science (TUT DMS) metallographic and electron microscopy studies of electron beam welded copper samples have been carried out. In this report a part of the welding test program is analyzed. The results of the cross-sections of the test welds X436-X440 and X453-X458 are presented here together with the methods used. These two sets of welds were conducted to study the effects of welding speed, annealing temperature and the presence of cosmetic pass. The aim of this study was to estimate the residual stresses present in the EB-welds using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. For this task various EBSD reference curves with tensile test samples were constructed: the recrystallized, substructured and deformed fractions of grains, the occurrence of 1.5 deg C and 2.5 deg C misorientations, the average of mean intra-grain misorientation AMIS, and the hardness could be related to the applied strain. It was found that the hardness was higher if there was a cosmetic pass on the weld. The welding speed and the annealing temperature did not seem to have a noticeable effect on the measured properties. The estimated residual stresses were mainly very low, in the range 27-34 MPa. In the values estimated based on the hardness reference curve, the maximum residual stress was 58.7 MPa (in X455A). (orig.)

  10. Seismic ACROSS Transmitter Installed at Morimachi above the Subducting Philippine Sea Plate for the Test Monitoring of the Seismogenic Zone of Tokai Earthquake not yet to Occur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitomo, T.; Kumazawa, M.; Masuda, T.; Morita, N.; Torii, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Yoshikawa, S.; Katsumata, A.; Yoshida, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Here we report the first seismic monitoring system in active and constant operation for the wave propagation characteristics in tectonic region just above the subducting plate driving the coming catastrophic earthquakes. Developmental works of such a system (ACROSS; acronym for Accurately Controlled, Routinely Operated, Signal System) have been started in 1994 at Nagoya University and since 1996 also at TGC (Tono Geoscience Center) of JAEA promoted by Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquakes (1995 Jan.17, Mj=7.3). The ACROSS is a technology system including theory of signal and data processing based on the brand new concept of measurement methodology of Green function between a signal source and observation site. The works done for first generation system are reported at IWAM04 and in JAEA report (Kumazawa et al.,2007). The Meteorological Research Institute of JMA has started a project of test monitoring of Tokai area in 2004 in corporation with Shizuoka University to realize the practical use of the seismic ACROSS for earthquake prediction researches. The first target was set to Tokai Earthquake not yet to take place. The seismic ACROSS transmitter was designed so as to be appropriate for the sensitive monitoring of the deep active fault zone on the basis of the previous technology elements accumulated so far. The ground coupler (antenna) is a large steel-reinforced concrete block (over 20m3) installed in the basement rocks in order to preserve the stability. Eccentric moment of the rotary transmitter is 82 kgm at maximum, 10 times larger than that of the first generation. Carrier frequency of FM signal for practical use can be from 3.5 to 15 Hz, and the signal phase is accurately controlled by a motor with vector inverter synchronized with GPS clock with a precision of 10-4 radian or better. By referring to the existing structure model in this area (Iidaka et al., 2003), the site of the transmitting station was chosen at Morimachi so as to be appropriate for detecting the

  11. 一体化瞬态高温智能存储测试系统设计%Design of incorporate intelligent test system for transient high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石正全; 李新娥; 郝晓剑

    2014-01-01

    为解决当前瞬态高温测试中存在的测试系统对瞬态高温参数信号响应速度慢、动态特性不足、设备布设及装置回收不便等问题,综合运用无线通信技术、数据采集与缓冲技术和存储测试技术,设计了一种通用一体化瞬态高温智能存储测试系统。该系统可用于特殊测试环境下瞬态高温参数的测试,并实时记录存储测试数据和处理结果。设计了基于蓝宝石黑体平面的瞬态高温敏感体、数据处理存储模块和无线模块,并将瞬态高温敏感体、数据处理存储模块和无线模块进行一体化设计。通过ZigBee模块对系统进行参数设置(上、下电、触发电平、测量范围等),使用AVR单片机和FP GA为主控芯片,解决了特殊测试环境下瞬态高温参数的测试采集问题。实际测试结果表明,该瞬态高温智能存储测试系统可准确获得被测温度场瞬态高温参数,具有无线遥控、微功耗、高精度、抗高冲击、抗干扰、微型化、工作稳定和可靠性高等特点,适于恶劣测试环境下瞬态高温参数的测试和记录。%Aimed at the problems of the slow response speed of the transient high temperature parameter signal, the inadequacy of the dynamic characteristics of the test system, the inconwenience of the equipment layout of the test system and the recycle of the test device in the current transient high temperature testing,the incorporate intelligent test system for transient high temperature,which is universal and multi-channel,was designed based on the wireless communication technology,the data acquisition and buffer technology and the storage test technology. The system can be used for transient temperature parameter test in special testing environment,and the real-time record storage of the test data and the processing results. The transient high temperature sensitive body was designed based on the sapphire plane blackbody,the data

  12. Collaborative guarded-hot-plate tests between the Laboratoire national de métrologie et d’essais and the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarr, Robert R.; Guthrie, William F.; Hay, Bruno; Koenen, Alain

    2017-02-01

    A collaborative study to compare the long-term measurement performance between guarded-hot-plate facilities at the Laboratoire national de métrologie et d’essais (LNE) in France and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the United States is presented. Thermal conductivity data were compiled from three international comparisons organized from 1997 to 2014. Measurements were conducted in accordance with standardized test methods (ISO 8302 or ASTM C 177) over a temperature range from 280 K to 320 K. Nine thermal insulating materials (either mineral fiber or expanded polystyrene) were examined covering broad ranges of bulk densities (13 kg · m-3-200 kg · m-3) and thicknesses (13 mm-70 mm). A different set of specimens was utilized for each comparison. Results of this study indicate that, over a 17 year interval, the majority of test data from LNE and NIST agreed to within  ±1.0%, or less, for mineral fiber materials and to within  ±0.5%, or less, for expanded polystyrene. The long-term variability limit of 1% between the two laboratories is in good agreement with their current measurement uncertainties. Regression coefficients and their standard uncertainties for a straight-line model relating thermal conductivity to temperature from 280 K to 320 K were computed by material and laboratory. Graphical analysis of the data and corresponding fits exhibit consistent behavior by material type between the two laboratories. Sources of measurement variability are addressed.

  13. Simulation, construction and testing of a two-cylinder solar Stirling engine powered by a flat-plate solar collector without regenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakolpour, Ali Reza; Zomorodian, Ali [Department of Mechanics of Farm Machinery Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran); Akbar Golneshan, Ali [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran)

    2008-01-15

    In this research, a gamma-type, low-temperature differential (LTD) solar Stirling engine with two cylinders was modeled, constructed and primarily tested. A flat-plate solar collector was employed as an in-built heat source, thus the system design was based on a temperature difference of 80{sup o}C. The principles of thermodynamics as well as Schmidt theory were adapted to use for modeling the engine. To simulate the system some computer programs were written to analyze the models and the optimized parameters of the engine design were determined. The optimized compression ratio was computed to be 12.5 for solar application according to the mean collector temperature of 100{sup o}C and sink temperature of 20{sup o}C. The corresponding theoretical efficiency of the engine for the mentioned designed parameters was calculated to be 0.012 for zero regenerator efficiency. Proposed engine dimensions are as follows: power piston stroke 0.044 m, power piston diameter 0.13 m, displacer stroke 0.055 m and the displacer diameter 0.41 m. Finally, the engine was tested. The results indicated that at mean collector temperature of 110{sup o}C and sink temperature of 25{sup o}C, the engine produced a maximum brake power of 0.27 W at 14 rpm. The mean engine speed was about 30 rpm at solar radiation intensity of 900 W/m{sup 2} and without load. The indicated power was computed to be 1.2 W at 30 rpm. (author)

  14. Thin plate neotectonic models of the Australian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, D. R.

    2004-10-01

    Thin plate finite element models of the neotectonic deformation of the Australian plate have been calculated in order to estimate the stress and strain rate within the plate, specifically concentrating on the Australian continent. The model includes plate-bounding faults, an anelastic brittle-ductile layered rheology and the option of laterally varying elevation and heat flow. The results of the models are compared to (1) the velocity of geodetic benchmarks on the Australian plate, (2) the spreading rate of the mid-oceanic ridges along the Australian plate's margins, (3) the direction of the maximum horizontal principal stress, (4) the stress regime within the plate, and (5) the crustal thickness estimated from the depth to the base of Mohorovicic discontinuity's transition zone. A variety of models are tested with a wide range of input parameters. The model with the smallest misfit with observations predicts that the strain rate for most of the Australian continent is approximately 10-17 s-1. This model has a slightly lower strain rate in the central Australia and is higher off the northern coast of Australia than for the rest of the continent. Strain rates of this magnitude would be difficult to observe from geodetic or geologic data for most parts of Australia but would be enough to generate much of the seismicity that has been observed over the last century.

  15. Peridinialean dinoflagellate plate patterns, labels and homologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Tabulation patterns for peridinialean dinoflagellate thecae and cysts have been traditionally expressed using a plate labelling system described by C.A. Kofoid in the early 1900's. This system can obscure dinoflagellate plate homologies and has not always been strictly applied. The plate-labelling system presented here introduces new series labels but incorporates key features and ideas from the more recently proposed systems of G.L. Eaton and F.J.R. Taylor, as modified by W.R. Evitt. Plate-series recognition begins with the cingulum (C-series) and proceeds from the cingulum toward the apex for the three series of the epitheca/epicyst and proceeds from the cingulum toward the antapex for the two series of the hypotheca/hypocyst. The epithecal/epicystal model consists of eight plates that touch the anterior margin of the cingulum (E-series: plates E1-E7, ES), seven plates toward the apex that touch the E-series plates (M-series: R, M1-M6), and up to seven plates near the apex that do not touch E-series plates (D-series: Dp-Dv). The hypothecal/hypocystal model consists of eight plates that touch the posterior margin of the cingulum (H-series: H1-H6,HR,HS) and three plates toward the antapex (T1-T3). Epithecal/epicystal tabulation patterns come in both 8- and 7- models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the E-series. Hypothecal/hypocystal tabulation patterns also come in both 8- and 7-models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the H-series. By convention, the 7-model epitheca/epicyst has no plates E1 and M1; the 7-model hypotheca/hypocyst has no plate H6. Within an 8-model or 7-model, the system emphasizes plates that are presumed to be homologous by giving them identical labels. I introduce the adjectives "monothigmate", "dithigmate," and "trithigmate" to designate plates touching one, two, and three plates, respectively, of the adjacent series. The term "thigmation" applies to the analysis of plate contacts between

  16. Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control of Plate Vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Manu Sharma; Singh, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, fuzzy logic is meshed with sliding mode control, in order to control vibrations of a cantilevered plate. Test plate is instrumented with a piezoelectric sensor patch and a piezoelectric actuator patch. Finite element method is used to obtain mathematical model of the test plate. A design approach of a sliding mode controller for linear systems with mismatched time-varying uncertainties is used in this paper. It is found that chattering around the sliding surface in the sliding ...

  17. Ultrasonic and eddy current testing of austenitic platings of reactor pressure vessels - qualification according the ENIQ method; Ultraschall- und Wirbelstrompruefung austenitischer Plattierungen von Reaktorbehaeltern - Qualifizierung nach der Methode von ENIQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Just, T.; Csapo, G. [TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH and Co. KG, Hamburg (Germany); Brenner, W. [TUeV Sueddeutschland-ET, Mannheim (Germany); Waidele, H. [MPA, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In the context of the research project SR2318, which received funds from the Federal Radiation Protection Office (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz) and the BMU, the accuracy of eddy current and ultrasonic tests of austenitic platings on reactor pressure vessels was investigated. The results were evaluated with a view to qualification of combined ultrasonic and eddy current tests of platings and base materials on the one hand; on the other hand, a standard test procedure according to the ENIQ method (European Network of Inspection Qualification) is proposed which can serve as a basis for qualification of test procedures. Summarizing suggestions are made for updating the KTA 3201.4 regulation for recurrent inspections of platings. The results of research project SR 2351 are considered. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz bzw. des BMU gefoerderten Untersuchungsvorhabens SR2318 wurde die Aussagefaehigkeit von Ultraschall- und Wirbelstrompruefungen an austenitischen Plattierungen von Reaktordruckbehaeltern untersucht. Die im Untersuchungsvorhaben erzielten Ergebnisse werden zum einen hinsichtlich der Qualifizierung der Pruefung von Plattierungen und des daran angrenzenden Grundwerkstoffes mittels mechanisierter Ultraschallpruefung in Kombination mit der Wirbelstrompruefung bewertet, und es wird zum anderen beispielhaft ein Muster fuer eine Qualifizierung nach der Methodik von ENIQ (European Network of Inspection Qualification) vorgeschlagen, nach dem kuenftig bei Qualifikationen von Pruefverfahren vorgegangen werden kann. Als Quintessenz werden daraus Vorschlaege zur Ergaenzung der Regel KTA 3201.4 hinsichtlich der wiederkehrenden Pruefungen (WKP) von Plattierungsbereichen formuliert. Dabei sind die Ergebnisse des Untersuchungsvorhabens SR 2351 einbezogen worden. (orig.)

  18. Processless offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mahović Poljaček

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.

  19. Standard Test Method for Measuring the Curved Beam Strength of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite - (View Full Text) D6416/D6416M-01(2007) Standard Test Method for Two-Dimensional Flexural Properties of Simply Supported Sandwich Composite Plates Subjected to a Distributed Load

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    Standard Test Method for Measuring the Curved Beam Strength of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite - (View Full Text) D6416/D6416M-01(2007) Standard Test Method for Two-Dimensional Flexural Properties of Simply Supported Sandwich Composite Plates Subjected to a Distributed Load

  20. Evaluation of korzincalloy prepared by Hohman Plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hollingshad, A. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-17

    A commercial vendor, Hohman Plating performed contract engineering work to determine the feasibility of producing pin hole free KorZincAlloy bronze material used for zinc gettering. Samples were tested for Sn plating thickness, heat treatability, and chemistry prior to being subjected to a standardized zinc exposure. The samples absorbed zinc and were examined using visual and scanning electron microscopy. Hohman Plating successfully produced KZA that met the target composition, was pin hole free, and was an effective zinc getter.

  1. Histologia da pele da carpa prateada (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix e testes de resistência do couro Histology of silver-plated carp skin (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix and leather resistance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com os objetivos de analisar a histologia da pele e avaliar a influência da técnica de curtimento e da posição da retirada do corpo-de-prova sobre a qualidade da pele de carpa prateada (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix. Vinte e três peixes foram insensibilizados para retirada das peles para curtimento. Amostras referentes a três peixes foram fixadas em formol 10%. Após a inclusão em parafina, foram cortadas com aproximadamente 5 mm de espessura e coradas pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina (HE. Após o curtimento das peles, foram retirados os corpos-de-prova para os testes de resistência. Os testes foram realizados com dinamômetro EMIC, com velocidade de afastamento entre cargas de 100 ± 20 mm/mm, em ambiente climatizado a 23ºC e umidade relativa do ar de 50% por um período de 24 horas. As peles curtidas com sais de cromo apresentaram maior resistência à tração (16,96 N/mm², ao alongamento (51,49% e ao rasgamento progressivo (16,75 N/mm quando comparadas àquelas curtidas sem sais de cromo (tração = 9,12 N/mm², alongamento = 17,48% e rasgamento = 11,36 N/mm. O sentido da retirada dos corpos-de-prova não interferiu nas características de tração, elongação, carga de ruptura, rasgo, força máxima e carga de força. A técnica de curtimento (utilizando ou não sais de cromo influencia a resistência das peles de carpa prateada. A técnica empregando os sais de cromo proporciona maior resistência ao couro.The objectives of this trial were to analyze the skin histology and to evaluate the influence of tanning technique and the direction removal of samples on skin quality of silver-plated carp (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix. Twenty-three fishes were sacrificed and the skin was removed for tanning. Samples of three fishes were settled in formol 10% and, after inclusion in paraffin, the samples were cut with approximately 5 mm of thickness and colored by the hematoxylin-eosin technique (HE. After skin

  2. Generalized Mathematical Model for Hot Rolling Process of Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenshan CUI; Bingye XU

    2003-01-01

    A generalized mathematical model is developed to predict the changes of temperature, rolling pressure, strain,strain rate, and austenite grain size for plate hot rolling and cooling processes. The model is established mainly by incorporating analytical an

  3. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Mohan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT, microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT, indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (p<0.0001. The mean MAT titers were 2.244±0.727 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was very significant (p<0.005. The mean IHA titers in infected cattle were 2.284±0.574, and those in healthy vaccinated cattle were 1.200±0.155. The difference was extremely significant (p=0.0002. However, the difference in mean iELISA titers of infected cattle (1.3678±0.014 and healthy vaccinated cattle (1.367±0.014 was non-significant. The infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. However, it cannot be ascertained whether these antibodies are due to vaccine or response to infection. Since the infected animals had been vaccinated earlier, the current infection may suggest that vaccination was unable to induce protective levels of antibody. The heightened antibody response after infection may also indicate a secondary immune response to the antigens common to the vaccine strain and wild Brucella organisms. Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals.

  4. Single-Cylinder Engine Tests of Porous Chrome-Plated Cylinder Barrels with Special Bore Coatings for Radial Air-Cooled Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-01-01

    sulphamate solution at room temperature having a hydrogen-ion concentration of 1.5. The cylinder was plated for 2 minutes with a current density of 40...for any metal combination (reference 3), engine friction may be reduced somewhat by the use of a silver overplate as a bearing material on the...Cooled Engines. NACA ARR No. E5L18, 1945. 3. Hoyt, Samuel L.: Metals and Alloys Data Book. Reinhold Pub. Corp., 1943, p. 281. 4. Downing, B. F

  5. Uncertainty evaluation of aerobic plate count by proficiency testing%能力验证菌落总数测定结果不确定度的评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海华; 兰茜

    2015-01-01

    目的:对实验室能力验证样品菌落总数进行不确定度评定。方法能力验证菌落总数依据 GB 4789.2-2010《食品安全国家标准食品微生物学检验菌落总数测定》以及能力验证计划参试指导书来进行测定和结果判断,再根据JJF 1059.1-2012《测量不确定度评定与表示》的规定,对测定过程中引入的不确定度分量进行评定,然后采用合成的方法来计算和评定菌落总数的不确定度。结果菌落总数测定结果合成不确定度为0.05042,扩展不确定度为0.1008(以对数计)。结论本研究建立的方法可以对能力验证样品的菌落总数进行不确定度评定,此方法适合于类似检测条件下菌落总数不确定度的评定。%ABSTRACT:Objective To evaluate the uncertainty of aerobic plate count by proficiency testing. Methods Proficiency testing of aerobic plate count was conducted under the direction of GB 4789.2-2010 National food safety standard microbiological examination in food:Aerobic plate count and CFAPA-024 Reference book for microbiological ability verification plan in food. Then, the uncertainty components introduced in the experiment were determined according to JJF1059.1-2012 Evaluation and expression of uncertainty in measurements. Finally, synthetic method was used to calculate and assess the uncertainty of aerobic plate count. Results The combined uncertainty of aerobic plate count was 0.05042, the expanded uncertainty was U(1og)=0.1008. Conclusion The method established in this study can be used in the uncertainty evaluation of aerobic plate count under similar circumstances.

  6. Spring-forward in composite plate elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijskamp, Sebastiaan; Lamers, E.A.D.; Akkerman, Remko; Banabic, D.

    2005-01-01

    Spring-forward is a distortion of corner sections in continuous fibre reinforced composite products. The linear thermoelastic prediction for the spring-forward of single curved geometries is incorporated in a FE formulation for plate elements in order to simulate the spring-forward of doubly curved

  7. Spring-forward in composite plate elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijskamp, S.; Lamers, E.A.D.; Akkerman, R.

    2005-01-01

    Spring-forward is a distortion of corner sections in continuous fibre reinforced composite products. The linear thermoelastic prediction for the spring-forward of single curved geometries is incorporated in a FE formulation for plate elements in order to simulate the spring-forward of doubly curved

  8. Reasons Analysis on Laminated Fracture of DH36 Hull Plate During Tensile Test%DH36船板钢拉伸断口分层的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鑫; 郭汉杰; 李宏亮; 吴建中; 刘锦强

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for the laminated fracture tinder tensile test of DH36 hull plate were researched by metallurgical observation and SEM observation. The results show that the main reasons are the aggregation of MnS as well as the martensite and bainite banded structure in the center of plate.%采用金相检验、扫描电镜检验等手段对DH36船板钢拉伸断口分层缺陷进行了分析.结果表明:DH36船板钢拉伸断口分层缺陷主要是由钢板厚度中心条状MnS夹杂和宽大的贝氏体、马氏体带状组织引起的.

  9. Plating on some difficult-to-plate metals and alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1980-02-01

    Electrodeposition of coatings on metals such as beryllium, beryllium-copper, Kovar, lead, magnesium, thorium, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zirconium, and their alloys can be problematic. This is due in most cases to a natural oxide surface film that readily reforms after being removed. The procedures we recommend for plating on these metals rely on replacing the oxide film with a displacement coating, or etching to allow mechanical keying between the substrate and plated deposit. The effectiveness of the procedures is demonstrated by interface bond strengths found in ring-shear and conical-head tensile tests.

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. ... vegetables . Now in one of the small sections, put grains and starchy foods. See this list of ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... 2016 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  13. Food guide plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chips or cookies. VEGETABLES: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Vegetables can be raw, fresh, ... as a snack. FRUITS: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits can be fresh, canned, ...

  14. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  19. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reset Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing ... en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes. ...

  1. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  2. Impact behaviour of stiffened steel plates

    OpenAIRE

    Sølvernes, Sindre Hellem

    2015-01-01

    The impact behavior of stiffened steel plates subjected to impact loading from concentrated loads was studied experimentally and numerically. Both dynamic and quasi-static tests of stiffened steel plates with geometry adopted from a typical external deck area on an offshore platform were conducted. The quasi-static tests were performed to study the relationship between dynamic impact behavior and the corresponding static ones. All tests were carried out in scale 1:4. To allow the executio...

  3. Exploring the Incorporation of Executive Functions in Intelligence Testing: Factor Analysis of the WAIS-III and Traditional Tasks of Executive Functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, L. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Wingbermühle, P.A.M.; Wiltink, M.; Heijden, P.T. van der; Egger, J.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – third edition (WAIS-III) and executive functions. The Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Stroop Color-Word Test were administered to a

  4. Evaluation of Two Methods for Incorporating a Systematic Uncertainty into a Test of the Background-only Hypothesis for a Poisson Process

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Jordan

    2008-01-01

    Hypothesis tests for the presence of new sources of Poisson counts amidst background processes are frequently performed in high energy physics, gamma ray astronomy, and other branches of science. This talk brie y summarizes work in which we evaluate two classes of algorithms for dealing with uncertainty in the mean background in such tests.

  5. Improvements in Cold-Plate Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffetti, Mark A.; Taddey, Edmund P.; Laurin, Michael B.; Chabebe, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Five improvements are reported in cold-plate fabrication. This cold plate is part of a thermal control system designed to serve on space missions. The first improvement is the merging of the end sheets of the cold plate with the face sheets of the structural honeycomb panel. The cold plate, which can be a brazed assembly, uses the honeycomb face sheet as its end sheet. Thus, when the honeycomb panel is fabricated, the face sheet that is used is already part of the cold plate. In addition to reducing weight, costs, and steps, the main benefit of this invention is that it creates a more structurally sound assembly. The second improvement involves incorporation of the header into the closure bar to pass the fluid to a lower layer. Conventional designs have used a separate header, which increases the geometry of the system. The improvement reduces the geometry, thus allowing the cold plate to fit into smaller area. The third improvement eliminates the need of hose, tube, or manifold to supply the cooling fluid externally. The external arrangement can be easily damaged and is vulnerable to leakage. The new arrangement incorporates an internal fluid transfer tube. This allows the fluid to pass from one cold plate to the other without any exposed external features. The fourth improvement eliminates separate fabrication of cold plate(s) and structural members followed by a process of attaching them to each other. Here, the structural member is made of material that can be brazed just as that of the cold plate. Now the structural member and the cold plate can be brazed at the same time, creating a monolithic unit, and thus a more structurally sound assembly. Finally, the fifth improvement is the elimination of an additional welding step that can damage the braze joints. A tube section, which is usually welded on after the braze process, is replaced with a more structurally sound configuration that can be brazed at the same time as the rest of the cold plate.

  6. Angular shear plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  7. Interplate coupling at oblique subduction zones: influence on upper plate erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, Cristina; Gerya, Taras; Crispini, Laura; Federico, Laura; Scambelluri, Marco; Capponi, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    In active subduction zones, when the converging plates cannot slip freely past each other, "plate coupling" occurs. The moving subducting slab and therefore the coupling/decoupling relationship between plates control both short- and long-term deformation of the upper plate. Short-term deformation is dominantly elastic, occurs at human timescales and can be directly associated with earthquakes. Long-term deformation is cumulative, permanent and prevails at the geological timescale (Hoffman-Rothe et al., 2006, Springer Berlin Heidelberg). Here we used 3D numerical simulations to test oblique subduction zones and to investigate: 1) how long-term deformation and coupling relationship vary along the trench-axis; 2) how this relationship influences erosion and down-drag of upper plate material. Our models are based on thermo-mechanical equations solved with finite differences method and marker-in-cell techniques combined with a multigrid approach (Gerya, 2010, Cambridge Univ. Press). The reference model simulates an intraoceanic subduction close to the continental margin (Malatesta et al., 2013, Nature Communications, 4:2456 DOI:10.1038/ncomms3456). The oceanic crust is layered with a 5-km-thick layer of gabbro overlain by a 3-km-thick layer of basalt. The ocean floor is covered by 1-km-thick sediments. Plates move with a total velocity of 3.15 cm/yr; the oblique convergence is obtained using velocity vectors that form an angle of 45° with the initial starting point of subduction (weak zone in the lithosphere). After initiation of plate convergence, part of sediments on top of the incoming plate enters the subduction zone and is buried; another part is suddenly transferred along strike at shallow depths and along the subducting slab according to the direction of the along-trench velocity component of subduction. The lateral migration of sediment causes the evolution of the trench along its strike from sediment-poor to sediment-rich. As soon as subduction starts, where

  8. Exploring the Incorporation of Executive Functions in Intelligence Testing: Factor Analysis of the WAIS-III and Traditional Tasks of Executive Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Aken, L. van; R.P.C. Kessels; Wingbermühle, P.A.M.; Wiltink, M.; Heijden, P.T. van der; Egger, J.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – third edition (WAIS-III) and executive functions. The Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Stroop Color-Word Test were administered to a heterogeneous group of 234 psychiatric patients and 24 healthy volunteers. Maximum likelihood procedures with promax rotation were applied to two, three and four factor solutions. The four factor m...

  9. Shaking table test study on shear walls with concrete-filled steel tube columns and embedded steel-plate%钢管混凝土边框内藏钢板剪力墙振动台试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹万林; 王尧鸿; 董宏英; 张建伟

    2011-01-01

    进行了4个钢板剪力墙模型的模拟地震振动台试验,其中2个模型为钢管混凝土边框钢板剪力墙,高宽比分别为1.7和3.2;2个模型为钢管混凝土边框内藏钢板剪力墙,高宽比分别为1.7和3.2.试验中输人Taft地震动,测试了各试件在不同峰值加速度下的时程地震反应和动力特性,分析了剪力墙的破坏特征.研究表明:钢管混凝土边框内藏钢板混凝土剪力墙与钢管混凝土边框钢板剪力墙相比,地震反应明显较小,抗震性能显著提高.%Four steel-plate shear walls were tested on the shaking table. Two of the walls are steel-plate shear walls with concrete-filled steel tube columns and the other two are composite shear walls with concrete-filled steel tube columns and embedded steel-plate. The ratio of height to width is 1.7 and 3.2 respectively. The Taft seismic ground motion was input in the shaking table test. Based on the experiment, dynamic characters, dynamic responses and failure modes of the four specimens in different seismic peak accelerations are contrastively analyzed. The results show that compared with the steel-plate shear walls with concrete-filled steel tube columns, shear walls with concrete-filled steel tube columns and embedded steel-plate have the following characteristics: the dynamic responses are significantly reduced, the seismic behavior is significantly improved.

  10. Flow of nanofluid past a Riga plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Adeel, E-mail: adeelahmed@comsats.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Laboratoire J.A. Dieudonné, Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice (France); Asghar, Saleem [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Afzal, Sumaira [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-03-15

    This paper studies the mixed convection boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a vertical Riga plate in the presence of strong suction. The mathematical model incorporates the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects due to nanofluid and the Grinberg-term for the wall parallel Lorentz force due to Riga plate. The analytical solution of the problem is presented using the perturbation method for small Brownian and thermophoresis diffusion parameters. The numerical solution is also presented to ensure the reliability of the asymptotic method. The comparison of the two solutions shows an excellent agreement. The correlation expressions for skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are developed by performing linear regression on the obtained numerical data. The effects of nanofluid and the Lorentz force due to Riga plate, on the skin friction are discussed. - Highlights: • Mixed convection flow of a nanofluid past a vertical Riga plate. • The Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects due to nanofluid are incorporated. • Grinberg-term represents the wall parallel Lorentz force due to Riga plate. • The correlation expressions for skin friction, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are developed. • The effects of nanofluid and the Lorentz force on the skin friction are discussed.

  11. Incorporation of gypsum waste in ceramic block production: Proposal for a minimal battery of tests to evaluate technical and environmental viability of this recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Testolin, Renan C; Janke, Leandro; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2012-01-01

    Civil engineering-related construction and demolition debris is an important source of waste disposed of in municipal solid waste landfills. After clay materials, gypsum waste is the second largest contributor to the residential construction waste stream. As demand for sustainable building practices grows, interest in recovering gypsum waste from construction and demolition debris is increasing, but there is a lack of standardized tests to evaluate the technical and environmental viability of this solid waste recycling process. By recycling gypsum waste, natural deposits of gypsum might be conserved and high amounts of the waste by-product could be reused in the civil construction industry. In this context, this paper investigates a physical property (i.e., resistance to axial compression), the chemical composition and the ecotoxicological potential of ceramic blocks constructed with different proportions of clay, cement and gypsum waste, and assesses the feasibility of using a minimal battery of tests to evaluate the viability of this recycling process. Consideration of the results for the resistance to axial compression tests together with production costs revealed that the best formulation was 35% of plastic clay, 35% of non-plastic clay, 10% of Portland cement and 20% of gypsum waste, which showed a mean resistance of 4.64MPa. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed calcium and sulfur to be the main elements, while quartz, gypsum, ettringite and nacrite were the main crystalline compounds found in this formulation. Ecotoxicity tests showed that leachate from this formulation is weakly toxic toward daphnids and bacteria (EC(20%)=69.0 and 75.0, respectively), while for algae and fish the leachate samples were not toxic at the EC(50%) level. Overall, these results show that the addition of 20% of gypsum waste to the ceramic blocks could provide a viable substitute for clay in the ceramics industry and the tests applied in this study proved to be a useful tool

  12. Application of a novel integrated toxicity testing strategy incorporating "3R" principles of animal research to evaluate the safety of a new agrochemical sulfoxaflor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Claire; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Saghir, Shakil; Marty, Sue; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Billington, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Plant protection products (PPPs) and the active substance(s) contained within them are rigorously and comprehensively tested prior to registration to ensure that human health is not impacted by their use. In recent years, there has been a widespread drive to have more relevant testing strategies (e.g., ILSI/HESI-ACSA and new EU Directives), which also take account of animal welfare, including the 3R (replacement, refinement, and reduction) principles. The toxicity potential of one such new active substance, sulfoxaflor, a sulfoximine insecticide (CAS #946578-00-3), was evaluated utilizing innovative testing strategies comprising: (1) an integrated testing scheme to optimize information obtained from as few animals as possible (i.e., 3R principles) through modifications of standard protocols, such as enhanced palatability study design, to include molecular endpoints, additional neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity parameters in a subchronic toxicity study, and combining multiple test guidelines into one study protocol; (2) generation of toxicokinetic data across dose levels, sexes, study durations, species, strains and life stages, without using satellite animals, which was a first for PPP development, and (3) addition of prospective mode of action (MoA) endpoints within repeat dose toxicity studies as well as proactive inclusion of specific MoA studies as an integral part of the development program. These novel approaches to generate key data early in the safety evaluation program facilitated informed decision-making on the need for additional studies and contributed to a more relevant human health risk assessment. This supplement also contains papers which describe in more detail the approach taken to establish the MoA and human relevance framework related to toxicities elicited by sulfoxaflor in the mammalian toxicology studies: developmental toxicity in rats mediated via the fetal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ( Ellis-Hutchings et al. 2014 ); liver

  13. Instruments of RT-2 Experiment onboard CORONASPHOTON and their test and evaluation III: Coded Aperture Mask and Fresnel Zone Plates in RT-2/CZT Payload

    CERN Document Server

    Nandi, Anuj; Debnath, D; Chakrabarti, Sandip K; Kotoch, T B; Sarkar, R; Yadav, Vipin K; Girish, V; Rao, A R; Bhattacharya, D; 10.1007/s10686-010-9184-3

    2010-01-01

    Imaging in hard X-rays of any astrophysical source with high angular resolution is a challenging job. Shadow-casting technique is one of the most viable options for imaging in hard X-rays. We have used two different types of shadow-casters, namely, Coded Aperture Mask (CAM) and Fresnel Zone Plate (FZP) pair and two types of pixellated solid-state detectors, namely, CZT and CMOS in RT-2/CZT payload, the hard X-ray imaging instrument onboard the CORONAS-PHOTON satellite. In this paper, we present the results of simulations with different combinations of coders (CAM & FZP) and detectors that are employed in the RT-2/CZT payload. We discuss the possibility of detecting transient Solar flares with good angular resolution for various combinations. Simulated results are compared with laboratory experiments to verify the consistency of the designed configuration.

  14. Microstructural characterization of an irradiated RERTR-6 U-7Mo/AA4043 alloy dispersion fuel plate specimen blister-tested to a final temperature of 500 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Gan, Jian; Miller, Brandon D.; Robinson, Adam B.; Madden, James W.; Ross Finlay, M.; Moore, Glenn; Medvedev, Pavel; Meyer, Mitch

    2017-05-01

    The Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program, in the past called the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, is developing low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels for application in research and test reactors. U-Mo alloy dispersion fuel is one type being developed. Blister testing has been performed on different fuel plate samples to determine the margin to failure for fuel plates irradiated to different fission densities. Microstructural characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy on a sample taken from a U-7Mo/AA4043 matrix dispersion fuel plate irradiated in the RERTR-6 experiment that was blister-tested up to a final temperature of 500 °C. The results indicated that two types of grain/cell boundaries were observed in the U-7Mo fuel particles, one with a relatively low Mo content and fission gas bubbles and a second type enriched in Si, due to interdiffusion from the Si-containing matrix, with little evidence of fission gas bubbles. With respect to the behavior of the major fission gas Xe, a significant amount of the Xe was still observed within the U-7Mo fuel particle, along with microns into the AA4043 matrix. For the fuel/matrix interaction layers that form during fabrication and then grow during irradiation, they change from the as-irradiated amorphous structure to one that is crystalline after blister testing. In the AA4043 matrix, the original Si-rich precipitates, which are typically observed in as-irradiated U-Mo dispersion fuel, get consumed due to interdiffusion with the U-7Mo fuel particles during the blister test. Finally, the fission gas bubbles that were originally around 3 nm in diameter and resided on a fission gas superlattice (FGS) in the intragranular regions of as-irradiated U-7Mo fuel grew in size (up to ∼20 nm diameter) during blister testing and, in many areas, are no longer organized as a superlattice.

  15. Scour Protection for Monopile by Concrete Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Skúlason, Magnús

    A test programme has been performed to determine the scour around a monopile for an offshore wind turbine. The foundation is protected against scour with a concrete plate with various designs. The tests should be regarded as pilot tests previous to a detailed investigation. The tests has been...

  16. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  17. Evaluation of two methods for incorporating a systematic uncertainty into a test of the background-only hypothesis for a Poisson process

    CERN Document Server

    Cousins, R D; Cousins, Robert D.; Tucker, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    Hypothesis tests for the presence of new sources of Poisson counts amidst background processes are frequently performed in high energy physics, gamma ray astronomy, and other branches of science. While there are conceptual issues already when the mean rate of background is precisely known, the issues are even more difficult when the mean background rate has non-negligible uncertainty, as some commonly used techniques are not on a sound foundation. In this paper, we evaluate two classes of algorithms by the criterion of how close the ensemble-average Type I error rate (rejection of the background-only hypothesis when it is true) compares with the nominal significance level given by the algorithm. Following J. Linnemann, we recommend wider use of an algorithm firmly grounded in frequentist tests of the ratio of Poisson means.

  18. Pilot Production of Large Area Microchannel Plates and Picosecond Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minot, M.; Adams, B.; Abiles, M.; Bond, J.; Craven, C.; Cremer, T.; Foley, M.; Lyashenko, A.; Popecki, M.; Stochaj, M.; Worstell, W.; Elam, J.; Mane, A.; Siegmund, O.; Ertley, C.

    2016-09-01

    Pilot production performance is reported for large area atomic layer deposition (ALD) coated microchannel plates (ALD-GCA-MCPs) and for Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors (LAPPD™) which incorporate them. "Hollowcore" glass capillary array (GCA) substrates are coated with ALD resistive and emissive layers to form the ALDGCA- MCPs, an approach that facilitates independent selection of glass substrates that are mechanically stronger and that have lower levels of radioactive alkali elements compared to conventional MCP lead glass, reducing background noise[1,2,3,4]. ALD-GCA-MCPs have competitive gain ( 104 each or 107 for a chevron pair ), enhanced lifetime and gain stability (7 C cm-2 of charge extraction), reduced background levels (0.028 events cm-2 sec-1) and low gamma-ray detection efficiency. They can be fabricated in large area (20cm X 20 cm) planar and curved formats suitable for use in high radiation environment applications, including astronomy, space instrumentation, and remote night time sensing. The LAPPD™ photodetector incorporates these ALD-GCA-MCPs in an all-glass hermetic package with top and bottom plates and sidewalls made of borosilicate float glass. Signals are generated by a bi-alkali Na2KSb photocathode, amplified with a stacked chevron pair of ALD-GCA-MCPs. Signals are collected on RF strip-line anodes integrated into to the bottom plates which exit the detector via pin-free hermetic seals under the side walls [5]. Tests show that LAPPDTMs have electron gains greater than 107, submillimeter spatial resolution for large (multiphoton) pulses and several mm for single photons, time resolution less than 50 picoseconds for single photons, predicted resolution less than 5 picoseconds for large pulses, high stability versus charge extraction[6], and good uniformity for applications including astrophysics, neutron detection, high energy physics Cherenkov light detection, and quantum-optical photon-correlation experiments.

  19. Determination of trace element incorporation into tests of in vitro grown foraminifera by micro- SYXRF - a basis for the development of paleoproxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramar, U.; Munsel, D.; Berner, Z.; Bijma, J.; Nehrke, G.

    2009-04-01

    Trace element chemistry and isotopic composition of calcareous foraminiferal tests reflect the environment in which they grow. Consequently, geochemical parameters of the tests are often used as paleo-proxies to constrain the environmental conditions in ancient seas (e.g. Boyle, 1981). Currently only a limited number of trace elements is used as proxies. Difficulties arise from the fact that often a proxy depends on several parameters and that seawater-chemistry may be influenced by local sources such as hydrothermalism or by changes in redox conditions. Reliable experimental data on elements which can be considered as diagnostic for hydrothermal activity and/or changing redox conditions are non-existent to scarce. We have cultured shallow benthic foraminifera (Ammonia tepida) under controlled conditions at defined trace element levels (5, 10, 20-fold average seawater concentration) representing two distinct environmental simulations, one for hydrothermal (Mn, Cu, Co, Ni) and another for changing redox conditions (Mo, As, Cr, and V). The goal of our investigations is to provide diagenetically unbiased experimental trace element data in foraminiferal shells as a basis for a more complete understanding of trace element partition between seawater and foraminifera shell calcite as a function of environmental conditions. The foraminifers did not reproduce in culture but grew new chambers as evidenced by labelling with calcein (Bernhard et al., 2004). The trace element uptake into old (field grown) and new chambers was subsequently analysed. Using excitation energies of 12.5 keV and focusing by refractive lenses to a spot size of 2x5 m at FLUO-beamline of ANKA and 25 keV and confocal poly capillary optics at HASYLAB Beamline L, old chambers and new ones of the same foraminifera have been analyzed separately for Ni, Cu, Zn, Mn, As, Cr, V, Sr and Mo. The data will be compared with results from LA-ICP/MS analytics. Concentrations of the elements of interest in the newly

  20. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  1. Influence of plate-bone contact on cyclically loaded conically coupled locking plate failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotne, Randi; Bertollo, Nicky; Walsh, William; Dhand, Navneet K; Voss, Katja; Johnson, Kenneth A

    2014-03-01

    The maintenance of friction between locking plates and bone is not essential, so that they can be applied with a gap between the plate and underlying bone. We hypothesised that the presence of a gap under a locking plate with a conical coupling mechanism would reduce fixation stability or allow uncoupling of the locking screws from the plate. Locking plates with two conically coupled locking screws were applied to 6 pairs of adult canine femora. One of each pair had plate to bone contact and the contralateral construct had a 2 mm plate to bone gap. Constructs were cyclically loaded in cantilever bending with 10 percent incremental increases every 1000 cycles at 2 Hz, starting at 250 N. The constructs were fatigued to failure. To evaluate fatigue life of the conical coupling, testing was repeated with aluminium tubing replacing the bone, to eliminate screw-bone cutout failure. The mean sustained loads and cycles to failure in the contact group (420.80, standard error [SE] 14.97 N; 7612.00, SE 574.70 cycles) were significantly greater than in the gap group (337.50, SE 14.97 N; 4252.00, SE 574.70 cycles), (pplate fatigue and breaking, with one construct having elevation of the plate over the screw head. Elevation of locking plates with a conical coupling system by 2 mm from the bone reduced construct fatigue life but did not result in screw head uncoupling from the plate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A NEW QUADRILATERAL THIN PLATE ELEMENT BASED ON THE MEMBRANE-PLATE SIMILARITY THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄若煜; 郑长良; 钟万勰; 姚伟岸

    2002-01-01

    A new effective path has been proposed to formulate thin plate element by using the similarity theory between plane elasticity and plate bending. Because of avoiding the difficulty of c1 continuity , the construction of thin plate elements becomes easier. The similarity theory and its applications were discussed more deeply, and a new four nodes, sixteen D. O. F. ( degree of fieedom) thin plate element was presented on the base of the similarity theory. Numerical results for typical problems show that this new element can pass the patch test and has a very good convergence and a high precision.

  3. Finite element analysis of elasto-plastic plate bending problems using transition rectangular plate elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahattin Kanber; O.Yavuz Bozkurt

    2006-01-01

    In this work,the finite element analysis of the elasto-plastic plate bending problems is carried out using transition rectangular plate elements.The shape functions of the transition plate elements are derived based on a practical rule.The transition plate elements are all quadrilateral and can be used to obtain efficient finite element models using minimum number of elements.The mesh convergence rates of the models including the transition elements are compared with the regular element models.To verify the developed elements,simple tests are demonstrated and various elasto-plastic problems are solved.Their results are compared with ANSYS results.

  4. Biomechanical Study of the Fixation Strength of Anteromedial Plating for Humeral Shaft Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Feng Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Anteromedial plating was superior to anterolateral or posterior plating in all mechanical tests except in AP four-point bending fatigue tests compared to the anterolateral plating group. We can suggest that anteromedial plating is a clinically safe and effective way for humeral shaft fractures.

  5. [Incorporation of an organic MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using independent data sources]. Progress report, March 16, 1992--September 15, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1992-09-01

    A project was initiated in March, 1992 to (1) incorporate a rigorous organic acid representation, based on empirical data and geochemical considerations, into the MAGIC model of acidification response, and (2) test the revised model using three sets of independent data. After six months of performance, the project is on schedule and the majority of the tasks outlined for Year 1 have been successfully completed. Major accomplishments to data include development of the organic acid modeling approach, using data from the Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC), and coupling the organic acid model with MAGIC for chemical hindcast comparisons. The incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC can account for much of the discrepancy earlier observed between MAGIC hindcasts and paleolimnological reconstructions of preindustrial pH and alkalinity for 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Additional work is on-going for model calibration and testing with data from two whole-catchment artificial acidification projects. Results obtained thus far are being prepared as manuscripts for submission to the peer-reviewed scientific literature.

  6. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  9. Flow of nanofluid past a Riga plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Adeel; Asghar, Saleem; Afzal, Sumaira

    2016-03-01

    This paper studies the mixed convection boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a vertical Riga plate in the presence of strong suction. The mathematical model incorporates the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects due to nanofluid and the Grinberg-term for the wall parallel Lorentz force due to Riga plate. The analytical solution of the problem is presented using the perturbation method for small Brownian and thermophoresis diffusion parameters. The numerical solution is also presented to ensure the reliability of the asymptotic method. The comparison of the two solutions shows an excellent agreement. The correlation expressions for skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are developed by performing linear regression on the obtained numerical data. The effects of nanofluid and the Lorentz force due to Riga plate, on the skin friction are discussed.

  10. Ultrasonic Lamb Wave Testing of Hydrogen Bubble in Pressure Vessel Plate%压力容器板材中氢鼓泡缺陷的超声Lamb波检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨齐; 陈定岳; 陈虎; 王杜

    2016-01-01

    采用 WAVE 2000数值计算软件对一16 mm 厚人工模拟试板的内壁鼓包缺陷进行超声Lamb 波仿真模拟,模拟结果表明,采用Lamb 波从外壁对压力容器板材内壁氢鼓泡检测是可行的;同时,给出了最优检测参数,为实际检测提供了 Lamb 波模式、频率、入射角度等参数的选择参考。根据仿真结果,采用最优检测参数对人工模拟试板进行 Lamb 波的实际检测试验,结果表明:该方法检测效果良好,不仅能够检出缺陷,而且缺陷定位精度也较高。%WAVE 2000 numerical software was used for ultrasonic Lamb wave simulation of the inner wall bubble defect of a 1 6 mm thick artificial test plate.The results showed that it was feasible to detect the hydrogen bubbles in the inner wall of pressure vessel plate by using Lamb wave from the outer wall,and the optimal detection parameters were given,the reference of important parameters such as Lamb wave mode,frequency,incidence angle for actual testing was provided.According to the simulation results,the optimal detection parameters were used for Lamb wave testing,which was not only able to detect defect,but also had high localization accuracy.

  11. ANFIS Modelling of Flexible Plate Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. M. Al-Khafaji

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented an investigation into the performance of system identification using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS technique for the dynamic modelling of a twodimensional flexible plate structure. It is confirmed experimentally, using National Instrumentation (NI Data Acquisition System (DAQ and flexible plate test rig that ANFIS can be effectively used for modelling the system with highly accurate results. The accuracy of the modelling results is demonstrated through validation tests including training and test validation and correlation tests.

  12. Detection methods of aerobic plate count on food microbiological proficiency testing%食品微生物能力验证样品菌落总数检验方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖剑; 李慧琴; 陈楷; 梁美丹; 林秀敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨菌落总数能力验证的检验方法及注意事项。方法采用PCA直接倾注法、增加覆盖一层琼脂培养基的方法、添加 TTC 方法、陶瓦盖代替平皿盖的方法同时进行试验,并采用提前观察、增加观察的频率和培养时间,加强计数准确性。结果在前期培养过程中加强观察能够有助于计数,而延迟培养时间则可避免迟缓生长的细菌漏检;采用含有0.5%TTC 培养基进行培养或陶瓦盖平板法能有效抑制蔓延菌生长,且不影响总体计数结果。结论采用多种检验方法有助于菌落总数能力验证试验结果的准确报告。%ObjectiveTodiscuss the methods and precaution of aerobic plate count proficiency testing. MethodsFour methods were tested including pouring plate count agar directly, covering a layer of agar me-dium, adding TTC and using terracotta cover instead of petri dish. Meanwhile, using the early observation, in-creasing the frequency of observation and the time of cultivation to strengthen count accuracy.Results The results showed that the accuracy of results during the pre-cultivation counting was improved, and the missing of slow growing bacteria extending the time of cultivation was also avoided. In addition, it was effective to inhibit the spread of bacteria by culturing with the medium containing 0.5%TTC or using terracotta cover, and these methods did not affect the overall count results.Conclusion It is conductive to get accurate results by variety of methods for aerobic plate count proficiency testing.

  13. Aeroheating model advancements featuring electroless metallic plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmach, C. J., Jr.; Goodrich, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Discussed are advancements in wind tunnel model construction methods and hypersonic test data demonstrating the methods. The general objective was to develop model fabrication methods for improved heat transfer measuring capability at less model cost. A plated slab model approach was evaluated with cast models containing constantan wires that formed single-wire-to-plate surface thermocouple junctions with a seamless skin of electroless nickel alloy. The surface of a space shuttle orbiter model was selectively plated with scaled tiles to simulate, with high fidelity, the probable misalignments of the heatshield tiles on a flight vehicle. Initial, Mach 8 heating results indicated a minor effect of tile misalignment roughness on boundary layer transition, implying a possible relaxation of heatshield manufacturing tolerances. Some loss of the plated tiles was experienced when the model was tested at high heating rates.

  14. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  15. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature.

  16. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  17. Plating in Top Agar

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    1. Warm plates to room temperature before use. Cold plates causes the top agar to solidify irregularly. DO not warm plates to 37° as the top agar will take forever to solidify. - Prepare top agar as the appropriate liquid medium with 0.7% agar. Keeping 100 mL bottles is convenient. For phages, use λ top agar, which is less rich and yields bigger plaques. - Melt top agar in the microwave completely. Allow the agar to boil after liquification; incompletely melted agar looks liquid, but is...

  18. Therminol VP-1导热油平板太阳能集热器的热工性能测试实验%Therminol VP-1 Heat Transfer Fluid Plate Solar Collector Thermal Performance Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐千喻; 王华; 王辉涛; 卿山

    2011-01-01

    Due to the advantages and disadvantages ofstructure of solar collectors, developed a new type of heat transfer fluid plate solar collectors, and test its performance. Measured results, it can achieve the thermal efficiency of 0.45, higher than the conventional flat solar collector Shows that the heat transfer fluid superior performance, have a good prospect.%针对市场上的平板太阳能集热器结构的优缺点,研制了新型的导热油平板太阳能集热器,并测试其性能.实测结果为,热效率能达到0.45,比普通平板集热器高.表明该导热油平板太阳能集热器性能优越,有很好的应用前景.

  19. Performance of four different agar plate methods for rectal swabs, synergy disk tests and metallo-β-lactamase Etest for clinical isolates in detecting carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Matthaios; Vamvakopoulou, Sophia; Spyropoulou, Αikaterini; Bartzavali, Christina; Marangos, Markos; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Spiliopoulou, Iris; Christofidou, Myrto

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the study were to compare four different agar plate methods in the identification of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) from rectal samples and to assess the role of phenotypic methodologies in the identification of carbapenemase type from clinical K. pneumoniae isolates. Two chromogenic agars (Brilliance CRE and CHROMagar KPC) were compared to MacConkey agar plates with ertapenem (ERT) or imipenem (IMP) disks for the identification of CP-Kp from 912 rectal swabs. CP-Kp was detected in 329 samples by either agar methodology (299 K. pneumoniae carbapenemase positive, 27 Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase positive and 3 K. pneumoniae carbapenemase and Verona integron-encodedmetallo-β-lactamase positive). Sensitivity of Brilliance CRE, CHROMagar KPC and MacConkey agar plus IMP or ERT disk (inhibition zone carbapenemase type as compared to PCR results (blaVIM, blaKPC and blaNDM) from 2515 isolates with reduced susceptibility to any of the Etest-examined carbapenems (ERT, IMP or meropenem). Metallo-β-lactamase MP/MPI Etest was applied in 616 isolates. Sensitivity was 98.4, 90.9 and 82.2 % for phenylboronic acid synergy test, EDTA synergy test and metallo-β-lactamase Etest, respectively, while their specificity was high (>97.5 %). Phenotypic methodologies can provide reliable results for the identification of carbapenemase production among K. pneumoniae isolates. Chromogenic agars can be applied in high-risk patients as part of surveillance and infection control programs.

  20. Large Deflections of Elastic Rectangular Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdolsky, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    It is known that elastic large deflections of thin plates are governed by von Karman nonlinear equations. The analytical solution of these equations in the general case is unfeasible. Samuel Levy, in 1942, showed that large deflections of the rectangular plate can be expressed as a double series of sine-shaped harmonics (deflection harmonics). However, this method gave no way of creating the computer algorithm of solving the problem. The stress function expression taken in the Levy's method must be revised to find the approach that takes into account of all possible products of deflection coefficients. The algorithm of solving the problem for the rectangular plate with an arbitrary aspect ratio under the action of the lateral distributed load is reported in this paper. The approximation of the plate deflection is taken in the form of double series proposed by Samuel Levy. However, the expression for the stress function is presented in the form that incorporates products of deflection coefficients in the explicit form in distinction to the Levy's expression. The number of harmonics in the deflection expression may be arbitrary. The algorithm provides composing the system of governing cubic equations, which includes the deflection coefficients in the explicit form. Solving the equation system is based on using the principle of minimum potential energy. A method of the gradient descent is applied to find the equilibrium state of the plate as the minimum point of the potential energy. A computer program is developed on the basis of the present algorithm. Numerical examples carried out for the plate model with 16 deflection harmonics illustrate the potentialities of the program. The results of solving the examples are presented in the graphical form for the plates with a different aspect ratio and may be used under designing thin-walled elements of airplane and ship structures.

  1. License Plate Recognition for Parking Control System by Mathematical Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Ortiz; Alberto Gómez

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, license plate recognition for parking systems is a critical task to provide automatic control of customers and payment. This paper introduces a new method for automatic recognition of license plates of vehicles by mathematical morphology. The proposed method can provide the license plate number of the plates in different light conditions, colors, sizes, and inclination (angles). The algorithm can recognize the license plates of European Union vehicles quickly and correctly. The pattern learning of mathematical skeletons has high efficiency in the process. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated well by the test in a parking control system.

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy vegetables and a ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... 4/Box) Taking the guesswork out of portion control has never been easier. It can be a ...

  4. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  5. MyPlate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our stage of life, situations, preferences, access to food, culture, traditions, and the personal decisions we make over time. All your food and beverage choices count. MyPlate offers ideas and ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: September ...

  7. Designing Assemblies Of Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... serving of dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... been easier. It can be a challenge to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best- ...

  12. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic ... to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  14. Ensaios estáticos de flexão e rigidez em placas do tipo sistema dinâmico do quadril (DHS Static load test on dynamic hip system (DHS plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar isolada e comparativamente placas do tipo sistema dinâmico do quadril (DHS de dois fabricantes nacionais, analisar estatisticamente seus resultados e demonstrar a falta de determinantes para sua fabricação. MÉTODOS: Foram realizados ensaios estáticos de flexão em cinco placas DHS do fabricante I (grupo I e em igual quantidade do mesmo modelo do fabricante II (grupo II, sendo todas fabricadas em aço inoxidável austenítico ASTM F 138, com quatro furos e angulação de 135º. Utilizou-se máquina servohidráulica MTS, modelo Test Star II®, com capacidade de carga de 10 toneladas e controle de deslocamento. Foram obtidos dados da carga aplicada (P em função do deslocamento vertical do pistão (L, cuja velocidade foi 5 mm/min. Os ensaios foram interrompidos após atingir a deflexão vertical máxima especificada pelas normas dos ensaios. RESULTADOS: Grupo I: resistência de flexão, 161,4 ± 17,2 kgf rigidez, 64,5 ± 1,8 kgf/mm, ductilidade, > 25,4 mm. Grupo II: resistência de flexão, 124,7 ± 4,4, rigidez 59,6 ± 2,3, ductilidade > 25,4 mm. Para análise estatística foi adotado o teste de Mann-Whitney e a determinação de significância foi de 5% (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate, both individually and comparatively, dynamic hip system-type plates marketed by two local manufacturers, to statistically analyze its results and show the lack of parameters for its manufacturing. METHODS: Static tests of flexion were carried out in five DHS plates of the manufacturer I (I group I and in equal quantity of the same model of the manufacturer II (I group II, being all made in stainless austenitic ASTM F 138 steel, with four holes and a 135º angle. A servo-hydraulic MTS machine, Test Star II model, was used with a load capacity of 10 tons and dislocation control. The data were obtained from the applied load (P as a function of the vertical dislocation of the piston (L, whose speed was 5mm/min. The tests were shutdown after reaching

  15. Origami - Folded Plate Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates new methods of designing folded plate structures that can be built with cross-laminated timber panels. Folded plate structures are attractive to both architects and engineers for their structural, spatial, and plastic qualities. Thin surfaces can be stiffened by a series of folds, and thus not only cover space, but also act as load bearing elements. The variation of light and shadow along the folded faces emphasizes the plas...

  16. Fractal multifiber microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lee M.; Feller, W. B.; Kenter, Almus T.; Chappell, Jon H.

    1992-01-01

    The construction and performance of microchannel plates (MCPs) made using fractal tiling mehtods are reviewed. MCPs with 40 mm active areas having near-perfect channel ordering were produced. These plates demonstrated electrical performance characteristics equivalent to conventionally constructed MCPs. These apparently are the first MCPs which have a sufficiently high degree of order to permit single channel addressability. Potential applications for these devices and the prospects for further development are discussed.

  17. Optimization Research on the Process of Gold Pulse Plating through Orthogonal Test%脉冲电镀优化金镀层性能的工艺研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈楠; 熊瑛; 郭亮; 田扬超; 刘刚

    2016-01-01

    镀金工艺是许多大高宽比微纳结构实现其功能化的重要技术手段。由于其结构的特殊性,往往需要获得晶粒小、致密均匀的金镀层,才能满足微纳元器件的需求。针对微纳米结构金属化的要求,研究了柠檬酸金钾脉冲电镀工艺,通过正交试验法确定了脉冲电镀过程较优的工艺参数,分析了主要的电镀工艺参数(平均电流密度、占空比和频率)对沉积速率、镀层形貌及金颗粒大小的影响,给出了优化的工艺参数:平均电流密度为1.8 A/dm2、占空比为20%、频率为6 kHz。试验结果表明,优化工艺参数下的金镀层致密均匀,颗粒度小且色泽好,能够满足微纳米结构金属化的要求。%During high aspect ratio micro and nanostructures fabrication processes,the gold plating is a key process to ensure the structures have certain function.In order to meet the special characteristic of micro and nano components,high-quality gold coatings with finer-grained need to be gotten.The process of plating based on gold potassium citrate is studied. Orthogonal test is used to obtain the preferred parameters in the pulse plating process.Gold coating appearance,deposition rate and surface morphology are measured and analyzed.The effects of pulse frequency,pulse occupy and pulse current den-sity on gold coatings property and deposition rate were studied,and the optimum pulse plating parameters are:the average current density 1.8 A/dm2 ,pulse occupy 20%,and pulse frequency 6 kHz.The surface morphology of the gold coatings is observed by SEM.The results indicated that a finer-grained and good-uniformity gold deposit with good characteristics could be obtained by the optimum pulse plating parameters.Thus,the demand of micro and nanostructures metallizing process is met.

  18. Pre-test probability of obstructive coronary stenosis in patients undergoing coronary CT angiography: Comparative performance of the modified diamond-Forrester algorithm versus methods incorporating cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, António Miguel; Marques, Hugo; Tralhão, António; Santos, Miguel Borges; Santos, Ana Rita; Cardoso, Gonçalo; Dores, Hélder; Carvalho, Maria Salomé; Madeira, Sérgio; Machado, Francisco Pereira; Cardim, Nuno; de Araújo Gonçalves, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Current guidelines recommend the use of the Modified Diamond-Forrester (MDF) method to assess the pre-test likelihood of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to compare the performance of the MDF method with two contemporary algorithms derived from multicenter trials that additionally incorporate cardiovascular risk factors: the calculator-based 'CAD Consortium 2' method, and the integer-based CONFIRM score. We assessed 1069 consecutive patients without known CAD undergoing coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for stable chest pain. Obstructive CAD was defined as the presence of coronary stenosis ≥50% on 64-slice dual-source CT. The three methods were assessed for calibration, discrimination, net reclassification, and changes in proposed downstream testing based upon calculated pre-test likelihoods. The observed prevalence of obstructive CAD was 13.8% (n=147). Overestimations of the likelihood of obstructive CAD were 140.1%, 9.8%, and 18.8%, respectively, for the MDF, CAD Consortium 2 and CONFIRM methods. The CAD Consortium 2 showed greater discriminative power than the MDF method, with a C-statistic of 0.73 vs. 0.70 (pMDF method. Adoption of these scores may improve disease prediction and change the diagnostic pathway in a significant proportion of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Initial testing for the recommendation of improved gas metal arc welding procedures for HY-80 steel plate butt joints at Norfolk Naval Shipyard

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Veronika J.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Hull cut welding proficiency is an essential skill maintained by personnel at naval shipyards. This thesis explores arc weld theory to develop ideal submarine hull butt joint designs and recommends preliminary testing to be used to develop improved butt joint welding procedures at Norfolk Naval Shipyard. Pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW-P) is the ideal process for shipboard hull welding applications, theoretically. Butt joint samples...

  20. Vibration and Buckling of Web Plate of the Plate Girder

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 和雄; 呉, 明強; 中澤, 聡志; 筑紫, 宏之

    1998-01-01

    The vibration and buckling of the web of the plate girder are studied in this paper. The small deflection theory of the thin plate is used. The finite strip method is employed to solve vibration and buckling of the plate girder. Natural frequenies of buckling properties are shown for various plate girder bridges.

  1. Incorporating Feminist Standpoint Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2005-01-01

    As has been noted by Alvin Goldman, there are some very interesting similarities between his Veritistic Social Epistemology (VSE) and Sandra Harding’s Feminist Standpoint Theory (FST). In the present paper, it is argued that these similarities are so significant as to motivate an incorporation...

  2. Differentiating leucine incorporation of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokokawa, T.; Sintes, E.; de Corte, D.; Olbrich, K.; Herndl, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    The abundance (based on catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybrid ization, CARD-FISH) and leucine incorporation rates of Archaea and Bacteria were determined throughout the water column in the eastern Atlantic. Bacteria dominated throughout the water column, although their contributi

  3. Plates made with solid waste from the recycled paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrini, M; Gohr Pinheiro, I; Valle, J A B

    2010-02-01

    The results of assays carried out on plates used in the construction industry, manufactured entirely with solid wastes of a recycled paper plant, are presented and compared with the results obtained using agglomerated wood and plywood plates. Previous results had shown that wastes are composed essentially of polymers when these wastes are generated by recycled paper produced with the "waved type II" shavings. These solid wastes were placed in a mold that was heated and pressed with a hydraulic press in order to obtain the plates. The waste-produced plates were submitted to tests for humidity, swelling, water absorption, density, modulus of rupture-static bending, modulus of elasticity and direct screw withdrawal. These same assays had been carried out on two types of commercial wood plates, agglomerated wood and plywood, in order to compare the results with those obtained with the waste plate. Waste plates had similar behavior to the agglomerated wood plate, but it was possible to distinguish greater flexibility in the waste-produced plate and a significant difference in the tests for swelling and water absorption which showed the waste plate had a better performance than the agglomerated wood and plywood plates.

  4. White Light Photorefractive Phase Zone Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yuan-Mei; LIU Si-Min

    2008-01-01

    Incoherent white light from an incandescent source is employed to Fabricate volume phase zone plates in LiNbO3:Fe,for the first time to our knowledge,which can guide and modulate the input white light or laser light.The diffractive efficiency of the white light volume phase zone plates fabricated can reach as high as 12%.In addition,we test the volume phase zone plates by a probe beam and find that the volume phase zone plate is present in the direction perpendicular to the c-axis and absent in the direction parallel to the c-axis.This directly proves the existence of photovoltalc photorefractive anisotropy of white light.

  5. Characterization of Tri-lab Tantalum Plate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheit, Thomas E.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Deibler, Lisa Anne; Chen, Shu-Rong; Michael, Joseph R.

    2014-09-01

    This report provides a detailed characterization Tri-lab Tantalum (Ta) plate jointly purchased from HCStark Inc. by Sandia, Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Data in this report was compiled from series of material and properties characterization experiments carried out at Sandia (SNL) and Los Alamos (LANL) Laboratories through a leveraged effort funded by the C2 campaign. Results include microstructure characterization detailing the crystallographic texture of the material and an increase in grain size near the end of the rolled plate. Mechanical properties evaluations include, compression cylinder, sub-scale tension specimen, micohardness and instrumented indentation testing. The plate was found to have vastly superior uniformity when compare with previously characterized wrought Ta material. Small but measurable variations in microstructure and properties were noted at the end, and at the top and bottom edges of the plate.

  6. 虎红平板凝集试验确诊布鲁杆菌病截断值的探讨%Cut-off value of rose bengal plate agglutination test in rapid diagnosis of brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志东; 刘云霞; 李艳红; 李建云

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find out the cut-off value of rose bengal plate agglutination test(RBPT) in rapid diagnosis of brucellosis.Methods From May to June 2009,398 people who came to the outpatient department of Inner Mongolia Center for Endemic Disease Control and Research were diagnosed brucellosis by RBPT and tube agglutination test (SAT).Tube agglutination test as a gold standard,rose bengal plate agglutination test,its authenticity and reliability were evaluated.Results Taking positive predictive value 100.0% as the selection standard,the cut-off value of RBPT was "++" which could be used to diagnose brucellosis.The sensitivity was 83.3%; the specificity was 100.0%; the Youden index was 0.832; and the compliance rote was 89.9%.Conclusion The cut-off value "++" of RBPT to diagnosis brucellosis is worthy of clinical promotion.%目的 探讨虎红平板凝集试验确诊布鲁杆菌病凝集度的截断值.方法 内蒙古地方病防治研究中心门诊部选择2009年5月至2009年6月,进行布鲁杆菌病检查的398人,进行试管凝集试验和虎红平板凝集试验检测,以试管凝集试验为金标准,探讨虎红平板凝集试验诊断布鲁杆菌病的截断值,并对可靠性和真实性进行评价.结果 以阳性预测值100.0%作为筛选标准,虎红平板凝集试验快速确诊布鲁杆菌病的截断值为“++”,以该凝集度强度作为截断值进行布鲁杆菌病诊断,灵敏度为83.3%,特异度为100.0%,约登指数为0.823,符合率为89.9%.结论 以虎红平板凝集试验的“++”作为截断值诊断布鲁杆菌病,值得临床推广.

  7. Transfer function modeling of damping mechanisms in viscoelastic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, J. C.; Inman, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    This work formulates a method for the modeling of material damping characteristics in plates. The Sophie German equation of classical plate theory is modified to incorporate hysteresis effects represented by complex stiffness using the transfer function approach proposed by Golla and Hughes, (1985). However, this procedure is not limited to this representation. The governing characteristic equation is decoupled through separation of variables, yielding a solution similar to that of undamped classical plate theory, allowing solution of the steady state as well as the transient response problem.

  8. Electric Motor Whirl Test of a Flottorp Standard Two-Blade Propeller and a Flottorp Standard Two-Blade Propeller Incorporating Nemeth Modified Leading Edge (Whirl Test No. 2355)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1952-08-01

    8217..ment -@onter. The tbest propollers vYre the property of Flottorp 10-nufactur.ing Company, Grand Lapids, ,’Ichigan. The wlhirl test program vas...TYhe fic aciliie of l’jetý’etlh Acronauttical laboratory pr-ohibited them fron A&In Lll scale inet!’llninto the probicrai and t-hey appealcd to Propol

  9. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  10. Neutral beam heating of the TFTR vacuum vessel protective plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sink, D.A.

    1976-04-01

    The transmission of neutral beams through plasmas expected in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been investigated. An analytical expression for the transmission coefficient of a 120 keV deuterium beam through a tritium plasma was used and a model for the flux profile of the TFTR Neutral Beam System designed by LBL/LLL was developed and incorporated. The plasma is assumed to have a parabolic profile and is characterized by a major radius of 310 cm, a minor radius of 57 cm, and a central plasma density of greater than or equal to 0.4 x 10/sup 14/ cm-/sup 3/. To protect the stainless steel vacuum vessel walls of the TFTR device, tungsten plates are located inside the vessel. The loading of the tungsten protective plates during normal operation is well below the neutral beam fluxes which would melt the tungsten. The TFTR Neutral Beam System will inject a total of 20 MW of 120 keV deuterium atoms from twelve sources, as well as approximately 12 MW of 60 keV deuterium atoms. The fluxes anticipated on the tungsten plates due to an unattenuated beam which would be incident at an angle of 45/sup 0/ are less than or equal to 6.5 kW/cm/sup 2/. The fluxes due to an attenuated beam are calculated to be less than or equal to 0.35 kW/cm/sup 2/. For the maximum injection time of 0.5 second, a fault condition in which the plasma was not formed at the time of injection could induce a surface temperature very near the melting point of tungsten. For the standard 0.1 second injection time anticipated for TFTR, a similar fault condition would not cause the temperature to rise to more than 2000 K which is well below the melting point (3640 K) of tungsten.

  11. Study on Clinical Screening Value of Oral Test Plate for Helicobacter Pylori in Saliva%口腔唾液幽门螺杆菌测试板的临床筛查价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶; 徐樨巍; 丁召路; 于飞鸿; 王国丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨唾液幽门螺杆菌(HpS)测试板检测Hp感染的临床筛查价值.方法 对150例临床有消化系统症状的患儿同时行HpS检测和胃镜下胃黏膜组织活检快速尿素酶试验(RUT)检测,并对两者结果进行对比研究.结果 150例患儿中HPS检出阳性65例(43.33%),胃镜RUT检出阳性41例(27.33%),阳性符合率(敏感性)为85.37%,阴性符合率(特异性)为72.48%;阳性预测值为53.85%,阴性预测值为92.94%.结论 HPS具有操作简便、快速、无创、准确等优点,是临床筛查Hp感染的一种很有价值的方法.%Objective To study on the clinical screening value of the test plate in detection of Helicobacter pylori in saliva ( HPS ). Methods HPS test plate was used to detect urease in saliva of 150 children with gastrointestinal symptoms,while rapid urease test ( RUT ) was also used to detect urease in mucosa of stomach under gastroendoscopy. And the results detected by the two methods above were compared. Results In 150 patients,65 cases ( 43.33% ) were detected to be positive by HPS, while 41 cases ( 27.33% )were detected to be positive by RUT. The positive rate matched of HPS with RUT ( sensitivity ) was 85.37% ,while the negative rate matched ( specificity ) was 72.48%. The positivepredictiverate was 53.85 %, while the negative predictive rate was 92.94 %. Conclusion HPS is featured with non-invasive, easily operating, rapid, and accurate, etc. , which is a valuable screening method in detection of Hp infection.

  12. Unified analytical formula method for inversion of creep parameters of rock based on bearing plate test%基于承压板试验的岩体蠕变参数反演统一解析公式法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文东; 张强勇; 陈芳; 李文纲; 王建洪; 贺如平; 曾纪全

    2012-01-01

    由于岩体性状的复杂性和多样性,现场试验是进行岩石力学研究的重要手段.以往的现场承压板试验,由于试验条件的限制,试验荷载的设定将使岩体蠕变呈衰减蠕变形态,却难以反映岩体的等速蠕变和加速蠕变.坝基软弱岩体的力学特性是影响大坝及地下结构长期稳定性的重要因素.通过对坝基软弱岩体现场承压板试验曲线中表现出的衰减蠕变和等速蠕变两阶段特性,辨识了蠕变模型.并推导了刚、柔性承压板深部岩体的黏弹性一般解,给出了Maxwell模型、广义Kelvin模型、Burgers模型的黏弹性位移的统一表达式.结合试验数据,以理论解析反演法得到相关的蠕变参数,为以后的坝基长期稳定性计算奠定基础.%On-site experiments are crucial to study rock mechanics due to the complexity and diversity of rock mass. In the past, test conditions restrain the test load setting of rock creep to transient creep, thus it cannot reflect steady-state creep and accelerated creep. The mechanical characteristics of weak rock mass are vital factors which affect the long-term stability of a dam and its underground structure. The creep model which is identified through the two stage characters of transient creep and steady-state creep is presented in the test curve of the bearing plate in dam foundation. Viscoelastic general solutions of deep rock rigid and flexible bearing plate are deduced by applying viscoelastic theory, and uniform expression of Maxwell modal, generalized Kelvin and Burgers model are also given. The rheological parameters obtained through the combination of theoretically analytic inversion and the experiment data form the basis for analyzing long-term stability of dam foundations.

  13. CAD-CAM plates versus conventional fixation plates for primary mandibular reconstruction: A biomechanical in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendenbach, Carsten; Sellenschloh, Kay; Gerbig, Lucca; Morlock, Michael M; Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta; Smeets, Ralf; Heiland, Max; Huber, Gerd; Hanken, Henning

    2017-09-01

    CAD/CAM reconstruction plates have become a viable option for mandible reconstruction. The aim of this study was to determine whether CAD/CAM plates provide higher fatigue strength compared with conventional fixation systems. 1.0 mm miniplates, 2.0 mm conventional locking plates (DePuy Synthes, Umkirch, Germany), and 2.0 mm CAD/CAM plates (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium/DePuy Synthes) were used to reconstruct a polyurethane mandible model (Synbone, Malans, CH) with cortical and cancellous bone equivalents. Mastication was simulated via cyclic dynamic testing using a universal testing machine (MTS, Bionix, Eden Prairie, MN, USA) until material failure reached a rate of 1 Hz with increasing loads on the left side. No significant difference was found between the groups until a load of 300 N. At higher loads, vertical displacement differed increasingly, with a poorer performance of miniplates (p = 0.04). Plate breakage occurred in miniplates and conventional locking plates. Screw breakage was recorded as the primary failure mechanism in CAD/CAM plates. Stiffness was significantly higher with the CAD/CAM plates (p = 0.04). CAD/CAM plates and reconstruction plates provide higher fatigue strength than miniplates, and stiffness is highest in CAD/CAM systems. All tested fixation methods seem sufficiently stable for mandible reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  15. Research on metal-plated cellulose nitrate flakes and their infrared / millimeter wave characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shu-qin; Zhu, Chen-guang; Wang, Li-hong; Ou'yang, De-hua; Pan, Gong-pei

    2016-10-01

    Copper-plated and silver-plated cellulose nitrate flakes, which were prepared by using chemical plating technology, were used to jam infrared detector and millimeter-wave radar. It was tested for the conductivity and infrared jamming performance of plating and also the RCS (Radar Cross Section) performance of millimeter-wave radar. Test results showed that the prepared metal-plated cellulose nitrate flakes have obvious conductivity, and infrared total radiation energy of silver plating and copper plating had approximately increased 32% and 21% respectively. Through determination, the millimeter-wave reflecting property and RCS of silver-plated cellulose nitrate flakes were higher than that of copper-plated cellulose nitrate flakes. Therefore, silver-plated cellulose nitrate flakes can be used as an effective infrared / millimeter wave composite jamming material.

  16. 硼酸抑制纸片扩散试验检测肺炎克雷伯菌中的KPC%Disk tests incorporating boracic acid inhibitor to detect KPC in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严育忠; 胡付品; 孙康德; 范惠清; 陆燕春; 华静

    2012-01-01

    目的 评估利用硼酸的纸片扩散试验检测肺炎克雷伯菌中肺炎克雷伯菌碳青霉烯酶(KPC)的效能.方法 收集经基因鉴定非重复的36株产KPC肺炎克雷伯菌株;采用琼脂稀释法测定所有菌株对亚胺培南、美罗培南和厄他培南的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)值;聚合酶链反应(PCR)和DNA测序鉴定β-内酰胺酶基因型;使用标准和超过标准的2种测试菌量进行改良Hodge试验(MHT)以检测碳青霉烯酶表型;利用8种抗菌药物纸片含或不含硼酸抑制剂的纸片扩散试验检测KPC表型,以两者抑菌圈直径差值≥5 mm判定阳性结果.结果 所有36株产KPC菌株至少对1种碳青霉烯类药物耐药.MHT检测碳青霉烯酶的敏感性和特异性为97.2%和91.0%,增加菌量后的敏感性和特异性为100.0%和87.0%.利用硼酸联合头孢吡肟、亚胺培南或美罗培南的纸片扩散试验检测肺炎克雷伯菌产KPC表型,敏感性和特异性均达到100.0%.结论 硼酸联合头孢吡肟、亚胺培南或美罗培南的纸片扩散试验能检测出KPC表型,而且该方法操作简单、结果易读.%Objective To evaluate the disk tests incorporating boracic acid inhibitor for the detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbopenem ( KPC )-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Methods A total of 36 genetically unrelated KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were determined. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ( MIC) of imipenem,meropenem and ertapenem were determined by agar dilution method . Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were used for the identification of beta 4actamase genotypes. The modified Hodge test (MHT) ,using both standard and high inoculum of test organisms ,was performed to detect carbopenem phenotype . The disk tests consisting of 8 antibiotics with and without boracic acid inhibitor were designed to detect KPC phenotype ,and the diameter ≥5 mm augmentation of inhibition zone was considered a positive result . Results

  17. Microbial contamination in intraoral phosphor storage plates: the dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Tricia Murielly Pereira Andrade; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; de Vasconcelos, Laís César; Pontual, Andréa Dos Anjos; de Moraes Ramos Perez, Flávia Maria; Pontual, Maria Luiza Dos Anjos

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate microbial contamination in phosphor storage plates in dental radiology services and discuss the possible origin of this contamination. The sample comprised 50 phosphor plates: 14 plates from service A, 30 from service B, and 6 in the control group, consisting of plates never used. Damp sterile swabs were rubbed on the phosphor plates, and then transferred to tests tubes containing sterile saline solution. Serial dilutions were made, and then inoculated in triplicate on Mueller Hinton agar plates and incubated at 37 °C/48 h, before counting the colony-forming units (CFU). The samples were also seeded in brain-heart infusion medium to confirm contamination by turbidity of the culture medium. All solutions, turbid and clean, were seeded in selective and non-selective media. At service A and B, 50 and 73.3 % of the phosphor plates were contaminated, respectively. This contamination was mainly due to bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus. CFU counts ranged from 26.4 to 80.0 CFU/plate. Most of the phosphor plates evaluated shown to be contaminated, mainly by Staphylococcus ssp. Quantitatively, this contamination occurred at low levels, possibly arising from handling of the plates. The use of a second plastic barrier may have diminished contamination by microorganisms from the oral cavity. There is a risk of cross-contamination by phosphor storage plates used in dental radiology services.

  18. Optimization of a clamped plate silencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunqi; Han, Jun; Huang, Lixi

    2007-02-01

    A previous theoretical study [L. Huang, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 2628-2638 (2006)] shows that, in a duct, a simply supported plate covering a side-branch rigid cavity can function effectively as a wave reflector over a broad range of low to medium frequencies. In this study, analytical formulation is extended to the boundary condition of clamped plate, which is easier to implement in practice. The theoretical model is tested experimentally using balsawood, which has a very high stiffness to mass ratio. The spectral peaks and shapes of the measured TL are in agreement with those calculated theoretically, attempts are also made to account for the considerable sound absorption in the rig. Further numerical studies based on the validated model show that, for a uniform plate, the optimal stopband is narrower and the lower band limit is worse than that of the simply supported configuration. However, a wave reflector using nonuniform, clamped plates with thinner ends out-performs the simply supported configuration in every aspect. Analyses show that the improvement is attributed to the increased acoustic radiation efficiency over the bulk length of the nonuniform plate, which behaves more like a rigid plate.

  19. Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中柱; 邵成刚; 罗俊

    1999-01-01

    The Casimir effect between metal plate and dielectric plate is discussed with 1+1-dimensional potential model without using cut-off method. Calculation shows that the Casimir force between metal plate and dielectric plate is determined not only by the potential V0, the dielectric thickness and the distance α between the metal plate and dielectric plate, but also by the dimension of the vessel. When α is far less than the dimension of the vessel, the Casimir force Fc∝α(-1); conversely Fc∝α-2. This result is significant for Casimir force experiment.

  20. Detection of extracellular proteases from microorganisms on agar plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alane Beatriz Vermelho

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available We present herein an improved assay for detecting the presence of extracellular proteases from microorganisms on agar plates. Using different substrates (gelatin, BSA, hemoglobin incorporated into the agar and varying the culture medium composition, we were able to detect proteolytic activities from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus and Serratia marcescens as well as the influence that these components displayed in the expression of these enzymes. For all microorganisms tested we found that in agar-BHI or yeast extract medium containing gelatin the sensitivity of proteinase detection was considerably greater than in BSA-agar or hemoglobin-agar. However, when BSA or hemoglobin were added to the culture medium, there was an increase in growth along with a marked reduction in the amount of proteinase production. In the case of M. luteus the incorporation of glycerol in BHI or yeast extract gelatin-agar induced protease liberation. Our results indicate that the technique described here is of value for detecting extracellular proteases directly in the culture medium, by means of a qualitative assay, simple, inexpensive, straight forward method to assess the presence of the proteolytic activity of a given microorganism colony with great freedom in substrate selection.

  1. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  2. Structure and properties of GMA surfaced armour plates

    OpenAIRE

    A. Klimpel; K. Luksa; M. Burda

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the combat vehicles many materials can be used for the armour. Application of the monolithic armour plates in light combat vehicles is limited by the high armour weigh. Introduction of the layered armour plates is a way to limit the vehicle weight. In the paper test results of graded and nanostructural GMA surfaced armour plates are presented.Design/methodology/approach: Metallographic structure, chemical composition and hardness of surfaced layers were investigated in order to ex...

  3. Turbulent boundary layer over flexible plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Parand; Ioppolo, Tindaro

    2016-11-01

    This research describes the structure of a turbulent boundary layer flow with a zero pressure gradient over elastic plates. The elastic plates made of a thin aluminum sheets with thickness between 50 and 500 microns were placed on the floor of a subsonic wind tunnel and exposed to a turbulent boundary layer flow with a free stream velocity between 20m/s and 100m/s. The ceiling of the test section of the wind tunnel is adjustable so that a nearly zero pressure gradient is obtained in the test section. Hot-wire anemometry was used to measure the velocity components. Mean, fluctuating velocities and Reynolds stresses will be presented and compared with the values of a rigid plate.

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage diabetes. Healthy Recipes: ... to your day with this guide. Ways to Give: Wear Your Cause on Your Sleeve - ...

  6. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured Product Precise Portions® Go Healthy Travel Pack (4/Box) Taking the guesswork ... you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing lid is offered in ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing lid is offered in a 4-pack. Whether ... Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor ...

  12. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... somewhere in between, you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last Reviewed: October 8, 2015 Last Edited: ... Cost of Diabetes Advocate Toolkit Call to Congress Research & ...

  14. Plate tectonics in the late Paleozoic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Domeier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the chronicle of plate motions through time, paleogeography is fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics and its role in shaping the geology of the present-day. To properly appreciate the history of tectonics—and its influence on the deep Earth and climate—it is imperative to seek an accurate and global model of paleogeography. However, owing to the incessant loss of oceanic lithosphere through subduction, the paleogeographic reconstruction of ‘full-plates’ (including oceanic lithosphere becomes increasingly challenging with age. Prior to 150 Ma ∼60% of the lithosphere is missing and reconstructions are developed without explicit regard for oceanic lithosphere or plate tectonic principles; in effect, reflecting the earlier mobilistic paradigm of continental drift. Although these ‘continental’ reconstructions have been immensely useful, the next-generation of mantle models requires global plate kinematic descriptions with full-plate reconstructions. Moreover, in disregarding (or only loosely applying plate tectonic rules, continental reconstructions fail to take advantage of a wealth of additional information in the form of practical constraints. Following a series of new developments, both in geodynamic theory and analytical tools, it is now feasible to construct full-plate models that lend themselves to testing by the wider Earth-science community. Such a model is presented here for the late Paleozoic (410–250 Ma together with a review of the underlying data. Although we expect this model to be particularly useful for numerical mantle modeling, we hope that it will also serve as a general framework for understanding late Paleozoic tectonics, one on which future improvements can be built and further tested.

  15. Plate tectonics in the late Paleozoic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathew Domeier; Trond H. Torsvik

    2014-01-01

    As the chronicle of plate motions through time, paleogeography is fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics and its role in shaping the geology of the present-day. To properly appreciate the history of tectonicsdand its influence on the deep Earth and climatedit is imperative to seek an accurate and global model of paleogeography. However, owing to the incessant loss of oceanic lithosphere through subduction, the paleogeographic reconstruction of‘full-plates’ (including oceanic lithosphere) becomes increasingly challenging with age. Prior to 150 Ma w60% of the lithosphere is missing and re-constructions are developed without explicit regard for oceanic lithosphere or plate tectonic principles;in effect, reflecting the earlier mobilistic paradigm of continental drift. Although these ‘continental’ re-constructions have been immensely useful, the next-generation of mantle models requires global plate kinematic descriptions with full-plate reconstructions. Moreover, in disregarding (or only loosely applying) plate tectonic rules, continental reconstructions fail to take advantage of a wealth of additional information in the form of practical constraints. Following a series of new developments, both in geo-dynamic theory and analytical tools, it is now feasible to construct full-plate models that lend themselves to testing by the wider Earth-science community. Such a model is presented here for the late Paleozoic (410e250 Ma) together with a review of the underlying data. Although we expect this model to be particularly useful for numerical mantle modeling, we hope that it will also serve as a general framework for understanding late Paleozoic tectonics, one on which future improvements can be built and further tested.

  16. Notch sensitivity jeopardizes titanium locking plate fatigue strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wo-Jan; Chao, Ching-Kong; Wang, Chun-Chin; Lin, Jinn

    2016-12-01

    Notch sensitivity may compromise titanium-alloy plate fatigue strength. However, no studies providing head-to-head comparisons of stainless-steel or titanium-alloy locking plates exist. Custom-designed identically structured locking plates were made from stainless steel (F138 and F1314) or titanium alloy. Three screw-hole designs were compared: threaded screw-holes with angle edges (type I); threaded screw-holes with chamfered edges (type II); and non-threaded screw-holes with chamfered edges (type III). The plates' bending stiffness, bending strength, and fatigue life, were investigated. The stress concentration at the screw threads was assessed using finite element analyses (FEA). The titanium plates had higher bending strength than the F1314 and F138 plates (2.95:1.56:1) in static loading tests. For all metals, the type-III plate fatigue life was highest, followed by type-II and type-I. The type-III titanium plates had longer fatigue lives than their F138 counterparts, but the type-I and type-II titanium plates had significantly shorter fatigue lives. All F1314 plate types had longer fatigue lives than the type-III titanium plates. The FEA showed minimal stress difference (0.4%) between types II and III, but the stress for types II and III was lower (11.9% and 12.4%) than that for type I. The screw threads did not cause stress concentration in the locking plates in FEA, but may have jeopardized the fatigue strength, especially in the notch-sensitive titanium plates. Improvement to the locking plate design is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of Local Cold Working and Tensile Test for 7050 High Strength Aluminum Alloy Hole Plate%7050高强铝合金孔板的挤压强化与拉伸试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范娟; 李付国; 李江; 王少刚

    2012-01-01

    This paper mainly aims at 7050 aluminum alloy to study the tensile mechanical performance of the plate with hole through testing and finite-element simulation. Then the cold working effects of different interferences (ranging from 0% to 11.11%) were compared and analyzed. Results show that compared with the standard specimens of 7050 aluminum alloy, for the plates with holes, their apparent strength, coefficient of elongation and modulus of elasticity are reduced, but the strains at plastic instability points are improved to a large extent. Cold working enhances the yield strength of the material around hole wall and improves the stress state of hole surface which make for peak stress weakened and enlarge the plane strain range along thickness direction of the hole. Meanwhile, the change of the tensile fracture with the cold working deformation degree present a regularity. Residual stress increases with interference increasing, and the position of peak stress transfers far from the wall of the hole along radial direction with interference increasing.%针对航空用7050高强铝合金的孔板件拉伸性能进行试验研究与模拟分析,并对不同过盈量(0%~11.11%)的孔挤压强化效果进行了对比分析.研究表明:孔板的表观强度、延伸率和弹性模量均降低,但塑性失稳点应变却有很大程度的提高;孔挤压强化提高了孔壁处材料的屈服强度,改善了孔表面的受力状态,使得应力峰值得到钝化,并扩大了孔壁沿厚度方向的平面应变范围,因此拉伸断口随孔挤压量的变化呈规律性的变化;孔挤压强化后残余拉、压应力峰值随挤压量的增加而增加,且其峰值出现的部位随挤压量的增加而向远离于孔壁的深处转移.

  18. GLASS FORMULATION TESTING TO INCREASE SULFATE INCORPORATION - Final Report VSL-04R4960-1, Rev 0, 2/28/05, Vitreous State Laboratory, The Catholic University of American, Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS

    2012-02-07

    by Optima Chemicals according to VSL specifications. Sufficient feed was prepared to produce over nineteen hundred kilograms of glass during melter tests. The nominal reductant concentration (stoichiometric ratio of 0.5 {approx} 1 mole sucrose per 16 mole NOx or 3 mole carbon per 4 mole NOx) was maintained in all the tests by the addition of sugar at VSL. The DM 10 was used to screen the optimized glass formulation with two alternative aluminum sources (kyanite and zeolite) over a wide range of target sulfur concentrations. Subsequently, based on the DM10 results, nine 12- to 34-hour DM100 tests were conducted; six with kyanite as the aluminum additive at glass sulfur concentrations ranging from 0.75 to 1.5 wt.% SO{sub 3}, and the other three with zeolite as the aluminum additive at glass sulfur concentrations ranging from 0.75 to 1.5 wt. % SO{sub 3}. The DM 100-WV melter was used in order to provide a direct comparison with the LAW tests previously conducted on the same melter. Key operating parameters such as glass temperature and production rate were held constant to investigate the sulfur incorporation into the glass and the effects of varying the aluminum additive source. The bubbling rate was adjusted to achieve a production rate of 2000 kg/m{sup 2}/day with a near-complete cold cap (90-100% of melt surface covered with feed). Quantitative measurements of glass production rates, melter operating conditions (temperatures, pressures, power, flows, etc.), and off-gas characteristics (NOx, SO{sub 2}, CO, particulate load and composition, and acid gases) were made for each test. Glass samples taken from the glass pool and the discharge chamber were inspected throughout testing to determine the limit of salt-free operation in the melter.

  19. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth > For Teens > MyPlate Food Guide Print ... other sugary drinks. Avoid oversized portions. continue Five Food Groups Different food groups meet different nutrition needs. ...

  20. What Are Growth Plate Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plate injuries are:  Falling down  Competitive sports (like football)  Recreational activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are:  Child abuse  Injury from extreme cold (for ...

  1. A MEMS square Chladni plate resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Sedat; Azgın, Kıvanç

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and tests of a micro-fabricated MEMS ‘Chladni’ plate resonator. The proposed MEMS resonator has a square plate geometry having a side length of 1400 µm and a height of 35 µm. Its geometry and electrode layout are designed to analyze and test as many modes as possible. The MEMS plate is fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator process with a 35 µm thick silicon layer on a glass substrate. Transverse vibration of the plate is investigated to obtain closed form natural frequencies and mode shapes, which are derived using the Rayleigh-Ritz energy method, with an electrostatic softening effect included. Closed form equations for the calculation of effective stiffness’, masses and natural frequencies of the two modes (mode (1,1) and mode (2,0)-(0,2)) are presented, with and without electrostatic softening. The analytical model is verified for those modes by finite-element simulations, frequency response tests in vacuum and laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) experiments. The derived model deviates from the finite-element analysis by 3.35% for mode (1,1) and 6.15% for mode (2,0)-(0,2). For verification, the frequency responses of the plates are measured with both electrostatic excitation-detection at around 20 mTorr vacuum ambient and LDV at around 0.364 mTorr vacuum ambient. The resonance frequency and Q-factor of mode (1,1) are measured to be 104.2 kHz and 14 300, respectively. For mode (2,0)-(0,2), the measured resonance frequency and Q-factor are 156.68 kHz and 10 700, respectively. The presented LDV results also support both natural frequencies of interest and corresponding mode shapes of the plate structure.

  2. Selecting the form of plate corrugations of heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlenko, V.F.; Nagornyi, V.E.; Dolinskii, V.M.; Kolokolova, T.G.; Chekhov, O.S.

    1987-03-01

    The authors, in the interest of enhancing the thermal efficiency of plate-type heat exchangers, seek to optimize the pattern and size of the corrugations and surface area of these plates as well as their thickness by assessing the corrosion and scale protection afforded by thermoplastic coatings applied to the carbon steels used in the plates. They test the coatings for the effects of pressure, temperature, and various corrosive media, and demonstrate a parametric technique for optimizing pressure and temperature distribution over the corrugated area, for reducing the potential for deformation, and for prolonging plate durability.

  3. Controlling Laminate Plate Elastic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mareš, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to express the relation of a measure of laminate plate stiffness with respect to the fiber orientation of its plies. The inverse of the scalar product of the lateral displacement of the central plane and lateral loading of the plate is the measure of laminate plate stiffness. In the case of a simply supported rectangular laminate plate this measure of stiffness is maximized, and the optimum orientation of its plies is searched.

  4. Anatomic fit of six different radial head plates: comparison of precontoured low-profile radial head plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Klaus Josef; Nowak, Tobias E; Kim, Yoon-Joo; Rommens, Pol M; Müller, Lars P

    2011-04-01

    Bulky implants may lead to symptomatic soft tissue irritation after open reduction and internal fixation of radial head and neck fractures. The purpose of our study was to compare the anatomic fit of precontoured radial head plates. We stripped 22 embalmed human cadaveric radiuses of soft tissues. We investigated 6 radial head plates: (1) the Medartis radial head buttress plate (MBP), (2) the Medartis radial head rim plate (MRP), (3) the Synthes radial neck plate (SNP), (4) the Synthes radial head plate (SHP), (5) the Acumed radial head plate (AHP), and (6) the Wright radial head plate (WHP). Each plate was applied to each radial head at the place of best fit within the safe zone. We tested 4 parameters of anatomic fit: (1) plate-to-bone distance, (2) plate contact judged by 3 different observers, (3) pin-subchondral zone distance, and (4) plate-to-bone contact after adjustment of the plates. The MBP and MRP showed the lowest profile by objective measurements, the SNP and AHP had a moderate profile, and the SHP and WHP demonstrated the bulkiest profile. The subjective assessments also demonstrated the best fit for the MBP, a good fit for the SNP, a moderate fit for the MRP and AHP, and a poor fit for the SHP and WHP. The MBP, MRP, and AHP could always provide pin-subchondral zone contact, unlike the SHP, SNP, and WHP. After bending, significant improvement of plate-to-bone distance could only be seen for the MBP, MRP, and WHP. The ranking among plates remained the same except for the WHP, which showed a significantly lower plate-to-bone distance than the SHP. Currently available radial head implants are heterogeneous. The MBP and MRP showed the lowest profile and best anatomic fit. Owing to the complex radial head anatomy, to date there is no one radial head plate that perfectly fits all radial heads. Conformance of existing plates to the radial head and neck is not perfect. Careful plate selection and modification, when necessary, may minimize interference of this

  5. Microchannel plate streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching L.

    1989-01-01

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 KeV x-rays.

  6. Moment Capacity of Timber Reinforced with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Ellegaard, Peter

    of the section is obtained, resulting in a more economic truss design. In order to develop design methods for sections with plate reinforcement, bending tests have been made. The timber is Swedish spruce of strength class K-18(S8) and K-24(S10) with a thickness of 45 mm. The punched metal plate is from Gang...

  7. Investigation of Valve Plate in Water Hydraulic Axial Piston Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂松林; 李壮云; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper has introduced the developments of water hydraulic axial piston equipments.According to the effects of physicochemical properties of water on water hydraulic components,a novel valve plate for water hydraulic axial motor has been put forward,whose moment exerted by the fluid field between valve plate and bearing plate is balanced entirely.The material screening experiment of valve plate is done on the test rig.Through numerical simulation the effects of some geometry parameters on the performance of water hydraulic motor have been studied.The silencing grooves on the valve plate in water hydraulic motor can reduce the pressure shock and the occurrence of cavitation effectively.It is evident that the appropriate structure should change the wear status between matching paris and reduces the wear and specific pressure of the matching pairs.The specimen with the new type valve plate is used in a tool system.

  8. Experimental Vibration Study on the Healthy and Delaminated Composite Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Israr; Sinha, Jyoti K, E-mail: Jyoti.Sinha@manchester.ac.uk [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-19

    Vibration based damage, in particular delamination detection, in the composite structures is an active research area. The present study is also on the dynamics of the composite plates with and without delamination based on the experimental study. The test plate made of E-glass fibre and epoxy resins has been used here. A piezo-electric shaker has been used to excite the composite plate and the acceleration responses were measured using the number of accelerometers. The dynamics of the delaminated composite plates were then compared with a healthy composite plate when the vibration experiments have been conducted at the lower modes. The paper will discuss the observations made on the measured vibration responses from both the healthy and the delaminated plates and the possibility of the delamination detection from the experimental vibration data.

  9. Electronic Equipment Cold Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    equations for such a flow regiae. For laainar flow and Moderate teaperature differwwe« between the well «nd coolant, a aodifled Sieder -Tate...con- figuration. The heat-transfer coefficients, therefore, were determined by using both the Sieder -Tate and McAdams equations and the coaputed...values used In the analytical predictions. As with th* previous cold Plates, the Sieder -Tate equation gave too low of values for the heat- transfer

  10. Elastic plate spallation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oline, L.; Medaglia, J.

    1972-01-01

    The dynamic finite element method was used to investigate elastic stress waves in a plate. Strain displacement and stress strain relations are discussed along with the stiffness and mass matrix. The results of studying point load, and distributed load over small, intermediate, and large radii are reported. The derivation of finite element matrices, and the derivation of lumped and consistent matrices for one dimensional problems with Laplace transfer solutions are included. The computer program JMMSPALL is also included.

  11. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...

  12. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisation of the damage, which...

  13. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Faical Ramdani; Omar Kettani; Benaissa Tadili

    2015-06-01

    Seismic triggering at plate boundaries has a very complex nature that includes seismic events at varying distances. The spatial orientation of triggering cannot be reduced to sequences from the main shocks. Seismic waves propagate at all times in all directions, particularly in highly active zones. No direct evidence can be obtained regarding which earthquakes trigger the shocks. The first approach is to determine the potential linked zones where triggering may occur. The second step is to determine the causality between the events and their triggered shocks. The spatial orientation of the links between events is established from pre-ordered networks and the adapted dependence of the spatio-temporal occurrence of earthquakes. Based on a coefficient of synchronous seismic activity to grid couples, we derive a network link by each threshold. The links of high thresholds are tested using the coherence of time series to determine the causality and related orientation. The resulting link orientations at the plate boundary conditions indicate that causal triggering seems to be localized along a major fault, as a stress transfer between two major faults, and parallel to the geothermal area extension.

  14. Modelling Bending Wave Transmission across Coupled Plate Systems Comprising Periodic Ribbed Plates in the Low-, Mid-, and High-Frequency Ranges Using Forms of Statistical Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of bending wave transmission across systems of coupled plates which incorporate periodic ribbed plates is considered using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA in the low- and mid-frequency ranges and Advanced SEA (ASEA in the high-frequency range. This paper investigates the crossover from prediction with SEA to ASEA through comparison with Finite Element Methods. Results from L-junctions confirm that this crossover occurs near the frequency band containing the fundamental bending mode of the individual bays on the ribbed plate when ribs are parallel to the junction line. Below this frequency band, SEA models treating each periodic ribbed plate as a single subsystem were shown to be appropriate. Above this frequency band, large reductions occur in the vibration level when propagation takes place across successive bays on ribbed plates when the ribs are parallel to the junction. This is due to spatial filtering; hence it is necessary to use ASEA which can incorporate indirect coupling associated with this transmission mechanism. A system of three coupled plates was also modelled which introduced flanking transmission. The results show that a wide frequency range can be covered by using both SEA and ASEA for systems of coupled plates where some or all of the plates are periodic ribbed plates.

  15. Caribbean tectonics and relative plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, K.; Dewey, J. F.; Cooper, C.; Mann, P.; Pindell, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    During the last century, three different ways of interpreting the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean have been proposed, taking into account the Bailey Willis School of a permanent pre-Jurassic deep sea basin, the Edward Suess School of a subsided continental terrain, and the Alfred Wegener School of continental separation. The present investigation is concerned with an outline of an interpretation which follows that of Pindell and Dewey (1982). An attempt is made to point out ways in which the advanced hypotheses can be tested. The fit of Africa, North America, and South America is considered along with aspects of relative motion between North and South America since the early Jurasic. Attention is given to a framework for reconstructing Caribbean plate evolution, the evolution of the Caribbean, the plate boundary zones of the northern and southern Caribbean, and the active deformation of the Caribbean plate.

  16. On the relationship between tectonic plates and thermal mantle plume morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenardic, A.; Kaula, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    Models incorporating plate-like behavior, i.e., near uniform surface velocity and deformation concentrated at plate boundaries, into a convective system, heated by a mix of internal and basal heating and allowing for temperature dependent viscosity, were constructed and compared to similar models not possessing plate-like behavior. The simplified numerical models are used to explore how plate-like behavior in a convective system can effect the lower boundary layer from which thermal plumes form. A principal conclusion is that plate-like behavior can significantly increase the temperature drop across the lower thermal boundary layer. This temperature drop affects the morphology of plumes by determining the viscosity drop across the boundary layer. Model results suggest that plumes on planets possessing plate-like behavior, e.g., the Earth, may differ in morphologic type from plumes on planets not possessing plate-like behavior, e.g., Venus and Mars.

  17. Plate tectonics conserves angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bowin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A new combined understanding of plate tectonics, Earth internal structure, and the role of impulse in deformation of the Earth's crust is presented. Plate accelerations and decelerations have been revealed by iterative filtering of the quaternion history for the Euler poles that define absolute plate motion history for the past 68 million years, and provide an unprecedented precision for plate angular rotation variations with time at 2-million year intervals. Stage poles represent the angular rotation of a plate's motion between adjacent Euler poles, and from which the maximum velocity vector for a plate can be determined. The consistent maximum velocity variations, in turn, yield consistent estimates of plate accelerations and decelerations. The fact that the Pacific plate was shown to accelerate and decelerate, implied that conservation of plate tectonic angular momentum must be globally conserved, and that is confirmed by the results shown here (total angular momentum ~1.4 E+27 kgm2s−1. Accordingly, if a plate decelerates, other plates must increase their angular momentums to compensate. In addition, the azimuth of the maximum velocity vectors yields clues as to why the "bend" in the Emperor-Hawaiian seamount trend occurred near 46 Myr. This report summarizes processing results for 12 of the 14 major tectonic plates of the Earth (except for the Juan de Fuca and Philippine plates. Plate accelerations support the contention that plate tectonics is a product of torques that most likely are sustained by the sinking of positive density anomalies due to phase changes in subducted gabbroic lithosphere at depth in the upper lower mantle (above 1200 km depth. The tectonic plates are pulled along by the sinking of these positive mass anomalies, rather than moving at near constant velocity on the crests of convection cells driven by rising heat. These results imply that spreading centers are primarily passive reactive

  18. Use of hydrogen peroxide treatment and crystal violet agar plates for selective recovery of bacteriophages from natural environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asghari, A.; Farrah, S.R.; Bitton, G. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Hydrogen peroxide inactivated bacteriophages and bacteria at different rates. A concentration of 0.1% hydrogen peroxide reduced the numbers of several bacteria by an average of 94% but caused an average of 25% inactivation in the numbers of bacteriophages tested. Treating natural samples with hydrogen peroxide selectively reduced the indigenous bacterial flora and permitted better visualization of plaques of lawns of Escherichia coli C-3000. In some cases indigenous gram-positive bacteria were relatively resistant to hydrogen peroxide, but their growth could be limited by incorporation of crystal violet into the bottom agar used for plaque assays. The use of hydrogen peroxide treatment and crystal violet-containing plates permitted recovery of more phages from natural samples than did other procedures, such as chloroform pretreatment or the use of selective plating agar such as EC medium.

  19. Using plate mapping to examine portion size and plate composition for large and small divided plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, David E; Sobal, Jeffery; Wansink, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Does the size of a plate influence the serving of all items equally, or does it influence the serving of some foods - such as meat versus vegetables - differently? To examine this question, we used the new method of plate mapping, where people drew a meal on a paper plate to examine sensitivity to small versus large three-compartment divided plates in portion size and meal composition in a sample of 109 university students. The total drawn meal area was 37% bigger on large plates than small plates, which showed that the portion of plate coverage did not differ by plate size. Men and women drew bigger vegetable portions and men drew bigger meat portions on large plates when compared to small plates. These results suggest that men and women are differentially sensitive to plate size for overall meal size and for meal composition. Implications for decreasing portion size and improving meal balance are that plate size may influence portion size and change the proportions of foods served.

  20. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  1. Temperature field of steel plate cooling process after plate rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Feng, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on numerical calculation with Matlab, the study on cooling process after plate rolling is carried out, and the temperature field distribution of the plate varying with the time is obtained. The effects of the plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature, average flow rate of the cooling water, carbon content of the plate and cooling method on the plate surface and central temperatures as well as final cooling temperature are discussed. For the same cooling time, the plate surface and central temperatures as well as their temperature difference increase; with the decrease in rolling temperature and the increase in average flow rate of the cooling water, the plate surface and central temperatures decrease. Compared with the single water cooling process, the temperature difference between the plate centre and surface based on intermittent cooling is lower. In this case, the temperature uniformity of the plate is better, and the corresponding thermal stress is lower. The fitting equation of the final cooling temperature with respect to plate thickness, final rolling temperature, cooling water temperature and average flow rate of the cooling water is obtained.

  2. Real Plates and Dubious Microplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M. G.; Steblov, G. M.

    2008-12-01

    From the onset of plate tectonics, the existence of most of the plates was never put in doubt, although the boundaries of some plates, like Africa, were later revised. There are however, two microplates in northeast Asia, the Amurian and Okhotsk, whose existence and the sense of rotation was revised several times. The rms value of plate-residual GPS velocities is 0.5-0.9 mm/a for sets of stations representing the motion of the following plates: Antarctic, Australian, Eurasian, North American, Nubian, Pacific, and South American. This value can be regarded as an upper bound on deviation of real plates from infinite stiffness. The rms value of plate-residual GPS velocities is 1.2-1.8 mm/a for the Indian, Nazca, and Somalian plates. Higher rms values for India and Nazca are attributed to the noisier data. The higher rms value for Somalia appears to arise from the distributed deformation to the east of the East African Rift; whether this statement is true can only be decided from observations of denser network in the future. From the analysis of plate-residual GPS velocities, the Canadian Arctic and northeastern Siberia belong to the North American plate. The detailed GPS survey on Sakhalin Island shows that the Sea of Okhotsk region also belongs to the North American plate while the region to the west of it belongs to the Eurasian plate. These results provide a constraint on the geometry of the North American plate and put in doubt the existence of smaller plates in northeast Asia.

  3. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  4. Dynamics of Tectonic Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Pechersky, E; Sadowski, G; Yambartsev, A

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a model that describes a mutual dynamic of tectonic plates. The dynamic is a sort of stick-slip one which is modeled by a Markov random process. The process defines a microlevel of the dynamic. A macrolevel is obtained by a scaling limit which leads to a system of integro-differential equations which determines a kind of mean field systems. Conditions when Gutenberg-Richter empirical law are presented on the mean field level. These conditions are rather universal and do not depend on features of resistant forces.

  5. Dynamics of Tectonic Plates

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a model that describes a mutual dynamic of tectonic plates. The dynamic is a sort of stick-slip one which is modeled by a Markov random process. The process defines a microlevel of the dynamic. A macrolevel is obtained by a scaling limit which leads to a system of integro-differential equations which determines a kind of mean field systems. Conditions when Gutenberg-Richter empirical law are presented on the mean field level. These conditions are rather universal and do not depend ...

  6. Highly adhesive metal plating on Zylon fiber via iodine pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatema, Ummul Khair [Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1 Tokida, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567 (Japan); Gotoh, Yasuo, E-mail: ygotohy@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1 Tokida, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567 (Japan)

    2011-11-01

    Highly adhesive metal plating was performed on poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) fiber named Zylon via iodine pretreatment followed by electroless plating. First, iodine components were selectively doped into the inner part of the fiber near the surface through iodine vapor exposure. The doped iodine was converted to palladium iodide particles by treating with palladium chloride solution. After the reduction of the iodide to metal palladium particles, electroless copper plating was conducted on the fiber. A uniform copper layer was deposited on the fiber surface and exhibited high durability in durability tests such as ultrasonic exposure, tape peeling-off, and corrosion in NaCl solution. This durability was attributed to the palladium particles formed at the fiber surface that served as an anchor for the plated layer as well as an electroless plating catalyst. The plated fibers also possessed electrical conductivity. Although the tensile strength of the Zylon fiber decreased from 5.8 to 4.9 GPa after undergoing the pretreatment and plating processes, the light shielding effect improved the light resistance of the plated fibers in terms of tensile properties. After 18 days of xenon lamp exposure, the plated fibers retained 74% of its initial strength, whereas that of untreated fibers decreased to 43%.

  7. A Vehicle License Plate Detection and Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid W. Maglad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Automatic vehicle license plate detection and recognition is a key technique in most of traffic related applications and is an active research topic in the image processing domain. Different methods, techniques and algorithms have been developed for license plate detection and recognitions. Approach: Due to the varying characteristics of the license plate from country to country like numbering system, colors, language of characters, style (font and sizes of license plate, further research is still needed in this area. Results: In most of the Middle East countries, they use the combination of Arabic and English letters, along with their countries logo. Thus, it makes the localization of plate number, the differentiation between Arabic and English letters and logo’s object and finally the recognition of those characters become a more challenging research task. The use of artificial neural network has proved itself beneficial for plate recognition, but it has not been applied for the plate detection. Radial Basis Function (RBF neural network is used both for the detection and recognition of Saudi Arabian license plates. Conclusion/Recommendations: The proposed approach has been tested on 200 front images of national license plate of Saudi Arabia. A higher percentage of accuracy has been obtained to show that the significant of this approach. The study could be further investigated in other Middle East countries.

  8. LOWLID FORMATION AND PLATE TECTONICS ON EXOPLANETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Noack, L.; Breuer, D.

    2009-12-01

    The last years of astronomical observation have opened the doors to a universe filled with extrasolar planets. Detection techniques still only offer the possibility to detect mainly Super-Earths above five Earth masses. But detection techniques do steadily improve and are offering the possibility to detect even smaller planets. The observations show that planets seem to exist in many possible sizes just as the planets and moons of our own solar system do. It is only a natural question to ask if planetary mass has an influence on some key habitability factors such as on plate tectonics, allowing us to test which exoplanets might be more likely habitable than others, and allowing us to understand if plate tectonics on Earth is a stable or a critical, instable process that could easily be perturbed. Here we present results derived from 1D parameterized thermal evolution and 2D/3D computer models, showing how planetary mass influences the propensity of plate tectonics for planets with masses ranging from 0.1 to 10 Earth masses. Lately [2, 3] studied the effect of planetary mass on the ability to break plates and hence initiate plate tectonics - but both derived results contradictory to the other. We think that one of the reasons why both studies [2, 3] are not acceptable in their current form is partly due to an oversimplification. Both treated viscosity only temperature-dependent but neglected the effect pressure has on enlarging the viscosity in the deep mantle. More massive planets have therefore a stronger pressure-viscosity-coupling making convection at high pressures sluggish or even impossible. For planets larger than two Earth masses we observe that a conductive lid (termed low-lid) forms above the core-mantle boundary and thus reduces the effective convective part of the mantle when including a pressure-dependent term into the viscosity laws as shown in [1]. Moreover [2, 3] use time independent steady state models neglecting the fact that plate tectonics is a

  9. 植酸钠溶液在提高地下水水质及用于电镀液的试验%Test for the application of sodium phytate solution to improvement of groundwater quality and to plating baths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁诗璞; 余晓平; 张帮伦; 袁林春

    2011-01-01

    植酸钠溶液对地下水中的钙、镁及少量重金属有良好的沉淀效果;对氯化物镀锌液及锌酸盐镀锌液无明显效果,甚至有副作用;用于暗镍液除铜的效果不佳,但能明显消除亮镍液中Fe3+的不良影响.%The solution of sodium phytate can be used to precipitate calcium, magnesium and a small amount of heavy metals from groundwater, but has no or even bad effect on chloride and zincate zinc plating baths. Its addition exhibits unsatisfactory effectiveness for removal of copper from dark nickel plating bath, but evidently, it is able to eliminate the adverse effect of Fe3+ in bright nickel plating bath.

  10. THE NEW STRUCTURE OF A PLATE-PILE FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMORODOV О. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In the construction of high-rise buildings with significant loads on foundations and bedding at the base of not rocky soils tend to use the most common pile foundation to reduce the deformation and correspond to regulations [1] on the maximum permissible deformation. Monitoring of the stress-strain state (SSS pile foundations constructed buildings shows the existing reserves of bearing capacity on the one hand - soil bases of the second group of limit states, on the other - the foundation of the first group of limit states by regulating the SSS foundation during construction and exploitation. Therefore, are increasingly using more progressive structure of foundations consisting of piles and of plate, as well as methods for their construction [2 - 10], however, in their design there are a number of disadvantages associated with the ambiguity of the application of methods for the calculation of such structures, which allows to do only partial conclusions and recommendations. Purpose. Is proposing the new structure of a plate-pile foundation, which overcomes the drawbacks of the existing design solutions and methods of consruction their, as well as is proposing an engineering method of a determination of basic parameters. Conclusion. Is proposes the new structure of a plate-pile foundation and the method of a determination of basic parameters his in the design of a soil base to the maximum permissible deformation Su buildings. Efficiency of application this type plate-pile foundation obtained by rational distribution resistance between a plate and piles, when under load from the building to the first work fully incorporated plate that allows maximum deformed for plate, and then the piles - due to of the hinge connection with the plate. Thus, depending on the maximum permissible deformation for buildings resistance of plate part of a full load of more than 50%, that significantly reduces the consumption of concrete.

  11. Nepal CRS project incorporates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Project, 5 years after lauching product sales in June 1978, incorporated as a private, nonprofit company under Nepalese management. The transition was finalized in August 1983. The Company will work through a cooperative agreement with USAID/Kathmandu to complement the national family planning goals as the program continues to provide comtraceptives through retail channels at subsidized prices. Company objectives include: increase contraceptive sales by at least 15% per year; make CRS cost effective and move towards self sufficiency; and explore the possibility of marketing noncontraceptive health products to improve primary health care. After only5 years the program can point to some impressive successes. The number of retial shops selling family planning products increased from 100 in 1978 to over 8000, extending CRS product availability to 66 of the country's 75 districts. Retail sales have climbed dramatically in the 5-year period, from Rs 46,817 in 1978 to Rs 271,039 in 1982. Sales in terms of couple year protection CYP) have grown to 24,451 CYP(1982), a 36% increase over 1980 CYP. Since the beginning of the CRS marketing program, total distribution of contraceptives--through both CRS and the Family Planning Maternal and Child Haelth (FP/MCH) Project--has been increasing. While the FP/MCH program remains the largest distributor,contribution of CRS Products is increasing, indicating that CRS is creating new product acceptors. CRS market share in 1982 was 43% for condoms and 16% for oral contraceptives (OCs). CRS markets 5 products which are subsidized in order to be affordable to consumers as well as attractive to sellers. The initial products launched in June 1978 were Gulaf standard dose OCs and Dhaal lubricated colored condoms. A less expensive lubricates, plain Suki-Dhaal condom was introduced in June 1980 in an attempt to reach poorer rural populations, but rural distribution costs are excessive and Suki

  12. Improved modelling of a parallel plate active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Tušek, J.; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein;

    2013-01-01

    flow maldistribution in the regenerator. This paper studies the effects of these loss mechanisms and compares theoretical results with experimental results obtained on an experimental AMR device. Three parallel plate regenerators were tested, each having different demagnetizing field characteristics...

  13. Redesign of Indonesian-made osteosynthesis plates to enhance their mechanical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewo, P; van der Houwen, E B; Suyitno; Marius, R; Magetsari, R; Verkerke, G J

    2015-02-01

    Mechanical properties determined by fatigue strength, ductility, and toughness are important measures for osteosynthesis plates in order to tolerate some load-bearing situations caused by muscle contractions and weight-bearing effects. Previous study indicated that Indonesian-made plates showed lower mechanical strength compared to the European AO standard plate. High stress under load-bearing situations often starts from surface of the plate; we therefore refined the grain size of the surface by using shot peening and surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). Single cycle bending tests showed that shot-peened and SMAT-treated plates had significantly higher load limit and bending stress compared to the original plates (pIndonesian-made plates can be improved upon SMAT treatment leading to significant enhancement of mechanical strength thus is comparable to the standard plate. Our findings highlight the benefits of SMAT treatment to improve mechanical strength of Indonesian-made osteosynthesis plates.

  14. A Novel Computer-Aided Approach for Parametric Investigation of Custom Design of Fracture Fixation Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaozhong; He, Kunjin; Chen, Zhengming

    2017-01-01

    The present study proposes an integrated computer-aided approach combining femur surface modeling, fracture evidence recover plate creation, and plate modification in order to conduct a parametric investigation of the design of custom plate for a specific patient. The study allows for improving the design efficiency of specific plates on the patients' femur parameters and the fracture information. Furthermore, the present approach will lead to exploration of plate modification and optimization. The three-dimensional (3D) surface model of a detailed femur and the corresponding fixation plate were represented with high-level feature parameters, and the shape of the specific plate was recursively modified in order to obtain the optimal plate for a specific patient. The proposed approach was tested and verified on a case study, and it could be helpful for orthopedic surgeons to design and modify the plate in order to fit the specific femur anatomy and the fracture information.

  15. A Novel Computer-Aided Approach for Parametric Investigation of Custom Design of Fracture Fixation Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The present study proposes an integrated computer-aided approach combining femur surface modeling, fracture evidence recover plate creation, and plate modification in order to conduct a parametric investigation of the design of custom plate for a specific patient. The study allows for improving the design efficiency of specific plates on the patients' femur parameters and the fracture information. Furthermore, the present approach will lead to exploration of plate modification and optimization. The three-dimensional (3D) surface model of a detailed femur and the corresponding fixation plate were represented with high-level feature parameters, and the shape of the specific plate was recursively modified in order to obtain the optimal plate for a specific patient. The proposed approach was tested and verified on a case study, and it could be helpful for orthopedic surgeons to design and modify the plate in order to fit the specific femur anatomy and the fracture information. PMID:28203270

  16. Teste de estimulação repetitiva no músculo ancôneo para diagnóstico da miastenia grave: mapeamento da sua área de placa motora Repetitive stimulation test on the anconeus muscle for the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis: the mapping of its motor end-plate area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Wanderley S. Coriolano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Mapear a área de placa motora do músculo ancôneo para definir a melhor localização dos eletrodos de registro em testes de estimulação repetitiva (TER no diagnóstico dos distúrbios da transmissão neuromuscular. MÉTODO: Registramos o potencial de ação composto do músculo ancôneo sobre a pele que o recobre, após estimulação do ramo que o inerva. Analisando as formas de onda registradas em cada ponto da pele foi possível definir a área de placa. RESULTADOS: A área de placa motora do ancôneo é uma linha paralela à borda da ulna. O melhor local de colocação do eletrodo "ativo" de registro situa-se cerca de 2 cm distal ao olécrano e 1 cm lateral à borda da ulna. CONCLUSÃO: A realização de TER no músculo ancôneo é simples e bem tolerada. Com a estimulação do ancôneo o antebraço praticamente não se move, sendo o procedimento livre de artefatos de movimento.PURPOSE: To map the motor end-plate area of the anconeus muscle and define the best place for positioning the recording electrodes in repetitive stimulation tests (RST for the diagnosis of neuromuscular transmission disorders. METHOD: The compound muscle action potential of the anconeus was recorded after stimulating the motor branch of the radial nerve that innervates it. By analyzing the waveforms registered at each point of the skin we were able to define the motor end-plate area. RESULTS: The motor end-plate area of the anconeus is a line parallel to the ulna border. The best place for placing the "active" recording electrode is about 2cm distal to the olecranon and 1 cm lateral to the border of the ulna. CONCLUSION: Performing RST in the anconeus muscle is simple and well tolerated. Stimulation of the anconeus almost doesn't move the forearm and the procedure is virtually free of movement artifacts.

  17. CMS Resistive plate Champers

    CERN Document Server

    Zainab, Karam

    2013-01-01

    There are many types of gas detectors which are used in CERN in LHC project, There is a main parts for the gas detectors which must be in all gas detectors types like Multiwire proportional chambers, such as the micromesh gaseous structure chamber (the MicroMegas), Gas-electron multiplier (GEM) detector, Resistive Plate Champers... Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment detecting muons which are powerful tool for recognizing signatures of interesting physics processes. The CMS detector uses: drift tube (DT), cathode strip chamber (CSC) and resistive plate chamber (RPC). Building RPC’s was my project in summer student program (hardware). RPC’s have advantages which are triggering detector and Excellent time resolution which reinforce the measurement of the correct beam crossing time. RPC’s Organized in stations :  RPC barrel (RB) there are 4 stations, namely RB1, RB2, RB3, and RB4  While in the RPC endcap (RE) the 3 stations are RE1, RE2, and RE3. In the endcaps a new starion will be added and this...

  18. Thickness Evaluation of Aluminium Plate Using Pulsed Eddy Current Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpartap; Bapat, Harsh Madhukar; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Bandyopadhyay, Manojit; Puri, Rakesh Kumar; Badodkar, Deepak Narayanrao

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a pulsed eddy current (PEC) based non-destructive testing system used for detection of thickness variation in aluminium plate. A giant magneto-resistive sensor has been used instead of pick up coil for detecting resultant magnetic field. The PEC response signals obtained from 1 to 5 mm thickness change in aluminium plate were investigated. Two time domain features, namely peak value and time to peak, of PEC response were used for extracting information about thickness variation in aluminium plate. The variation of peak value and time to peak with thickness was compared. A program was developed to display the thickness variation of the tested sample.

  19. Biomechanical Properties of 3-Dimensional Printed Volar Locking Distal Radius Plate: Comparison With Conventional Volar Locking Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jae; Jo, Young-Hoon; Choi, Wan-Sun; Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Bong-Gun; Kim, Joo-Hak; Lee, Kwang-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the biomechanical properties of a new volar locking plate made by 3-dimensional printing using titanium alloy powder and 2 conventional volar locking plates under static and dynamic loading conditions that were designed to replicate those seen during fracture healing and early postoperative rehabilitation. For all plate designs, 12 fourth-generation synthetic composite radii were fitted with volar locking plates according to the manufacturers' technique after segmental osteotomy. Each specimen was first preloaded 10 N and then was loaded to 100 N, 200 N, and 300 N in phases at a rate of 2 N/s. Each construct was then dynamically loaded for 2,000 cycles of fatigue loading in each phase for a total 10,000 cycles. Finally, the constructs were loaded to a failure at a rate of 5 mm/min. All 3 plates showed increasing stiffness at higher loads. The 3-dimensional printed volar locking plate showed significantly higher stiffness at all dynamic loading tests compared with the 2 conventional volar locking plates. The 3-dimensional printed volar locking plate had the highest yield strength, which was significantly higher than those of 2 conventional volar locking plates. A 3-dimensional printed volar locking plate has similar stiffness to conventional plates in an experimental model of a severely comminuted distal radius fracture in which the anterior and posterior metaphyseal cortex are involved. These results support the potential clinical utility of 3-dimensional printed volar locking plates in which design can be modified according the fracture configuration and the anatomy of the radius. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Incorporation study of {sup 18}FDG through its uptake into tumour-derived cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Flavia M.; Nascimento, Leonardo T.C.; Santos, Raquel G., E-mail: fnc@cdtn.br, E-mail: raqueou@uol.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In vitro tests of radiopharmaceuticals are an important instrument to study their mechanisms of action, binding and incorporation. {sup 18}FDG is the most used radiopharmaceutical for diagnostics positron emission tomography (PET) on oncology, on the basis of accelerated rates of absorption of glucose in cell malignancies. This radiotracer has been routinely produced at CDTN; and therefore, it was selected for preliminary assays due to its availability. Nowadays, UPPR at CDTN produces routinely {sup 18}FDG for the local PET Centers but others PET radiopharmaceuticals are in development such as {sup 18}F-Fluorocholine and {sup 18}F-Fluorothymidine. According to the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA) it is necessary to validate and register these new radiopharmaceuticals in order to get the approval for their commercialization. Targeting efficacy is one of the important issues to be evaluated during radiopharmaceutical validation. The aim of this study was to develop a standard protocol to determine tumor targeting efficacy of PET radiopharmaceuticals in vitro. Therefore it was developed a protocol based on the incorporation og {sup 18} FDG through the uptake in different tumor-derived cell lines. Three variables were investigated for the standardization of the test: the number of cells to be seeded in 96-well plates, the time of incubation with the radiopharmaceutical and the radiotracer concentration. The standardized protocol was considered suitable for {sup 18}FDG incorporation assay and showed reproductive results. The protocol developed in this work will pave the way for the in vitro studies of incorporation of the new PET radiopharmaceuticals to be produced at UPPR-CDTN, such as: {sup 18}F-Fluorocholine and {sup 18}F-Fluorothymidine. (author)

  1. Compact, Two-Sided Structural Cold Plate Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffetti, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In two-sided structural cold plates, typically there is a structural member, such as a honeycomb panel, that provides the structural strength for the cold plates that cool equipment. The cold plates are located on either side of the structural member and thus need to have the cooling fluid supplied to them. One method of accomplishing this is to route the inlet and outlet tubing to both sides of the structural member. Another method might be to supply the inlet to one side and the outlet to the other. With the latter method, an external feature such as a hose, tube, or manifold must be incorporated to pass the fluid from one side of the structural member to the other. Although this is a more compact design than the first option, since it eliminates the need for a dedicated supply and return line to each side of the structural member, it still poses problems, as these external features can be easily damaged and are now new areas for potential fluid leakage. This invention eliminates the need for an external feature and instead incorporates the feature internally to the structural member. This is accomplished by utilizing a threaded insert that not only connects the cold plate to the structural member, but also allows the cooling fluid to flow through it into the structural member, and then to the cold plate on the opposite side. The insert also employs a cap that acts as a cover to seal the open area needed to install the insert. There are multiple options for location of o-ring style seals, as well as the option to use adhesive for redundant sealing. Another option is to weld the cap to the cold plate after its installation, thus making it an integral part of the structural member. This new configuration allows the fluid to pass from one cold plate to the other without any exposed external features.

  2. Localised Plate Motion on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghail, R. C.

    1996-03-01

    The volcanic and tectonic features observed in Dali Vinculum, Parga Vinculum and Imdr Regio are concentrated at long, narrow, curvilinear zones, with relatively minor volcanism and tectonism between these zones. These zones, whilst more diffuse than terrestrial plate boundaries, nevertheless define the margins of tectonic plates. In contrast to Earth, however, it appears that venusian plates are neither created nor destroyed by lateral motion. Rather, plates are thinned and intruded at vincula plate boundaries, vertically accreted by small-scale intra-plate (planitia) volcanism and perhaps destroyed by delamination of thickened crust in tesserae and montane regions such as Thetis Regio and Ishtar Terra. The diversity in age both between and within these three areas together with the evidence for infrequent, small scale resurfacing in the planitiae are difficult to reconcile with a non-uniformitarian geological process.

  3. Tectonics of the Easter plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  4. Tectonics of the Easter plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  5. Fuzzy OPF incorporating UPFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesh, B.; George, M.K. [Multimedia University (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering and Technology; Gooi, H.B. [Nanyang Technological University (Singapore). School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

    2004-09-01

    A new optimal reactive power flow (ORPF) method is proposed which considers the inclusion of unified powerflow controllers (UPFC). The modelling and inclusion of UPFC in the solution of power flow equations is presented. The ORPF problem is formulated as a fuzzy optimisation problem considering the objectives of minimising system transmission loss and obtaining the best voltage profile. The fuzzy formulation of the ORPF problem is solved using an EP algorithm. The proposed method is applied on the 6-bus and 57-bus IEEE test systems and on a 191-bus Indian electric power system. The results demonstrate the applicability of the method. (author)

  6. Incorporation, plurality, and the incorporation of plurals: a dynamic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Swart, H.E.; Farkas, D. F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the semantic properties of incorporated nominals that are present at clausal syntax. Such nominals exhibit a complex cluster of semantic properties, ranging from argument structure, scope, and number to discourse transparency. We develop an analysis of incorporation in the fram

  7. 78 FR 59065 - Interview Room Recording System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... of Justice Programs Interview Room Recording System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard... Recording System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard Workshops. SUMMARY: The National Institute of... Plate Readers used by criminal justice agencies. Sessions are intended to inform manufacturers, test...

  8. 短纤维链板式松弛热定型机内部流场测试及数值模拟%Testing and numerical simulation of flow field in chain plate type relaxation heat setting machine for staple fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 张军; 常佳; 魏新利

    2012-01-01

    A numerical calculation model was founded on partial actual test data of flow field in chain plate type relaxation heat setting machine for staple fiber. The computational fluid dynamics software Fluent was adopted to analyze the numerical result of dryer box unit. The results showed that the chain plate type relaxation heat setting machine did not have a reasonable opening rate of air distribution plate, leading to an uneven flow rate perpendicular to chain plate motion in dryer which resulted in the uneven drying effect. The obvious velocity component parallel with the chain plate motion in the dryer flow field, which was beneficial to enhancing the convective mass transfer effect, resulted from the centrifugal force of the fan and the diversion effect of the volute. The numerical calculation method of the model produced the data similar to the actural test results. The numerical analytical results can be used as the preference for the structure optimization design of chain plate type relaxation heat setting machine for staple fiber, especially for the design of air distribution plate openings and fan volute.%在对短纤维链板式松弛热定型机内气体流场部分实测数据的基础上,建立了数值计算模型,利用流体动力学软件Fluent对干燥机箱体单元进行了数值模拟分析.结果表明:所研究短纤维链板式松弛热定型机的匀风板开孔率布置不合理,使得干燥机内垂直于链板运动方向流速不均匀,导致干燥效果的不均匀;由于风机的离心力及蜗壳的导流作用,使得干燥机流场具有明显链板移动方向速度分量,该分量有助于加强干燥过程中的对流传质效果.所建模型的数值计算方法与实际测试结果相近,数值分析结果可以用来作为短纤维链板式松弛热定型机结构优化设计,尤其是匀风板开孔和风机蜗壳的设计的依据.

  9. Aluminum Manganese Molten Salt Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Dry fixture thoroughly with the air gun. Be especially careful to dry water out of crevices. Note: water is a contaminant to the plating process...easily destroyed if blown with the air. Be especially careful to dry water out of crevices. Note: water is a contaminant to the plating process and...especially careful to dry water out of crevices. 13. Carefully remove part from fixture. If residual plating solution is present at attachments points

  10. Development of low cost composite plates for humanitarian demining operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabet, L.; Scheppers, J.; Verpoest, I.; Pirlot, M.; Desmet, B.; Gilson, L.; Pirard, P.

    2006-08-01

    Composite plates using flax fabrics and maleic anhydride modified polypropylene were fabricated on laboratory scale. The aim of the current research was to develop a low cost composite plate or a hybrid structure based on those plates and steel sheet, for making humanitarian demining clothes protecting against secondary fragmentation caused by anti-personnel blast mines. Ballistic impact tests according to STANAG 2920 were carried out for determining the v{50}-limit. So called field tests were performed by means of simulated anti-personnel mines using M112 explosive; the repeatability and the spatial distribution of the projected fragments were checked before fixing the final experimental setup. The performance of the bare composite plate was compared with the hybrid structures in terms of v{50} and in terms of damage mechanisms. All tested configurations performed amazingly well during the field tests, which was not the case for the ballistic impact tests. This led to the conclusion that v{50} might not be the best criterion to characterize protective clothing. This conclusion is sustained by energetic considerations and by field tests on plates with half the thickness of the initial plates.

  11. Glass-bead peen plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Peen plating of aluminum, copper, and nickel powders was investigated. Only aluminum was plated successfully within the range of peen plating conditions studied. Optimum plating conditions for aluminum were found to be: (1) bead/powder mixture containing 25 to 35% powder by weight, (2) peening intensity of 0.007A as measured by Almen strip, and (3) glass impact bead diameter of at least 297 microns (0.0117 inches) for depositing-100 mesh aluminum powder. No extensive cleaning or substrate preparation is required beyond removing loose dirt or heavy oil.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A-Mediated Incorporation of Peptides: Effect of Peptide Modification on Incorporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie Hansenová Maňásková

    Full Text Available The endogenous Staphylococcus aureus sortase A (SrtA transpeptidase covalently anchors cell wall-anchored (CWA proteins equipped with a specific recognition motif (LPXTG into the peptidoglycan layer of the staphylococcal cell wall. Previous in situ experiments have shown that SrtA is also able to incorporate exogenous, fluorescently labelled, synthetic substrates equipped with the LPXTG motif (K(FITCLPETG-amide into the bacterial cell wall, albeit at high concentrations of 500 μM to 1 mM. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of substrate modification on the incorporation efficiency. This revealed that (i by elongation of LPETG-amide with a sequence of positively charged amino acids, derived from the C-terminal domain of physiological SrtA substrates, the incorporation efficiency was increased by 20-fold at 10 μM, 100 μM and 250 μM; (ii Substituting aspartic acid (E for methionine increased the incorporation of the resulting K(FITCLPMTG-amide approximately three times at all concentrations tested; (iii conjugation of the lipid II binding antibiotic vancomycin to K(FITCLPMTG-amide resulted in the same incorporation levels as K(FITCLPETG-amide, but much more efficient at an impressive 500-fold lower substrate concentration. These newly developed synthetic substrates can potentially find broad applications in for example the in situ imaging of bacteria; the incorporation of antibody recruiting moieties; the targeted delivery and covalent incorporation of antimicrobial compounds into the bacterial cell wall.

  13. Intermittent plate tectonics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Paul G; Behn, Mark D

    2008-01-04

    Although it is commonly assumed that subduction has operated continuously on Earth without interruption, subduction zones are routinely terminated by ocean closure and supercontinent assembly. Under certain circumstances, this could lead to a dramatic loss of subduction, globally. Closure of a Pacific-type basin, for example, would eliminate most subduction, unless this loss were compensated for by comparable subduction initiation elsewhere. Given the evidence for Pacific-type closure in Earth's past, the absence of a direct mechanism for termination/initiation compensation, and recent data supporting a minimum in subduction flux in the Mesoproterozoic, we hypothesize that dramatic reductions or temporary cessations of subduction have occurred in Earth's history. Such deviations in the continuity of plate tectonics have important consequences for Earth's thermal and continental evolution.

  14. VISAS AND GREEN PLATES

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    From 3 April 2000, all questions relating to visa requests for Switzerland, France, or Russia for a member of the personnel must be addressed to Ms. Agnita Querrou (telephone 72838, office 5-2-019, e-mail Agnita.Querrou@cern.ch).The Users' Office continues to deal with requests for letters of invitation and questions concerning visas for users in EP Division.Questions relating to removals, requests for green plates, to privileges of members of the personnel and to the importation of vehicles are still dealt with by Ms Zuzana Miller (telephone 79257, office 33-1-017, e-mail Zuzana.Muller@cern.ch) and Ms Joëlle Belleman (telephone 73962, office 33-1-019, e-mail Joelle.Belleman@cern.ch).

  15. Plate osteosynthesis of simple forearm fractures : LCP versus DC plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Charles Tjerk; Ten Duis, Henk Jan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the time to radiological bony union of simple A-type fractures of the forearm, treated with either a locking compression plate (LCP) or a dynamic compression plate (DCP). For each fracture, the relation between the use of compression and radiological healing time

  16. Plate osteosynthesis of simple forearm fractures : LCP versus DC plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Charles Tjerk; Ten Duis, Henk Jan

    The aim of this study was to compare the time to radiological bony union of simple A-type fractures of the forearm, treated with either a locking compression plate (LCP) or a dynamic compression plate (DCP). For each fracture, the relation between the use of compression and radiological healing time

  17. Nickel release from nickel-plated metals and stainless steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudrechy, P; Foussereau, J; Mantout, B; Baroux, B

    1994-10-01

    Nickel release from nickel-plated metals often induces allergic contact dermatitis, but, for nickel-containing stainless steels, the effect is not well-known. In this paper, AISI 304, 316L, 303 and 430 type stainless steels, nickel and nickel-plated materials were investigated. 4 tests were performed: patch tests, leaching experiments, dimethylglyoxime (DMG) spot tests and electrochemical tests. Patch tests showed that 96% of the patients were intolerant to Ni-plated samples, and 14% to a high-sulfur stainless steel (303), while nickel-containing stainless steels with a low sulfur content elicited no reactions. Leaching experiments confirmed the patch tests: in acidic artificial sweat, Ni-plated samples released about 100 micrograms/cm2/week of nickel, while low-sulfur stainless steels released less than 0.03 microgram/cm2/week of nickel, and AISI 303 about 1.5 micrograms/cm2/week. Attention is drawn to the irrelevance of the DMG spot test, which reveals Ni present in the metal bulk but not its dissolution rate. Electrochemical experiments showed that 304 and 316 grades remain passive in the environments tested, while Ni-plated steels and AISI 303 can suffer significant cation dissolution. Thus, Ni-containing 304 and 316 steels should not induce contact dermatitis, while 303 should be avoided. A reliable nitric acid spot test is proposed to distinguish this grade from other stainless steels.

  18. Flexural Behavior of Posttensioned Flat Plates Depending on Tendon Layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sook Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the experimental results on the flexural behavior and deflections of posttensioned concrete flat plates depending on tendon layout. One reinforced concrete flat plate and two posttensioned concrete flat plates were manufactured and tested. One-way posttensioning layout and two-way posttensioning layout were considered in this paper. The load-deflection behavior and modes of crack are presented from the test results. Posttension systems effectively controlled crack and deflection. One-way and two-way posttensioning layouts both showed similar maximum load. However, serviceability improved with two-way posttensioning layout compared to one-way posttensioning layout. Also, the yield-line theory was applied to predict the ultimate load for the posttensioned flat plates. The comparison between the test results and estimation by yield-line analysis generally showed good agreement.

  19. Resistive Plate Chamber Efficiency & Rate Capability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candocia, Max

    2012-10-01

    Bakelite-based resistive plate chambers (RPCs) are particle detectors commonly used in muon trigger systems for high-energy physics experiments. Bakelite RPCs combine fast response, sufficient position resolution and low cost, and they can be operated at instantaneous background rates up to approximately 1.5 kHz/cm^2. Current and future collider experiments will demand operation of trigger RPCs under background rates higher than what is currently achieved. The rate capability is related to the bulk and surface conductivities of the Bakelite material used for the plates bordering the active gas volume in the RPCs. At the LHC and RHIC, these surfaces are coated with linseed oil, which lowers the surface resistivity of the Bakelite, which, to a point, improves the rate capability of the detectors. We have doped our own plates with various concentrations of carbon black. Over the past year we have tested RPCs with Bakelite plates of different resistivity using cosmic ray muons and radioactive Fe55 sources to emulate different levels of background in the detector. Results on the RPC efficiencies at different background rates and for different Bakelite coatings will be presented.

  20. Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, David; Ricard, Yanick

    2014-04-24

    The initiation of plate tectonics on Earth is a critical event in our planet's history. The time lag between the first proto-subduction (about 4 billion years ago) and global tectonics (approximately 3 billion years ago) suggests that plates and plate boundaries became widespread over a period of 1 billion years. The reason for this time lag is unknown but fundamental to understanding the origin of plate tectonics. Here we suggest that when sufficient lithospheric damage (which promotes shear localization and long-lived weak zones) combines with transient mantle flow and migrating proto-subduction, it leads to the accumulation of weak plate boundaries and eventually to fully formed tectonic plates driven by subduction alone. We simulate this process using a grain evolution and damage mechanism with a composite rheology (which is compatible with field and laboratory observations of polycrystalline rocks), coupled to an idealized model of pressure-driven lithospheric flow in which a low-pressure zone is equivalent to the suction of convective downwellings. In the simplest case, for Earth-like conditions, a few successive rotations of the driving pressure field yield relic damaged weak zones that are inherited by the lithospheric flow to form a nearly perfect plate, with passive spreading and strike-slip margins that persist and localize further, even though flow is driven only by subduction. But for hotter surface conditions, such as those on Venus, accumulation and inheritance of damage is negligible; hence only subduction zones survive and plate tectonics does not spread, which corresponds to observations. After plates have developed, continued changes in driving forces, combined with inherited damage and weak zones, promote increased tectonic complexity, such as oblique subduction, strike-slip boundaries that are subparallel to plate motion, and spalling of minor plates.

  1. Development of Catalytic Cooking Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, Anna-Karin; Silversand, Fredrik [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden); Tena, Emmanuel; Berger, Marc [Gaz de France (France)

    2004-04-01

    Gas catalytic combustion for gas stoves or cooking plates (closed catalytic burner system with ceramic plates) is a very promising technique in terms of ease of cleaning, power modulation and emissions. Previous investigations show that wire mesh catalysts, prepared and supplied by Catator AB (CAT), seem to be very well suited for such applications. Beside significantly reducing the NOx-emissions, these catalysts offer important advantages such as good design flexibility, low pressure drop and high heat transfer capacity, where the latter leads to a quick thermal response. Prior to this project, Gaz de France (GdF) made a series of measurements with CAT's wire mesh catalysts in their gas cooking plates and compared the measured performance with similar results obtained with theirs cordierite monolith catalysts. Compared to the monolith catalyst, the wire mesh catalyst was found to enable very promising results with respect to both emission levels (<10 mg NO{sub x} /kWh, <5 mg CO/kWh) and life-time (>8000 h vs. 700 h at 200 kW/m{sup 2}). It was however established that the radiation and hence, the thermal efficiency of the cooking plate, was significantly less than is usually measured in combination with the monolith (15 % vs. 32 %). It was believed that the latter could be improved by developing new burner designs based on CAT's wire mesh concept. As a consequence, a collaboration project between GdF, CAT and the Swedish Gas Technology AB was created. This study reports on the design, the construction and the evaluation of new catalytic burners, based on CAT's wire mesh catalysts, used for the combustion of natural gas in gas cooking stoves. The evaluation of the burners was performed with respect to key factors such as thermal efficiency, emission quality and pressure drop, etc, by the use of theoretical simulations and experimental tests. Impacts of parameters such as the the wire mesh number, the wire mesh structure (planar or folded), the

  2. Development and progress in resistive plate chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-Fang; WU Jian

    2004-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) is a robust and low cost gas detector, which is extensively used in high-energy physics, cosmic and astroparticle physics experiments. Over the past twenty years, as a particle detector,RPC has made remarkable progress. The main achievements, features and results of experiemantal tests including R&D and production of the RPCs by several Chinese groups in recent years are reported in this article.

  3. The dynamics of plate tectonics and mantle flow: from local to global scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Georg; Gurnis, Michael; Burstedde, Carsten; Wilcox, Lucas C; Alisic, Laura; Ghattas, Omar

    2010-08-27

    Plate tectonics is regulated by driving and resisting forces concentrated at plate boundaries, but observationally constrained high-resolution models of global mantle flow remain a computational challenge. We capitalized on advances in adaptive mesh refinement algorithms on parallel computers to simulate global mantle flow by incorporating plate motions, with individual plate margins resolved down to a scale of 1 kilometer. Back-arc extension and slab rollback are emergent consequences of slab descent in the upper mantle. Cold thermal anomalies within the lower mantle couple into oceanic plates through narrow high-viscosity slabs, altering the velocity of oceanic plates. Viscous dissipation within the bending lithosphere at trenches amounts to approximately 5 to 20% of the total dissipation through the entire lithosphere and mantle.

  4. Size-Dependent Dynamic Behavior of a Microcantilever Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Material length scale considerably affects the mechanical properties of microcantilever components. Recently, cantilever-plate-like structures have been commonly used, whereas the lack of studies on their size effects constrains the design, testing, and application of these structures. We have studied the size-dependent dynamic behavior of a cantilever plate based on a modified couple stress theory and the differential quadrature method in this note. The numerical solutions of microcantilever plate equation involving the size effect have been presented. We have also analyzed the bending and vibration of the microcantilever plates considering the size effect and discussed the dependence of the size effect on their geometric dimensions. The results have shown that (1 the mechanical characteristics of the cantilever plate show obvious size effects; as a result, the bending deflection of a microcantilever plate reduces whereas the natural frequency increases effectively and (2 for the plates with the same material, the size effect becomes more obvious when the plates are thinner.

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  7. Casimir Effect for Dielectric Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We generalize Kupisewska method to the three-dimensional system and another derivation of the Casimir effect between two dielectric plates is presented based on the explicit quantization of the electromagnetic field in the presence of dielectrics, where the physical meaning of "evanescent mode" is discussed. The Lifshitz's formula is rederived perfect metallic plates will the evanescent modes become unimportant.

  8. Micro-channel plate detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

    2015-09-22

    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  9. Gold plating on spectacle frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, I; Mitchell, J W; Walsh, G

    1997-05-01

    An investigation was carried out into the thickness and standard of application of the plating and lacquer coatings applied to three metal spectacle frames. All conform to BS 6625 (1991) for plating thickness, but there was considerable variation in regularity and porosity.

  10. An elastic plate on a thin viscous film

    CERN Document Server

    Trinh, Philippe H; Stone, Howard A

    2014-01-01

    We consider the steady-state analysis of a pinned elastic plate lying on the free surface of a thin viscous fluid, forced by the motion of a bottom substrate moving at constant speed. A mathematical model incorporating elasticity, viscosity, surface tension, and pressure forces is derived, and consists of a third-order Landau-Levich equation for the thin film, and a fifth-order beam equation for the plate. A numerical and asymptotic analysis is presented in the relevant limits of the elasticity and Capillary numbers. We demonstrate the emergence of boundary-layer effects near the ends of the plate, which are likely to be a generic phenomenon for singularly perturbed elastocapillary problems.

  11. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    . This modelling technique is used to model a plate shell structure with a span of 11.5 meters in the FE software \\textsc{Abaqus}. The structure is analyzed with six different connection details with varying stiffness characteristics, to investigate the influence of these characteristics on the structural effects...... University, a script has been developed for an automated generation of a given plate shell geometry and a corresponding finite element (FE) model. A suitable FE modelling technique is proposed, suggesting a relatively simple method of modelling the connection detail's stiffness characteristics....... Based on these investigations, and FE analysis of other plate shell models, the structural behaviour is described. Possible methods of estimating the stresses in a given plate shell structure are proposed. The non-linear behaviour of a plate shell structure is investigated for varying parameters...

  12. The moving plate capacitor paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, B. R.; Abbott, D.; Parrondo, J. M. R.

    2000-03-01

    For the first time we describe an apparent paradox concerning a moving plate capacitor driven by thermal noise from a resistor. A demon restores the plates of the capacitor to their original position, only when the voltage across the capacitor is small—hence only small forces are present for the demon to work against. The demon has to work harder than this to avoid the situation of perpetual motion, but the question is how? We explore the concept of a moving plate capacitor, driven by noise, a step further by examining the case where the restoring force on the capacitor plates is provided by a simple spring, rather than some unknown demon. We display simulation results with interesting behavior, particularly where the capacitor plates collide with each other.

  13. SAMI Automated Plug Plate Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Lorente, Nuria P F; Goodwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) is a prototype wide-field system at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) which uses a plug-plate to mount its 13 x 61-core imaging fibre bundles (hexabundles) in the optical path at the telescope's prime focus. In this paper we describe the process of determining the positions of the plug-plate holes, where plates contain three or more stacked observation configurations. The process, which up until now has involved several separate processes and has required significant manual configuration and checking, is now being automated to increase efficiency and reduce error. This is carried out by means of a thin Java controller layer which drives the configuration cycle. This layer controls the user interface and the C++ algorithm layer where the plate configuration and optimisation is carried out. Additionally, through the Aladin display package, it provides visualisation and facilitates user verification of the resulting plates.

  14. Underwater electrical discharge in plate to plate configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmashuk, Vitaliy

    2016-09-01

    Two main configurations of high voltage electrodes submersed in water have been used for an electrical discharge generation: pin to pin and pin to plate. An electrical breakdown between plate electrodes is generally difficult to reproduce, because there is a uniform and weak electric field. One major advantage of using plate electrodes is their greater ``wear hardness'' to high-energy discharges. The plate electrodes can withstand extremely high energy deposition at which the pin electrode is quickly destroyed. The electrical discharge between plate electrodes can be initiated by creating an inhomogeneity in the electrical field. Two methods of discharge initiation between plate electrodes are proposed for this aim: 1) focusing of a shock wave in the interelectrode region; 2) a bubble injection into the electrode gap. The shock wave creates favourable conditions for the electrical breakdown between the two plate electrodes: it causes that numerous microbubbles of dissolved air start to grow and serve as locations for streamer initiation. In the second method the gas bubble is injected from the one of the electrodes, which has a gas inlet hole on the lateral face for this purpose. A ``volcano'' like morphology of positive streamers are observed in the experiments with weak electric field. The authors are grateful to MEYS grant INGO LG 15013.

  15. Bismuth incorporation into gallium phosphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, Puru [Virginia Commonwealth Univ. (United States); Kandalam, Anil K. [West Chester Univ. of Pennsylvania (United States); Christian, Theresa M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (United States); Beaton, Daniel A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (United States); Mascarenhas, Angelo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (United States); Alberi, Kirstin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (United States)

    2016-12-21

    Gallium phosphide bismide (GaP1-xBix) epilayers with bismuth fractions from 0.9% to 3.2%, as calculated from lattice parameter measurements, were studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) to directly measure bismuth incorporation. The total bismuth fractions found by RBS were higher than expected from the lattice parameter calculations. Furthermore, in one analyzed sample grown by molecular beam epitaxy at 300 degrees C, 55% of incorporated bismuth was found to occupy interstitial sites. We discuss implications of this high interstitial incorporation fraction and its possible relationship to x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements of GaP0.99Bi0.01.

  16. Highly curved microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Cully, S.; Warren, J.; Gaines, G. A.; Priedhorsky, W.; Bloch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Several spherically curved microchannel plate (MCP) stack configurations were studied as part of an ongoing astrophysical detector development program, and as part of the development of the ALEXIS satellite payload. MCP pairs with surface radii of curvature as small as 7 cm, and diameters up to 46 mm have been evaluated. The experiments show that the gain (greater than 1.5 x 10 exp 7) and background characteristics (about 0.5 events/sq cm per sec) of highly curved MCP stacks are in general equivalent to the performance achieved with flat MCP stacks of similar configuration. However, gain variations across the curved MCP's due to variations in the channel length to diameter ratio are observed. The overall pulse height distribution of a highly curved surface MCP stack (greater than 50 percent FWHM) is thus broader than its flat counterpart (less than 30 percent). Preconditioning of curved MCP stacks gives comparable results to flat MCP stacks, but it also decreases the overall gain variations. Flat fields of curved MCP stacks have the same general characteristics as flat MCP stacks.

  17. Thermal Analysis of Thin Plates Using the Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, G. K.; Iu, V. P.; Liu, X. L.

    2010-05-01

    The isotropic thermal plate is analyzed with finite element method. The solution procedure is presented. The elementary stiffness matrix and loading vector are derived rigorously with variation principle and the principle of minimum potential energy. Numerical results are obtained based on the derived equations and tested with available exact solutions. The problems in the finite element analysis are figured out. It is found that the finite element solutions can not converge as the number of elements increases around the corners of the plate. The derived equations presented in this paper are fundamental for our further study on more complicated thermal plate analysis.

  18. Rapid Prototyping Bipolar Plate of PEMFC by Gelcasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Bing; CHEN Shang-wei; HUANG Ming-yu; WANG Lian-jun

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plate is one key component of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). According to this paper, mesocarbon microbeads were used as raw materials for forming the green bodies of bipolar plates with complex flow channels by gelcasting technique. Then, the final bipolar plates would be gained after the green parts were died, burned out and sintered. Meanwhile, its properties are researched and evaluated by the test of flexible strength and electric resistivity. The resultant flexural strength of sintered sample is 67 Mpa and the electric resistivity is 52 μΩ·m.

  19. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  20. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  1. ROBUST OPTIMUM DESIGN OF LAMINATED COMPOSITE PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangXiangyang; ChenJianqiao

    2004-01-01

    A last-ply failure (LPF) analysis method for laminated composite plates is incorporated into the finite element code-ANSYS, and a robust optimum design method is presented. The composite structure is analyzed by considering both in-plane and out-of-plane loads. For a lamina,two major failure modes are considered: matrix failure and fiber breakage that axe characterized by the proper strength criteria in the literature. When a lamina has failed, the laminate stiffness is modified to reflect the damage, and stresses in the structure are re-analyzed. This procedure is repeatedly performed until the whole structure fails and thus the ultimate strength is determined.A structural optimization problem is solved with the fiber orientation and the lamina thickness as the design variables and the LPF load as the objective. Finally, the robust optimum design method for laminates is presented and discussed.

  2. The incorporation of an organically modified layered silicate in monolithic polymeric matrices produced using hot melt extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, John G. [Centre for Biopolymer and Biomolecular Research, Athlone Institute of Technology, Dublin Road, Athlone, Co. Westmeath (Ireland)]. E-mail: slyons@ait.ie; Holehonnur, Harshad [Centre for Biopolymer and Biomolecular Research, Athlone Institute of Technology, Dublin Road, Athlone, Co. Westmeath (Ireland)]. E-mail: hholehonnur@ait.ie; Devine, Declan M. [Centre for Biopolymer and Biomolecular Research, Athlone Institute of Technology, Dublin Road, Athlone, Co. Westmeath (Ireland)]. E-mail: ddevine@ait.ie; Kennedy, James E. [Centre for Biopolymer and Biomolecular Research, Athlone Institute of Technology, Dublin Road, Athlone, Co. Westmeath (Ireland)]. E-mail: jkennedy@ait.ie; Geever, Luke M. [Centre for Biopolymer and Biomolecular Research, Athlone Institute of Technology, Dublin Road, Athlone, Co. Westmeath (Ireland)]. E-mail: lgeever@ait.ie; Blackie, Paul [Centre for Biopolymer and Biomolecular Research, Athlone Institute of Technology, Dublin Road, Athlone, Co. Westmeath (Ireland)]. E-mail: pblackie@ait.ie; Higginbotham, Clement L. [Centre for Biopolymer and Biomolecular Research, Athlone Institute of Technology, Dublin Road, Athlone, Co. Westmeath (Ireland)]. E-mail: chigginbotham@ait.ie

    2007-06-15

    The body of work described in this research paper outlines the use of nanoclay particles as a novel filler material in a hot melt extruded monolithic polymer matrix for oral drug delivery. Several batches of matrix material were prepared with Carvedilol used as the active pharmaceutical ingredient. An organically modified layered silicate was used as the filler material at various levels of inclusion. The resultant matrices were characterised using steady state parallel plate rheometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic force microscopy (AFM), mechanical testing, and dissolution testing. The mechanical analysis indicated that the nanoclay filler incorporation resulted in an increase in all of the mechanical properties of the matrix. Dissolution analysis showed that the presence of the filler particles resulted in a slower release rate of API than for the matrix alone. The results detailed within this paper indicate that nanoclay materials are an interesting prospect for use as filler materials for extended release hot melt produced dosage forms.

  3. Plate size does not affect perception of food portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaforte, F R O; Japur, C C; Diez-Garcia, R W; Hernandez, J C; Palmma-Linares, I; Chiarello, P G

    2014-04-01

    Evidences have suggested that larger utensils may provoke 'size-contrast illusions', influencing the perceived volume and food consumption. To analyse the influence of plate size on the visual estimate of food portion size. Two 400 g portions of pasta with tomato sauce were presented on two plates of different diameters (24.0 and 9.0 cm). Each participant visually estimated on an individual basis the quantities of the pasta portions (g) present on each plate. In addition, each subject classified the size of the portions on each plate as 'small', 'medium' and 'large'. The mean estimates of the amount of pasta on each plate were compared by the nonparametric Mann-Whitney. The differences in the frequencies of portion classifications between plates were evaluated by the chi-squared test. Forty-eight students (average 25.8 ± 8.9 years) participated in the study. There was no difference in the median amount of pasta estimated for the large and small plates (150 g; range 50-500 and 115 g; range 40-500 g, respectively). The classification of the portion size as 'large' was reported by a significantly greater number of persons when they evaluated the amount of pasta arranged on the large plate compared to the small plate (47.9 versus 22.9%, respectively; P = 0.018). The size of the plate did not influence the estimate of food portions, even though it did influence the classification of portion size. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  4. Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control of Plate Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, fuzzy logic is meshed with sliding mode control, in order to control vibrations of a cantilevered plate. Test plate is instrumented with a piezoelectric sensor patch and a piezoelectric actuator patch. Finite element method is used to obtain mathematical model of the test plate. A design approach of a sliding mode controller for linear systems with mismatched time-varying uncertainties is used in this paper. It is found that chattering around the sliding surface in the sliding mode control can be checked by the proposed fuzzy sliding mode control approach. With presented fuzzy sliding mode approach the actuator voltage time response has a smooth decay. This is important because an abrupt decay can excite higher modes in the structure. Fuzzy rule base consisting of nine rules, is generated from the sliding mode inequality. Experimental implementation of the control approach verify the theoretical findings. For experimental implementation, size of the problem is reduced using modal truncation technique. Modal displacements as well as velocities of first two modes are observed using real-time kalman observer. Real time implementation of fuzzy logic based control has always been a challenge because a given set of rules has to be executed in every sampling interval. Results in this paper establish feasibility of experimental implementation of presented fuzzy logic based controller for active vibration control.

  5. The role of the heating mode of the mantle in intermittent reorganization of the plate velocity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Julian P.; King, Scott D.; Gable, Carl W.

    2003-02-01

    The geological record indicates that stages of relatively steady plate motion have been punctuated by comparatively brief periods in which plate velocities have reorganized. The distribution of buoyancy sources in the mantle has generally been regarded as evolving too slowly to explain these rapid transitions in plate velocity. We investigate the feedback between mantle convection and plate velocity using 2-D and 3-D mantle convection models that incorporate mobile dynamic plates. We focus on the influence of internal heating in the mantle and consider the effect of mantle viscosity stratification and different plate geometries on the plate velocity time dependence. As either the Rayleigh number or the internal heating rate is increased to magnitudes approaching mantle values, the record of the plate motion from our calculations becomes characterized by intermittent changes in direction. This behaviour is a result of the influence of plates on heat loss from the inherently unsteady, internally heated convecting system. Plate motion instills a pattern of organization on the underlying convection that reflects the plate geometry and results in the formation of sheet-like downwelling structures at convergent plate boundaries in both 2-D and 3-D calculations (in contrast, upwellings in 3-D models are not sheet-like). The role of the sheet-like downwellings is critical in the observed episodic reorganization of the plate velocities. Warm material below the plates is entrained by plate motion into regions enveloping the downwelling sheets. During periods of fairly steady plate motion, buoyancy associated with the build-up of heat around the downwelling sheets leads to the creation of an unstable convection pattern. This build-up of heat is dramatic in calculations with mantle-like internal heating rates and resists continued long-term plate motion towards mature downwellings. When there are limitations on the degree of freedom of the direction of plate movement, such as

  6. Determination of Absolute Plate Spacing for the Fabry-Perot Subassembly of the Thermosphere Imager for Global Observations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Task 1: rad test AD7746 component for failure dosage for use in GEO Task 2: Algorithm for determining absolute plate spacing of the TIGO Fabry-Perot plates,...

  7. Experimental POD measurement using ultrasonic phased arrays for incorporating nondestructive testes in probabilistic failure analyses; Experimentelle POD Bestimmung mittels Ultraschall Phased Array zur Einbeziehung zerstoerungsfreier Pruefungen in probabilistische Versagensanalysen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Jochen H.; Dobmann, Gerd [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren (IZFP), Saarbruecken (Germany); Juengert, Anne; Dugan, Sandra; Roos, Eberhard [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA)

    2011-07-01

    In nuclear facilities, nondestructive tests are carried out during construction and during inspections. The type and extent of the tests are specified in the KTA rules. All tests must be qualified. In the past, the qualifications were made by extensive performance demonstrations of the test teams and equipment, which were judged by experts. This provided primarily pragmatic information on fault detection performance. In the USA, qualification of EPRI test teams also includes testing of test pieces with hidden (unknown) defects, of which a certain percentage must be detected. There is still a lack of information on the probability of detection (POD), in the form of POD curves, of specific defects in given test situations, using specifically selected testing techniques. Quantification of POD and the integration of relevant data in the probabilistic evaluation chain is one of the key goals of a research project whose first results are presented here. The concept of the project and first results of ultrasonic tests are presented. Defect distributions in the test pieces, experiment planning, and test specifications are gone into more closely. One of the most important goals is the specification of the residual uncertainty of components failure on the basis of the investigations. An outlook is presented for this.

  8. Hollow electrode loose plate SOFC design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, B.C.; Dongen, B.A.M. van; Monaster, G.A. [Seed Capital Investments B.V., Utrecht (Netherlands); Roosmalen, J.A.M. van; Plaisier, K.H.; Schoonman, J. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Lab. for Applied Inorganic Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    A novel planar SOFC design is presented, based on the loose stacking of hollow electrode elements, conventional plate type electrolytes and interconnectors. This facilitates free thermal expansion during operation, and thermal cycling, thereby significantly improving prospects for reliable SOFC operation in power generation practice. Each individual element only consists of one material, eliminating the need for sealing and for matching thermal expansion coefficients of fuel cell components. Application of hollow electrodes results in an inherent manifolding of the gas streams eliminating the need for seals at the fuel cell stack itself. The design has been tested at laboratory scale and a small working prototype fuel cell has been successfully tested.

  9. The concept of locking plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronier, P; Pietu, G; Dujardin, C; Bigorre, N; Ducellier, F; Gerard, R

    2010-05-01

    After a short historical review of locking bone plates since their inception more than a century ago to the success of the concept less than 15 years ago with today's plates, the authors present the main locking mechanisms in use. In the two broad categories - plates with fixed angulation and those with variable angulation - the screw head is locked in the plate with a locknut by screwing in a threaded chamber on the plate or by screwing through an adapted ring. The authors then provide a concrete explanation, based on simple mechanical models, of the fundamental differences between conventional bone plates and locking plates and why a locking screw system presents greater resistance at disassembly, detailing the role played by the position and number of screws. The advantages of epiphyseal fixation are then discussed, including in cases of mediocre-quality bone. For teaching purposes, the authors also present assembly with an apple fixed with five locking screws withstanding a 47-kg axial load with no resulting disassembly. The principles of plate placement are detailed for both the epiphysis and diaphysis, including the number and position of screws and respect of the soft tissues, with the greatest success assured by the minimally invasive and even percutaneous techniques. The authors then present the advantages of locking plates in fixation of periprosthetic fractures where conventional osteosynthesis often encounters limited success. Based on simplified theoretical cases, the economic impact in France of this type of implant is discussed, showing that on average it accounts for less than 10% of the overall cost of this pathology to society. Finally, the possible problems of material ablation are discussed as well as the means to remediate these problems.

  10. High rate resistive plate chamber for LHC detector upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Y., E-mail: haddad@llr.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet (LLR), École Polytechnique, 91120 Palaiseau (France); Laktineh, I.; Grenier, G.; Lumb, N. [IPNL, Villeurbanne 69622 Lyon (France); Cauwenbergh, S. [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-08-01

    The limitation of the detection rate of standard bakelite resistive plate chambers (RPCs) used as muon detectors in the LHC experiments has prevented the use of such detectors in the high rate regions in both CMS and ATLAS detectors. One alternative to these detectors is RPCs made with low resistivity glass plates (10{sup 10}Ωcm), a beam test at DESY has shown that such detectors can operate at few thousand Hz/cm{sup 2} with high efficiency (>90%)

  11. Susceptibility testing of Entamoeba histolytica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedeno, J.R.; Krogstad, D.J.

    1983-12-01

    The growth of Entamoeba histolytica in microtiter plates in vitro in a variety of environments with reduced oxygen tensions is reported. With 3% O/sub 2/, 3% CO/sub 2/, and 94% N/sub 2/, the parasite growth in microtiter plates was identical to that in screw-capped culture tubes, as measured by (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation and by quantitative parasite counts. There were no significant differences between the drug concentrations necessary to inhibit parasite growth by 50% based on (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation vs those defined by quantitative parasite counts for the 15 antimicrobial agents tested (including seven drugs used for the treatment of amebiasis). This technique provides a reproducible method to quantitate the activity of potential antiamebic agents in vitro. The isotopic method should be of particular value in defining the metabolism of the parasite and effects of antimicrobial agents on it, whereas the morphologic method may be more valuable for workers with limited resources available to them.

  12. Optical Near-Field Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-08

    color filtering and spectral imaging ,” Nat. Comm. 1, 59 (2010). 3. H.-F. Shi and L. J. Guo, “Design of Plasmonic Near Field Plate at Opitical...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0085 OPTICAL NEAR-FILED PLATES Roberto Merlin UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final Report 04/08/2015 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution...03-2015 Final 09/01/2009-12/31/2014 Optical Near-Field Plates FA9550-09-1-0636 erlin, Roberto, D. The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109

  13. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  14. Comparison of three different plating techniques for the dorsum of the distal radius: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peine, R; Rikli, D A; Hoffmann, R; Duda, G; Regazzoni, P

    2000-01-01

    Three different plating techniques were used on experimentally produced dorsally displaced distal radius fractures in cadavers and were tested in 4-point bending: a AO 3.5-mm T plate (group 1), two 2. 0-mm titanium plates 60 degrees to each other (group 2), and the AO pi plate (group 3). A metaphyseal defect was simulated by a dorsally open wedge osteotomy. The tests show that the 2-mm double-plating technique has superior stiffness and statistically equivalent bending and bone gap to failure compared with the AO 3.5-mm T plate or the pi plate when applied to the unstable distal radius fracture model. (J Hand Surg 2000; 25A:29-33. Copyright 2000 by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand.).

  15. Hierarchical self-organization of tectonic plates

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's surface is subdivided into eight large tectonic plates and many smaller ones. We reconstruct the plate tessellation history and demonstrate that both large and small plates display two distinct hierarchical patterns, described by different power-law size-relationships. While small plates display little organisational change through time, the structure of the large plates oscillate between minimum and maximum hierarchical tessellations. The organization of large plates rapidly chan...

  16. Plate Motions Predicted from Global Dynamic Models and Seismic Tomography: The Problem of North American Plate Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; King, S. D.; Adam, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic tomography is a snapshot of the mantle convection system and provides important constraints on Earth's internal dynamics. An increasing number of global seismic tomography models along with various rheological structures have been used to compute mantle flow pattern and the resulting surface expressions, including dynamic topography and geoid. Accurately predicting the plate motion from the mantle dynamic models is a challenge particularly with the newest generation of seismic tomography models (e.g., S40RTS, SAVANI), especially for the North American plate which only has a little subduction along it's boundary. The difficulties include the uncertainty of the velocity-to-density scaling, discrepancies between different seismic tomography models, and the computational technology to solve for global mantle flow with observationally constrained high resolution models. We use the code ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth CovecTion) to make a series of tests to derive mantle flow pattern from different global seismic tomography models and rheological structures. We further make a quantitative statistical comparison between the modeled and observed plate motions in terms of flow magnitude, flow direction, and plateness within each plate area. We investigate how the velocity-to-density scaling, the features of seismic tomography models, and the lateral rheological structures of the lithosphere and upper mantle influence the modeled plate motions. We find that the velocity-to-density scaling mainly changes the flow magnitude and has little impact on the flow direction. The results of different seismic tomography models are similar broadly but can be quite different in some regions. The presence of lateral viscosity variations including stiff cratons, weak plate boundary zones, and high viscosity slabs along with density variations from seafloor age and subducting slabs can improve the fit to observed plate motions. With a very small fraction of subduction

  17. Comparison of BR3 surveillance and vessel plates to the surrogate plates representative of the Yankee Rowe PWR vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J. [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Biemiller, E.C. [Yankee Atomic Electric Co., Bolton, MA (United States); Rosinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G. [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Yankee Rowe PWR plants were operated at lower-than-usual temperature ({approx}260 C) and their plates were austenitized at higher-than-usual temperature ({approx}970 C) -- a heat treatment leading to a coarser microstructure than is typical for the fine grain plates considered in development of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99. The surveillance programs provided by Westinghouse for the two plants were limited to the same A302-B plate representative of the Rowe vessel upper shell plate; this material displayed outlier behavior characterized by a 41J. Charpy-V Notch shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower irradiation temperature and nickel alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rowe plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements embodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares three complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: (1) The accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63% (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19% (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively; (2) The BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program; this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, and was trepanned in early 1995; (3) The accelerated irradiations in the Belgian test reactor BR2 of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is contended that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and that the

  18. Comparison of BR3 Surveillance and Vessel Plates to the Surrogate Plates Representative of the Yankee Rowe PWR Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J.; Biemiller, E.C.; Rosinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G

    1998-07-01

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Yankee Rowe PWR plants were operated at lower-than-usual temperature ( 260 degrees Celsius) and their plates were austenitized a higher-than-usual temperature (970 degrees Celsius) - a heat treatment leading to a coarser microstructure than is typical for the fine grain plates considered in development of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99. The surveillance programs provided by Westinghouse for the two plants were limited to the same A302-B plate representative of the Rowe vessel upper shell plate; this material displayed outlier behaviour characterized by a 41 J Charpy-V Notch shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower irradiation temperature and nickel alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rate plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements embodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares free complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: (1) The accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63 % (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19 (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively; (2) The BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program: this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, and was trepanned in early 1995; (3) The accelerated irradiations in the Belgian test reactor BR2 of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is contended that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... low-calorie drink like water, unsweetened tea or coffee. Featured Product Precise Portions® Go Healthy Travel Pack ( ... Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 03-book-oclock-scramble.html Shopdiabetes.org Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! A year of ... Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking ... Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ... EXPO Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Camp Learning at Camp Find a Camp Fundraising Events Step ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In ... Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin ... Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your Doctor Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific Sessions ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ... EXPO Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Camp Learning at Camp Find a Camp Fundraising Events Step ...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health ... Year Stop Diabetes at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Destination Races Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Volunteer ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific Sessions Journals for Professionals Professional Books Patient Access to Research ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts ... Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes ...

  19. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Crotty, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Valverde, J. Lamas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Neupane, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Williams, M. C. S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zichichi, A. [Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  20. An efficient rectangular plate element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new 12-parameter rectangular plate element is presented by useof the double set parameter method. The error in the energy norm is of order O(h2), one order higher than the commonly used Adini nonconforming element.

  1. Tectonics: Changing of the plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Alan

    2016-10-01

    The composition of Earth's crust depends on the style of plate tectonics and of the melting regimes in the mantle. Analyses of the oldest identified rocks suggest that these styles and the resulting crust have changed over Earth's history.

  2. Interaction between plate make and protein in protein crystallisation screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon J King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein crystallisation screening involves the parallel testing of large numbers of candidate conditions with the aim of identifying conditions suitable as a starting point for the production of diffraction quality crystals. Generally, condition screening is performed in 96-well plates. While previous studies have examined the effects of protein construct, protein purity, or crystallisation condition ingredients on protein crystallisation, few have examined the effect of the crystallisation plate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a statistically rigorous examination of protein crystallisation, and evaluated interactions between crystallisation success and plate row/column, different plates of same make, different plate makes and different proteins. From our analysis of protein crystallisation, we found a significant interaction between plate make and the specific protein being crystallised. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Protein crystal structure determination is the principal method for determining protein structure but is limited by the need to produce crystals of the protein under study. Many important proteins are difficult to crystallize, so that identification of factors that assist crystallisation could open up the structure determination of these more challenging targets. Our findings suggest that protein crystallisation success may be improved by matching a protein with its optimal plate make.

  3. Uplift Pressure of Waves on A Horizontal Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周益人; 陈国平; 黄海龙; 王登婷

    2003-01-01

    Uplift pressures of waves acting on horizontal plates are the important basis for design of maritime hollow-trussed structures. In this paper, an experimental study on the uplift pressures of waves on a horizontal plate is conducted by use of a series of model tests. Detailed analysis has been given to the formation mechanism of uplift pressures of waves. It is considered that the impact pressure intensity is mainly affected by geometrical factors (tangential angle of waves), dynamic factors (wave height, wave velocity, etc.) and air cushion. Based on the test results, an equation for calculation of the maximum uplift pressure intensity of waves on a plate is presented. A large quantity of test data shows good agreement of the present equation with the test results.

  4. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  5. Incorporation of proteins into biomimetic hydroxyapatite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.; Groot, K. de [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands). Biomaterials Research Group; IsoTis, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Layrolle, P. [IsoTis, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Blitterswijk, C.A. van [IsoTis, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Twente Univ., Enschede (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite coating was biomimetically deposited on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Various concentrations (10 ng/ml - 1 {mu}g/ml) of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were added into a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution (CPS) at physiological temperature and pH of 7.4. Pre-treated Ti6Al4V plates were immersed into such solution for 48 hours at 37 C. BSA was co-precipitated with the crystals during the coating process. A white and thick (30 - 50 {mu}m) coating was uniformly deposited on titanium surfaces. The produced coatings were evaluated and protein release was measured. Results revealed: at higher BSA concentrations in the solution, the coating changed its microstructure; the crystal size of the coating and the coating thickness decreased indicating a crystal growth inhibition. Loading amounts of protein in the coating increased with higher concentration in the solution. Protein was incorporated into whole layer of coating and lead to a slow release. These results indicated that biomimetic hydroxyapatite coatings are suitable carriers for proteins. (orig.)

  6. Horizontal versus vertical plate motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cuffaro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We review both present and past motions at major plate boundaries, which have the horizontal component in average 10 to 100 times faster (10–100 mm/yr than the vertical component (0.01–1 mm/yr in all geodynamic settings. The steady faster horizontal velocity of the lithosphere with respect to the upward or downward velocities at plate boundaries supports dominating tangential forces acting on plates. This suggests a passive role of plate boundaries with respect to far field forces determining the velocity of plates. The forces acting on the lithosphere can be subdivided in coupled and uncoupled, as a function of the shear at the lithosphere base. Higher the asthenosphere viscosity, more significant should be the coupled forces, i.e., the mantle drag and the trench suction. Lower the asthenosphere viscosity, more the effects of uncoupled forces might result determinant, i.e., the ridge push, the slab pull and the tidal drag. Although a combination of all forces acting on the lithosphere is likely, the decoupling between lithosphere and mantle suggests that a torque acts on the lithosphere independently of the mantle drag. Slab pull and ridge push are candidates for generating this torque, but, unlike these boundary forces, the advantage of the tidal drag is to be a volume force, acting simultaneously on the whole plates, and being the decoupling at the lithosphere base controlled by lateral variations in viscosity of the low-velocity layer.

  7. Horizontally oriented plates in clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Bréon, François-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Horizontally oriented plates in clouds generate a sharp specular reflectance signal in the glint direction, often referred to as "subsun". This signal (amplitude and width) may be used to analyze the relative area fraction of oriented plates in the cloud top layer and their characteristic tilt angle to the horizontal. We make use of spaceborne measurements from the POLDER instrument to provide a statistical analysis of these parameters. More than half of the clouds show a detectable maximum reflectance in the glint direction, although this maximum may be rather faint. The typical effective fraction (area weighted) of oriented plates in clouds lies between 10-3 and 10-2. For those oriented plates, the characteristic tilt angle is less than 1 degree in most cases. These low fractions imply that the impact of oriented plates on the cloud albedo is insignificant. The largest proportion of clouds with horizontally oriented plates is found in the range 500-700 hPa, in agreement with typical in situ observation of p...

  8. How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Clinton P; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina

    2002-10-04

    The gravitational pull of subducted slabs is thought to drive the motions of Earth's tectonic plates, but the coupling between slabs and plates is not well established. If a slab is mechanically attached to a subducting plate, it can exert a direct pull on the plate. Alternatively, a detached slab may drive a plate by exciting flow in the mantle that exerts a shear traction on the base of the plate. From the geologic history of subduction, we estimated the relative importance of "pull" versus "suction" for the present-day plates. Observed plate motions are best predicted if slabs in the upper mantle are attached to plates and generate slab pull forces that account for about half of the total driving force on plates. Slabs in the lower mantle are supported by viscous mantle forces and drive plates through slab suction.

  9. Shrinking of the Cocos and Nazca Plates due to Horizontal Thermal Contraction and Implications for Plate Non-rigidity and the Non-closure of the Pacific-Cocos-Nazca Plate Motion Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R. G.; Kreemer, C.

    2015-12-01

    observation of oceanic thermal contraction by GPS measurements is not possible with the existing network (given its sparse and non-ideal distribution), and seafloor geodesy may be needed to test our predictions geodetically. Further implications of horizontal thermal contraction for the non-closure of the Pacific-Cocos-Nazca plate circuit will be discussed.

  10. 结合有限元分析和性能实验的某类型锚板的优化设计%Certain Type Anchor Plate Optimization Design Combined with Finite Element Analysis and Performance Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余天文; 朱万旭; 付委; 杨宝栋; 杨体旭

    2013-01-01

    锚具在预应力结构工程中起着重要的作用,本文运用ANSYS软件对预应力群锚体系中12孔锚具进行受力优化分析.通过计算结果和应力分布规律,结合实验研究结果,对YM15-12型锚板进行优化设计,从而为锚固体系及锚具的最优设计提供理论依据和实验数据.本文内容,具有针对性和指导性.%The anchor plays an important role in prestressed structural engineering. In this paper, by using ANSYS software, prestressed post-tensioning system with 12 hole anchor plate was analyzed. Through the analysis of the results and the stress distribution law , and combining with the experimental research results, YM15-12 type anchor plate optimization disign was carried out, which provide the theory basis and the experimental data for optimized design of anchorage and the anchoring system. The Research in this paper have specific aim and instruction significance.

  11. ADOPT: A tool for automatic detection of tectonic plates at the surface of convection models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, C.; Jacquet, B.; Coltice, N.

    2017-08-01

    Mantle convection models with plate-like behavior produce surface structures comparable to Earth's plate boundaries. However, analyzing those structures is a difficult task, since convection models produce, as on Earth, diffuse deformation and elusive plate boundaries. Therefore we present here and share a quantitative tool to identify plate boundaries and produce plate polygon layouts from results of numerical models of convection: Automatic Detection Of Plate Tectonics (ADOPT). This digital tool operates within the free open-source visualization software Paraview. It is based on image segmentation techniques to detect objects. The fundamental algorithm used in ADOPT is the watershed transform. We transform the output of convection models into a topographic map, the crest lines being the regions of deformation (plate boundaries) and the catchment basins being the plate interiors. We propose two generic protocols (the field and the distance methods) that we test against an independent visual detection of plate polygons. We show that ADOPT is effective to identify the smaller plates and to close plate polygons in areas where boundaries are diffuse or elusive. ADOPT allows the export of plate polygons in the standard OGR-GMT format for visualization, modification, and analysis under generic softwares like GMT or GPlates.

  12. Development of tin-plated regenerator material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M. Y.; Morie, T.; Tsuchiya, A.

    2017-02-01

    To improve the efficiency of a cryocooler, it is vital to improve the regenerator. In general, the heat capacity of materials decreases as temperature decreases. Thus, when temperature is below 50 K, lead spheres are often used as a regenerator material. However, the pressure drop through a sphere regenerator is larger than that through a screen regenerator. To overcome this dilemma, a new, low pressure loss tin-plated screen is proposed. A comparison test was performed with a two-stage GM cryocooler by replacing part of the first stage regenerator material, bronze screens with tin-plated screens. Compared to a regenerator filled with bronze screens, the cooling capacity of the first stage increased by about 14% at 40 K and 90% at 30 K with such tin-plated screens. The ratio of the wire diameter before and after the deposition was also optimized. An optimum cooling capacity of 53.5 W at 40 K was obtained at a diameter ratio of about 1.4. The detailed experimental results are reported in this paper.

  13. Si microchannel plates for image intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arlynn W.; Beetz, Charles P., Jr.; Boerstler, Robert W.; Winn, D. R.; Steinbeck, John W.

    2000-11-01

    Glass microchannel plates (MCPs) have been in use by numerous manufactuers in a variety of electron multiplication applications. Conventional fabrication of MCPs follow the lines of glass drawing and etching technology. Core and clad glass are drawn together, stacked, drawn again, and finally stacked in the desired pattern. The soluble core is removed with wet chemical processing. These techniques are beginning to run into their feasible limits in terms of channel size, open area ratio, uniformity, and material issues. A strong desire exists to fabricate MCPs with accepted lithographic techniques using Si as the base material to improve uniformity and throughput. Open area ratios of as high as 95% have been achieved using lithography. However, attempts to meet other channel plate characteristics met with little success due to thermal runaway or arcing during operation, high voltage is required for electron gain. Processing improvements have lead to the complete oxidation of the Si matrix eliminating the conducting Si in the channel walls of the Si MCPs allowing high voltages to be supported. Complete oxidation of the Si to silica allows processing temperatures high than conventional glass matrices can withstand. This fact allows for high temperature growth of conductive and secondary emissive materials on the channel walls of the structure. Si MCPs with gain have now been fabricated and tested with voltages comparable to conventional glass MCPs. Channel plate characteristics such as operating voltage, strip current, and gain for Si MCPs will be presented and compared to glass MCPs.

  14. Locking plates in proximal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, P C; Helwig, P; Konrad, G; Südkamp, N P

    2007-12-01

    It is well known that proximal humerus fractures are among the three most frequent fracture types. Epidemiological invetsigations show that in people elder than 60 years the fracture of the proximal humerus is more frequent than fractures of the hip region (17). Over the last decades several techniques have been applied for treatment of proximal humerus fractures. Widely accepted is the initiation of a conservative treatment regimen for undisplaced fractures, however, the standard treatment for displaced fractures, especially three and four part fractures, is still the center of scientific debate. Many different implants have been tested and investigated, thus demonstrating lack of sufficient results. Over the last years the development of angle stable, locking implants started and clinical studies demonstrated encouraging results. In our clinic the locking proximal humerus plate and the PHILOS plate advanced to the implant of choice for treatment of displaced proximal humerus fractures. There are still cases of implant failure and humerus head necrosis, but most of these complications were caused by the fracture type and not an implant specific problem. However the overall results with these new implants are encouraging. Key words: locking plates, proximal humerus fracture, humerus, humerus fracture, PHILOS, PHP.

  15. Geometry of the Cocos Plate Under North American Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Campos, X.

    2015-12-01

    The Cocos plate subducts under the North American plate with a complex geometry, and previous seismicity studies revealed some of this complexity. However, details of the geometry and the depth that the plate penetrates werelargely unknown. Since 2004, temporary experiments and the expansion of the permanent network of the Servicio Sismológico Nacional (SSN, Mexican National Seismological Service) have improved resolution of the plate geometry and have helped to map its descent into the upper mantle. Going from northwest to southeast, the Cocos plate appears to be fragmenting into north and south segments. The north segment subducts with an angle of ~30º and the south with an angle of ~10-15º. The transition is smooth near the trench and progresses to a tear at depth; this coincides with the projection of the Orozco Fracture Zone to depth. Also, this transition marks the limit of the presence to the south of an ultra slow velocity layer (USL) on top of the slab.South of this transition, the Cocos plate subducts horizontally , underplating the North American plate for a distance of ~140 to ~300 km from the trench. Along this horizontal region, silent slow events (SSE) and tectonic tremor (TT) have been observed. At a distance of 300 km from the trench (beneath central Mexico), the plate dives into the mantle with an angle of 76º to a depth of 500 km. This geometry changes abruptly to the south, marking the eastern limit of the USL. This change seems to be also characterized by a tear on the slab. Finally to the south, the Cocos plate subducts with a constant angle of 26º. This presentation summarizes the work of many contributors including A. Arciniega-Ceballos, M. Brudzinski, E. Cabral-Cano, T. Chen, R. Clayton,F. Cordoba-Montiel,P. Davis,S. Dougherty,F. Green, M. Gurnis, D. V. Helmberger, A. Husker,A. Iglesias, Y. Kim, V. Manea, D. Melgar, M. Rodríguez-Domínguez,S. K. Singh, T.-R. A. Song, C. M. Valdés-González, D. Valencia-Cabrera

  16. Modeling of Bullet Penetration in Explosively Welded Composite Armor Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vasant S.; Carney, Theodore C.

    2006-07-01

    Normal impact of high-speed armor piercing bullet on titanium-steel composite has been investigated using smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. The objective is to understand the effects of impact during the ballistic testing of explosively welded armor plates. These plates have significant microstructural differences within the weld region, heat-affected zone and the base metal. The variances result in substantial ductility, hardness and strength differences, important criteria in determining the failure mode, specifically whether it occurs at the joint or within the virgin base metal. Several configurations of composite plates with different material combinations were modeled. The results were used to modify the heat treatment process of explosively welded plates, making them more likely to survive impact.

  17. Impact of Inert Metal Particles Flow on Aluminium Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongqi; LIU Yi; CHEN Yahong; BAI Chunhua

    2008-01-01

    Inert metal explosive, a new kind of explosive, is a mixture of high explosive and inert metal particle.When this kind of explosive is detonated, an inert metal particle flow will be formed by the explosive product driving.To determine the characteristics of the movement of the metal particle flow, a series of aluminium plates were designed to be the targets on which the metal particle flow impacted.The test result was presented and a numerical model was set up to analyze the impact of the high speed inert metal particles on aluminium plate.Based on the numerical analysis, the relationship between the characteristic of the mark on the target plate and the initial condition of the inert metal particles was proposed.From the analysis of the impact on target plates, more information about the movement of the metal particles could be reconstructed.

  18. Characterization of vortical gusts produced by a heaving plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufstedler, Esteban; McKeon, Beverley J.

    2016-11-01

    To experimentally investigate the interaction between a wing and a spanwise vortical gust, a simple gust generator has been built and tested. This consists of a transversely heaving flat plate that changes direction to release a vortex, which then convects downstream to interact with a wing. Previous experiments have shown that, immediately downstream of the plate, the circulation of the generated vortex is proportional to the heaving speed of the plate. The forces that the gusts exert on a downstream wing were shown to be strongly repeatable and consistent with a passing vortex. This presentation will discuss the properties of the vortical gusts as they move downstream, and relate those properties to the important dimensionless parameters of the flow. These properties include the convection speed and circulation of the vortex, as well as the enstrophy due to the wake of the plate. This research is funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Grant GBMF#2645 to the California Institute of Technology.

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes ... Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight ... About Type 2 Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health Insurance ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My ... Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy ...

  3. Ex vivo biomechanical evaluation of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri and ostectomized humeri stabilized with caudally applied titanium locking plate or stainless steel nonlocking plate constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Brett G; Biskup, Jeffrey J; Weigel, Joseph P; Jones, Michael P; Xie, Xie; Liaw, Peter K; Tharpe, Josh L; Sharma, Aashish; Penumadu, Dayakar

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate mechanical properties of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri versus ostectomized humeri stabilized with a locking or nonlocking plate. SAMPLE 30 humeri from pigeon cadavers. PROCEDURES Specimens were allocated into 3 groups and tested in bending and torsion. Results for intact pigeon humeri were compared with results for ostectomized humeri repaired with a titanium 1.6-mm screw locking plate or a stainless steel 1.5-mm dynamic compression plate; the ostectomized humeri mimicked a fracture in a thin cortical bone. Locking plates were secured with locking screws (2 bicortical and 4 monocortical), and nonlocking plates were secured with bicortical nonlocking screws. Constructs were cyclically tested nondestructively in 4-point bending and then tested to failure in bending. A second set of constructs were cyclically tested non-destructively and then to failure in torsion. Stiffness, strength, and strain energy of each construct were compared. RESULTS Intact specimens were stiffer and stronger than the repair groups for all testing methods, except for nonlocking constructs, which were significantly stiffer than intact specimens under cyclic bending. Intact bones had significantly higher strain energies than locking plates in both bending and torsion. Locking and nonlocking plates were of equal strength and strain energy, but not stiffness, in bending and were of equal strength, stiffness, and strain energy in torsion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this study suggested that increased torsional strength may be needed before bone plate repair can be considered as the sole fixation method for avian species.

  4. Thermal stresses and deformations in a plate subject to the action of concentrated energy flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, G.I.

    1988-09-01

    A two-dimensional problem concerned with the determination of thermal deformation and the temperature and stress fields in a plate subject to nonhomogeneous heating by a radiative flow of Gaussian type is solved. Cases in which one plate surface is either free or clamped onto a rigid base as well as cases in which the energy source is a laser beam are also considered. Factors such as the thermal diffusivity, specific heat, plate density, linear expansion, shear modulus, optical and energy absorption behavior, and refractivity are incorporated into the solution.

  5. Simulation of Asymmetric Lamb Waves for Sensing and Actuation in Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghoshal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two approaches used for monitoring the health of thin aerospace structures are active interrogation and passive monitoring. The active interrogation approach generates and receives diagnostic Lamb waves to detect damage, while the passive monitoring technique listens for acoustic waves caused by damage growth. For the application of both methods, it is necessary to understand how Lamb waves propagate through a structure. In this paper, a Physics-Based Model (PBM using classical plate theory is developed to provide a basic understanding of the actual physical process of asymmetric Lamb mode wave generation and propagation in a plate. The closed-form model uses modal superposition to simulate waves generated by piezoceramic patches and by simulated acoustic emissions. The generation, propagation, reflection, interference, and the sensing of the waves are represented in the model, but damage is not explicitly modeled. The developed model is expected to be a useful tool for the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM community, particularly for studying high frequency acoustic wave generation and propagation in lieu of Finite Element models and other numerical models that require significant computational resources. The PBM is capable of simulating many possible scenarios including a variety of test cases, whereas experimental measurements of all of the cases can be costly and time consuming. The model also incorporates the sensor measurement effect, which is an important aspect in damage detection. Continuous and array sensors are modeled, which are efficient for measuring waves because of their distributed nature.

  6. Analytical solution for multilayer plates using general layerwise plate theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Đorđe M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with closed-form solution for static analysis of simply supported composite plate, based on generalized laminate plate theory (GLPT. The mathematical model assumes piece-wise linear variation of in-plane displacement components and a constant transverse displacement through the thickness. It also include discrete transverse shear effect into the assumed displacement field, thus providing accurate prediction of transverse shear stresses. Namely, transverse stresses satisfy Hook's law, 3D equilibrium equations and traction free boundary conditions. With assumed displacement field, linear strain-displacement relation, and constitutive equations of the lamina, equilibrium equations are derived using principle of virtual displacements. Navier-type closed form solution of GLPT, is derived for simply supported plate, made of orthotropic laminae, loaded by harmonic and uniform distribution of transverse pressure. Results are compared with 3D elasticity solutions and excellent agreement is found.

  7. Development of a wireless intra-ocular pressure monitoring system for incorporation into a therapeutic glaucoma drainage implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaday, Tarun; Plunkett, Malcolm; McInnes, Steven; Li, Jim S. Jimmy; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Craig, Jamie E.

    2008-12-01

    Glaucoma is a common cause of blindness. Wireless, continuous monitoring of intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important, unsolved goal in managing glaucoma. An IOP monitoring system incorporated into a glaucoma drainage implant (GDI) overcomes the design complexity associated with incorporating a similar system in a more confined space within the eye. The device consists of a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based capacitive pressure sensor integrated with an inductor printed directly onto a polyimide printed circuit board (PCB). The device is designed to be incorporated onto the external plate of a therapeutic GDI. The resonance frequency changes as a function of IOP, and is tracked remotely using a spectrum analyzer. A theoretical model for the reader antenna was developed to enable maximal inductive coupling with the IOP sensor implant. Pressure chamber tests indicate that the sensor implant has adequate sensitivity in the IOP range with excellent reproducibility over time. Additionally, we show that sensor sensitivity does not change significantly after encapsulation with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to protect the device from fluid environment. In vitro experiments showed that the signal measured wirelessly through sheep corneal and scleral tissue was adequate indicating potential for using the system in human subjects.

  8. Plate tectonics of the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D P

    1970-04-18

    The seismicity and fault plane solutions in the Mediterranean area show that two small rapidly moving plates exist in the Eastern Mediterranean, and such plates may be a common feature of contracting ocean basins. The results show that the concepts of plate tectonics apply to instantaneous motions across continental plate boundaries.

  9. 30 CFR 18.13 - Certification plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification plate. 18.13 Section 18.13... Certification plate. Each certified component shall be identified by a certification plate attached to the... characteristics of the component. The plate shall be of serviceable material, acceptable, to MSHA, and shall...

  10. 21 CFR 872.4760 - Bone plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone plate. 872.4760 Section 872.4760 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4760 Bone plate. (a) Identification. A bone plate is a metal device... plate with screws to prevent movement of the segments. (b) Classification. Class II. ...

  11. 30 CFR 18.11 - Approval plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval plate. 18.11 Section 18.11 Mineral... plate. (a)(1) The notice of approval will be accompanied by a photograph of an approval plate, bearing... number shall be added to the original approval number on the approval plate. (Example: Original approval...

  12. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  13. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  14. Anthocyanin Incorporated Dental Copolymer: Bacterial Growth Inhibition, Mechanical Properties, and Compound Release Rates and Stability by 1H NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna Hrynash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate bacterial growth inhibition, mechanical properties, and compound release rate and stability of copolymers incorporated with anthocyanin (ACY; Vaccinium macrocarpon. Methods. Resin samples were prepared (Bis-GMA/TEGDMA at 70/30 mol% and incorporated with 2 w/w% of either ACY or chlorhexidine (CHX, except for the control group. Samples were individually immersed in a bacterial culture (Streptococcus mutans for 24 h. Cell viability (n=3 was assessed by counting the number of colony forming units on replica agar plates. Flexural strength (FS and elastic modulus (E were tested on a universal testing machine (n=8. Compound release and chemical stability were evaluated by UV spectrophotometry and 1H NMR (n=3. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05. Results. Both compounds inhibited S. mutans growth, with CHX being most effective (P<0.05. Control resin had the lowest FS and E values, followed by ACY and CHX, with statistical difference between control and CHX groups for both mechanical properties (P<0.05. The 24 h compound release rates were ACY: 1.33 μg/mL and CHX: 1.92 μg/mL. 1H NMR spectra suggests that both compounds remained stable after being released in water. Conclusion. The present findings indicate that anthocyanins might be used as a natural antibacterial agent in resin based materials.

  15. Beyond plate tectonics - Looking at plate deformation with space geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas H.; Minster, J. Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The requirements that must be met by space-geodetic systems in order to constrain the horizontal secular motions associated with the geological deformation of the earth's surface are explored. It is suggested that in order to improve existing plate-motion models, the tangential components of relative velocities on interplate baselines must be resolved to an accuracy of less than 3 mm/yr. Results indicate that measuring the velocities between crustal blocks to + or - 5 mm/yr on 100-km to 1000-km scales can produce geologically significant constraints on the integrated deformation rates across continental plate-boundary zones such as the western United States.

  16. Beyond plate tectonics - Looking at plate deformation with space geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas H.; Minster, J. Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The requirements that must be met by space-geodetic systems in order to constrain the horizontal secular motions associated with the geological deformation of the earth's surface are explored. It is suggested that in order to improve existing plate-motion models, the tangential components of relative velocities on interplate baselines must be resolved to an accuracy of less than 3 mm/yr. Results indicate that measuring the velocities between crustal blocks to + or - 5 mm/yr on 100-km to 1000-km scales can produce geologically significant constraints on the integrated deformation rates across continental plate-boundary zones such as the western United States.

  17. Chladni's law for vibrating plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1982-03-01

    The normal vibrational modes of free circular plates can be classified according to the number of nodal diameters m and the number of nodal circles n. Chladni observed that the addition of one nodal circle raised the frequency f about the same amount as adding two nodal diameters, and Rayleigh pointed out that f is proportional to (m+2n)2 for large f. Waller, however, concluded that the number of nodal diameters necessary to raise the frequency as much as a nodal circle varies from two to five. We have examined data on the vibrations of flat and non-flat circular plates and fitted their vibration frequencies to the relationship f = c(m+bn)k. By proper choice of c it is possible to satisfy Chladni's law (b = 2, k = 2) over quite a wide range of frequency in flat plates. Non-flat plates such as cymbals and bells, require different choices of b and k. A brief history of Chladni patterns, and suggestions for observing and demonstrating the vibrational modes of plates are included (AIP).

  18. Multiple-Dynode-Layer Microchannel Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.

    1990-01-01

    Improved microchannel-plate electron image amplifier made of stack of discrete microchannel-plate layers. New plates easier to manufacture because no need to etch long, narrow holes, to draw and bundle thin glass tubes, or to shear plates to give microchannels curvatures necessary for reduction of undesired emission of ions. Discrete dynode layers stacked with slight offset from layer to layer to form microchannel plate with curved channels. Provides for relatively fast recharging of microchannel dynodes, with consequent enhancement of performance.

  19. A new dual-plate slipometer for measuring slip between molten polymers and extrusion die materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, A M; Giacomin, A J

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we study the slip behaviors common to plastics die extrusion metals or platings using a new instrument called a dual-plate slipometer. By dual-plate, we mean that whereas the stationary plate incorporates a local shear stress transducer, the moving plate does not. The stationary plate and transducer are made of one stainless steel, but the moving plate is made from, or plated with, different extrusion die materials under study. This new instrument allows slip velocity to be measured without having to build a new shear stress transducer from each extrusion metal or plating under study. We explore the effect of extrusion die composition and die metal surface morphology on the slip properties of polyolefins using a sliding plate rheometer. In this work, we studied the slip behaviors of polyolefins on four common plastics die extrusion metals or platings, without having to build a new shear stress transducer from each. Specifically, our new method replaces the moving plate; with each of the four die metals or platings under study without changing the stainless steel material of the shear stress transducer and its stationary plate. Our experiments include high-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, and polypropylene (PP) on four different die metals or platings. We use steady simple shear to obtain shear stress versus nominal shear rate for different gaps, from which we can then deduce the slip velocity using the Mooney analysis. We then fit four slip models to our experimental measurements, and we find the Hatzikiriakos hyperbolic sine model to be accurate, even for the measured inflections in the slip velocity as a function of shear stress curves. Our analysis includes detailed characterization of the die metal plating surfaces, including measurements of the composition of the sliding plates by energy dispersive spectroscopy, surface energy by contact angle goniometry, and surface roughness by both white light interference and stylus

  20. The benefits of extended plate motion history in mantle circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Peter; Davies, Huw; Davies, Rhodri; Hochard, Cyril; Stampfli, Gerard

    2010-05-01

    Mantle Circulation Models (MCMs) are mantle convection simulations conditioned with plate motion history. Due to difficulties in reconstructing plate motions beyond ≈ 120 Ma, MCMs often only incorporate the most recent 120 Myr of plate tectonic evolution. We find that such models are strongly influenced by initial conditions. The development of a new series of tectonic reconstructions extending back to the Triassic (230 Ma) and including careful reconstruction of the oceanic parts of the plates (modified from Stampfli and Borel, 2004, Stampfli et al. 2008 and references therein) should prove to be of huge importance to MCMs. In this study we present a comparison between the traditionally used 120 Myr and the latest 230 Myr plate motion histories. We use the three-dimensional spherical mantle convection code TERRA (Bunge et al., 2003) to simulate convection at Earth like vigour. Here we apply the plate motion history as a surface velocity boundary condition to drive the internal convection of an already well-mixed system. The forward models from a chosen starting point to present day yield information on mantle temperature (as well as pressure, velocity and material properties) throughout the volume. One of the ways to validate our results is to compare these with tomographic models. Seismic tomography provides us with a snapshot of Earth's mantle at present day. Assuming that the mantle is driven largely by thermal convection, we can assume that the seismically fast regions are associated with cooler, denser material. The most significant of these can be interpreted as remnants of subducted slabs (Hafkenscheid et al 2006, van der Meer et al. 2010). We convert the temperatures predicted by the MCM to seismic velocities using the latest techniques (e.g. Cobden et al., 2008) and compare the calculated velocities to a range of seismic tomography models (both P and S wave). This way we can examine the validity of the surface velocity boundary condition and identify