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Sample records for plate count coliform

  1. Microbiological assessment of house and imported bottled water by comparison of bacterial endotoxin concentration, heterotrophic plate count, and fecal coliform count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Mayra I; Pérez, Cynthia M; Negrón, Edna L

    2008-03-01

    Consumers increasingly use bottled water and home water treatment systems to avoid direct tap water. According to the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA), an industry trade group, 5 billion gallons of bottled water were consumed by North Americans in 2001. The principal aim of this study was to assess the microbial quality of in-house and imported bottled water for human consumption, by measurement and comparison of the concentration of bacterial endotoxin and standard cultivable methods of indicator microorganisms, specifically, heterotrophic and fecal coliform plate counts. A total of 21 brands of commercial bottled water, consisting of 10 imported and 11 in-house brands, selected at random from 96 brands that are consumed in Puerto Rico, were tested at three different time intervals. The Standard Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test, gel clot method, was used to measure the endotoxin concentrations. The minimum endotoxin concentration in 63 water samples was less than 0.0625 EU/mL, while the maximum was 32 EU/mL. The minimum bacterial count showed no growth, while the maximum was 7,500 CFU/mL. Bacterial isolates like P. fluorescens, Corynebacterium sp. J-K, S. paucimobilis, P. versicularis, A. baumannii, P. chlororaphis, F. indologenes, A. faecalis and P. cepacia were identified. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated that endotoxin concentration did not change over time, while there was a statistically significant (p bacterial count over time. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that a unit change in the concentration of endotoxin across time was associated with a significant (p bacterial growth was not detected in some water samples, endotoxin was present. Measurement of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins is one of the methods that have been suggested as a rapid way of determining bacteriological water quality.

  2. Risk factors associated with bulk tank standard plate count, bulk tank coliform count, and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M; Richert, R; Ruegg, P L; Stiglbauer, K E; Schukken, Y H

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of bulk tank milk standard plate counts, bulk tank coliform counts (CC), and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk with various management and farm characteristics on organic and conventional dairy farms throughout New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from size-matched organic farms (n=192), conventional nongrazing farms (n=64), and conventional grazing farms (n=36) were collected at a single visit for each farm. Of the 292 farms visited, 290 bulk tank milk samples were collected. Statistical models were created using data from all herds in the study, as well as exclusively for the organic subset of herds. Because of incomplete data, 267 of 290 herds were analyzed for total herd modeling, and 173 of 190 organic herds were analyzed for the organic herd modeling. Overall, more bulk tanks from organic farms had Staph. aureus cultured from them (62% of organic herds, 42% conventional nongrazing herds, and 43% of conventional grazing herds), whereas fewer organic herds had a high CC, defined as ≥50 cfu/mL, than conventional farms in the study. A high standard plate count (×1,000 cfu/mL) was associated with decreased body condition score of adult cows and decreased milk production in both models. Several variables were significant only in the model created using all herds or only in organic herds. The presence of Staph. aureus in the bulk tank milk was associated with fewer people treating mastitis, increased age of housing, and a higher percentage of cows with 3 or fewer teats in both the organic and total herd models. The Staph. aureus total herd model also showed a relationship with fewer first-lactation animals, higher hock scores, and less use of automatic takeoffs at milking. High bulk tank CC was related to feeding a total mixed ration and using natural service in nonlactating heifers in both models. Overall, attentive management and use of outside resources were useful with regard to CC

  3. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    OpenAIRE

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC ...

  4. Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L J A

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing. 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Photon counting with small pore microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martindale, A.; Lapington, J.S.; Fraser, G.W.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the operation of microchannel plates (MCPs) with 3.2μm diameter channels as photon counting detectors of soft X-rays. Gain and temporal resolution measurements are compared with theoretical scaling laws for channel diameter. A minimum pulse width of 264ps is observed for a two stage multiplier at a total bias voltage of ∼1930V

  6. The association between bedding material and the bacterial counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and coliform bacteria on teat skin and in teat canals in lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Mohr, Elmar; Krömker, Volker

    2013-05-01

    Several mastitis-causing pathogens are able to colonize the bovine teat canal. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the treatment of sawdust bedding with a commercial alkaline conditioner and the bacterial counts on teat skin and in the teat canal. The study used a crossover design. Ten lactating Holstein cows that were free of udder infections and mastitis were included in the study. The animals were bedded on either untreated sawdust or sawdust that had been treated with a hydrated lime-based conditioner. Once a day, fresh bedding material was added. After 3 weeks, the bedding material was removed from the cubicles, fresh bedding material was provided, and the cows were rotated between the two bedding material groups. Teat skin and teat canals were sampled using the wet and dry swab technique after weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria were detected in the resulting agar plate cultures. The treatment of the bedding material was associated with the teat skin bacterial counts of Str. uberis, Esch. coli and other coliform bacteria. An association was also found between the bedding material and the teat canal bacterial counts of coliform bacteria other than Esch. coli. For Staph. aureus, no associations with the bedding material were found. In general, the addition of a hydrated lime-based conditioner to sawdust reduces the population sizes of environmental pathogens on teat skin and in teat canals.

  7. High counting rate resistive-plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskov, V.; Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.

    1993-05-01

    Parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPAC) are widely used in physics experiments because they are fast ( 5 counts/mm 2 . A resistive-plate chamber (RPC) is similar to the PPAC in construction except that one or both of the electrodes are made from high resistivity (≥10 10 Ω·cm) materials. In practice RPCs are usually used in the spark mode. Resistive electrodes are charged by sparks, locally reducing the actual electric field in the gap. The size of the charged surface is about 10 mm 2 , leaving the rest of the detector unaffected. Therefore, the rate capability of such detectors in the spark mode is considerably higher than conventional spark counters. Among the different glasses tested the best results were obtained with electron type conductive glasses, which obey Ohm's law. Most of the work with such glasses was done with high pressure parallel-plate chambers (10 atm) for time-of-flight measurements. Resistive glasses have been expensive and produced only in small quantities. Now resistive glasses are commercially available, although they are still expensive in small scale production. From the positive experience of different groups working with the resistive glasses, it was decided to review the old idea to use this glass for the RPC. This work has investigated the possibility of using the RPC at 1 atm and in the avalanche mode. This has several advantages: simplicity of construction, high rate capability, low voltage operation, and the ability to work with non-flammable gases

  8. Evaluation of standard and modified M-FC, MacConkey, and Teepol media for membrane filtration counting of fecal coliforms in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, W O; Hilner, C A; Coubrough, P

    1981-08-01

    MacConkey agar, standard M-FC agar, M-FC agar without rosolic acid, M-FC agar with a resuscitation top layer, Teepol agar, and pads saturated with Teepol broth, were evaluated as growth media for membrane filtration counting of fecal coliform bacteria in water. In comparative tests on 312 samples of water from a wide variety of sources, including chlorinated effluents, M-FC agar without rosolic acid proved the medium of choice because it generally yielded the highest counts, was readily obtainable, easy to prepare and handle, and yielded clearly recognizable fecal coliform colonies. Identification of 1,139 fecal coliform isolates showed that fecal coliform tests cannot be used to enumerate Escherichia coli because the incidence of E. coli among fecal coliforms varied from an average of 51% for river water to 93% for an activated sludge effluent after chlorination. The incidence of Klebsiella pneumoniae among fecal coliforms varied from an average of 4% for the activated sludge effluent after chlorination to 32% for the river water. The advantages of a standard membrane filtration procedure for routine counting of fecal coliforms in water using M-FC agar without rosolic acid as growth medium, in the absence of preincubation or resuscitation steps, are outlined.

  9. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,

  10. Identifying fecal pollution sources using 3M(™) Petrifilm (™) count plates and antibiotic resistance analysis in the Horse Creek Watershed in Aiken County, SC (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, S Michele; West, Ryan T; Yates, James R

    2014-12-01

    Sources of fecal coliform pollution in a small South Carolina (USA) watershed were identified using inexpensive methods and commonly available equipment. Samples from the upper reaches of the watershed were analyzed with 3M(™) Petrifilm(™) count plates. We were able to narrow down the study's focus to one particular tributary, Sand River, that was the major contributor of the coliform pollution (both fecal and total) to a downstream reservoir that is heavily used for recreation purposes. Concentrations of total coliforms ranged from 2,400 to 120,333 cfu/100 mL, with sharp increases in coliform counts observed in samples taken after rain events. Positive correlations between turbidity and fecal coliform counts suggested a relationship between fecal pollution and stormwater runoff. Antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) compared antibiotic resistance profiles of fecal coliform isolates from the stream to those of a watershed-specific fecal source library (equine, waterfowl, canines, and untreated sewage). Known fecal source isolates and unknown isolates from the stream were exposed to six antibiotics at three concentrations each. Discriminant analysis grouped known isolates with an overall average rate of correct classification (ARCC) of 84.3 %. A total of 401 isolates from the first stream location were classified as equine (45.9 %), sewage (39.4 %), waterfowl (6.2 %), and feline (8.5 %). A similar pattern was observed at the second sampling location, with 42.6 % equine, 45.2 % sewage, 2.8 % waterfowl, 0.6 % canine, and 8.8 % feline. While there were slight weather-dependent differences, the vast majority of the coliform pollution in this stream appeared to be from two sources, equine and sewage. This information will contribute to better land use decisions and further justify implementation of low-impact development practices within this urban watershed.

  11. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit

    2010-06-01

    Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P calves for better performance.

  12. Evaluation of Standard and Modified M-FC, MacConkey, and Teepol Media for Membrane Filtration Counting of Fecal Coliforms in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Grabow, W. O. K.; Hilner, C. A.; Coubrough, P.

    1981-01-01

    MacConkey agar, standard M-FC agar, M-FC agar without rosolic acid, M-FC agar with a resuscitation top layer, Teepol agar, and pads saturated with Teepol broth, were evaluated as growth media for membrane filtration counting of fecal coliform bacteria in water. In comparative tests on 312 samples of water from a wide variety of sources, including chlorinated effluents, M-FC agar without rosolic acid proved the medium of choice because it generally yielded the highest counts, was readily obtai...

  13. Detection and enumeration of Coliforms and Escherichia coli in water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples from eighteen different sources in Nairobi were analyzed for coliform and E. coli content using three microbiological techniques, namely: Multiple tube or Most Probable Number (MPN) technique, Defined Substrate Technique (DST) or Colilert technique and Petrifilm(TM) Plate Count Techniques. All the three ...

  14. Effect of irradiation and storage post-irradiation of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on counts of microorganisms hygienic indicator using methods of conventional analysis and PETRIFILMTM plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaimes, Marcial Ibo Silva

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen samples of ground black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) purchased in Sao Paulo local stores, were submitted to irradiation in doses of 3, 6 and 10 kGy. All irradiated samples, including non-irradiated controls, were submitted to counts of yeasts and molds, aerobes (APC), coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers (MASC), using conventional plate count methods and PETRIFILM TM plates. For yeasts and molds count, acidified potato dextrose agar (PDA) an PETRIFILM TM PFYM plates were used. For aerobes, plate count agar (PCA) and PETRIFILM TM PFAC plates were used. Violet red bile agar (VRBA) and PETRIFILM TM PFEC plates were employed for enumeration of coliforms. Counts of these groups of microorganisms obtained through the traditional plating procedures did not differ significantly from those using the corresponding PETRIFILM TM plates. In samples submitted to irradiation, a dose of 10 kGy caused a decrease of the yeasts and molds count from 10 4 -10 5 to less than 10 cfu/g. The same dose caused a decrease of the aerobic counts from 10 7 -10 8 to 10 2 -10 3 cfu/g, of coliforms from 10 4 -10 5 to less than 10 cfu/g and MASC from 10 6 -10 7 cfu/g to 10-10 2 cfu/g. The introduction of a injury repair step in the counting procedure resulted in a 32 to 89% increase in the number of coliforms. However, this additional step did not improve significantly the counts of MASC. After 270 days of storage of samples irradiated with 3 kGy, a decrease in the yeasts and molds population from 10 3 to 20 cfu/g was observed. The APC population in these samples was reduced from 5,0x10 6 to 2,4x10 4 cfu/g; in those irradiated with 6 kGy the reduction was from 4,0x10 4 to 5,0x10 3 cfu/g and in those irradiated with 10 kGy the counts were reduced from 30 to less than 10 cfu/g. After the same time of storage, the coliform population in non irradiated samples decreased from 2,8x10 5 to 1,5x10 4 cfu/g and from 9,1x10 3 to 20 cfu/g in those irradiated with 3 kGy. Similarly, the MASC

  15. The effect of new probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum on counts of coliforms, lactobacilli and bacterial enzyme activities in rats exposed to N,N-dimethylhydrazine (chemical carcinogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Čokášová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the new probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum on chemically induced carcinogenesis in rats. Sprague dowley rats (n = 33 were divided into control and experimental groups and were fed a conventional laboratory diet. In the experimental group, rats were treated with the probiotic at the dose of 1 × 109 CFU (colony-forming units/ml. Two weeks after the beginning of the trial, N,N-dimethylhydrazine (chemical carcinogen injections were applied s.c. at the dose of 21 mg/kg b.w., 5 × weekly. At the end of the 8-month experimental period, faeces samples were taken from the rats and used for laboratory analysis. The counts of lactobacilli and coliforms and bacterial enzyme activity were determined. The probiotic strain L. plantarum as single species or in combination with oil (Lini oleum virginale decreased the count of total coliforms and increased lactobacilli in faeces of rats. Application of probiotic microorganisms significantly (P < 0.05 decreased the activities of bacterial enzymes (β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase compared to the control group rats. The results of this study indicate that probiotic microorganisms could exert a preventive effect on colon carcinogenesis induced by N,N-dimethylhydrazine.

  16. Evaluation of Petrifilm Lactic Acid Bacteria Plates for Counting Lactic Acid Bacteria in Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagawa, Satomi; Ohshima, Chihiro; Takahashi, Hajime; Burenqiqige; Kikuchi, Misato; Sato, Fumina; Nakamura, Ayaka; Mohamed, Shimaa M; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2018-06-01

    Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used widely as starter cultures in the production of fermented foods, they are also responsible for food decay and deterioration. The undesirable growth of LAB in food causes spoilage, discoloration, and slime formation. Because of these adverse effects, food companies test for the presence of LAB in production areas and processed foods and consistently monitor the behavior of these bacteria. The 3M Petrifilm LAB Count Plates have recently been launched as a time-saving and simple-to-use plate designed for detecting and quantifying LAB. This study compares the abilities of Petrifilm LAB Count Plates and the de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar medium to determine the LAB count in a variety of foods and swab samples collected from a food production area. Bacterial strains isolated from Petrifilm LAB Count Plates were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis to confirm the specificity of these plates for LAB. The results showed no significant difference in bacterial counts measured by using Petrifilm LAB Count Plates and MRS medium. Furthermore, all colonies growing on Petrifilm LAB Count Plates were confirmed to be LAB, while yeast colonies also formed in MRS medium. Petrifilm LAB Count Plates eliminated the plate preparation and plate inoculation steps, and the cultures could be started as soon as a diluted food sample was available. Food companies are required to establish quality controls and perform tests to check the quality of food products; the use of Petrifilm LAB Count Plates can simplify this testing process for food companies.

  17. Flow cytometric bacterial cell counts challenge conventional heterotrophic plate counts for routine microbiological drinking water monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Van Nevel, S.

    2017-02-08

    Drinking water utilities and researchers continue to rely on the century-old heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) method for routine assessment of general microbiological water quality. Bacterial cell counting with flow cytometry (FCM) is one of a number of alternative methods that challenge this status quo and provide an opportunity for improved water quality monitoring. After more than a decade of application in drinking water research, FCM methodology is optimised and established for routine application, supported by a considerable amount of data from multiple full-scale studies. Bacterial cell concentrations obtained by FCM enable quantification of the entire bacterial community instead of the minute fraction of cultivable bacteria detected with HPC (typically < 1% of all bacteria). FCM measurements are reproducible with relative standard deviations below 3% and can be available within 15 min of samples arriving in the laboratory. High throughput sample processing and complete automation are feasible and FCM analysis is arguably less expensive than HPC when measuring more than 15 water samples per day, depending on the laboratory and selected staining procedure(s). Moreover, many studies have shown FCM total (TCC) and intact (ICC) cell concentrations to be reliable and robust process variables, responsive to changes in the bacterial abundance and relevant for characterising and monitoring drinking water treatment and distribution systems. The purpose of this critical review is to initiate a constructive discussion on whether FCM could replace HPC in routine water quality monitoring. We argue that FCM provides a faster, more descriptive and more representative quantification of bacterial abundance in drinking water.

  18. Flow cytometric bacterial cell counts challenge conventional heterotrophic plate counts for routine microbiological drinking water monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Van Nevel, S.; Koetzsch, S.; Proctor, C.R.; Besmer, M.D.; Prest, E.I.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Knezev, A.; Boon, N.; Hammes, F.

    2017-01-01

    Drinking water utilities and researchers continue to rely on the century-old heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) method for routine assessment of general microbiological water quality. Bacterial cell counting with flow cytometry (FCM) is one of a number of alternative methods that challenge this status quo and provide an opportunity for improved water quality monitoring. After more than a decade of application in drinking water research, FCM methodology is optimised and established for routine application, supported by a considerable amount of data from multiple full-scale studies. Bacterial cell concentrations obtained by FCM enable quantification of the entire bacterial community instead of the minute fraction of cultivable bacteria detected with HPC (typically < 1% of all bacteria). FCM measurements are reproducible with relative standard deviations below 3% and can be available within 15 min of samples arriving in the laboratory. High throughput sample processing and complete automation are feasible and FCM analysis is arguably less expensive than HPC when measuring more than 15 water samples per day, depending on the laboratory and selected staining procedure(s). Moreover, many studies have shown FCM total (TCC) and intact (ICC) cell concentrations to be reliable and robust process variables, responsive to changes in the bacterial abundance and relevant for characterising and monitoring drinking water treatment and distribution systems. The purpose of this critical review is to initiate a constructive discussion on whether FCM could replace HPC in routine water quality monitoring. We argue that FCM provides a faster, more descriptive and more representative quantification of bacterial abundance in drinking water.

  19. Single ion counting with a MCP (microchannel plate) detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawara, Hiroko; Sasaki, Shinichi; Miyajima, Mitsuhiro [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Shibamura, Eido

    1996-07-01

    In this study, a single-ion-counting method using alpha-particle-impact ionization of Ar atoms is demonstrated and the preliminary {epsilon}{sub mcp} for Ar ions with incident energies of 3 to 4.7 keV is determined. The single-ion counting by the MCP is aimed to be performed under experimental conditions as follows: (1) A signal from the MCP is reasonably identified as incidence of single Ar-ion. (2) The counting rate of Ar ions is less than 1 s{sup -1}. (3) The incident Ar ions are not focused on a small part of an active area of the MCP, namely, {epsilon}{sub mcp} is determined with respect to the whole active area of the MCP. So far, any absolute detection efficiency has not been reported under these conditions. (J.P.N.)

  20. Detection of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekawati, ER; Yusmiati, S. N. H.

    2018-01-01

    Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) has high level of zinc and protein, which is beneficial for therapeutic function for malnourished particularly stunting case in children. Zinc in animal foods is more absorbable than that from vegetable food. Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) is rich in nutrient and an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms. This research aimed to identify the contamination of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa). This was observation research with laboratory analysis. Salmonella sp. and Vibrio sp. were detected from blood cockle. Total plate count was determine of the total amount of the bacteria. Results detected from 20 samples of blood cockle showed that all samples were negative of Salmonella sp. and 1 sample positive Vibrio sp. The result of total plate count bacteria was < 5 x 105 colony/g sample.

  1. Star counts in M15 on U, B and V plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Turolla, R [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Trieste (Italy)

    1980-11-01

    We present new counts of stars in M15, using plates in B, V and U. We are able to explore relatively close to the central parts of the cluster (0.1 pc) and we derive the best fitting parameters for the star distribution.

  2. Study of electrodeposition technique to prepare alpha-counting plates of uranium 233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertzig, W.

    1979-01-01

    The electrodeposition technique to prepare alpha-counting plates of 233 U for its determination is presented. To determine the optimum conditions for plating 233 U the effects of such parameters as current density, pH of eletrotype, salt concentration, time of electrolysis and distance electrodes were studied. A carrier method was developed to attain a quantitative electrodeposition of 233 U from aqueous solutions into alpha counting paltes. A single and incremental addition of natural uranium and thorium as carrier were studied. All samples were prepared using a electrodeposition cell manufactured at the IPEN, especially for use in electroplating tracer actinides. This cell is made of a metal-lucite to contain the electrolyte, which bottom is a polished brass disk coated with a Ni film serving as the cathode. A Pt wire anode is fixed on the top of the cell. The electroplated samples were alpha-counted using a surface barrier detector. A recovery of more than 99% was obtained in specific conditions. The plating procedure produced deposits which were firmly distributed over the plate area. The method was applied to determine tracer amounts of 233 U from oxalate and nitrate solutions coming from chemical processing irradiated thorium. (Author) [pt

  3. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate medium to discriminate antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Lars

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and enumeration of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli directly from samples is needed to identify emerging resistant clones and obtain quantitative data for risk assessment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate (SEC plate supplemented with antimicrobials to discriminate antimicrobial-resistant and non-resistant E. coli. Method A range of E. coli isolates were tested by agar dilution method comparing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for eight antimicrobials obtained by Mueller-Hinton II agar, MacConkey agar and SEC plates. Kappa statistics was used to assess the levels of agreement when classifying strains as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. Results SEC plate showed that 74% of all strains agreed within ± 1 log2 dilution when comparing MICs with Mueller-Hinton II media. High agreement levels were found for gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime, resulting in a kappa value of 0.9 and 100% agreement within ± 1 log2 dilution. Significant variances were observed for oxytetracycline and sulphamethoxazole. Further tests showed that the observed discrepancy in classification of susceptibility to oxytetracycline by the two media could be overcome when a plate-dependent breakpoint of 64 mg/L was used for SEC plates. For sulphamethoxazole, SEC plates provided unacceptably high MICs. Conclusion SEC plates showed good agreement with Mueller-Hinton II agar in MIC studies and can be used to screen and discriminate resistant E. coli for ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and gentamicin using CLSI standardized breakpoints, but not for sulphamethoxazole. SEC plates can also be used to discriminate oxytetracycline-resistant E. coli if a plate-dependent breakpoint value of 64 mg/L is used.

  4. The Application of the Photographic Plate to the Quantitative Determination of Activities by Track Counts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, E.

    1946-07-01

    This report was written by E. Broda at the Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge) in August 1946 and is about the application of the photographic plate to the quantitative determination of activities by track counts. This report includes the experiment description and the discussion of the results and consists of 4 parts: 1) Introduction 2) Estimation of Concentrations 3) The uptake of U in different conditions 4) The upper limits of the fission Cross sections of Bi and Pb. (nowak)

  5. The Application of the Photographic Plate to the Quantitative Determination of Activities by Track Counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1946-01-01

    This report was written by E. Broda at the Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge) in August 1946 and is about the application of the photographic plate to the quantitative determination of activities by track counts. This report includes the experiment description and the discussion of the results and consists of 4 parts: 1) Introduction 2) Estimation of Concentrations 3) The uptake of U in different conditions 4) The upper limits of the fission Cross sections of Bi and Pb. (nowak)

  6. Antibiotic resistance in triclosan heterotrophic plate count bacteria from sewage water / Ilsé Coetzee

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzee, Ilsé

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of triclosan in antiseptics, disinfectants and preservatives in products exceeds the minimal lethal levels. Extensive use of triclosan and antibiotics results in bacterial resistance to their active ingredients. The precise relationship between use and resistance, however, has been challenging to define. The aim of the study was to identify and determine antibiotic resistance profiles of triclosan tolerant heterotrophic plate count bacteria isolates from sewag...

  7. Comparison of plate counts, Petrifilm, dipslides, and adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence for monitoring bacteria in cooling-tower waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sherry A; Anderson, James E; Kim, Byung R; Ball, James C

    2009-04-01

    Effective bacterial control in cooling-tower systems requires accurate and timely methods to count bacteria. Plate-count methods are difficult to implement on-site, because they are time- and labor-intensive and require sterile techniques. Several field-applicable methods (dipslides, Petrifilm, and adenosine triphosphate [ATP] bioluminescence) were compared with the plate count for two sample matrices--phosphate-buffered saline solution containing a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens and cooling-tower water containing an undefined mixed bacterial culture. For the pure culture, (1) counts determined on nutrient agar and plate-count agar (PCA) media and expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter were equivalent to those on R2A medium (p = 1.0 and p = 1.0, respectively); (2) Petrifilm counts were not significantly different from R2A plate counts (p = 0.99); (3) the dipslide counts were up to 2 log units higher than R2A plate counts, but this discrepancy was not statistically significant (p = 0.06); and (4) a discernable correlation (r2 = 0.67) existed between ATP readings and plate counts. For cooling-tower water samples (n = 62), (1) bacterial counts using R2A medium were higher (but not significant; p = 0.63) than nutrient agar and significantly higher than tryptone-glucose yeast extract (TGE; p = 0.03) and PCA (p < 0.001); (2) Petrifilm counts were significantly lower than nutrient agar or R2A (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively), but not statistically different from TGE, PCA, and dipslides (p = 0.55, p = 0.69, and p = 0.91, respectively); (3) the dipslide method yielded bacteria counts 1 to 3 log units lower than nutrient agar and R2A (p < 0.001), but was not significantly different from Petrifilm (p = 0.91), PCA (p = 1.00) or TGE (p = 0.07); (4) the differences between dipslides and the other methods became greater with a 6-day incubation time; and (5) the correlation between ATP readings and plate counts varied from system to system, was poor

  8. Aerobic Mesophilic, Coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus Counts of Raw Meat from the Formal and Informal Meat Sectors in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaja, Ishmael Festus; Green, Ezekiel; Muchenje, Voster

    2018-04-21

    Foodborne disease (FBD) is a global public health concern, and foods from animal sources have been associated with outbreaks of food-related illness. In this study, animal carcasses from the two abattoirs (HT1 and HT2) in the formal meat sector (FMS) and slaughter points in the informal meat sector (INMS) were examined at two stages of slaughter (before washing and after washing) for aerobic colony counts (ACC) and total viable count (TCC), as well as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus count. At each stage, carcasses were sampled by swabbing at the neck, brisket, flank, and rump. ACC for beef, mutton, and pork carcasses at HT1 and HT2 before washing were between 2.5⁻5.8, 2.2⁻4.7, and 2.7⁻3.7 mean log CFU/cm², respectively, and TCC count before washing was highest on the neck of cattle (6.3 ± 2.4) and after washing was highest on the perineal of sheep (5.7 ± 6.9). In the INMS, TCC count was highest on the brisket (6.9 ± 3.2) and in the neck (5.5 ± 2.4). Higher ACC values of 6.2⁻6.7 mean log CFU/cm² were obtained in the INMS. The highest count for E. coli (4.2 mean log CFU/cm²) after washing was in the neck, while the highest count for S. aureus (4.0 mean log CFU/cm²) was in the flank. All bacteria count in the INMS exceeded acceptable limits, and washing did not significantly reduce microbial load in meat in the FMS and INMS. Bacteria count in the FMS and INMS exceeded acceptable standards. However, meat processed in the INMS poses a more significant risk of FBD to consumers.

  9. Effects of hot water application after defeathering on the levels of Campylobacter, coliform bacteria, and Escherichia coli on broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, M E; Dickens, J A; Musgrove, M T

    2000-11-01

    Scalding has been found to lower the levels of Campylobacter on broiler carcasses. However, the numbers recovered from whole-carcass rinse samples increase following defeathering. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of a second scald applied after defeathering on microbial levels recovered from carcass rinses. Four treatments were evaluated: 1) immersion at 60 C for 28 s 30 min after defeathering, 2) immersion at 60 C for 28 s immediately after defeathering, 3) spray at 73 C for 20 s 30 min after defeathering, and 4) spray at 71 C for 20 s immediately after defeathering. As reported earlier, a significant increase in Campylobacter counts per mL whole carcass rinse was noted after carcasses were defeathered. However, when applied 30 min after defeathering, neither the immersion nor the spray second scald treatments lowered the Campylobacter counts. Likewise, neither treatment had any affect on Escherichia coli or coliform bacteria counts, even though total counts were slightly reduced by the treatments. When the second scald treatment immediately followed defeathering, the same trends were observed. Campylobacter counts after the second scald remained at the postpick levels, as did counts for E. coli and coliform bacteria, but total plate counts were slightly reduced. Overall, it would appear that a postscald treatment gentle enough not to alter the carcass appearance or meat quality would not effectively lower Campylobacter, E. coli, or coliform bacteria counts.

  10. Identification and characterization of psychrotolerant coliform bacteria isolated from pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, S N; Martin, N H; Trmčić, A; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2016-01-01

    The presence of coliform bacteria in pasteurized fluid milk typically indicates that product contamination occurred downstream of the pasteurizer, but it may also indicate pasteurization failure. Although coliform detection is frequently used as a hygiene indicator for dairy products, our understanding of the taxonomic and phenotypic coliform diversity associated with dairy products is surprisingly limited. Therefore, using Petrifilm Coliform Count plates (3M, St. Paul, MN), we isolated coliforms from high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-pasteurized fluid milk samples from 21 fluid milk processing plants in the northeast United States. Based on source information and initial characterization using partial 16S rDNA sequencing, 240 nonredundant isolates were obtained. The majority of these isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Enterobacter (42% of isolates), Hafnia (13%), Citrobacter (12%), Serratia (10%), and Raoultella (9%); additional isolates were classified into the genera Buttiauxella, Cedecea, Kluyvera, Leclercia, Pantoea, and Rahnella. A subset of 104 representative isolates was subsequently characterized phenotypically. Cold growth analysis in skim milk broth showed that all isolates displayed at least a 2-log increase over 10 d at 6°C; the majority of isolates (n=74) displayed more than a 5-log increase. In total, 43% of the representative isolates displayed lipolysis when incubated on spirit blue agar at 6°C for 14 d, whereas 71% of isolates displayed proteolysis when incubated on skim milk agar at 6°C for 14 d. Our data indicate that a considerable diversity of coliforms is found in HTST-pasteurized fluid milk and that a considerable proportion of these coliforms have phenotypic characteristics that will allow them to cause fluid milk spoilage. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Petrifilm rapid S. aureus Count Plate method for rapid enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, K M; Lindberg, K G

    2001-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for Staphylococcus aureus in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method, was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 (Staphylococcus aureus in Foods). Nine foods-instant nonfat dried milk, dry seasoned vegetable coating, frozen hash browns, frozen cooked chicken patty, frozen ground raw pork, shredded cheddar cheese, fresh green beans, pasta filled with beef and cheese, and egg custard-were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated test sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable for pasta filled with beef and cheese; frozen hash browns; cooked chicken patty; egg custard; frozen ground raw pork; and instant nonfat dried milk. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method were similar to those of the standard method.

  12. Bacteriocidal activity of sanitizers against Enterococcus faecium attached to stainless steel as determined by plate count and impedance methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, N J; Bridgeman, T A; Zottola, E A

    1998-07-01

    Enterococcus faecium attached to stainless steel chips (100 mm2) was treated with the following sanitizers: sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid (PA), peracetic acid plus an organic acid (PAS), quaternary ammonium, organic acid, and anionic acid. The effectiveness of sanitizer solutions on planktonic cells (not attached) was evaluated by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) suspension test. The number of attached cells was determined by impedance measurement and plate count method after vortexing. The decimal reduction (DR) in numbers of the E. faecium population was determined for the three methods and was analyzed by analysis of variance (P plate count method after vortexing, and impedance measurement, respectively. Plate count and impedance methods showed a difference (P measurement was the best method to measure adherent cells. Impedance measurement required the development of a quadratic regression. The equation developed from 82 samples is as follows: log CFU/chip = 0.2385T2-0.96T + 9.35, r2 = 0.92, P plate count method after vortexing. These data suggest that impedance measurement is the method of choice when evaluating the number of bacterial cells adhered to a surface.

  13. Pathogenic features of heterotrophic plate count bacteria from drinking-water boreholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Suranie; Pieters, Rialet; Bezuidenhout, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Evidence suggests that heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria may be hazardous to humans with weakened health. We investigated the pathogenic potential of HPC bacteria from untreated borehole water, consumed by humans, for: their haemolytic properties, the production of extracellular enzymes such as DNase, proteinase, lipase, lecithinase, hyaluronidase and chondroitinase, the effect simulated gastric fluid has on their survival, as well as the bacteria's antibiotic-susceptible profile. HuTu-80 cells acted as model for the human intestine and were exposed to the HPC isolates to determine their effects on the viability of the cells. Several HPC isolates were α- or β-haemolytic, produced two or more extracellular enzymes, survived the SGF treatment, and showed resistance against selected antibiotics. The isolates were also harmful to the human intestinal cells to varying degrees. A novel pathogen score was calculated for each isolate. Bacillus cereus had the highest pathogen index: the pathogenicity of the other bacteria declined as follows: Aeromonas taiwanensis > Aeromonas hydrophila > Bacillus thuringiensis > Alcaligenes faecalis > Pseudomonas sp. > Bacillus pumilus > Brevibacillus sp. > Bacillus subtilis > Bacillus sp. These results demonstrated that the prevailing standards for HPCs in drinking water may expose humans with compromised immune systems to undue risk.

  14. Detection of irradiated food by using direct epifluorescent filter technique/aerobic plate count method (DEFT/APC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongfu; Li Lili; Wang Changbao; Ji Ping; Wang Chao; Wang Zhidong

    2010-01-01

    The Direct Epifluorescent Filter Technique/Aerobic Plate Count technique(DEFT/APC) can be used to identify the irradiated food by comparing the DEFT and APC counts of the samples prior to the irradiation and after. This technology was tested by using spice and dried marine fish as testing materials in this study. The results shows that the index, log (DEFT/APC) > 4.0, can indicate that the samples have been irradiated at a dose level higher than 1.0 kGy. It also indicates that the detecting sensitivity was affected by the initial value of APC and D 10 value of the samples. (authors)

  15. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  16. Viability of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on fresh-cut cabbage stored in high CO2 atmospheres following rinsing with electrolyzed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hidemi; Inoue, Ayano

    2018-02-02

    The extent of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, was evaluated during storage in air and high CO 2 controlled atmospheres (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 5°C and 10°C using the thin agar layer (TAL) method. Sublethally injured coliform bacteria on nonrinsed shredded cabbage were either absent or they were injured at a 64-65% level when present. Rinsing of shredded cabbage with electrolyzed water containing 25ppm available chlorine reduced the coliform counts by 0.4 to 1.1 log and caused sublethal injury ranging from 42 to 77%. Pantoea ananatis was one of the species injured by chlorine stress. When shredded cabbage, nonrinsed or rinsed with electrolyzed water, was stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C for 7days and 10°C for 5days, coliform counts on TAL plates increased from 3.3-4.5 to 6.5-9.0 log CFU/g during storage, with the increase being greater at 10°C than at 5°C. High CO 2 of 10% and 15% reduced the bacterial growth on shredded cabbage during storage at 5°C. Although injured coliform bacteria were not found on nonrinsed shredded cabbage on the initial day, injured coliforms at a range of 49-84% were detected on samples stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C and 10°C. Injured cells were detected more frequently during storage at both temperatures irrespective of the CO 2 atmosphere when shredded cabbage was rinsed with electrolyzed water. These results indicated that injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, exhibited different degrees of injury during storage regardless of the CO 2 atmosphere and temperature tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Method Verification Requirements for an Advanced Imaging System for Microbial Plate Count Enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David; Cundell, Tony

    2018-01-01

    The Growth Direct™ System that automates the incubation and reading of membrane filtration microbial counts on soybean-casein digest, Sabouraud dextrose, and R2A agar differs only from the traditional method in that micro-colonies on the membrane are counted using an advanced imaging system up to 50% earlier in the incubation. Based on the recommendations in USP Validation of New Microbiological Testing Methods , the system may be implemented in a microbiology laboratory after simple method verification and not a full method validation. LAY ABSTRACT: The Growth Direct™ System that automates the incubation and reading of microbial counts on membranes on solid agar differs only from the traditional method in that micro-colonies on the membrane are counted using an advanced imaging system up to 50% earlier in the incubation time. Based on the recommendations in USP Validation of New Microbiological Testing Methods , the system may be implemented in a microbiology laboratory after simple method verification and not a full method validation. © PDA, Inc. 2018.

  18. Determination of thermotolerant coliforms present in coconut water produced and bottled in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandbergue Santos Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coconut water is considered to be a natural isotonic drink and its marketing is gradually increasing. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of the coconut water produced and bottled in the Northeast of Brazil. Products form ten industries from different states in the Northeast of Brazil were analyzed. The most probable number (MPN method was used to quantify the coliforms. Samples showing positive for coliforms were seeded on ChromAgar Orient plates and the bacteria identified from isolated colonies using the automated system Vitek 2 (BioMérieux, according to the manufacturer's instructions for the preparation of the inoculum, incubation, reading and interpretation. The samples showed thermotolerant coliform counts between 6.0×102 and 2.6×104 MPN/100 mL. The presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii and Providencia alcalifaciens was observed. The implementation of preventive methods and monitoring of the water quality by the industries is required.

  19. Comparison of viable plate count, turbidity measurement and real-time PCR for quantification of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clais, S; Boulet, G; Van Kerckhoven, M; Lanckacker, E; Delputte, P; Maes, L; Cos, P

    2015-01-01

    The viable plate count (VPC) is considered as the reference method for bacterial enumeration in periodontal microbiology but shows some important limitations for anaerobic bacteria. As anaerobes such as Porphyromonas gingivalis are difficult to culture, VPC becomes time-consuming and less sensitive. Hence, efficient normalization of experimental data to bacterial cell count requires alternative rapid and reliable quantification methods. This study compared the performance of VPC with that of turbidity measurement and real-time PCR (qPCR) in an experimental context using highly concentrated bacterial suspensions. Our TaqMan-based qPCR assay for P. gingivalis 16S rRNA proved to be sensitive and specific. Turbidity measurements offer a fast method to assess P. gingivalis growth, but suffer from high variability and a limited dynamic range. VPC was very time-consuming and less repeatable than qPCR. Our study concludes that qPCR provides the most rapid and precise approach for P. gingivalis quantification. Although our data were gathered in a specific research context, we believe that our conclusions on the inferior performance of VPC and turbidity measurements in comparison to qPCR can be extended to other research and clinical settings and even to other difficult-to-culture micro-organisms. Various clinical and research settings require fast and reliable quantification of bacterial suspensions. The viable plate count method (VPC) is generally seen as 'the gold standard' for bacterial enumeration. However, VPC-based quantification of anaerobes such as Porphyromonas gingivalis is time-consuming due to their stringent growth requirements and shows poor repeatability. Comparison of VPC, turbidity measurement and TaqMan-based qPCR demonstrated that qPCR possesses important advantages regarding speed, accuracy and repeatability. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Killing rate of colony count by hydrodynamic cavitation due to square multi-orifice plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Wenqian

    2018-02-01

    Currently,in water supply engineering, the conventional technique of disinfection by chlorination is employed to kill pathogenic microorganisms in raw water. However, chlorine reacts with organic compounds in water and generates disinfection byproducts (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) etc. These byproducts are of carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects, which seriously threaten human health. Hydrodynamic cavitation is a novel technique of drinking water disinfection without DBPs. Effects of orifice size, orifice number and orifice layout of multi-orifice plate, cavitation number, cavitation time and orifice velocity on killing pathogenic microorganisms by cavitation were investigated experimentally in a self-developed square multi-orifice plate-type hydrodynamic cavitation device. The experimental results showed that cavitation effects increased with decrease in orifice size and increase in orifice number, cavitation time and orifice velocity. Along with lowering in cavitation number, there was an increase in Reynolds shear stress,thus enhancing the killing rate of pathogenic microorganism in raw water. In addition, the killing rate by staggered orifice layout was greater than that by checkerboard-type orifice layout.

  1. Development of a single-photon-counting camera with use of a triple-stacked micro-channel plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Naruomi; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Katafuchi, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    At the quantum-mechanical level, all substances (not merely electromagnetic waves such as light and X-rays) exhibit wave–particle duality. Whereas students of radiation science can easily understand the wave nature of electromagnetic waves, the particle (photon) nature may elude them. Therefore, to assist students in understanding the wave–particle duality of electromagnetic waves, we have developed a photon-counting camera that captures single photons in two-dimensional images. As an image intensifier, this camera has a triple-stacked micro-channel plate (MCP) with an amplification factor of 10(6). The ultra-low light of a single photon entering the camera is first converted to an electron through the photoelectric effect on the photocathode. The electron is intensified by the triple-stacked MCP and then converted to a visible light distribution, which is measured by a high-sensitivity complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor. Because it detects individual photons, the photon-counting camera is expected to provide students with a complete understanding of the particle nature of electromagnetic waves. Moreover, it measures ultra-weak light that cannot be detected by ordinary low-sensitivity cameras. Therefore, it is suitable for experimental research on scintillator luminescence, biophoton detection, and similar topics.

  2. Do different standard plate counting (IDF/ISSO or AOAC) methods interfere in the conversion of individual bacteria counts to colony forming units in raw milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassoli, L D; Lima, W J F; Esguerra, J C; Da Silva, J; Machado, P F; Mourão, G B

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to establish the correlation between individual bacterial count (IBC) obtained by flow cytometry and the number of colony forming units (CFU) determined by standard plate count (SPC) in raw milk using two different reference methodologies: the methodology of the International Dairy Federation (IDF) - International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4833, incubation for 72 h at 30°C and the methodology of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), incubation for 48 h at 35°C. For this, 100 bovine milk samples (80 ml) from different farms were collected in a sterile bottle and maintained refrigerated at 4°C and were delivered to the laboratory. In the laboratory, the samples were divided into two vials of 40 ml each. Then, half of the vials were forwarded for the SPC analysis, and the other half were analysed using the equipment BactoScan FC. The analyses by flow cytometry and SPC were performed at the same time (maximum deviation of +/- 1 h). To transform the data from IBC ml(-1) to CFU ml(-1) (IDF or AOAC methodology), a standard linear regression equation was used, as recommended by IDF/ISO-196. The difference between the reference methodologies affects the equation that transforms IBC into CFU and therefore the accuracy of the results. The results estimated by the equation using the ISO 4833 methodology were on average 0·18 log units higher than the results estimated using the equation using the AOAC methodology. After the comparison of the methodologies, it was concluded that there is an impact of the reference methodologies on the conversion of the results from IBC to CFU. Depending on the methodology adopted by each laboratory or country, there may not be equivalence in the results. Hence, the laboratories specialized in milk quality analysis that have changed their methodology for analysis, passing from the MAPA (AOAC) methodology to the IDF standard, need to develop new conversion equations to make their

  3. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, Bedabrata; Norton, Timothy J.; Haas, J. Patrick; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest of by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  4. Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate™ total plate count color indicator (TPC CI to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk Avaliação da eficiência do SimPlate™ Total Plate Count Color Indicator (TPC CI para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em leite pasteurizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Augusto Nero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The SimPlate™ TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of false-positive and false-negative wells and the predominant microorganisms in them were also evaluated. The results were compared by simple correlation and mean variance analyses. The correlation (r and mean variance values were 0.6811 and 0.7583 for the results obtained after 24h, respectively, and 0.9126 and 0.0842 for the results obtained after 48h, respectively. These results indicate that the performance of the system increases when the plates are incubated for 48h. When the three types of milk were evaluated separately, these values were 0.9285 and 0.0817 for type A milk, 0.9231 and 0.0466 for type B milk and 0.7209 and 0.1082 for type C milk. These results indicate that the better the quality of the milk the better the performance of SimPlate™ TPC CI. False-negative wells, found more frequently in samples with high MAM counts, were caused by Gram positive microorganisms, poorly detected by the SimPlate™ TPC CI system because they grew slowly and had low reduction capacity. The results indicated a higher efficiency of the SimPlate™ TPC CI system in the reading at 48h.O sistema SimPlate™ TPC CI é um método rápido para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos (MAM em alimentos que utiliza a resazurina como substância indicadora de crescimento bacteriano. Para avaliar sua eficiência em leite pasteurizado, 142 amostras (38 de leite tipo A, 43 de leite tipo B e 61 de leite tipo C foram colhidas em Londrina, PR, e analisadas pelo SimPlate

  5. Real-time ArcGIS and heterotrophic plate count based chloramine disinfectant control in water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaohui; Zhi, Xinghua; Zhu, Huifeng; Meng, Mingqun; Zhang, Mingde

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of chloramine residual on bacteria growth and regrowth and the relationship between heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs) and the concentration of chloramine residual in the Shanghai drinking water distribution system (DWDS). In this study, models to control HPCs in the water distribution system and consumer taps are also developed. Real-time ArcGIS was applied to show the distribution and changed results of the chloramine residual concentration in the pipe system by using these models. Residual regression analysis was used to get a reasonable range of the threshold values that allows the chloramine residual to efficiently inhibit bacteria growth in the Shanghai DWDS; the threshold values should be between 0.45 and 0.5 mg/L in pipe water and 0.2 and 0.25 mg/L in tap water. The low residual chloramine value (0.05 mg/L) of the Chinese drinking water quality standard may pose a potential health risk for microorganisms that should be improved. Disinfection by-products (DBPs) were detected, but no health risk was identified.

  6. Influence of Heat Shock Temperatures and Fast Freezing on Viability of Probiotic Sporeformers and the Issue of Spore Plate Count Versus True Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Jafari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of various heat shock conditions and fast freezing and subsequent thawing on the viability and recovery of Bacillus coagulans and Bacillus subtilis as probiotic sporeformers, and also to compare spore plate and microscopic counts. Materials and Methods: After preparing the final suspensions of B. coagulans and Bacillus subtilis subsp. Natto spores, they were spread-plated before and after fast freezing treatment (-70°C for about 1 min. Heat shock treatments of the spores were carried out at 68oC for 15, 20, and 30 min as well as at 80oC for 10 and 15 min. Concentrations of the examined probiotic sporeformers were determined simultaneously by plate enumerations and microscopically determined counts. Student’s t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA of SPSS were used for statistical analysis of the data. Analysis of DoE results was carried out using Minitab. Results: The results presented here show that the highest recovery rates for B. coagulans (14.75 log CFU/mL and B. subtilis spores (14.80 log CFU/mL were under a heat shock condition of 68°C for 20 min in nutrient agar (p<0.05. In addition, the survival rates of B. coagulans and B. subtilis spores under the fast freezing and subsequent thawing condition were about 90% and 88%, respectively. Plate counts differed significantly from counts determined microscopically, with differences of almost 0.5 and 0.8 log for B. coagulans and B. subtilis spores, respectively (p<0.05. In addition, DoE results of the study revealed that both factors of spore count method and only freezing factor in fast freezing treatment have a significant effect on concentrations of the spores examined (p<0.05. Conclusions: Heat shock conditions, freezing and subsequent thawing circumstances, and plate counts or enumerations determined microscopically have significant influences on the viability of probiotic sporeformers and

  7. a studyof faecal of faecal coliform die coliform die coliform die-off

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    COLIFORM DIE-OFF IN SEWAGE SLUDGE DRYING BED. OFF IN SEWAGE SLUDGE ..... This method was used to measure evaporation from the bed because of .... thermometer with external sensor probe, model No. ST-9283A/B/C and a ...

  8. Effect of tetracycline dose and treatment mode on selection of resistant coliform bacteria in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig...... by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracyclineresistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated...

  9. Endotoxin, Coliform, and Dust Levels in Various Types of Rodent Bedding

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteside, Tanya E; Thigpen, Julius E; Kissling, Grace E; Grant, Mary G; Forsythe, Diane B

    2010-01-01

    Endotoxins in grain dust, household dust, and animal bedding may induce respiratory symptoms in rodents and humans. We assayed the endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in 20 types of rodent bedding. Endotoxin concentrations were measured by using a commercial test kit, coliform counts were determined by using conventional microbiologic procedures, and dust content was evaluated by using a rotating–tapping shaker. Paper bedding types contained significantly less endotoxin than did other beddin...

  10. Comparative study of methods for the enumeration of total and fecal coliforms in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, G P

    1978-12-01

    Violet red bile agar and Coli-Count Sampler (Millipore Corp.) procedures were shown to be acceptable alternatives to the standard most-probable-number method for monitoring relative coliform levels in oysters.

  11. Comparison of Methods of Sampling for Toxocara Species and Fecal Coliforms in an Outdoor Day Care Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Carabin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare three sampling methods and to pretest methods for the determination of fecal coliform (FC counts and Toxocara species from sand in the day care outdoor environment.

  12. Comparison of the quantitative dry culture methods with both conventional media and most probable number method for the enumeration of coliforms and Escherichia coli/coliforms in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, H; Sota, K; Iwasaki, M; Ogihara, H

    2017-07-01

    Sanita-kun™ CC (coliform count) and EC (Escherichia coli/coliform count), sheet quantitative culture systems which can avoid chromogenic interference by lactase in food, were evaluated in comparison with conventional methods for these bacteria. Based on the results of inclusivity and exclusivity studies using 77 micro-organisms, sensitivity and specificity of both Sanita-kun™ met the criteria for ISO 16140. Both media were compared with deoxycholate agar, violet red bile agar, Merck Chromocult™ coliform agar (CCA), 3M Petrifilm™ CC and EC (PEC) and 3-tube MPN, as reference methods, in 100 naturally contaminated food samples. The correlation coefficients of both Sanita-kun™ for coliform detection were more than 0·95 for all comparisons. For E. coli detection, Sanita-kun™ EC was compared with CCA, PEC and MPN in 100 artificially contaminated food samples. The correlation coefficients for E. coli detection of Sanita-kun™ EC were more than 0·95 for all comparisons. There were no significant differences in all comparisons when conducting a one-way analysis of variance (anova). Both Sanita-kun™ significantly inhibited colour interference by lactase when inhibition of enzymatic staining was assessed using 40 natural cheese samples spiked with coliform. Our results demonstrated Sanita-kun™ CC and EC are suitable alternatives for the enumeration of coliforms and E. coli/coliforms, respectively, in a variety of foods, and specifically in fermented foods. Current chromogenic media for coliforms and Escherichia coli/coliforms have enzymatic coloration due to breaking down of chromogenic substrates by food lactase. The novel sheet culture media which have film layer to avoid coloration by food lactase have been developed for enumeration of coliforms and E. coli/coliforms respectively. In this study, we demonstrated these media had comparable performance with reference methods and less interference by food lactase. These media have a possibility not only

  13. Microbial counts of food contact surfaces at schools depending on a feeding scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nthabiseng Nhlapo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The prominence of disease transmission between individuals in confined environments is a concern, particularly in the educational environment. With respect to school feeding schemes, food contact surfaces have been shown to be potential vehicles of foodborne pathogens. The aim of this study was to assess the cleanliness of the surfaces that come into contact with food that is provided to children through the National School Nutrition Programme in central South Africa. In each school under study, microbiological samples were collected from the preparation surface and the dominant hand and apron of the food handler. The samples were analysed for total viable counts, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and moulds. The criteria specified in the British Columbia Guide for Environmental Health Officers were used to evaluate the results. Total viable counts were high for all surfaces, with the majority of colonies being too numerous to count (over 100 colonies per plate. Counts of organisms were relatively low, with 20% of the surfaces producing unsatisfactory enumeration of S. aureus and E. coli and 30% unsatisfactory for coliforms. Yeast and mould produced 50% and 60% unsatisfactory counts from preparation surfaces and aprons, respectively. Statistically significant differences could not be established amongst microbial counts of the surfaces, which suggests cross-contamination may have occurred. Contamination may be attributed to foodstuffs and animals in the vicinity of the preparation area rather than to the food handlers, because hands had the lowest counts of enumerated organisms amongst the analysed surfaces.

  14. Comparison of solid-phase cytometry and the plate count method for the evaluation of the survival of bacteria in pharmaceutical oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Prijck, K; Peeters, E; Nelis, H J

    2008-12-01

    To compare the survival of four bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in pharmaceutical oils, including jojoba oil/tea tree oil, carbol oil, jojoba oil and sesame oil. Oils were spiked with the test bacteria in a concentration of 10(4) CFU ml(-1). Bacteria were extracted from oils with phosphate-buffered saline containing 0.5% Tween 20. Aliquots of the pooled water layers were analysed by solid-phase cytometry and plate counting. Plate counts dropped to zero for all test strains exposed for 24 h to three of the four oils. In contrast, significant numbers of viable cells were still detected by SPC, except in the jojoba oil/tea tree oil mixture and partly in sesame oil. Exposure of bacteria for 24 h to the two oils containing an antimicrobial led to a loss of their culturability but not necessarily of their viability. The antibacterial activity of the jojoba oil/tea tree oil mixture supersedes that of carbol oil. These in vitro data suggest that the jojoba oil/tea tree oil mixture more than carbol oil inhibits bacterial proliferation when used for intermittent self-catherization.

  15. Identification of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Streptococcus thermophilus Strains Present in Artisanal Raw Cow Milk Cheese Using Real-time PCR and Classic Plate Count Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelska, Milena A

    2017-12-04

    The aim of this paper was to detect Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Streptococcus thermophilus using real-time quantitative PCR assay in 7-day ripening cheese produced from unpasteurised milk. Real-time quantitative PCR assays were designed to identify and enumerate the chosen species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in ripened cheese. The results of molecular quantification and classic bacterial enumeration showed a high level of similarity proving that DNA extraction was carried out in a proper way and that genomic DNA solutions were free of PCR inhibitors. These methods revealed the presence of L. delbrueckii and S. thermophilus. The real-time PCR enabled quantification with a detection of 101-103 CFU/g of product. qPCR-standard curves were linear over seven log units down to 101 copies per reaction; efficiencies ranged from 77.9% to 93.6%. Cheese samples were analysed with plate count method and qPCR in parallel. Compared with the classic plate count method, the newly developed qPCR method provided faster and species specific identification of two dairy LAB and yielded comparable quantitative results.

  16. Escherichia coli and coliforms level of food utensils at food premises in Kuala Pilah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saipullizan, Siti Nurul Ain; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Sedek, Razalee

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Escherichia coli and coliforms level of food utensils at sixty food premises in Kuala Pilah, Malaysia. The swab technique was used to investigate the presence of E. coli and coliforms on 180 of food utensils (chopping boards: 60, knives: 60 and dish plates: 60). The results indicated that 180 of food utensils were contaminated with E. coli and coliforms. More than 60% of the coliforms were exceeded the acceptable limit compared to E. coli on the food utensils. The one-way ANOVA analysis demonstrated that the presence of E. coli and coliforms differed significantly among the three types of food utensils (knives, chopping boards, and dish plates). In conclusion, this study revealed that there are hygiene issues exist in every food premises. The food utensils are safe to use during the food preparation if the presence of E. coli and coliforms are not exceed the acceptable limit. Thus, it is recommended that the food handlers in the food premises should improve effective cleaning and sanitizing of food utensils in their daily work.

  17. COMPARISON OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, TOTAL COLIFORM, AND FECAL COLIFORM POPULATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli, total coliform, and fecal coliform data were collected from two wastewater treatment facilities, a subsurface constructed wetlands, and the receiving stream. Results are presented from individual wastewater treatment process streams, final effluent and river sit...

  18. Changes in the bacterial number (enterohaemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7, coliforms and SPC) in salted vegetables during storage and by treatment with electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Michiko; Miyahara, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes severe illness in humans, especially young children and elder people. Some 2-3% salted vegetables (called Asazuke) contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 have caused food-poisoning and even death. The viability of E. coli O157:H7 in saline water and in salted vegetables was tested. During cold and frozen storage, the apparent decrease in the number of E. coli O157:H7 was not observed. However, electron-beam irradiation (0.534, 1.097 and 2.639 kGy) caused clear decrease in the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in frozen salted Mizuna. The number of standard plating count (SPC) and coliforms were also counted and compared with the changes in the number of E. coli O157:H7. (author)

  19. Contamination of water wells in Khoms city with pathogenic coliform bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahjoub, Tariq M.; Buazzi, Mahmoud M.; Jamil, Ahmad Y.

    2007-01-01

    240 Samples from 60 water wells in and around the area of city of Khoms city (in northwestern Libya) were analyzed over four successive seasons for count of faecal Coliform bacteria, of which antibiotic resistance was later assessed. Standard methods were used for analysis of faecla coliform bacteria. Water wells contained varying levels of faecal coliform bacteria ranging from a Most Probable Number of 0 to 1.8 x 10 3 cfu/100 ml, with zero isolates at autumn and winter seasons, while wells dug at private farms had the highest percentage of contamination, reaching 56.6% of wells in autumn, and also had the highest number of faecal coliform isolates, 1,8x10 3 cfu/100 ml, in spring and summer seasons, strains of isolated Escherichia coli were most sensitive to chloramphenicol, and most resistant to tetracycline. (author)

  20. [Comparison of techniques for coliform bacteria extraction from sediment of Xochimilco Lake, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rendón, Carlos L; Barrera-Escorcia, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    The need to separate bacteria from sediment in order to appropriately count them has led to test the efficacy of different techniques. In this research, traditional techniques such as manual shaking, homogenization, ultrasonication, and surfactant are compared. Moreover, the possibility of using a set of enzymes (pancreatine) and an antibiotic (ampicillin) for sediment coliform extraction is proposed. Samples were obtained from Xochimilco Lake in Mexico City. The most probable number of coliform bacteria was determined after applying the appropriate separation procedure. Most of the techniques tested led to numbers similar to those of the control (manual shaking). Only with the use of ampicillin, a greater total coliform concentration was observed (Mann-Whitney, z = 2.09; p = 0.03). It is possible to propose the use of ampicillin as a technique for total coliform extraction; however, it is necessary to consider sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotic.

  1. Synthetic Culture Media Evaluated for the Detection of Coliform Bacteria in Milk, Cheese and Egg Melange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Szita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple synthetic culture media of liquid and solid form (X broth and X agar were tested for selective isolation of coliform bacteria. Selectivity is based on the ability of coliform bacteria to grow when the minimal medium contains simple inorganic substances as nitrogen and carbon supply. Selectivity of the media was tested by inoculation of pure cultures of different microbes belonging to the genera of Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Pseudomonas and the family Enterobacteriaceae and was found to be complete in this range. The comparative investigation of milk, camembert cheese and egg melange samples in the traditional and new media proved good applicability of X broth and X agar for an effective and selective detection of coliform bacteria. When testing pasteurized milk samples, X agar detected coliforms in significantly higher counts than violet red-bile-lactose agar.

  2. KUALITAS MIKROBIOLOGI NASI JINGGO BERDASARKAN ANGKA LEMPENG TOTAL, COLIFORM TOTAL DAN KANDUNGAN ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Payastiti Yunita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate quality of food products that do not meet standard quality may lead to food poisoning cases and become a concern in public health sector. Nasi Jinggo is a small amount of cooked rice with little bit fried tempe, shredded spicy chicken, traditional made chili sauce that is packed with banana leaves, and all the cooking process usually done traditionally. Nasi jinggo is sold at night by street vendor with price ranged from Rp. 1.500,- to Rp. 2.000,- per package. The study was a quantitative descriptive study with cross-sectional design that was aimed to identify the microbiology quality of nasi jinggo that were sold in Denpasar Selatan area. From 48 population of nasi jinggo street vendor, 23 vendor was taken as samples. The microbiology quality being assessed was Total Plate Count (TPC, Total Coliform with MPN method and Escherichia coli content with Eosin Methylene Blue Agar as medium. Laboratory analysis showed that only 21,7% sample that met TPC standard with average value of 2,3 x 107 CFU/gram sample, only 8,7% that met Total Coliform standard with average value of 1,4 x 105 MPN/100 gram sample and 52,2% sample that met E. coli content standard with average value is 2,6 x 102 MPN/100 gram sample. It is recommended to the government to do quality check towards nasi jinggo in a regular basis as well as to provide education and assistance to nasi jinggo street vendors in order to improve the microbiology quality of food product and ensure food safety to the consumer.

  3. Environmental Streptococcal and Coliform Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, G. M. (Gerald Murray), 1941-; Swisher, Jerry M., 1949-

    2009-01-01

    Today, many well-managed farms that have successfully controlled contagious mastitis and consistently produce milk with somatic cell counts (SCC) below 300,000 have problems with increased clinical mastitis.

  4. Comparison of selected methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, W O; De Villiers, J C; Schildhauer, C I

    1992-09-01

    In a comparison of five selected methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in naturally contaminated and sewage-seeded mussels (Choromytilus spp.) and oysters (Ostrea spp.), a spread-plate procedure with mFC agar without rosolic acid and preincubation proved the method of choice for routine quality assessment.

  5. Fluorogenic membrane overlays to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three assays were developed to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and other foods and in seawater and other environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on non-selective agar plates to detect ß-glucuronidase and lysyl am...

  6. Contamination of faecal coliforms in ice cubes sampled from food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Izani, N J; Zulaikha, A R; Mohamad Noor, M R; Amri, M A; Mahat, N A

    2012-03-01

    The use of ice cubes in beverages is common among patrons of food outlets in Malaysia although its safety for human consumption remains unclear. Hence, this study was designed to determine the presence of faecal coliforms and several useful water physicochemical parameters viz. free residual chlorine concentration, turbidity and pH in ice cubes from 30 randomly selected food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. Faecal coliforms were found in ice cubes in 16 (53%) food outlets ranging between 1 CFU/100mL to >50 CFU/ 100mL, while in the remaining 14 (47%) food outlets, in samples of tap water as well as in commercially bottled drinking water, faecal coliforms were not detected. The highest faecal coliform counts of >50 CFU/100mL were observed in 3 (10%) food outlets followed by 11-50 CFU/100mL and 1-10 CFU/100mL in 7 (23%) and 6 (20%) food outlets, respectively. All samples recorded low free residual chlorine concentration (contamination by faecal coliforms was not detected in 47% of the samples, tap water and commercially bottled drinking water, it was concluded that (1) contamination by faecal coliforms may occur due to improper handling of ice cubes at the food outlets or (2) they may not be the water sources used for making ice cubes. Since low free residual chlorine concentrations were observed (food outlets, including that of ice cube is crucial in ensuring better food and water for human consumption.

  7. The Impact of Rainfall on Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a waterway that has uses such as primary contact recreation, secondary contact recreation, propagation of fish and wildlife, agriculture and as being an outstanding natural resource water. Samples from Bayou Dorcheat were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. The analysis of the bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Information regarding the rainfall amounts and surface runoff amounts for the selected years was retrieved from the Louisiana Office of State Climatology. It was found that a significant increase in the fecal coliform numbers may be associated with average rainfall amounts. Possible sources of elevated coliform counts could include sewage discharges from municipal treatment plants and septic tanks, storm water overflows, and runoff from pastures and range lands. It can be concluded that nonpoint source pollution that is carried by surface runoff has a significant effect on bacterial levels in water resources.

  8. Fecal Coliform Removal by River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a major cause of water quality impairment in the United States. Freshwater ecosystems provide the ecosystem service of reducing pathogen levels by diluting and removing pathogens as water flows from source areas through the river network. However, the integration of field-scale monitoring data and watershed-scale hydrologic models to estimate pathogen loads and removal in varied aquatic ecosystems is still limited. In this study we applied a biogeochemical river network model (the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System or FrAMES) and utilized available field data the Oyster R. watershed, a small (51.7 km2) draining coastal New Hampshire (NH, USA), to quantify pathogen removal at the river network scale, using fecal coliform as an indicator. The Oyster R. Watershed is comprised of various land use types, and has had its water quality monitored for fecal coliform, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity since 2001. Water samples were also collected during storm events to account for storm responses. FrAMES was updated to incorporate the dominant processes controlling fecal coliform concentrations in aquatic ecosystems: spatially distributed terrestrial loading, in-stream removal, dilution, and downstream transport. We applied an empirical loading function to estimate the terrestrial loading of fecal coliform across flow conditions. Data was collected from various land use types across a range of hydrologic conditions. The loading relationship includes total daily precipitation, antecedent 24-hour rainfall, air temperature, and catchment impervious surface percentage. Attenuation is due to bacterial "die-off" and dilution processes. Results show that fecal coliform input loads varied among different land use types. At low flow, fecal coliform concentrations were similar among watersheds. However, at high flow the concentrations were significantly higher in urbanized watersheds than forested watersheds. The mainstem had lower fecal coliform

  9. THAWING PROCEDURES FOR HOSPITAL-MADE ENTERAL FEEDINGS: SURVIVAL OF COLIFORM AND MESOPHILIC AEROBIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATHIA ROSSI ROLIM LOPES

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This study had the purpose to observe the effect of thawing procedures on survival of coliform and mesophilic aerobic bacteria in hospital-made enteral feedings. The samples are represented by three different lots. The tests were realized in three moments: immediately after the sample preparation and after freezing during 1 or 2 months. The thawing procedures were denominated convencional and alternative. The first, used by hospital, utilizes water bath at 50ºC, considering the time spent from the total thawing to its distribution in the infirmaries. The second was the fast thawing made by microwaving. The results showed that the reduction of the mesophiles and coliform was related to the time the samples were frozen. The results obtained indicate an advantage of the alternative method, which presented lower total and fecal coliform counts than the conventional one. KEYWORDS: Enteral feedings; thawing; food microbiology.

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday ... Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs ...

  11. Evaluation of the limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotter, Susan L.; Wood, Roger; McWeeny, David J.

    A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjuction with a Gram negative bacteria (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 15°C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment and during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeasts and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds.

  12. Evaluation of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scotter, S.L.; Wood, R.; McWeeny, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjunction with a Gram negative bacterial (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 15 0 C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment amd during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeast and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotter, S L; Wood, R; McWeeny, D J [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Norwich (UK). Food Science Lab.

    1990-01-01

    A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjunction with a Gram negative bacterial (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 15{sup 0}C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment amd during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeast and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds. (author).

  14. Removal of Total Coliforms, Thermotolerant Coliforms, and Helminth Eggs in Swine Production Wastewater Treated in Anaerobic and Aerobic Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias Sylvestre, Silvia Helena; Lux Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme; de Oliveira, Roberto Alves

    2014-01-01

    The present work evaluated the performance of two treatment systems in reducing indicators of biological contamination in swine production wastewater. System I consisted of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, with 510 and 209 L in volume, being serially arranged. System II consisted of a UASB reactor, anaerobic filter, trickling filter, and decanter, being also organized in series, with volumes of 300, 190, 250, and 150 L, respectively. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) applied in the first UASB reactors were 40, 30, 20, and 11 h in systems I and II. The average removal efficiencies of total and thermotolerant coliforms in system I were 92.92% to 99.50% and 94.29% to 99.56%, respectively, and increased in system II to 99.45% to 99.91% and 99.52% to 99.93%, respectively. Average removal rates of helminth eggs in system I were 96.44% to 99.11%, reaching 100% as in system II. In reactor sludge, the counts of total and thermotolerant coliforms ranged between 105 and 109 MPN (100 mL)−1, while helminth eggs ranged from 0.86 to 9.27 eggs g−1 TS. PMID:24812560

  15. 40 CFR 141.803 - Coliform sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Aircraft Drinking Water Rule § 141.803 Coliform sampling. (a... aircraft water system, the sampling frequency must be determined by the disinfection and flushing frequency... disinfection and flushing frequency recommended by the aircraft water system manufacturer, when available...

  16. Phenotypic and phylogenetic identification of coliform bacteria obtained from 12 USEPA approved coliform methods

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ya; Hong, Pei-Ying; LeChevallier, Mark W.; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2015-01-01

    The current definition of coliform bacteria is method-dependent, and when different culture-based methods are used, discrepancies in results can occur and affect the accuracy in identifying true coliforms. This study used an alternative approach to identify true coliforms by combing the phenotypic traits of the coliform isolates and the phylogenetic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene sequences together with the use of lacZ and uidA genes. A collection of 1404 isolates from 12 US Environmental Protection Agency approved coliform-testing methods were characterized based on their phylogenetic affiliations and responses to their original isolation medium and Lauryl Tryptose broth, m-Endo and MI agar media. Isolates were phylogenetically classified into 32 true coliform or targeted Enterobacteriaceae (TE) groups, and 14 non-coliform or non-targeted Enterbacteriaceae (NTE) groups. It was statistically shown that detecting true-positive (TP) events is more challenging than detecting true-negative (TN) events. Furthermore, most false-negative (FN) events were associated with four TE groups (i.e., Serratia group I, Providencia, Proteus, and Morganella), and most false-positive (FP) events with two NTE groups, Aeromonas and Plesiomonas. In Escherichia coli testing, 18 out of 145 E. coli isolates identified by those enzymatic methods were validated as FNs. The reasons behind the FP and FN reactions could be explained through the analysis of the lacZ and uidA gene. Overall, combining the analyses of 16S rRNA, lacZ and uidA genes with the growth responses of TE and NTE on culture-based media is an effective way to evaluate the performance of coliform detection methods.

  17. Phenotypic and phylogenetic identification of coliform bacteria obtained from 12 USEPA approved coliform methods

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ya

    2015-06-26

    The current definition of coliform bacteria is method-dependent, and when different culture-based methods are used, discrepancies in results can occur and affect the accuracy in identifying true coliforms. This study used an alternative approach to identify true coliforms by combing the phenotypic traits of the coliform isolates and the phylogenetic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene sequences together with the use of lacZ and uidA genes. A collection of 1404 isolates from 12 US Environmental Protection Agency approved coliform-testing methods were characterized based on their phylogenetic affiliations and responses to their original isolation medium and Lauryl Tryptose broth, m-Endo and MI agar media. Isolates were phylogenetically classified into 32 true coliform or targeted Enterobacteriaceae (TE) groups, and 14 non-coliform or non-targeted Enterbacteriaceae (NTE) groups. It was statistically shown that detecting true-positive (TP) events is more challenging than detecting true-negative (TN) events. Furthermore, most false-negative (FN) events were associated with four TE groups (i.e., Serratia group I, Providencia, Proteus, and Morganella), and most false-positive (FP) events with two NTE groups, Aeromonas and Plesiomonas. In Escherichia coli testing, 18 out of 145 E. coli isolates identified by those enzymatic methods were validated as FNs. The reasons behind the FP and FN reactions could be explained through the analysis of the lacZ and uidA gene. Overall, combining the analyses of 16S rRNA, lacZ and uidA genes with the growth responses of TE and NTE on culture-based media is an effective way to evaluate the performance of coliform detection methods.

  18. Beverages obtained from soda fountain machines in the U.S. contain microorganisms, including coliform bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amy S; Godard, Renee D; Belling, Carolyn; Kasza, Victoria; Beach, Rebecca L

    2010-01-31

    Ninety beverages of three types (sugar sodas, diet sodas and water) were obtained from 20 self-service and 10 personnel-dispensed soda fountains, analyzed for microbial contamination, and evaluated with respect to U.S. drinking water regulations. A follow-up study compared the concentration and composition of microbial populations in 27 beverages collected from 9 soda fountain machines in the morning as well as in the afternoon. Ice dispensed from these machines was also examined for microbial contamination. While none of the ice samples exceeded U.S. drinking water standards, coliform bacteria was detected in 48% of the beverages and 20% had a heterotrophic plate count greater than 500cfu/ml. Statistical analyses revealed no difference in levels of microbial contamination between beverage types or between those dispensed from self-service and personnel-dispensed soda fountains. More than 11% of the beverages analyzed contained Escherichia coli and over 17% contained Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Other opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms isolated from the beverages included species of Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas, Candida, and Serratia. Most of the identified bacteria showed resistance to one or more of the 11 antibiotics tested. These findings suggest that soda fountain machines may harbor persistent communities of potentially pathogenic microorganisms which may contribute to episodic gastric distress in the general population and could pose a more significant health risk to immunocompromised individuals. These findings have important public health implications and signal the need for regulations enforcing hygienic practices associated with these beverage dispensers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Yeasts and coliform bacteria of water accumulated in bromeliads of mangrove and sand dune ecosystems of southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, A N; Rosa, C A; Morais, P B; Mendonça-Hagler, L C; Franco, G M; Araujo, F V; Soares, C A

    1993-10-01

    Yeasts and coliform bacteria were isolated from water that accumulated in the central cups and adjacent leaf axilae of two bromeliads, Neoregelia cruenta of a coastal sand dune and Quesnelia quesneliana of a mangrove ecosystem near the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The mean total coliform counts were above 10,000 per 100 mL for waters of both plants, but the mean fecal coliform counts were only 74 per 100 mL for Q. quesneliana and mostly undetected in water from N. cruenta. Of 90 fecal coliform isolates, 51 were typical of Escherichia coli in colony morphology and indol, methyl red, Volges-Proskauer, and citrate (IMViC) tests. Seven representatives of the typical E. coli cultures were identified as this species, but the identifications of nine other coliform bacteria were mostly dubious. The yeast community of N. cruenta was typical of plant surfaces with basidiomycetous yeasts anamorphs, and the black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans was prevalent. Quesnelia quesneliana had a substantial proportion of ascomycetous yeasts and their anamorphs, including a probable new biotype of Saccharomyces unisporus. Our results suggested that the microbial communities in bromeliad waters are typically autochtonous and not contaminants.

  20. Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oggero Roberto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lactobacilli been recently reported but the mechanisms by which they exert their effects have not yet been fully defined. This study was performed to evaluate the interaction between Lactobacillus spp. strains and gas-forming coliforms isolated from stools of colicky infants. Results Strains of coliforms were isolated from stools of 45 colicky and 42 control breastfed infants in McConkey Agar and identified using PCR with species-specific primers, and the BBL™ Enterotube™ II system for Enterobacteriaceae. Gas-forming capability of coliforms was assessed in liquid cultures containing lactose as sole carbon source. The average count of total coliforms in colicky infants was significantly higher than controls: 5.98 (2.00-8.76 log10 vs 3.90 (2.50-7.10 CFU/g of faeces (p = 0.015. The following strains were identified: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis. Then, 27 Lactobacillus strains were tested for their antagonistic effect against coliforms both by halo-forming method and in liquid co-cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.delbrueckii DSM 20074 and L. plantarum MB 456 were able to inhibit all coliforms strains (halo-forming method, also in liquid co-cultures, thus demonstrating an antagonistic activity. Conclusions This study shows that two out of 27 strains of Lactobacillus examined possess an antimicrobial effect against six species of gas-forming coliforms

  1. Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Cordisco, Lisa; Tarasco, Valentina; Locatelli, Emanuela; Di Gioia, Diana; Oggero, Roberto; Matteuzzi, Diego

    2011-06-30

    Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lactobacilli been recently reported but the mechanisms by which they exert their effects have not yet been fully defined. This study was performed to evaluate the interaction between Lactobacillus spp. strains and gas-forming coliforms isolated from stools of colicky infants. Strains of coliforms were isolated from stools of 45 colicky and 42 control breastfed infants in McConkey Agar and identified using PCR with species-specific primers, and the BBL™ Enterotube™ II system for Enterobacteriaceae. Gas-forming capability of coliforms was assessed in liquid cultures containing lactose as sole carbon source. The average count of total coliforms in colicky infants was significantly higher than controls: 5.98 (2.00-8.76) log10 vs 3.90 (2.50-7.10) CFU/g of faeces (p = 0.015). The following strains were identified: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis. Then, 27 Lactobacillus strains were tested for their antagonistic effect against coliforms both by halo-forming method and in liquid co-cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii DSM 20074 and L. plantarum MB 456 were able to inhibit all coliforms strains (halo-forming method), also in liquid co-cultures, thus demonstrating an antagonistic activity. This study shows that two out of 27 strains of Lactobacillus examined possess an antimicrobial effect against six species of gas-forming coliforms isolated from colicky infants. Our findings may stimulate

  2. Application of a good manufacturing practices checklist and enumeration of total coliform in swine feed mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora da Cruz Payao Pellegrini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study in four swine feed mills aimed to evaluate the correlation between the score of the inspection checklist defined in the Normative Instruction 4 (IN 4/ Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply, and the enumeration of total coliforms throughout the manufacturing process. The most of non-conformities was found in the physical structure of the feed mills. Feed mill B showed the lowest number of unconformities while units A and D had the largest number of nonconformities. In 38.53% (489/1269 of the samples the presence of total coliform was detected, however no significant difference in the bacterial counts was observed between sampling sites and feed mills. The logistic regression pointed higher odds ratio (OR for total coliforms isolation at dosing (OR = 9.51, 95% CI: 4.43 to 20.41, grinding (OR = 7.10, 95% CI = 3.27 to 15.40 and residues (OR = 6.21, 95% CI: 3.88 to 9.95 In spite of having the second score in the checklist inspection, feed mill C presented the highest odds for total coliforms isolation (OR= 2,43, IC 95%: 1,68-3,53. The data indicate no association between the score of checklist and the presence of hygienic indicators in feed mills.

  3. Endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in various types of rodent bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Tanya E; Thigpen, Julius E; Kissling, Grace E; Grant, Mary G; Forsythe, Diane

    2010-03-01

    Endotoxins in grain dust, household dust, and animal bedding may induce respiratory symptoms in rodents and humans. We assayed the endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in 20 types of rodent bedding. Endotoxin concentrations were measured by using a commercial test kit, coliform counts were determined by using conventional microbiologic procedures, and dust content was evaluated by using a rotating-tapping shaker. Paper bedding types contained significantly less endotoxin than did other bedding types; the highest levels of endotoxin were detected in hardwood and corncob beddings. The range of endotoxin content for each bedding type was: corncob bedding, 1913 to 4504 endotoxin units per gram (EU/g); hardwood bedding, 3121 to 5401 EU/g; corncob-paper mixed bedding, 1586 to 2416 EU/g; and paper bedding, less than 5 to 105 EU/g. Coliform counts varied from less than 10 to 7591 cfu/g in corncob beddings, 90 to 4010 cfu/g in corncob-paper mixed beddings, less than 10 to 137 cfu/g in hardwood beddings, and less than 10 cfu/g in paper beddings. Average dust content was less than 0.15% in all commercial bedding types. We conclude that paper bedding is the optimal bedding type for conducting LPS inhalation studies and that rodent bedding containing high levels of endotoxin may alter the results of respiratory and immunologic studies in rodents.

  4. A follow up on the distribution of coliform bacteria along the Jordanian coastline of the gulf of Aq aba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mogharabi, M. S.; Khyami-Horani, H.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of the occurrence of enteric indicator organisms (e. g. total and fecal coliform) and enteric pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp.) was undertaken at ten sites, along the northern coast of the Gulf of Aq aba (Jordan)m during the period October 1994 to September 1995. Both total coliforms and Escherichia coli counts were within the accepted international standards for marine bathing water. the mean value per 100 ml seawater ranged between 18 to 70(n=12 months) for total coliforms, 1 to 27 (n=8 mon thus) for Escherichia coli and 1 to 9 (n = 8 months) for Salmonella species. The analysis of va rance for total coliforms revealed a highly significant temporal variations (P<0.001), but no significant spatial differences were found .Whereas, Salmonella sp. counts showed significant spatial variations (P<0.001), with the Border site being significantly different from the other sites except the Palace site. These results suggest that the hygienic water quality at the Jordanian side of the Gulf of Aq aba, is good all over the year although the sewage discharge from Ei lat might cause a health hazard as to be the major source of enteric pathogenic bacteria. (authors). 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. 40 CFR 141.802 - Coliform sampling plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform sampling plan. 141.802... sampling plan. (a) Each air carrier under this subpart must develop a coliform sampling plan covering each... required actions, including repeat and follow-up sampling, corrective action, and notification of...

  6. RBC count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by kidney disease) RBC destruction ( hemolysis ) due to transfusion, blood vessel injury, or other cause Leukemia Malnutrition Bone ... slight risk any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names Erythrocyte count; Red blood cell count; Anemia - RBC count Images Blood test ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 800-342-2383) Give by Mail Close ... your plate with more non-starchy veggies and smaller portions of starchy foods and protein—no special tools or counting required! You can ...

  9. Coliform bacteria as in indicator of sewerage water mixing with drinking water sources in Rawalpindi city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Bibi, S.; Javed, T.; Shah, Z.; Sajjad, M.I.

    1993-12-01

    The coliform group of bacteria are consider to be one of the prominent indicators of surface/groundwater pollution as their presence in drinking water sources shows that water has been in contact with soil, plants, septic tanks or sewerage lines/drains. As a part of surface/groundwater pollution studies in various areas of Rawalpindi city coliform bacteria have been determined in the available drinking sources to evaluate their possible connection with the nearby septic tanks and sewerage lines/drains. Selective water samples were tapped from 72 domestic dug wells, and 98 municipal corporation tube-wells and associated water supply lines in some poorly drained areas of Rawalpindi. These samples were analyzed using membrane filter technique. In general, the sampled areas have indicated poor water quality w.r.t. coliform activity. 52% samples of the collected samples have indicated presence of Ecoli. Of these, 73% samples mostly collected from the poorly drained areas have shown significant counts of Ecoli. These water are rendered unfit for drinking purposes. Thirteen water samples collected indicated toxic levels of Ecoli in the municipal water supply caused due to a known leakage in the main domestic water supply line. The presence of coliform in the tube-well water supply taps are thus attributed to ruptures in the underground water supply lines. Present study reveals that general sanitary condition and water quality in the city are poor and that there is an urgent need of improvement in the water treatment and distribution systems by the concern quaters. (Orig./A.B.)

  10. Bacteriological (fecal and total coliform) quality of Pakistani coastal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Javed, T.; Khan, M.S.; Chaudhary, M.Z.; Khalid, F.

    2010-01-01

    The coliform bacteria group consists of several genera of bacteria belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae. These are harmless bacteria, mostly live in soil, water, and digestive system of animals. Fecal coliform bacteria, which belongs to this group, are present in large numbers in feces and intestinal tract of human beings and other warm-blooded animals which can enter into water bodies from human and animal waste. Swimming in water having high levels of Fecal coliform bacteria increases the chance of developing illness (fever, nausea or stomach cramps) from pathogens entering the body through mouth, nose, ears or cuts in the skin. The objective of the present study was to characterize the bathing quality of Pakistani coastal water with respect to coliform bacteria. Total and Fecal coliform bacteria were determined at seven different locations along Pakistan coast using membrane filtration (MF) technique. 100 ml of water was passed through 0.45 micron (mu) filter paper. These filter papers were put on pads, soaked in Lauryle sulphate broth in petri-dishes and incubated at 44 deg. C for Fecal and 37 deg. for Total coliform for 24 hours. Significantly high population of Fecal and Total coliform bacteria was recorded at Karachi harbour area and Indus delta region. Results indicate that a large amount of domestically originated waste is being discharged into these locations without any pre-treatment (e.g., screening, activated sludge, by using filtration beds etc.) resulting in a poor seawater quality making it unfit for bathing. (author)

  11. Quantificação de coliformes, Staphylococcus aureus e mesófilos presentes em diferentes etapas da produção de queijo frescal de leite de cabra em laticínios Enumeration of coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and aerobic mesofilic bacteria throughout the manufacture process of a goat unripened cheese produced in a dairy plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ulrich Picoli

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi acompanhar a produção de queijo frescal de leite de cabra, avaliando a qualidade higiênica do processamento pela quantificação de coliformes, S. aureus e mesófilos totais. A produção de três diferentes lotes de queijo foi acompanhada, sendo coletadas amostras de várias etapas do processamento. Além disso, amostras de queijo pertencente ao lote acompanhado foram coletadas na prateleira de um estabelecimento comercial durante seu período de validade. Os suabes coletados foram semeados em ágar sangue ovino; as amostras de água foram submetidas à Colimetria; as demais amostras foram submetidas à contagem de S. aureus, coliformes e mesófilos totais por meio de protocolos de rotina. Verificou-se que, apesar da pasteurização ter diminuído consideravelmente as populações microbianas presentes no leite cru, a falta de sanificação adequada de um equipamento que entrava em contato com o leite cru e que dá acesso ao tanque de coagulação, resultou na recontaminação da matéria-prima. Ao final do processamento, o queijo encontrava-se dentro dos padrões exigidos pela legislação, contudo a elevada contagem de mesófilos totais sugere que sejam melhoradas as medidas de sanitização durante o processamento, a fim de garantir a qualidade higiênica e uma maior vida de prateleira ao queijo produzido.The aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic conditions throughout the manufacture process of a goat unripened cheese, using the enumeration of coliforms, S. aureus and aerobic mesofilic bacteria as indicators. The production of three different lots of cheese was followed, being collected samples throughout the processing steps. Furthermore, samples of cheese belonging to the same sampled lot were collected in the shelf of a commercial establishment throughout the shelf life period. Swabs were streaked onto blood agar plates; water samples were submitted to colimetric assays; all other samples were

  12. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria from Reflected Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  13. Effect of Tetracycline Dose and Treatment Mode on Selection of Resistant Coliform Bacteria in Nursery Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Larsen, Inge; Holm, Anders; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Angen, Øystein; Ahmed, Shahana; Folkesson, Anders; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2017-06-15

    This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig herds were treated with oxytetracycline for Lawsonia intracellularis -induced diarrhea. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with a (i) high (20 mg/kg of body weight), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg), or (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dose, (iv) oral pen-wise (small-group) treatment (10 mg/kg), and (v) individual intramuscular injection treatment (10 mg/kg). All groups were treated once a day for 5 days. In all groups, treatment caused a rise in the numbers and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria right after treatment, followed by a significant drop by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated with tiamulin did not show significant changes in the numbers or proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms. Selection for tetracycline-resistant coliforms was significantly correlated to selection for ampicillin- and sulfonamide-resistant strains but not to selection for cefotaxime-resistant strains. In conclusion, the difference in the dose of oxytetracycline and the way in which the drug was applied did not cause significantly different levels of selection of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria under the conditions tested. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to human health. Treatment of livestock with antimicrobials has a direct impact on this problem, and there is a need to improve the ways that we use antimicrobials in livestock

  14. Effect of Tetracycline Dose and Treatment Mode on Selection of Resistant Coliform Bacteria in Nursery Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Larsen, Inge; Holm, Anders; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Angen, Øystein; Ahmed, Shahana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig herds were treated with oxytetracycline for Lawsonia intracellularis-induced diarrhea. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with a (i) high (20 mg/kg of body weight), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg), or (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dose, (iv) oral pen-wise (small-group) treatment (10 mg/kg), and (v) individual intramuscular injection treatment (10 mg/kg). All groups were treated once a day for 5 days. In all groups, treatment caused a rise in the numbers and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria right after treatment, followed by a significant drop by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated with tiamulin did not show significant changes in the numbers or proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms. Selection for tetracycline-resistant coliforms was significantly correlated to selection for ampicillin- and sulfonamide-resistant strains but not to selection for cefotaxime-resistant strains. In conclusion, the difference in the dose of oxytetracycline and the way in which the drug was applied did not cause significantly different levels of selection of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria under the conditions tested. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to human health. Treatment of livestock with antimicrobials has a direct impact on this problem, and there is a need to improve the ways that we use antimicrobials in

  15. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  16. Coliform bacteria removal from sewage in constructed wetlands planted with Mentha aquatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Fabiana F; de Matos, Antonio T; de Matos, Mateus P; Borges, Alisson C

    2014-08-01

    The present study evaluated the performance of the species Mentha aquatica in constructed wetlands of horizontal subsurface flow (CW-HSSF) with regard to the removal of coliforms bacteria in an effluent from the primary treatment of sewage as well as to obtain adjustment parameters of the bacterial decay kinetic model along the length of the CW-HSSF. Therefore, four CW-HSSFs measuring 24.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.35 m were built and filled with number 0 gravel as the support medium to a height of 0.20m. Two of the CW-HSSFs were planted with the species M. aquatica, while the other two remained uncultivated. Cultivation of M. aquatica in CW-HSSF resulted in total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) removals from 0.9 to 1.3 log units greater than those obtained in the uncultivated experimental plots, for the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4.5 and 6.0 days. For HRT ranged from 1.5 to 6.0 days, the highest removal efficiencies in counts of TC and EC were obtained when using longer HRT. The mathematical models evaluated showed good fit to average counts of TC and EC highlighting the modified first-order kinetic model with the inclusion of the power parameter in the HRT variable.

  17. Survival and detection of coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and gram-negative bacteria in Greek yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervert, C J; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2017-02-01

    Despite the widespread use of coliforms as indicator bacteria, increasing evidence suggests that the Enterobacteriaceae (EB) and total gram-negative groups more accurately reflect the hygienic status of high-temperature, short-time pasteurized milk and processing environments. If introduced into milk as postpasteurization contamination, these bacteria may grow to high levels and produce a wide range of sensory-related defects. However, limited information is available on the use and survival of bacterial hygiene indicators in dairy products outside of pasteurized fluid milk and cheese. The goal of this study was to (1) provide information on the survival of a diverse set of bacterial hygiene indicators in the low pH environment of Greek yogurt, (2) compare traditional and alternative detection methods for their ability to detect bacterial hygiene indicators in Greek yogurt, and (3) offer insight into optimal hygiene indicator groups for use in low-pH fermented dairy products. To this end, we screened 64 bacterial isolates, representing 24 dairy-relevant genera, for survival and detection in Greek yogurt using 5 testing methods. Before testing, isolates were inoculated into plain, 0% fat Greek yogurt (pH 4.35 to 4.65), followed by a 12-h hold period at 4 ± 1°C. Yogurts were subsequently tested using Coliform Petrifilm (3M, St. Paul, MN) to detect coliforms; Enterobacteriaceae Petrifilm (3M), violet red bile glucose agar and the D-Count (bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Étoile, France) to detect EB; and crystal violet tetrazolium agar (CVTA) to detect total gram-negative bacteria. Overall, the non-EB gram-negative isolates showed significantly larger log reductions 12 h after inoculation into Greek yogurt (based on bacterial numbers recovered on CVTA) compared with the coliform and noncoliform EB isolates tested. The methods evaluated varied in their ability to detect different microbial hygiene indicators in Greek yogurt. Crystal violet tetrazolium agar detected the highest

  18. Counting cormorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Carss, David N; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on Cormorant population counts for both summer (i.e. breeding) and winter (i.e. migration, winter roosts) seasons. It also explains differences in the data collected from undertaking ‘day’ versus ‘roost’ counts, gives some definitions of the term ‘numbers’, and presents two...

  19. Paper Plate Fractions: The Counting Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Ann; Barnett, Joann; Stine, Tammy

    2016-01-01

    Without a doubt, fractions prove to be a stumbling block for many children. Researchers have suggested a variety of explanations for why this is the case. The introduction of symbolization and operations before the development of conceptual understanding of fractions, a lack of understanding of the role of the numerator and denominator, and an…

  20. Fecal coliforms on environmental surfaces in two day care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, B G; Ruttenber, A J; Goodman, R A; Juranek, D D; Wahlquist, S P; Smith, J D

    1983-01-01

    A survey of environmental surfaces in two Atlanta area day care centers was conducted to determine the prevalence of fecal coliform bacteria, considered a marker for the presence of fecal contamination which might contain pathogenic parasites, bacteria, or viruses. Fecal coliforms were found in 17 (4.3%) of 398 representative samples of building surfaces, furniture, and other objects. These surfaces may be involved in the chain of transmission of enteric diseases among children. Therefore, disinfection of inanimate objects, in addition to good handwashing, may be important in controlling the spread of enteric diseases in day care centers. PMID:6830225

  1. Contamination of tomatoes with coliforms and Escherichia coli on farms and in markets of northwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenge, Kenneth C; Whong, Clement M Z; Yakubu, Lydia L; Omolehin, Raphael A; Erbaugh, J Mark; Miller, Sally A; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Although recent reports indicated that produce contamination with foodborne pathogens is widespread in Nigeria, the sources and magnitude of microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables on farms and in markets have not been thoroughly identified. To ascertain possible pathways of contamination, the frequency and magnitude of coliform and Escherichia coli contamination of tomatoes produced in northwest Nigeria was assessed on farms and in markets. Eight hundred twenty-six tomato fruit samples and 36 irrigation water samples were collected and assessed for fecal indicator organisms. In addition, the awareness and use of food safety practices by tomato farmers and marketers were determined. Median concentration of coliforms on all field- and market-sourced tomato fruit samples, as well as in irrigation water sources, in Kaduna, Kano, and Katsina states exceeded 1,000 most probable number (MPN) per g. Median E. coli counts from 73 (17%) of 420 field samples and 231 (57%) of 406 market tomato fruit samples exceeded 100 MPN/g. Median E. coli concentrations on tomato fruits were higher (P market tomato fruit samples (2.66 Log MPN/g) were higher (P marketers were generally unaware of the relationship between food safety practices and microbial contamination on fresh produce. Good agricultural practices pertaining to food safety on farms and in local markets were seldom used. Adoption of food safety practices on-farm, during transport, and during marketing could improve the microbial quality of tomatoes available to the public in this region of the world.

  2. Occurrence of Coliform and Escherichia coli Contamination and Absence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Romaine Lettuce from Retail Stores in the Upper Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Josephine D; Zietlow, Mark S; Miller, Kevin M; Ellingson, Jay L E

    2015-09-01

    A total of 720 whole, romaine lettuce heads were purchased from retail locations in the Upper Midwest and assessed for coliform and Escherichia coli contamination and for the presence of E. coli O157:H7. During a 16-month period (August 2010 through December 2011), coliform and E. coli counts were enumerated on Petrifilm, and the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and the virulence gene eae was evaluated by real-time PCR (qPCR). Over half (400 of 720) of the lettuce samples were processed with an immunomagnetic separation step before the qPCR assay. All retail lettuce samples were negative for E. coli O157:H7 when tested with the R.A.P.I.D. LT qPCR targeting a region of the O-antigen, and only two (0.28%) were positive for the eae gene when tested with LightCycler qPCR. On Petrifilm, coliform counts of most lettuce samples (96.4%) were between lettuce samples (98.2%) were lettuce heads. These results contribute to the limited recorded data and understanding of microbial contamination of whole romaine lettuce heads purchased from retail locations, specifically revealing the absence of E. coli O157:H7 and low levels of contamination with coliforms and other E. coli strains.

  3. Tower counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  4. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... follows: During each of the 10 test days, one sample must be taken at the beginning, middle and end of an 8-consecutive hour period with one additional sample taken immediately following the peak capacity...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of effluent...

  5. 33 CFR 159.123 - Coliform test: Type I devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as follows: During each of the 10-test days, one sample must be taken at the beginning, middle, and end of an 8-consecutive hour period with one additional sample taken immediately following the peak...: Type I devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of effluent...

  6. Comparative study of coliform contamination of public boreholes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the coliform contamination of public boreholes and pipe borne water supplies within Bosso town. Twenty (20) water samples comprising of 10 each of borehole and pipe borne samples were aseptically collected from Bosso Town and analyzed using membrane filtration technique.

  7. Evaluation of hydrogen sulphide test for detection of fecal coliform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Membrane Filter Technique (MFT) and Most Probable Number (MPN) test for coliform, respectively. In comparisons with MPN the H2S test showed 84% correlation with open well water, 80% with tube well water and 94% with hotels and restaurants water at room temperature, indicating decrease in efficacy of this test with ...

  8. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF METHODS FOR ENUMERATION OF FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current federal regulations require monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella were reviewed and a standard protocol was developed. The protocols were then evaluated by testi...

  9. Variability in the characterization of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and escherichia coli in recreational water supplies of North Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, is a historical organism for the detection of fecal pollution in water supplies. The presence of E. coli indicates a potential contamination of the water supply by other more hazardous human pathogens. In order to accurately determine the presence and degree o...

  10. Isolation of Fecal Coliform Bacteria from the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin centrata)

    OpenAIRE

    Harwood, Valerie J.; Butler, Joseph; Parrish, Danny; Wagner, Victoria

    1999-01-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have imp...

  11. 75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli... determine whether any of the coliform organisms are Escherichia coli (E. coli), an indicator of fecal...

  12. Survival of fecal coliforms in dry-composting toilets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, T; Graham, J; Corella-Barud, V; Avitia, R

    2001-09-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation.

  13. Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100 g. Analysis of the data suggests that low fecal coliform levels in both fresh and stored oysters are good indicators of the absence of Salmonella spp., but that high levels of fecal coliforms are somewhat limited in predicting the presence of Salmonella spp. E. coli levels correlated very strongly with fecal coliform levels in both fresh and stored oysters and clams, suggesting that there is no advantage in replacing fecal coliforms with E. coli as an indicator of shellfish quality.

  14. Counting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Tomoaki

    1976-01-01

    Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Detecting swift fox: Smoked-plate scent stations versus spotlighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. Uresk; Kieth E. Severson; Jody Javersak

    2003-01-01

    We compared two methods of detecting presence of swift fox: smoked-plate scent stations and spotlight counts. Tracks were counted on ten 1-mile (1.6-km) transects with bait/tracking plate stations every 0.1 mile (0.16 km). Vehicle spotlight counts were conducted on the same transects. Methods were compared with Spearman's rank order correlation. Repeated measures...

  16. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  17. Counting Possibilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tomasetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Williamson supports the thesis that every possible entity necessarily exists and so he needs to explain how a possible son of Wittgenstein’s, for example, exists in our world:he exists as a merely possible object (MPO, a pure locus of potential. Williamson presents a short argument for the existence of MPOs: how many knives can be made by fitting together two blades and two handles? Four: at the most two are concrete objects, the others being merely possible knives and merely possible objects. This paper defends the idea that one can avoid reference and ontological commitment to MPOs. My proposal is that MPOs can be dispensed with by using the notion of rules of knife-making. I first present a solution according to which we count lists of instructions - selected by the rules - describing physical combinations between components. This account, however, has its own difficulties and I eventually suggest that one can find a way out by admitting possible worlds, entities which are more commonly accepted - at least by philosophers - than MPOs. I maintain that, in answering Williamson’s questions, we count classes of physically possible worlds in which the same instance of a general rule is applied.

  18. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  19. Coliforms Everywhere! Using Microbiology to Teach the Scientific Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy R. Cisar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific method is a fundamental concept in science. In this exercise the scientific method is taught as a hands-on investigative laboratory experience. Students generate a hypothesis concerning the environmental distribution of coliforms, design and execute an experimental test of that hypothesis, and analyze the resulting data. The exercise is safe and straightforward. It is appropriate for use in undergraduate laboratory courses for science majors and secondary school students and undergraduate non-majors with the appropriate mathematical backgrounds. Students learn both the process by which science progresses, as well as more advanced concepts in microbiology and statistics.

  20. Coliform contamination of a coastal embayment: Sources and transport pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, P.K.; Howes, B.L.; Heufelder, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    Fecal bacterial contamination of nearshore waters has direct economic impacts to coastal communities through the loss of shellfisheries and restrictions of recreational uses. We conducted seasonal measurements of fecal coliform (FC) sources and transport pathways contributing to FC contamination of Buttermilk Bay, a shallow embayment adjacent to Buzzards Bay, MA. Typical of most coastal embayments, there were no direct sewage discharges (i.e., outfalls), and fecal bacteria from human, domestic animal, and wildlife pools entered open waters primarily through direct deposition or after transport through surface waters or groundwaters. Direct fecal coliform inputs to bay waters occurred primarily in winter (December-March) from waterfowl, ~33 x 1012 FC yr-1 or ~67% of the total annual loading. Effects of waterfowl inputs on bay FC densities were mitigated by their seasonality, wide distribution across the bay surface, and the apparent limited dispersal from fecal pellets. On-site disposal of sewage by septic systems was the single largest FC source in the watershed-embayment system, 460 x 1012 FC yr-1, but due to attenuation during subsurface transport only a minute fraction, rain events with discharge concentrated in nearshore zones, wet-weather flows were found to have a disproportionately high impact on nearshore FC levels. Elution of FC from shoreline deposits of decaying vegetation (wrack) comprised an additional coliform source. Both laboratory and field experiments suggest significant elution of bacteria from wrack, ~3 x 1012 FC yr-1 on a bay-wide basis (6% of annual input), primarily by periodic tidal flooding and possibly by major rain events. Release of coliforms during resuspension of subtidal sediments was estimated to be a minor source in this system (<1.5 x 1012 FC yr-1 or < 3% of annual input), primarily associated with large storm events in the fall and winter. Based upon the relative source strengths and the spatial and temporal patterns of FC input

  1. Effects of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meckes, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiation. This finding was attributed to the mechanism of R-factor mediated resistance to tetracycline. No significant difference was noted for the percentage of the surviving total coliform population resistant to streptomycin before or after UV irradiation. Multiple drug resistant to patterns of 300 total coliform isolates revealed that 82% were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Furthermore, 46% of these isolates were capable of transferring antibiotic resistance to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli

  2. The Evolving Role of Coliforms as Indicators of Unhygienic Processing Conditions in Dairy Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Helen Martin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Testing for coliforms has a long history in the dairy industry and has helped to identify raw milk and dairy products that may have been exposed to unsanitary conditions. Coliform standards are included in a number of regulatory documents (e.g., the U. S. Food and Drug Administration’s Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. As a consequence, detection above a threshold of members of this method-defined, but diverse, group of bacteria can result in a wide range of regulatory outcomes. Coliforms are defined as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, non-sporeforming rods capable of fermenting lactose to produce gas and acid within 48 hours at 32-35°C; 19 genera currently include at least some strains that represent coliforms. Most bacterial genera that comprise the coliform group (e.g., Escherichia, Klebsiella and Serratia are within the family Enterobacteriaceae, while at least one genus with strains recognized as coliforms, Aeromonas, is in the family Aeromonadaceae. The presence of coliforms has long been thought to indicate fecal contamination, however, recent discoveries regarding this diverse group of bacteria indicates that only a fraction are fecal in origin, while the majority are environmental contaminants. In the US dairy industry in particular, testing for coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions and post-processing contamination is widespread. While coliforms are easily and rapidly detected, and are not found in pasteurized dairy products that have not been exposed to post-processing contamination, advances in knowledge of bacterial populations most commonly associated with post-processing contamination in dairy foods has led to questions regarding the utility of coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions for dairy products. For example, Pseudomonas spp. frequently contaminate dairy products after pasteurization, yet they are not detected by coliform tests. This review will address the role that coliforms play

  3. The Evolving Role of Coliforms As Indicators of Unhygienic Processing Conditions in Dairy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole H.; Trmčić, Aljoša; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Boor, Kathryn J.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Testing for coliforms has a long history in the dairy industry and has helped to identify raw milk and dairy products that may have been exposed to unsanitary conditions. Coliform standards are included in a number of regulatory documents (e.g., the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Grade “A” Pasteurized Milk Ordinance). As a consequence, detection above a threshold of members of this method-defined, but diverse, group of bacteria can result in a wide range of regulatory outcomes. Coliforms are defined as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, non-sporeforming rods capable of fermenting lactose to produce gas and acid within 48 h at 32–35°C; 19 genera currently include at least some strains that represent coliforms. Most bacterial genera that comprise the coliform group (e.g., Escherichia, Klebsiella, and Serratia) are within the family Enterobacteriaceae, while at least one genus with strains recognized as coliforms, Aeromonas, is in the family Aeromonadaceae. The presence of coliforms has long been thought to indicate fecal contamination, however, recent discoveries regarding this diverse group of bacteria indicates that only a fraction are fecal in origin, while the majority are environmental contaminants. In the US dairy industry in particular, testing for coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions and post-processing contamination is widespread. While coliforms are easily and rapidly detected, and are not found in pasteurized dairy products that have not been exposed to post-processing contamination, advances in knowledge of bacterial populations most commonly associated with post-processing contamination in dairy foods has led to questions regarding the utility of coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions for dairy products. For example, Pseudomonas spp. frequently contaminate dairy products after pasteurization, yet they are not detected by coliform tests. This review will address the role that coliforms play in raw and

  4. Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100...

  5. Uji Angka Paling Mungkin (APM) Coliform pada Teh Kering Dalam Kemasan

    OpenAIRE

    Gaol, Patma Lumban

    2017-01-01

    142410054 Teh kering dalam kemasan adalah produk teh kering tunggal atau campuran dari teh hitam, teh hijau, teh putih dan atau teh beraroma lain yang harus memenuhi ketentuan Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI). Pengujian ini bertujuan untuk memeriksa adanya bakteri coliform pada teh kering dalam kemasan dengan persyaratan SNI yang berlaku. Pengujian bakteri coliform dilakukan dengan metode Angka Paling Mungkin (APM) Coliform menggunakan metode tiga tabung berdasarkan metode MA Supp 69/MIK/0...

  6. Risk factors with the occurrence of parasites and coliform in vegetables from an agroindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Martins Soto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, we evaluated the risk factors associated with the occurrence of total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and intestinal parasite eggs in vegetables from an agroindustry in the city of Ibiúna - SP, Brazil. A questionnaire with 17 questions was applied to 24 producers to carry out a diagnosis of the risk factors and their posterior association or not with total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and intestinal parasite eggs. The questions addressed mainly the production system, fertilizer used, source of the water used for irrigation, sanitization of the vegetables, and form of transport. For the investigation of total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and intestinal parasite eggs, the samples were processed at the microbiology and parasitology laboratory of the Federal Institute of São Paulo, São Roque Campus. The results revealed that total coliforms were found in 100% of the investigated samples and thermotolerant coliforms were detected in 95.83% of the samples. There was a significant statistical association for the risk factor use of reservoir water, where there was release of wastewater and absence of sanitization of the vegetables at the moment of harvest in relation to the presence of thermotolerant coliforms. Intestinal parasite eggs were found in 33.33% of the samples.

  7. Isolation of fecal coliform bacteria from the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin centrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, V J; Butler, J; Parrish, D; Wagner, V

    1999-02-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have implications for the efficacy of current regulatory parameters in shellfishing waters.

  8. Assessment of the climate change impacts on fecal coliform contamination in a tidal estuarine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is one of the key factors affecting the future microbiological water quality in rivers and tidal estuaries. A coupled 3D hydrodynamic and fecal coliform transport model was developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system for predicting the influences of climate change on microbiological water quality. The hydrodynamic and fecal coliform model was validated using observational salinity and fecal coliform distributions. According to the analyses of the statistical error, predictions of the salinity and the fecal coliform concentration from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict the fecal coliform contamination as a result of climate change, including the change of freshwater discharge and the sea level rise. We found that the reduction of freshwater discharge under climate change scenarios resulted in an increase in the fecal coliform concentration. The sea level rise would decrease fecal coliform distributions because both the water level and the water volume increased. A reduction in freshwater discharge has a negative impact on the fecal coliform concentration, whereas a rising sea level has a positive influence on the fecal coliform contamination. An appropriate strategy for the effective microbiological management in tidal estuaries is required to reveal the persistent trends of climate in the future.

  9. Categorical counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, J Gregor; Killeen, P Richard

    2010-09-01

    Pigeons pecked on three keys, responses to one of which could be reinforced after a few pecks, to a second key after a somewhat larger number of pecks, and to a third key after the maximum pecking requirement. The values of the pecking requirements and the proportion of trials ending with reinforcement were varied. Transits among the keys were an orderly function of peck number, and showed approximately proportional changes with changes in the pecking requirements, consistent with Weber's law. Standard deviations of the switch points between successive keys increased more slowly within a condition than across conditions. Changes in reinforcement probability produced changes in the location of the psychometric functions that were consistent with models of timing. Analyses of the number of pecks emitted and the duration of the pecking sequences demonstrated that peck number was the primary determinant of choice, but that passage of time also played some role. We capture the basic results with a standard model of counting, which we qualify to account for the secondary experiments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Lopamudra; Gandhi, D N

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1) was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2) and (T3) groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4) was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat) were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. The rats those (T2 and T3) received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (pBacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4) and the group fed only skim milk (T1). In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats.

  11. [Corrected count].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-27

    The data of the 1991 census indicated that the population count of Brazil fell short of a former estimate by 3 million people. The population reached 150 million people with an annual increase of 2%, while projections in the previous decade expected an increase of 2.48% to 153 million people. This reduction indicates more widespread use of family planning (FP) and control of fertility among families of lower social status as more information is being provided to them. However, the Ministry of Health ordered an investigation of foreign family planning organizations because it was suspected that women were forced to undergo tubal ligation during vaccination campaigns. A strange alliance of left wing politicians and the Roman Catholic Church alleges a conspiracy of international FP organizations receiving foreign funds. The FP strategies of Bemfam and Pro-Pater offer women who have little alternative the opportunity to undergo tubal ligation or to receive oral contraceptives to control fertility. The ongoing government program of distributing booklets on FP is feeble and is not backed up by an education campaign. Charges of foreign interference are leveled while the government hypocritically ignores the grave problem of 4 million abortions a year. The population is expected to continue to grow until the year 2040 and then to stabilize at a low growth rate of .4%. In 1980, the number of children per woman was 4.4 whereas the 1991 census figures indicate this has dropped to 3.5. The excess population is associated with poverty and a forsaken caste in the interior. The population actually has decreased in the interior and in cities with 15,000 people. The phenomenon of the drop of fertility associated with rural exodus is contrasted with cities and villages where the population is 20% less than expected.

  12. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopamudra Haldar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. Materials and Methods: An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1 was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2 and (T3 groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4 was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. Results: The rats those (T2 and T3 received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (p<0.01 in fecal coliform counts and increase (p<0.05 in both fecal lactobacilli and Bacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4 and the group fed only skim milk (T1. In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. Conclusions: This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats.

  13. Antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in coliform water isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, C; Sidhu, J P S; Tiehm, A; Toze, S

    2016-11-01

    Widespread fecal pollution of surface water may present a major health risk and a significant pathway for dissemination of antibiotic resistance bacteria. The River Rhine is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe and an important raw water source for drinking water production. A total of 100 coliform isolates obtained from River Rhine (Germany) were examined for their susceptibility to seven antimicrobial agents. Resistances against amoxicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were detected in 48%, 11% and 9% of isolates respectively. The antibiotic resistance could be traced back to the resistance genes bla TEM , bla SHV , ampC, sul1, sul2, dfrA1, tet(A) and tet(B). Whereby, the ampC gene represents a special case, because its presence is not inevitably linked to a phenotypic antibiotic resistance. Multiple antibiotics resistance was often accompanied by the occurrence of class 1 or 2 integrons. E. coli isolates belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1 (commensal) were more predominant (57%) compared to B2 and D groups (43%) which are known to carry virulent genes. Additionally, six E. coli virulence genes were also detected. However, the prevalence of virulence genes in the E. coli isolates was low (not exceeding 4.3% per gene) and no diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes were detected. This study demonstrates that surface water is an important reservoir of ARGs for a number of antibiotic classes such as sulfonamide, trimethoprim, beta-lactam-antibiotics and tetracycline. The occurrence of antibiotic resistance in coliform bacteria isolated from River Rhine provides evidence for the need to develop management strategies to limit the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria in aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. 75 FR 42440 - Total Coliform Rule Revisions-Notice of Public Information Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... will be discussed include the cost and benefit information of the proposed rule and the planned... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9177-6] Total Coliform Rule Revisions--Notice of Public... Protection Agency (EPA) is hosting public information meetings on the proposed Revised Total Coliform Rule...

  15. 78 FR 10269 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Illness CWS--Community Water System DBP--Disinfection Byproduct DWC--Drinking Water Committee EA--Economic... 141 and 142 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule; Final...-9684-8] RIN 2040-AD94 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule...

  16. Delayed accumulation of intestinal coliform bacteria enhances life span and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans fed respiratory deficient E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Fernando; Monsalve, Gabriela C; Tse, Vincent; Saiki, Ryoichi; Weng, Emily; Lee, Laura; Srinivasan, Chandra; Frand, Alison R; Clarke, Catherine F

    2012-12-20

    Studies with the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans have identified conserved biochemical pathways that act to modulate life span. Life span can also be influenced by the composition of the intestinal microbiome, and C. elegans life span can be dramatically influenced by its diet of Escherichia coli. Although C. elegans is typically fed the standard OP50 strain of E. coli, nematodes fed E. coli strains rendered respiratory deficient, either due to a lack coenzyme Q or the absence of ATP synthase, show significant life span extension. Here we explore the mechanisms accounting for the enhanced nematode life span in response to these diets. The intestinal load of E. coli was monitored by determination of worm-associated colony forming units (cfu/worm or coliform counts) as a function of age. The presence of GFP-expressing E. coli in the worm intestine was also monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Worms fed the standard OP50 E. coli strain have high cfu and GFP-labeled bacteria in their guts at the L4 larval stage, and show saturated coliform counts by day five of adulthood. In contrast, nematodes fed diets of respiratory deficient E. coli lacking coenzyme Q lived significantly longer and failed to accumulate bacteria within the lumen at early ages. Animals fed bacteria deficient in complex V showed intermediate coliform numbers and were not quite as long-lived. The results indicate that respiratory deficient Q-less E. coli are effectively degraded in the early adult worm, either at the pharynx or within the intestine, and do not accumulate in the intestinal tract until day ten of adulthood. The findings of this study suggest that the nematodes fed the respiratory deficient E. coli diet live longer because the delay in bacterial colonization of the gut subjects the worms to less stress compared to worms fed the OP50 E. coli diet. This work suggests that bacterial respiration can act as a virulence factor, influencing the ability of bacteria to colonize and

  17. Delayed accumulation of intestinal coliform bacteria enhances life span and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans fed respiratory deficient E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies with the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans have identified conserved biochemical pathways that act to modulate life span. Life span can also be influenced by the composition of the intestinal microbiome, and C. elegans life span can be dramatically influenced by its diet of Escherichia coli. Although C. elegans is typically fed the standard OP50 strain of E. coli, nematodes fed E. coli strains rendered respiratory deficient, either due to a lack coenzyme Q or the absence of ATP synthase, show significant life span extension. Here we explore the mechanisms accounting for the enhanced nematode life span in response to these diets. Results The intestinal load of E. coli was monitored by determination of worm-associated colony forming units (cfu/worm or coliform counts as a function of age. The presence of GFP-expressing E. coli in the worm intestine was also monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Worms fed the standard OP50 E. coli strain have high cfu and GFP-labeled bacteria in their guts at the L4 larval stage, and show saturated coliform counts by day five of adulthood. In contrast, nematodes fed diets of respiratory deficient E. coli lacking coenzyme Q lived significantly longer and failed to accumulate bacteria within the lumen at early ages. Animals fed bacteria deficient in complex V showed intermediate coliform numbers and were not quite as long-lived. The results indicate that respiratory deficient Q-less E. coli are effectively degraded in the early adult worm, either at the pharynx or within the intestine, and do not accumulate in the intestinal tract until day ten of adulthood. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that the nematodes fed the respiratory deficient E. coli diet live longer because the delay in bacterial colonization of the gut subjects the worms to less stress compared to worms fed the OP50 E. coli diet. This work suggests that bacterial respiration can act as a virulence factor

  18. The Seasonality of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Pollution and its Influence on Closures of Shellfish Harvesting Areas in Mississippi Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Runoff from agricultural lands and farm animal feedlots is one of the major sources of fecal coliforms in surface waters, and fecal coliform (FC bacteria concentrations tend to vary with season because of seasonal variations in climatic factors. However, El Niño -Southern Oscillation (ENSO events may affect the extent and patterns of seasonality in FC levels in coastal waters. Water quality monitoring data for shellfish management collected during El Niño (1990, 1992, 1997, and La Niña (1999, 2000 years were analyzed to evaluate the extent to which these events influenced Pearl River stage, and bacterial levels, water temperature, and salinity in the western part of Mississippi Sound. Models to predict FC levels in relation to various environmental factors were also developed. In 1990, 1992 and 1997, FC geometric mean counts peaked in late winter (January/February reaching 120 MPN (February 1990, 165 MPN (January 1992, and 86 MPN (January 1997, and then decreased considerably during spring and summer (1.2 – 19 MPN. Thereafter, FC abundance increased slightly in fall and early winter (1.9 – 24 MPN. Fecal coliform abundance during the 2000 La Niña year was much lower (1.0 – 10.3 MPN than in 1992 (1.2 – 165 MPN, and showed no seasonal pattern from January to August, perhaps due to the relative scarcity of rainfall in 2000. In 1995 (ENSO neutral year, peak geometric mean FC count (46 MPN was lower than during El Niño years and occurred in early spring (March. The seasonal and between year variations in FC levels determined the number of days during which the conditionally approved shellfish growing area was opened for harvesting shellfish. For example, from January to April 1997, the area was not opened for shellfish harvesting, whereas in 2000, the number of days during which the area was opened ranged from 6 - 27 (January to April to 24 - 26 (October to December

  19. Description and field test of an in situ coliform monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, D. C.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype in situ system for monitoring the levels of fecal coliforms in shallow water bodies was developed and evaluated. This system was based on the known relationship between the concentration of the coliform bacteria and the amount of hydrogen they produce during growth in a complex organic media. The prototype system consists of a sampler platform, which sits on the bottom; a surface buoy, which transmits sampler-generated data; and a shore station, which receives, displays the data, and controls the sampler. The concept of remote monitoring of fecal coliform concentrations by utilizing a system based on the electrochemical method was verified during the evaluation of the prototype.

  20. Irradiation effect for the control of coliform bacteria in spices and dehydrated vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yin; Li Xiangling

    2001-01-01

    lrradiation of 6 kGy could make the MPN of coliform bacteria in irradated spices and dehydrated vegetables meet the demands of the national microbiological examination of food hygiene. No new irradiation-resistance organism in coliform bacteria was found in 188 spices samples treated. The mistake in the MPN of coliform bacteria detection was caused mainly by operation. The main cause was that the detected bacteria for lactose refermentation and Gram-stain tests were not picked from the same colony. (authors)

  1. Relative frequencies and significance of faecal coliforms as indicators related to water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auban, E G; Ripolles, A A; Domarco, M J

    1983-01-01

    The faecal coliforms at different sites of a hypereutrophic lake near Valencia (Albufera) were identified and their relative amounts established along an annual cycle. Using lauryl tryptose broth at 35 degrees C, followed by incubation at 44.4 degrees C in 2% brilliant green bile, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are practically the only coliforms present. A positive correlation was found between the water temperature and the relative amount of these two coliforms: K. pneumoniae predominates at high water temperatures, whereas E. coli shows preponderance during the cold period. The role of K. pneumoniae as the only faecal indicator under the circumstances described in the work is emphasized and discussed.

  2. Impact of fertilizing with raw or anaerobically digested sewage sludge on the abundance of antibiotic-resistant coliforms, antibiotic resistance genes, and pathogenic bacteria in soil and on vegetables at harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahube, Teddie O; Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Zhang, Yun; Duenk, Peter; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward

    2014-11-01

    The consumption of crops fertilized with human waste represents a potential route of exposure to antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria. The present study evaluated the abundance of bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes by using both culture-dependent and molecular methods. Various vegetables (lettuce, carrots, radish, and tomatoes) were sown into field plots fertilized inorganically or with class B biosolids or untreated municipal sewage sludge and harvested when of marketable quality. Analysis of viable pathogenic bacteria or antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria by plate counts did not reveal significant treatment effects of fertilization with class B biosolids or untreated sewage sludge on the vegetables. Numerous targeted genes associated with antibiotic resistance and mobile genetic elements were detected by PCR in soil and on vegetables at harvest from plots that received no organic amendment. However, in the season of application, vegetables harvested from plots treated with either material carried gene targets not detected in the absence of amendment. Several gene targets evaluated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) were considerably more abundant on vegetables harvested from sewage sludge-treated plots than on vegetables from control plots in the season of application, whereas vegetables harvested the following year revealed no treatment effect. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that producing vegetable crops in ground fertilized with human waste without appropriate delay or pretreatment will result in an additional burden of antibiotic resistance genes on harvested crops. Managing human exposure to antibiotic resistance genes carried in human waste must be undertaken through judicious agricultural practice. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Undercooling and nodule count in thin walled ductile iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2007-01-01

    Casting experiments have been performed with eutectic and hypereutectic castings with plate thicknesses from 2 to 8 mm involving both temperature measurements during solidification and microstructural examination afterwards. The nodule count was the same for the eutectic and hypereutectic casting...

  4. Analisis Mikrobiologi Minuman Teh Seduhan Berbeda Merk Berdasarkan Nilai Mpn Coliform di Kota Malang

    OpenAIRE

    Nisa, Ana Syarifatun; Hastuti, Utami Sri; Witjoro, Agung

    2012-01-01

    Minuman teh seduhan memiliki beberapa kelebihan dalam menarik minat konsumen, diantaranya kemasan yang mudah dibawa dan selalu segar tetapi juga dapat mengalami kontaminasi oleh bakteri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui 1) Nilai MPN coliform dan coliform fekal minuman teh seduhan yang dijual di tiga pusat perbelanjaan Kota Malang; 2) Kualitas mikrobiologi minuman teh seduhan yang dijual di tiga tempat pusat perbelanjaan Kota Malang. Jenis penelitian ini ialah penelitian deskriptif o...

  5. Comparison and Recovery of Escherichia coli and Thermotolerant Coliforms in Water with a Chromogenic Medium Incubated at 41 and 44.5°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose L.; Soriano, Adela; Carbajo, Oscar; Amoros, Inmaculada; Garelick, Hemda

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the performance of a commercial chromogenic medium, CHROMagarECC (CECC), and CECC supplemented with sodium pyruvate (CECCP) with the membrane filtration lauryl sulfate-based medium (mLSA) for enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli thermotolerant coliforms (KEC). To establish that we could recover the maximum KEC and E. coli population, we compared two incubation temperature regimens, 41 and 44.5°C. Statistical analysis by the Fisher test of data did not demonstrate any statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of E. coli for the different media (CECC and CECCP) and incubation temperatures. Variance analysis of data performed on KEC counts showed significant differences (P = 0.01) between KEC counts at 41 and 44.5°C on both CECC and CECCP. Analysis of variance demonstrated statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of total thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) on CECC and CECCP compared with mLSA. Target colonies were confirmed to be E. coli at a rate of 91.5% and KEC of likely fecal origin at a rate of 77.4% when using CECCP incubated at 41°C. The results of this study showed that CECCP agar incubated at 41°C is efficient for the simultaneous enumeration of E. coli and KEC from river and marine waters. PMID:10427079

  6. Polyunsaturated fatty acids influence differential biosynthesis of oxylipids and other lipid mediators during bovine coliform mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavangira, Vengai; Gandy, Jeffery C; Zhang, Chen; Ryman, Valerie E; Daniel Jones, A; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2015-09-01

    Coliform mastitis is a severe and sometimes fatal disease characterized by an unregulated inflammatory response. The initiation, progression, and resolution of inflammatory responses are regulated, in part, by potent oxylipid metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. The purpose of this study was to characterize the biosynthesis and diversity of oxylipid metabolites during acute bovine coliform mastitis. Eleven cows diagnosed with naturally occurring acute systemic coliform mastitis and 13 healthy control cows, matched for lactation number and days in milk, were selected for comparison of oxylipid and free fatty acid concentrations in both milk and plasma. Oxylipids and free fatty acids were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All polyunsaturated fatty acids quantified in milk were elevated during coliform mastitis with linoleic acid being the most abundant. Oxylipids synthesized through the lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 pathways accounted for the majority of the oxylipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated a complex and diverse oxylipid network, most pronounced at the level of the mammary gland. Substrate availability, biosynthetic pathways, and degree of metabolism influence the biosynthesis of oxylipids during bovine coliform mastitis. Further studies are required to identify targets for novel interventions that modulate oxylipid biosynthesis during coliform mastitis to optimize inflammation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of 3M Petrifilms and University of Minnesota Bi-plates as potential on-farm tests for clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, J L; Keefe, G P; McKenna, S L B; Dohoo, I R; Poole, D E

    2009-05-01

    The objective was to determine test characteristics and compare 2 potential on-farm culture systems for clinical mastitis, the Minnesota Easy Culture System II Bi-plate and Petrifilm. The tests were evaluated using clinically positive mastitic milk samples (n = 282) to determine their ability to differentiate appropriate treatment groups; all cases that had gram-positive growth were considered treatment candidates (n = 161), whereas cases that grew gram-negative organisms only or yielded no bacterial growth were classified as no treatment (n = 121). For Petrifilm, both undiluted and 1:10 diluted milk samples were used. To create treatment categories, 2 types of Petrifilms were used, Aerobic Count (AC) and Coliform Count (CC). Both Bi-plates and Petrifilms were read after 24 h of incubation. Analysis was conducted at various colony count thresholds for the Petrifilm test system. The combination of Petrifilms that had the highest sensitivity classified a case as gram-negative if there were > or =20 colonies present on the CC. If there were 5 colonies present on the AC, a case would be classified as gram-positive. The Bi-plate had a sensitivity of 97.9% and a specificity of 68.6%. The Petrifilm test system had a sensitivity of 93.8% and a specificity of 70.1%. There was no significant difference in the sensitivities between the tests. All Bi-plates and Petrifilms were read by a laboratory technician and a group of masked readers with limited microbiology training. Kappa values for the masked readers were 0.75 for Bi-plates and 0.84 and 0.86 for AC and CC Petrifilms, respectively. The Bi-plate and Petrifilm were able to successfully categorize clinical cases of mastitis into 2 treatments based on their ability to detect the presence of a gram-positive organism. Neither method had the ability to determine if a sample was contaminated. The results of this study indicate that both tests were able to appropriately categorize cases, which could potentially result in a

  8. Determining random counts in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    During measurements involving coincidence counting techniques, errors can arise due to the detection of chance or random coincidences in the multiple detectors used. A method and the electronic circuits necessary are here described for eliminating this source of error in liquid scintillation detectors used in coincidence counting. (UK)

  9. Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico; Presencia de arsenico y coliformes en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora B, D.; Gonzalez A, C. A.; Medina D, I. M.; Robledo M, M. L.; Rojas G, A. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Secretaria de Investigacion y Posgrado, Ciudad de la Cultura Amado Nervo, 63155 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Sanchez P, L. C.; Del Razo, L. M., E-mail: aerg81@gmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Toxicologia, Av. IPN No. 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 {mu}g/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 {mu}g/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 {mu}g/L, in Quimichis 17.80 {mu}g/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 {mu}g/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 {mu}g/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 {mu}g/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

  10. Relationships among bather density, levels of human waterborne pathogens, and fecal coliform counts in marine recreational beach water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Sunderland, Deirdre; Awantang, Grace N; Mashinski, Yessika; Lucy, Frances E; Graczyk, Zofi; Chomicz, Lidia; Breysse, Patrick N

    2010-04-01

    During summer months, samples of marine beach water were tested weekly for human waterborne pathogens in association with high and low bather numbers during weekends and weekdays, respectively. The numbers of bathers on weekends were significantly higher than on weekdays (P turbidity. The proportion of water samples containing Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi was significantly higher (P marine beach water; (c) water should be tested for enterococci during times when bather numbers are high; (d) re-suspension of bottom sediments by bathers caused elevated levels of enterococci and waterborne parasites, thus bathers themselves can create a non-point source for water contamination; and (e) exposure to recreational bathing waters can play a role in epidemiology of microsporidiosis. In order to protect public health, it is recommended to: (a) prevent diapered children from entering beach water; (b) introduce bather number limits to recreational areas; (c) advise people with gastroenteritis to avoid bathing; and (d) use showers prior to and after bathing.

  11. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 131 2 Don't like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 3 Loading... Loading... Transcript The ...

  12. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  13. Patterns and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in three streams in Virginia, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Kenneth; Moyer, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Surface-water impairment by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the Commonwealth's 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. These fecal coliform-impaired stream segments require the development of total maximum daily load (TMDL) and associated implementation plans, but accurate information on the sources contributing these bacteria usually is lacking. The development of defendable fecal coliform TMDLs and management plans can benefit from reliable information on the bacteria sources that are responsible for the impairment. Bacterial source tracking (BST) recently has emerged as a powerful tool for identifying the sources of fecal coliform bacteria that impair surface waters. In a demonstration of BST technology, three watersheds on Virginia's 1998 303(d) list with diverse land-use practices (and potentially diverse bacteria sources) were studied. Accotink Creek is dominated by urban land uses, Christians Creek by agricultural land uses, and Blacks Run is affected by both urban and agricultural land uses. During the 20-month field study (March 1999?October 2000), water samples were collected from each stream during a range of flow conditions and seasons. For each sample, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, turbidity, flow, and water temperature were measured. Fecal coliform concentrations of each water sample were determined using the membrane filtration technique. Next, Escherichia coli (E. coli) were isolated from the fecal coliform bacteria and their sources were identified using ribotyping (a method of 'genetic fingerprinting'). Study results provide enhanced understanding of the concentrations and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in these three watersheds. Continuum sampling (sampling along the length of the streams) indicated that elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria

  14. Spark counting technique with an aluminium oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, H.; Koga, T.; Morishima, H.; Niwa, T.; Nishiwaki, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Automatic spark counting of etch-pits on a polycarbonate film produced by nuclear fission fragments is now used for neutron monitoring in several countries. A method was developed using an aluminium oxide film instead of a polycarbonate as the neutron detector. Aluminium oxide films were prepared as follows: A cleaned aluminium plate as an anode and a nickel plate as a cathode were immersed in dilute sulfuric acid solution and electric current flowed between the electrodes at 12degC for 10-30 minutes. Electric current density was about 10 mA/cm 2 . The aluminium plate was then kept in boiling water for 10-30 minutes for sealing. The thickness of the aluminium oxide layer formed was about 1μm. The aluminium plate attached to a plate of suitable fissionable material, such as uranium or thorium, was irradiated with neutrons and set in a usual spark counter for fission track counting. One electrode was the aluminium plate and the other was an aluminized polyester sheet. Sparked pulses were counted with a usual scaler. The advantage of using spark counting with an aluminium oxide film for neutron monitoring is rapid measurement of neutron exposure, since chemical etching which is indispensable for spark counting with a polycarbonate detector film, is not needed. (H.K.)

  15. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    's continental drift theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it has laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. In the early... of the structure of the atom was to physical sciences and the theory of evolution was to the life sciences. Tectonics is the study of the forces within the Earth that give rise to continents, ocean basins, mountain ranges, earthquake belts and other large-scale...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective ... foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put ...

  17. FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA AND FACTORS RELATED TO ITS GROWTH AT THE SEKOTONG SHALLOW WELLS, WEST NUSA TENGGARA, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Doni Marisi Sinaga; Mark Gregory Robson; Beatrix Trikurnia Gasong; Adonia Getse Halel; Dian Pertiwi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The poor sanitation and small numbers of households who own toilet in Sekotong regency may relate to the diarrheal events due to the fecal coliform contamination in drinking water. Aim: This paper aims to provide the concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in shallow well waters and the factors associated to its growth. Method: Fifteen groundwater samples were collected from 5 shallow wells to provide the concentrations of total fecal coliform bacteria (FC), mercury conce...

  18. Radiation counting statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs.

  19. Radiation counting statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiments. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. 11 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  20. Radiation counting statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H.

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  1. Detecção de emissão espontânea de luz em ensaios de colimetria aplicados ao monitoramento de efluentes sanitários Spontaneous light emission in coliforms test applied to wastewater monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ricardo dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho avaliou-se o potencial do emprego da técnica biofotônica ao monitoramento da qualidade microbiológica de efluentes sanitários, por meio da detecção de emissão ultrafraca de luz em testes envolvendo bactéria do grupo coliforme. Foram acompanhados os padrões de emissão de luz em câmara escura com o uso de efluente doméstico, antes e após tratamento, incubados em meio nutritivo à base de lactose e lauril triptose. O controle foi efetuado com o uso de cepa de Escherichia coli (ATCC 25.922, tendo seu crescimento sido monitorado por emissão de luz em câmara escura com fotomultiplicador acoplado. Os dados demonstraram que o monitoramento microbiológico pode ser efetuado por meio técnica biofotônica, podendo ser aplicado, com respostas rápidas, ao monitoramento microbiológico de efluentes, por meio de testes envolvendo coliformes.The spontaneous light emission of living systems emerge as a promising methodology that applied to microbiological in monitoring water can lead to short-term analysis. The present study evaluated the potential of biophoton measurements applied to wastewater monitoring by using ultraweak light emission in coliform tests. The procedure is based on photon-counting measurements inside a dark-chamber, of wastewater samples, before and after treatment, inoculated in nutrient presence/absence medium (lactose and lauryl triptose broth. Strain of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25,922 was used in control tests by monitoring the light emission inside a dark-chamber with an acoplade photomultiplier. The data showed that microbiological monitoring can be done by photon-counting in real-time applied to microbiological wastewater monitoring using coliform test.

  2. Effect of wastewater quality parameters on coliform inactivation by tin oxide anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J

    2018-04-16

    The effect of six water quality constituents on wastewater effluent disinfection by tin oxide anodes (TOAs) was investigated in single cell laboratory reactors. Several concentrations of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), alkalinity, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen were added to media containing 10 6 total coliform bacteria mL -1 . Current was applied through the TOAs, and coliform bacteria viability was analyzed over time. Over 99.9% inactivation of coliform bacteria was found over 15 min in TOA reactors. Concentrations of the six water quality constituents typical of concentrations found in wastewaters had no effect on TOA disinfection efficacy. The results of this research demonstrate that TOAs, which could potentially be powered by solar panels, have potential as a sustainable disinfection process compared to chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet light.

  3. Teste alternativo para detecção de coliformes em leite humano ordenhado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Franz R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar um método alternativo com o teste do número mais provável (NMP para detecção de coliformes totais em leite humano ordenhado. Métodos: 343 amostras de leite humano ordenhado, obtidas a partir de frascos oriundos de coleta domiciliar, recebidas pelo Banco de Leite Humano do Instituto Fernandes Figueira - IFF, por doadoras previamente orientadas, foram encaminhadas ao laboratório de controle de alimentos do IFF e empregadas na comparação de dois métodos: 1 - técnica do número mais provável, conforme descrito no Standard methods for the examination of dairy products; 2 - método alternativo proposto. Resultados: os microorganismos do grupo coliformes foram detectados em 31,2% das amostras analisadas, com populações variando de 3,0 x 100 a 1,1 x 104 coliformes totais N.M.P/ml. A comparação do teste clássico com o alternativo revelou resultados semelhantes quanto à recuperação de microorganismos coliformes em amostras de leite humano ordenhado. O método alternativo detectou a presença de coliformes totais em todas as amostras contaminadas e em quatro amostras não contaminadas, segundo o teste de NMP. Conclusão: o teste alternativo permite constatar a presença ou ausência de coliformes, tornando-se útil no controle de qualidade dos frascos de leite humano ordenhado pasteurizados, manipulados nos bancos de leite humano. Portanto, o teste de NMP pode ser substituído pelo teste alternativo, que poderá ser empregado como rotina nos bancos de leite humano, já que seu custo equivale a 1/7 do tradicional.

  4. Effects of low voltage electrolysis and freezing on coliform content of contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, J.I.; Saleem, F.

    2003-01-01

    A sewage sample was mixed with drinking water and subjected to low voltage (15V) electrolysis in the presence of 1% NaCl. The prepared sample was also kept in freezer with and without the presence of sodium chloride for 4-hours. Among these treatments the electrolysis proved to kill the coliforms, while the freezing reduced the bacterial content. Antibiotics sensitivity patterns revealed that certain of the coliform strains survived the freezing and thawing shocks. Nature of such surviving bacteria and need to study chemical parameters of electrolyzed water are discussed. (author)

  5. Asellus aquaticus as a Potential Carrier of Escherichia coli and Other Coliform Bacteria into Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. We analysed populations of surface water A. aquaticus from two ponds for associated faecal indicator bacteria and assessed the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems. Concentrations of up to two E. coli and five total coliforms·mL−1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coliforms·mL−1 in the sediments of the investigated ponds. Concentrations of A. aquaticus associated bacteria never exceeded three E. coli and six total coliforms·A. aquaticus−1. During exposure to high concentrations of coliforms, concentrations reached 350 coliforms·A. aquaticus−1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water guideline values in non-disinfected systems by intrusion of A. aquaticus was low. Only in scenarios with narrow pipes and low flows, did total coliforms exceed guideline values, implying that the probability of detection by routine monitoring is also low. The study expands the knowledge base for evaluating incidents with presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus were not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters.

  6. Thermotolerant coliforms are not a good surrogate for Campylobacter spp. in environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Karen; Lévesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Carrier, Nathalie; Arbeit, Robert D; Michaud, Sophie

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the importance of quantitatively detecting Campylobacter spp. in environmental surface water. The prevalence and the quantity of Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia coli in 2,471 samples collected weekly, over a 2-year period, from 13 rivers and 12 streams in the Eastern Townships, Québec, Canada, were determined. Overall, 1,071 (43%), 1,481 (60%), and 1,463 (59%) samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and E. coli, respectively. There were weak correlations between the weekly distributions of Campylobacter spp. and thermotolerant coliforms (Spearman's rho coefficient = 0.27; P = 0.008) and between the quantitative levels of the two classes of organisms (Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient = 0.233; P water samples from the Eastern Townships were also tested. Five (10%) of 53 samples from private surface wells were positive for Campylobacter jejuni, of which only 2 were positive for thermotolerant coliforms. These findings suggest that microbial monitoring of raw water by using only fecal indicator organisms is not sufficient for assessing the occurrence or the load of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Insights into the role of environmental water as sources for sporadic Campylobacter infection will require genus-specific monitoring techniques.

  7. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia Coli Bacteria from Reflected Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light and a method of detecting Eschericha Coli bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  8. SOLAIR disinfection of coliform bacteria in hand-drawn drinking water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specifically UV-A and UV-B radiation) and oxygen (from atmospheric air) to damage, inactivate and / or kill the coliform bacteria found in contaminated water. It is a natural process (virtually self-purification) with no need to add any potentially hazardous ...

  9. Effect of different oral oxytetracycline treatment regimes on selection of antimicrobial resistant coliforms in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fresno, Ana Herrero; Zachariasen, Camilla; Norholm, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    A major concern derived from using antimicrobials in pig production is the development of resistance. This study aimed to assess the impact of selected combinations of oral dose and duration of treatment with oxytetracycline (OTC) on selection of tetracycline resistant (TET-R) coliforms recovered...

  10. 75 FR 40925 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... Technology and Cost US United States UV Ultraviolet Radiation WRF Water Research Foundation Table of Contents..., in soil, and on vegetation. Coliform bacteria may be transported to surface water by run-off or to... of this preamble for detailed discussions of the routine monitoring and repeat sampling requirements...

  11. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliform in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal contamination has been an issue for water quality because fecal coliform bacteria are used as an indicator organism to detect pathogens in water. In order to assess fecal contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a comm...

  12. Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora B, D.; Gonzalez A, C. A.; Medina D, I. M.; Robledo M, M. L.; Rojas G, A. E.; Sanchez P, L. C.; Del Razo, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 μg/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 μg/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 μg/L, in Quimichis 17.80 μg/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 μg/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 μg/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 μg/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

  13. 75 FR 49930 - Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of Currently Approved Total Coliform Analytical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9190-2] Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of... conferences during which the Agency will have a technical dialogue with stakeholders regarding re-evaluation of currently approved Total Coliform Rule (TCR) analytical methods. At these meetings, stakeholders...

  14. 75 FR 18205 - Total Coliform Rule Revisions-Notice of Stakeholder Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9135-8] Total Coliform Rule Revisions--Notice of Stakeholder... that EPA conduct stakeholder outreach as the Agency develops the proposed revisions. Today, EPA is...; opportunities for stakeholders to provide feedback on assessment and corrective action guidance related to the...

  15. Asellus aquaticus as a potential carrier of Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria into drinking water distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Arvin, Erik; Nissen, E.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. Populations of A. aquaticus in surface water from 2 ponds were analysed for associated faecal indicator bacteria and the risk of A....... coli and 6 total coliforms A. aquaticus-1. During exposure to high concn. of coliforms, concn. reached 350 coliforms A. aquaticus-1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water...... for evaluating incidents with the presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus are not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters....

  16. Platelet Count and Plateletcrit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strated that neonates with late onset sepsis (bacteremia after 3 days of age) had a dramatic increase in MPV and. PDW18. We hypothesize that as the MPV and PDW increase and platelet count and PCT decrease in sick children, intui- tively, the ratio of MPV to PCT; MPV to Platelet count,. PDW to PCT, PDW to platelet ...

  17. EcoCount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip P. Allen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Techniques that analyze biological remains from sediment sequences for environmental reconstructions are well established and widely used. Yet, identifying, counting, and recording biological evidence such as pollen grains remain a highly skilled, demanding, and time-consuming task. Standard procedure requires the classification and recording of between 300 and 500 pollen grains from each representative sample. Recording the data from a pollen count requires significant effort and focused resources from the palynologist. However, when an adaptation to the recording procedure is utilized, efficiency and time economy improve. We describe EcoCount, which represents a development in environmental data recording procedure. EcoCount is a voice activated fully customizable digital count sheet that allows the investigator to continuously interact with a field of view during the data recording. Continuous viewing allows the palynologist the opportunity to remain engaged with the essential task, identification, for longer, making pollen counting more efficient and economical. EcoCount is a versatile software package that can be used to record a variety of environmental evidence and can be installed onto different computer platforms, making the adoption by users and laboratories simple and inexpensive. The user-friendly format of EcoCount allows any novice to be competent and functional in a very short time.

  18. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with ... ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close Clean Hands Count ...

  19. Counting It Twice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattschneider, Doris

    1991-01-01

    Provided are examples from many domains of mathematics that illustrate the Fubini Principle in its discrete version: the value of a summation over a rectangular array is independent of the order of summation. Included are: counting using partitions as in proof by pictures, combinatorial arguments, indirect counting as in the inclusion-exclusion…

  20. High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srividya Sundararaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of immune monitoring with ELISPOT is to measure the number of T cells, specific for any antigen, accurately and reproducibly between different laboratories. In ELISPOT assays, antigen-specific T cells secrete cytokines, forming spots of different sizes on a membrane with variable background intensities. Due to the subjective nature of judging maximal and minimal spot sizes, different investigators come up with different numbers. This study aims to determine whether statistics-based, automated size-gating can harmonize the number of spot counts calculated between different laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-γ ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot® Analyzers by (A Basic Count™ relying on subjective counting parameters set by the respective investigators and (B SmartCount™, an automated counting protocol by the ImmunoSpot® Software that uses statistics-based spot size auto-gating with spot intensity auto-thresholding. The average coefficient of variation (CV for the mean values between independent laboratories was 26.7% when counting with Basic Count™, and 6.7% when counting with SmartCount™. Our data indicates that SmartCount™ allows harmonization of counting ELISPOT results between different laboratories and investigators.

  1. Implementación de dos métodos de recuento en placa para la detección de colifagos somáticos, aportes a las metodologías estándar Implementation of two plate count methods for detection of somatic coliphages and contributions to the standard methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Solano Barquero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los métodos de recuento en placa capa doble y capa simple de agar, para la cuantificación de colifagos so-máticos en aguas, fueron implementados utilizando como base metodologías estándar. Diferentes variables fueron ensayadas, lo cual permitió la precisión en algunos pasos no incluidos en metodologías estándares. De los hallazgos de mayor importancia, se exponen las consecuencias de utilizar un cultivo de Escherichia coliexcesivamente concentrado y se describe la obtención de un cultivo en fase logarítmica en solo 4 horas de incubación, ajustando la concentración a una densidad óptica de 0,3 a 600nm (3,1 x 10 8 UFC/ mL, o a un McFarland 1 (3,0 x108 UFC/ mL. Se determinó que los controles de colifagos deben ser almacenados a -70 °C para reducir su degradación y que se deben evitar cantidades superiores a 20 mL de mezcla de reacción por plato de Petri, para reducir las burbujas que pueden interferir con la lectura de unidades formadoras de placas (UFP. Se demostró que los colifagos de las muestras de agua pueden almacenarse 48 horas a 4 °C sin que sufran degradación y que en las muestras con altas concentraciones de colifagos no se observa UFP porque se da una lisis confluente de la capa bacteriana. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la recuperación de colifagos al utilizar un método u otro, pero dichos métodos deben ser evaluados por medio de controles, antes de aplicarlos directamente en el análisis de muestras de agua.Two plate count methods, double layer and single layer of agar for quantification of somatic coliphages in water, were implemented using standard methodologies. Several variables were tested and provided valuable information that was not included in standard methodologies. The most important findings are described, such as the effect of using an excessively concentrated culture of E. coliand production of a log phase culture in only 4 hours of incubation, adjusting the concentration to an

  2. An improved plating assay for determination of phage titer | Yang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, an improved plating assay was developed for detection of the number of recombinant phage Cap-T7 present in a test solution at a certain dilution point by counting the plaque forming units. The data demonstrated that the improved plating assay is fast, useful, and convenient for the determination of the phage ...

  3. Fitting a distribution to miccrobial counts: making sense of zeros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; Stockmarr, Anders; Nauta, Maarten

    and standard deviation) and the prevalence of contaminated food units (one minus the proportion of “true zeros”) from a set of microbial counts. By running the model with in silico generated concentration and count data, we could evaluate the performance of this method in terms of estimation of the three......Non-detects or left-censored results are inherent to the traditional methods of microbial enumeration in foods. Typically, a low concentration of microorganisms in a food unit goes undetected in plate counts or most probable number (MPN) counts, and produces “artificial zeros”. However......, these “artificial zeros” are only a share of the total number of zero counts resulting from a sample, as their number adds up to the number of “true zeros” resulting from uncontaminated units. In the process of fitting a probability distribution to microbial counts, “artificial” and “true” zeros are usually...

  4. Bacterial flora analysis of coliforms in sewage, river water, and ground water using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Niina, Kouki; Matsuwaki, Tomonori; Nukazawa, Kei; Iguchi, Atsushi

    2018-01-28

    The aim of this study was to rapidly and effectively analyze coliforms, which are the most fundamental indicators of water quality for fecal pollution, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Coliform bacteria were isolated from municipal sewage, river water, and groundwater. For each sample, 100 isolates were determined by MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, these same 100 isolates were also identified via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Obtained MALDI-TOF MS data were compared with the 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, and the validity of MALDI-TOF MS for classification of coliform bacteria was examined. The concordance rate of bacterial identification for the 100 isolates obtained by MALDI-TOF MS analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for sewage, river water, and ground water were 96%, 74%, and 62% at the genus level, respectively. Among the sewage, river water, and ground water samples, the coliform bacterial flora were distinct. The dominant genus of coliforms in sewage, river water, and groundwater were Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Serratia spp., respectively. We determined that MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid and accurate tool that can be used to identify coliforms. Therefore, without using conventional 16S rRNA sequencing, it is possible to rapidly and effectively classify coliforms in water using MALDI-TOF MS.

  5. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 65K ...

  6. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 66K ...

  7. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  8. Scintillation counting apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the accurate measurement of radiation by means of scintillation counters and in particular for the liquid scintillation counting of both soft beta radiation and gamma radiation. Full constructional and operating details are given. (UK)

  9. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  10. Counting Knights and Knaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  11. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  12. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find ...

  13. The Kruskal Count

    OpenAIRE

    Lagarias, Jeffrey C.; Rains, Eric; Vanderbei, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    The Kruskal Count is a card trick invented by Martin J. Kruskal in which a magician "guesses" a card selected by a subject according to a certain counting procedure. With high probability the magician can correctly "guess" the card. The success of the trick is based on a mathematical principle related to coupling methods for Markov chains. This paper analyzes in detail two simplified variants of the trick and estimates the probability of success. The model predictions are compared with simula...

  14. Carriage and fecal counts of cefotaxime M-producing Escherichia coli in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Katrine Hartung; Damborg, Peter Panduro; Andreasen, Margit

    2013-01-01

    , and finishers). Cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant coliforms in feces were counted on MacConkey agar containing 2 µg/ml CTX and characterized for the presence of ESBL-encoding genes by PCR and sequencing. CTX-M-positive pigs were detected in all age groups at farms A (bla(CTX-M-9) group, compatible with bla(CTX-M-14......% just before weaning, 29% during weaning, and 12% during finishing. The observed reduction in numbers of CTX-M-positive pigs was accompanied by a significant reduction in mean fecal counts of CTX-resistant coliforms from ~10(7) CFU/g in piglets to ~10(3) CFU/g in finishers (P

  15. A pulse stacking method of particle counting applied to position sensitive detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilier, E.

    1976-03-01

    A position sensitive particle counting system is described. A cyclic readout imaging device serves as an intermediate information buffer. Pulses are allowed to stack in the imager at very high counting rates. Imager noise is completely discriminated to provide very wide dynamic range. The system has been applied to a detector using cascaded microchannel plates. Pulse height spread produced by the plates causes some loss of information. The loss is comparable to the input loss of the plates. The improvement in maximum counting rate is several hundred times over previous systems that do not permit pulse stacking. (Auth.)

  16. Interlaboratory evaluation of the AOAC method and the A-1 procedure for recovery of fecal coliforms from foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W H; Wilson, C R; Poelma, P L; Bullock, L K; McClure, F D; Gentile, D E

    1981-09-01

    An interlaboratory evaluation was made of the 96 h AOAC method and the 24 h A-1 procedure for the enumeration of fecal coliforms in samples of yellow corn meal, rye flour, mung beans, raw ground beef, and raw oyster homogenate. Results indicated that the efficiency of the A-1 procedure, measured in terms of recovery of fecal coliforms, and the reproducibility of that recovery were dependent on the particular food being analyzed. Accordingly, until its efficiency can be more fully demonstrated, the A-1 procedure is recommended only as a screening procedure for fecal coliforms in foods.

  17. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliforms in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Kim, Joon Ha; Kim, Jung-Woo; Park, Mi-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    This study assessed fecal coliform contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) because bacteria are one of the major water quality parameters of concern. The bacteria subroutine in SWAT, considering in-stream bacteria die-off only, was modified in this study to include solar radiation-associated die-off and the contribution of wildlife. The result of sensitivity analysis demonstrates that solar radiation is one of the most significant fate factors of fecal coliform. A water temperature-associated function to represent the contribution of beaver activity in the watershed to fecal contamination improved prediction accuracy. The modified SWAT model provides an improved estimate of bacteria from the watershed. Our approach will be useful for simulating bacterial concentrations to provide predictive and reliable information of fecal contamination thus facilitating the implementation of effective watershed management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coliform Sources and Mechanisms for Regrowth in Household Drinking Water in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jonathan E; Smith, James A; Samie, Amidou; Dillingham, Rebecca A

    2013-09-01

    Resource-limited communities throughout the developing world face significant environmental health problems related to the myriad of coliform sources within those communities. This study comprehensively investigated contamination sources and the biological and chemical mechanisms sustaining them in two adjacent communities in rural Limpopo, South Africa. An 8-month study was conducted of household ( n = 14) and source water quality, measurements of biofilm layers on the inside of household water storage containers and water transfer devices, and also hand-based coliforms and hand-washing effectiveness. A 7-day water container incubation experiment was also performed to determine the biological and chemical changes that occur in a household water storage container independent of human interference. Results indicate that household drinking water frequently becomes contaminated after collection but before consumption (197 versus 1,046 colony-forming units/100 mL; n = 266; p water treatment and other interventions aimed at maintaining the safe water chain and preventing biological regrowth.

  19. Study of Slow Sand Filtration in Removing Total Coliforms and E.Coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekha Yogafanny

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the performance of SSF in removing bacteria (Total Coliforms and E. Coli in regard to grain size distribution and grain shape intermittently. Two methodological approaches used in this reasearch were literature review and laboratory work. Bacteria removal was analyzed considering two different filter media (Rhine sand-spherical shape and Lava sand-angular shape with three different grain size distributions. The best performance was attained by filter column F4 which consisted of Lava sand and had the configuration C2 (d10 = 0.07 mm; Cu = 4.2. This filter column achieved 4.7log-units removal of Total Coliforms and 5.0log-units removal of E. coli. The results show that a smaller grain size and an angular shape of sand grain lead to an increase in bacteria removal.

  20. Coliform and Vibrio cholerae Analysis of Drinking Water Collected from Cholera Outbreak Region of Bhaktapur Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Thapa Shrestha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Water borne infections in Nepal, especially in Kathmandu valley is one the major public health problems, causing thousands of deaths every year. Among three cities in the valley, the water borne infection including cholera is most predominant in Bhaktapur district. So the study was carried out to know the microbial drinking water quality in the city and to determine the prevalence of water borne infections in the specified region of the district in 2012. Altogether eighty (two samples from a single site at different interval-2/3 days water samples were collected from Bhaktapur Municipality, one of the most vulnerable regions for water borne diseases, following standard methods as described by APHA, 2010. All samples were transferred to Microbiology laboratory of Khwopa College, Dekocha, Bhaktapur and preceded immediately for Microbial analysis. The coliform density in the water samples were determined by Most Probable Number (MPN method followed by microscopy, colonial morphology and biochemical characterization. Subsequently, the presence of Vibrio cholerae, a causative agent of Cholera was analyzed in the same samples by enrichment in alkaline peptone water followed by culture on Thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose (TCBS agar, a selective media for Vibrio spp. The biochemical tests were then performed to identify V. cholerae. Among eighty water samples, 87.5 percent water samples contained coliforms and half of which (45% contained feacal coliforms, Escherichia coli and remaining 12.5 percent water samples contained no coliforms. Vibrio cholerae were isolated from four water samples (5%. The drinking water quality in the region was found to be very poor. Therefore, the people in the region were suggested to treat the drinking water by using any of physical or chemical disinfection methods prior to drinking. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11073 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 139-145

  1. Effects of cattle manure on erosion rates and runoff water pollution by faecal coliforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M C; Quinton, J N; Tyrrel, S F

    2006-01-01

    The large quantities of slurry and manure that are produced annually in many areas in which cattle are raised could be an important source of organic matter and nutrients for agriculture. However, the benefits of waste recycling may be partially offset by the risk of water pollution associated with runoff from the fields to which slurry or manure has been applied. In this paper, the effects of cattle manure application on soil erosion rates and runoff and on surface water pollution by faecal coliforms are analysed. Rainfall simulations at a rate of 70 mm h(-1) were conducted in a sandy loam soil packed into soil flumes (2.5m long x 1m wide) at a bulk density of 1400 kg m(-3), with and without cattle slurry manure applied on the surface. For each simulation, sediment and runoff rates were analysed and in those simulations with applied slurry, presumptive faecal coliform (PFC) concentrations in the runoff were evaluated. The application of slurry on the soil surface appeared to have a protective effect on the soils, reducing soil detachment by up to 70% but increasing runoff volume by up to 30%. This practice implies an important source of pollution for surface waters especially if rainfall takes place within a short period after application. The concentrations of micro-organisms (presumptive faecal coliforms (PFCs)) found in water runoff ranged from 1.9 x 10(4) to 1.1 x 10(6) PFC 100mL(-1), depending on the initial concentration in the slurry, and they were particularly high during the first phases of the rainfall event. The result indicates a strong relationship between the faecal coliforms transported by runoff and the organic matter in the sediment.

  2. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I.; Quintana, Rey M.; Nevarez, G. Virginia; Palacios, Oskar

    2011-01-01

    Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico. PMID:21776236

  3. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Rubio-Arias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lago de Colina (Colina Lake is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico, and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  4. Coliform and metal contamination in Lago de Colina, a recreational water body in Chihuahua State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I; Quintana, Rey M; Nevarez, G Virginia; Palacios, Oskar

    2011-06-01

    Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  5. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease ... of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical ...

  6. Enhanced counting efficiency of Cerenkov radiation from bismuth-210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, G.A.; Smith, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the measurement of 210 Bi by Cerenkov counting in a commercial liquid scintillation counter. The counting efficiency in water is 0.17 counts per second per Becquerel (17%). When the enhancers Triton X-100 (15% v/v) and sodium salicylate (1% m/v) are added to the solution the counting efficiency for 210 Bi increases from 17% to 75%. The 210 Po daughter of 210 Bi causes interference of 0.85 counts per second per Becquerel in the presence of the enhancers but not in water. When 210 Bi and 210 Po are present in secular equilibrium the total counting efficiency is 160%. When 210 Bi and 210 Po are not in secular equilibrium the 210 Po can be removed immediately before counting by plating onto silver foil. The use of the enhancers gives a substantial increase in counting efficiency compared to counting in water. Compared with solutions used in liquid scintillation counting the enhancer solution is inexpensive and can be disposed of without environmental hazard. (author)

  7. Use of Readycult[tm] - LMX for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloti Vanerli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Readycult[tm] - LMX is a rapid method to test for the presence of total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in water, giving results in 24h. It is based on reactions of specific microbial enzymes or indicator nutrients of the medium. The goal of this paper was to study the use of Readycult[tm] - LMX to detect total coliform and E. coli in milk. One hundred twenty five samples of pasteurized and raw milk, collected in Londrina, PR, Brazil, were tested simultaneously by the most probable number (MPN method using Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth (2% (BRILA and Readycult[tm] - LMX. The Readycult[tm] - LMX test was evaluated for sensitivity, simplicity, and speed of results. There was a significant correlation between the results obtained by the two methods for total coliforms (r: 0.8224 and for E. coli (r: 0.8603. The two methods yielded similar results, but Readycult[tm] - LMX was easier to use. In addition, results were available as early as 24h.

  8. Coliform Bacteria Monitoring in Fish Systems: Current Practices in Public Aquaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Erin E; Clayton, Leigh A; Hadfield, Catherine A; Arnold, Jill E; Bourbon, Holly M

    2016-06-01

    Public aquaria evaluate coliform indicator bacteria levels in fish systems, but the purpose of testing, testing methods, and management responses are not standardized, unlike with the coliform bacteria testing for marine mammal enclosures required by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. An online survey was sent to selected aquaria to document current testing and management practices in fish systems without marine mammals. The information collected included indicator bacteria species, the size and type of systems monitored, the primary purpose of testing, sampling frequency, test methods, the criteria for interpreting results, corrective actions, and management changes to limit human exposure. Of the 25 institutions to which surveys were sent, 19 (76%) responded. Fourteen reported testing for fecal indicator bacteria in fish systems. The most commonly tested indicator species were total (86%) and fecal (79%) coliform bacteria, which were detected by means of the membrane filtration method (64%). Multiple types and sizes of systems were tested, and the guidelines for testing and corrective actions were highly variable. Only three institutions performed additional tests to confirm the identification of indicator organisms. The results from this study can be used to compare bacterial monitoring practices and protocols in fish systems, as an aid to discussions relating to the accuracy and reliability of test results, and to help implement appropriate management responses. Received August 23, 2015; accepted December 29, 2015.

  9. Diversity of fecal coliforms and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in wastewater treatment model plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczkiewicz, A; Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Jankowska, K; Quant, B; Olańczuk-Neyman, K

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of resistance patterns among wastewater fecal coliforms was determined in the study. Susceptibility of the isolates was tested against 19 antimicrobial agents: aminoglycosides, aztreonam, carbapenems, cephalosporines, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors, penicillines, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and fluoroquinolones. Additionally the removal of resistant isolates was evaluated in the laboratory-scale wastewater treatment model plant (M-WWTP), continuously supplied with the wastewater obtained from the full-scale WWTP. Number of fecal coliforms in raw (after mechanical treatment) and treated wastewater, as well as in aerobic chamber effluent was determined using selective medium. The selected strains were identified and examined for antibiotic resistance using Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Biosciences, USA). The strains were identified as Escherichia coli (n=222), Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae (n=9), and Pantoea agglomerans (n=1). The isolate of P. agglomerans as well as 48% of E. coli isolates were sensitive to all antimicrobials tested. The most frequent resistance patterns were found for ampicillin: 100% of K. pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae and 41% of E. coli isolates. Among E. coli isolates 12% was regarded as multiple antimicrobial resistant (MAR). In the studied M-WWTP, the applied activated sludge processes reduced considerably the number of fecal coliforms, but increased the ratio of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates to sensitive ones, especially among strains with MAR patterns.

  10. Elimination of coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sheep meat by gamma irradiation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Salles Vasconcelos Henriques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the bacteriological effects of the treatment of sheep meat contaminated with total coliforms, coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella spp. by using irradiation at doses of 3 kGy and 5 kGy. Thirty sheep meat samples were collected from animals located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and then grouped in three lots including 10 samples: non-irradiated (control; irradiated with 3 kGy; and irradiated with 5 kGy. Exposure to gamma radiation in a 137Cs source-driven irradiating facility was perfomed at the Nuclear Defense Section of the Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx in Rio de Janeiro. The samples were kept under freezing temperature (-18 °C until the analyses, which occurred in two and four months after irradiation. The results were interpreted by comparison with the standards of the current legislation and demonstrated that non-irradiated samples were outside the parameters established by law for all groups of bacteria studied. Gamma irradiation was effective in inactivating those microorganisms at both doses tested and the optimal dose was achieved at 3 kGy. The results have shown not only the need for sanitary conditions improvements in slaughter and processing of sheep meat but also the irradiation effectiveness to eliminate coliform bacteria and Salmonella spp.

  11. Elimination of fecal coliforms and F-specific RNA coliphage from oysters (Crassostrea virginica) relaid in floating containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kator, H; Rhodes, M

    2001-06-01

    Declining oyster (Crassostrea virginica) production in the Chesapeake Bay has stimulated aquaculture based on floats for off-bottom culture. While advantages of off-bottom culture are significant, the increased use of floating containers raises public health and microbiological concerns, because oysters in floats may be more susceptible to fecal contamination from storm runoff compared to those cultured on-bottom. We conducted four commercial-scale studies with market-size oysters naturally contaminated with fecal coliforms (FC) and a candidate viral indicator, F-specific RNA (FRNA) coliphage. To facilitate sampling and to test for location effects, 12 replicate subsamples, each consisting of 15 to 20 randomly selected oysters in plastic mesh bags, were placed at four characteristic locations within a 0.6- by 3.0-m "Taylor" float, and the remaining oysters were added to a depth not exceeding 15.2 cm. The float containing approximately 3,000 oysters was relaid in the York River, Virginia, for 14 days. During relay, increases in shellfish FC densities followed rain events such that final mean levels exceeded initial levels or did not meet an arbitrary product end point of 50 FC/100 ml. FRNA coliphage densities decreased to undetectable levels within 14 days (16 to 28 degrees C) in all but the last experiment, when temperatures fell between 12 and 16 degrees C. Friedman (nonparametric analysis of variance) tests performed on FC/Escherichia coli and FRNA densities indicated no differences in counts as a function of location within the float. The public health consequences of these observations are discussed, and future research and educational needs are identified.

  12. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222 Rn and 226 Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  13. Principles of correlation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A review is given of the various applications which have been made of correlation techniques in the field of nuclear physics, in particular for absolute counting. Whereas in most cases the usual coincidence method will be preferable for its simplicity, correlation counting may be the only possible approach in such cases where the two radiations of the cascade cannot be well separated or when there is a longliving intermediate state. The measurement of half-lives and of count rates of spurious pulses is also briefly discussed. The various experimental situations lead to different ways the correlation method is best applied (covariance technique with one or with two detectors, application of correlation functions, etc.). Formulae are given for some simple model cases, neglecting dead-time corrections

  14. Interpretation of galaxy counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsely, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    New models are presented for the interpretation of recent counts of galaxies to 24th magnitude, and predictions are shown to 28th magnitude for future comparison with data from the Space Telescope. The results supersede earlier, more schematic models by the author. Tyson and Jarvis found in their counts a ''local'' density enhancement at 17th magnitude, on comparison with the earlier models; the excess is no longer significant when a more realistic mixture of galaxy colors is used. Bruzual and Kron's conclusion that Kron's counts show evidence for evolution at faint magnitudes is confirmed, and it is predicted that some 23d magnitude galaxies have redshifts greater than unity. These may include spheroidal systems, elliptical galaxies, and the bulges of early-type spirals and S0's, seen during their primeval rapid star formation

  15. Occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid hand soaps from bulk refillable dispensers in public facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattman, Marisa; Gerba, Sheri L; Maxwell, Charles P

    2011-03-01

    The goal of the study discussed in this article was to determine the occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid soap from bulk refillable dispensers, obtained from restrooms in a variety of public facilities. A total of 541 samples was collected from five U.S. cities. Liquid soap from dispensers in public areas was found to contain heterotrophic and coliform bacterial numbers averaging more than 106 CFU/mL in 24.8% of the dispensers.

  16. ANALISIS KUANTITATIF BAKTERI Coliform PADA DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG YANG BERADA DI WILAYAH KAYUTANGI KOTA BANJARMASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Kumalasari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water was one of the natural resources, which was needed by all of living creatures. Safe drinking-water supply should be sought because there was a probability of microorganism contamination in the drinking water, such as Coliform bacteria contamination. The dangerous of Coliform bacteria was that it could cause various illnesses, such as diarrhea, typhus and bacillary dysentery. According to Indonesia National Standard 01- 3553-2006 for packaged drinking water quality requirements, the maximum acceptable contaminant level for Coliform bacteria in each 100 ml refill drinking water sample was <2/100 ml. The purpose of this research is to know or no Coliform bacteria in refill drinking-water and the amount of contaminant in MPN/100 ml, and also to find out whether the drinking-water in various refilling stations in Kayutangi Banjarmasin had fulfilled the requirements of Indonesia National Standard or not. The method of this research was quantitative descriptive research a research which described a phenomenon in a certain population. Saturation sampling technique was used to collect data, and this research used the method of Most Probable Number MPN/100 ml. The results showed that 5 (31,25% samples were positive for containing Coliform bacteria and 11 (65,78% samples were negative for containing Coliform bacteria. The highest MPN/100 ml amount of Coliform bacteria was 190 MPN/100 ml and the lowest MPN/100ml amount of Coliform bacteria was 4 MPN/100 ml. According to the calculation of colony amount using MPN/100 ml table, it was found that all of the five positive samples exceeded the Indonesia National Standard limit, in which the maximum contaminant level was <2/100 ml.

  17. Evaluation of Carcass Quality for Coliforms, Salmonella and Psychrophiles on Evisceration and Chiller lines in Yazd Province Industrial Poultry Slaughterhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mofidi

    2014-05-01

    In general, it can be said that secondary contamination in the slaughter line along with gradual increase in temperature of the chiller can increase bacterial load of both coliforms and salmonella but it will not affect the amount of psychrophile bacteria. Due to some differences between the studied slaughterhouses, microbial load of coliform and salmonella can be acheived by improving the management and installation of appropriate aquipments in the evisceration line.

  18. Computerized radioautographic grain counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKanna, J.A.; Casagrande, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

  19. Rainflow counting revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  20. Radiation shielding plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Torakichi; Sugawara, Takeo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and stabilize the configuration of a radiation shielding plate which is used in close contact with an object to be irradiated with radiation rays. Constitution: The radiation shielding plate comprises a substrate made of lead glass and a metallic lead coating on the surface of the substrate by means of plating, vapor deposition or the like. Apertures for permeating radiation rays are formed to the radiation shielding plate. Since the shielding plate is based on a lead glass plate, a sufficient mechanical strength can be obtained with a thinner structure as compared with the conventional plate made of metallic lead. Accordingly, if the shielding plate is disposed on a soft object to be irradiated with radiation rays, the object and the plate itself less deform to obtain a radiation irradiation pattern with distinct edges. (Moriyama, K.)

  1. Clean Hands Count

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  9. Clean Hands Count

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  11. Clean Hands Count

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  12. Detection and counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, M.A.N. de

    1976-01-01

    Detection devices based on gaseous ionization are analysed, such as: electroscopes ionization chambers, proportional counters and Geiger-Mueller counters. Scintillation methods are also commented. A revision of the basic concepts in electronics is done and the main equipment for counting is detailed. In the study of gama spectrometry, scintillation and semiconductor detectors are analysed [pt

  13. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 384 views 1:19 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  14. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 285 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

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  16. Reticulocyte Count Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm. (2004 Summer). Immature Reticulocyte Fraction(IRF). The Pathology Center Newsletter v9(1). [On-line information]. Available ... Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition]. Levin, M. (2007 March 8, Updated). Reticulocyte Count. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On- ...

  17. Clean Hands Count

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  18. Radiation intensity counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described of excluding the natural dead time of the radiation detector (or eg Geiger-Mueller counter) in a ratemeter counting circuit, thus eliminating the need for dead time corrections. Using a pulse generator an artificial dead time is introduced which is longer than the natural dead time of the detector. (U.K.)

  19. Clean Hands Count

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  20. Calorie count - fast food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Calorie count - fast food URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/ ...

  1. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swansen, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a high speed circuit for accurate neutron coincidence counting comprising: neutron detecting means for providing an above-threshold signal upon neutron detection; amplifying means inputted by the neutron detecting means for providing a pulse output having a pulse width of about 0.5 microseconds upon the input of each above threshold signal; digital processing means inputted by the pulse output of the amplifying means for generating a pulse responsive to each input pulse from the amplifying means and having a pulse width of about 50 nanoseconds effective for processing an expected neutron event rate of about 1 Mpps: pulse stretching means inputted by the digital processing means for producing a pulse having a pulse width of several milliseconds for each pulse received form the digital processing means; visual indicating means inputted by the pulse stretching means for producing a visual output for each pulse received from the digital processing means; and derandomizing means effective to receive the 50 ns neutron event pulses from the digital processing means for storage at a rate up to the neutron event rate of 1 Mpps and having first counter means for storing the input neutron event pulses

  2. Create Your Plate

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  3. Create Your Plate

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  4. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ... Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and ...

  5. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy ...

  6. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  7. Short communication: Environmental mastitis pathogen counts in freestalls bedded with composted and fresh recycled manure solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, K J; Hogan, J S

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare bacterial counts of environmental mastitis pathogens in composted recycled manure solids bedding with those in fresh recycled manure solids. Eighteen Holstein cows were housed in 1 pen with 18 stalls. One row of 9 freestalls included mattresses and was bedded weekly with composted recycled manure solids. The second row of 9 freestalls included mattresses and was bedded weekly with fresh recycled manure solids. The back one-third of stalls toward the alleyway was covered in 25 to 50 mm of bedding. Samples were taken from the back one-third of 4 stalls for both treatments on d 0, 1, 2, and 6 of each week. After 3 wk, bedding treatments were switched between rows, making the total duration 6 wk. Mean total gram-negative bacterial counts were approximately 0.5 log10 cfu/g of dry matter lower in the composted recycled manure solids on d 0 compared with fresh recycled manure solids. Klebsiella species, coliform, and Streptococcus species counts were at least 1.0 log10 cfu/g of dry matter lower in composted compared with fresh recycled manure solids on d 0. Only gram-negative bacterial counts on d 1 were reduced in composted recycled manure solids compared with fresh recycled manure solids. Differences were not observed between treatments in gram-negative bacterial, coliform, Klebsiella species, or Streptococcus species counts on d 2 and 6. Ash content was higher in composted recycled manure solids compared with fresh recycled manure solids on d 0, 1, 2, and 6. Despite the increase in ash after composting, bacterial counts of mastitis pathogens in composted recycled manure solids were comparable with those in fresh recycled manure when used as freestall bedding. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA AND FACTORS RELATED TO ITS GROWTH AT THE SEKOTONG SHALLOW WELLS, WEST NUSA TENGGARA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Marisi Sinaga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The poor sanitation and small numbers of households who own toilet in Sekotong regency may relate to the diarrheal events due to the fecal coliform contamination in drinking water. Aim: This paper aims to provide the concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in shallow well waters and the factors associated to its growth. Method: Fifteen groundwater samples were collected from 5 shallow wells to provide the concentrations of total fecal coliform bacteria (FC, mercury concentration, inorganic nitrogen compounds (represent as ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite, total phosphorus (TP, dissolved oxygen (D, pH, and salinity. The concentration of the parameters was then compared to the safe limit set by World Health Organization (WHO. Results: The results indicated that the drinking water resources at the Sekotong regency were contaminated by coliform and mercury. One location with low mercury concentration was recorded with E. coli contamination. Residence, agriculture, and animal livestock were subjected as the sources of coliform contamination. Mercury concentrations may inverse the growth of FC. No apparent relationship was found between total phosphorous and inorganic nitrogen compounds to FC growth. However, we recognized the FC growth responded positively to the level of phosphorous in waters, but associated negatively to nitrate concentration. An inverse correlation was also found between coliform survival and salinity in this study. The pH range at 6.05 – 6.50 supported FC survival. Conclusion: The drinking water resources at the Sekotong shallow wells were contaminated by coliform and mercury. It is important for local government to inform drinking water protection and treatment.

  9. Coliform Contamination of Peri-urban Grown Vegetables and Potential Public Health Risks: Evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Kabila; Ganle, John Kuumuori; Adaborna, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetable farming in Ghana is an important livelihood activity for an increasing number of people. However, increasing quality and public health concerns have been raised, partly because freshwater availability for irrigation purposes is a major constraint. This paper investigated on-farm vegetable contamination and potential health risks using samples of lettuce, spring onions and cabbage randomly selected from 18 vegetable farms in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana. Vegetable samples were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. bacteria contamination using the Most Probable Number method. Results show high contamination levels of total and fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria in all 18 vegetable samples. The mean total coliform/100 ml concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 9.15 × 10(9), 4.7 × 10(7) and 8.3 × 10(7) respectively. The mean fecal coliform concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were also 1.5 × 10(8), 4.15 × 10(7) and 2.15 × 10(7) respectively, while the mean Escherichia coli bacteria contamination for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 1.4 × 10(8), 2.2 × 10(7) and 3.2 × 10(7) respectively. The level of total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria contamination in all the vegetable samples however declined as the distance between the main water source (Wiwi River) and farms increases. Nonetheless, all contamination levels were well above acceptable standards, and could therefore pose serious public health risks to consumers. Increased education and supervision of farmers, as well as public health and food hygiene education of consumers, are critical to reducing on-farm vegetable contamination and the health risks associated with consumption of such vegetables.

  10. Controlled disposal of domestic effluent sewage in the ground to reduce fecal coliforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fortes Neto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate launching in water bodies of domestic sewage without treatment, or even treated, but without appropriate disinfection, contributes with significant amount of organisms of the called "coliform group” that can carry specific illnesses agents propagated through the water. The application of effluent in the ground, instead of direct disposal in water courses, in addition to being an alternative way for the disposal of residues and biological control of pollutants, constitutes an adequate way of nutrients supply to the soil and plants. So, this work had as objective the evaluation of the reduction of fecal coliforms, after controlled applications of 60 days treated effluent in cultivated soil, by analyzing the increase of fluorescent rhizobacterias Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus spp. present in the rhizospheres of different crops. The experiment was developed in field conditions in the Experimental Farm of Department of Agrarian Sciences of the University of Taubaté, municipality of Taubaté, SP. The Experimental design consisted of random blocks, with five treatments including annual crops (Oats, Barley, Triticale - a cross between wheat and rye, Black Beans and non-cultivated soil as witness - blank reference and four repetitions, totalizing 20 ground plots with area of 2 m x 1 m with 50 cm space among plots on a Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latossol. Results from the microbial analyses of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil indicated that the rhizosphere of oats had denser rhizobacterias than the other crops. However, the greatest efficiency was found in the reduction of thermo-tolerant coliforms for both black beans and non-cultivated soil.

  11. Effect of different oral oxytetracycline treatment regimes on selection of antimicrobial resistant coliforms in nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Zachariasen, Camilla; Nørholm, Nanna; Holm, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2017-09-01

    A major concern derived from using antimicrobials in pig production is the development of resistance. This study aimed to assess the impact of selected combinations of oral dose and duration of treatment with oxytetracycline (OTC) on selection of tetracycline resistant (TET-R) coliforms recovered from swine feces. The work encompassed two studies: 1) OTC 5mg/kg and 20mg/kg were administered to nursery pigs for 3 and 10days, respectively, under controlled experimental conditions, and 2) 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg and 30mg/kg OTC were given to a higher number of pigs for 6, 3 and 2days, respectively, under field conditions. Statistical modeling was applied to analyze trends in the proportion of TET-R coliforms. In the experimental study, no statistical difference in proportion of TET-R coliforms was observed between treatments at the end of the trial (day 18) and compared to day 0. In the field study, treatment had a significant effect on the proportion of TET-R bacteria two days after the end of treatment (2dAT) with the regimes "low dose-six days" and "medium dose-three days" yielding the highest and lowest proportions of TET-R strains, respectively. No indication of co-selection for ampicillin- and sulphonamide -R bacteria was observed for any treatment at 2dAT. By the end of the nursery period, the proportion of TET-R bacteria was not significantly different between treatments and compared to day 0. Our results suggest that similar resistance levels might be obtained by using different treatment regimes regardless of the combinations of oral dose-duration of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type ... and vinaigrettes. To complete your meal, add a low-calorie drink like water, unsweetened tea or coffee. ...

  13. Bacterial levels in the Nyl River system, Limpopo province, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heterotrophic plate counts, faecal coliform counts and total coliform counts indicated that the system was stressed. The Modimolle sewage treatment works and local agricultural activities were found to be the point and diffuse sources of bacterial contamination, respectively. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2010, 35(1): ...

  14. Paper microzone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Emanuel; Phillips, Scott T; Vella, Sarah J; Martinez, Andres W; Whitesides, George M

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (approximately 180 microm), require small volumes of sample (5 microL per zone), and can be manufactured from inexpensive materials ($0.05 per plate). The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers. This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (approximately 15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates. These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The limit of detection per zone loaded for fluorescence was 125 fmol for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, and this level corresponds to 0.02 the quantity of analyte per well used to achieve comparable signal-to-noise in a 96-well plastic plate (using a solution of 25 nM labeled protein). The limits of detection for absorbance on paper was approximately 50 pmol per zone for both Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth dyes; these values were 0.4 that required for the plastic plate. Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader.

  15. Undercooling, nodule count and carbides in thin walled ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Ductile cast iron has been cast in plate thicknesses between 2 to 8 mm. The temperature has been measured during the solidification and the graphite nodule count and size distribution together with the type and amount of carbides have been analysed afterwards. Low nodule count gives higher...

  16. Avaliação do padrão coliformes a 45ºC e comparação da eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos Coliforms at 45ºc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Coliformes fecais são definidos como coliformes capazes de fermentar a lactose com produção de gás em 48 h a 45ºC. Escherichia coli, juntamente com algumas cepas de Enterobacter e Klebsiella, podem apresentar essas características. Entretanto, apenas a presença de Escherichia coli em alimentos indica contaminação fecal por ser encontrada em grande quantidade no trato gastrointestinal do homem e animais de sangue quente, não sendo isolada normalmente em outros nichos. A denominação clássica de coliformes fecais foi alterada para coliformes a 45ºC, na Resolução nº 12 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de E. coli entre os coliformes a 45ºC e comparar a eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e E. coli em queijo Minas, lingüiça frescal, hortaliças e fubá. Petrifilm EC mostrou-se mais sensível na detecção de E. coli em relação ao método de tubos múltiplos, o qual apresentou resultados falso-negativos ou contagens subestimadas de E. coli, principalmente para amostras de alimentos de origem animal. Petrifilm EC foi o mais eficiente e prático, sendo um método alternativo adequado para a enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em alimentos.Fecal coliforms are defined as coliforms that ferment lactose with gas production within 48 hours at 45ºC. Escherichia coli and some strains of Enterobacter and Klebsiella show these same characteristics. However, only the presence of E. coli can indicate fecal contamination of foods, because it is abundantly found in the intestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals, including the humans, and it is not usually found in others niches. The classic denomination of fecal coliforms was changed to coliforms at 45ºC in the Resolution nº 12/2001 of the National Surveillance Agency of Brazil. The objectives of this study were to analyse the presence of E. coli among the

  17. Electrochemical disinfection of coliform and Escherichia coli for drinking water treatment by electrolysis method using carbon as an electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Agustiningsih, W. A.

    2018-04-01

    Disinfection of coliform and E. Coli in water has been performed by electrolysis using carbon electrodes. Carbon electrodes were used as an anode and cathode with a purity of 98.31% based on SEM-EDS analysis. This study was conducted using electrolysis powered by electric field using carbon electrode as the anode and cathode. Electrolysis method was carried out using variations of time (30, 60, 90, 120 minutes at a voltage of 5 V) and voltage (5, 10, 15, 20 V for 30 minutes) to determine the effect of the disinfection of the bacteria. The results showed the number of coliform and E. coli in water before and after electrolysis was 190 and 22 MPN/100 mL, respectively. The standards quality of drinking water No. 492/Menkes/Per/IV/2010 requires the zero content of coliform and E. Coli. Electrolysis with the variation of time and potential can reduce the number of coliforms and E. Coli but was not in accordance with the standards. The effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to the electrochemical disinfection was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The levels of H2O2 formed increased as soon after the duration of electrolysis voltage but was not a significant influence to the mortality of coliform and E.coli.

  18. Predicting fecal coliform using the interval-to-interval approach and SWAT in the Miyun watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianwen; Shen, Zhenyao; Yan, Tiezhu; Qiu, Jiali; Li, Yangyang

    2017-06-01

    Pathogens in manure can cause waterborne-disease outbreaks, serious illness, and even death in humans. Therefore, information about the transformation and transport of bacteria is crucial for determining their source. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to simulate fecal coliform bacteria load in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China. The data for the fecal coliform were obtained at three sampling sites, Chenying (CY), Gubeikou (GBK), and Xiahui (XH). The calibration processes of the fecal coliform were conducted using the CY and GBK sites, and validation was conducted at the XH site. An interval-to-interval approach was designed and incorporated into the processes of fecal coliform calibration and validation. The 95% confidence interval of the predicted values and the 95% confidence interval of measured values were considered during calibration and validation in the interval-to-interval approach. Compared with the traditional point-to-point comparison, this method can improve simulation accuracy. The results indicated that the simulation of fecal coliform using the interval-to-interval approach was reasonable for the watershed. This method could provide a new research direction for future model calibration and validation studies.

  19. Performance of Electrocoagulation Process in the Removal of Total Coliform and Hetrotrophic Bacteria from Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Derayat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation is an electrochemical method for the treatment of water and wastewater. The present cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the removal efficiency of total coliform and heterotrophic bacteria from surface water using the process. For this purpose, water samples were taken from the drinking water intake at Suleiman-Shahsonghur Dam. The electrocoagulation process was carried out in a Plexiglas reactor in the batch mode with Al and Fe used electrodes. The experiment design was carried out using the Design Expert Software (Stat-Ease Inc., Ver. 6.0.6. After each run, the values of metals dissolved due to anode electrode dissolution were measured using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP and the results were analyzed using the RSM model. Results revealed maximum removal efficiencies of 100% and 89.1% for total coliform and heterotrophic bacteria using the Al electrode, respectively. Also, maximum removal efficiencies using the Fe electrode for the same pollutants were 100% and 76.1%. The measurements clearly indicate that the quantities of Al and Fe released in water were higher than the recommended values. While the electrocoagulation process showed to be effective in removing microbial agents from surface waters, the high concentrations of dissolved metals due to the dissolution of the anode electrode seem to remain a health problem that requires optimal conditions to be determined for acheiving standard concentrations of the dissolved metals.

  20. Fate of coliforms and pathogenic parasite in four full-scale sewage treatment systems in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Sahoo, B K; Khursheed, Anwar; Kazmi, A A; Ahmad, Z; Chopra, A K

    2011-10-01

    The occurrence and removal of fecal indicators (total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), fecal streptococci (FS)) and pathogens (helminthes eggs) were studied in various municipal wastewater treatment processes (UASB + FPU, ASP, EA, WSP). The reductions in TC and FC concentrations were usually between 2.0 and 2.5 log units in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor incorporated with final polishing unit (UASB + FPU). Almost similar reduction was observed in activated sludge process system (ASP) and waste stabilization ponds system (WSP), while it was log 3.0 in extended aeration system (EA). UASB + FPU and WSP systems were observed more efficient to reduce helminthes eggs at almost 100%, whereas only 97% removal was observed in case of ASP and EA system. In addition to monitoring of indicator organisms, turbidity, suspended solids (SS), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were used as indirect measure of the potential presence of microorganisms. Interrelationship of BOD, SS, and turbidity with fecal indicator bacteria concentration in influent and effluent manifest that improvement of the microbiological quality of wastewater is strongly linked to the removal of BOD and SS.

  1. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in wastewater sewerage biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépesová, Kristína; Kraková, Lucia; Pangallo, Domenico; Medveďová, Alžbeta; Olejníková, Petra; Mackuľak, Tomáš; Tichý, Jozef; Grabic, Roman; Birošová, Lucia

    2018-03-28

    Urban wastewater contains different micropollutants and high number of different microorganisms. Some bacteria in wastewater can attach to the surfaces and form biofilm, which gives bacteria advantage in fight against environmental stress. This work is focused on bacterial community analysis in biofilms isolated from influent and effluent sewerage of wastewater treatment plant in Bratislava. Biofilm microbiota detection was performed by culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Composition of bacterial strains was detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting coupled with the construction of 16S rRNA clone libraries. The biofilm collected at the inlet point was characterized primarily by the presence of Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Janthinobacterium sp. clones, while in the biofilm isolated at outflow of wastewater treatment plant members of Pseudomonas genus were largely detected. Beside this analysis prevalence of antibiotics and resistant coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in sewerage was studied. In influent wastewater were dominant antibiotics like azithromycin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Removal efficiency of these antibiotics notably azithromycin and clarithromycin were 30% in most cases. The highest number of resistant bacteria with predominance of coliforms was detected in sample of effluent biofilm. Multidrug resistant strains in effluent biofilm showed very good ability to form biofilm. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  3. A field study evaluation of Petrifilm™ plates as a 24-h rapid diagnostic test for clinical mastitis on a dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansion-de Vries, Elisabeth Maria; Knorr, Nicole; Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Zinke, Claudia; Hoedemaker, Martina; Krömker, Volker

    2014-03-01

    Clinical mastitis is one of the most common and expensive diseases of dairy cattle. To make an informed treatment decision, it is important to know the causative pathogen. However, no detection of bacterial growth can be made in approximately 30% of all clinical cases of mastitis. Before selecting the treatment regimen, it is important to know whether the mastitis-causing pathogen (MCP) is Gram-positive or Gram-negative. The aim of this field study was to investigate whether using two 3M Petrifilm™ products on-farm (which conveys a higher degree of sample freshness but also bears a higher risk for contamination than working in a lab) as 24-h rapid diagnostic of clinical mastitis achieved results that were comparable to the conventional microbiological diagnostic method. AerobicCount (AC)-Petrifilm™ and ColiformCount (CC)-Petrifilm™ were used to identify the total bacterial counts and Gram-negative bacteria in samples from clinical mastitis cases, respectively. Missing growth on both plates was classified as no bacterial detection. Growth only on the AC-Petrifilm™ was assessed as Gram-positive, and growth on both Petrifilm™ plates was assessed as Gram-negative bacterial growth. Additionally, milk samples were analysed by conventional microbiological diagnostic method on aesculin blood agar as a reference method. Overall, 616 samples from clinical mastitis cases were analysed. Using the reference method, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, mixed bacterial growth, contaminated samples and yeast were determined in 32.6%, 20.0%, 2.5%, 14.1% and 1.1% of the samples, respectively. In 29.7% of the samples, microbiological growth could not be identified. Using the Petrifilm™ concept, bacterial growth was detected in 59% of the culture-negative samples. The sensitivity of the Petrifilm™ for Gram-positive and Gram-negative MCP was 85.2% and 89.9%, respectively. The specificity was 75.4% for Gram-positive and 88.4% for Gram-negative MCP. For the culture

  4. Experimental Study for Automatic Colony Counting System Based Onimage Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Junlong; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Guoxin

    Colony counting in many colony experiments is detected by manual method at present, therefore it is difficult for man to execute the method quickly and accurately .A new automatic colony counting system was developed. Making use of image-processing technology, a study was made on the feasibility of distinguishing objectively white bacterial colonies from clear plates according to the RGB color theory. An optimal chromatic value was obtained based upon a lot of experiments on the distribution of the chromatic value. It has been proved that the method greatly improves the accuracy and efficiency of the colony counting and the counting result is not affected by using inoculation, shape or size of the colony. It is revealed that automatic detection of colony quantity using image-processing technology could be an effective way.

  5. Distribución y concentración de Coliformes totales, Coliformes fecales, Escherichia coli Y Enterococos en el agua y sedimento en el estero salado (tramos B, D, E Y G)

    OpenAIRE

    Baños Cruz, Luís Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Se realizaron dos muestreos en marea roja, uno en Diciembre del 2009 y el otro en Enero del 2010, para determinar los microorganismos en el Estero Salado como indicadores de contaminación. El análisis incluyó parámetros fisicoquímicos como pH, salinidad, temperatura y oxígeno disuelto, y además la medición de las bacterias coliformes totales, coliformes fecales, Escherichia coli y enterococos. Se obtuvieron altos niveles de contaminación bacteriana en el agua. La mayor contaminación está...

  6. Counting statistics in radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.

    1975-01-01

    The application of statistical methods to radioactivity measurement problems is analyzed in several chapters devoted successively to: the statistical nature of radioactivity counts; the application to radioactive counting of two theoretical probability distributions, Poisson's distribution law and the Laplace-Gauss law; true counting laws; corrections related to the nature of the apparatus; statistical techniques in gamma spectrometry [fr

  7. Do your syringes count?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This study was designed to investigate anecdotal evidence that residual Sestamibi (MIBI) activity vaned in certain situations. For rest studies different brands of syringes were tested to see if the residuals varied. The period of time MIBI doses remained in the syringe between dispensing and injection was also considered as a possible source of increased residual counts. Stress Mibi syringe residual activities were measured to assess if the method of stress test affected residual activity. MIBI was reconstituted using 13 Gbq of Technetium in 3mls of normal saline then boiled for 10 minutes. Doses were dispensed according to department protocol and injected via cannula. Residual syringes were collected for three syringe types. In each case the barrel and plunger were measured separately. As the syringe is flushed during the exercise stress test and not the pharmacological stress test the chosen method was recorded. No relationship was demonstrated between the time MIBI remained in a syringe prior to injection and residual activity. Residual activity was not affected by method of stress test used. Actual injected activity can be calculated if the amount of activity remaining in the syringe post injection is known. Imaging time can be adjusted for residual activity to optimise count statistics. Preliminary results in this study indicate there is no difference in residual activity between syringe brands.Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  8. Effect of tetracycline dose and treatment-mode on selection of resistant coliform bacteria in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This study describes results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on selection of antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4-7 weeks of age) were treated...... with oxytetracycline against Lawsonia intracellularis induced diarrhea in five pig herds. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with (i) high (20 mg/kg), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg) and (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dosage, (iv) oral-pen-wise (small group) treatment (10 mg...... significant changes in number or proportion of tetracycline resistant coliforms. Selection for tetracycline-resistant coliforms was significantly correlated to selection for ampicillin- and sulfonamide-resistant, but not to cefotaxime-resistant strains. In conclusion, difference in dose of oxytetracycline...

  9. COMPARISON OF NON-COLIFORM BACTERIA IN BALI CATTLE FAECES BASED ON LEVEL OF MATURITY AND MAINTENANCE PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Andre Sulaksana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aim was to determine the effect of maintenance type and maturity level of bali cattle to the total of non coliform bacteria in bali cattle. A total of 24 samples of bali cattle’s feces were used. This study was a Factorial 2 x 3 of group-randomised design, contained of two type maintenance (TPA Suwung and Sobangan and three levels of cattle maturity (calves, heifers, and adult. The groups were based on time sampling. The data then analyzed using Analysis of Variance Test and continued by using Least Significant Different test. The results showed that the amount of non-coliform bacteria in adult bali cattle feces were higher then heifers and calves. Total of non coliform bacteria in bali cattle in  landfill was higher then the cattle that reared in captivity in Bali Cattle Breeding Center, the Sobangan village of Mengwi Badung regency.

  10. Short communication: Bacterial counts in recycled manure solids bedding replaced daily or deep packed in freestalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorter, D E; Kester, H J; Hogan, J S

    2014-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare bacterial counts of mastitis pathogens in deep-packed manure solids bedding with those in manure solids bedding replaced daily from mattresses. Eighteen Holstein cows were housed in 1 pen with 18 stalls. One row of 9 stalls was equipped with mattresses topped with bedding. The back one-third of these stalls toward the alleyway was covered in 25 mm of recycled manure solids, which was removed daily for the next 6 d and replaced with bedding from the brisket board and lunge space areas of stalls. The second row of 9 stalls was bedded for 3 wk with 100 to 150 mm of deep-pack recycled manure bedding from which only fecal matter was removed daily. After 3 wk, bedding treatments were changed between rows in a switchback design. Mean total gram-negative bacterial counts did not differ between treatments throughout the experiment. Coliform and Klebsiella spp. bacterial counts were lower in daily replaced bedding compared with deep pack across the experiment and on each of d 0, 1, 2, and 6. Streptococcal counts were reduced in daily replacement stalls compared with deep-pack stalls on d 0 and greater in daily replacement stalls compared with deep-pack stalls on d 1, 2, and 6. Daily replacement of recycled manure bedding from the back one-third of the stalls appeared to be an effective approach to reducing exposure to coliforms, specifically Klebsiella, but not streptococci. However, bacterial counts in bedding from both treatments were elevated throughout the trial and resulted in considerable risk for exposure to teats and development of intramammary infections. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling Fate and Transport of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Using SWAT 2005 (Case Study: Jajrood River Watershed, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrebi, M.; Tajrishy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Jajrood River watershed is one of the main drinking water resources of the capital city of Tehran, Iran. In addition it has been available as many recreational usages especially in the warm months. As a result of being located near one of the crowded cities of the world, a variety of microbial pollutions is commonly perceived in the Jajrood River. Among them, there are strong concerns about fecal coliform bacteria concentration. This article aimed to model fate and transport of fecal coliform bacteria in Jajrood River watershed using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model version 2005. Potential pollutant sources in the study area were detected and quantified for modeling purposes. In spite of being lack of knowledge about bacteria die-off rate in small river bodies, as well as in other watershed-based forms, fecal coliform bacteria die-off rates were estimated using both laboratory and field data investigations with some simplifications. The SWAT model was calibrated over an extended time period (1997-2002) for this watershed. The river flow calibrated using SUFI-2 software and resulted in a very good outputs (R2=0.82, E=0.81). Furthermore SWAT model was validated over January 2003 to September 2005 in the study area and has resulted in good outputs (R2=0.61, E=0.57). This research illustrates SWAT 2005 capability to model fecal coliform bacteria in a populated watershed, and deals with most of watershed microbial pollution sources that are usually observed in developing countries. Fecal coliform concentration simulation results were mostly in the same order in comparison with real data. However, Differences were judged to be related to lack of input data. In this article different aspects of SWAT capabilities for modeling of fecal coliform bacteria concentration will be reviewed and it will present new insights in bacteria modeling procedures especially for mountainous, high populated and small sized watersheds.

  12. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  13. High precision refractometry based on Fresnel diffraction from phase plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoly, M Taghi; Naraghi, Roxana Rezvani; Nahal, Arashmid; Hassani, Khosrow

    2012-05-01

    When a transparent plane-parallel plate is illuminated at a boundary region by a monochromatic parallel beam of light, Fresnel diffraction occurs because of the abrupt change in phase imposed by the finite change in refractive index at the plate boundary. The visibility of the diffraction fringes varies periodically with changes in incident angle. The visibility period depends on the plate thickness and the refractive indices of the plate and the surrounding medium. Plotting the phase change versus incident angle or counting the visibility repetition in an incident-angle interval provides, for a given plate thickness, the refractive index of the plate very accurately. It is shown here that the refractive index of a plate can be determined without knowing the plate thickness. Therefore, the technique can be utilized for measuring plate thickness with high precision. In addition, by installing a plate with known refractive index in a rectangular cell filled with a liquid and following the described procedures, the refractive index of the liquid is obtained. The technique is applied to measure the refractive indices of a glass slide, distilled water, and ethanol. The potential and merits of the technique are also discussed.

  14. Limitations of the A-1M method for fecal coliform enumeration in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysner, C A; Weagant, S D

    1987-01-01

    Use of the A-1M method, which was originally devised for testing water samples, has recently been extended for enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in shellfish and other food products. Results of our study indicate that while this method is reliable for analysis of growing waters, the use of the A-1M method for testing Pacific oysters may be less reliable because bacteria not belonging to the coliform group but which are sometimes present in these animals also give a positive reaction.

  15. Fresh steam-flaked corn in cattle feedlots is an important site for fecal coliform contamination by house flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Zurek, Ludek

    2015-03-01

    House flies are a common pest at food animal facilities, including cattle feedlots. Previously, house flies were shown to play an important role in the ecology of Escherichia coli O157:H7; house flies in cattle feedlots carried this zoonotic pathogen and were able to contaminate cattle through direct contact and/or by contamination of drinking water and feed. Because house flies aggregate in large numbers on fresh ( # 6 h) steam-flaked corn (FSFC) used in cattle feed, the aim of this study was to assess FSFC in a cattle feedlot as a potentially important site of fecal coliform contamination by house flies. House flies and FSFC samples were collected, homogenized, and processed for culturing of fecal coliforms on membrane fecal coliform agar. Selected isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and representative isolates from each phylogenetic group were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Fecal coliforms were undetectable in FSFC shortly (0 h) after flaking; however, in summer, after 4 to 6 h, the concentrations of fecal coliforms ranged from 1.9 × 10(3) to 3.7 × 10(4) CFU/g FSFC (mean, 1.1 ± 3.0 × 10(4) CFU/g). House flies from FSFC carried between 7.6 × 10(2) and 4.1 × 10(6) CFU of fecal coliforms per fly (mean, 6.0 ± 2.3 × 10(5) CFU per fly). Fecal coliforms were represented by E. coli (85.1%), Klebsiella spp. (10.6%), and Citrobacter spp. (4.3%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated clonal matches of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. between house flies and FSFC. In contrast, in winter and in the absence of house flies, the contamination of corn by fecal coliforms was significantly (∼10-fold) lower. These results indicate that FSFC is an important site for bacterial contamination by flies and possible exchange of E. coli and other bacteria among house flies. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential use of screens or blowers to limit the access of house flies to FSFC and therefore their effectiveness in preventing

  16. Modal Logics with Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areces, Carlos; Hoffmann, Guillaume; Denis, Alexandre

    We present a modal language that includes explicit operators to count the number of elements that a model might include in the extension of a formula, and we discuss how this logic has been previously investigated under different guises. We show that the language is related to graded modalities and to hybrid logics. We illustrate a possible application of the language to the treatment of plural objects and queries in natural language. We investigate the expressive power of this logic via bisimulations, discuss the complexity of its satisfiability problem, define a new reasoning task that retrieves the cardinality bound of the extension of a given input formula, and provide an algorithm to solve it.

  17. Digital coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, S.M.; Ius, D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a digital coincidence-counting system which comprises a custom-built data acquisition card and associated PC software. The system has been designed to digitise the pulse-trains from two radiation detectors at a rate of 20 MSamples/s with 12-bit resolution. Through hardware compression of the data, the system can continuously record both individual pulse-shapes and the time intervals between pulses. Software-based circuits are used to process the stored pulse trains. These circuits are constructed simply by linking together icons representing various components such as coincidence mixers, time delays, single-channel analysers, deadtimes and scalers. This system enables a pair of pulse trains to be processed repeatedly using any number of different methods. Some preliminary results are presented in order to demonstrate the versatility and efficiency of this new method. (orig.)

  18. Digital coincidence counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, S. M.; Ius, D.

    1996-02-01

    This paper reports on the development of a digital coincidence-counting system which comprises a custom-built data acquisition card and associated PC software. The system has been designed to digitise the pulse-trains from two radiation detectors at a rate of 20 MSamples/s with 12-bit resolution. Through hardware compression of the data, the system can continuously record both individual pulse-shapes and the time intervals between pulses. Software-based circuits are used to process the stored pulse trains. These circuits are constructed simply by linking together icons representing various components such as coincidence mixers, time delays, single-channel analysers, deadtimes and scalers. This system enables a pair of pulse trains to be processed repeatedly using any number of different methods. Some preliminary results are presented in order to demonstrate the versatility and efficiency of this new method.

  19. Counting statistics in low level radioactivity measurements fluctuating counting efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazdur, M.F.

    1976-01-01

    A divergence between the probability distribution of the number of nuclear disintegrations and the number of observed counts, caused by counting efficiency fluctuation, is discussed. The negative binominal distribution is proposed to describe the probability distribution of the number of counts, instead of Poisson distribution, which is assumed to hold for the number of nuclear disintegrations only. From actual measurements the r.m.s. amplitude of counting efficiency fluctuation is estimated. Some consequences of counting efficiency fluctuation are investigated and the corresponding formulae are derived: (1) for detection limit as a function of the number of partial measurements and the relative amplitude of counting efficiency fluctuation, and (2) for optimum allocation of the number of partial measurements between sample and background. (author)

  20. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  1. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  2. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods ...

  3. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... ready, you can try new foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. Then on one side, cut it ... and starchy foods. See this list of grains and starchy foods . ...

  4. COUNTS OF MICROORGANISMS CAUSING BOVINE MASTITIS AND STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Oliveira Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused mainly by microorganisms, altering the characteristics of milk and results in significant economic losses for this production complex. The study aimed to determine the main causative agents of bovine mastitis in a dairy farm in Rio Pomba city, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and evaluate the use of plant extract and antibiotics commonly used in the control of microorganisms that cause this disease. Raw milk samples coming from 47 dairy cow were individually collected for microbiological evaluation. We also evaluated the sensitivity of isolates from the plant extract and the antibiotics commonly used in the farm. It was found that 17.0 %, 31.9 %, 85.4 % and 38.3 % of the samples presented, respectively, Staphylococcus aureus, coliforms, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, most of the samples showed counts of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms and Streptococcus sp. between 104 and 105 CFU.mL-1, while the counts of S. aureus ranged between 102 and 103 CFU.mL-1 in most of samples. A higher efficacy of tetracycline on the isolates of S. aureus was verified and of ampicillin on the E. coli isolates. All isolates of the latter bacteria were resistant to plant extract. Due to the high incidence of microorganisms, we emphasize the need for implementation of Good Agricultural Practices in milk production, because these bacteria are coming from hair, skin, mucous membranes of animals and/or belonging to the enteric microbiota of mammals, respectively.

  5. Isolation and characterization of coliforms from glacial ice and water in Canada's High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, S J; Shears, P; Platt, D J

    1997-05-01

    Ellesmere Island is the northern most member of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago with over one-third of the land mass covered by ice. A joint services expedition to the island's Blue Mountains offered a unique opportunity for microbiological studies of resident bacteria in an environment uninhabited by man. Over 100 samples of water and ice were collected from stream, lake and glacier and the filtrate cultured under canvas. Bacterial growth was harvested onto swabs for transport back to the UK and 50 coliforms chosen at random for identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Most of the glacial strains were capsulated, pigmented and some over 2000 years old. Genera such as Serratia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Yersinia were found; speciation was inconclusive and some organisms remain unidentified. Ampicillin resistance was evident in 80% of water isolates as opposed to 30% of the glacial organisms, but the isolates were generally exquisitely susceptible to antibiotics. The facility for ampicillin resistance did not appear to be transferable. Plasmid DNA was found in 33% of the glacial organisms and over 50% of the water isolates. Similar profiles were identified within and apparently between species and required plasmid restriction analysis to help establish identity. Plasmid-free Serratia spp. were subjected to genomic fingerprinting. Indistinguishable patterns were found within sets of isolates both widely spaced by distance and collection date and it was postulated that coliforms able to survive an Arctic environment had spread extensively throughout the expedition area. In conclusion, this study contributes towards knowledge of naturally occurring antibiotic resistance, confirms the presence of plasmids and genotypic data provided evidence that potentially ancient organisms from glaciers can be cultured from water samples significantly distant.

  6. Fast coliform detection in portable microbe enrichment unit (PMEU) with Colilert(®) medium and bubbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakalehto, Elias; Heitto, Anneli; Heitto, Lauri

    2013-09-01

    Laboratory strains of coliforms Escherichia coli and Klebsiella mobilis were used to artificially contaminate water samples in two different cultivation and detection systems, without and with bubble flow. Samples were collected with an automated system (ASCS). The positive coliform signal caused the color change into yellow (at 550-570nm). This signal could also be transmitted on-line to cell phones. E. coli containing samples emitted UV fluorescence at 480-560nm when activated by UV light. If cultivation was started with inocula varying from 10,000 to 1cfu/ml, the positive detection was obtained between 2 and 18h, respectively, in Colilert medium using Coline PMEU device without gas bubbling. Accordingly, a single K. mobilis cell produced detectable growth in 18h. Various clinical E. coli strains were compared to each other with equal inoculum sizes, and they showed slight variations in the initiation and speed of growth. The gas bubble flow in PMEU Spectrion promoted the mixing and interaction of bacteria and indicator media and speeded the onset of growth. Carbon dioxide also accelerated bacterial growth. In the presence of vancomycin, the onset of E. coli culture growth was speeded up by the volatile outlet flow from previous cultures. In the last cultivation syringe in a series of five, the lag phase disappeared and the growth of the inoculum continued without major interruption. the stimulation of the cultures by the gas flow turned out to be a useful means for improving the detection of indicator bacteria. It could also be used in combination with antibiotic selection in the broth medium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. EFEKTIVITAS KAPORIT PADA PROSES KLORINASI TERHADAP PENURUNAN BAKTERI Coliform DARI LIMBAH CAIR RUMAH SAKIT X SAMARINDA (The Effectiveness of Calcium Hypochlorite to Chlorination Process in Decreasing the Amount of Coliform Bacteria in the Wastewater of X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Busyairi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kaporit pada limbah cair rumah sakit digunakan sebagai desinfektan, tetapi, penggunaan kaporit dengan dosis yang tidak tepat akan menyebabkan pembentukan senyawa Trihalomethane (THMs yang beracun dan bersifat karsinogenik. Pada limbah cair rumah sakit X Samarinda, diperoleh nilai MPN Coliform sebesar >160.000 MPN / 100 mL dengan residu klor sebesar 0 ppm. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan dosis optimum dari penggunaan kaporit menggunakan titik Breakpoint Chlorination (BPC dan pengaruhnya terhadap penurunan Coliform. Analisis dilakukan dengan titrasi iodometri dan menghitung jumlah bakteri Coliform memakai metode Most Probable Number (MPN. Penentuan dosis kaporit berdasarkan dosis optimum pada titik BPC dimaksudkan agar dapat menjaga residu klor dari penambahan dosis yang semakin meningkat. Hasil penelitian mempengarui rerata kadar bahan organik pada sampel limbah cair sebesar 137,26 ppm, sehingga dosis kaporit yang dibubuhkan dimulai dari 130-165 ppm. Titik BPC terjadi pada pembubuhan klor aktif 160 ppm untuk kedua waktu kontak yaitu 30 dan 40 menit. Pada titik BPC, waktu kontak 30 menit diperoleh rerata persentase penurunan nilai Coliform yaitu 98,21% sebesar 2.899 MPN / 100 mL dengan residu klor sebesar 88 ppm. Pada waktu kontak 40 menit diperoleh persentase penurunan bakteri Coliform hingga 98,83%, yaitu dari >160.000/100 mL menjadi 1.866/100 mL dengan residu klor 97,5 ppm. ABSTRACT Calcium hypochlorite of hospital wastewater serves as disinfectant, however, inappropriate dose of it will lead to the formation of Trihalomethane (THMs which is toxic and carcinogenic. The value of MPN Coliform of wastewater in X hospital Samarinda is >160.000 MPN / 100 mL with residual chlorine 0 ppm. This research aims at determining the optimum dose of calcium hypochlorite usage by using Breakpoint Chlorination curve and its effect to Coliform decrease. Further, the analysis is done by employing iodometric titration and the amount of Coliform

  8. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  9. Viral and bacterial contamination in a sedimentary aquifer in Uruguay: evaluation of coliforms as regional indicators of viral contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo, Pablo; Colina, Rodney; Victoria, Matias; Alvareda, Elena; Burutatran, Luciana; Ramos, Julian; Olivera, María; Soler, Joan

    2015-04-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological (fecal) analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus and fecal bacteria in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. An initial screening campaign of 44 wells was performed in which, besides total and fecal coliforms, rotavirus and adenovirus were detected. A subgroup of the screening wells (15) where selected for bimonthly sampling during a year. In accordance with literature results, single well data analysis shows that coliform and viral contamination can be considered as independent variables. However, when spatial data is integrated, coliform and viral contamination show linear correlation. In this work we present the survey results, we analyse the temporal incidence of variables like precipitation, temperature and chemical composition in well contamination and we discuss the value of coliforms as global indicator of viral contamination for the Salto aquifer.

  10. EFFECT OF OZONATED WATER ON THE ASSIMILABLE ORGANIC CARBON AND COLIFORM GROWTH RESPONSE VALUES AND ON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and coliform growth response (CGR) are bioassays used to determine water quality. AOC and CGR are better indexes in determining whether water can support the growth of bacteria than biological oxygen demand (BOD). The AOC value of reconditione...

  11. Restoring water quality in the polluted Turag-Tongi-Balu river system, Dhaka: Modelling nutrient and total coliform intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Paul; Bussi, Gianbattista; Hossain, Mohammed Abed; Dolk, Michaela; Das, Partho; Comber, Sean; Peters, Rebecca; Charles, Katrina J; Hope, Rob; Hossain, Md Sarwar

    2018-08-01

    River water quality in rapidly urbanising Asian cities threatens to damage the resource base on which human health, economic growth and poverty reduction all depend. Dhaka reflects the challenges and opportunities for balancing these dynamic and complex trade-offs which goals can be achieved through effective policy interventions. There is a serious problem of water pollution in central Dhaka, in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River system in Bangladesh with the river system being one of the most polluted in the world at the moment. A baseline survey of water chemistry and total coliforms has been undertaken and shows dissolved oxygen close to zero in the dry season, high organic loading together with extreme levels of Ammonium-N and total coliform in the water. Models have been applied to assess hydrochemical processes in the river and evaluate alternative strategies for policy and the management of the pollution issues. In particular models of flow, Nitrate-N, Ammonium-N and indicator bacteria (total coliforms) are applied to simulate water quality in the river system. Various scenarios are explored to clean up the river system, including flow augmentation and improved effluent treatment. The model results indicate that improved effluent treatment is likely to have a more significant impact on reducing Ammonium-N and total coliforms than flow augmentation, but a combined strategy would greatly reduce the pollution problems in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River System. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Inactivation and injury of total coliform bacteria after primary disinfection of drinking water by TiO2 photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    In this study the potential application of TiO 2 photocatalysis as primary disinfection system of drinking water was investigated in terms of coliform bacteria inactivation and injury. As model water the effluent of biological denitrification unit for nitrate removal from groundwater, which is characterized by high organic matter and bacteria release, was used. The injury of photocatalysis on coliform bacteria was characterized by means of selective (mEndo) and less selective (mT7) culture media. Different catalyst loadings as well as photolysis and adsorption effects were investigated. Photocatalysis was effective in coliform bacteria inactivation (91-99% after 60 min irradiation time, depending on both catalyst loading and initial density of coliform bacteria detected by mEndo), although no total removal was observed after 60 min irradiation time. The contribution of adsorption mechanism was significant (60-98% after 60 min, depending on catalyst loading) compared to previous investigations probably due to the nature of source water rich in particulate organic matter and biofilm. Photocatalysis process did not result in any irreversible injury (98.8% being the higher injury) under investigated conditions, thus a bacteria regrowth may take place under optimum environment conditions if any final disinfection process (e.g., chlorine or chlorine dioxide) is not used.

  13. Comparison of methods for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in water samples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Nobel PJ; Strating S; Mooijman KA; Engels GB; Brouwer A; Kiwa; PWN; MGB

    2001-01-01

    The new European Drinking Water Directive (December 1998) defines a reference method for estimating the concentration of coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water. Laboratories may use other methods, but should demonstrate that results obtained are at least as reliable as those produced with

  14. Inactivation and injury of total coliform bacteria after primary disinfection of drinking water by TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Luigi, E-mail: l.rizzo@unisa.it [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    In this study the potential application of TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis as primary disinfection system of drinking water was investigated in terms of coliform bacteria inactivation and injury. As model water the effluent of biological denitrification unit for nitrate removal from groundwater, which is characterized by high organic matter and bacteria release, was used. The injury of photocatalysis on coliform bacteria was characterized by means of selective (mEndo) and less selective (mT7) culture media. Different catalyst loadings as well as photolysis and adsorption effects were investigated. Photocatalysis was effective in coliform bacteria inactivation (91-99% after 60 min irradiation time, depending on both catalyst loading and initial density of coliform bacteria detected by mEndo), although no total removal was observed after 60 min irradiation time. The contribution of adsorption mechanism was significant (60-98% after 60 min, depending on catalyst loading) compared to previous investigations probably due to the nature of source water rich in particulate organic matter and biofilm. Photocatalysis process did not result in any irreversible injury (98.8% being the higher injury) under investigated conditions, thus a bacteria regrowth may take place under optimum environment conditions if any final disinfection process (e.g., chlorine or chlorine dioxide) is not used.

  15. A Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactor for faecal coliform removal from an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaya Beas, R.E.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Lier, van J.B.; Zeeman, G.

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the faecal coliforms removal capacity of Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactors as a post-treatment for an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. Three long-term continuous lab-scale DHS reactors i.e. a reactor with cube type sponges without

  16. Total bakteri asam laktat dan Coliform pada ileum dan sekum ayam broiler yang diberi Spirulina platensis dengan lama pemberian berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Sulfani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the amount of lactic acid bacteria and coliform inside the caecum and ileum of broilers. 240 days old chicks broiler (DOC with 42.015 ± 0.219 g average body weight were used in this research as an experimental objects. The chicks broiler were treated with 0.04% antibiotics and 1% Spirulina plantensis as a prebiotic under different interval ingestion. This experiment was constructed under completely random design (CRD with 4 treatments and 5 repetition. The treatment that was applied were T0 (Poultry feed + 0.04% Zinc bacitracin, T1 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 7 days, T2 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 21 days, and T4 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 35 days. The parameter measurements conducted in the 32nd day with random sampling from each experiments. Total amount of lactic acid and coliform from each samples were observed and the variance was with 5% accuration. The result showed the total amout of Coliform in ileum was significantly different (P<0.05 in the other hand the total amount of Coliform and acid bacteria in caecum were not influenced (P<0.05. It can be inferred that the Spirulina platensis treatment for 3 weeks reduced the total amount of bacteria inside caecum and ileum.

  17. Effect of anaerobic digestion temperature on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline in swine manure or monensin in cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Wells, J E; Shelver, W L; Rice, C P; Armstrong, D L; Parker, D B

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of anaerobic digestion at 22, 38 and 55°C on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline (CTC) in swine manure or monensin (MON) in cattle manure. Swine or cattle were fed the respective growth promotant, manure was collected, and 2-l laboratory methane digesters were established at the various temperatures and sampled over 25 or 28 days. After 21 days, the concentration of CTC in the 22, 38 and 55°C swine digester slurries decreased 7, 80 and 98%, respectively. Coliforms in the 22°C digester slurries were still viable after 25 days; however, they were not detectable in the 38 and 55°C slurries after 3 and 1 days, respectively. After 28 days, the concentration of MON in the 22, 38 and 55°C cattle digester slurries decreased 3, 8 and 27%, respectively. Coliforms in the 22°C cattle digester slurries were still viable after 28 days; however, they were not detectable in the 38 and 55°C slurries after 14 and 1 days, respectively. These studies indicate that anaerobic digestion at 38 or 55°C may be an effective treatment to reduce coliforms and CTC; however, it is not an effective treatment to reduce MON. More studies are needed to determine which pharmaceuticals are susceptible to degradation by a specific manure treatment to prevent negative environmental consequences. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count ...

  19. Let's Make Data Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budden, A. E.; Abrams, S.; Chodacki, J.; Cruse, P.; Fenner, M.; Jones, M. B.; Lowenberg, D.; Rueda, L.; Vieglais, D.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of research has traditionally been measured by citations to journal publications and used extensively for evaluation and assessment in academia, but this process misses the impact and reach of data and software as first-class scientific products. For traditional publications, Article-Level Metrics (ALM) capture the multitude of ways in which research is disseminated and used, such as references and citations within social media and other journal articles. Here we present on the extension of usage and citation metrics collection to include other artifacts of research, namely datasets. The Make Data Count (MDC) project will enable measuring the impact of research data in a manner similar to what is currently done with publications. Data-level metrics (DLM) are a multidimensional suite of indicators measuring the broad reach and use of data as legitimate research outputs. By making data metrics openly available for reuse in a number of different ways, the MDC project represents an important first step on the path towards the full integration of data metrics into the research data management ecosystem. By assuring researchers that their contributions to scholarly progress represented by data corpora are acknowledged, data level metrics provide a foundation for streamlining the advancement of knowledge by actively promoting desirable best practices regarding research data management, publication, and sharing.

  20. LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Group, Nuclear Instrumentation

    1966-10-01

    The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.

  1. SUMS Counts-Related Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...

  2. Presence of faecal coliforms and selected heavy metals in ice cubes from food outlets in Taman Universiti, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Meor Ahmad, Z; Abdul Wahab, R

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of iced beverages is common in Malaysia although specific research focusing on its safety parameters such as presence of faecal coliforms and heavy metal elements remains scarce. A study conducted in Kelantan indicated that faecal coliforms were detected in the majority of the ice cube samples analyzed, largely attributable to improper handling. Hence, it was found pertinent to conduct similar study in other parts of the country such as Johor Bahru if the similar pattern prevailed. Therefore, this present cross sectional study which randomly sampled ice cubes from 30 permanent food outlets in Taman Universiti, Johor Bahru for detecting contamination by faecal coliforms and selected heavy metal elements (lead, copper, manganese and zinc) acquires significance. Faecal coliforms were detected in 11 (36.67%) of the samples, ranging between 1 CFU/100 mL to > 50 CFU/100 mL; two of the samples were grossly contaminated (>50 CFU/100 mL). Interestingly, while positive detection of lead was observed in 29 of the 30 ice cube samples (mean: 0.511±0.105 ppm; range: 0.489-0.674 ppm), copper, manganese and zinc were not detected. In addition, analysis on commercially bottled mineral water as well as in tap water samples did not detect such contaminations. Therefore, it appears that (1) contamination of faecal coliforms in ice cubes in food outlets in Malaysia may not be sporadic in pattern but rather prevalent and (2) the source of water used for manufacturing the ice cubes that contained significant amount of lead would suggest that (3) it was neither originated from the treated tap water supply nor bottled mineral water or (4) perhaps contaminated during manufacturing process. Further studies exploring the source of water used for manufacturing these ice cubes as well as the handling process among food operators deserve consideration.

  3. Genetic relatedness of faecal coliforms and enterococci bacteria isolated from water and sediments of the Apies River, Gauteng, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwanzala, Mutshiene Deogratias; Abia, Akebe Luther King; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Keshri, Jitendra; Momba, Ndombo Benteke Maggy

    2017-12-01

    To date, the microbiological quality of river sediments and its impact on water resources are not included in the water quality monitoring assessment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish genetic relatedness between faecal coliforms and enterococci isolated from the river water and riverbed sediments of Apies River to better understand the genetic similarity of microorganisms between the sediment and water phases. Indicator bacteria were subjected to a molecular study, which consisted of PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA gene using specific primers for faecal coliforms and enterococci, respectively. Results revealed that the Apies River had high faecal pollution levels with enterococci showing low to moderate correlation coefficient (r 2 values ranged from 0.2605 to 0.7499) compared to the faecal coliforms which showed zero to low correlation (r 2 values ranged from 0.0027 to 0.1407) indicating that enterococci may be better indicator than faecal coliforms for detecting faecal contamination in riverbed sediments. The phylogenetic tree of faecal coliforms revealed a 98% homology among their nucleotide sequences confirming the close genetic relatedness between river water and riverbed sediment isolates. The phylogenetic tree of the enterococci showed that Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are the predominant species found in both river water and riverbed sediments with bootstrap values of ≥99%. A high degree of genetic relatedness between sediment and water isolates indicated a possible common ancestry and transmission pathway. We recommend the microbial monitoring of riverbed sediments as it harbours more diverse microbial community and once resuspended may cause health and environmental problems.

  4. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  5. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  6. High loading uranium plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pari of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat hiving a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process

  7. Heat insulating plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, J.A.F.

    1976-10-28

    Micro-porous insulation plates are dealt with, for example, how they are used in the insulation of heat storage devices. Since one side of such plates is exposed to a temperature of over 700/sup 0/C, a shrinkage of the glass texture of the covering can occur, which can exceed the shrinkage of the inner micro-porous material, so that cracks and splits in the high temperature side of the covering can come about. The task of the invention is to design the plate in such a way as to prevent this from happening. For this purpose the plate is provided, according to invention specifications, with flutes, waves, ribs, waffle or grid patterns and the covering is set into the recesses originating from this.

  8. Create Your Plate

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  9. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a- ...

  10. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  11. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

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    Full Text Available ... Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

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    Full Text Available ... diabetes. Other Ways to Give Become a Member Vehicle Donation Planned Giving Options Memorial Giving Brochures & Envelopes ... to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with ...

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    Full Text Available ... breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and ... on one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. Fill the ...

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    Full Text Available ... these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of ... Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness In My Community Calendar of ...

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    Full Text Available ... critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the lives of those with diabetes. $50 $100 $250 $500 Other Other Ways ... Meals > Create Your Plate ...

  1. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

  2. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Easy Advocacy Checklists for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  3. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We Can Help Enroll in the Living WIth ...

  4. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... today and help fund grants supporting next generation scientists. Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help. ...

  5. Radioimmunoassay in microtiter plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, T.; Hirschberg, H.

    1987-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay was performed in the wells of casein-coated microplates employing 125 I-labelled sheep anti-human second antibody. The antigen-antibody complexes were thereafter dislodged from the well walls using detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the entire contents of the wells were simultaneously absorbed into 48 cellulose acetate-absorbing cartridges. All 48 cartridges were transferred to counting vials and the radioactivity determined by standard gamma counting techniques. The particular advantage of the method described here is the ease with which the supernatants can be collected and transferred to counting vials with minimal handling of radioactive samples. 6 refs.; 1 figure; 1 table

  6. Effect of Arbutus pavarii, Salvia officinalis and Zizyphus Vulgaris on growth performance and intestinal bacterial count of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Asheg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of three native plants from El-Jabal al ELAkhdar, (Libya on performance and cecal coliform count of broiler chickens. A total of 1260 one-day-old male Cobb chickens were used in the experiment. The birds were assigned to 7 treatment groups (6 replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments included basal diet with no additive (control, and 6 other dietary treatments (Arbutus pavarii, Salvia officinalis and Zizyphus Vulgaris each of which was added at the rate of 0.5 g and 1 g/kg of basal diet. Results explicitly revealed that all dietary treatments had a significant effect on body performance of broiler chickens compared to the control with the exception of the dietary treatment of S. officinalis at dosage of 0.5 g/kg that has expressed noticeable reduction in body weight. Coliform counts in the cecum of birds receiving 1% A. pavarii and 1% Z. Vulgaris were significantly lower (P ⩽ 0.05 than those of control group from early weeks of treatments, whereas all plant shows a significant lowering (P ⩽ 0.05 of cecal coliform count during the rest of experiment compared to control group. These results emphasize the potential biotic role of such plants together with the immune modulating effects on treated birds. However, further pharmacological and clinical work should be adopted in the future to present an obvious understandable theory behind the potential beneficial as well as side effects of such natural plants.

  7. Track counting in radon dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenbeck, Ingo; Koehler, Bernd; Reichert, Klaus-Martin

    2013-01-01

    The newly developed, computer-controlled track counting system is capable of imaging and analyzing the entire area of nuclear track detectors. The high optical resolution allows a new analysis approach for the process of automated counting using digital image processing technologies. This way, higher exposed detectors can be evaluated reliably by an automated process as well. (orig.)

  8. BAO Plate Archive Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Paronyan, G. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Andreasyan, H. R.; Azatyan, N. M.; Kostandyan, G. R.; Samsonyan, A. L.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Harutyunyan, V. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) Plate Archive Project that is aimed at digitization, extraction and analysis of archival data and building an electronic database and interactive sky map. BAO Plate Archive consists of 37,500 photographic plates and films, obtained with 2.6m telescope, 1m and 0.5m Schmidt telescopes and other smaller ones during 1947-1991. The famous Markarian Survey (or the First Byurakan Survey, FBS) 2000 plates were digitized in 2002-2005 and the Digitized FBS (DFBS, www.aras.am/Dfbs/dfbs.html) was created. New science projects have been conducted based on this low-dispersion spectroscopic material. Several other smaller digitization projects have been carried out as well, such as part of Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) plates, photographic chain plates in Coma, where the blazar ON 231 is located and 2.6m film spectra of FBS Blue Stellar Objects. However, most of the plates and films are not digitized. In 2015, we have started a project on the whole BAO Plate Archive digitization, creation of electronic database and its scientific usage. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) database will accommodate all new data. The project runs in collaboration with the Armenian Institute of Informatics and Automation Problems (IIAP) and will continues during 4 years in 2015-2018. The final result will be an Electronic Database and online Interactive Sky map to be used for further research projects. ArVO will provide all standards and tools for efficient usage of the scientific output and its integration in international databases.

  9. Neutron imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1995-01-01

    Imaging plates have been used in the field of medical diagnosis since long ago, but their usefulness was verified as the two-dimensional detector for analyzing the X-ray crystalline structure of high bio molecules like protein, and they have contributed to the remarkable progress in this field. The great contribution is due to the excellent features, such as the detection efficiency of about 100%, the positional resolution smaller than 0.2 mm, the dynamic range of five digits, and the area of several hundreds mm square. The neutron imaging plates have not yet obtained the sufficient results. It was planned to construct the neutron diffractometer for biological matters, and to put imaging plate neutron detectors (IP-ND) to practical use as the detector. The research on the development of IP-NDs was carried out, and the IPp-NDs having the performance comparable with that for X-ray were able to be produced. Imaging plates are the integral type two-dimensional radiation detector using photostimulated luminescence matters, and their principle is explained. As to neutron imaging plates, the converter, neutron detection efficiency and the flight of secondary particles in photo-stimulated luminescence matters are described. As for the present state of development of neutron imaging plates, the IP-NDs made for trial, the dynamic range, the positional resolution, the detection efficiency and the kinds of converters, and the application of IP-NDs are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Galaxy number counts: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, N.; Shanks, T.; Fong, R.; Jones, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Using the Prime Focus CCD Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope we have determined the form of the B and R galaxy number-magnitude count relations in 12 independent fields for 21 m ccd m and 19 m ccd m 5. The average galaxy count relations lie in the middle of the wide range previously encompassed by photographic data. The field-to-field variation of the counts is small enough to define the faint (B m 5) galaxy count to ±10 per cent and this variation is consistent with that expected from galaxy clustering considerations. Our new data confirm that the B, and also the R, galaxy counts show evidence for strong galaxy luminosity evolution, and that the majority of the evolving galaxies are of moderately blue colour. (author)

  11. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs

  12. Validation of an automated colony counting system for group A Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, H R; Tsoi, S K; Baker, C A; Laho, D; Sanderson-Smith, M L; Steer, A C; Smeesters, P R

    2016-02-08

    The practice of counting bacterial colony forming units on agar plates has long been used as a method to estimate the concentration of live bacteria in culture. However, due to the laborious and potentially error prone nature of this measurement technique, an alternative method is desirable. Recent technologic advancements have facilitated the development of automated colony counting systems, which reduce errors introduced during the manual counting process and recording of information. An additional benefit is the significant reduction in time taken to analyse colony counting data. Whilst automated counting procedures have been validated for a number of microorganisms, the process has not been successful for all bacteria due to the requirement for a relatively high contrast between bacterial colonies and growth medium. The purpose of this study was to validate an automated counting system for use with group A Streptococcus (GAS). Twenty-one different GAS strains, representative of major emm-types, were selected for assessment. In order to introduce the required contrast for automated counting, 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) dye was added to Todd-Hewitt broth with yeast extract (THY) agar. Growth on THY agar with TTC was compared with growth on blood agar and THY agar to ensure the dye was not detrimental to bacterial growth. Automated colony counts using a ProtoCOL 3 instrument were compared with manual counting to confirm accuracy over the stages of the growth cycle (latent, mid-log and stationary phases) and in a number of different assays. The average percentage differences between plating and counting methods were analysed using the Bland-Altman method. A percentage difference of ±10 % was determined as the cut-off for a critical difference between plating and counting methods. All strains measured had an average difference of less than 10 % when plated on THY agar with TTC. This consistency was also observed over all phases of the growth

  13. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... veggies and smaller portions of starchy foods and protein—no special tools or counting required! You can ... then in the other small section, put your protein. See this list of protein foods . Add a ...

  14. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... non-starchy veggies and smaller portions of starchy foods and protein—no special tools or counting required! You can practice with this interactive tool. The healthy meal combinations are endless! Ready ...

  15. Microbiological analysis of coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers in gamma irradiated cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.); Analise microbiologica de coliformes e aerobicos mesofilos em amendoas de cacau (Theobroma cacao L.) irradiadas com radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barata, Anderson Demetrio; Mansur Netto, Elias [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    1995-12-31

    The presence of coliforms in processed foods is an useful indicator of post-sanitization and post processing contamination, and members of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers have great importance in food spoilage. Spore - forming aerobic bacilli have been observed in fermenting cocoa in Jamaica and West Africa. The results of this work has shown a considerable reduction of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers in irradiated Brazilian Comun Cocoa beans as long as the irradiation dose was increased from 1.05 to 3.99 kGy. The presence of coliforms irradiated has not been found even in the coroa beans with the dose of 1.05 kGy. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab.

  16. The removal of thermo-tolerant coliform bacteria by immobilized waste stabilization pond algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, H W; Marcon, A E; Melo, H N

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of laboratory- scale columns of immobilized micro-algae to disinfect effluents using thermo-tolerant coliforms (TTC) as a model system. Cells of a Chlorella species isolated from a waste stabilization pond complex in Northeast Brazil were immobilized in calcium alginate, packed into glass columns and incubated in contact with TTC suspensions for up to 24 hours. Five to six log removals of TTC were achieved in 6 hours and 11 log removals in 12 hours contact time. The results were similar under artificial light and shaded sunlight. However little or no TTC removal occurred in the light in columns of alginate beads without immobilized algae present or when the immobilized algae were incubated in the dark suggesting that the presence of both algae and light were necessary for TTC decay. There was a positive correlation between K(b) values for TTC and increasing pH in the effluent from the immobilized algal columns within the range pH 7.2 and 8.9. The potential of immobilized algal technology for wastewater disinfection may warrant further investigation.

  17. Effect of bovine manure on fecal coliform attachment to soil and soil particles of different sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guber, Andrey K; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Shelton, Daniel R; Yu, Olivia

    2007-05-01

    Manure-borne bacteria can be transported in runoff as free cells, cells attached to soil particles, and cells attached to manure particles. The objectives of this work were to compare the attachment of fecal coliforms (FC) to different soils and soil fractions and to assess the effect of bovine manure on FC attachment to soil and soil fractions. Three sand fractions of different sizes, the silt fraction, and the clay fraction of loam and sandy clay loam soils were separated and used along with soil samples in batch attachment experiments with water-FC suspensions and water-manure-FC suspensions. In the absence of manure colloids, bacterial attachment to soil, silt, and clay particles was much higher than the attachment to sand particles having no organic coating. The attachment to the coated sand particles was similar to the attachment to silt and clay. Manure colloids in suspensions decreased bacterial attachment to soils, clay and silt fractions, and coated sand fractions, but did not decrease the attachment to sand fractions without the coating. The low attachment of bacteria to silt and clay particles in the presence of manure colloids may cause predominantly free-cell transport of manure-borne FC in runoff.

  18. Faecal coliform simulation on sewage discharge for an environmentally sustainable township in Medini Iskandar Johor Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye; Lee, Elizabeth; Woo, Wing Thye; Tan, Wai Kiat

    2017-11-01

    The Medini Iskandar Development is a 2300-acre multi-purpose urban development comprising residential, commercial, educational, business and recreational areas. The developer applied to the Department of Environment (DOE) Johor in July 2008 for approval of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) report for the overall Medini development. A conditional approval of the EIA report was granted by the DOE subject to some conditions, one of which stipulated that sewage effluent from the centralized sewage treatment plant (STP) is not permitted to be discharged into Sungai Pendas. A suitable location for the discharge of sewage into the Selat Johor is to be identified, based on a hydraulic and water quality modelling investigation. This modelling investigation aims to assess the impact of the discharge of treated sewage effluent on the marine water quality and on aquatic life in the Selat Johor. The supplementary EIA report was submitted to the DOE. Approval was granted in December 2011 for the construction of the marine sewage outfall and its operations. This paper presents the sampling and simulation results for key hydraulic and environmental parameters suitable for sustaining acceptable faecal coliform criteria in Selat Johor. Simulation models used include WASP7 developed by USEPA and AQUASEA developed by Vatnaskil Consulting Engineers.

  19. In vivo counting of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.

    1985-03-01

    A state-of-the-art radiation detector system consisting of six individually mounted intrinsic germanium planar detectors, each 20 cm 2 by 13 mm thick, mounted together such that the angle of the whole system can be changed to match the slope of the chest of the person being counted, is described. The sensitivity of the system for counting uranium and plutonium in vivo and the precedures used in calibrating the system are also described. Some results of counts done on uranium mill workers are presented. 15 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  1. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  2. Microbiological analysis of coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers in gamma irradiated cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barata, Anderson Demetrio; Mansur Netto, Elias

    1995-01-01

    The presence of coliforms in processed foods is an useful indicator of post-sanitization and post processing contamination, and members of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers have great importance in food spoilage. Spore - forming aerobic bacilli have been observed in fermenting cocoa in Jamaica and West Africa. The results of this work has shown a considerable reduction of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers in irradiated Brazilian Comun Cocoa beans as long as the irradiation dose was increased from 1.05 to 3.99 kGy. The presence of coliforms irradiated has not been found even in the coroa beans with the dose of 1.05 kGy. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

  3. Colimetria de água marinha em áreas de cultivo e extrativismo de mexilhões no município de Niterói, RJ Coliform enumeration in mussel-growing waters from Niteroi city, RJ-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Pinheiro Jr.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se amostras de água do mar de cinco pontos da Baía de Guanabara quanto ao número mais provável (NMP de coliformes totais e de Escherichia coli usando-se o método fluorogênico, e verificaram-se o pH, a salinidade e a temperatura dos locais de colheita. As contagens de E. coli nas amostras das estações Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz foram, em média, acima do previsto na legislação, enquanto que nas estações Piratininga e Rio Branco, 92,9% e 100% das amostras tiveram contagens de E. coli menor que 3/100ml. Observou-se relação positiva entre coliformes totais e E. coli, enquanto que a correlação entre colimetria, pH, salinidade e temperatura da água não foi significativa. Temperatura e pH mostraram pouca variação entre as estações, sendo as médias de salinidade, coliformes totais e E. coli semelhantes em Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz. Piratininga e Rio Branco apresentaram médias diferentes destas e semelhantes entre si. Os resultados em Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz indicam provável impropriedade para o cultivo e/ou extrativismo de mexilhões destinados ao consumo, enquanto que os de Piratininga e Rio Branco indicam provável propriedade para a instalação de cultivo de mexilhões ou mesmo para depuração natural de mexilhões cultivados em águas contaminadas.Water samples from five different sites on Guanabara Bay (Icaraí, Boa Viagem, Santa Cruz, Piratininga, and Rio Branco were analyzed for estimated numbers of coliform and Escherichiacoli. Water pH, salt concentration, and temperature were measuredin the sampling place. E.coli countings for samples collected in Icaraí, Boa Viagem, and Santa Cruz were usually higher than the values legallyaccepted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. In Piratininga and Rio Branco, respectively, 92.3% and 100% of the sampleshad countings of lessthan 3 E.coli/100ml. A significant correlation was found between total coliforms and E. coli countings. The average

  4. Coliform bacteria isolated from recreational lakes carry class 1 and class 2 integrons and virulence-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczura, R; Krysiak, N; Taraszewska, A; Mokracka, J

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the integron-harbouring Gram-negative bacteria in recreational lakes, with focus on the genetic content of integrons, antimicrobial resistance profiles and virulence-associated genes. The presence and structure of integrons in coliform bacteria isolated from the water of four recreational lakes located in Poznań, Poland, was determined by PCR method. Antimicrobial resistance testing was done by disc diffusion method. Virulence-associated genes in integron-bearing Escherichia coli isolates were detected by PCR. A total of 155 integron-bearing strains of coliform bacteria were cultured. Sequence analysis showed the presence of dfrA7, aadA1, dfrA1-aadA1, dfrA17-aadA5 and dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 gene cassette arrays in class 1 integrons and dfrA1-sat2-aadA1 in class 2 integrons. Higher frequency of integron-positive bacteria and higher antimicrobial resistance ranges were noted in colder months (January and November) compared with spring and summer months. The integron-harbouring E. coli carried up to nine virulence-associated genes, with the highest frequency of kpsMT (84.6%) and traT (783%), coding for group 2 capsule and determining human serum resistance respectively. Integron-bearing multidrug resistant coliform bacteria carrying virulence genes are present in waters of recreational lakes. This study presents antimicrobial resistance and virulence-associated genes in integron-bearing coliform bacteria present in the waters of recreational lakes, which showed that multidrug resistant bacteria with virulence traits might pose a threat to public health. Moreover, the presence of genes typical for enterotoxigenic and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli is a concern. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests Blood Culture Anemia Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests and Procedures ( ...

  6. Make My Trip Count 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Make My Trip Count (MMTC) commuter survey, conducted in September and October 2015 by GBA, the Pittsburgh 2030 District, and 10 other regional transportation...

  7. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  8. Counting Word Frequencies with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Your list is now clean enough that you can begin analyzing its contents in meaningful ways. Counting the frequency of specific words in the list can provide illustrative data. Python has an easy way to count frequencies, but it requires the use of a new type of variable: the dictionary. Before you begin working with a dictionary, consider the processes used to calculate frequencies in a list.

  9. Liquid scintillation counting of chlorophyll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fric, F.; Horickova, B.; Haspel-Horvatovic, E.

    1975-01-01

    A precise and reproducible method of liquid scintillation counting was worked out for measuring the radioactivity of 14 C-labelled chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b solutions without previous bleaching. The spurious count rate caused by luminescence of the scintillant-chlorophyll system is eliminated by using a suitable scintillant and by measuring the radioactivity at 4 to 8 0 C after an appropriate time of dark adaptation. Bleaching of the chlorophyll solutions is necessary only for measuring of very low radioactivity. (author)

  10. Eugenol stimulates lactate accumulation yet inhibits volatile fatty acid production and eliminates coliform bacteria in cattle and swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D L

    2004-01-01

    To determine how eugenol affects fermentation parameters and faecal coliforms in cattle and swine waste slurries stored anaerobically. Waste slurries (faeces:urine:water, 50:35:15) were blended with and without additives and aliquoted to triplicate 1-l flasks. Faecal coliforms were eliminated in cattle and swine waste slurries within 1 or 2 days with additions of eugenol at 10.05 mm (0.15%) and 16.75 mm (0.25%). At these concentrations volatile fatty acids (VFA) were reduced ca 70 and 50% in cattle and swine waste, respectively, over 6-8 weeks. Additionally, in cattle waste, eugenol stimulated the accumulation of lactate (>180 mm) when compared with thymol treatment (20 mm lactate). In swine waste, lactate accumulation did not occur without additives; eugenol and thymol stimulated lactate accumulation to concentrations of 22 and 32 mm, respectively. Eugenol added to cattle waste may be more beneficial than thymol because not only does it effectively control faecal coliforms and odour (VFA production), it also stimulates lactate accumulation. This in turn, causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. Plant essential oils have the potential to solve some of the environmental problems associated with consolidated animal feeding operations. Thymol and eugenol reduce fermentative activity, thus, have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and odour, and curtail transmission of pathogens in cattle and swine wastes.

  11. Distribution of sewage pollution around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterol markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Thompson, Anu

    2004-02-01

    This study describes the distribution of sewage pollution markers (faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterols) in seawater and marine sediments around Rothera Research Station, Antarctic Peninsula. Untreated sewage waste has been released from this site since 1975, creating the potential for long-term contamination of the benthic environment. Faecal coliform concentrations in seawater reached background levels within 300 m of the outfall. In sediment cores, both C. perfringens and faecal coliform concentrations declined with distance from the outfall, though C. perfringens persisted at greater depths in the sediment. High concentrations of 5{beta}(H)-cholestan-3{beta}-ol (coprostanol) relative to the corresponding 5{alpha}-epimer (cholestanol), indicative of sewage pollution, were only found in sediments within 200 m of the sewage outfall. This study has shown that sewage contamination is limited to the immediate vicinity of the sewage outfall. Nevertheless, a sewage treatment plant was installed in February 2003 to reduce this contamination further. - Sewage contamination of seawater and marine sediments near Rothera Research Station (Antarctic Peninsula) was limited to the immediate vicinity of the outfall.

  12. Distribution of sewage pollution around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterol markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Thompson, Anu

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the distribution of sewage pollution markers (faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterols) in seawater and marine sediments around Rothera Research Station, Antarctic Peninsula. Untreated sewage waste has been released from this site since 1975, creating the potential for long-term contamination of the benthic environment. Faecal coliform concentrations in seawater reached background levels within 300 m of the outfall. In sediment cores, both C. perfringens and faecal coliform concentrations declined with distance from the outfall, though C. perfringens persisted at greater depths in the sediment. High concentrations of 5β(H)-cholestan-3β-ol (coprostanol) relative to the corresponding 5α-epimer (cholestanol), indicative of sewage pollution, were only found in sediments within 200 m of the sewage outfall. This study has shown that sewage contamination is limited to the immediate vicinity of the sewage outfall. Nevertheless, a sewage treatment plant was installed in February 2003 to reduce this contamination further. - Sewage contamination of seawater and marine sediments near Rothera Research Station (Antarctic Peninsula) was limited to the immediate vicinity of the outfall

  13. Single electron counting using a dual MCP assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yuzhen; Liu, Shulin; Zhao, Tianchi; Yan, Baojun; Wang, Peiliang; Yu, Yang; Lei, Xiangcui; Yang, Luping; Wen, Kaile; Qi, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The gain, pulse height resolution and peak-to-valley ratio of single electrons detected by using a Chevron configured Microchannel Plate (MCP) assembly are studied. The two MCPs are separated by a 280 µm gap and are biased by four electrodes. The purpose of the study is to determine the optimum bias voltage arrangements for single electron counting. By comparing the results of various bias voltage combinations, we conclude that good performance for the electron counting can be achieved by operating the MCP assembly in saturation mode. In addition, by applying a small reverse bias voltage across the gap while adjusting the bias voltages of the MCPs, optimum performance of electron counting can be obtained. - Highlights: • Dual MCPs assembly with four electrodes using different voltage combinations has been investigated for single electron counting. • Both the MCP voltages and the gap voltage can affect the gain, pulse height resolution and P/V ratio. • A high gain of the first stage MCP, a saturation mode of the second stage MCP and an appropriately reverse gap voltage can improve the resolution greatly. • The optimum voltage arrangements is significant for the design of MCP detectors in single electron counting applications.

  14. Plating on Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Jones, A.

    1979-03-01

    Zircaloy-2 is a difficult alloy to coat with an adherent electroplate because it easily forms a tenacious oxide film in air and aqueous solutions. Procedures reported in the literature and those developed at SLL for surmounting this problem were investigated. The best results were obtained when specimens were first etched in either an ammonium bifluoride/sulfuric acid or an ammonium bifluoride solution, plated, and then heated at 700 0 C for 1 hour in a constrained condition. Machining threads in the Zircaloy-2 for the purpose of providing sites for mechanical interlocking of the plating also proved satisfactory

  15. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  16. Hydrodynamics of a flexible plate between pitching rigid plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a flexible plate have been studied as a model problem in swimming and flying of animals and fluid-structure interaction of plants and flags. Motivated by fish schooling and an array of sea grasses, we investigate the dynamics of a flexible plate closely placed between two pitching rigid plates. In most studies on passive deformation of the flexible plate, the plate is immersed in a uniform flow or a wavy flow. However, in this study, the flexible plate experiences periodic deformation by the oscillatory flow generated by the prescribed pitching motion of the rigid plates. In our model, the pitching axes of the rigid plates and the clamping position of the flexible plate are aligned on the same line. The flexible plate shows various responses depending on length and pitching frequency of rigid plates, thickness of a flexible plate, and free-stream velocity. To find the effect of each variable on the response of the flexible plate, amplitude of a trailing edge and modal contribution of a flapping motion are compared, and flow structure around the flexible plate is examined.

  17. Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria de S. Philippi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores The microbiological quality of a hundred samples of ten differents commercial brands of a ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees from supermarkets in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, was assessed. Salmonella and fecal coliforms were determined. Results were negative for Salmonella Fecal coliforms values ranged from 100 MPN per g. Fecal coliforms were detected in 37% of the cinnamon samples.

  18. Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balpardo, C.; Capoulat, M.E.; Rodrigues, D.; Arenillas, P.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclide 241 Am decays by alpha emission to 237 Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of 237 Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of 241 Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  19. Water quality and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Meduxnekeag River, Houlton, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Caldwell, James M.; O'Donnell, Cara

    2014-01-01

    In response to bacterial contamination in the Meduxnekeag River and the desire to manage the watershed to reduce contaminant sources, the Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians (HBMI) and the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative effort to establish a baseline of water-quality data that can be used in future studies and to indicate potential sources of nutrient and bacterial contamination. This study was conducted during the summer of 2005 in the Meduxnekeag River Basin near Houlton, Maine. Continuously recorded specific conductance can be a good indicator for water quality. Specific conductance increased downstream from the town of Houlton, between runoff events, and decreased sharply following major runoff events. Collections of discrete samples during the summer of 2005 indicated seasonal positive concentration-discharge relations for total phosphorus and total nitrogen; these results indicate that storm runoff may mobilize and transport these nutrients from the terrestrial environment to the river. Data collected by the HBMI on fecal coliform bacteria indicated that bacterial contamination enters the Meduxnekeag River from multiple paths including tributaries and surface drains (ditches) in developed areas in Houlton, Maine. The Houlton wastewater treatment discharge was not an important source of bacterial contamination. Bacteroidales-based tests for general fecal contamination (Bac32 marker) were predominantly positive in samples that had excessive fecal contamination as indicated by Enterococci density greater than 104 colony-forming units per 100 millilters. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of human-associated fecal contamination (HF134 and HF183), 8 were positive. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of ruminant-associated fecal contamination (CF128 and CF193), 7 were positive. Human fecal contamination was detected consistently at two sites (surface drains in urban areas in the town of Houlton) and occasionally

  20. REDUCCIÓN DE COLIFORMES y Escherichia coli EN UN SISTEMA RESIDUAL LÁCTEO MEDIANTE MICROORGANISMOS BENÉFICOS REDUÇÃO DE COLIFORMES E Escherichia coli EM UM SISTEMA DE ÁGUAS RESIDUAIS DE LEITE POR MICROORGANISMOS BENÉFICOS REDUCTION COLIFORM AND Escherichia coli IN A DAIRY WASTE SYSTEM THROUGH BENEFICIAL MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO JAVID CORPAS I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la disponibilidad comercial de diversos sistemas para tratar aguas residuales, muchas empresas no poseen plantas, y otras poseen sistemas ineficientes, por lo cual, descargan a los cuerpos de agua cantidades significativas de materia orgánica y microorganismos afines al sustrato, como los coliformes, comprometiendo el equilibrio ambiental. El presente estudio evaluó la capacidad de una mezcla de microorganismos beneficos (MB para remover coliformes y E. coli presentes en residuos líquidos generados en una planta de tratamiento lácteo, teniendo como factores controlados, la concentración del coctel de MB y el tipo de carga orgánica almacenada en el afluente. La reducción en la población de coliformes fluctuó entre 41,1 y 48% al utilizar las diferentes concentraciones de MB para las horas de toma establecidas. En cuanto a la eliminación de E. coli, se apreciaron reducciones notorias a partir de las muestras tomadas a las 10 a.m., con una reducción del 52% al utilizar el coctel al 2% y del 49,7% cuando la concentración de esta mezcla correspondió al 4%. Se recomendó mejorar la eficacia en la remoción de coliformes y E. coli a partir de la valoración de diversas proporciones entre las concentraciones de los microorganismos constituyentes de la mezcla.Apesar da disponibilidade comercial de vários sistemas de tratamento de esgoto, muitas empresas não têm instalações de esgoto, e outros ter sistemas ineficientes, assim, descarregados em massas de água grandes quantidades de matéria orgânica e microrganismos relacionados com o substrato, como o coliformes, comprometer o equilíbrio ambiental. Este estudo avaliou a capacidade de uma mistura de microorganismos benéficos (MB para remover coliformes e E. coli presente em resíduos líquidos geraçãos em uma estação de tratamento de efluente lácteo, tendo como variável, a concentração de cocktail de MB e tipo de carga orgânica armazenada no afluente. A redução na

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... meal-planning, . In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tool is not to scale because of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future Without Diabetes Donate towards research today and your gift will be matched. Donate ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... Type 2 Education Series Hear audio clips and full recordings of past Q&A events at your ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  7. Microchannel plate photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majka, R.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given the status of development work on photodetectors using microchannel plates (MCP) as the electron gain element. Projections are made and opinions are presented on what might be available in the next few years. Several uses for these devices at ISABELLE are mentioned

  8. Parallel plate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Volkov, P.

    1981-01-01

    A 5x3cm 2 (timing only) and a 15x5cm 2 (timing and position) parallel plate avalanche counters (PPAC) are considered. The theory of operation and timing resolution is given. The measurement set-up and the curves of experimental results illustrate the possibilities of the two counters [fr

  9. Flat plate collector. Solarflachkollektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, N

    1979-03-29

    The invention refers to a flat solar collector with an absorber plate, which is arranged on a support and is covered by a transparent window, between which and the plate there is an air space. The previously known structures of this type had the disadvantage that the thermal expansion of the enclosed air caused considerable difficulties. The purpose of the invention is therefore to create a collector, which can be used on the modular system, retains its properties and is safe in spite of the great temperature variations. According to the invention this problem is solved by providing a compensating space in the collector, which is separated by a diaphragm from the airspace between the plate and the covering window. The airspace therefore remains sealed against the atmosphere, so that no dirt, corrosion of the inside and no condensation can reduce the efficiency of the collector. A rise in pressure due to an increase in temperature is immediately reduced by expansion of the diaphragm, which enters the compensation space. In order to increase the pressure in the airspace above the plate for increases in temperature, the compensation space is connected to the atmosphere. The diaphragm can be mirrored on the side towards the absorber, which makes the diaphragm into an insulating element, as it reflects radiated heat from the absorber.

  10. Optimisation of hydraulic performance to maximise faecal coliform removal in maturation ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Nibis; Lloyd, Barry; Aldana, Gerardo

    2006-05-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim of improving faecal coliform (FC) and faecal streptococcus (FS) removal efficiencies in tertiary maturation stages of a sewage treatment plant in Southern England, where climatic conditions are sub-optimal. The research used intensive field assessments (bacteriological, general quality and hydraulic) to identify the parameters that affect the bacteriological quality of the effluent from three parallel maturation ponds (North, Central and South) of similar geometry and dimensions. An engineering intervention was carried out to convert the South pond to three channels to increase the L/W ratio from 9:1 to 79:1. Hydraulic tracer studies in the South pond with Rhodamine WT showed that the dispersion number 'd' was reduced from 0.37 (dispersed flow) to 0.074 by this intervention under similar flow conditions (4.5l/s). Hydraulic retention time was thus increased by 5h, delay in jet flow short-circuiting was increased from 2.5 to 17.5h thus increasing the exposure times for all elements. As a result of the intervention FC removal increased substantially. Maximum channel-lagoon efficiency of 99.84% was obtained at 4.5l/s and 19 degrees C, when exposure to sunlight was 17 h in summer. It is concluded that the channel configuration produces a higher hydraulic efficiency than conventional maturation ponds. It is therefore recommended as a viable engineering solution which permits a low-cost upgrading of plant performance, requiring no additional land, and with minimal maintenance costs.

  11. Study on auto-plating process time versus recovery for polonium, Po-210 in environmental sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zaharudin Ahmad; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Norfaizal Mohamed; Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar; Yii Mei Wo; Kamarozaman Ishak; Siti Aminah Yusoff

    2008-08-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate time effectiveness and recovery 16 samples of 4 Kuala Muda stations during auto-plating process procedures for determination Polonium, Po 210 activity concentration in environmental sample. The study was performed using Kuala Muda sediment as sample in the same methodology. The auto-plating process runs for 4, 12, 24 and 30 hours on a silver disc for 4 samples each station, and then counted for one (1) day using an alpha spectrometry counting system. The objectives for this study is to justify on time duration for auto-plating process effecting a chemical yield of Po-209.The results showed recovery are increasing versus time and constantly at 24 hour auto-plating. Its mean, 24 hour is an optimum time for auto-plating process for determination of Polonium, Po 210 activity concentration in environmental sample. (Author)

  12. Effects of levan-type fructan on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, diarrhoea scores, faecal shedding of total lactic acid bacteria and coliform bacteria, and faecal gas emission in weaning pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xin Jian; Kim, Yong Min; Park, Jae Hong; Baek, Dong Heon; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Kim, In Ho

    2018-03-01

    The use of antibiotics as growth promoters in feed has been fully or partially banned in several countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of levan-type fructan on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, faecal shedding of lactic acid bacteria and coliform bacteria, diarrhoea scores, and faecal gas emission in weaning pigs. A total of 144 weaning pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] were randomly allocated to four diets: corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0, 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 g kg -1 levan-type fructan during this 42-day experiment. During days 0 to 21 and 0 to 42, average daily gain and average daily feed intake were linearly increased (P bacteria counts were linearly increased (P = 0.001). The results indicate that dietary supplementation with increasing levan-type fructan enhanced growth performance, improved nutrient digestibility, and increased faecal lactic acid bacteria counts in weaning pigs linearly. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs

  14. Development and characterisation of a visible light photon counting imaging detector system

    CERN Document Server

    Barnstedt, J

    2002-01-01

    We report on the development of a visible light photon counting imaging detector system. The detector concept is based on standard 25 mm diameter microchannel plate image intensifiers made by Proxitronic in Bensheim (Germany). Modifications applied to these image intensifiers are the use of three microchannel plates instead of two and a high resistance ceramics plate used instead of the standard phosphor output screen. A wedge and strip anode mounted directly behind the high resistance ceramics plate was used as a read out device. This wedge and strip anode picks up the image charge of electron clouds emerging from the microchannel plates. The charge pulses are fed into four charge amplifiers and subsequently into a digital position decoding electronics, achieving a position resolution of up to 1024x1024 pixels. Mounting the anode outside the detector tube is a new approach and has the great advantage of avoiding electrical feedthroughs from the anode so that the standard image intensifier fabrication process...

  15. Temporal trends in sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Hagai; Jørgensen, Niels; Martino-Andrade, Anderson

    2017-01-01

    a predefined protocol 7518 abstracts were screened and 2510 full articles reporting primary data on SC were reviewed. A total of 244 estimates of SC and TSC from 185 studies of 42 935 men who provided semen samples in 1973-2011 were extracted for meta-regression analysis, as well as information on years.......006, respectively). WIDER IMPLICATIONS: This comprehensive meta-regression analysis reports a significant decline in sperm counts (as measured by SC and TSC) between 1973 and 2011, driven by a 50-60% decline among men unselected by fertility from North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Because......BACKGROUND: Reported declines in sperm counts remain controversial today and recent trends are unknown. A definitive meta-analysis is critical given the predictive value of sperm count for fertility, morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To provide a systematic review and meta-regression...

  16. Photon-counting image sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Teranishi, Nobukazu; Theuwissen, Albert; Stoppa, David; Charbon, Edoardo

    2017-01-01

    The field of photon-counting image sensors is advancing rapidly with the development of various solid-state image sensor technologies including single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs) and deep-sub-electron read noise CMOS image sensor pixels. This foundational platform technology will enable opportunities for new imaging modalities and instrumentation for science and industry, as well as new consumer applications. Papers discussing various photon-counting image sensor technologies and selected new applications are presented in this all-invited Special Issue.

  17. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.

  18. Effect of plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    The study of unusual plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters is presented, with a view to providing data for the substitution of the plate with one centered circular orifice in those applications where its use is not possible. For this purpose, six pairs of plates with different forms, with and without chamfered edges, were made and tested in a closed water loop. Results show that, generally, the use of chamfers improves the results and, in the case of perforated and slotlike orificed plates, the narrow-ness of the fluid passage tends to make unnecessary its use. (Author) [pt

  19. In vitro evaluation of a novel bacteriophage cocktail as a preventative for bovine coliform mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J; Anderson, J; Carter, L; Donjacour, E; Paros, M

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential use of bacteriophage in preventing Escherichia coli mastitis on dairies. A cocktail consisting of 4 distinct bacteriophages was generated by screening against 36 E. coli isolates from dairy cows in Washington State with clinical mastitis. The bacteriophage significantly inhibited growth of 58% of the Washington State isolates and 54% of E. coli mastitis isolates from New York State, suggesting that the cocktail of phages had a relatively broad spectrum of action against relevant strains from 2 distinct geographies. The ability to suppress bacterial growth of these isolates in a liquid growth medium was not affected by the ratio of bacteriophage particles to bacterial cells (multiplicity of infection, MOI). For those E. coli that were completely inhibited by the phage cocktail, an MOI as low as 10 had the same effect as 10 µg/mL of ceftiofur on the growth rate of E. coli over a 12-h period using optical density measurements. A 3.3- to 5.6-log reduction of growth was achieved when E. coli was co-incubated with our phage cocktail in raw milk over a 12-h period at physiologic temperature. A modified gentamicin protection assay using bovine mammary epithelial cells provided a model to test whether bacteriophage could prevent cell attachment and invasion by chronic coliform mastitis strains. Pretreatment of cell cultures with the phage cocktail significantly reduced adhesion and intracellular survival of E. coli compared with controls. When combined with a bismuth-based teat sealant, the phage cocktail was able to inhibit bacterial growth when challenged with 1.6 × 10(3) cfu/mL of a clinical mastitis E. coli strain. In vitro results show bactericidal activity by our phage in raw milk and mammary tissue culture systems. Before a bacteriophage-based dry-cow treatment becomes a potential option for dairies, in vivo studies must be able to demonstrate that a specific dose of bacteriophage can protect cows from

  20. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force....

  2. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  3. Liquid scintillation, counting, and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, E.A.; Tolbert, B.M.; Sutula, C.L.

    1975-01-01

    The emissions of radioactive isotopes in both aqueous and organic samples can be measured by liquid scintillation counting in micellar systems. The micellar systems are made up of scintillation solvent, scintillation solute and a mixture of surfactants, preferably at least one of which is relatively oil-soluble water-insoluble and another which is relatively water-soluble oil-insoluble

  4. Phase space quark counting rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-gin, C.; Lo, S.

    1980-01-01

    A simple quark counting rule based on phase space consideration suggested before is used to fit all 39 recent experimental data points on inclusive reactions. Parameter free relations are found to agree with experiments. Excellent detail fits are obtained for 11 inclusive reactions

  5. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  6. Counting problems for number rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakenhoff, Johannes Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we look at three counting problems connected to orders in number fields. First we study the probability that for a random polynomial f in Z[X] the ring Z[X]/f is the maximal order in Q[X]/f. Connected to this is the probability that a random polynomial has a squarefree

  7. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  8. Logistic regression for dichotomized counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisser, John S; Das, Kalyan; Benecha, Habtamu; Stamm, John W

    2016-12-01

    Sometimes there is interest in a dichotomized outcome indicating whether a count variable is positive or zero. Under this scenario, the application of ordinary logistic regression may result in efficiency loss, which is quantifiable under an assumed model for the counts. In such situations, a shared-parameter hurdle model is investigated for more efficient estimation of regression parameters relating to overall effects of covariates on the dichotomous outcome, while handling count data with many zeroes. One model part provides a logistic regression containing marginal log odds ratio effects of primary interest, while an ancillary model part describes the mean count of a Poisson or negative binomial process in terms of nuisance regression parameters. Asymptotic efficiency of the logistic model parameter estimators of the two-part models is evaluated with respect to ordinary logistic regression. Simulations are used to assess the properties of the models with respect to power and Type I error, the latter investigated under both misspecified and correctly specified models. The methods are applied to data from a randomized clinical trial of three toothpaste formulations to prevent incident dental caries in a large population of Scottish schoolchildren. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    then consists of a sequence (or tree) of rule applications and provides an independently checkable certificate of the validity of the result. This reduces the need to trust, or otherwise verify, the correctness of the vote counting software once the certificate has been validated. Using a rule...

  10. Counting SET-free sets

    OpenAIRE

    Harman, Nate

    2016-01-01

    We consider the following counting problem related to the card game SET: How many $k$-element SET-free sets are there in an $n$-dimensional SET deck? Through a series of algebraic reformulations and reinterpretations, we show the answer to this question satisfies two polynomiality conditions.

  11. Human Bacteroides and total coliforms as indicators of recent combined sewer overflows and rain events in urban creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Shannon; Spencer, Susan K.; Firnstahl, Aaron; Stokdyk, Joel; Borchardt, Mark A.; McCarthy, David; Murphy, Heather

    2018-01-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are a known source of human fecal pollution and human pathogens in urban water bodies, which may present a significant public health threat. To monitor human fecal contamination in water, bacterial fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are traditionally used. However, because FIOs are not specific to human sources and do not correlate with human pathogens, alternative fecal indicators detected using qPCR are becoming of interest to policymakers. For this reason, this study measured correlations between the number and duration of CSOs and mm of rainfall, concentrations of traditional FIOs and alternative indicators, and the presence of human pathogens in two urban creeks. Samples were collected May–July 2016 and analyzed for concentrations of FIOs (total coliforms and E. coli) using membrane filtration as well as for three alternative fecal indicators (human Bacteroides HF183 marker, human polyomavirus (HPoV), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)) and nine human pathogens using qPCR. Four of the nine pathogens analyzed were detected at these sites including adenovirus, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, norovirus, and Salmonella. Among all indicators studied, human Bacteroides and total coliforms were significantly correlated with recent CSO and rainfall events, while E. coli, PMMoV, and HPoV did not show consistent significant correlations. Further, human Bacteroides were a more specific indicator, while total coliforms were a more sensitive indicator of CSO and rainfall events. Results may have implications for the use and interpretation of these indicators in future policy or monitoring programs.

  12. Human Bacteroides and total coliforms as indicators of recent combined sewer overflows and rain events in urban creeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Shannon; Spencer, Susan; Firnstahl, Aaron; Stokdyk, Joel; Borchardt, Mark; McCarthy, David T; Murphy, Heather M

    2018-07-15

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are a known source of human fecal pollution and human pathogens in urban water bodies, which may present a significant public health threat. To monitor human fecal contamination in water, bacterial fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are traditionally used. However, because FIOs are not specific to human sources and do not correlate with human pathogens, alternative fecal indicators detected using qPCR are becoming of interest to policymakers. For this reason, this study measured correlations between the number and duration of CSOs and mm of rainfall, concentrations of traditional FIOs and alternative indicators, and the presence of human pathogens in two urban creeks. Samples were collected May-July 2016 and analyzed for concentrations of FIOs (total coliforms and E. coli) using membrane filtration as well as for three alternative fecal indicators (human Bacteroides HF183 marker, human polyomavirus (HPoV), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)) and nine human pathogens using qPCR. Four of the nine pathogens analyzed were detected at these sites including adenovirus, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, norovirus, and Salmonella. Among all indicators studied, human Bacteroides and total coliforms were significantly correlated with recent CSO and rainfall events, while E. coli, PMMoV, and HPoV did not show consistent significant correlations. Further, human Bacteroides were a more specific indicator, while total coliforms were a more sensitive indicator of CSO and rainfall events. Results may have implications for the use and interpretation of these indicators in future policy or monitoring programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk Assessment of Total Coliform in X WTP’s Water Production Using Failure Mode And Effect Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella Apriliani Amanda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The greatest risk of drinking water supply is a failure to provide safe drinking water for communities. Based on IPA Kedunguling testing report on March 2016 noted that sample exceeding the quality standart of Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan RI No 492/2010 for the total coliform quality standart. The presence of total coliforms indicating water contamination by pathogen means the water is not safe to consume. The disinfection process has an importance rule in pathogen inactivation. Disinfectant performance is influenced by temperature, pH, turbidity, and the presence of organic materials. One way to control the quality of water produced by using a risk management approach Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA methods. The potential risks should be measured to determine causes of the problems and find the appropriate risk reduction. The risk assessment is using Risk Priority Number (RPN scale as a basis prioritization of remedial action on issues. Based on identification and risk analysis using FMEA known that the greatest risk of failure is the stipulation of chlorine dose and organic substances (category of high risk level; residual chlorine (category of moderate risk level; turbidity and pH (very low risk level category. Improvement proposal that can be done to reduce total coliforms presence in IPA Kedunguling is by increasing residual chlorine to 0.6 mg/l, set a daily chlorine level, controlling DBPs forming by lowering the concentration of organic precursor using granular activated carbon (GAC or aeration, by lowering the dose of disinfectant, set aside DBPs after the compound is formed using granular activated carbon (GAC, turbidity and pH monitoring, and regularly washing the filters

  14. bacteriological quality of some ready to eat vegetables as retailed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Key words: Quality, Vegetable, Aerobic plate count, coliform index. INTRODUCTION ... before consumption (Okigbo, 1990). ... peptone water from which 1ml was transferred to the first test .... Crops for Human Consumption 1996; FDA 1998).

  15. Coliform and Escherichia coli contamination of desserts served in public restaurants from Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Karen J; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Chen, Jaclyn J; Palumbo, Kathryn L; Galbadage, Thushara; Brown, Eric L; Yiang, Jing; Koo, Hoonmo; DuPont, Margaret W; Ericsson, Charles; Adachi, Javier A; DuPont, Herbert L

    2009-04-01

    Bacterial enteropathogens acquired from contaminated food are the principal causes of travelers' diarrhea (TD). We evaluated desserts obtained from popular restaurants in the tourist city of Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas, to determine coliform and Escherichia coli contamination levels and presence of diarrheagenic E. coli known to be important in TD. Contamination for all organisms was seen for desserts served in Guadalajara restaurants. Desserts should be considered as potentially risky foods for development of TD among international visitors to developing regions of the world.

  16. A directional gamma-ray detector based on scintillator plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, D., E-mail: hanna@physics.mcgill.ca; Sagnières, L.; Boyle, P.J.; MacLeod, A.M.L.

    2015-10-11

    A simple device for determining the azimuthal location of a source of gamma radiation, using ideas from astrophysical gamma-ray burst detection, is described. A compact and robust detector built from eight identical modules, each comprising a plate of CsI(Tl) scintillator coupled to a photomultiplier tube, can locate a point source of gamma rays with degree-scale precision by comparing the count rates in the different modules. Sensitivity to uniform environmental background is minimal.

  17. Study of uranium plating measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jufang; Wen Zhongwei; Wang Mei; Wang Dalun; Liu Rong; Jiang Li; Lu Xinxin

    2007-06-01

    In neutron physics experiments, the measurement for plate-thickness of uranium can directly affect uncertainties of experiment results. To measure the plate-thickness of transform target (enriched uranium plating and depleted uranium plating), the back to back ionization chamber, small solid angle device and Au-Si surface barrier semi-conductor, were used in the experiment study. Also, the uncertainties in the experiment were analyzed. Because the inhomo-geneous of uranium lay of plate can quantitively affect the result, the homogeneity of uranium lay is checked, the experiment result reflects the homogeneity of uranium lay is good. (authors)

  18. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  19. Antibacterial power Village Fowl Egg Albumen (Gallus domesticus and Kate chicken (Gallus Bantam against fecal Coliform Bacteria Species at Eggshell Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Pramesti Wijaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Daya Antibakteri Albumen Telur Ayam Kampung (Gallus Domesticus dan Ayam Kate (Gallus Bantam terhadap Spesies Bakteri Coliform Fekal pada Cangkang Telur Abstract: This study aims to identify the species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and Bantam and analyze the influence of chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam on the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. This study is experimental with the independent variable in the form of chicken egg albumen and kate. The dependent variable in the form of growth inhibition zone fecal coliform bacteria. Tests performed by the agar diffusion method. Testing the antibacterial activity of chicken egg albumen and Bantam done by measuring the diameter of growth inhibition zone of each species colonies of fecal coliform bacteria in the medium Nutrient Agar. The research data is the measurement data growth inhibition zone diameter species of fecal coliform bacteria. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance single, and continued with LSD 1%. Results of the study are: (1 species fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and chicken egg is Actinobacillus sp., Serratia liquefaciens, ozaenae Klebsiella, and Escherichia vulneris; and (2 there is the effect of different chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam towards the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. Key Words: albumen of eggs, chicken, Bantam, antibacterial, fecal coliform bacteria Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam kampung dan ayam kate dan menganalisis pengaruh albumen telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam kate terhadap penghambatan pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian ekperimen dengan variabel bebas berupa albumen telur ayam kampung dan kate

  20. [Conventional plate osteosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaue, K

    2010-02-01

    Consolidation of bone is an essential clinical problem when treating fractures, fixing osteotomies and fusing joints. In most cases, the means of fixation are plates and screws. The goal is functional postoperative therapy by moving the adjacent joints and thus avoiding the deleterious disadvantages of long-lasting articular immobilization. Pre-operative planning, surgical approach, a good understanding of the precise mechanics of the structure and the biological answer for the various tissues are prerequisites of successful osteosynthesis. The choice of implants and the application of their versatility, as well as their adaptation to individual cases are the key to good results.

  1. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  2. Preparation of actinide targets by molecular plating for Coulomb excitation studies at ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    Molecular plating is now routinely used to prepare sources and targets of actinide elements. Although the technique is simple and fairly reproducible, because of the radioactive nature of the target it is very useful to record various parameters in the preparation of such targets. At Argonne, ∼200 microg/cm 2 thick targets of Pu and Cm were required for Coulomb Excitation (COULEX) Studies with the Argonne-Notre Dame BGO gamma ray facility and later with the GAMMASPHERE. These targets were plated on 50 mg/cm 2 Au backing and were covered with 150 microg/cm 2 Au foil. Targets of 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 242 Pu, 244 Pu and 248 Cm were prepared by dissolving the material in isopropyl alcohol and electroplating the actinide ions by applying 600 volts. The amount of these materials on the target was determined by alpha particle counting and gamma ray counting. Details of the molecular plating and counting will be discussed

  3. Pesquisa de coliformes em compostagem de resíduos de hortaliças com a utilização de diferentes substratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Martins Soto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a redução ou a eliminação de bactérias do grupo coliforme, em um sistema de compostagem de resíduos sólidos de hortaliças (RSH com os substratos serragem e capim seco. Foram realizados dois tratamentos com três repetições em cada um.No primeiro tratamento, foram utilizados RSH e serragem na proporção de 6:1. No segundo, foi utilizada a mesma proporção do primeiro, porém o substrato foi o capim seco. Para a pesquisa das bactérias do grupo coliforme foram efetuadas 16 coletas em cada canteiro. Analisou-se também a temperatura e produção de chorume. Os resultados revelaram que a utilização dos substratos serragem ou capim seco foi incapaz de reduzir coliformes totais. Entre a terceira e a sétima semana, houve redução de aproximadamente 50 % dos coliformes termotolerantes para o substrato serragem e, entre a terceira e a sexta semana, o substrato capim seco foi capaz de reduzir em aproximadamente 40 % os coliformes termotolerantes. As temperaturas foram inferiores a 40 °C durante as dezesseis semanas do experimento para os dois tipos de substratos.

  4. Theory of photoelectron counting statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, J.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the present essay is to provide a detailed analysis of those theoretical aspects of photoelectron counting which are capable of experimental verification. Most of our interest is in the physical phenomena themselves, while part is in the mathematical techniques. Many of the mathematical methods used in the analysis of the photoelectron counting problem are generally unfamiliar to physicists interested in the subject. For this reason we have developed the essay in such a fashion that, although primary interest is focused on the physical phenomena, we have also taken pains to carry out enough of the analysis so that the reader can follow the main details. We have chosen to present a consistently quantum mechanical version of the subject, in that we follow the Glauber theory throughout. (orig./WL)

  5. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

    2011-12-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online.

  6. Card counting in continuous time

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding an optimal betting strategy for a house-banked casino card game that is played for several coups before reshuffling. The sampling without replacement makes it possible to take advantage of the changes in the expected value as the deck is depleted, making large bets when the game is advantageous. Using such a strategy, which is easy to implement, is known as card counting. We consider the case of a large number of decks, making an approximat...

  7. Assessment of the characteristic of nutrients, total metals, and fecal coliform in Sibu Laut River, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Chen-Lin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Lee, Nyanti; Apun, Kasing

    2016-03-01

    The concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total metals, and fecal coliform (FC) coupling with chlorophyll- a (chl- a), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and other general environmental parameters were evaluated at the sub-surface and near-bottom water columns of 13 stations in the Sibu Laut River during low and high slack waters. The results indicated that inorganic nitrogen (mainly nitrate) was the primary form of nitrogen whereas organic phosphorus was the major form of phosphorus. The abundance of total heavy metals in Sibu Laut River and its tributaries was in the order of Pb < Cu < Zn < Cd. Fecal coliform concentration was relatively low along Sibu Laut River. The shrimp farm effluents contributed a substantial amount of chl- a, BOD5, nutrients, and FC to the receiving creek except for total metals. Nevertheless, the influence was merely noticeable in the intake creek and amended rapidly along Selang Sibu River and brought minimal effects on the Sibu Laut River. Besides, the domestic sewage effluents from villages nearby also contributed a substantial amount of pollutants.

  8. Fecal coliform management using a coupled hydrodynamics and water quality model for the river Ravi in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, H.; Ali, W.

    2011-01-01

    A Fecal Coliform (FC) management framework is developed incorporating segmentation of river reaches, hydrodynamic and water quality models and FC management under critical winter low flow conditions for a highly polluted River Ravi. FC die-off rate in the river is determined from a field survey of a selected river reach. The travel time calculated with the help of a hydrodynamic model is 0.25 days in the selected reach. FC die-off rate (Kb) was found to be 1.2 day/sup -1/ at 20 degree C. Model calibration with monitoring data set reveals reasonable agreement of the simulation results with the measured field values under low flow conditions. Presently, the river is receiving raw wastewater and the simulation results shows very high fecal coliform levels up to 100 X 10/sup 6/ MPN/100mL in the river water. These levels are much higher than the required recreation and irrigation standards. Simulations are carried out to assess water quality for the future fecal pollution loads in year 2025 and the results reveal that up to 6 log reduction in FC is required at the wastewater out falls, whereas, 5 log reduction would be sufficient for surface drains to meet desired FC standards under low flow conditions. (author)

  9. Rapid, single-step most-probable-number method for enumerating fecal coliforms in effluents from sewage treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, E. F.; Silverman, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    A single-step most-probable-number method for determining the number of fecal coliform bacteria present in sewage treatment plant effluents is discussed. A single growth medium based on that of Reasoner et al. (1976) and consisting of 5.0 gr. proteose peptone, 3.0 gr. yeast extract, 10.0 gr. lactose, 7.5 gr. NaCl, 0.2 gr. sodium lauryl sulfate, and 0.1 gr. sodium desoxycholate per liter is used. The pH is adjusted to 6.5, and samples are incubated at 44.5 deg C. Bacterial growth is detected either by measuring the increase with time in the electrical impedance ratio between the innoculated sample vial and an uninnoculated reference vial or by visual examination for turbidity. Results obtained by the single-step method for chlorinated and unchlorinated effluent samples are in excellent agreement with those obtained by the standard method. It is suggested that in automated treatment plants impedance ratio data could be automatically matched by computer programs with the appropriate dilution factors and most probable number tables already in the computer memory, with the corresponding result displayed as fecal coliforms per 100 ml of effluent.

  10. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  11. Eutectic cell and nodule count as the quality factors of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fraś

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the predictions based on a theoretical analysis aimed at elucidating of eutectic cell count or nodule counts N wereexperimentally verified. The experimental work was focused on processing flake graphite and ductile iron under various inoculationconditions in order to achieve various physicochemical states of the experimental melts. In addition, plates of various wall thicknesses, s were cast and the resultant eutectic cell or nodule counts were established. Moreover, thermal analysis was used to find out the degree of maximum undercooling for the graphite eutectic, Tm. A relationship was found between the eutectic cell or nodule count and the maximum undercooling Tm.. In addition it was also found that N can be related to the wall thickness of plate shaped castings. Finally, the present work provides a rational for the effect of technological factors such as the melt chemistry, inoculation practice, and holding temperature and time on the resultant cell count or nodule count of cast iron. In particular, good agreement was found between the predictions of the theoretical analysis and the experimental data.

  12. Occurrence of coliforms in water samples of the Perequê and Penedo Rivers in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Hiroko Higuti

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The Perequê and Penedo rivers flow through the plains of Praia de Leste and fall into the sea between the municipalities of Pontal do Sul and Ponta do Poço. Both of these rivers belong to the sub-basin of Paranaguá Bay, and are constituent parts of the hydrographic basin of the Atlantic Ocean (State of Paraná. Four sites along the Perequê River (Stations 1-4 and one along the Penedo River (Station 5 were monitorated for water pollution over a 12-month period. During the period of December 1995 to November 1996, three water samples were collected from each site, placed in sterilized bottles and transported to the laboratory in ice-boxes. They were analyzed for the occurrence of total and fecal coliforms, temperature and pH. Fecal pollution was detected throughout the period of study. Coliform contamination was smaller in Station 1 and 5 than in any other sites, probably due to lesser influence from urbanized areas. Water at Station 4 was strongly contaminated due to its close proximity to a sewage canal. This study demonstrated that the Pequerê and Penedo rivers, freshwater shrimps habitats, were heavily contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria, and this occurrence was not related with temperature or pH.Os rios Perequê e Penedo têm suas fontes na planície de Praia Leste e fluem para o mar entre os municípios de Pontal do Sul e Ponta do Poço. Ambos pertencem à sub-bacia da Baía de Paranaguá e são partes da bacia hidrográfica do Oceano Atlântico (Estado do Paraná. Foram selecionados quatro sítios ao longo do Rio Perequê (Estações 1-4 e um no Rio Penedo (Estação 5 para monitorar a poluição de água em um período de 12 meses. Durante o período de dezembro de 1995 e novembro de 1996, foram coletadas de cada local, 3 amostras de 100 ml água em frascos esterilizados e transportadas para o laboratório em caixas com gelo. Foram analisadas a ocorrência de coliformes totais (TC e fecais (FC, temperatura e pH. A contamina

  13. Plating on difficult-to-plate metals: what's new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the changes since 1970 in procedures for plating on such materials as titanium, molybdenum, silicon, aluminum, and gallium arsenide are summarized. While basic procedures for plating some of these materials were developed as many as 30 to 40 years ago, changes in the end uses of the plated products have necessitated new plating processes. In some cases, vacuum techniques - such as ion bombardment, ion implantation, and vacuum metallization - have been introduced to improve the adhesion of electrodeposits. In other cases, these techniques have been used to deposit materials upon which electrodeposits are required

  14. Correlation between mastitis occurrence and the count of microorganisms in bulk raw milk of bovine dairy herds in four selective culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Luís I M; Minagawa, Clarice Y; Telles, Evelise O; Garbuglio, Márcio A; Amaku, Marcos; Melville, Priscilla A; Dias, Ricardo A; Sakata, Sonia T; Benites, Nilson R

    2010-02-01

    Milk is the normal secretion of the mammary gland, practically free of colostrum and obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy animals. Mastitis is an inflammatory process of the mammary gland and it may cause alterations in the milk. The present work aimed to verify whether it is possible, by means of the counts of microorganism in the bulk raw milk in four selective culture media, to establish a correlation with the occurrence of mastitis and therefore, to monitor this disease in bovine dairy herds. The following selective culture media were used: KF Streptococcus Agar, Edwards Agar, Baird-Parker Agar, Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated in order to compare the occurrence of mastitis (percentage) in each herd with respective selective culture media counts of microorganisms in bulk raw milk. Thirty-six possibilities were analysed (Tamis and CMT-positive rates were compared with the log-transformed count in four selective culture media) and there was a negative correlation between Tamis 3 and the Baird-Parker Agar plate count. The total results of microbiological tests showed that there were three correlations of the counts in selective culture media. Fifty-two possibilities were analysed and there was a negative correlation between no-bacterial-growth mastitis rates and log10 of KF Streptoccocus Agar plate count and there were two positive correlations between coagulase-positive staphylococci and log10 of Baird-Parker Agar plate count and Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite plate count.

  15. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida counts in subjects with xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sandra R; Peixoto, Camila Bernardo; Caldas, Daniele Manhães; Silva, Eline Barboza; Akiti, Tiyomi; Nucci, Márcio; de Uzeda, Milton

    2002-02-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between salivary flow and Candida colony counts in the saliva of patients with xerostomia. Sialometry and Candida colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were taken from 112 subjects who reported xerostomia in a questionnaire. Chewing-stimulated whole saliva was collected and streaked in Candida plates and counted in 72 hours. Species identification was accomplished under standard methods. There was a significant inverse relationship between salivary flow and Candida CFU counts (P =.007) when subjects with high colony counts were analyzed (cutoff point of 400 or greater CFU/mL). In addition, the median sialometry of men was significantly greater than that of women (P =.003), even after controlling for confounding variables like underlying disease and medications. Sjögren's syndrome was associated with low salivary flow rate (P =.007). There was no relationship between the median Candida CFU counts and gender or age. There was a high frequency (28%) of mixed colonization. Candida albicans was the most frequent species, followed by C parapsilosis, C tropicalis, and C krusei. In subjects with high Candida CFU counts there was an inverse relationship between salivary flow and Candida CFU counts.

  16. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisation of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. Bipolar Plates for PEM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lædre, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Summary of thesis: The Bipolar Plate (BPP) is an important component in both Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) and Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzers (PEMWEs). Bipolar plate material and processing constitutes for a large fraction of the cost and weight of a PEM cell stack. The main tasks for the bipolar plates in both systems are to separate single cell in a stack, conduct current between single cells and remove heat from active areas. In addition, the BPPs distribu...

  18. Scintillator plate calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Calorimetry using scintillator plates or tiles alternated with sheets of (usually heavy) passive absorber has been proven over multiple generations of collider detectors. Recent detectors including UA1, CDF, and ZEUS have shown good results from such calorimeters. The advantages offered by scintillator calorimetry for the SSC environment, in particular, are speed (<10 nsec), excellent energy resolution, low noise, and ease of achieving compensation and hence linearity. On the negative side of the ledger can be placed the historical sensitivity of plastic scintillators to radiation damage, the possibility of nonuniform response because of light attenuation, and the presence of cracks for light collection via wavelength shifting plastic (traditionally in sheet form). This approach to calorimetry is being investigated for SSC use by a collaboration of Ames Laboratory/Iowa State University, Argonne National Laboratory, Bicron Corporation, Florida State University, Louisiana State University, University of Mississippi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and University of Wisconsin

  19. Reviewing metallic PEMFC bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Turner, J.A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-08-15

    A bipolar plate is one of the most important components in a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack and has multiple functions. Metallic bipolar plate candidates have advantages over composite rivals in excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, good mechanical strength, high chemical stability, very wide alloy choices, low cost and, most importantly, existing pathways for high-volume, high-speed mass production. The challenges with metallic bipolar plates are the higher contact resistance and possible corrosion products, which may contaminate the membrane electrode assembly. This review evaluates the candidate metallic and coating materials for bipolar plates and gives the perspective of the research trends. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Development of a sensitive chemiluminometric assay for the detection of beta-galactosidase in permeabilized coliform bacteria and comparison with fluorometry and colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poucke, S O; Nelis, H J

    1995-01-01

    We developed a chemiluminometric assay of beta-galactosidase in coliform bacteria, using a phenylgalactose-substituted 1,2-dioxetane derivative as a substrate. Permeabilization of cells is required to ensure the efficient cellular uptake of this compound. By this method, one coliform seeded in 100 ml of sterile water can be detected after a 6- to 9-h propagation phase followed by a 45-min enzyme assay in the presence of polymyxin B. Compared with fluorometry and colorimetry, chemiluminometry afforded 4- and 1,000-fold increases in sensitivity and 1- and 6-h increases in the speed of detection, respectively. PMID:8534120

  1. Nearest neighbors by neighborhood counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui

    2006-06-01

    Finding nearest neighbors is a general idea that underlies many artificial intelligence tasks, including machine learning, data mining, natural language understanding, and information retrieval. This idea is explicitly used in the k-nearest neighbors algorithm (kNN), a popular classification method. In this paper, this idea is adopted in the development of a general methodology, neighborhood counting, for devising similarity functions. We turn our focus from neighbors to neighborhoods, a region in the data space covering the data point in question. To measure the similarity between two data points, we consider all neighborhoods that cover both data points. We propose to use the number of such neighborhoods as a measure of similarity. Neighborhood can be defined for different types of data in different ways. Here, we consider one definition of neighborhood for multivariate data and derive a formula for such similarity, called neighborhood counting measure or NCM. NCM was tested experimentally in the framework of kNN. Experiments show that NCM is generally comparable to VDM and its variants, the state-of-the-art distance functions for multivariate data, and, at the same time, is consistently better for relatively large k values. Additionally, NCM consistently outperforms HEOM (a mixture of Euclidean and Hamming distances), the "standard" and most widely used distance function for multivariate data. NCM has a computational complexity in the same order as the standard Euclidean distance function and NCM is task independent and works for numerical and categorical data in a conceptually uniform way. The neighborhood counting methodology is proven sound for multivariate data experimentally. We hope it will work for other types of data.

  2. CalCOFI Egg Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  3. CalCOFI Larvae Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  4. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2015. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  5. Modeling particulate removal in plate-plate and wire-plate electrostatic precipitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramechecandane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the modeling of electrically charged particles in a model plate-plate and a single wire-plate electrostatic precipitator (ESP. The particle concentration distributions for both a plate-plate and a wire-plate ESP are calculated using a modified drift flux model. Numerical investigations are performed using the modified drift flux model for particle number concentration, in addition to the RNG k - ε model for the mean turbulent flow field and the Poisson equation for the electric field. The proposed model and the outlined methodology for coupling the flow field, electric field, charging kinetics and particle concentration is applied to two model precipitators that are truly representative of a wide class of commercialized ESPs. The present investigation is quite different from the earlier studies as it does not make assumptions like a homogeneous electric field or an infinite turbulent diffusivity. The electric field calculated is a strong function of position and controls the migration velocity of particles. Hence, the proposed model can be implemented in a flow solver to obtain a full-fledged solution for any kind of ESP with no limitations on the particle number concentration, as encountered in a Lagrangian approach. The effect of turbulent diffusivity on particle number concentration in a plate-plate ESP is investigated in detail and the results obtained are compared with available experimental data. Similarly, the effect of particle size/diameter and applied electric potential on the accumulative collection performance in the case of a wire-plate ESP is studied and the results obtained are compared with available numerical data. The numerical results obtained using the modified drift flux model for both the plate-plate and wire-plate ESP are in close agreement with available experimental and numerical data.

  6. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  7. Platelet counting using the Coulter electronic counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, M J; Sharp, A A

    1963-03-01

    A method for counting platelets in dilutions of platelet-rich plasm using the Coulter electronic counter is described.(1) The results obtained show that such platelet counts are at least as accurate as the best methods of visual counting. The various technical difficulties encountered are discussed.

  8. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Rusch, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary

  9. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Gordon K.; Keefe, Donald J.; McDowell, William P.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  10. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  11. How much do women count if they not counted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Taddia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The condition of women throughout the world is marked by countless injustices and violations of the most fundamental rights established by the Universal Declaration of human rights and every culture is potentially prone to commit discrimination against women in various forms. Women are worse fed, more exposed to physical violence, more exposed to diseases and less educated; they have less access to, or are excluded from, vocational training paths; they are the most vulnerable among prisoners of conscience, refugees and immigrants and the least considered within ethnic minorities; from their very childhood, women are humiliated, undernourished, sold, raped and killed; their work is generally less paid compared to men’s work and in some countries they are victims of forced marriages. Such condition is the result of old traditions that implicit gender-differentiated education has long promoted through cultural models based on theories, practices and policies marked by discrimination and structured differentially for men and women. Within these cultural models, the basic educational institutions have played and still play a major role in perpetuating such traditions. Nevertheless, if we want to overcome inequalities and provide women with empowerment, we have to start right from the educational institutions and in particular from school, through the adoption of an intercultural approach to education: an approach based on active pedagogy and on methods of analysis, exchange and enhancement typical of socio-educational animation. The intercultural approach to education is attentive to promote the realisation of each individual and the dignity and right of everyone to express himself/herself in his/her own way. Such an approach will give women the opportunity to become actual agents of collective change and to get the strength and wellbeing necessary to count and be counted as human beings entitled to freedom and equality, and to have access to all

  12. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...

  13. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth / For Teens / MyPlate Food Guide What's ... and other sugary drinks. Avoid large portions . Five Food Groups Different food groups have different nutrients and ...

  14. Scintillating plate calorimeter optical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, R.; Fazely, A.; Gunasingha, R.; Imlay, R.; Lim, J.

    1990-01-01

    A major technical challenge facing the builder of a general purpose detector for the SSC is to achieve an optimum design for the calorimeter. Because of its fast response and good energy resolution, scintillating plate sampling calorimeters should be considered as a possible technology option. The work of the Scintillating Plate Calorimeter Collaboration is focused on compensating plate calorimeters. Based on experimental and simulation studies, it is expected that a sampling calorimeter with alternating layers of high-Z absorber (Pb, W, DU, etc.) and plastic scintillator can be made compensating (e/h = 1.00) by suitable choice of the ratio of absorber/scintillator thickness. Two conceptual designs have been pursued by this subsystem collaboration. One is based on lead as the absorber, with read/out of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter fibers. The other design is based on depleted uranium as the absorber with wavelength shifter (WLS) plate readout. Progress on designs for the optical readout of a compensating scintillator plate calorimeter are presented. These designs include readout of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter plates or fiber readout. Results from radiation damage studies of the optical components are presented

  15. Biochemical fingerprinting of water coliform bacteria, a new method for measuring phenotypic diversity and for comparing different bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, I; Allestam, G; Stenström, T A; Möllby, R

    1991-01-01

    A simple, automated microplate system for biochemical characterization of water isolates can be used to obtain fingerprints of the bacterial flora from various water samples. Mathematical models for calculating the diversities and similarities between bacterial populations are described for such fingerprints. The diversity may give information on whether an indigenous or allochthonous flora is present, and the similarities between bacterial populations, as calculated by using a population similarity coefficient (Sp), may indicate contaminations between different water samples. The system was demonstrated on coliform bacterial populations from various water samples, with or without suspected intercontamination. For unrelated water samples, the Sps were close to 0, whereas repeated samples of the same source showed Sps of 0.64 to 0.74. The Sp values from several water samples were also clustered to form a dendrogram, thus indicating the relative similarities between the bacterial populations to confirm suspected common sources of pollution. PMID:1781680

  16. Fundamental processes in ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ion plating is a generic term applied to film deposition processes in which the substrate surface and/or the depositing film is subjected to a flux of high energy particles sufficient to cause changes in the interfacial region of film properties compared to a nonbombarded deposition. Ion plating is being accepted as an alternative coating technique to sputter deposition, vacuum evaporation and electroplating. In order to intelligently choose between the various deposition techniques, the fundamental mechanisms, relating to ion plating, must be understood. This paper reviews the effects of low energy ion bombardment on surfaces, interface formation and film development as they apply to ion plating and the implementation and applications of the ion plating process

  17. A high-performance doped photocatalysts for inactivation of total coliforms in superficial waters using different sources of radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Elis Marina Turini; Bidoia, Ederio Dino; de Moraes, Peterson Bueno

    2016-07-15

    Photocatalytic water treatment has a currently elevated electricity demand and maintenance costs, but the photocatalytic water treatment may also assist in overcoming the limitations and drawbacks of conventional water treatment processes. Among the Advanced Oxidation Processes, heterogeneous photocatalysis is one of the most widely and efficiently used processes to degrade and/or remove a wide range of polluting compounds. The goal of this work was to find out a highly efficient photocatalytic disinfection process in superficial water with different doped photocatalysts and using three sources of radiation: mercury vapor lamp, solar simulator and UV-A LED. Three doped photocatalysts were prepared, SiZnO, NSiZnO and FNSiZnO. The inactivation efficiency of each synthesized photocatalysts was compared to a TiO2 P25 (Degussa(®)) 0.5 g L(-1) control. Photolysis inactivation efficiency was 85% with UV-A LED, which is considered very high, demanding low electricity consumption in the process, whereas mercury vapor lamp and solar simulator yielded 19% and 13% inactivation efficiency, respectively. The best conditions were found with photocatalysts SiZnO, FNSiZnO and NSiZnO irradiated with UV-A LED, where efficiency exceeded 95% that matched inactivation of coliforms using the same irradiation and photocatalyst TiO2. All photocatalysts showed photocatalytic activity with all three radiation sources able to inactivate total coliforms from river water. The use of UV-A LED as the light source without photocatalyst is very promising, allowing the creation of cost-effective and highly efficient water treatment plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. RECUENTO DE COLIFORMES Y Escherichia coli EN CANALES BOVINAS SOMETIDAS A TRATAMIENTOS FÍSICOS Y QUÍMICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO JAVID CORPAS-IGUARÁN

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el recuento de coliformes totales y Escherichia coli en canales bovinas sometidas a diferentes tratamientos que incluyeron combinaciones de los métodos de lavado, desinfección y vaporización, utilizando el diseño completamente aleatorizado de un factor con 3 repeticiones. El muestreo se realizó mediante frotis de superficie en tres áreas diferentes de la muestra (espalda, pecho y anca, que fueron posteriormente analizadas mediante el método de recuento en placa. Al aplicar secuencialmente los métodos de remoción microbiana se apreció la disminución progresiva en el recuento de coliformes totales y E. coli, y en la variabilidad de los datos, principalmente en los tratamientos C, D y E. La prueba de contrastes múltiples de Friedman mostró la inexistencia de diferencias estadísticas entre los recuentos de los tratamientos C y E en la muestra 2, indicando la ineficacia de la vaporización como coadyuvante de la acidificación para disminuir el recuento de los microorganismos de estudio. Las pruebas de comparación en muestras independientes mostraron resultados idénticos a la prueba de Friedman, excepto para el recuento de E. coli entre los tratamientos D y E, sugiriendo que la vaporización tiene efecto significativo para potenciar la disminución del recuento del microorganismo en las canales.

  19. Coliform bacteria as indicators of diarrheal risk in household drinking water: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Joshua S; Ercumen, Ayse; Colford, John M

    2014-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend the use of Escherichia coli (EC) or thermotolerant ("fecal") coliforms (FC) as indicators of fecal contamination in drinking water. Despite their broad use as measures of water quality, there remains limited evidence for an association between EC or FC and diarrheal illness: a previous review found no evidence for a link between diarrhea and these indicators in household drinking water. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to update the results of the previous review with newly available evidence, to explore differences between EC and FC indicators, and to assess the quality of available evidence. We searched major databases using broad terms for household water quality and diarrhea. We extracted study characteristics and relative risks (RR) from relevant studies. We pooled RRs using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, and used standard methods to evaluate heterogeneity and publication bias. We identified 20 relevant studies; 14 studies provided extractable results for meta-analysis. When combining all studies, we found no association between EC or FC and diarrhea (RR 1.26 [95% CI: 0.98, 1.63]). When analyzing EC and FC separately, we found evidence for an association between diarrhea and EC (RR: 1.54 [95% CI: 1.37, 1.74]) but not FC (RR: 1.07 [95% CI: 0.79, 1.45]). Across all studies, we identified several elements of study design and reporting (e.g., timing of outcome and exposure measurement, accounting for correlated outcomes) that could be improved upon in future studies that evaluate the association between drinking water contamination and health. Our findings, based on a review of the published literature, suggest that these two coliform groups have different associations with diarrhea in household drinking water. Our results support the use of EC as a fecal indicator in household drinking water.

  20. Prevalence and counts of Salmonella spp. in minimally processed vegetables in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria Teresa; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2011-09-01

    Minimally processed vegetables (MPV) may be important vehicles of Salmonella spp. and cause disease. This study aimed at detecting and enumerating Salmonella spp. in MPV marketed in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 512 samples of MPV packages collected in retail stores were tested for Salmonella spp. and total coliforms and Escherichia coli as indication of the hygienic status. Salmonella spp. was detected in four samples, two using the detection method and two using the counting method, where the results were 8.8 × 10(2) CFU/g and 2.4 × 10(2) CFU/g. The serovars were Salmonella Typhimurium (three samples) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica O:47:z4,z23:- (one sample). Fourteen samples (2.7%) presented counts of E. coli above the maximum limit established by the Brazilian regulation for MPV (10(2) CFU/g). Therefore, tightened surveillance and effective intervention strategies are necessary in order to address consumers and governments concerns on safety of MPV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radon counting statistics - a Monte Carlo investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive decay is a Poisson process, and so the Coefficient of Variation (COV) of open-quotes nclose quotes counts of a single nuclide is usually estimated as 1/√n. This is only true if the count duration is much shorter than the half-life of the nuclide. At longer count durations, the COV is smaller than the Poisson estimate. Most radon measurement methods count the alpha decays of 222 Rn, plus the progeny 218 Po and 214 Po, and estimate the 222 Rn activity from the sum of the counts. At long count durations, the chain decay of these nuclides means that every 222 Rn decay must be followed by two other alpha decays. The total number of decays is open-quotes 3Nclose quotes, where N is the number of radon decays, and the true COV of the radon concentration estimate is 1/√(N), √3 larger than the Poisson total count estimate of 1/√3N. Most count periods are comparable to the half lives of the progeny, so the relationship between COV and count time is complex. A Monte-Carlo estimate of the ratio of true COV to Poisson estimate was carried out for a range of count periods from 1 min to 16 h and three common radon measurement methods: liquid scintillation, scintillation cell, and electrostatic precipitation of progeny. The Poisson approximation underestimates COV by less than 20% for count durations of less than 60 min

  2. COMPARISON OF MEMBRANE FILTER, MULTIPLE-FERMENTATION-TUBE, AND PRESENCE-ABSENCE TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING TOTAL COLIFORMS IN SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods for detecting total coliform bacteria in drinking water were compared using 1483 different drinking water samples from 15 small community water systems in Vermont and New Hampshire. The methods included the membrane filter (MF) technique, a ten tube fermentation tube tech...

  3. Evaluation of data from the literature on the transport and survival of Escherichia coli and thermotolerant coliforms in aquifers under saturated conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foppen, J W A; Schijven, J F

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli and thermotolerant coliforms are of major importance as indicators of fecal contamination of water. Due to its negative surface charge and relatively low die-off or inactivation rate coefficient, E. coli is able to travel long distances underground and is therefore also a useful

  4. Rapid detection of coliforms in drinking water of Arak city using multiplex PCR method in comparison with the standard method of culture (Most Probably Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghan fatemeh

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Multiplex PCR method with shortened operation time was used for the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in distribution system of Arak city. It's recommended to be used at least as an initial screening test, and then the positive samples could be randomly tested by MPN.

  5. Ranking of the Ecological Disaster Areas According to Coliform Contamination and the Incidence of Acute Enteric Infections of the Population in Kyzylorda Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarova, Mariya N.; Orakbay, Lyazzat Zh.; Shuratov, Idelbay H.; Kenjebayeva, Asiya T.; Zhumagalieva, Aizhan B.; Sarsenova, Ainur B.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to monitoring the environmental coliform bacteria (CB) contamination (soil and water) in the environmental disaster areas in the Kazakhstan part of the Aral Sea Region and ranking districts by their level of contamination and the rate of gastrointestinal infections (GI). The research was done in environmental disaster areas…

  6. Discrete calculus methods for counting

    CERN Document Server

    Mariconda, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to combinatorics, finite calculus, formal series, recurrences, and approximations of sums. Readers will find not only coverage of the basic elements of the subjects but also deep insights into a range of less common topics rarely considered within a single book, such as counting with occupancy constraints, a clear distinction between algebraic and analytical properties of formal power series, an introduction to discrete dynamical systems with a thorough description of Sarkovskii’s theorem, symbolic calculus, and a complete description of the Euler-Maclaurin formulas and their applications. Although several books touch on one or more of these aspects, precious few cover all of them. The authors, both pure mathematicians, have attempted to develop methods that will allow the student to formulate a given problem in a precise mathematical framework. The aim is to equip readers with a sound strategy for classifying and solving problems by pursuing a mathematically rigorous yet ...

  7. Counting paths with Schur transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, Pablo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Kemp, Garreth [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Véliz-Osorio, Alvaro, E-mail: aveliz@gmail.com [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.

  8. Mass counting of radioactivity samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterlin, D.L.; Obrycki, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for concurrently counting a plurality of radioactive samples is claimed. The position sensitive circuitry of a scintillation camera is employed to sort electrical pulses resulting from scintillations according to the geometrical locations of scintillations causing those pulses. A scintillation means, in the form of a scintillating crystal material or a liquid scintillator, is positioned proximate to an array of radioactive samples. Improvement in the accuracy of pulse classification may be obtained by employing collimating means. If a plurality of scintillation crystals are employed to measure the iodine-125 content of samples, a method and means are provided for correcting for variations in crystal light transmission properties, sample volume, and sample container radiation absorption. 2 claims, 7 drawing figures

  9. The Golosyiv plate archive digitisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, T. P.; Sergeev, A. V.; Pakuliak, L. K.; Yatsenko, A. I.

    2007-08-01

    The plate archive of the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Golosyiv, Kyiv) includes about 85 000 plates which have been taken in various observational projects during 1950-2005. Among them are about 25 000 of direct northern sky area plates and more than 600 000 plates containing stellar, planetary and active solar formations spectra. Direct plates have a limiting magnitude of 14.0-16.0 mag. Since 2002 we have been organising the storage, safeguarding, cataloguing and digitization of the plate archive. The very initial task was to create the automated system for detection of astronomical objects and phenomena, search of optical counterparts in the directions of gamma-ray bursts, research of long period, flare and other variable stars, search and rediscovery of asteroids, comets and other Solar System bodies to improve the elements of their orbits, informational support of CCD observations and space projects, etc. To provide higher efficiency of this work we have prepared computer readable catalogues and database for 250 000 direct wide field plates. Now the catalogues have been adapted to Wide Field Plate Database (WFPDB) format and integrated into this world database. The next step will be adaptation of our catalogues, database and images to standards of the IVOA. Some magnitude and positional accuracy estimations for Golosyiv archive plates have been done. The photometric characteristics of the images of NGC 6913 cluster stars on two plates of the Golosyiv's double wide angle astrograph have been determined. Very good conformity of the photometric characteristics obtained with external accuracies of 0.13 and 0.15 mag. has been found. The investigation of positional accuracy have been made with A3± format fixed bed scanner (Microtek ScanMaker 9800XL TMA). It shows that the scanner has non-detectable systematic errors on the X-axis, and errors of ± 15 μm on the Y-axis. The final positional errors are about ± 2 μm (

  10. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  11. Drinking water quality in Rohri City, Sindh, Pakistan | Shar | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater and surface water samples from Rohri city were analyzed for the presence of total coliform (TC), E. coli (Ec) and heterotrophic plate count (HPC). The samples were collected before and after storage. The bacteriological analysis was carried out by membrane filtration and spread plate count (SPC) technique.

  12. hand- dug well

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Misrak

    wells at the vicinity of three major refuse dumpsite taking measurement of depth of the well, diameter, volume of water, distance ... The total coliform bacteria count shows that the water is exposed to serious and complex contaminations, which .... Bacterial plate count was carried out using the pour plate method with nutrient ...

  13. Use of coliform bacteria for the detection of on-line leakage in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibi, S.; Karim, H.M.A.; Mashiatullah, A.; Sajjad, I.

    1996-01-01

    In this method, rupture or leakage in under ground water pipes is detected simply by taking the water samples from the main supply lines of the houses and incubating them at 40 deg. C for sixteen hours, colonies (developed with yellow colour) are counted with colony counter. Thirteen samples (in triplicate) collected from different houses in the congested localities during repair work of the major supply line and all of them after test showed heavy rate of pollution. The experiment was repeated for the same locality and sampling sites after completion of repair work. This time the rate of pollution decreases very much showing drastically low growth of microorganisms except for two points. For two further investigation of the nearly leakages at these points, 13 samples (in triplicate) were again collected in serial wise number of houses. Two points of the leakage were identified where the growth rate of the microorganisms was abruptly high between two consecutive houses or opposite houses depending upon the supply of water pipe lines showing the leakage of houses. Two points of the leakage were identified where the growth rate of the microorganisms was abruptly high between two consecutive houses or opposite houses depending upon the supply of water pipe lines showing the leakage of he pipes. This method is useful and causes no health hazard to the population and gives best results where the water supply is on intermittent basis. The technique is specially useful in the remote areas of the country where research facilities are not available and the Pacqualab is a field instrument. So it is handy and rapid method for the detection of leakage in underground water supplies in the remote areas of the country. (author)

  14. Eficiência na remoção de coliformes em águas cinza através da fitorremediação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena S. Baracuhy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O semiárido é caracterizado pelas irregularidades pluviais e o tratamento de águas cinza para reuso na agricultura com tecnologia ecológica é uma forma de conviver com a seca nessas regiões. Nesse contexto, a pesquisa foi realizada no distrito de Ribeira no município de Cabaceiras/PB objetivando-se avaliar a eficiência da remoção dos coliformes totais e fecais do efluente tratado nas unidades de produção agrícola através da fitorremediação. Foram realizados dois tratamentos com e sem fitorremediação, a cultura utilizada foi o capim roxo. As águas cinza eram provenientes de uma lavanderia pública. Foram coletadas amostras mensais e analisadas os coliformes total e fecal (Escherichia coli. No tratamento sem fitorremediação, os coliformes totais variaram de 1,583 x 103 a 2,0224 x 103 (UFC/100 mL e quando o tratamento tinha o auxílio do capim roxo, ou seja, com fitorremediação os coliformes totais oscilaram de 1,354 x 103 a 2,0224 x 103 (UFC/100 mL. Ocorreu uma redução significativa de Escherichia coli no tratamento com fitorremediação. A utilização da fitorremediação no tratamento de águas cinza reduziu a presença de coliformes totais e fecal, sendo assim uma alternativa viável de tratamento, proporcionando um aumento da qualidade hídrica.

  15. Bacterial adherence to different inert surfaces evaluated by epifluorescence microscopy and plate count method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvânia Quintão Fontes Parizzi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The adherence of Listeria inoccua L6a and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 was evaluated on stainless steel (SS, polycarbonate (PC and polypropylene (PP chips. The EP results showed a significant difference (pA adesão de Listeria innocua L6a e de Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 foi avaliada em cupons de prova de aço inoxidável AISI 304, de policarbonato, ambos com dimensões de 10x10x1mm, e de polipropileno com dimensões de 10x10x4mm. Os cupons limpos e esterilizados foram imersos em 100mL de caldo TSB ou de BHI, contendo cerca de 1,0x10³ UFC/ml de L. innocua ou de S. aureus, respectivamente, e incubados a 30ºC. Após 0,2,4,6,8,10 e 12horas, os cupons foram retirados e imersos em tampão fosfato (0,31M e pH=7,2, durante 1 minuto, para remoção de células planctônicas; em seguida, submetidos à determinação do número de células aderidas pelas técnicas da microscopia de epifluorescência (MEP e da contagem-padrão em placas após vórtex (CPP. Para MEP, os cupons foram imersos em solução de Kirkpatrick durante 3 minutos para fixar as células às superfícies. Posteriormente, as células foram coradas com alaranjado de acridina durante 5 minutos, e enumeradas pela MEP, em objetiva de imersão com área de 0,0226mm². Para CPP, os cupons foram imersos em 2mL de tampão fosfato, submetidos ao vórtex, durante 1 minuto, para remoção das células sésseis, e, em seguida, foram efetuadas as contagens, usando-se ágar BHI ou TSB e incubação a 30ºC por 48horas. Os resultados, tanto para MEP quanto para CPP, foram expressos em UFC/cm². Para a técnica de MEP, constatou-se diferença significativa (p<0,05 quando se avaliaram as interações entre os microrganismos, as superfícies e os tempos de contato. Verificou-se que o número de células aderidas aumentou com o tempo de contato, para todas as superfícies, independente do microorganismo. A CPP mostrou-se mais sensível para detectar números baixos de células aderidas às superfícies. No entanto, de forma geral, as contagens bacterianas obtidas pela CPP eram menores do que aquelas obtidas pela MEP. Pode-se afirmar que a MEP foi a técnica mais adequada para quantificar a adesão bacteriana, principalmente, quando o número de células aderidas às superfícies, observadas nos campos microscópicos, encontrava-se entre 10 e 100.

  16. Effects of high-energy electron irradiation of chicken meat on Salmonella and aerobic plate count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, J.L.; Owens, S.L.; Tesch, S.; Hannah, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Four experiments were used to determine the effects of high-energy irradiation on the number of aerobic microorganisms and Salmonella on broiler breasts and thighs. Irradiation ranging from 100 to 700 kilorads (krads) was provided by a commercial-scale, electron-beam accelerator. Irradiation of broiler breast and thigh pieces with electron beams at levels of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 krads showed that levels as low as 100 krads would eliminate Salmonella. When 33 thighs were tested after irradiation at 200 krads, only one thigh tested presumptive positive. The total number of aerobic organisms was reduced by 2 to 3 log10 cycles at irradiation levels of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 krads. Increasing the dose above 100 krads gave little if any additional benefit

  17. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  18. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate

  19. A position sensitive parallel plate avalanche fission detector for use in particle induced fission coincidence measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plicht, J. van der

    1980-01-01

    A parallel plate avalanche detector developed for the detection of fission fragments in particle induced fission reactions is described. The active area is 6 × 10 cm2; it is position sensitive in one dimension with a resolution of 2.5 mm. The detector can withstand a count rate of 25000 fission

  20. Measurement of environmental radioactivity with photo-diode and Imaging Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, C.; Sumi, T.; Gotoh, S.; Saze, T.; Nishizawa, K.

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of environmental radioactivity with photo-diode (PD) and Imaging Plate (IP) was tired. Commercially available Si PIN type PD's generally have depletion layer thickness more than a few hundred micrometer, which is enough for alpha particle measurement. PD's have various features: being usable in normal temperature, high energy resolution and low cost. Radon daughter nuclides positively charged in atmosphere were collected on the PD surface with negative electric potential and measured the pulse height spectra of alpha-particles from the daughter nuclides of Radon in thorium oxide, uranium ore, granite, and concrete. Counting of alpha-particles with IP was tired. Lead plates usually contain Pb-210 (RaD) and emit alpha-particles from Po-210. The alpha-particles from the plate were counted with PD and the plate was exposed to IP. By adjusting the gradation level on the reading out of the latent image, it was possible to count alpha-particle incident image one by one, and the number per 1 cm 2 was compared with the number of count with PD. (author)

  1. MyPlate Daily Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost Recipes Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals MyPlate Tip Sheets Print Materials Infographics 5 Ways ...

  2. License plate recognition (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    License Plate Recognition (LPR) technology has been used for off-line automobile enforcement purposes. The technology has seen mixed success with correct reading rate as high as 60 to 80% depending on the specific application and environment. This li...

  3. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanton, Brian; Coburn, William; Pizzillo, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    ...., surface texture and coatings) that could become important at high frequency. We measure waviness and roughness of various plates to know the parameter range for smooth aluminum and rolled homogenous armor (RHA...

  4. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf, R.; Budić, B.; Stamenković, D.; Čolić, M.; Ivanič, A.; Kosec, B.

    2013-01-01

    Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  5. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  6. Counting Zero: Rethinking Feminist Epistemologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns feminist engagements with epistemologies. Feminist epistemologies have revealed and challenged the exclusions and denigrations at work in knowledge production processes. And yet, the emphasis on the partiality of knowledge and the non-innocence of any subject position also cast doubt on the possibility of feminist political communities. In view of this, it has been argued that the very parameter of epistemology poses limitations for feminism, for it leads to either political paralysis or prescriptive politics that in fact undoes the political of politics. From a different perspective, decolonial feminists argue for radical epistemic disobedience and delinking the move beyond the confines of Western systems of knowledge and its extractive knowledge economy. Nevertheless, the oppositional logic informs both feminist epistemologies and its critiques, which I argue is symptomatic of the epistemic habits of academic feminism. This article ends with a preliminary reconsideration of the question of origin through the figure of zero. It asks whether it might be possible to conceive of feminist epistemologies as performing the task of counting zero – accounting for origin, wholeness, and universality – that takes into account specificities without forfeiting coalition and claims to knowledge.

  7. Heterogeneous counting on filter support media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E.; Kohler, V.; Kelly, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Many investigators in the biomedical research area have used filter paper as the support for radioactive samples. This means that a heterogeneous counting of sample sometimes results. The count rate of a sample on a filter will be affected by positioning, degree of dryness, sample application procedure, the type of filter, and the type of cocktail used. Positioning of the filter (up or down) in the counting vial can cause a variation of 35% or more when counting tritiated samples on filter paper. Samples of varying degrees of dryness when added to the counting cocktail can cause nonreproducible counts if handled improperly. Count rates starting at 2400 CPM initially can become 10,000 CPM in 24 hours for 3 H-DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) samples dried on standard cellulose acetate membrane filters. Data on cellulose nitrate filters show a similar trend. Sample application procedures in which the sample is applied to the filter in a small spot or on a large amount of the surface area can cause nonreproducible or very low counting rates. A tritiated DNA sample, when applied topically, gives a count rate of 4,000 CPM. When the sample is spread over the whole filter, 13,400 CPM are obtained with a much better coefficient of variation (5% versus 20%). Adding protein carrier (bovine serum albumin-BSA) to the sample to trap more of the tritiated DNA on the filter during the filtration process causes a serious beta absorption problem. Count rates which are one-fourth the count rate applied to the filter are obtained on calibrated runs. Many of the problems encountered can be alleviated by a proper choice of filter and the use of a liquid scintillation cocktail which dissolves the filter. Filter-Solv has been used to dissolve cellulose nitrate filters and filters which are a combination of cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate. Count rates obtained for these dissolved samples are very reproducible and highly efficient

  8. Leveraging multiple datasets for deep leaf counting

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrescu, Andrei; Giuffrida, Mario Valerio; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A

    2017-01-01

    The number of leaves a plant has is one of the key traits (phenotypes) describing its development and growth. Here, we propose an automated, deep learning based approach for counting leaves in model rosette plants. While state-of-the-art results on leaf counting with deep learning methods have recently been reported, they obtain the count as a result of leaf segmentation and thus require per-leaf (instance) segmentation to train the models (a rather strong annotation). Instead, our method tre...

  9. Resonance ionization spectroscopy: Counting noble gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Chen, C.H.; Willis, R.D.; Lehmann, B.E.; Kramer, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe new work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions). When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. We show that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective. (orig./FKS)

  10. Whole-body counting 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Selnaes, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the doses from radiocesium in foods after the Chernobyl accident, four groups were chosen in 1987. Two groups, presumed to have a large consumption of food items with a high radiocesium content, were selected. These were Lapp reindeer breeders from central parts of Norway, and hunters a.o. from the municipality of Oeystre Slidre. Two other groups were randomly selected, one from the municipality of Sel, and one from Oslo. The persons in these two groups were presumed to have an average diet. The fall-out in Sel was fairly large (100 kBq/m 2 ), whereas in Oslo the fall-out level was low (2 kBq/m 2 ). The persons in each group were monitored once a year with whole-body counters, and in connection with these countings dietary surveys were preformed. In 1990 the Sel-group and the Lapps in central parts of Norway were followed. Average whole-body activity in each group is compared to earlier years's results, and an average yearly effective dose equivalent is computed. The Sel-group has an average whole-body activity of 2800 Bq for men, and 690 Bq for women. Compared to earlier years, there is a steady but slow decrease in whole-body activities. Yearly dose is calculated to 0.06 mSv for 1990. The Lapps in central parts of Norway have an average whole-body content of 23800 Bq for men and 13600 Bq for women. This results in an average yearly dose of 0.9 mSv for the individuals in the group. Compared to earlier years, the Lapp group show a decrease in whole-body contents since 1988. This decrease is larger among men than women. 5 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  11. High-Throughput Quantification of Bacterial-Cell Interactions Using Virtual Colony Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Hoffmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of bacteria in cell culture infection models is of paramount importance for the characterization of host-pathogen interactions and pathogenicity factors involved. The standard to enumerate bacteria in these assays is plating of a dilution series on solid agar and counting of the resulting colony forming units (CFU. In contrast, the virtual colony count (VCC method is a high-throughput compatible alternative with minimized manual input. Based on the recording of quantitative growth kinetics, VCC relates the time to reach a given absorbance threshold to the initial cell count using a series of calibration curves. Here, we adapted the VCC method using the model organism Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium in combination with established cell culture-based infection models. For HeLa infections, a direct side-by-side comparison showed a good correlation of VCC with CFU counting after plating. For MDCK cells and RAW macrophages we found that VCC reproduced the expected phenotypes of different S. Typhimurium mutants. Furthermore, we demonstrated the use of VCC to test the inhibition of Salmonella invasion by the probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917. Taken together, VCC provides a flexible, label-free, automation-compatible methodology to quantify bacteria in in vitro infection assays.

  12. Fly's Eye: a counting camera for thermal neutrons, some applications, problems, and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    An area detector for thermal neutrons based on image intensification techniques is described and some capabilities and limitations of the detection system are discussed. Among the former are high spatial resolution high instantaneous counting rate, electronic zoom, time-gating, and integration. The detector is limited in that the maximum counting rate for a resolution element is 60 regularly spaced counts per second. Also, the nonuniformity of response over the detector limits the useful size and requires point-by-point calibration. In addition, a higher efficiency for neutron detection would be desirable. Some typical applications of the system are: crystal inspection, neutron magnetic diffraction topography, and searches for temperature induced changes in diffraction patterns. The future application of solid state television sensors and microchannel plate intensifiers to improve the system are briefly mentioned. (U.S.)

  13. Fly's eye: a counting camera for thermal neutrons: some applications, problems, and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    An area detector for thermal neutrons based on image intensification techniques is described. Some capabilities and limitations of the detection system are discussed. Among the former are high spatial resolution, high instantaneous counting rate, electronic zoom, time-gating, and integration. The detector is limited in that the maximum counting rate for a resolution element is 60 regularly spaced counts per second. Also, the nonuniformity of response over the detector puts a limit on the useful size and necessitates point-by-point calibration. In addition, a higher efficiency for neutron detection would be desirable. Some typical applications of the system are crystal inspection, neutron magnetic diffraction topography, and searches for temperature-induced changes in diffraction patterns. The future application of solid-state television sensors and microchannel-plate intensifiers to improve the system is briefly mentioned

  14. MinION Nanopore Sequencing Enables Correlation between Resistome Phenotype and Genotype of Coliform Bacteria in Municipal Sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs functioned as the intersection between the human society and nature environment, are receiving increasingly more attention on risk assessment of the acquisition of environmental antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs by pathogenetic populations during treatment. However, because of the general lack of robust resistome profiling methods, genotype, and resistance phenotype is still poorly correlated in human pathogens of sewage samples. Here we applied MinION sequencing to quantify the resistance genes of multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR coliform bacteria, a common indicator for human enteric pathogens in sewage samples. Our pipeline could deliver the results within 30 h from sample collection and the resistome quantification was consistent to that based on the Illumina platform. Additionally, the long nanopore reads not only enabled a simultaneous identification of the carrier populations of ARGs detected, but also facilitated the genome reconstruction of a representative MAR strain, from which we identified an instance of chromosomal integration of environmental resistance gene obtained by plasmid exchange with a porcine pathogen. This study demonstrated the utilization of MinION sequencing in quick monitoring and simultaneous phylogenetic tracking of environmental ARGs to address potential health risk associated with them.

  15. MinION Nanopore Sequencing Enables Correlation between Resistome Phenotype and Genotype of Coliform Bacteria in Municipal Sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yu; Li, An-Dong; Deng, Yu; Jiang, Xiao-Tao; Li, Li-Guan; Zhang, Tong

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) functioned as the intersection between the human society and nature environment, are receiving increasingly more attention on risk assessment of the acquisition of environmental antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) by pathogenetic populations during treatment. However, because of the general lack of robust resistome profiling methods, genotype, and resistance phenotype is still poorly correlated in human pathogens of sewage samples. Here we applied MinION sequencing to quantify the resistance genes of multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) coliform bacteria, a common indicator for human enteric pathogens in sewage samples. Our pipeline could deliver the results within 30 h from sample collection and the resistome quantification was consistent to that based on the Illumina platform. Additionally, the long nanopore reads not only enabled a simultaneous identification of the carrier populations of ARGs detected, but also facilitated the genome reconstruction of a representative MAR strain, from which we identified an instance of chromosomal integration of environmental resistance gene obtained by plasmid exchange with a porcine pathogen. This study demonstrated the utilization of MinION sequencing in quick monitoring and simultaneous phylogenetic tracking of environmental ARGs to address potential health risk associated with them.

  16. System and method of liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapkin, E.

    1977-01-01

    A method of liquid scintillation counting utilizing a combustion step to overcome quenching effects comprises novel features of automatic sequential introduction of samples into a combustion zone and automatic sequential collection and delivery of combustion products into a counting zone. 37 claims, 13 figures

  17. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  18. Current status of liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingler, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    Scintillation counting of alpha particles has been used since the turn of the century. The advent of pulse shape discrimination has made this method of detection accurate and reliable. The history, concepts and development of scintillation counting and pulse shape discrimination are discussed. A brief look at the ongoing work in the consolidation of components now used for pulse shape discrimination is included

  19. Lazy reference counting for the Microgrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.; Grelck, C.; Herhut, S.; Scholz, S.-B.

    2012-01-01

    This papers revisits non-deferred reference counting, a common technique to ensure that potentially shared large heap objects can be reused safely when they are both input and output to computations. Traditionally, thread-safe reference counting exploit implicit memory-based communication of counter

  20. A Word Count of Modern Arabic Prose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Jacob M.

    This book presents a word count of Arabic prose based on 60 twentieth-century Egyptian books. The text is divided into an alphabetical list and a word frequency list. This word count is intended as an aid in the: (1) writing of primers and the compilation of graded readers, (2) examination of the vocabulary selection of primers and readers…

  1. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  2. Modeling RERTR experimental fuel plates using the PLATE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Meyer, M.K.; Hofman, G.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Brazener, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Modeling results using the PLATE dispersion fuel performance code are presented for the U-Mo/Al experimental fuel plates from the RERTR-1, -2, -3 and -5 irradiation tests. Agreement of the calculations with experimental data obtained in post-irradiation examinations of these fuels, where available, is shown to be good. Use of the code to perform a series of parametric evaluations highlights the sensitivity of U-Mo dispersion fuel performance to fabrication variables, especially fuel particle shape and size distributions. (author)

  3. Plating on some difficult-to-plate metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1980-02-01

    Electrodeposition of coatings on metals such as beryllium, beryllium-copper, Kovar, lead, magnesium, thorium, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zirconium, and their alloys can be problematic. This is due in most cases to a natural oxide surface film that readily reforms after being removed. The procedures we recommend for plating on these metals rely on replacing the oxide film with a displacement coating, or etching to allow mechanical keying between the substrate and plated deposit. The effectiveness of the procedures is demonstrated by interface bond strengths found in ring-shear and conical-head tensile tests

  4. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    The product of an electroless plating process is described for plating at least one main group metal directly on a surface of a polymeric substrate comprising the steps of forming a nonaqueous solution containing a metallic salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and at least one main group metal in a negative valence state, the main group metal being selected from the group consisting of Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Si and Te, selecting an aromatic polymeric substrate reducible by the solublized salt and resistant to degration during the reaction, and carrying out a redox reaction between the salt in solution and the substrate by contacting the solution with the substrate for a sufficient time to oxidize and deposit the main group metal in elemental form to produce a plated substrate. The product is characterized by the plated metal being directly on the surface of the polymeric substrate and the alkali metal being retained in the plated substrate with the substrate being negatively charged with electrons transferred from the main group metal during the redox reaction

  5. Efektifitas Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale Var. Rubrum sebagai Additif Pakan dan Antimikrobia terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Anaerob dan Coliform Secara In Vivo pada Ayam Pedaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Manullang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Jahe merah (Zingiber officinale Var. Rubrum dikenal sebagai bakteriasida. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakterial bubuk jahe terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri anaerob dan coliform (Escherichia coli dan Salmonella sp. secara in vivo pada Broiler. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua puluh empat DOC dengan berat badan 40,7 g. Pemberian bubuk jahe diberikan pada Broiler selama 5 hari dengan konsentrasi ekstrak jahe merah yaitu, 0,5, 1, dan 1,5% per kg pakan. Peubah yang diamati adalah berat badan, asupan pakan dan koloni bakteri. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat pengaruh ekstrak jahe merah pada total koloni bakteri yang cenderung menurun dengan semakin tinggi konsentrasi ekstrak jahe merah, semakin tinggi efek hambatan pertumbuhan bakteri. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak jahe merah memiliki sejumlah aktivitas antibakteri untuk pertumbuhan bakteri anaerob dan coliform (E. coli dan Salmonella sp..

  6. Coliform accumulation in Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854 (Cirripedia and its use as an organic pollution bioindicator in the estuarine area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CMR Farrapeira

    Full Text Available Samples of water and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite were collected from Recife, Brazil, to assess if it accumulates total (TC and thermotolerant coliforms (TTC related with sewage pollution. The Most Probable Number (MPN values and the standard procedures for examination of shellfish were used. Comparatively with the water samples, the highest coliform values came from the barnacles, with TC values ranging from 2.4 × 10(6 MPN.g-1, and TTC ranging from > 2.4 × 10³ to 2.9 × 10(5 MPN.g-1. Barnacles accumulate the TC Ewingella americana, and the TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter sakazakii. The results provided an indication of the level of organic contamination at the sampling locations and that this species could be a good organic pollution bioindicator.

  7. Microchannel plate special nuclear materials sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feller, W.B.; White, P.L.; White, P.B.; Siegmund, O.H.W.; Martin, A.P.; Vallerga, J.V.

    2011-01-01

    Nova Scientific Inc., is developing for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO SBIR no. HSHQDC-08-C-00190), a solid-state, high-efficiency neutron detection alternative to 3 He gas tubes, using neutron-sensitive microchannel plates (MCPs) containing 10 B and/or Gd. This work directly supports DNDO development of technologies designed to detect and interdict nuclear weapons or illicit nuclear materials. Neutron-sensitized MCPs have been shown theoretically and more recently experimentally, to be capable of thermal neutron detection efficiencies equivalent to 3 He gas tubes. Although typical solid-state neutron detectors typically have an intrinsic gamma sensitivity orders of magnitude higher than that of 3 He gas detectors, we dramatically reduce gamma sensitivity by combining a novel electronic coincidence rejection scheme, employing a separate but enveloping gamma scintillator. This has already resulted in a measured gamma rejection ratio equal to a small 3 He tube, without in principle sacrificing neutron detection efficiency. Ongoing improvements to the MCP performance as well as the coincidence counting geometry will be described. Repeated testing and validation with a 252 Cf source has been underway throughout the Phase II SBIR program, with ongoing comparisons to a small commercial 3 He gas tube. Finally, further component improvements and efforts toward integration maturity are underway, with the goal of establishing functional prototypes for SNM field testing.

  8. Soft Plate and Impact Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoff, Basil

    In the field of tectonics, most of our ideas are published in journals. This is not true of other fields, such as history, in which ideas are primarily published in books. Within my own field of structural geology, I can recall only one book, Strain Fades by E. Hansen (Springer-Verlag, 1971), which presents a new idea in book form. However, even this book is more useful for its philosophical approach and particular methodology of determining directions of folding, than for its overarching idea.Enter Soft Plate and Impact Tectonics, a new book with an interesting hypothesis that has been informally discussed in the geoscience community: A fundamental tenet of plate tectonics is incorrect—namely, that the plates are rigid. This assertion is evident when looking at any mountain range, and is perhaps most clearly stated in Molnar [1988].

  9. COLIFORMES TERMOTOLERANTES EN AGUAS DE LAS POBLACIONES COSTERAS Y PALAFÍTICAS DE LA CIÉNAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Narvaez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta es el sistema lagunar costero más grande e importante de Colombia y el más extenso del Caribe. En su territorio se alojan siete poblaciones carentes de un sistema de saneamiento básico adecuado, que vierten sus desechos sin ningún tipo de tratamiento directamente a la ciénaga. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia ambiental de este cuerpo de agua y con el objeto de conocer su calidad sanitaria se determinaron las concentraciones de Coliformes termotolerantes en aguas adyacentes de dos poblaciones costeras (Tasajera e isla del Rosario y tres palafiticas (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia y Trojas de Cataca durante el periodo 2004-2007. Adicionalmente, se realizaron mediciones de pH, temperatura, salinidad y oxígeno disuelto en cada sitio de muestreo. Las mayores concentraciones de Coliformes se encontraron en el palafito Trojas de Cataca, en la época seca mayor de cada año (7.800-9.000 NMP/ 100 mL y los menores niveles en la estación Buenavista (2-1.100 NMP/100mL. El patrón de comportamiento de las densidades de Coliformes en las poblaciones costeras fue similar en el tiempo y no se observó ninguna relación directa entre las variables fisicoquímicas y el grupo Coliformes. Dado lo observado, se considera importante vigilar la calidad del agua en el estuario, teniendo en cuenta que constituye una fuente potencial de riesgo para el desarrollo de las actividades económicas de la zona y para la salud de los pobladores.

  10. Gentilly 2 divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, J.; Klisel, E.; McClellan, G.; Schnelder, W.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generators at the Gentilly 2 Nuclear Plant in operation since 1983 were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. After evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type dividers would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider itself was to be of a one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat bar was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider is fitted with erosion resistant inserts or weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider strength during LOCA conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design, manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  11. Investigação teórica do processo de redução de coliformes em leitos cultivados Theoretical investigation of coliform reduction in constructed wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Amendola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra a continuidade da pesquisa sugerida por Amendola et al. (2003, para o caso em que se quer buscar maior precisão na investigação teórica do processo de redução de poluentes, em função do meio suporte usado em sistemas de leitos cultivados. Esta investigação se dá via modelagem matemática e simulação numérica do processo descrito por uma equação diferencial parcial de difusão-advecção, que envolve constantes que caracterizam o meio suporte (Moreno-Grau, 1996 e deve ser associada a condições iniciais e de contorno, estabelecidas de acordo com um procedimento experimental previamente realizado. Para resolução da equação implementa-se um algoritmo baseado no esquema implícito do método de diferenças finitas que, executado no MATLAB 6.1, gera valores da concentração dos poluentes que dependem dos valores das referidas constantes. Os resultados obtidos da simulação são comparados com valores de referência para a determinação do valor do coeficiente de dispersão longitudinal que, por sua vez, gera o menor resíduo para cada tipo de meio suporte do leito cultivado. Os resultados obtidos levam à conclusão de que o leito cultivado com brita e pneu picado é mais eficiente que aquele só com brita na remoção de coliformes fecais e totais.This paper shows the continuity of the research, as suggested by Amendola et al. (2003, when looking for better accuracy in the theoretical investigation of the pollutant reduction as a function of the support bed used in constructed wetland. This investigation is performed through the mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the process, which is described by an advection-diffusion differential equation. This equation depends on certain constants which characterize the support bed (Moreno-Grau, 1996, and must be associated to the initial and boundary conditions established according to the experimental procedure. To solve the equation an algorithm based

  12. Prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter associated with eggs and the environment of conventional cage and free-range egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E; Guard, J Y

    2012-05-01

    There is a desire by US consumers for eggs produced by hens in alternative production systems. As the retail shell-egg market offers these products to accommodate consumer demands, additional information is needed to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A study was conducted to determine if there were differences in the prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter on and within eggs and in the environment of a sister flock of conventional cage and free-range laying hens. Microbial sampling occurred approximately every 6 wk between 20 and 79 wk of age. A random sampling of typical coliform colonies produced 371 viable isolates for biochemical identification. Twenty-nine genera or species of bacteria were identified. There was a significantly greater (P free-range nest box swabs compared with that in the free-range grass and conventional cage swab samples (number of positives: 8 nest box, 1 grass, 0 cage). Seven isolates of Listeria innocua were detected with no significant difference in prevalence between the treatments. Isolates were associated with eggshells (2 free-range floor, 1 cage) and the free-range environment (2 nest box, 2 grass). There were 21 Salmonella isolates detected between all sample locations, with no significant difference in the prevalence of Salmonella detection between the treatments. Additional studies are needed to fully understand the effect of alternative production methods on the prevalence of pathogens and coliforms associated with nest-run eggs and the production environment.

  13. Semiclassical theory of plate vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolny, E.; Hugues, E.

    1996-11-01

    The bi-harmonic equation of flexural vibrations of elastic plates is studied by a semiclassical method which can easily be generalized for other models of wave propagation. The surface and perimeter terms of the asymptotic number of levels are derived exactly. The next constant term is also derived. A semiclassical approximation of the quantization condition is obtained. A Berry-Tabor formula and a Gutzwiller trace formula are deduced for the integrable and chaotic cases respectively. From 600 eigenvalues of a clamped stadium plate obtained by a specially developed numerical algorithm, the trace formula is assessed, looking at its Fourier transform compared with the membrane case. (author)

  14. Standardization of {sup 241}Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balpardo, C., E-mail: balpardo@cae.cnea.gov.a [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Capoulat, M.E.; Rodrigues, D.; Arenillas, P. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-15

    The nuclide {sup 241}Am decays by alpha emission to {sup 237}Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of {sup 237}Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of {sup 241}Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  15. An Adaptive Smoother for Counting Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrasovs Vladimir; Coulon Romain; Normand Stephane

    2013-06-01

    Counting measurements associated with nuclear instruments are tricky to carry out due to the stochastic process of the radioactivity. Indeed events counting have to be processed and filtered in order to display a stable count rate value and to allow variations monitoring in the measured activity. Smoothers (as the moving average) are adjusted by a time constant defined as a compromise between stability and response time. A new approach has been developed and consists in improving the response time while maintaining count rate stability. It uses the combination of a smoother together with a detection filter. A memory of counting data is processed to calculate several count rate estimates using several integration times. These estimates are then sorted into the memory from short to long integration times. A measurement position, in terms of integration time, is then chosen into this memory after a detection test. An inhomogeneity into the Poisson counting process is detected by comparison between current position estimate and the other estimates contained into the memory in respect with the associated statistical variance calculated with homogeneous assumption. The measurement position (historical time) and the ability to forget an obsolete data or to keep in memory a useful data are managed using the detection test result. The proposed smoother is then an adaptive and a learning algorithm allowing an optimization of the response time while maintaining measurement counting stability and converging efficiently to the best counting estimate after an effective change in activity. This algorithm has also the specificity to be low recursive and thus easily embedded into DSP electronics based on FPGA or micro-controllers meeting 'real life' time requirements. (authors)

  16. The effect of volume and quenching on estimation of counting efficiencies in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoche, H.W.; Parkhurst, A.M.; Tam, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of volume on the liquid scintillation counting performance of 14 C-samples has been investigated. A decrease in counting efficiency was observed for samples with volumes below about 6 ml and those above about 18 ml when unquenched samples were assayed. Two quench-correction methods, sample channels ratio and external standard channels ratio, and three different liquid scintillation counters, were used in an investigation to determine the magnitude of the error in predicting counting efficiencies when small volume samples (2 ml) with different levels of quenching were assayed. The 2 ml samples exhibited slightly greater standard deviations of the difference between predicted and determined counting efficiencies than did 15 ml samples. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the errors indicate that if the sample channels ratio method of quench correction is employed, 2 ml samples may be counted in conventional counting vials with little loss in counting precision. (author)

  17. Radiation Counting System Software Using Visual Basic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda Nagara; Didi Gayani

    2009-01-01

    It has been created a Gamma Radiation Counting System using interface card, which paired with Personal Computer (PC) and operated by the Visual Basic program. The program was set through varied menu selections such as ”Multi Counting” , ”Counting and Record” and ”View Data”. An interface card for data acquisition was formed by using AMD9513 components as a counter and timer which can be programmed. This counting system was tested and used in waste facility in PTNBR and the result is quite good. (author)

  18. Algorithm for counting large directed loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianconi, Ginestra [Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Gulbahce, Natali [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545 (United States)

    2008-06-06

    We derive a Belief-Propagation algorithm for counting large loops in a directed network. We evaluate the distribution of the number of small loops in a directed random network with given degree sequence. We apply the algorithm to a few characteristic directed networks of various network sizes and loop structures and compare the algorithm with exhaustive counting results when possible. The algorithm is adequate in estimating loop counts for large directed networks and can be used to compare the loop structure of directed networks and their randomized counterparts.

  19. Counts and colors of faint galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kron, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    The color distribution of faint galaxies is an observational dimension which has not yet been fully exploited, despite the important constraints obtainable for galaxy evolution and cosmology. Number-magnitude counts alone contain very diluted information about the state of things because galaxies from a wide range in redshift contribute to the counts at each magnitude. The most-frequently-seen type of galaxy depends on the luminosity function and the relative proportions of galaxies of different spectral classes. The addition of color as a measured quantity can thus considerably sharpen the interpretation of galaxy counts since the apparent color depends on the redshift and rest-frame spectrum. (Auth.)

  20. The tectonic plates are moving!

    CERN Document Server

    Livermore, Roy

    2018-01-01

    Written in a witty and informal style, this book explains modern plate tectonics in a non-technical manner, showing not only how it accounts for phenomena such as great earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, but also how it controls conditions at the Earth’s surface, including global geography and climate, making it suitable for life. The book presents the advances that have been made since the establishment of plate tectonics in the 1960s, highlighting, on the fiftieth anniversary of the theory, the contributions of a small number of scientists who have never been widely recognized for their discoveries. Beginning with the publication of a short article in Nature by Vine and Matthews, the book traces the development of plate tectonics through two generations of the theory. First-generation plate tectonics covers the exciting scientific revolution of the 1960s, its heroes, and its villains. The second generation includes the rapid expansions in sonar, satellite, and seismic technologies during the 1...