WorldWideScience

Sample records for plate collector systems

  1. A dynamic simulation of a flat-plate collector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annino, A.

    1983-04-01

    A numerical model for the performance of a flat plate solar collector array is presented, with account taken of thermal transients and calculation on a microcomputer. The system modeled consists of a flat plate array, the heat transfer fluid, an insulated storage tank, an exchange loop for heating a secondary fluid, and a load maintained by a pump. The one-dimensional analysis includes equations for the energy balances, with consideration given to heat losses to the outside. A function is defined for the total incident solar radiation, and behavior is simulated over the entire 24-hr day, weighted by the highest and lowest recorded temperatures. Good agreement has been found with experimental data.

  2. A dynamic performance simulation model of flat-plate solar collectors for a heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arinze, E.A.; Schoenau, G.J.; Sokhansanj, S. (Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). College of Engineering); Adefila, S.S.; Mumah, S.M. (Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Flat-plate collectors are inherently exposed to time-varying meteorological and system parameters. Thus, dynamic modeling, rather than the commonly used steady-state models, is a more accurate approach for the design and performance evaluation of flat-plate solar collectors. The dynamic model presented in this study describes the fluid, plate and cover temperatures of the collector by three different differential equations. Taylor series expansion and the Runge-Kutta method are used in the solution of the differential equations. The accuracy of the dynamic model was tested by comparing the results predicted by the model with experimental performance data obtained for a liquid-cooled flat-plate solar collector with a corrugated transparent fiberglass cover. The predicted results by the dynamic model agreed favorably with the measured experimental data for the flat-plate solar collector. Experimentally determined collector temperatures varied by a maximum of [+-]3[sup o]C from values predicted by the model. (Author)

  3. Design and Development of ZigBee Based Instantaneous Flat-plate Collector Efficiency Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairamani, K.; Venkatesh, K. Arun; Mathivanan, N.

    2011-01-01

    Computing the efficiency of flat-plate collector is vital in solar thermal system testing. This paper presents the design of ZigBee enabled data acquisition system for instantaneous flat-plate collector efficiency calculation. It involves measurement of parameters like inlet and outlet fluid temperatures, ambient temperature and solar radiation intensity. The designed system has a base station and a sensor node. ZigBee wireless communication protocol is used for communication between the base station and the sensor node for wireless data acquisition. The wireless sensor node which is mounted over the collector plate includes the necessary sensors and associated signal-conditioners. An application program has been developed on LabVIEW platform for data acquisition, processing and analysis and is executed in base station PC. Instantaneous flat-plate collector efficiency is computed and reported.

  4. Efficiency of liquid flat-plate solar energy collector with solar tracking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekerovska Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An extensive testing programme is performed on a solar collector experimental set-up, installed on a location in Shtip (Republic of Macedonia, latitude 41º 45’ and longitude 22º 12’, in order to investigate the effect of the sun tracking system implementation on the collector efficiency. The set-up consists of two flat plate solar collectors, one with a fixed surface tilted at 30о towards the South, and the other one equipped with dual-axis rotation system. The study includes development of a 3-D mathematical model of the collectors system and a numerical simulation programme, based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD approach. The main aim of the mathematical modelling is to provide information on conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer, so as to simulate the heat transfer performances and the energy capture capabilities of the fixed and moving collectors in various operating modes. The feasibility of the proposed method was confirmed by experimental verification, showing significant increase of the daily energy capture by the moving collector, compared to the immobile collector unit. The comparative analysis demonstrates a good agreement between the experimental and numerically predicted results at different running conditions, which is a proof that the presented CFD modelling approach can be used for further investigations of different solar collectors configurations and flow schemes.

  5. Studies on solar flat plate collector evaporation systems for tannery effluent (soak liquor)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SRITHAR K.; MANIA.

    2006-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer analysis of an incompressible, laminar boundary layer over solar flat plate collector evaporation systems for tannery effluent (soak liquor) is investigated. The goveming equations are solved for various liquid to air velocity ratios. Profiles of velocity, temperature and concentration as well as their gradients are presented. The heat transfer and mass transfer coefficients thus obtained are used to evaluate mass of water evaporated for an inclined fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP)solar flat plate collector (FPC) with and without cover. Comparison of these results with the experimental performance shows encouraging trend of good agreement between them.

  6. An Experimental and Analytical Study of a Radiative Cooling System with Unglazed Flat Plate Collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Taherian, Hessam

    2012-01-01

    On an average about 40% of world energy is used in residential buildings and the largest energy consumption is allocated to the cooling and air-conditioning systems. So every attempt to economize energy consumption is very valuable. In this research a nocturnal radiative cooling system with flat...... as a guideline to derive the governing equations of a night sky radiator. Then, a cooling loop, including a storage tank, pump, connecting pipes, and a radiator has been studied experimentally. The water is circulated through the unglazed flat-plate radiator having 4 m2 of collector area at night to be cooled...

  7. Analysis of the Thermal Performance of a Solar Water Heating System with Flat Plate Collectors in a Temperate Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Ayompe, Lacour; DUFFY Aidan

    2013-01-01

    The thermal performance of a solar water heating system with 4 m2 flat plate collectors in Dublin, Ireland is presented in this paper. The experimental setup consisted of a commercially available forced circulation domestic scale system fitted with an automated sub‐system that controlled hot water draw‐offs and the operation of an auxiliary immersion heater. The system was tested over a year and the maximum recorded collector outlet fluid temperature was 70.4 oC while the maximum water temper...

  8. Investigation of one-dimensional heat flow in a solarflat plate collector with sun tracing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Samimi Akhijahani

    2016-09-01

    variation of total heat flow over the time at different surfaces of the collector is determined by using equation 3: 3 Two cases (solar panel with rotation and without rotation were considered for testing. Data measuring was carried out for 9 hours from 8 to 17. The fluid flow rate was 0.0185m3.s-1. The dryer was installed in an environment with air temperature of 31.6 oC and 31.8 oC, with the air velocity of 0.58 m.s-1 and 0.54 m.s-1 and with the relative air humidity of about 21%and 21.5% at the first and second days, respectively. The dryer had an automatic temperature controller to fix the air temperature with an accuracy of ±0.1 oC. An anemometer Yk-2005AM model was used to regulate the required air velocity. The output data of the thermocouples was recorded by a digital thermometer (DL-9601A, Lutron that was connected to a computer using RS232 cable and recorded the temperature at required point every an hour. The relative humidity of the ambient was measured every hour with a digital hygrometer (HT.3600, Taiwan, accuracy of 3%. By assembling controlling system with a DC motor, a precious photocell and a proper mechanism, the frame would rotate by the sun and followed solar radiation, therefore more solar energy produced in solar panel. Results and Discussion The results of the experiments showed that the heat transfer process increased in both cases from the early morning and reached to its maximum value around 12 to 14 o’clock. The trend was more homogeneous in the dryer by absorber plate without rotation due to the decline of the heat accumulation. The mean temperature rise in the solar dryer without rotation was 37oC and in the solar dryer with rotation was 54oC. Because of the rotation of solar plate, variations of solar radiation were low. Therefore, by rotation of the solar dryer panel the temperature rise was 27oC. The values of heat transfer coefficient in the solar dryer with rotation were decreased by the time. This reduction in the hours before noon is

  9. REVIEW OF PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS ISI FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR WITH MODIFIED FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR.Y.Y.NANDURKAR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The market of solar water heater of natural circulation type (thermo-siphon is fast growing in India. Initial cost of the solar water heater system at present is high because of store type design. It is necessary to make the product more popular by reducing the cost. This is possible by reducing area of liquid flat plate collector by increasing tube diameter and reducing riser length. Hence it is essential to make solar water heater in affordable range of the general public class. Present work is based on review of comparative performance and analysis of ISI flat plate collector with modified flat plat collector. The paper will be helpful for those who are working in the area of solar water heating system and their use in domestic areas.

  10. Increasing thermal efficiency of solar flat plate collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pona, J.

    A study of methods to increase the efficiency of heat transfer in flat plate solar collectors is presented. In order to increase the heat transfer from the absorber plate to the working fluid inside the tubes, turbulent flow was induced by installing baffles within the tubes. The installation of the baffles resulted in a 7 to 12% increase in collector efficiency. Experiments were run on both 1 sq ft and 2 sq ft collectors each fitted with either slotted baffles or tubular baffles. A computer program was run comparing the baffled collector to the standard collector. The results obtained from the computer show that the baffled collectors have a 2.7% increase in life cycle cost (LCC) savings and a 3.6% increase in net cash flow for use in domestic hot water systems, and even greater increases when used in solar heating systems.

  11. SIMULATION OF SOLAR LITHIUM BROMIDE–WATER ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEM WITH DOUBLE GLAZED FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR FOR ADRAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML CHOUGUI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adrar is a city in the Sahara desert, in southern Algeria known for its hot and dry climate, where a huge amount of energy is used for air conditioning. The aim of this research is to simulate a single effect lithium bromide–water absorption chiller coupled to a double-glazed flat plate collector to supply the cooling loads for a house of 200m2 in Adrar. The thermal energy is stored in an insulated thermal storage tank. The system was designed to cover a cooling load of 10.39KW for design day of July. Thermodynamic model was established to simulate the absorption cycle. The results have shown that the collector mass flow rate has a negligible effect on the minimum required collector area, but it has a significant effect on the optimum capacity of the storage tank. The minimum required collector area was about 65.3 m2, which could supply the cooling loads for the sunshine hours of the design day for July. The operation of the system has also been considered after sunset by saving solar energy.

  12. A Comparison of the Thermodynamic Efficiency of Vacuum Tube and Flat Plate Solar Collector Systems

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    Juozas Bielskus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents simulation based exergy analysis used for comparing solar thermal systems applied for preparing domestic hot water. The simulation of flat and vacuum tube solar collector systems was performed in TRNSYS simulation environment. A period of one year under Lithuanian climate conditions was chosen. Simulation was performed on 6 min time step resolution by calculating energy and exergy flows and creating balance calculation. Assessment results at system and element levels have been presented as monthly variation in efficiency. The conducted analysis has revealed that the systems designed to cover equal heat energy demand operates in different exergetic efficiencies.Article in Lithuanian

  13. Development of high efficiency collector plates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santala, T.; Sabol, R.

    1976-02-01

    Composite metal technology was used to manufacture intermetallic compound (IC) absorption surfaces and to combine them integrally with composite metal tube-in-sheet collector plates. Five material systems in which Al was one component metal and Fe, Cr, or Ni and their alloy was the other pair, were evaluated. All intermetallic compounds had high solar absorptance ..cap alpha.. approx. = 0.9. The AlNi was most promising and ..cap alpha.. > or = 0.95 and epsilon approx. = 0.3 were obtained over a broad range of compounding conditions. After eight months exposure in a flat plate collector enclosure the characteristic properties of AlNi surfaces remained virtually unchanged. Only LCS/Cu composite metal tube-in-sheet collector plates could be manufactured successfully. The technical difficulties associated with integrating the intermetallic compound and tube-in-sheet technologies make the manufacturing of composite metal collector plates at the time being economically unfeasible.

  14. High performance flat plate solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Reynolds, R.

    1976-01-01

    The potential use of porous construction is presented to achieve efficient heat removal from a power producing solid and is applied to solar air heaters. Analytical solutions are given for the temperature distribution within a gas-cooled porous flat plate having its surface exposed to the sun's energy. The extracted thermal energy is calculated for two different types of plate transparency. Results show the great improvement in performance obtained with porous flat plate collectors as compared with analogous nonporous types.

  15. Performance Evaluation of a Solar Dryer with Finny, Perforated Absorber Plate Collector Equipped with an Air Temperature Control System for Dill Drying

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    M Razmipour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dill is one of the most important plants in the world because of its medicinal properties and it is widely used as a vegetable in the most parts of Iran. In the present study a new solar dryer with finny, perforated absorber plate collector was utilized to dry fresh dill. The dryer was comprised of a solar collector, a product container, a fan and a drying air temperature controller. The temperature controller was used as a control system to regulate the drying air temperature. Thermal performance of the dryer with finny, perforated solar collector was compared with that of a simple flat plate solar collector at different airflow rates. The effect of drying air temperature at three levels (45, 55 and 65 °C, the product size at three lengths (3, 5 and 7 cm and two different modes of drying (mixed and indirect on the dryer performance was investigated. The results showed that the finny, perforated absorber plate solar collector could improve the thermal efficiency about 11% in comparison with the flat plate collector and the highest thermal efficiency was achieved at the maximum airflow rate. Meanwhile, increasing the air temperature and decreasing the product size caused a significant reduction in energy consumption. Solar fraction reduced by increasing the air temperature. Finally a maximum dryer efficiency of 70% was observed at air temperature of 65 oC, product size of 3 cm with mixed mode drying.

  16. Electrostatic particle collector with improved features for installing and/or removing its collector plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegfried, Matthew J.; Radford, Daniel R.; Huffman, Russell K.

    2017-04-04

    An electrostatic particle collector may generally include a housing having sidewalls extending lengthwise between a first end and a second end. The housing may define a plate slot that extends heightwise within the housing between a top end and a bottom end. The housing may further include a plate access window that provides access to the bottom end of the plate slot. The collector may also include a collector plate configured to be installed within the plate slot that extends heightwise between a top edge and a bottom edge. Additionally, when the collector plate is installed within the plate slot, the bottom edge of the collector plate may be accessible from an exterior of the housing via the plate access window so as to allow the bottom edge of the collector plate to be moved relative to the housing to facilitate removal of the collector plate from the housing.

  17. Low cost bare-plate solar air collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maag, W.L.; Wenzler, C.J.; Rom, F.E.; VanArsdale, D.R.

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a low cost, bare-plate collector, determine its performance for a variety of climatic conditions, analyze the economics of this type of solar collector and evaluate specific applications. Two prototype collectors were designed, fabricated and installed into an instrumented test system. Tests were conducted for a period of five months. Results of the tests showed consistent operating efficiencies of 60% or greater with air preheat temperature uses up to 20/sup 0/F for one of the prototypes. The economic analyses indicated that an installed cost of between $5 and $10 per square foot would make this type of solar system economically viable. For the materials of construction and the type of fabrication and installation perceived, these costs for the bare-plate solar collector are believed to be attainable. Specific applications for preheating ventilation air for schools were evaluated and judged to be economically viable.

  18. High temperature flat plate solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozumi, S.; Aso, S.; Ebisu, K.; Uchino, H.

    1981-04-01

    Improvements in the efficiency of collectors are of great importance for extending the utilization of solar energy for heating and cooling in homes. A highly efficient collector makes the system size small and decreases the system cost effectively. From the view of the amount of energy collected, the efficient collector has a multiple effect, not only because of the high increase in instantaneous efficiency, but also because of the large usable intensity range of the insolation. On the basis of a functional analysis for a flat collector, the materials and parameters were selected and optimized, and a new high temperature flat collector was designed. The collector has 2 panes. The first pane is low iron glass and the second pane is a thin film of fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer. The overall solar transmittance for the two panes is 0.89. The collecting panel and its water paths were formed by means of welding and hydraulic expansion. The selective absorbing surface consists of colored stainless steel whose absorption characteristic is 0.89 and emission characteristic is 0.16. The thermal insulator preventing backward heatloss consists of double layers of urethane foam and glass wool. Furthermore, the sustained method for the second pane is contrived so as to prevent water condensation on the panes and excessive elevation of the absorber temperature during no load heating.

  19. COMPARATIVE FIELD EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF DIFFERENT FLAT PLATE SOLAR COLLECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Full-scale traditional metal solar collectors and solar collector specimens fabricated from polymeric materials were investigated in the present study. A polymeric collector is 67.8% lighter than a traditional metal solar collector, and a metal solar collector with transparent plastic covering is 40.3% lighter than a traditional metal solar collector. Honeycomb multichannel plates made from polycarbonate were chosen to create a polymeric solar collector. A test rig for the natural circulation of the working fluid in a solar collector was built for a comparative experimental investigation of various solar collectors operating at ambient conditions. It was shown experimentally that the efficiency of a polymeric collector is 8–15% lower than the efficiency of a traditional collector.

  20. The sizes of Flat Plate and Evacuated Tube Collectors with Heat Pipe area as a function of the share of solar system in the heat demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olek Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of solar collectors in Poland is still increasing. The correct location of the collectors and a relatively high density of solar radiation allow delivering heat even in spite of relatively low ambient temperature. Moreover, solar systems used for heating domestic heat water (DHW in summer allow nearly complete elimination of conventional energy sources (e.g. gas, coal. That is why more and more house owners in Poland decide to install solar system installations. In Poland the most common types of solar collectors are flat plate collectors (FPC and evacuated tube collectors with heat pipe (ETCHP; both were selected for the analysis. The heat demand related to the preparation of hot water, connected with the size of solar collectors’ area, has been determined. The analysis includes FPC and ETCHP and heat demand of less than 10 000 kWh/year. Simulations were performed with the Matlab software and using data from a typical meteorological year (TMY. In addition, a 126–year period of measurements of insolation for Krakow has been taken into account. The HDKR model (Hay, Davis, Klucher, Reindl was used for the calculation of solar radiation on the absorber surface. The monthly medium temperature of the absorber depends on the amount of solar system heat and on the heat demand. All the previously mentioned data were used to determine solar efficiency. Due to the fact that solar efficiency and solar system heat are connected, the calculations were made with the use of an iterative method. Additionally, the upper limit for monthly useful solar system heat is resulted from the heat demand and thus the authors prepared a model of statistical solar system heat deviations based on the Monte Carlo method. It has been found that an increase in the useful solar system heat in reference to the heat demand is associated with more than proportional increase in the sizes of the analyzed surfaces of solar collector types.

  1. Efficiencies of flat plate solar collectors at different flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt;

    2012-01-01

    Two flat plate solar collectors for solar heating plants from Arcon Solvarme A/S are tested in a laboratory test facility for solar collectors at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The collectors are designed in the same way. However, one collector is equipped with an ETFE foil between...... the absorber and the cover glass and the other is without ETFE foil. The efficiencies for the collectors are tested at different flow rates. On the basis of the measured efficiencies, the efficiencies for the collectors as functions of flow rate are obtained. The calculated efficiencies are in good agreement...

  2. Solar Heating Systems with Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    , as well as with normal flat-plate collectors was calculated under Danish weather conditions. It is found that, for small SDHW systems with a combi tank design, an increase of 25% -55% net utilized solar energy can be achieved by using these evacuated tubular collectors instead of normal flat......-plate collectors. For solar heating plants, the yearly energy output from these evacuated tubular collectors is about 40%-90% higher than the output from typical flat-plate collectors at an operation temperature of about 50°C.......Recently different designed evacuated tubular solar collectors were introduced on the market by different Chinese companies. In the present study, investigations on the performance of four different Chinese evacuated tubular collectors and of solar heating systems using these collectors were...

  3. Simulating Single-Effect Absorption Cooling Lithium Bromide A Solar System With Flat Plate Collector And Contribute To An Office Building

    OpenAIRE

    MIRI, Mohadaseh

    2015-01-01

    Use solar energy to provide hot water consumption, space heating and cooling in recent decades is considered. In this article a model varies with time, a solar adsorption cooling system consists of a single effect lithium bromide absorption system, a flat plate collector and a storage tank or linear or parabolic simulated separately. The system for cooling an office building for hours of operation from 7 am to 18 pm is considered.About 7 kW peak cooling load occurs in July. Results obtained s...

  4. High Performance Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collector Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockenbaugh, Caleb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lovullo, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lisell, Lars [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barker, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hanckock, Ed [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Norton, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report was prepared for the General Services Administration by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The Honeycomb Solar Thermal Collector (HSTC) is a flat plate solar thermal collector that shows promising high efficiencies over a wide range of climate zones. The technical objectives of this study are to: 1) verify collector performance, 2) compare that performance to other market-available collectors, 3) verify overheat protection, and 4) analyze the economic performance of the HSTC both at the demonstration sites and across a matrix of climate zones and utility markets.

  5. Performance Study of a Double-Pass Thermoelectric Solar Air Collector with Flat-Plate Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Therdyothin, A.; Soponronnarit, S.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper the results of the influence of flat-plate reflectors made of aluminum foil on the performance of a double-pass thermoelectric (TE) solar air collector are presented. The proposed TE solar collector with reflectors was composed of transparent glass, an air gap, an absorber plate, TE modules, a rectangular fin heat sink, and two flat-plate reflectors. The flat-plate reflectors were placed on two sides of the TE solar collector (east and west directions). The TE solar collector was installed on a one-axis sun-tracking system to obtain high solar radiation. Direct and reflected incident solar radiation heats up the absorber plate so that a temperature difference is created across the TE modules to generate a direct current. Only a small part of the absorbed solar radiation is converted to electricity, while the rest increases the temperature of the absorber plate. Ambient air flows through the heat sink located in the lower channel to gain heat. The heated air then flows to the upper channel, where it receives additional heating from the absorber plate. Improvements to the thermal energy and electrical power outputs of the system can be achieved by the use of the double-pass collector system with reflectors and TE technology. It was found that the optimum position of the reflectors is 60°, which gave significantly higher thermal energy and electrical power outputs compared with the TE solar collector without reflectors.

  6. Detailed Modeling of Flat Plate Solar Collector with Vacuum Glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Shemelin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical analysis of flat plate solar collectors with a vacuum glazing is presented. Different configurations of the collector have been investigated by a detailed theoretical model based on a combined external and internal energy balance of the absorber. Performance characteristics for vacuum flat plate collector alternatives have been derived. Subsequently, annual energy gains have been evaluated for a selected variant and compared with state-of-the-art vacuum tube collectors. The results of modeling indicate that, in the case of using advanced vacuum glazing with optimized low-emissivity coating (emissivity 0.20, solar transmittance 0.85, it is possible to achieve efficiency parameters similar to or even better than vacuum tube collectors. The design presented in this paper can be considered promising for the extension of the applicability range of FPC and could be used in applications, which require low-to-medium temperature level.

  7. A high performance porous flat-plate solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Clarke, V.; Reynolds, R.

    1979-01-01

    A solar collector employing a porous matrix as a solar absorber and heat exchanger is presented and its application in solar air heaters is discussed. The collector is composed of a metallic matrix with a porous surface which acts as a large set of cavity radiators; cold air flows through the matrix plate and exchanges heat with the thermally stratified layers of the matrix. A steady-state thermal analysis of the collector is used to determine collector temperature distributions for the cases of an opaque surface matrix with total absorption of solar energy at the surface, and a diathermanous matrix with successive solar energy absorption at each depth. The theoretical performance of the porous flat plate collector is shown to exceed greatly that of a solid flat plate collector using air as the working medium for any given set of operational conditions. An experimental collector constructed using commercially available, low cost steel wool as the matrix has been found to have thermal efficiencies from 73 to 86%.

  8. Improvement of flat plate collectors for solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeck, H.; Hallermayer, R.; Schoelkopf, W.; Sizman, R.

    1984-03-01

    Selective absorption for thermal conversion of radiative energy was investigated. Improvement and operation of various measuring devices for absorption and emission are presented. Selective coatings were produced by vapor deposition and galvanic treatment. Calculations of the transmittance of turbular collector fields are presented. Operational Characteristics of Collector were examined. A collector test field with simultaneous recording of data from 24 collectors or uncovered absorbers was built and connected to a high performance microprocessor system. The transient behavior of collectors by variation of the irradiation and the collector inlet temperature were investigated. A mechanism for stratification of hot water of fluctuating inlet temperature in a storage tank was studied. The operating conditions of a heat pump installed in the collector test plant are investigated. A large domestic hot water system is equipped with temperature sensors and flowmeters for computer recording.

  9. Standardized solar simulator tests of flat plate solar collectors. 1: Soltex collector with two transparent covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F.

    1975-01-01

    A Soltex flat plate solar collector was tested with a solar simulator for inlet temperatures of 77 to 201 F, flux levels of 240 and 350 Btu/hr-sq ft, a collant flow rate of 10.5 lb/hr sq ft, and incident angles of 0 deg, 41.5 deg, and 65.2 deg. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle.

  10. REVIEW ON POROUS AND NON-POROUS FLAT PLATE AIR COLLECTOR WITH MIRROR ENCLOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PRADHAPRAJ,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In solar air heater, flat plat collectors are the best heat transferring devices. But the effectiveness of these collectorsis very low because of lack of technology. Solar assisted heated air is successfully used for drying applications and space heating under controlled conditions. From the solar flat plate air heater the hot air is transferred to a conventional dryer or to the combined heater and drying chamber directly. Hence, solar assisted air heaters arecheaper and reliable. The important factors affecting these systems are the solar radiation, mechanical loading, temperature and leakage. The air heater efficiency depends on the design of the system as well as the construction materials and the assembly. The solar air heating systems has acceptable life span of 15 to 20 years. The addition ofside mirror enclosures is to increase the amount of solar radiation absorption at the collector plate so that the collector increases the yield and operate in a higher temperature range. Therefore with the addition of side mirrors one can able to maximize the output of fixed flat plate collectors. A flat plate air collector will be more efficient if it is made up of porous medium when comparing it with the non porous collectors according to the study. In this paper, the performances of porous and non-porous absorber plates are discussed. Also the possible methods of finding out air leakages and the methodology adopted for the performance and efficiency calculations are also discussed.

  11. Open fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) flat plate collector (FPC) and spray network systems for augmenting the evaporation rate of tannery effluent (soak liquor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srithar, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai 625 015 (India); Mani, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2007-12-15

    Presently, tanneries in Tamilnadu, India are required to segregate the effluent of soaking and pickling sections from other wastewater streams and send it to shallow solar pans for evaporation to avoid land pollution. A large area of solar pans is required for evaporating the water in the effluent at salt concentration in the range of 4-5%. An experimental study has been made by using fibre reinforced plastic flat plate collector (FRP-FPC) and spray system in a pilot plant with a capacity to handle 5000 l per day, which increases the evaporation rate. After increasing the salt concentration level to near saturation limit, the concentrated liquid was sent to conventional solar pans for its continued evaporation and recovery of salt. In this improved system, the rate of evaporation was found to be 30-40% more than that in the conventional solar pans. The performance is compared with the theoretically simulated performance. (author)

  12. Calculating the Solar Energy of a Flat Plate Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Rosario

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The amount of solar energy that could be obtained by a flat plate solar collector of one square meter dimension is calculated in three different locations: Tampa FL, Fairbanks AL, and Pontianak Indonesia, considering the varying sunset time for each day of the year. The results show that if the collectors are placed near the equator, more total energy could be obtained. In fact, by placing a solar collector in Pontianak, Indonesia 12.42% more solar energy can be obtained than by placing it in Tampa and 96.9% more solar energy than Alaska.

  13. Validation of CFD simulation for flat plate solar energy collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selmi, Mohamed; Al-Khawaja, Mohammed J.; Marafia, Abdulhamid [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Qatar, P.O. Box 2713, Doha, State of Qatar (Qatar)

    2008-03-15

    The problem of flat plate solar energy collector with water flow is simulated and analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The considered case includes the CFD modeling of solar irradiation and the modes of mixed convection and radiation heat transfer between tube surface, glass cover, side walls, and insulating base of the collector as well as the mixed convective heat transfer in the circulating water inside the tube and conduction between the base and tube material. The collector performance, after obtaining 3-D temperature distribution over the volume of the body of the collector, was studied with and without circulating water flow. An experimental model was built and experiments were performed to validate the CFD model. The outlet temperature of water is compared with experimental results and there is a good agreement. (author)

  14. Effect of Glass Thickness on Performance of Flat Plate Solar Collectors for Fruits Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani Bakari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the effect of thickness of glazing material on the performance of flat plate solar collectors. Performance of solar collector is affected by glaze transmittance, absorptance, and reflectance which results into major heat losses in the system. Four solar collector models with different glass thicknesses were designed, constructed, and experimentally tested for their performances. Collectors were both oriented to northsouth direction and tilted to an angle of 10° with the ground toward north direction. The area of each collector model was 0.72 m2 with a depth of 0.15 m. Low iron (extra clear glass of thicknesses 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm was used as glazing materials. As a control, all collector performances were analysed and compared using a glass of 5 mm thickness and then with glass of different thickness. The results showed that change in glass thickness results into variation in collector efficiency. Collector with 4 mm glass thick gave the best efficiency of 35.4% compared to 27.8% for 6 mm glass thick. However, the use of glass of 4 mm thick needs precautions in handling and during placement to the collector to avoid extra costs due to breakage.

  15. Flat-plate solar-collector performance data base and user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, D. L.; Kolar, W. A.

    1983-07-01

    The reader is provided with a thorough understanding on the type of collector thermal performance information which is required in active system design and analysis. Thermal performance test data on 109 commercially available solar collectors which were evaluated in a single, uniform test program, the Interim Solar Collector Test (ISCT) Program are given. In addition to recounting the ISCT program and its results, the an introduction is given on the engineering and physics of a flat-plate solar collector operation. A step-by-step analysis of heat gains and losses is provided to help the reader understand both the source and applicability of the parameters used to describe collector thermal performance. A brief description of the engineering basis for the ASHRAE Standard 93-77 test procedure and the method are included. To demonstrate the sensitivity to variations of collector performance parameters of the annual output of representative solar heating systems, three sets of F-Chart (4.0) system performance predictions are given. Finally, a sensitivity analysis study is presented which considers the heat loss and optical gain parameters of flat-plate collectors, in terms of how they affect the overall solar heating system solar fraction.

  16. EVALUATION OF EVACUATED TUBULAR SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR LARGE SDHW SYSTEMS AND COMBINED SPACE HEATING SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    . Based on thesemodels, the thermal performance of large solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems and combined domestichot water and space heating systems with the four evacuated tubular collectors was determined. To make acomparison with traditional flat-plate collectors, similar simulations were also...... carried out for systems with atypical flat-plate collector. The results show that the thermal advantage of evacuated tubular collectors variesgreatly from system to system, and increases with the solar fraction. Furthermore, the higher the operationtemperature of the collector in the system is......In the present study, detailed investigations on evacuated tubular solar collectors for large solarheating systems have been carried out. Four types of evacuated tubular solar collectors were used in theinvestigation. Based on laboratory tests, simulation models for the collectors were determined...

  17. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy - A flat-plate copper collector with parallel mylar striping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are reported for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in a solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  18. Certification and verification for calmac flat plate solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-27

    This document contains information used in the certification and verification of the Calmac Flat Plate Collector. Contained are such items as test procedures and results, information on materials used, Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manuals, and other information pertaining to the verification and certification.

  19. Experimental study on flat plate air solar collector using a thin sand layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lati, Moukhtar; Boughali, Slimane; Bouguettaia, Hamza; Mennouche, Djamel; Bechki, Djamel

    2016-07-01

    A flat plate air solar collector was constructed in the laboratory of New and Renewable Energy in Arid Zones LENREZA, Ouargla University-South East Algeria. The absorber of the flat plate air solar collector was laminated with a thin layer of local sand. This acted as a thermal storage system (packed bed) with a collecting area of 2.15 m2 (0.86 m × 2.5 m). It was noticed that the solar heater integrated with the thermal storage material delivered comparatively higher temperatures; thus, giving a better efficiency than the air heater without the thermal storage system.

  20. Potential of size reduction of flat-plate solar collectors when applying MWCNT nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, M.; Saidur, R.; Mekhilef, S.

    2013-06-01

    Flat-plate solar collector is the most popular type of collector for hot water system to replace gas or electric heater. Solar thermal energy source is clean and infinite to replace fossil fuel source that is declining and harmful to the environment. However, current solar technology is still expensive, low in efficiency and takes up a lot of space. One effective way to increase the efficiency is by applying high conductivity fluid as nanofluid. This paper analyzes the potential of size reduction of solar collector when MWCNT nanofluid is used as absorbing medium. The analysis is based on different mass flow rate, nanoparticles mass fraction, and presence of surfactant in the fluid. For the same output temperature, it can be observed that the collector's size can be reduced up to 37% of its original size when applying MWCNT nanofluid as the working fluid and thus can reduce the overall cost of the system.

  1. Numerical Simulation Study on Flat Plate Solar Collectors in Series - connected System%直流式系统中平板型太阳能集热器数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪贝; 丁昀; 杨庆

    2011-01-01

    As it is difficult to solve the problem of unsteady - state heat transfer in theory, study of flat plate solar collectors in series -connected system with intermittent output is conducted by numerical simulation.Under the unsteady - state heat transfer condition, the impact of the diameter and center distance of solar collectors on the instantaneous collector efficiency and water production rate per square meter are discussed respectively.The results show that flat cartridge collector performed high effeciency.And under the same conditions, the larger the diameter of collector is, the higher efficiency will be.These can be used for optimizing design parameters of flat plate solar collectors.%由于非稳态传热问题通过理论计算得到解析解较困难,本文运用数值模拟方法研究定温放水型直流式系统中平板型太阳能集热器的工作状况,讨论了集热器的管径和管中心距在非稳态传热条件下对集热器的效率和每平方米产水量的影响.可得到结论扁盒式集热器具有较高效率;相同条件下,管径越大集热器效率越高.该结果有利于优化直流式平板集热器的设计参数.

  2. Heat transfer and energy analysis of a solar air collector with smooth plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabane, Foued; Moummi, Noureddine

    2014-04-01

    The heat transfer and thermal performance of a single pass solar air heater a smooth plate was investigated experimentally. In the present paper, energy and heat transfer analysis of a solar air collector with smooth plate, this technique is used to determine the optimal thermal performance of flat plate solar air heater by considering the different system and operating parameters to obtain maximum thermal performance. Thermal performance is obtained for different mass flow rate varying in the array 0.0108-0.0202 kg/s with five values, solar intensity; tilt angle and ambient temperature. We discuss the thermal behavior of this type of collector with new design and with my proper construction. An experimental study was carried out on a prototype installed on the experimental tests platform within the University of Biskra in the Algeria. The effects of air mass flow rate, emissivity of channel plates and wind heat transfer coefficient on the accuracy of the criterion are also investigated.

  3. Annual measured and simulated thermal performance analysis of a hybrid solar district heating plant with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon

    2017-01-01

    in large solar heating plants for a district heating network, a hybrid solar collector field with 5960 m2 flat plate collectors and 4039 m2 parabolic trough collectors in series was constructed in Taars, Denmark. The design principle is that the flat plate collectors preheat the return water from...... for this type of hybrid solar district heating plants with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in the Nordic region, but also introduce a novel design concept of solar district heating plants to other high solar radiation areas.......Flat plate collectors have relatively low efficiency at the typical supply temperatures of district heating networks (70–95 °C). Parabolic trough collectors retain their high efficiency at these temperatures. To maximize the advantages of flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors...

  4. Theoretical analysis of solar thermal collector and flat plate bottom reflector with a gap between them

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    Augmentation of solar radiation absorbed on a flat plate solar thermal collector by a flat plate bottom reflector was numerically determined when there was a gap between the collector and reflector. The inclination of both the collector and reflector was assumed to be adjustable according to the season. A mirror-symmetric plane of the collector to the reflector was introduced, and a graphical model was proposed to calculate the amount of solar radiation reflected by the reflector and then abs...

  5. The Effect of the Configuration of the Absorber on the Performance of Flat Plate Thermal Collector

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Moyu; Qu, Ming; Peng, Steve

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a numerical thermal analysis for a new designed flat plate thermal collector was conducted through modeling. The new flat plate thermal collector has ellipse shaped tubes inside a wavy shaped absorber, which is made of stainless steel. For the comparison, the conventional flat plate thermal collector with circular copper tubes served as a base case was also modeled. Hottel-Whillier equations were utilized to formulate thermal networks for both models developed in Engineering Eq...

  6. An effective simulation model to predict and optimize the performance of single and double glaze flat-plate solar collector designs

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplanis, S.; Kaplani, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines and formulates a compact and effective simulation model, which predicts the performance of single and double glaze flat-plate collector. The model uses an elaborated iterative simulation algorithm and provides the collector top losses, the glass covers temperatures, the collector absorber temperature, the collector fluid outlet temperature, the system efficiency, and the thermal gain for any operational and environmental conditions. It is a numerical approach based on simu...

  7. Numerical 3-D heat flux simulations on flat plate solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, N. Molero; Lopez, J.M. Cejudo; Munoz, F. Dominguez; Garcia, E. Rodriguez; Andres, A. Carrillo [Grupo de Energetica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, UMA, Plaza El Ejido s/n, 29013 Malaga (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    A transient 3-D mathematical model for solar flat plate collectors has been developed. The model is based on setting mass and energy balances on finite volumes. The model allows the comparison of different configurations: parallel tubes collectors (PTC), serpentine tube collectors (STC), two parallel plate collectors (TPPC), and other non-usual possibilities like the use of absorbent fluids with semitransparent or transparent plates. Transparent honeycomb insulation between plate and cover can also be modelled. The effect of temperature on the thermal properties of the materials has also been considered. The model has been validated experimentally with a commercial PTC. The model is a useful tool to improve the design of plate solar collectors and to compare different configurations. In order to show the capabilities of the model, the performance of a PTC collector with non-uniformity flow is analysed and compared with experimental data from literature with good agreement. (author)

  8. Fixed flat plate collector with a reversible vee-trough concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1976-01-01

    An asymmetrical-reversible vee-trough concentrator for use both with nonevacuated and evacuated receivers is proposed in order to improve the performance of a fixed flat plate collector. The device is capable of maintaining a year-round concentration factor of about 2 while eliminating the complications of the tilt adjustments of the collector box assembly. Efficiency improvements and cost reductions for temperatures of about 100 and 200 C are offered for the nonvacuum and vacuum tube versions, respectively. A major advantage of the vee-trough is the enhancement of the incident flux, thus extending the collection period. The vacuum collector is suitable for supplying heat to solar Rankine systems, while the nonvacuum version can be used for air conditioning purposes via an absorption air conditioner.

  9. Combined photovoltaic and thermal hybrid collector systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, E.C. Jr.; Russell, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    Solar energy collectors that produce both electric and thermal energy are an attractive alternative to individual thermal and photovoltaic collectors for certain applications and climates. Economic results from a system analysis indicate that hybrid collector systems are attractive in small buildings that have substantial heating loads. Passively cooled photovoltaic panels are best suited for structures located in regions where year-round air conditioning and small, low-grade, thermal energy demands predominate. Hybrid collectors are to be tested according to ASHRAE standards and a full-system experiment incorporating a photovoltaic array installed at the Solar Energy Research Facility of the University of Texas will be conducted by Lincoln Laboratory.

  10. Analysis of PV/T flat plate water collectors connected in series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Swapnil; Tiwari, G.N. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2009-09-15

    Photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) technology refers to the integration of a PV and a conventional solar thermal collector in a single piece of equipment. In this paper we evaluate the performance of partially covered flat plate water collectors connected in series using theoretical modeling. PV is used to run the DC motor, which circulates the water in a forced mode. Analytical expressions for N collectors connected in series are derived by using basic energy balance equations and computer based thermal models. This paper shows the detailed analysis of thermal energy, exergy and electrical energy yield by varying the number of collectors by considering four weather conditions (a, b, c and d type) for five different cities (New Delhi, Bangalore, Mumbai, Srinagar, and Jodhpur) of India. Annual thermal and electrical energy yield is also evaluated for four different series and parallel combination of collectors for comparison purpose considering New Delhi conditions. This paper also gives the total carbon credit earned by the hybrid PV/T water heater investigated as per norms of Kyoto Protocol for New Delhi climatic conditions. Cost analysis has also been carried out. It is observed that the collectors partially covered by PV module combines the production of hot water and electricity generation and it is beneficial for the users whose primary requirement is hot water production and collectors fully covered by PV is beneficial for the users whose primary requirement is electricity generation. We have also found that if this type of system is installed only in 10% of the total residential houses in Delhi then the total carbon credit earned by PV/T water heaters in terms of thermal energy is USD $144.5 millions per annum and in terms of exergy is USD $14.3 millions per annum, respectively. (author)

  11. Standarized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A steel flat-plate collector with two transparent covers and a proprietary coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator are given. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperature and flux level.

  12. Natural convection characteristics of flat plate collectors. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, K.R.; Wl-Wakil, M.M.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1977-09-01

    The results of an experimental investigation into the convective heat losses in large aspect ratio flat-plate solar collectors are described. An experimental study has been undertaken on a specially designed test cell using a 3 inch Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Air at atmospheric pressure was used as the heat-transfer fluid. The experimental results include interferograms which show the thermal boundary layer formations and the temperature profiles. Local temperature profiles have been analyzed through the use of an optical comparator to determine local Nusselt number profiles, which have, in turn, been integrated to give average heat-transfer results. Angles of inclination from the horizontal of 45, 60, 75 and 90 degrees have been investigated. Aspect ratios from 9 to 36 were examined over a Rayleigh number range of 4,000 to 310,000. Finally, heat-transfer correlations have been developed for the prediction of local Nusselt numbers in the starting and departure corners and for the average heat-transfer results as a function of collector tilt angle.

  13. Flat plate collector with external reflectors (RefleC). Experiences withthe development; Flachkollektor mit externen Reflektoren (RefleC). Entwicklungserfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, S.; Oliva, A.; Di Lauro, P.; Klemke, M.; Hermann, M.; Stryi-Hipp, G. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Kallwellis, V.; Kramp, G.; Eisenmann, W. [Wagner und Co. Solartechnik GmbH, Coelbe (Germany); Hanby, V. [DMU Leicester (United Kingdom). Inst. of Energy and Sustainable Development

    2010-07-01

    In cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany), the company Wagner and Co. Solar Technology (Coelbe, Federal Republic of Germany) developed a stationary concentrated, double-covered flat plate collector with an external reflector for generating process heat up to a temperature of 150 C. This prototype has a half-CPC reflector which is approximated by three flat segments. The reflectors use the distance between the collectors and serves simultaneously as a supporting structure. The collector is designed so that the aperture is not shaded. The authors of the contribution under consideration present the WKI curves and the IAM curves as a test pattern as well as a simulation of the annual energy yield. According to the simulation, the Reflec-collector has an annual energy yield which is greater by 64 % than that of the double-covered base-collector.

  14. Theoretical analysis of solar thermal collector and flat plate bottom reflector with a gap between them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Augmentation of solar radiation absorbed on a flat plate solar thermal collector by a flat plate bottom reflector was numerically determined when there was a gap between the collector and reflector. The inclination of both the collector and reflector was assumed to be adjustable according to the season. A mirror-symmetric plane of the collector to the reflector was introduced, and a graphical model was proposed to calculate the amount of solar radiation reflected by the reflector and then absorbed on the collector. The performance was analyzed for three typical days at a latitude of 30°N. Solar radiation absorbed on the collector can be increased by the bottom reflector even if there is a gap between the collector and reflector. The optimum inclinations of both the collector and reflector are almost the same while the gap length is less than the lengths of the collector and reflector. However, the range of inclination of the reflector that can increase the solar radiation absorbed on the collector decreases with an increase in gap length, and the solar radiation absorbed on the collector rapidly decreased with an increase in the gap length when the reflector and/or collector were not set at a proper angle.

  15. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  16. Effect of openings collectors and solar irradiance on the thermal efficiency of flat plate-finned collector for indirect-type passive solar dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, Fatimah; Dina, Sari Farah; Klaudia Kathryn Y., M.; Turmuzi, M.; Siregar, Fitri; Panjaitan, Nora

    2017-06-01

    Research on the effect of openings solar collector and solar irradiance to thermal efficiency has been done. Solar collector by flat plate-finned type consists of 3 ply insulator namely wood, Styrofoam and Rockwool with thickness respectively are 10 mm, 25 mm and 50 mm. Absorber plate made of aluminum sheet with thickness of 0.30 mm, painted by black-doff. Installation of 19 units fins (length x height x thickness: 1000x20x10 mm) on the collector will increase surface area of absorber so it can receive much more solar energy. The solar collector cover is made of glass (thickness of 5 mm). During the research, the solar irradiance and temperature of collector are measured and recorded every five minutes. Temperature measurement performed on the surface of the absorber plate, inside of collector, surface cover and the outer side insulator (plywood). This data is used to calculate the heat loss due to conduction, convection and radiation on the collector. Openings of collectors vary as follows: 100%, 75%, 15% and 0% (total enclosed). The data collecting was conducted from 09.00 am to 17.00 pm and triplicates. The collector thermal efficiency calculated based on the ratio of the amount of heat received to the solar irradiance absorbed. The results show that each of openings solar collector has different solar irradiance (because it was done on a different day) which is in units of W/m2: 390 (100% open), 376 (75% open), 429 (15% open), and 359 (totally enclosed). The highest thermal efficiency is in openings variation of 15% opened. These results indicate that the efficiency of the collector is influenced by the solar irradiance received by the collector and the temperature on the collector plate. The highest thermal efficiency is in variation of openings 15%. These indicate that the efficiency of the collector was influenced by solar irradiance received by the collector and openings of the collector plate.

  17. Experimental and numerical investigation of a flat-plate solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A. [Departamento de Construcciones Navales, E.U. Politecnica, Universidade da Coruna, 15405 Ferrol (Spain); Cabeza, O. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade da Coruna, 15072 A Coruna (Spain); Muniz, M.C. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Varela, L.M. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In the present paper we present an experimental analysis and a thermal and hydrodynamic modelling of a newly designed flat-plate solar collector characterized by its corrugated channel and by the high surface area directly in contact with the heat transport fluid. The thermal and hydrodynamic modelling of the collector has been performed by means of the Finite Element Method (FEM), validated with analytical results for a well-known fin-and-tube type solar collector. The thermodynamic efficiency of the collector is analyzed by means of its experimental heating curves. The yield of the new collector has been compared to a previously existing commercial collector of related geometry but with less area in direct contact with the heat transport fluid. The experimental results are seen to adequately fit the simulation predictions, and a methodology to use in order to compute the parameters characterizing the thermal behavior of the collector is introduced. (author)

  18. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy-a flat-plate collector with a single-tube serpentine flow distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S.

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficienty is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  19. A Dynamic Multinode Model for Component-Oriented Thermal Analysis of Flat-Plate Solar Collectors

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Christoph N.; Christoph Trinkl; Wilfried Zörner; Hanby, Vic I.

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model of a flat-plate solar collector was developed on the basis of the physical principles of optics and heat transfer in order to determine collector’s component temperatures as well as collector efficiency. In contrast to many available models, the targeted use of this dynamic model is the detailed, theoretical investigation of the thermal behaviour of newly developed or adjusted collector designs on component level, for example, absorber, casing, or transparent cover. The d...

  20. Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Solar Energy's solar panels are collectors for a solar energy system which provides heating for a drive-in bank in Akron, OH. Collectors were designed and manufactured by Solar Energy Products, a firm established by three former NASA employees. Company President, Frank Rom, an example of a personnel-type technology transfer, was a Research Director at Lewis Research Center, which conducts extensive solar heating and cooling research, including development and testing of high-efficiency flat-plate collectors. Rom acquired solar energy expertise which helped the company develop two types of collectors, one for use in domestic/commercial heating systems and the other for drying grain.

  1. A Didactic Experiment and Model of a Flat-Plate Solar Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Fiordilino, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    We report on an experiment performed with a home-made flat-plate solar collector, carried out together with high-school students. To explain the experimental results, we propose a model that describes the heating process of the solar collector. The model accounts quantitatively for the experimental data. We suggest that solar-energy topics should…

  2. Water heating solar system using collector with polycarbonate absorber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luiz Guilherme Meira de; Sodre, Dilton; Cavalcanti, Eduardo Jose Cidade; Souza, Luiz Guilherme Vieira Meira de; Mendes, Jose Ubiragi de Lima [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)], e-mails: lguilherme@dem.ufrn.br, diltonsodre@ifba.edu.br, ubiragi@ct.ufrn.br

    2010-07-01

    It is presented s solar collector to be used in a heating water for bath system, whose main characteristics are low cost and easy fabrication and assembly processes. The collector absorber surface consists of a polycarbonate plate with an area of 1.5 m{sup 2}. The water inlet and outlet are made of PVC 50mm, and were coupled to a 6mm thick polycarbonate plate using fiberglass resin. A 200 liters thermal reservoir will be used. This reservoir is also alternative. The absorber heating system works under thermo-siphon regimen. Thermal parameters will be evaluated to prove the feasibility of the studied solar heating system to obtain bath water for a four people family. (author)

  3. A graphical approach to the efficiency of flat-plate collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    A nomogram is described which can be used to determine the thermal performance of flat plate solar collectors, resulting in two performance factors: the net absorptance and the net heat loss coefficient. The nomogram takes into account angle of incidence, collector slope, absorber plate design, insulating materials, thicknesses, optical properties of absorbing surfaces and glazing materials, and flow factors. A case example is given to illustrate the use of the nomogram.

  4. A diagram for defined flat plate solar collector area for solar floor heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altuntop, N.; Tekin, Y. [Erciyes University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Turkey); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Reno University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, NV (United States)

    2000-07-01

    In winters, one of the best ways to heat living areas by using the low- temperature - water obtained from flat-plate solar collectors is the floor heating. In floor heating, low temperature-water (30 + 60 deg C) can be used and heat can be stored in water when solar radiation is not possible. In this study, it is aimed to define collector surface needed to supply heat for floor heating. It is also aimed to define and explain the diagram developed for every heating months. The calculations about the sun geometry are used to define the amount of radiation coming in to the collectors. Formulations are made about the definition of solar radiation absorbed by the collectors, the total heat loss coefficient, and the collector plate surface temperature. These formulations are transformed in to the diagram. In addition, the studies, heat transfer calculations and design parameters about the floor of the heating areas are used. A combined collector floor heating diagram is obtained. This diagram is used to define collector surface area necessary to supply heat for floor heated places. In this diagram, the collector surface area is obtained by giving the heat capacity of the place area, floor surface temperature, approximate modulation distance of the floor, the elevation of city, collector slope angle, wind speed, sun shine lime and the amount of the solar radiation obtained from the solar radiation diagram. (authors)

  5. Influences of the Twisted Strips Insertion on the Performance of Flat Plate Water Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar M. Hassan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the efficiency of flat plate solar water collectors without changing in its original shape and with low additional cost, twisted strips are inserted inside its riser pipes. Three flat plate collectors are used for test. Family of twisted strips are inserted inside each collector risers with different twisted ratios (TR=3,4,5. The collectors are connected in parallel mode (Z-Configuration and are exposed to the same conditions (solar radiation and ambient temperature .The experimental results show that, the highest heat transfer rate occurs at twisted ratio (3 .Consequently, for the same twisted ratio the daily efficiencies for the solar collector at different flow rate used (60,100 and 150 ℓ /hr. were 49 %, 57% and 63% respectively.

  6. A Numerical Study on the Performance of an Open-type Flat-plate Solar Collector

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Baoyin; Inaba, Hideo; Horibe, Akihiko

    1999-01-01

    A set mathematical models was developed for predicting the performance of an open-type flat-plate solar collector, and solved numerically through an implicit difference method. The effects of various parameters on the absorption of solar energy for the collector were investigated. The results showed that the solar energy absorptance of the open-type flat-plate collector was relatively high especially for the region where the weather was humid and hot, and there were an optimum length and an o...

  7. A diagram for defined solar radiation absorbed per unit area of flat plate solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Y.; Altuntop, N. [Erciyes University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Turkey); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Reno University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, NV (United States); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada University, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, Reno, NV (United States)

    2000-07-01

    In Erciyes University, the Solar House (28.75 m{sup 2}) is heated from the floor by using flat plate liquid solar collectors. Required solar radiation for heating and heat losses are calculated. In this work, the required calculations for Erciyes Solar House were generalized and required calculation were done to evaluate absorbed solar radiation per unit surface of the flat plate liquid collector. At the end, three generalized diagrams for nine different months are obtained using obtained numerical values. The goal of preparing diagrams is to determine absorbed solar radiation per unit surface area of flat plate liquid collector at any instant at any latitude, In this work, the diagram is explained by means of sample calculations for November. This diagram was prepared to find out absorbed solar radiation per unit area of black surface collector by means obtained equations. With this diagram, all instant solar radiation can be evaluated in 19 steps. (authors)

  8. Comparison of the effects of Al2O3 and CuO nanoparticles on the performance of a solar flat-plate collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuswamy, Dinesh Babu; Madhavan, Venkata Ramanan; Mohan, Mukunthan

    2015-12-01

    To improve the efficiency of solar flat-plate collectors further, a study had been carried out wherein the conventional working fluid was replaced by nanofluids. A 25-L/day solar flat-plate water heater with collector area of 0.5 {m}^2 has been designed and fabricated. The thermosyphon system of the solar water heater was monitored at 15 locations using T-type thermocouples. Alumina and CuO nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and X-ray diffraction techniques and dispersed using ultrasonic mechanism. To stabilize the system at an optimum level, the collector is operated with volume fractions of 0.2% and 0.4% of synthesized Al2O3 and CuO nanoparticles mixed with distilled water and used in the solar flat-plate collector. The temperature profile was compared with different volume fractions of the nanoparticles in the flowing medium. Enhanced heat transfer was observed in the solar flat-plate collector using nanoparticles, and hence, it is inferred that addition of nanoparticles improves the efficiency of the solar water heaters. This paper details the temperature profile observed in the collectors, variation of insolation over the day, and change in efficiency both on the primary side (collector) and on the secondary side (storage tank) of the solar water heater.

  9. Comparison under a simulated sun of two black-nickel-coated flat-plate solar collectors with a nonselective black-paint-coated collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    A performance evaluation was made of two, black nickel coated, flat plate solar collectors. Collector performance was determined under a simulated sun for a wide range of inlet temperatures, including the temperature required for solar powered absorption air conditioning. For a basis of comparison a performance test was made on a traditional, two glass, nonselective, black paint coated, flat plate collector. Performance curves and performance parameters are presented to point out the importance of the design variables which determine an efficient collector. A black nickel coated collector was found to be a good performer at the conditions expected for solar powered absorption air conditioning. This collector attained a thermal efficiency of 50 percent at an inlet temperature of 366 K (200 F) and an incident flux of 946 watts/sq m (300 Btu/hr-sq ft).

  10. Design, construction and testing of a liquid-heating flat-plate solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, R E

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to design, construct, and test a liquid-heating flat-plate solar collector. From the literature search, information was gathered concerning the basic components of the collector, the different processes and materials that can be used in the construction of these components, and their advantages and disadvantages. The literature search also revealed a method used to measure the performance of the collector in terms of efficiency and heat output. Design considerations were then listed for each of the major components as well as the collector as a single unit. Then, each component was designed, taking into consideration the final assembly of the completed unit. Detailed designs were required for the absorber plate and the box and frame assembly because of their complexity in construction and assembly. Once the components were designed, the construction details were arranged in a logical sequence, again considering the final assembly of the unit. The collector was then carefully constructed and assembled following the design details. After the solar collector was assembled completely, tests were made, data were obtained and recorded, and a collector performance curve was developed.

  11. High performance collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, H.; Hozumi, S.; Mitsumata, T.; Yoshino, K.; Aso, S.; Ebisu, K.

    1983-04-01

    Materials and structures used for flat plate solar collectors and evacuated tubular collectors were examined relative to their overall performance to project effectiveness for building heating and cooling and the feasibility of use for generating industrial process heat. Thermal efficiencies were calculated for black paint single glazed, selective surface single glazed, and selective surface double glazed flat plate collectors. The efficiencies of a single tube and central tube accompanied by two side tube collectors were also studied. Techniques for extending the lifetimes of the collectors were defined. The selective surface collectors proved to have a performance superior to other collectors in terms of the average annual energy delivered. Addition of a black chrome-coated fin system to the evacuated collectors produced significant collection efficiency increases.

  12. Experimental investigation on a flat plate solar collector using Al2O3 Nanofluid as a heat transfer agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Sahi Shareef, Mohammed Hassan Abbod, Sura Qahtan Kadhim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces experimental results of an Al2O3 -water based nanofluid as the working fluid for flat tube in plate type solar collector. Experimental test setup comprises a solar collector, closed working fluid system and measurement devices (flow meter, thermocouples, temperature meter and digital solar power meter. The Base case was experimented with di-ionized water with a flow rate of 1 lpm. In second case, Al2O3 nanoparticles are mixed in di-ionized water to get nanofluid of 0.5% volume fraction concentration. The maximum difference between outlet and inlet temperatures of the solar collector was 14.4 ̊ C with the solar irradiance of about 788 W/m2 while in case of water the maximum temperatures difference was 10.7 ̊ C with a solar irradiance of about 781 W/m2.

  13. Flat plate solar collector design and performance. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design and thermal efficiency of air and liquid type flat plate solar collectors. Topics include convection characteristics, methods to reduce heat loss, optical coatings, and corrosion prevention. Emphasis is on research and modeling. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Flat plate solar collector design and performance. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design and thermal efficiency of air and liquid type flat plate solar collectors. Topics include convection characteristics, methods to reduce heat loss, optical coatings, and corrosion prevention. Emphasis is on research and modeling. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Flat plate solar collector design and performance. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-09-01

    Federally funded research on the design and thermal efficiency of air and liquid type flat plate collectors is discussed. Topic areas cover convection characteristics, methods to reduce heat loss, optical coatings, and corrosion control. Emphasis of the bibliography is on basic research studies. This updated bibliography contains 196 citations, 36 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  16. Hot-air flat-plate solar collector-design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains design data, performance specifications, and drawings for hot-air flat-plate solar-energy collector. Evaluation consists of tests on thermal performance time constance, and incidence angle modifier test. Results are presented in table and graph form and are analyzed in detail.

  17. Hot-air flat-plate solar collector-design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains design data, performance specifications, and drawings for hot-air flat-plate solar-energy collector. Evaluation consists of tests on thermal performance time constance, and incidence angle modifier test. Results are presented in table and graph form and are analyzed in detail.

  18. Craft-Joule Project: Stagnation proof transparently insulated flat plate solar collector (static)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, A; Cadafalch, J; Perez-Segarra, C.D. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    The STATIC (STAgnation proof Transparently Insulated flat plate Solar Collector) project is a Craft-Joule Project within the framework of the Non Nuclear Energy Programme Joule III coordinated by the Centre Technologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC). The core group of SMEs involved in the project has its main economical activity in the field of solar thermal systems at low temperature level (domestic hot water, solar heating, etc.). Beyond this, a large application potential exists for solar heating at medium temperature level (from 80 to 160 Celsius degrees) : industrial process heat, solar cooling and air conditioning, solar drying , distillation and desalination. Three of the four SME proposers are located in Southern Europe and in the Caribean, where a continuos increase of the demand for air conditioning and cooling has been demonstrated in the last years. The recent development of flat plate solar collectors with honeycomb-type transparent insulation cover has shown that this type of collectors can become a low cost alternative to evacuated tube and high concentrating CPC collectors in the medium temperature range from 80 to 160 Celsius degrees. With the expected reduction of collector cost, that forms 30%-50% of total system cost, a decisive break-through of solar thermal systems using heat in the medium temperature range can be achieved. The feasibility and good performance of these solar collectors has been proved in several prototypes. Nevertheless, up to now no commercial products are available. In order to reach this, the following developments of new concepts are necessary and are being carried out within this project: solution of the problem of overheating: development of collector versions for different working temperatures: optimization of the design with the support of high level numerical simulation. Several prototypes of the new solar collectors are being tested. System tests will also be carried or for two test arrays of optimized collector

  19. A simulation modeling for optimization of flat plate collector design in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Ajlan, S.A.; Al Faris, H.; Khonkar, H. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Energy Research Inst.

    2003-07-01

    A simulation of forced convection solar heated water system is presented. A computer program is developed consisting of independent subroutines, capable of handling the variation of the collector tube diameter, tube spacing, ambient conditions, material thermal properties, collector and system design optimization. The meteorological data of Riyadh were used as the input in the program to simulate the performance of the collector system. The output of the program is analyzed to optimize the system design in the Riyadh region. The results of the simulations are compared with experimental data. There is a good agreement between the predicted and measured values.(author)

  20. The effect of contact spacing on the efficiency of flat plate solar collector plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, G. E.; Crha, S.

    1984-01-01

    Rather than use a continuous weld or solder for thermal contact in the attachment of an extended surface to an energy removal tube, attention is given to the use of discontinuous attachment through the uniform distribution of finite regions of contact. This scheme is applied to a solar energy collection system in which it was thought capable of yielding fabrication and reliability improvements. A nondimensional formulation and numerical solution of FEM modeling yields the sensitivity of collector thermal performance to weld-solder joint dimensions. The discontinuous weld is found to significantly degrade system performance in proportion to the fin surface Biot modulus, with the controlling parameter (with respect to weld dimensions) being the perimeter length at the weld location of contact.

  1. Heat transfer in a low latitude flat-plate solar collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oko C.O.C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of rate of heat transfer in a flat-plate solar collector is the main subject of this paper. Measurements of collector and working fluid temperatures were carried out for one year covering the harmattan and rainy seasons in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, which is situated at the latitude of 4.858oN and longitude of 8.372oE. Energy balance equations for heat exchanger were employed to develop a mathematical model which relates the working fluid temperature with the vital collector geometric and physical design parameters. The exit fluid temperature was used to compute the rate of heat transfer to the working fluid and the efficiency of the transfer. The optimum fluid temperatures obtained for the harmattan, rainy and yearly (or combined seasons were: 317.4, 314.9 and 316.2 [K], respectively. The corresponding insolation utilized were: 83.23, 76.61 and 79.92 [W/m2], respectively, with the corresponding mean collector efficiency of 0.190, 0.205 and 0.197 [-], respectively. The working fluid flowrate, the collector length and the range of time that gave rise to maximum results were: 0.0093 [kg/s], 2.0 [m] and 12PM - 13.00PM, respectively. There was good agreement between the computed and the measured working fluid temperatures. The results obtained are useful for the optimal design of the solar collector and its operations.

  2. Evaluation of All-Day-Efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation of all day efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors is presented. Computations are based on a modified version of the NBSIR 78-1305A procedure for all day efficiency. The ASHMET and NOAA data bases for solar insolation are discussed. Details of the algorithm used to convert total (global) horizontal radiation to the collector tilt plane of the selected sites are given along with tables and graphs which show the results of the tests performed during this evaluation.

  3. Operational demonstration of a field of high performance flat plate collectors with isothermal heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merges, V.; Klippel, E.

    1983-12-01

    A solar plant with 21 sq m of highly efficient flat plate collectors and which requires no electricity is described. Heat transport is provided by saturated steam that condenses in a four cubic meter storage tank. The operation temperature is set by the buffer gas pressure between 100 and 140 C, and an absorption chiller is simulated as a heat consumer. The solar collectors were observed to exhibit high performance. Heat transport and temperature control offered high reliability and the thermal stratification in the tank was satisfactory. The positive result permits the design and construction of larger solar plants following the same technical principles.

  4. Adaptive control of solar energy collector systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, João M; Igreja, José M

    2014-01-01

    This book describes methods for adaptive control of distributed-collector solar fields: plants that collect solar energy and deliver it in thermal form. Controller design methods are presented that can overcome difficulties found in these type of plants:they are distributed-parameter systems, i.e., systems with dynamics that depend on space as well as time;their dynamics is nonlinear, with a bilinear structure;there is a significant level of uncertainty in plant knowledge.Adaptive methods form the focus of the text because of the degree of uncertainty in the knowledge of plant dynamics. Parts

  5. A Dynamic Multinode Model for Component-Oriented Thermal Analysis of Flat-Plate Solar Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph N. Reiter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a flat-plate solar collector was developed on the basis of the physical principles of optics and heat transfer in order to determine collector’s component temperatures as well as collector efficiency. In contrast to many available models, the targeted use of this dynamic model is the detailed, theoretical investigation of the thermal behaviour of newly developed or adjusted collector designs on component level, for example, absorber, casing, or transparent cover. The defined model is based on a multinode network (absorber, fluid, glazing, and backside insulation containing the relevant physical equations to transfer the energy. The heat transfer network covers heat conduction, convection, and radiation. Furthermore, the collector optics is defined for the plane glazing and the absorber surface and also considers interactions between them. The model enables the variation of physical properties considering the geometric parameters and materials. Finally, the model was validated using measurement data and existing efficiency curve models. Both comparisons proved high accuracy of the developed model with deviation of up to 3% in collector efficiency and 1 K in component temperatures.

  6. Development of a Solar Assisted Drying System Using Double-Pass Solar Collector with Finned Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, M. S. M.; Othman, M. Y.; Sopian, K.; Ruslan, M. H.; Majid, Z. A. A.; Fudholi, A.; Yasin, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Solar Energy Research Group, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, International Islamic University Malaysia and Yayasan FELDA has designed and constructed a solar assisted drying system at OPF FELDA Factory, Felda Bukit Sagu 2, Kuantan, Pahang. The drying system has a total of six double-pass solar collectors. Each collector has a length of 480 cm and a width of 120 cm. The first channel depth is 3.5 cm and the second channel depth is 7 cm. Longitudinal fins made of angle aluminium, 0.8 mm thickness were attached to the bottom surface of the absorber plate. The solar collectors are arranged as two banks of three collectors each in series. Internal manifold are used to connect the collectors. Air enters through the first channel and then through the second channel of the collector. An auxiliary heater source is installed to supply heat under unfavourable solar radiation condition. An on/off controller is used to control the startup and shutdown of the auxiliary heater. An outlet temperature of 70-75 °C can be achieved at solar radiation range of 800-900 W/m2 and flow rate of 0.12 kg/s. The average thermal efficiency of a solar collector is approximately 37%.

  7. KARAKTERISTIK PENGERINGAN CHIPS MANGGA MENGGUNAKAN KOLEKTOR SURYA KACA GANDA [Characteristics of Mango Chips Drying Using a Double Plated Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safrani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study the characteristics of mango chips drying using a double plated solar collector. The materials used were sliced mangoes with the thickness of 3, 6, and 8 mm. The equipments used for this research were double plated solar collector, thermocouple, digital balance, thermometer, vacuum oven, and desiccators. The research parameters included the rate of heat energy absorbed by the double plated solar collector, the heat energy losses, the efficiency of the double plated solar collector and the moisture content of the chips. The results of this study suggested that the use of double plated solar collector could increase the temperature and the amount of heat energy, thus speed up the drying process of the mango chips. The energy needed to evaporate the moisture content in mango decreased in proportion to the increase in drying time. The difference in mango chips’ thickness resulted in different decrease rate in water content until it reached a constant state. The efficiency of the double plated solar collector was 77.82%.

  8. Design optimization of sinusoidal glass honeycomb for flat plate solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmurrin, J. C.; Buchberg, H.

    1980-01-01

    The design of honeycomb made of sinusoidally corrugated glass strips was optimized for use in water-cooled, single-glazed flat plate solar collectors with non-selective black absorbers. Cell diameter (d), cell height (L), and pitch/diameter ratio (P/d) maximizing solar collector performance and cost effectiveness for given cell wall thickness (t sub w) and optical properties of glass were determined from radiative and convective honeycomb characteristics and collector performance all calculated with experimentally validated algorithms. Relative lifetime values were estimated from present materials costs and postulated production methods for corrugated glass honeycomb cover assemblies. A honeycomb with P/d = 1.05, d = 17.4 mm, L = 146 mm and t sub w = 0.15 mm would provide near-optimal performance over the range delta T sub C greater than or equal to 0 C and less than or equal to 80 C and be superior in performance and cost effectiveness to a non-honeycomb collector with a 0.92/0.12 selective black absorber.

  9. Influence of wire-coil inserts on the thermo-hydraulic performance of a flat-plate solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero Martín, R.; García, A.; Pérez-García, J.

    2012-11-01

    Enhancement techniques can be applied to flat-plate liquid solar collectors towards more compact and efficient designs. For the typical operating mass flow rates in flat-plate solar collectors, the most suitable technique is inserted devices. Based on previous studies from the authors, wire coils were selected for enhancing heat transfer. This type of inserted device provides better results in laminar, transitional and low turbulence fluid flow regimes. To test the enhanced solar collector and compare with a standard one, an experimental side-by-side solar collector test bed was designed and constructed. The testing set up was fully designed following the requirements of EN12975-2 and allow us to accomplish performance tests under the same operating conditions (mass flow rate, inlet fluid temperature and weather conditions). This work presents the thermal efficiency curves of a commercial and an enhanced solar collector, for the standardized mass flow rate per unit of absorber area of 0.02 kg/sm2 (in useful engineering units 144 kg/h for water as working fluid and 2 m2 flat-plate solar collector of absorber area). The enhanced collector was modified inserting spiral wire coils of dimensionless pitch p/D = 1 and wire-diameter e/D = 0.0717. The friction factor per tube has been computed from the overall pressure drop tests across the solar collectors. The thermal efficiency curves of both solar collectors, a standard and an enhanced collector, are presented. The enhanced solar collector increases the thermal efficiency by 15%. To account for the overall enhancement a modified performance evaluation criterion (R3m) is proposed. The maximum value encountered reaches 1.105 which represents an increase in useful power of 10.5% for the same pumping power consumption.

  10. Flat plate collectors as facade elements for domestic hot water and heat insulation. Flachkollektoren als Fassadenelemente zur Brauchwassererwaermung und Waermedaemmung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flamm, H.; Lochau, R.; Maeiss, M.; Schiele, J.

    1984-07-01

    In a newly constructed south-west-facade 200 m/sup 2/ of flat plate collectors were integrated as construction elements to heat domestic water. The building needs 5-10 m/sup 3/ of hot water per day, i.e. 250-500 kWh/d. The solar circuit runs with a water-glycol-mixture with a specific volume flow rate of 20-40 l/m/sup 2/h. The storage capacity is 8 m/sup 3/, i.e. 40 l/m/sup 2/ collector area. The heating system is bivalent. The total cost was DM 220.000, excepting the cost of facade construction. The observation period was 2 years. The heat flow balance was measured daily using a microprocessor. As far as the construction was concerned, there were no defects during the observation period. The rooms behind solar collectors showed no additional thermal load. The most favourable season for running solar systems is from April to September. In this period the average efficiencies were 15 to 20%, the net energy yield was 76 kWh/m/sup 2/.

  11. Standard performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 3-7/8 inches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes, and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  12. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 5 5/8 inches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  13. Multi-objective genetic algorithm for the optimization of a flat-plate solar thermal collector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alexandre; Gaouyat, Lucie; Nicolay, Delphine; Carletti, Timoteo; Deparis, Olivier

    2014-10-20

    We present a multi-objective genetic algorithm we developed for the optimization of a flat-plate solar thermal collector. This collector consists of a waffle-shaped Al substrate with NiCrOx cermet and SnO(2) anti-reflection conformal coatings. Optimal geometrical parameters are determined in order to (i) maximize the solar absorptance α and (ii) minimize the thermal emittance ε. The multi-objective genetic algorithm eventually provides a whole set of Pareto-optimal solutions for the optimization of α and ε, which turn out to be competitive with record values found in the literature. In particular, a solution that enables α = 97.8% and ε = 4.8% was found.

  14. Conclusions and recommendations for the testing of flat-plate solar collector thermal performance and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waksman, D.; Thomas, W. C.

    1984-12-01

    The results of studies, by the National Bureau of Standards, of the reliability and durability of eight different types of flat plate solar collectors representative of equipment available in 1977 are reported. The installations were made in four sites believed to typify various U.S. climates. The stability of the thermal performance and material properties was tracked, and measured again after moving the units inside for exposure to artificial sunlight. The stagnation measurement techniques employed to evaluate the collectors were judged adequate, provided the tests are made on-site and out of doors. It is noted that the instrumentation used to gather sufficient data for valid analyses may experience performance decrements due to the necessarily long monitoring intervals, i.e., several years.

  15. Theoretical investigation on thermal performance of heat pipe flat plate solar collector with cross flow heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lan; Wu, Shuang-Ying; Zhang, Qiao-Ling; Li, You-Rong

    2012-07-01

    Based on the heat transfer characteristics of absorber plate and the heat transfer effectiveness-number of heat transfer unit method of heat exchanger, a new theoretical method of analyzing the thermal performance of heat pipe flat plate solar collector with cross flow heat exchanger has been put forward and validated by comparisons with the experimental and numerical results in pre-existing literature. The proposed theoretical method can be used to analyze and discuss the influence of relevant parameters on the thermal performance of heat pipe flat plate solar collector.

  16. Investigation of Thermal Performance of Flat Plate and Evacuated Tubular Solar Collectors According to a New Dynamic Test Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Wang, Zhifeng; Fan, Jianhua;

    2012-01-01

    obtain fluid thermal capacitance in data processing. Then theoretical analysis and experimental verification are carried out to investigate influencing factors of obtaining accurate and stable second order term. A flat plate and ETC solar collector are compared using both the new dynamic method......A new dynamic test method is introduced. This so called improved transfer function method features on two new collector parameters. One is time term which can indicate solar collector's inner heat transfer ability and the other is a second order term of collector mean fluid temperature which can...... and a standard method. The results show that the improved function method can accurately and robustly estimate these two kinds of solar collectors....

  17. Heat Transfer Analysis of a Flat-plate Solar Collector Running a Solid Adsorption Refrigerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thiao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption solar cooling appears to have prospect in the tropical countries. The present study is a theoretical investigation of the performance of a solar adsorption refrigerator using a flat-plate solar collector. The values of glass cover and absorber plate temperatures obtained from numerical solutions of heat balance equations are used to predict the solar coefficient of performance of the solar refrigerator. The simulation technique takes into account the variations of ambient temperature and solar radiation along the day. The effects of optical parameters of the glass cover such as absorption and transmission coefficients on glass cover and absorber plate temperatures and consequently on the coefficient of performance are analyzed. As a result, it is found that the absorber plate temperature is less to the absorption coefficient than the cover glass temperature. Also the thermal radiation exchange has more effect on the cover glass temperature. The higher values of COP are obtained between 11 and 13 h during the morning when the temperatures of the absorber plate and the ambient temperatures increase. Moreover the COP increases with the coefficient of transmission of the glass cover but the main parameter acting on the variations of the COP remains the temperature of the evaporator.

  18. Solar energy dryer kinetics using flat-plate finned collector and forced convection for potato drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, Fatimah; Misran, Erni; Dina, Sari Farah; Heppy

    2017-06-01

    Research on potato drying using the indirect solar dryer with flat-plate finned collector and forced convection has been done. The research was conducted at the outdoor field of Laboratory of Institute for Research and Standardization of Industry on June 14th-23rd, 2016 from 9:00 am to 4:00 pm. This research aims to obtain the drying kinetics model of potato (Solanumtuberosum L.) using an indirect solar dryer's (ISD) with flat plate-finned collector and forced convection. The result will be compared to the open sun drying (OSD) method. Weather conditions during the drying process took place as follows; surrounding air temperature was in the range 27 to 34.7 °C, relative humidity (RH) 29.5 to 61.0% and the intensity of solar radiation 105.6 to 863.1 Watt/m2. The dried potato thicknesses were 1.0 cm, 1.5 cm and 2.0 cm, with the average initial water content of 76.46%. The average temperature in the collector chamber ranged from 42.2 to 57.4 °C and the drying chamber was at 46.2 °C. The best drying result was obtained from a sample size of 1 cm thickness using the IDS method with an average drying rate of 0.018 kg H2O per kg dry-weight.hour and the water content was constant at 5.02% in 21 hours of drying time. The most suitable kinetics model is Page model, equation MR = exp (-0.049 t1,336) for 1.0 cm thickness, exp (-0.066 t1,222) for 1.5 cm thickness and exp (-0.049 t1,221) for 2.0 cm thickness. The quality of potato drying using ISD method is better than using OSD which can be seen from the color produced.

  19. Investigation of a hybrid PVT air collector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, S.; Touafek, K.; Mordjaoui, M.; Khelifa, A.; Tabet, I.

    2017-02-01

    The photovoltaic thermal hybrid (PVT) collectors, which simultaneously produce electricity and heat, are an alternative to photovoltaic modules and thermal collectors installed separately. Indeed, the heat extracted from the solar cell is used to heat water or air, thereby cooling the cell, and thus increasing its energy efficiency. This paper deals with a hybrid PVT air collector in which a new design has been proposed and tested. Its principle is based on the return of the preheating air to a second heating. The air thus passes twice under the solar cells before being evacuated to the outside of the collector (for space heating). The system is modular and expandable to cover large spaces to be heated. The experimental results of this novel design are presented and discussed under both normal and forced circulation. This technique of air return shows favorable results in terms of the quality of the heated air and electric power generation.

  20. Solar combisystems. A comparison between vacuum tube- and flat plate collectors using measurements and simulations; Solvaermda kombisystem. En jaemfoerelse mellan vakuumroer och plan solfaangare genom maetning och simulering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Peter; Pettersson, Ulrik

    2002-10-01

    Two solar combisystems were mounted side by side in an outdoor test facility and continuously operated during one year. The whole year, all relevant temperatures, flow rates and environment variables were thoroughly measured. The systems were identical apart from the collectors which were a 9 m{sup 2} vacuum tube and a 12.2 m{sup 2} selective flat plate collector. A simulated space heating and tap water load of approx. 25 MWh/a was applied to each system and auxiliary heat was charged to the stores from emulated pellet boilers. Additionally, the two collectors and the store was tested separately and the systems simulated according to the CTSS principle described in ENV 12977. The aim of the project was to determine solar fractions in a solar combisystem from real measurements and to compare the two different collector types from different points of view. On the basis of the validated simulation model, the results from the long term measurements could be generalized and eight different loads were simulated. The results showed that the vacuum tubes performed 45-60% better than the flat plate per m{sup 2} depending on the load applied. The solar fractions (assuming no losses from the boiler) varied from 11% for the measured systems to approx. 30 % in a house with 25 % of the original space heating load. During the heating season, the vacuum tubes occasionally performed much worse than the flat plate due to the fact that snow and frost melted away much quicker from the flat plate. For the use of vacuum tubes in snowy regions, vertical mounting should therefore be strongly recommended.

  1. Status of the NASA-Lewis flat-plate collector tests with a solar simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F. F.

    1974-01-01

    Simulator test results of 15 collector types are reported. Collectors are given performance ratings according to their use for pool heating, hot water, absorption A/C or heating and solar Rankine machines. Collectors found to be good performers in the above categories, except for pool heating, were a black nickel coated, 2 glass collector, and a black paint 2 glass collector containing a mylar honeycomb. For pool heating, a black paint, one glass collector was found to be the best performer. Collector performance parameters of 5 collector types were determined to aid in explaining the factors that govern performance. The two factors that had the greatest effect on collector performance were the collector heat loss and the coating absorptivity.

  2. Diseño de un colector solar de placa plana; Design of a Solar Flat Plate Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeovany Rafael Rodríguez Mejía

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se integra el uso de un software de diseño mecánico y un algoritmo de simulación de la operación de un colector solar de placa plana, con el objetivo de simplificar el proceso de diseño y manufactura de este último. Se exponen los resultados de la simulación de la operación del colector solar considerando diferentes combinaciones en los parámetros de los materiales utilizados, tales como sus propiedades y características físico químicas, además de la variación de las dimensiones del sistema adiseñar. Finalmente en el artículo se evalúa la operación de un colector solar para las condiciones climatológicas típicas de la irradiancia, velocidad de viento y temperatura ambiente a partir de una serie de curvas sinusoidales, típicas de Cuba, validándose la viabilidad del algoritmo como apoyo en la etapa de diseño y selección de materiales.In this article the use of mechanical design software and an algorithm for simulating the operation of a flat plate solar collector, with the objective of simplifying the process of design and manufacture of the latter isintegrated. The simulation results of the operation of the solar collector considering different combinations in the parameters of the materials used, such as its physicochemical properties and features in addition to thevariation of the dimensions of the system design are set. The article finally evaluates the operation of a solar collector for typical climatic conditions of irradiance, wind speed and ambient temperature from a series ofsinusoidal, typical Cuba curves is evaluated, validating the feasibility of the algorithm as support in step design and material selection.

  3. New method for energy prediction of solar energy collectors systems in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almakaleh, Abdo A. [Univ. of Science and Technology, Solar Energy Center, Sana' a (Yemen)

    2008-07-01

    The design of any solar system will require the full understanding of the most influenced factors on its power generation and performance year round. Therefore, one has to consider the system components variables, namely collector types, tilts and collectors orientations to capture most of the incoming solar radiation. Direct measurements of global solar radiation do exist for a number of sites around the country for many years and can be used to derive a set of equations to predict the solar system design values and its output performance. But, the solar system power output, whether it's electric or thermal energy can be very difficult to predict in the absence of measured data and variable load's demand requirements. This paper examines the effects of solar radiation in each site on the systems power output of PV and thermal energy for different type of collectors. Using the existing data from meteorological stations to derive an accurate and simple equations with only one input variable, the monthly average clearness index to be used for the design of photovoltaic and solar thermal system power outputs for tilted flat plate, polar and two axis tracking collectors for a given site instead of existing lengthy methods of solar radiation components (direct, diffuse, and reflected radiation) for different types of collectors currently in use or computer simulations programs. The results of the new equations provide a valuable tool for solar collector designer and prediction method for the systems power outputs. Furthermore, the new equations indicate the possibility of universal applications with minimum adjustment for latitude. (orig.)

  4. Standard Test Method for Water Penetration of Flat Plate Solar Collectors by Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1986-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the resistance of flat plate solar collectors to water penetration when water is applied to their outer surfaces with a static air pressure at the outer surface higher than the pressure at the interior of the collector. 1.2 This test method is applicable to any flat plate solar collector. 1.3 The proper use of this test method requires a knowledge of the principles of pressure and deflection measurement. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary information is contained in Section 6.

  5. Exergy efficiency analysis of a flat plate solar collector using graphene based nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Z.; Alim, M. A.; Janajreh, Isam

    2015-10-01

    The thermal efficiency of a flat plate solar thermal collector is largely affected by the thermal conductivity of the fluid used. In this paper, we theoretically analyzed the heat transfer performance, the entropy generation rate, and the exergy efficiency of the two different graphene based nanofluids (graphene/Acetone and graphene/water). From the analyses, it is revealed that by inserting a small amount of graphene nanoparticles in water, exergy efficiency could be enhanced by 21%, comparing to conventional fluids and entropy generation is decreased by 4%. However, the graphene/water nanofluid shows a lower entropy generation. This characteristic suggests that graphene/water nanofluid is a better candidate for flat solar thermal application.

  6. Numerical analysis of flow and heat transfer behavior in fin-tube flat-plate solar collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Namory Camara; LU Hui-lin

    2007-01-01

    Temperature distribution over the absorber plate of a parallel flow flat-plate solar collector is numerically analyzed. The governing differential equations with boundary conditions are solved numerically using fluent software. Effects of the inlet mass flux, inlet temperature and tube spacing on velocity and temperature distributions are discussed. Numerical results show that the distributions of velocity and temperature of fluid is unsymmetrical inside pipe.

  7. Air bubble-induced detachment of polystyrene particles with different sizes from collector surfaces in a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Suarez, C; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Particle size was found to be an important factor in air bubble-induced detachment of colloidal particles from collector surfaces in a parallel plate flow chamber and generally polystyrene particles with a diameter of 806 nm detached less than particles with a diameter of 1400 nm. Particle

  8. Evaluation of flat-plate collector efficiency under controlled conditions in a solar simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. M.; Simon, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    The measured thermal efficiencies of 35 collectors tested with a solar simulator, along with the correlation equations used to generalize the data, are presented in this report. The single correlation used is shown to apply to all the different types of collectors tested, including one with black paint and one cover, one with a selective surface coating and two covers, and an evacuated-tube collector. The test and correlation technique is also modified by using a shield so that collectors larger than the simulator test area can also be tested. This technique was verified experimentally for a shielded collector for which the collector shielded area was 31% of the solar simulator radiation area. A table lists all the collectors tested, the collector areas, and the experimental constants used to correlate the data for each collector.

  9. Experimental Study on Performance of a Box Solar Cooker with Flat Plate Collector to Boil Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitepu, T.; Gunawan, S.; Nasution, D. M.; Ambarita, H.; Siregar, R. E. T.; Ronowikarto, A. D.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a flat plate type solar cooker is tested by exposing in solar irradiation. The objective is to examine the performance of solar cooker in boiling water. The solar cooker is a box type with collector area and height are 100 × 100 cm and 40 cm, respectively. Vessel for water is made of aluminum plate with diameter and height of 22 cm and 15 cm. The experiments are performed by varying mass of the water. It is 2 kg and 4 kg, respectively. Every experiment starts from 10:00 AM until the boiling temperature is reached. The parameters measured are radiance intensity, ambient and solar box cooker temperatures, and wind speed. The results show that the duration of water heating up to 100°C with water mass 2 kg within 2 hours 45 minutes and water mass 4 kg within 3 hours 17 minutes. The maximum temperatur of solar box cooker is 117°C at 12:56 PM and maximum efficiency is 46.30%. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that a simple solar box cooker can be used to boil water.

  10. Experimental investigation of forced-convection in a finned rhombic tube of the flat-plate solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taherian, Hessam; Yazdanshenas, Eshagh

    2006-01-01

    Due to scarcity of literature on forced-convection heat transfer in a solar collector with rhombic cross-section absorbing tubes, a series of experiments was arranged and conducted to determine heat transfer coefficient. In this study, a typical rhombic cross-section finned tube of flat......-plate collectors used as the test section. Two correlations were proposed for the Nusselt number as a function of the Reynolds number and the Prandtl number based on hydraulic diameter for various heat fluxes. The temperature distribution along the finned tube for the fluid and the wall were also illustrated....

  11. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON A HIGH EFFICIENT FLAT PLATE SOLAR COLLECTOR%一种高效平板太阳能集热器试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李戬洪; 江晴

    2001-01-01

    性能良好的太阳能集热器是太阳能空调的关键设备之一。广东省江门市太阳能空调系统采用了一种高效的平板集热器,其主要技术特征是增加了一块聚碳酸脂(PC)透明隔热板。本研究通过对比试验,确定了一种高效平板太阳能集热器的技术方案,并测定了瞬时效率曲线,其热损系数仅为2.90W/(m2*℃)。%Good performance of the solar collectors is one of the important elements for solar air-conditioning system.A novel type of high efficient flat plate solar collector was applied to the solar air-condition system in Jiangmen,Guangdong Province.Tests show that adding a transparent polycarbonate sheet in gap between glazing and absorber of the collector. The coefficient of the thermal loss is reduced to 2.90W/(m2℃) and the performance of the collector is improved.

  12. Experimental analysis of distinct design of a batch solar water heater with integrated collector storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Jaji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a new design of batch solar water heater has been studied. In this system, the collector and storage were installed in one unit. Unlike the conventional design consisting of small diameter water tubes, it has a single large diameter drum which serves the dual purpose of absorber tube and storage tank. In principle it is a compound parabolic collector. The drum is sized to have a storage capacity of 100 liter to serve a family of four persons. The tests were carried out with a single glass cover and two glass covers. The tests were repeated for several days. Performance analysis of the collector has revealed that it has maximum mean daily efficiency with two glass covers as high as 37.2%. The maximum water temperature in the storage tank of 60°C has been achieved for a clear day operation at an average solar beam radiation level of 680 W/m2 and ambient temperature of 32°C. To judge the operating characteristics and to synchronize utility pattern of the collector, the different parameters such as efficiency, mean plate temperature and mass flow rate has been investigated.

  13. Use of mirrors with plate collectors; Uso de espejos con colectores planos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follari, J. A.; Odicino, L. a.; Perello, A. D.; Fasulo, A. J.

    2004-07-01

    We analyze the solar radiative contribution that a fixed flat mirror cam perform on a collector, also fixed in its position , if that mirror is put above the collector. Various angles, be they for the mirror or for the collector are investigated, in order to determine their practical usefulness as a function of the real effective contribution they provide. First the theoretical contribution is calculated using approximative formulae, then the effective contribution to a solar collector connected to a thermal reservoir mow forming a solar heater, is measured. The field of applicability of this device is analyzed considering the cost of collector and the mirror, the usefulness depending on the angle between the collector and the horizontal plain. (Author)

  14. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-11-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fail apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  15. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fail apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  16. Optimization of Thin-Film Transparent Plastic Honeycomb Covered Flat-Plate Solar Collectors. Phase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the former preferred for high-temperature collectors since it is opaque in the longer wavelength region and hence improves the efficiency by reducing re...different temperature regions . The analyses show that collectors equipped with Lexan honeycomb are more cost ef- fective than comparable nonhoneycomb...Contract E(04-3)- 1081. " REFERENCES 1. Francia , G., "A New Collector of Solar Energy -- Theory and Experimental Verification -- Calculation of the

  17. Diseño de un colector solar de placa plana; Design of a solar fl at plate collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeovany Rafael Rodríguez Mejía

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se integra el uso de un software de dis eño mecánico y un algoritmo de simulación de la operación de un colector solar de placa plana, con el objeti vo de simplificar el proceso de diseño y manufactura de este último. Se exponen los resultados de la sim ulación de la operación del colector solar considerando diferentes combinaciones en los parámetros de los materiales utilizados, tales como sus propiedades y características físico químicas, además de la var iación de las dimensiones del sistema a diseñar. Finalmente en el artículo se evalúa la operación de un colector solar para las condiciones climatológicas típicas de la irradiancia, velocidad de viento y temperatura ambiente a partir de una serie de curvas sinusoidales, típicas de Cuba, validándose la viabilidad del algoritmo como apoyo en la etapa de diseño y selección de materiales. In this article the use of mechanical design software and an al gorithm for simulating the operation of a flat plate solar collector, with the objective of simplifying the pr ocess of design and manufacture of the latter is integrated. The simulation results of the operation of the sola r collector considering different combinations in the parameters of the materials used, such as its physicochemic al properties and features in addition to the variation of the dimensions of the system design are set. The a rticle finally evaluates the operation of a solar collector for typical climatic conditions of irradiance, wind s peed and ambient temperature from a series of sinusoidal, typical Cuba curves is evaluated, validating the fe asibility of the algorithm as support in step design and material selection.

  18. Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Wipke, K.

    1992-05-01

    The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69 percent more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44 percent less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration.

  19. Evaluation of high performance evacuated tubular collectors in a residential heating and cooling system: Colorado State University Solar House I. Report for October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, W.S.; Conway, T.M.; Loef, G.O.G.; Meredith, D.B.; Pratt, R.B.

    1978-03-01

    CSU Solar House I is configured with a prototype Corning evacuated tubular collector and a new Arkla lithium bromide water chiller designed for solar operation. Data have been collected for this configuration since January 1977. Prior to that time and since mid-1974, Solar House I has operated with a flat-plate collector and a previous Arkla LiBr air conditioner modified to operate in the lower solar temperature ranges. Project objectives were to develop an operating and control system for the new configuration and to compare the performance of the new residential solar heating, cooling, and hot water system with performance of the previous system. Many problems were encountered in the evolution of the operating and control systems due to the different operating characteristics of evacuated tubular collectors, such as their rapid thermal response and the possibility of much higher temperatures as compared to a flat-plate collector.

  20. Coaxial extrusion conversion concept for polymeric flat plate solar collectors. Final technical report, September 30, 1978-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, R.O.; Chapman, N.J.; Chao, K.C.; Sorenson, K.F.

    1980-01-01

    This study investigated materials and processes for fundamental improvements in flat-plate solar collector cost and performance. The goal was to develop a process for direct conversion of inexpensive raw materials into a completed solar collector unit, without labor intensive assembly operations. It was thought that materials carefully matched to the process and end-use environment would substantially reduce collector costs, as compared to conventional industry practice. The project studied the feasibility of a cost-effective, glazed solar collector, with low labor input, utilizing a coaxial extrusion of compatible polymeric materials. This study evaluated all considered materials for the desired application. In addition, there was a trial extrusion of the leading candidate glazing and absorber materials, which resulted in successfully performing a coaxial extrusion of one cell. At the time the study was conducted, there were no materials available that met the necessary requirements for the specified utilization. It was recommended that, if potentially compatible materials become available, further investigation into the suitability of those materials be researched. Then, if a suitable material was found, proceeding into Phase II would be recommended.

  1. Comparative performance of twenty-three types of flat plate solar energy collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    Report compares efficiencies of 23 solar collectors for four different purposes: operating a Rankine-cycle engine, heating or absorption air conditioning, heating hot water, and heating a swimming pool.

  2. Heat loss coefficients and effective tau-alpha products for flat-plate collectors with diathermanous covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, K. G. T.; Wright, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient algorithm for solving the set of nonlinear equations governing the total heat transfer across an arbitrary number of parallel flat plate solar collector covers, each of which can be partly transparent to longwave thermal radiation. The governing equations are sufficiently general to permit each cover to have asymmetric radiative properties and to account for absorption of solar energy on the individual covers. This theory is shown to be in good agreement with the approximate equations of Whillier (provided certain interpretations are placed on his quantities) and with experiments using a plastic inner cover and bounding plates of various emissivities. Using this theory, it is demonstrated that if the absorber plate has a selective surface, an inner cover transparent to long wave radiation is to be preferred over one which is opaque.

  3. Weathering of a liquid solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Commercially available flate plate hot water solar collector is characterized in report that presents 10 month weathering study of system. Collector efficiency was calculated and plotted from measurements of fluid temperature and flow rate, ambient temperature and solar flux. Windspeed and wind direction were also measured during tests.

  4. Studies of flat-plate solar air collectors with absorber plates made of amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules; Amorphous taiyo denchi module wo shunetsuban to shita heibangata kukishiki shunetsuki no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Ito, S.; Miura, N. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A light/heat hybrid air type heat collector has been developed in which heat is collected by solar cell panels. In Type 1 heat collector provided with a glass cover, two modules are connected in series and placed under a glass cover to serve as a heat collecting plate, each module built of a steel plate and two thin-film amorphous solar cells bonded to the steel plate. Air runs under the heat collecting plate. Type 2 heat collector is a Type 1 heat collector minus the glass cover. Air is taken in by a fan, runs in a vinyl chloride tube, and then through the heat collector where it is heated by the sun, and goes out at the exit. Heat collecting performance was subjected to theoretical analysis. This heat collector approximated in point of heat collection a model using a board painted black, which means that the new type functions effectively as an air-type heat collector. Operating as a photovoltaic power generator, the covered type generated approximately 20% less than the uncovered type under 800W/m{sup 2} insolation conditions. Type 1 has been in service for five months, and Type 2 for 2 months. At present, both are free of troubles such as deformation and the amorphous solar cell modules have deteriorated but a little. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Heat transfer performance of silver/water nanofluid in a solar flat-plate collector

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarus, Godson; Roy, Siddharth; Kunhappan, Deepak; Cephas, Enoch; Wongwises, Somchai

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study is carried out to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of silver/water nanofluid in a solar flatplate collector. The solar radiation heat flux varies between 800 W/m2and 1000W/m2, and the particle concentration varies between 0.01%, 0.03%, and 0.04%. The fluid Reynolds number varies from 5000 to 25000. The influence of radiation heat flux, mass flow rate of nanofluid, inlet temperature into the solar collector, and volume concentration of the particle on the con...

  6. Buoyancy effects on thermal behavior of a flat-plate solar collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of the flow and temperature distribution in a 12.53 m(2) solar collector panel with an absorber consisting of two vertical manifolds interconnected by 16 parallel horizontal fins have been carried out. The investigations are focused on overheating and b...

  7. Comparing between predicted output temperature of flat-plate solar collector and experimental results: computational fluid dynamics and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Nadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The significant of solar energy as a renewable energy source, clean and without damage to the environment, for the production of electricity and heat is of great importance. Furthermore, due to the oil crisis as well as reducing the cost of home heating by 70%, solar energy in the past two decades has been a favorite of many researchers. Solar collectors are devices for collecting solar radiant energy through which this energy is converted into heat and then heat is transferred to a fluid (usually air or water. Therefore, a key component in performance improvement of solar heating system is a solar collector optimization under different testing conditions. However, estimation of output parameters under different testing conditions is costly, time consuming and mostly impossible. As a result, smart use of neural networks as well as CFD (computational fluid dynamics to predict the properties with which desired output would have been acquired is valuable. To the best of our knowledge, there are no any studies that compare experimental results with CFD and ANN. Materials and Methods A corrugated galvanized iron sheet of 2 m length, 1 m wide and 0.5 mm in thickness was used as an absorber plate for absorbing the incident solar radiation (Fig. 1 and 2. Corrugations in absorber were caused turbulent air and improved heat transfer coefficient. Computational fluid dynamics K-ε turbulence model was used for simulation. The following assumptions are made in the analysis. (1 Air is a continuous medium and incompressible. (2 The flow is steady and possesses have turbulent flow characteristics, due to the high velocity of flow. (3 The thermal-physical properties of the absorber sheet and the absorber tube are constant with respect to the operating temperature. (4 The bottom side of the absorber tube and the absorber plate are assumed to be adiabatic. Artificial neural network In this research a one-hidden-layer feed-forward network based on the

  8. Assessment of Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance of a Solar Desiccant Cooling System with Different Collector Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Angrisani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Desiccant-based air handling units can achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and energy savings with respect to conventional air conditioning systems. Benefits are maximized when they interact with renewable energy technologies, such as solar collectors. In this work, experimental tests and data derived from scientific and technical literature are used to implement a model of a solar desiccant cooling system, considering three different collector technologies (air, flat-plate and evacuated collectors. Simulations were then performed to compare the energy, environmental and economic performance of the system with those of a desiccant-based unit where regeneration thermal energy is supplied by a natural gas boiler, and with those of a conventional air-handling unit. The only solution that allows achieving the economic feasibility of the solar desiccant cooling unit consists of 16 m2 of evacuated solar collectors. This is able to obtain, with respect to the reference system, a reduction of primary energy consumption and of the equivalent CO2 emissions of 50.2% and 49.8%, respectively, but with a payback time of 20 years.

  9. Progress of the stochastic cooling system of the Collector Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulou, C; Bohm, R; Dolinskyy, O; Franzke, B; Hettrich, R; Maier, W; Menges, R; Nolden, F; Peschke, C; Petri, P; Steck, M; Thorndahl, L

    2013-01-01

    An overview of the recent achievements and ongoing developments for the stochastic cooling system of the Collector Ring is given. In focus are the hardware developments as well as the progress in predicting the system performance. The system operates in the frequency band 1-2 GHz, it has to provide fast 3D cooling of antiproton, rare isotope and stable heavy ion beams. The main challenges are (i) the cooling of antiprotons by means of cryogenic movable pick-up electrodes and (ii) the fast two-stage cooling (pre-cooling by the Palmer method, followed by the notch filter method) of the hot rare isotope beams (RIBs). Recently, a novel code for simulating the cooling process in the time domain has been developed at CERN. First results for the momentum cooling for heavy ions in the CR will be shown in comparison with results obtained in the frequency domain with the Fokker-Planck approach.

  10. Development of flat-plate solar thermal collectors equipped with aerogel sandwiched absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Yusuke; Izumi, Hiroaki; Aizawa, Mamoru [Dynax Corp. (Japan); Yugami, Hiroo [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku Univ. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    It is important to utilize the solar energy efficiently. However, conventional solar thermal collectors have some drawbacks of high cost, heavy weight and low temperature output. These drawbacks prevent from spreading of the market of solar thermal collectors, especially in Japan. To find a solution to the problems, we propose an absorber / aerogel one-piece structure for high temperature solar thermal collectors. TiOxNy and silica aerogel were employed as a selectively solar-absorbing coating of absorber and as an optically transparent thermal insulator, respectively. Selectively solar-absorbing coatings must show lower reflectance and lower emittance. We have developed selectively solar-absorbing coatings of which optical property was {alpha} = 98.5, {epsilon} = 3 %. Wet coating of newly designed TiOxNy precursor enabled fabricating selectively solar-absorbing coatings, easily. Shrinkage of silica aerogel had to be minimized to produce an absorber / aerogel one-piece structure. Selectively solar-absorbing coatings and silica aerogel were prepared via sol-gel processing. (orig.)

  11. Simulation, construction and testing of a two-cylinder solar Stirling engine powered by a flat-plate solar collector without regenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakolpour, Ali Reza; Zomorodian, Ali [Department of Mechanics of Farm Machinery Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran); Akbar Golneshan, Ali [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran)

    2008-01-15

    In this research, a gamma-type, low-temperature differential (LTD) solar Stirling engine with two cylinders was modeled, constructed and primarily tested. A flat-plate solar collector was employed as an in-built heat source, thus the system design was based on a temperature difference of 80{sup o}C. The principles of thermodynamics as well as Schmidt theory were adapted to use for modeling the engine. To simulate the system some computer programs were written to analyze the models and the optimized parameters of the engine design were determined. The optimized compression ratio was computed to be 12.5 for solar application according to the mean collector temperature of 100{sup o}C and sink temperature of 20{sup o}C. The corresponding theoretical efficiency of the engine for the mentioned designed parameters was calculated to be 0.012 for zero regenerator efficiency. Proposed engine dimensions are as follows: power piston stroke 0.044 m, power piston diameter 0.13 m, displacer stroke 0.055 m and the displacer diameter 0.41 m. Finally, the engine was tested. The results indicated that at mean collector temperature of 110{sup o}C and sink temperature of 25{sup o}C, the engine produced a maximum brake power of 0.27 W at 14 rpm. The mean engine speed was about 30 rpm at solar radiation intensity of 900 W/m{sup 2} and without load. The indicated power was computed to be 1.2 W at 30 rpm. (author)

  12. A 2-dimensional heat transfer analysis of a sheet-and-tube flat plate PV/thermal collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriere, J.; Harrison, S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Solar Calorimetry Lab

    2008-08-15

    Temperature gradients in photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems can have a significant impact on the reliability and life-span of system components. However, many simple PV/T models do not consider temperature gradients. In this study, a detailed heat transfer model was used to quantify temperature gradients within a PV/T panel in order to predict thermal and electrical performance as a function of fluid and atmospheric temperatures. The PV/T system consisted of a PV laminate bonded to a thermal collector. A glass cover was used as a secondary glazing system. The effect of increasing the thermal resistance between the various layers in the construction was evaluated in order to measure the temperature gradient through the absorber thickness. A 2-D finite difference model of heat flow in the collector was conducted in order to study the magnitude of the temperature gradient. Steady-state heat flow was calculated along the width of the system as well as between the layers. Heat flux was calculated to the centre of each element. Total absorptivity in each layer was determined by adding the absorption of each portion of the spectrum. Heat losses through the top of the collector were estimated using a 1-D analysis. The study showed that current methods of calculating fin efficiency are not valid when temperature gradients are not considered. Future studies will examine the effect of thermal expansion and shear stresses. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Dynamics and control of a solar collector system for near Earth object deflection *

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen-Ping Gong; Jun-Feng Li; Yun-Feng Gao

    2011-01-01

    A solar collector system is a possible method using solar energy to deflect Earth-threatening near-Earth objects. We investigate the dynamics and control of a solar collector system including a main collector (MC) and secondary collector (SC).The MC is used to collect the sunlight to its focal point, where the SC is placed and directs the collected light to an asteroid. Both the relative position and attitude of the two collectors should be accurately controlled to achieve the desired optical path. First,the dynamical equation of the relative motion of the two collectors in the vicinity of the asteroid is modeled. Secondly, the nonlinear sliding-mode method is employed to design a control law to achieve the desired configuration of the two collectors. Finally,the deflection capability of this solar collector system is compared with those of the gravitational tractor and solar sail gravitational tractor. The results show that the solar collector is much more efficient with respect to deflection capability.

  14. The Effect of the Angle of Inclination on the Efficiency in a Medium-Temperature Flat Plate Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Montoya-Marquez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental work, the effects of the inclination angle β and the (Ti − Ta/G on the efficiency and the UL-value were investigated on a medium-temperature flat plate solar collector. The experiments were based on steady-state energy balance, by heat flow calorimetry at indoor conditions and considering the standard American National Standard Institute/American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ANSI/ASHRAE 93-2010. The solar radiation was emulated by the Joule effect using a proportional integral derivative (PID control considering two conditions of the absorber temperature, Case 1: (To − Ti > 0, and Case 2: (To − Ti = 0. The inclination angles were 0°–90° and the (Ti − Ta/G were 0.044–0.083 m2·°C/W and 0.124–0.235 for Case 1 and Case 2, respectively. The variations of β and (Ti − Ta/G cause efficiency changes up to 0.37–0.45 (21.6% and 0.31–0.45 (45.0%, respectively, for Case 1. Also, the UL(β reached changes up to 10.1–12.0 W/m2·°C (19.2% and 8.4–12.0 W/m2·°C (41.7%, respectively, for Case 1. The most significant changes of UL(β/UL(90° vs. β were 8.0% at the horizontal position for Case 1, while for Case 2, the maximum change was 1.8% only. Therefore, the changes of the inclination angle cause significant variations of the convective flow patterns within the collector, which leads to considerable variation of the collector efficiency and its UL value.

  15. METAL-POLYMER SOLAR COLLECTORS WITH MULTICHANNEL ABSORBER FOR MULTIFUNCTIONAL MULTIPURPOSE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available New modification of liquid-metal-polymer solar collector for solar heating and for creation of multifunctional energy systems on its basis, particularly solar refrigeration systems was developed. A comparative study of several modifications of polymer collectors involving data of a set of foreign researchers was made and high efficiency of the new elaboration was proven.

  16. Nitrite/nitrate detection in serum based on dual-plate generator-collector currents in a microtrench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Andrew J; Holmes, Stephanie; Dale, Sara E C; Smallwood, Miranda J; Green, Stephen J; Winlove, C Peter; Benjamin, Nigel; Winyard, Paul G; Marken, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A dual-electrode sensor is developed for rapid detection of nitrite/nitrate at micromolar levels in phosphate buffer media and in dilute horse serum without additional sample pre-treatment. A generator-collector configuration is employed so that on one electrode nitrate is reduced to nitrite and on the second electrode nitrite is oxidised back to nitrate. The resulting redox cycle gives rise to a specific and enhanced current signal which is exploited for sensitive and reliable measurement of nitrite/nitrate in the presence of oxygen. The electrode design is based on a dual-plate microtrench (approximately 15 µm inter-electrode gap) fabricated from gold-coated glass and with a nano-silver catalyst for the reduction of nitrate. Fine tuning of the phosphate buffer pH is crucial for maximising collector current signals whilst minimising unwanted gold surface oxidation. A limit of detection of 24 μM nitrate and a linear concentration range of 200-1400 μM is reported for the microtrench sensor in phosphate buffer and dilute horse serum. Relative standard deviations for repeat measurements were in the range 1.8-6.9% (n=3) indicating good repeatability in both aqueous and biological media. Preliminary method validation against the standard chemiluminescence method used in medical laboratories is reported for nitrate analysis in serum.

  17. A Flat Solar Collector Built from Galvanized Steel Plate, Working by Thermosyphonic Flow, Optimized for Mexican Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Marroquín de Jesús

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Design, construction, and testing of the thermal performance of a flat solar collector for domestic water heating are described. The absorbing plate is built from readily available materials: two sheets of galvanized steel, one of the channelled type, the other one flat, which are joined by electric welding. The absorber is connected to a 198–L thermotank, insulated with polyurethane foam. In terms of receiving surface, the prototype tested here has an area of 1.35 m2, about 20% smaller than comparable copper–tube–based collectors offered in the market. Temperature measurements conducted over a 30–day period gave values which were a few degrees lower than the theoretically calculated water temperatures. Momentary thermal efficiency values between 35% and 77% were observed. The water temperature achieved in the tank at the end of the day aver ages 65°C in winter weather conditions in the central Mexican highland. This design of solar water heater is well suited to Mexican conditions, as it makes use of the high local intensity of the solar radiation, and as the channel shape of the ducts minimizes bursting during the rare occurrences of freezing temperatures in the region; it also has the advantage of being manufacturable at low cost from simple materials.

  18. Nongray-radiative and convective-conductive thermal coupling in Teflon-glazed, selective-black, flat-plate solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. K.; Rhee, S. J.

    1984-05-01

    An analysis is presented comparing Teflon film with glass for the inner glazing of a double-glazed selective-black, flat-plate solar collector. The effect of spacing between glazings and between the inner glazing and absorber plate is examined. It is shown that a 12.5-micron Teflon film is superior to glass for the inner glazing of a selective-black collector, because the advantage of its high solar transparency overwhelms the disadvantage of its infrared transparency. A too-small spacing between a selective-black absorber and its inner cover short-circuits the desirable thermal radiation resistance offered by a selective-black absorber plate. Account is taken of spectral variations in the radiation properties of glass, Teflon, and the absorber plate. Allowance is made for the fact that critical Rayleigh number is lower for a plastic film inner glazing than for a glass one.

  19. THEORETICAL STUDY OF SOLAR COLLECTOR WITH MINI PARABOLIC CONCENTRATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I TABET

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, numerical modeling and simulation of the thermal behavior of a solar collector vacuum tube with a concentration has been done, the value of adding a system of concentration at the back of the collector and try to increase the amount of solar radiation incident on the collector  in order to obtain high temperatures compared to traditional flat plate collector  and improved their energy performance, this type of collector  being integrated into buildings for domestic hot water, air conditioning and for cooling.

  20. Air bubble-induced detachment of positively and negatively charged polystyrene particles from collector surfaces in a parallel-plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Suarez, C; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Electrostatic interactions between colloidal particles and collector surfaces were found tcr be important in particle detachment as induced by the passage of air bubbles in a parallel-plate Row chamber. Electrostatic interactions between adhering particles and passing air bubbles, however, a-ere

  1. Detachment of colloidal particles from collector surfaces with different electrostatic charge and hydrophobicity by attachment to air bubbles in a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, CG; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1999-01-01

    The detachment of polystyrene particles adhering to collector surfaces with different electrostatic charge and hydrophobicity by attachment to a passing air bubble has been studied in a parallel plate flow chamber. Particle detachment decreased linearly with increasing air bubble velocity and

  2. Air bubble-induced detachment of positively and negatively charged polystyrene particles from collector surfaces in a parallel-plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Suarez, C; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Electrostatic interactions between colloidal particles and collector surfaces were found tcr be important in particle detachment as induced by the passage of air bubbles in a parallel-plate Row chamber. Electrostatic interactions between adhering particles and passing air bubbles, however, a-ere fou

  3. Detachment of colloidal particles from collector surfaces with different electrostatic charge and hydrophobicity by attachment to air bubbles in a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, CG; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1999-01-01

    The detachment of polystyrene particles adhering to collector surfaces with different electrostatic charge and hydrophobicity by attachment to a passing air bubble has been studied in a parallel plate flow chamber. Particle detachment decreased linearly with increasing air bubble velocity and decrea

  4. Flat-plate solar-collector performance evaluation with a solar simulator as a basis for collector selection and performance prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    This paper reports the measured thermal efficiency and evaluation of 23 collectors which differ according to absorber material (copper, aluminum, steel), absorber coating (nonselective black paint, selective copper oxide, selective black nickel, selective black chrome), type of glazing material (glass, Tedlar, Lexan, anti-reflection glass), the use of honeycomb material and the use of vacuum to prevent thermal convection losses. The collectors are given performance rankings based on noon-hour solar conditions and all-day solar conditions. The determination with the simulator of an all-day collector performance is made possible by tests at different incident angles. The solar performance rankings are made based on whether the collector is to be used for pool heating, hot water, absorption air conditioning, heating, or for a solar Rankine machine.

  5. Theoretical and experimental investigations of Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    Four different marketed Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The advantages of the investigated solar collectors compared to normal flat plate collectors were elucidated.......Four different marketed Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The advantages of the investigated solar collectors compared to normal flat plate collectors were elucidated....

  6. Parametric studies of an active solar water heating system with various types of PVT collectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Roonak Daghigh; Mohd Hafidz Ruslan; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2015-10-01

    This study simulated active photovoltaic thermal solar collectors (PV/T) for hot water production using TRNSYS. The PV/T collectors consist of the amorphous, monocrystalline and polycrystalline. The long-term performances for the glazed and unglazed PV/T collectors were also evaluated. In this simulation, the design parameters used were collector area of 4 m2, collector slope angle of 15 degree and mass flow rate to the collector area ratio of 8–20 kg/hm2. In addition the tank height between 0.9 m to 1.1 m for unglazed PV/T collectors and 0.9 m to 1 m for glazed collectors, as well as the storage tank volume between 200 and 300 L has been used. The climate parameters used were solar radiation levels range of 4–4.9 kWh/m2, the mean ambient temperature in the range of 25–28°C. The results of the simulation indicated that there was an increase in solar fraction and electrical power output of the active PV/T hot water system.

  7. EVALUATION OF FLAT-PLATE PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL HYBRID SYSTEMS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1981-06-01

    The technical and economic attractiveness of combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar energy collectors was evaluated. The study was limited to flat-plate collectors since concentrating photovoltaic collectors require active cooling and thus are inherently PV/T collectors, the only decision being whether to use the thermal energy or to dump it. it was also specified at the outset that reduction in required roof area was not to be used as an argument for combining the collection of thermal and electrical energy into one module. Three tests of economic viability were identified, all of which PV/T must pass if it is to be considered a promising alternative: PV/T must prove to be competitive with photovoltaic-only, thermal-only, and side-by-side photovoltaic-plus-thermal collectors and systems. These three tests were applied to systems using low-temperature (unglazed) collectors and to systems using medium-temperature (glazed) collectors in Los Angeles, New York, and Tampa. For photovoltaics, the 1986 DOE cost goals were assumed to have been realized, and for thermal energy collection two technologies were considered: a current technology based on metal and glass, and a future technology based on thin-film plastics. The study showed that for medium-temperature applications PV/T is not an attractive option in any of the locations studied. For low-temperature applications, PV/T appears to be marginally attractive.

  8. EVALUATION OF FLAT-PLATE PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL HYBRID SYSTEMS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1981-06-01

    The technical and economic attractiveness of combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar energy collectors was evaluated. The study was limited to flat-plate collectors since concentrating photovoltaic collectors require active cooling and thus are inherently PV/T collectors, the only decision being whether to use the thermal energy or to dump it. it was also specified at the outset that reduction in required roof area was not to be used as an argument for combining the collection of thermal and electrical energy into one module. Three tests of economic viability were identified, all of which PV/T must pass if it is to be considered a promising alternative: PV/T must prove to be competitive with photovoltaic-only, thermal-only, and side-by-side photovoltaic-plus-thermal collectors and systems. These three tests were applied to systems using low-temperature (unglazed) collectors and to systems using medium-temperature (glazed) collectors in Los Angeles, New York, and Tampa. For photovoltaics, the 1986 DOE cost goals were assumed to have been realized, and for thermal energy collection two technologies were considered: a current technology based on metal and glass, and a future technology based on thin-film plastics. The study showed that for medium-temperature applications PV/T is not an attractive option in any of the locations studied. For low-temperature applications, PV/T appears to be marginally attractive.

  9. The multiple layer solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical model is developed for obtaining numerical solutions for differential equations describing the performance of separate layers in a multiple layer solar collector. The configurations comprises heat transfer fluid entering at the top of the collector and travelling down through several layers. A black absorber plate prevents reemission of thermal radiation. The overall performance is shown to depend on the number of layers, the heat transfer coefficient across each layer, and the absorption properties of the working fluid. It is found that the multiple layer system has a performance inferior to that of flat plate selective surface collectors. Air gaps insulating adjacent layers do not raise the efficiency enough to overcome the relative deficiency.

  10. Mathematical modeling of photovoltaic thermal PV/T system with v-groove collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohri, M.; Fudholi, A.; Ruslan, M. H.; Sopian, K.

    2017-07-01

    The use of v-groove in solar collector has a higher thermal efficiency in references. Dropping the working heat of photovoltaic panel was able to raise the electrical efficiency performance. Electrical and thermal efficiency were produced by photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) system concurrently. Mathematical modeling based on steady-state thermal analysis of PV/T system with v-groove was conducted. With matrix inversion method, the energy balance equations are explained by means of the investigative method. The comparison results show that in the PV/T system with the V-groove collector is higher temperature, thermal and electrical efficiency than other collectors.

  11. Hybrid utilization of solar energy. Part 2. Performance analyses of heating system with air hybrid collector; Taiyo energy no hybrid riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Kuki shunetsu hybrid collector wo mochiita danbo system no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, M.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the effective utilization of solar energy at houses, a heating system using an air hybrid collector (capable of simultaneously performing heat collection and photovoltaic power generation). As the specimen house, a wooden house of a total floor area of 120m{sup 2} was simulated. Collected air is fanned into a crushed stone heat accumulator (capable of storing one day`s collection) or into a living room. The output of solar cell arrays is put into a heat pump (capable of handling a maximum hourly load of 36,327kJ/h) via an inverter so as to drive the fan (corresponding to average insolation on the heat collecting plate of 10.7MJ/hm{sup 2} and heat collecting efficiency of 40%), and shortage in power if any is supplied from the system interconnection. A hybrid collector, as compared with the conventional air collector, is lower in thermal efficiency but the merit that it exhibits with respect to power generation is far greater than what is needed to counterbalance the demerit. When the hybrid system is in heating operation, there is an ideal heat cycle of collection, accumulation, and radiation when the load is light, but the balance between accumulation and radiation is disturbed when the load is heavy. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Development and life cycle analysis of double slope active solar still with flat plate collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sethi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Potable water is an essential ingredient of socio-economic development and economic growth. Often water sources are brackish (i.e. contain dissolved salts and/or contain harmful bacteria and therefore cannot be used for drinking. In addition, there are many coastal locations where seawater is abundant but potable water is not available. This study is focused on a development of solar still with flat plat collector for water desalination considered for small scale applications at remote locations where only saline water is available. In this paper the cost of distilled water per kg has been calculated by using the concept of life cycle cost analysis. The pay back periods for different conditions of the distribution of distilled water, namely at the cost it is produced and at the selling price on market rate have been evaluated. The cost of water per kg is minimum Rs. 0.59, when the interest rate and the lifetime of solar still are taken as 4% and 50 years respectively. The lowest payback time 1.23 years is obtained when the selling price of water Rs. 10 per kg.

  13. Tårs 10000 m2 CSP + Flat Plate Solar Collector Plant - Cost-Performance Optimization of the Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Tian, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    , was established. The optimization showed that there was a synergy in combining CSP and FP collectors. Even though the present cost per m² of the CSP collectors is high, the total energy cost is minimized by installing a combination of collectors in such solar heating plant. It was also found that the CSP...... collectors could raise flexibility in the control strategy of the plant. The TRNSYS-Genopt model is based on individually validated component models and collector parameters from experiments. Optimization of the cost performance of the plant has been conducted in this paper. The simulation model remains...... to be validated with annual measured data from the plant....

  14. Solar thermal collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranovitch, E.

    Thermal processes in solar flat plate collectors are described and evaluated analytically, and numerical models are presented for evaluating the performance of various designs. A flat plate collector consists of a black absorber plate which transfers absorbed heat to a fluid, a cover which limits thermal losses, and insulation to prevent backlosses. Calculated efficiencies for the collectors depend on the radiation absorbed, as well as IR losses due to natural convection, conduction, and radiation out of the collector. Formulations for the global emittance and heat transfer, as well as losses and their dependence on the Nusselt number and Grashof number are defined. Consideration is given to radiation transmission through transparent covers and Fresnel reflections at interfaces in the cover material. Finally, the performance coefficients for double-glazed and selective surface flat plate collectors are examined.

  15. Development of 12.5 m² Solar Collector Panel for Solar Heating Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations have elucidated how different changes in the design of the 12.5 m(2) HT flat-plate solar collector from the Danish company ARCON Solvarme A/S influence the solar collector efficiency and the yearly thermal performance. The collector is designed for medium...... and large solar heating systems. Based on the theoretical findings a prototype of an improved HT solar collector was built and tested side-by-side with the original HT solar collector. The improved HT collector makes use of a changed insulation material, an absorber with improved absorptance and emittance...

  16. Distribution behavior of collector in the desilication system of bauxite flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The distribution behavior of the HZB collector (a kind of long chain fatty acid) in the desilication system of bauxite flotation was studied. The results show that the collector tends towards froth products in the steps of the roughing, the first cleaning and the second cleaning, while towards the tailing product in the step of the scavenging, and in each job except scavenging the collector is mainly on the surface of solids. As for the froth product in the step of the scavenging, it is mainly in solution. To the tailing products of every step, it is mainly in the respective solutions. The collector added to the flotation system is mainly taken out by the last concentrate, by which the taken one occupies 65.2% of the whole, among which, 57.8% is by solid and 7.4% by solution, respectively. And the one by the last tail occupies 34.8% of the whole, among which, 8.8% is by solid and 26.0% by solution, respectively. The sum of the collector in the solution of the last concentrate and tailing is 33.4% of the amount of addition collector, and recycling the solutions will be in favor of decreasing the dosage of collector.

  17. Performance of a Solar Heating System with Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid Collectors and Heat Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    . When the solar collectors are unable to supply the heat demand an auxiliary heat source is used. Heat pumps can generate this heat. Liquid/water heat pumps have better performance than air/water heat pumps in cold climates but requires installation of a tubing system for the cold side of the heat pump....... The tubes are typically placed in the ground, requires a significant land area and increase the installation cost. A new system design of a solar heating system with two storage tanks and a liquid/water heat pump is presented. The system consists of PVT collectors that generate both heat and electricity....... Heat from the collectors is transferred to a domestic hot water storage tank or to a cold storage tank, which is used as the source for the heat pump. When the heat pump charges the warm storage tank, heat is extracted from the cold storage tank, which then can be reheated by the PVT collectors...

  18. The Experimental Study of Plastic Plate Solar Collector%塑料太阳能平板集热器试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李久锋; 陈观生; 张国庆

    2015-01-01

    According to the undemanding heating rate of heat-storage solar water heater, a new type of plastic plate solar collector was designed.Under the condition of intermittent forced circulation, test on the performance of this collector was carried out and instantaneous efficiency curves were obtained.As a result, the average daily collector efficiency is 51%~55% and the temperature of tank is 45.8~50.2 ℃, which serve as a reference for the application of plastic plate solar collector.%针对蓄热型太阳能热水器对升温速率要求不高的特点,提出并研制了一种新型塑料太阳能平板集热器.在间歇性强制循环条件下,对该集热器进行性能测试,获得了瞬时效率曲线.在试验条件下,该集热器的日平均效率为51%~55%,水箱温度为45.8~50.2℃,可以为塑料平板集热器的实际应用提供依据.

  19. A design method for closed loop solar energy systems with concentrating collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    A method of performance prediction and design for closed loop concentrating solar collector systems is presented, along with a comparison of prediction with results using a compound parabolic concentrating collector. The numerical model is an extension of Collares-Pereira and Rabl (1978) model for concentrating collectors to a closed-loop scenario, using a monthly average utilizability factor and the f-chart technique. The predictions were compared with simulations using the TRNSYS program, considering 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 concentration factors, and a sensible heat storage system. Performance predictions were found to depart from the simulations by an average of 14.04% for all cases, with the predictions giving consistently lower results. The method is concluded to be useful for optimizing collector areas and concentration ratios in closed-loop systems.

  20. Aid To Solar Collector Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Solar heating and cooling systems employ coatings to increase efficiency. Designers want a coating which absorbs solar heat to the maximum extent possible with minimal emittance of infrared radiation, which occurs when the collector plate gets hot. The coating is important because too much coating causes energy loss by emittance, too little reduces the collector's ability to absorb heat. NASA's Lewis Research Center, which conducts solar energy research, saw a need for a simple means of testing coating samples for emittance. Such equipment is available to research laboratories, but it is complex and expensive

  1. Effects of Key Parameters on Thermal Performance of Solar Flat-Plate Collector%太阳能平板集热器关键参数对其热性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车永毅; 厚彩琴

    2016-01-01

    为了提升太阳能在建筑能源供给体系中的比重,形式多样的太阳能集热设备及其系统在建筑领域得到了广泛应用。基于机理分析法,建立了具有单层玻璃盖板的管板式太阳能平板集热器的稳态传热模型。并且针对集热管间距、集热管内径、工质入口温度和工质质量流量等关键参数对集热器集热效率的影响特性进行了数值模拟与分析。结果表明,建立的该稳态传热模型是可行的;此外,在其余参数值保持不变的情况下,减小集热管间距或增加集热管内径均可使集热器瞬时效率增大;增大工质入口温度会导致集热器瞬时效率下降;而增大工质质量流量会提升集热器瞬时效率。这些结论对于太阳能平板集热器在太阳能建筑一体化的实际应用中,具有一定的参考作用。%In order to improve the proportion of solar energy in building energy supply system, various forms of solar heat collection equipment and systems in the construction field has been widely used. Based on the mechanism analysis method, one steady-state heat transfer model of the single glass cover flat-plate collector is built. The numerical simulation and analysis of the effect of the key parameters including col-lector tube spacing, collector tube diameter, and inlet temperature and inlet mass flow rate of the working fluid on heat collection efficiency of the collector is carried out. The results show that the steady-state heat transfer model is feasible;and in the case of the same parameters, either reducing the collector tube spacing or increasing the collector tube diameter can increase the instantaneous efficiency of the collector; the instantaneous efficiency of the collector decline with the increase of inlet temperature of the working fluid. However, increasing the mass flow rate at the entrance can improve the instantaneous efficiency of the collector. These conclusions have a certain

  2. Application of sintered plate dust collector in gold mines%烧结板除尘器在黄金矿山的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑民; 轩慎英; 刘刚

    2016-01-01

    It is always difficult for gold mine to collect dust .Inner Mongolia Pacific Mining Corporation Limited first applies sintered plate dust collectors in the crashing stage during the second phase of expansion project .The sin-tered plate dust collector occupies less space and is reliable with good dust collection effect and lower vent gas concen -tration.The paper based on technical characteristics of dust collection process and performance test results focused on the technical and economical analysis of the application of sintered plate dust collector ,expecting to provide reference of the dust collection process for gold mines .%黄金生产中的除尘问题一直受到黄金矿山企业的关注.内蒙古太平矿业有限公司二期扩建项目首次在选矿厂破碎工段采用了烧结板除尘器,其设备占地面积小、运行可靠、除尘效果好、尾气质量浓度低于排放标准.该文结合除尘工艺技术特点以及设备性能测试结果,重点对烧结板除尘器的应用进行了技术与经济分析,以期为类似黄金矿山企业除尘工艺提供参考.

  3. Ray tracing optical analysis of offset solar collector for Space Station solar dynamic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Kent S.

    1988-01-01

    OFFSET, a detailed ray tracing computer code, was developed at NASA Lewis Research Center to model the offset solar collector for the Space Station solar dynamic electric power system. This model traces rays from 50 points on the face of the sun to 10 points on each of the 456 collector facets. The triangular facets are modeled with spherical, parabolic, or toroidal reflective surface contour and surface slope errors. The rays are then traced through the receiver aperture to the walls of the receiver. Images of the collector and of the sun within the receiver produced by this code provide insight into the collector receiver interface. Flux distribution on the receiver walls, plotted by this code, is improved by a combination of changes to aperture location and receiver tilt angle. Power loss by spillage at the receiver aperture is computed and is considerably reduced by using toroidal facets.

  4. Decosol Project : development of solar plate collectors of high efficiency and low cost for medium temperature application; Proyecto Decosol: Desarrollo de colectores solares planos de alta eficiencia ybajo coste para aplicaciones a mediana temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadafalch, J.; Oliva, A.; Lavandeira, J. C.; Maestre, F.; Martinez, J. C.; Martin, J. R.; Hermo, R.

    2004-07-01

    Work that is currently being carried out by the authors in the framework of the project DECOSOL (Development of high efficiency and low cost flat plate collectors for medium temperature applications) is described in this paper. The goal of DECOSOL is to consolidate the results of previous R AND D projects conducted by the authors on the development of stagnation proof transparently insulated flat plate solar collectors prototypes, in order to end up with commercial products. (Author)

  5. Side by side tests of two SDHW systems with solar collectors with and without antireflection treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Han, Jiangong; Perers, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    Two low flow SDHW systems based on mantle tanks are tested side by side in a laboratory test facility for solar heating systems under the same weather and operation conditions. The systems are identical with the exception that one system is equipped with a solar collector with antireflection...... treated glass while the other system has a collector with a normal glass. Measurements of the thermal performance of the two systems have been carried out for a long measuring period. The thermal performances of the systems have also been calculated with a detailed simulation model. There is a good...... agreement between measured and calculated thermal performances for both systems. The extra thermal performance of the system with the solar collector with the anti reflection treated glass cover is a strong function of the solar fraction. In sunny periods with high solar fractions the percentage extra...

  6. Experimental validation of dynamic simulation of the flat plate collector in a closed thermosyphon solar water heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taherian, H.; Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Sadeghi, S.;

    2011-01-01

    This work studies the dynamic simulation of thermosyphon solar water heater collector considering the weather conditions of a city in north of Iran. The simulation was done for clear and partly cloudy days. The useful energy, the efficiency diagrams, the inlet and the outlet of collector, center...

  7. COMBINED UNCOVERED SHEET-AND-TUBE PVT-COLLECTOR SYSTEM WITH BUILT-IN STORAGE WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design and investigation of a simple combined uncovered sheet-and-tube photo-voltaic-thermal (PVT collector system. The PVT-collector system consists of a support, standard PV module (1.22x0.305m, area=0.37m2, fill factor=0.75, sheet-and-tube water collector and storage tank-heater. The collector was fixed under PV module. Inclination angle of the PVT-collector to the horizontal plane was 45 degree. The storage tank-heater played double role i.e. for storage of hot water and for water heating. The PVT-collector system could work in the fixed and tracking modes of operation. During investigations of PVT-collector in natural conditions, solar irradiance, voltage and current of PV module, ambient temperature and water temperature in storage tank were measured. Average thermal and electrical powers of the PVT-collector system at the tracking mode of operation observed were 39W and 21W, with efficiencies of 15% and 8% respectively at the input power of 260W. The maximum temperature of the water obtained was 42oC. The system was observed efficient for low-temperature applications. The PVT-collector system may be used as a prototype for design of PVT-collector system for domestic application, teaching aid and for demonstration purposes.

  8. Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including a current collector in communication with an electrode thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Grant L.; Herring, James S.; Stoots, Carl M.; O& #x27; Brien, James E.

    2013-03-05

    Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including such bundles include an electrically conductive current collector in communication with an anode or a cathode of each of a plurality of cells. A cross-sectional area of the current collector may vary in a direction generally parallel to a general direction of current flow through the current collector. The current collector may include a porous monolithic structure. At least one cell of the plurality of cells may include a current collector that surrounds an outer electrode of the cell and has at least six substantially planar exterior surfaces. The planar surfaces may extend along a length of the cell, and may abut against a substantially planar surface of a current collector of an adjacent cell. Methods for generating electricity and for performing electrolysis include flowing current through a conductive current collector having a varying cross-sectional area.

  9. Revisiting the BCS, a measurement system for characterizing the optics of solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, J. W.

    The Beam Characterization System is being employed at the Sandia's National Solar Thermal Test Facility to characterize the optical performance of heliostats, point-focus solar collectors, and their optical sub-elements as part of the on-going task to develop solar thermal technologies. With this measurement system, images of concentrated solar flux are acquired using digital imaging and processed to obtain such measures of the collector's optical performance as beam power, flux distribution, and beam diameter. Key system elements are a diffusely reflective target for imaging collector beams, meteorological instrumentation including a flux gauge to measure flux at one point in the beam, and a calibration technique to establish a pixel-intensity to flux-density conversion factor for the image. The system is employed in a variety of collector tests such as beam quality, tracking error, and wind effects. The paper describes the Beam Characterization System and its components and presents, for illustration, sample test results. An analysis of the Beam Characterization System's sources of measurement error is presented. Lastly, measurement techniques that employ the BCS to align heliostats and to measure or estimate collector surface slope errors are described.

  10. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  11. Performance study of unglazed cylindrical solar collector for adsorption refrigeration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, A.; Kaushik, S. C.; Kumaraguru, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    In the present communication, the unglazed cylindrical solar adsorber module is suggested for refrigeration and theoretical models for the heat and mass transfer in the cylindrical adsorber with heat balance equations in the collector components have been developed. It has been found that, both the SCP and COPsolar raises with increasing the evaporation temperature and drop off with the increase of the condensation temperature. The COPsolar increased from 0.15 to 0.52 with the increase of the total solar energy absorbed by the collector while the COPcycle varied in the range of 0.57-0.73. The efficiency of unglazed solar collector varied from 36 to 44 %. The cost of current unglazed adsorption refrigeration system is compared with the glazed system, and it is 33 to 50 % less than the cost of glazed system.

  12. Recommendations for European solar collector test methods (Liquid heating collectors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, A.; Gillett, W. B.

    Standardized testing formats, equipment, conditions, and tests defined as part of the solar flat plate collector testing program performed by the Commission of the European Communities are detailed. The work is a product of efforts at 20 laboratories, and alternative methods have been characterized for tailoring tests to particular locations and climatic conditions. The testing methods are intended for collectors using a liquid as the heat transfer medium. Procedures have been defined for examining steady state and transient performance, heat loss, thermal capacity, pressure drop, and anemometry. Instrumentation types and accuracies have been defined, and a standardized format for presentation of results has been developed. The tests are tailored for determining the durability of the flat plate systems under simulated solar radiation conditions.

  13. A Semi-Instantaneous Heat Exchanger for Mobile Solar Collectors Test System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Cao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A semi-instantaneous heat exchanger which can solve low efficiency and space shortage of mobil test system for thermal performance of solar collectors is proposed in this paper, In this paper, the structure parameters of heat exchanger and the power of heat resistance are designed based on the method of mean temperature difference. The experiment results show the performance of test system has been optimized. The efficiency of collectors test can be increased 50% and the total weight of the primary heater and working medium is reduced to 13.8%.The load of the test vehicle and occupancy volume have been decreased.

  14. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF PARABOLIC SOLAR COLLECTOR WATER HEATER SYSTEM FITTED WITH NAIL TWISTED TAPES ABSORBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SYED JAFAR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the experimental heat transfer, friction loss and thermal performance data for water flowing through the absorber tube fitted with two different twisted tape configurations in parabolic trough collector (PTC are presented. In the present work, a relative experimental study is carried out to investigate the performance of a PTC influenced by heat transfer through fluidabsorber wall mixing mechanism. The major findings of this experiment show that heat transport enhancement in the nail twisted tape collector perform significantly better than plain twisted tapes and also show that the smallest twisted tape ratio enhances the system performance remarkably maximizing the collector efficiency. The results suggest that the twisted tape and nail twisted tape would be a better option for high thermal energy collection in laminar region of the PTC system.

  15. Design of an Energy System Based on Photovoltaic Thermal Collectors in the South of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Touafek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is the design of a new energy system where the energy source will be provided by solar photovoltaic thermal (PV/T hybrid collectors. This system will be applied to a habitation in the region of Ghardaïa in the south of Algeria. The cold water reaches the thermal storage tank and then will be heated by the hybrid collector. The hot water will be used directly as sanitary water. The electric power produced by the hybrid collector will be used to charge the battery and will be delivered to the load (electrical appliances, lamps, etc.. Two types of loads are considered: a DC load and the other alternating current. The fans located adjacent to the radiators supplied with hot water will provide warm air to the house in winter.

  16. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

  17. A facile route for controlled alignment of carbon nanotube-reinforced, electrospun nanofibers using slotted collector plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Rakesh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A facile route for controlled alignment of electrospun multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-reinforced Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA nanofibers using slotted collector geometries has been realized. The process is based on analytical predictions using electrostatic field analysis for envisaging the extent of alignment of the electrospun fibers on varied collector geometries. Both the experimental and theoretical studies clearly indicate that the introduction of an insulating region into a conductive collector significantly influences the electrostatic forces acting on a charged fiber. Among various collector geometries, rectangular slotted collectors with circular ends showed good fiber alignment over a large collecting area. The electrospun fibers produced by this process were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Optical Microscopy. Effects of electrospinning time and slot widths on the fiber alignment have been analyzed. PVA-MWCNT nanofibers were found to be conducting in nature owing to the presence of reinforced MWCNTs in PVA matrix. The method can enable the direct integration of aligned nanofibers with controllable configurations, and significantly simplify the production of nanofibersbased devices.

  18. Numerical Investigation of Nanofluid-based Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, M.; Raisee, M.; Delfani, S.

    2014-08-01

    Solar thermal collectors are applicable in the water heating or space conditioning systems. Due to the low efficiency of the conventional collectors, some suggestions have been presented for improvement in the collector efficiency. Adding nanoparticles to the working fluid in direct absorption solar collector, which has been recently proposed, leads to improvement in the working fluid thermal and optical properties such as thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient. This results certainly in collector efficiency enhancement. In this paper, the radiative transfer and energy equations are numerically solved. Due to laminar and fully developed flow in the collector, the velocity profile is assumed to be parabolic. As can be observed from the results, outlet temperature of collector is lower than that obtained using uniform velocity profile. Furthermore, a suspension of carbon nanohorns in the water is used as the working fluid in the model and its effect on the collector efficiency is investigated. It was found that the presence of carbon nanohorns increases the collector efficiency by about 17% compared to a conventional flat-plate collector. In comparison with the mixture of water and aluminium nanoparticles, a quite similar efficiency is obtained using very lower concentration of carbon nanohorns in the water.

  19. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1997-01-01

    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle...... this kind of collectors. The modified simulation program has been used for the determination of the surplus in performance which solar heating systems with this type of solar collectors for combined preheating of ventilation air and domestic hot water will have. The simulation program and the efficiency...

  20. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  1. OFFSET - RAY TRACING OPTICAL ANALYSIS OF OFFSET SOLAR COLLECTOR FOR SPACE STATION SOLAR DYNAMIC POWER SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, K.

    1994-01-01

    OFFSET is a ray tracing computer code for optical analysis of a solar collector. The code models the flux distributions within the receiver cavity produced by reflections from the solar collector. It was developed to model the offset solar collector of the solar dynamic electric power system being developed for Space Station Freedom. OFFSET has been used to improve the understanding of the collector-receiver interface and to guide the efforts of NASA contractors also researching the optical components of the power system. The collector for Space Station Freedom consists of 19 hexagonal panels each containing 24 triangular, reflective facets. Current research is geared toward optimizing flux distribution inside the receiver via changes in collector design and receiver orientation. OFFSET offers many options for experimenting with the design of the system. The offset parabolic collector model configuration is determined by an input file of facet corner coordinates. The user may choose other configurations by changing this file, but to simulate collectors that have other than 19 groups of 24 triangular facets would require modification of the FORTRAN code. Each of the roughly 500 facets in the assembled collector may be independently aimed to smooth out, or tailor, the flux distribution on the receiver's wall. OFFSET simulates the effects of design changes such as in receiver aperture location, tilt angle, and collector facet contour. Unique features of OFFSET include: 1) equations developed to pseudo-randomly select ray originating sources on the Sun which appear evenly distributed and include solar limb darkening; 2) Cone-optics technique used to add surface specular error to the ray originating sources to determine the apparent ray sources of the reflected sun; 3) choice of facet reflective surface contour -- spherical, ideal parabolic, or toroidal; 4) Gaussian distributions of radial and tangential components of surface slope error added to the surface normals at

  2. MEMBRANOUS FLOWS IN GAS-LIQUID COLLECTORS-REGENERATORS OF SOLAR ABSORPTIVE SYSTEMS FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko А.V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the creation of new generation of solar collectors of the gas-liquid type, intended for use in alternative refrigerating and conditioning systems of drying-evaporating type with direct solar regeneration of absorbent. Special attention is given to the study of membranous flows features on inclined surfaces, including questions of such flows stability.

  3. Thermal performances of vertical hybrid PV/T air collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, I.; Touafek, K.; Bellel, N.; Khelifa, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, numerical analyses and the experimental validation of the thermal behavior of a vertical photovoltaic thermal air collector are investigated. The thermal model is developed using the energy balance equations of the PV/T air collector. Experimental tests are conducted to validate our mathematical model. The tests are performed in the southern Algerian region (Ghardaïa) under clear sky conditions. The prototype of the PV/T air collector is vertically erected and south oriented. The absorber upper plate temperature, glass cover temperature, air temperature in the inlet and outlet of the collector, ambient temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation are measured. The efficiency of the collector increases with increase in mass flow of air, but the increase in mass flow of air reduces the temperature of the system. The increase in efficiency of the PV/T air collector is due to the increase in the number of fins added. In the experiments, the air temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet of the PV/T air collector reaches 10 ° C on November 21, 2014, the interval time is between 10:00 and 14:00, and the temperature of the upper plate reaches 45 ° C at noon. The mathematical model describing the dynamic behavior of the typical PV/T air collector is evaluated by calculating the root mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. A good agreement between the experiment and the simulation results is obtained.

  4. Demonstration of Solar Heating and Cooling System using Sorption Integrated Solar Thermal Collectors

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Corey; Bales, Chris; Hallström, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Producing cost-competitive small and medium-sized solar cooling systems is currently a significant challenge. Due to system complexity, extensive engineering, design and equipment costs; the installation costs of solar thermal cooling systems are prohibitively high. In efforts to overcome these limitations, a novel sorption heat pump module has been developed and directly integrated into a solar thermal collector. The module comprises a fully encapsulated sorption tube containing hygroscopic ...

  5. Methods to Reduce the Risk to Wind Action of the Fixing Systems of Sollar Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Axinte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the non-conventional energy resources, a consequence of the severe restrictions imposed towards pollution of any kind, arises again the interest in using solar collectors. Implanting them on the terraces of new or existent home residencies, or any kind of other buildings, means to solve a sum of engineering problems, among them being also the stages of safely designing the plane panels for collectors and the sustaining skeleton, made in steel as well as the fixing systems adopted for the interface with the building itself. The necessity of considering the maximum wind speeds actions along other dynamic effects of its turbulence is the result of a many years experience, specially if one must also think in terms of efficiency and costs both for construction and exploitation. The pattern of the wind flow field suffers intricate alterations in the proximity of these collectors placed in the vicinity of the building surface and, in these situations, it is common to test the models at a reduced scale in wind tunnels with atmospheric boundary layers. The experimental study presented in this paper was undertaken in the Laboratory of Aerodynamics of the Faculty of Construction and Building Services in Iaşi and it reveals the results and the conclusions drawn from the analysis of the wind flow over a row of collectors differently arranged in order to evaluate the wind pressure coefficients used in design.

  6. Design, Simulation and Experimental Investigation of a Solar System Based on PV Panels and PVT Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Buonomano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical and experimental analyses aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collectors. An experimental setup was purposely designed and constructed in order to compare the electrical performance of a PVT solar field with the one achieved by an identical solar field consisting of conventional photovoltaic (PV panels. The experimental analysis also aims at evaluating the potential advantages of PVT vs. PV in terms of enhancement of electrical efficiency and thermal energy production. The installed experimental set-up includes four flat polycrystalline silicon PV panels and four flat unglazed polycrystalline silicon PVT collectors. The total electrical power and area of the solar field are 2 kWe and 13 m2, respectively. The experimental set-up is currently installed at the company AV Project Ltd., located in Avellino (Italy. This study also analyzes the system from a numerical point of view, including a thermo-economic dynamic simulation model for the design and the assessment of energy performance and economic profitability of the solar systems consisting of glazed PVT and PV collectors. The experimental setup was modelled and partly simulated in TRNSYS environment. The simulation model was useful to analyze efficiencies and temperatures reached by such solar technologies, by taking into account the reference technology of PVTs (consisting of glazed collectors as well as to compare the numerical data obtained by dynamic simulations with the gathered experimental results for the PV technology. The numerical analysis shows that the PVT global efficiency is about 26%. Conversely, from the experimental point of view, the average thermal efficiency of PVT collectors is around 13% and the electrical efficiencies of both technologies are almost coincident and equal to 15%.

  7. Biological sample collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  8. Unglazed photovoltaic-thermal solar collector in heat pump systems; Unverglaste photovoltaisch-thermische Kollektoren in Waermepumpensystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, E.; Stegmann, M.; Scheuren, J. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH Hameln/Emmerthal (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany); Rosinski, C.; Kundmueller, K. [GEFGA mbH und Co. KG, Limburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Photovoltaic-thermal solar collectors simultaneously produce electricity and heat. The desired temperature levels for the electric and thermal utilization commonly are contrary to each other. In combination with heat pump systems, unglazed photovoltaic-thermal solar collectors offer a promising application due to their low temperature level. Under this aspect, unglazed photovoltaic-thermal solar collectors are investigated in simulation and experiment within a research project at the Institute for Solar Energy Research (Hameln/Emmerthal, Federal Republic of Germany). The authors of the contribution under consideration report on results from the ongoing first year of operation of a pilot plant, measurements of performance on photovoltaic-thermal solar collectors and the developed model for an unglazed photovoltaic-thermal solar collector.

  9. Development of a microprocessor-based Sun-tracking system for solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, S. M.; Wilcoxen, J. L.

    1980-04-01

    The development of a prototype Sun-tracking system and the tests performed on it on an east-west trough solar collector array are described. The system includes a controller built around an RCA1802 microprocessor, a digital shaft encoder, and a heat flux sensor. The heat flux sensor consists of a fine resistance wire wrapped around the receiver tube. The wire is used to correct errors in calculated tracking angles arising from reflector imperfections and misalignments.

  10. Development of a microprocessor-based sun-tracking system for solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, S.M.; Wilcoxen, J.L.

    1980-04-01

    The development of a prototype sun-tracking system and the tests performed on it on an east-west trough solar collector array are described. The system includes a controller built around an RCA1802 microprocessor (..mu..P), a digital shaft encoder, and a heat flux sensor. The heat flux sensor consists of a fine resistance wire wrapped around the receiver tube. The wire is used to correct errors in calculated tracking angles arising from reflector imperfections and misalignments.

  11. Photovoltaic/thermal solar hybrid system with bifacial PV module and transparent plane collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles-Ocampo, B. [Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Celaya 11111, Guanajuato (Mexico); CINVESTAV-Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Unidad Queretaro, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Queretaro, 76230, QRO (Mexico); Ruiz-Vasquez, E.; Canseco-Sanchez, H. [Instituto Tecnologico de Oaxaca, Oaxaca 68030, Oaxaca (Mexico); CINVESTAV-Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Unidad Queretaro, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Queretaro, 76230, QRO (Mexico); Cornejo-Meza, R.C. [Instituto Tecnologico de Tepic, av. Tecnologico 2595, Tepic 63175, Nayarit (Mexico); CINVESTAV-Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Unidad Queretaro, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Queretaro, 76230, QRO (Mexico); Trapaga-Martinez, G.; Vorobiev, Y.V. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Unidad Queretaro, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Queretaro, 76230, QRO (Mexico); Garcia-Rodriguez, F.J. [Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Celaya 11111, Guanajuato (Mexico); Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. [CIMAV, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2007-12-14

    Electric energy production with photovoltaic (PV)/thermal solar hybrid systems can be enhanced with the employment of a bifacial PV module. Experimental model of a PV/thermal hybrid system with such a module was constructed and studied. To make use of both active surfaces of the bifacial PV module, we designed and made an original water-heating planar collector and a set of reflecting planes. The heat collector was transparent in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions, which makes it compatible with the PV module made of crystalline Si. The estimated overall solar energy utilization efficiency for the system related to the direct radiation flux is of the order of 60%, with an electric efficiency of 16.4%. (author)

  12. Application of the Heat Pipe in Flat-Plate Solar Collectors%热管在平板式太阳能集热器中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷婷; 杜娜; 卿湛媛; 陈新; 牛宝联

    2014-01-01

    从集热器结构、传热效率、工艺、优缺点等方面详细介绍了3种常见的热管平板式太阳能集热器,它们包括蜂窝热管平板式、真空玻璃盖板热管平板式、CPC热管平板式太阳能集热器。与普通热管平板式集热器相比,3种改良方式均可降低集热器热损失,有效提高集热效率。通过对不同种类热管平板式太阳能集热器的热管种类、工作温度、结构参数等分析,发现随着温度升高,集热器集热效率下降,以及热管蒸发段长度普遍大于冷凝段长度等现象。%Three common heat pipe flat-plate solar collectors are introduced in details from the con-figuration of the collector such as heat transfer efficiency, crafts, merits, and so on, including the flat plate solar collector of honeycomb and heat pipe(HHCHP), flat plate solar collector of vacuum glass-cover board and heat pipe(HVGHP) and a compound parabolic concentrator heat pipe type solar collector(CPC). Com-pared with common heat pipe flat-plate solar collectors, these three improved programs can reduce heat loss, and effectively improve efficiency of the collector. From the analysis of different heat pipe types, oper-ating temperature, structure parameters, a phenomenon is discovered that whatever which type of heat pipe flat-plate solar collector is, as temperature goes up, the efficiency of the collectors drops and the length of evaporation is longer than the length of condensation.

  13. Development of a mobile, stand-alone test facility for solar thermal collectors and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestenlehner, Dominik; Drueck, Harald; Fischer, Stephan; Mueller-Steinhagen, Hans [Solar- und Waermetechnik Stuttgart (SWT), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Testing of solar thermal systems and components requires different standards and thus different test facilities. Usually each facility is individually designed and constructed for tests according to a specific test method. For performing tests of solar thermal systems and collectors according to the most popular standards, test laboratories or manufacturers have to invest a huge amount of staff time, resources and capital to set up the required test facilities. A way to overcome this problem is the mobile, stand-alone solar thermal collector and system test facility developed by SWT-Technologie from Stuttgart, Germany, in cooperation with the Institute of Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering of the University of Stuttgart. The complete test facility is installed inside a conventional 12 foot office container. This mobile container based test facility is delivered to the site of the customer as a turn-key product that can be put into operation within one single day. Even more, the mobile container based test facility is a three-in-one test facility, since it is possible to perform tests according to three different standards and test methods. The performance of solar collectors can be tested according to the European standard EN 12975 or the international standard ISO 9806, respectively. The performance of solar thermal systems can be determined according to the international standards ISO 9459-2 (CSTG-method) and ISO 9495-5 (DST-method). This paper describes the mobile, container based solar collector and system test facility in detail and reports the experience gained so far. (orig.)

  14. Thermal Aspects Related to the Operation of Photovoltaic Collectors with Water Film Cleaning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei BUTUZA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an explorative experimental investigation of solar photovoltaic collector's behavior, when equipped with a water film based cleaning system. The study was focused mainly on thermal aspects and demonstrated the thermal potential of the water film, to be used in preheating domestic water. The results obtained in temperate continental climate and in autumn conditions, are in good agreement with similar studies. The electric effects of the water film were also investigated. This category of results was affected by limited precision of the data acquisition but the trend of water film electric effects could be still revealed. The general practical conclusion of the study is that water film cleaning system of the solar photovoltaic collectors can be recommended only with reserves, because of reduced and uncertain global performances.

  15. ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF SOLAR EVAPORATOR-COLLECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Mohd. Amin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is considered a sustainable resource that poses little to no harmful effects on the environment. The performance of a solar system depends to a great extent on the collector used for the conversion of solar radiant energy to thermal energy. A solar evaporator-collector (SEC is basically an unglazed flat plate collector where refrigerants, such as R134a is used as the working fluid. As the operating temperature of the SEC is very low, it utilizes both solar irradiation and ambient energy leading to a much higher efficiency than the conventional collectors. This capability of SECs to utilize ambient energy also enables the system to operate at night. This type of collector can be locally made and is relatively much cheaper than the conventional collector.   At the National University of Singapore, the evaporator-collector was integrated to a heat pump and the performance was investigated for several thermal applications: (i water heating, (ii drying and (iii desalination. A 2-dimensional transient mathematical model of this system was developed and validated by experimental data. The present study provides a comprehensive study of performance. KEYWORDS: heat pump; evaporator-collector.

  16. Development, testing, and certification of Owens-Illinois model SEC-601 solar energy collector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The final results are presented of the additional development work on the existing air-cooled solar energy collector subsystem for use with solar heating and cooling systems. The report discusses the intended use of the final report, describes the deliverable end items, lists program objectives, relates how they were accomplished, deals with problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and includes a certification statement of performance. The report shows that the products developed are marketable and suitable for public use.

  17. 空气-水复合平板型太阳能集热器%Experiment test of hybrid air-water solar flat plate collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东亮; 代彦军; 李勇

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a new type of solar collector that has the potential for using in solar heating systems. It can use both air and water as the circulation mediums. Experiment results show that the collector efficiency is between 55%~65% when air is used as the circulation medium, while the efficiency is between 32%~34% for using water as the circulation medium, and it can meet the requirement of solar heating systems. Moreover, this collector is fairly cheap, therefore, especially suitable for the rural areas in north China.%提出了一种适用于太阳能供热采暖工程的新型太阳能空气-水复合平板集热器.该集热器可以单独使用空气、水或同时以空气和水作为集热工质.测试显示,该集热器空气循环集热效率为55%~65%,水循环集热效率为32%~34%,能够满足太阳能供热采暖工程的要求.该集热器成本不高,适用于在我国北方广大农村地区推广使用.

  18. Ferrocene-Boronic Acid-Fructose Binding Based on Dual-Plate Generator-Collector Voltammetry and Square-Wave Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Xu, Su-Ying; Gross, Andrew J; Hammond, Jules L; Estrela, Pedro; Weber, James; Lacina, Karel; James, Tony D; Marken, Frank

    2015-06-10

    The interaction of ferrocene-boronic acid with fructose is investigated in aqueous 0.1 m phosphate buffer at pH 7, 8 and 9. Two voltammetric methods, based on 1) a dual-plate generator-collector micro-trench electrode (steady state) and 2) a square-wave voltammetry (transient) method, are applied and compared in terms of mechanistic resolution. A combination of experimental data is employed to obtain new insights into the binding rates and the cumulative binding constants for both the reduced ferrocene-boronic acid (pH dependent and weakly binding) and for the oxidised ferrocene-boronic acid (pH independent and strongly binding).

  19. Solar alligator. Berlin company introduces novel collector assembly system; Solarer Alligator. Berliner Unternehmen setzt auf neues Kollektor-Montagesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franken, M.

    2001-01-01

    A Berlin company presented a new assembly system for solar collectors which will facilitate installation. [German] Ein Berliner Unternehmen setzt auf ein neues Montagesystem fuer Sonnenkollektoren, das vor allem die Handwerker begeistern soll. (orig.)

  20. Fin-tube solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Report presents test procedures and results of thermal-performance evaluation of seven commercial fin tube (liquid) solar collector-absorber plates. Tests were conducted indoors at Marshall Space Flight Center Solar simulator. Results are graphically shown along with supporting test data and summary, indicating efficiency as function of collector inlet temperature.

  1. Field tests of a natural vacuum solar desalination system using hybrid solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, Eko Y.; Napitupulu, Richard A. M.; Siagian, Parulian; Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    This study deals with field test of a natural vacuum solar desalination system using hybrid type solar collector. In order to perform the tests, a natural vacuum solar desalination has been designed and fabricated. The dimension of evaporator is 1000 mm ×1000 mm × 200 mm, while dimension of solar collector is 1000 mm ×1500 mm. The system is tested by exposing to solar radiation in Medan city of Indonesia for five days. The solar radiations during test are 8.79 MJ/m2, 10.14 MJ/m2, 6.88 MJ/m2, 11.05 MJ/m2, and 11.36 MJ/m2, respectively. The produced fresh waters are 160 ml, 180 ml, 118 ml, 206 ml, 220 ml, respectively. The conclusions are as follows. The produced fresh water is still very low due to the heat from the solar collector is not transferred perfectly to the evaporator. There produced fresh water is strongly affected by solar irradiation. It is recommended to minimize the heat loss from the evaporator and the transfer fluid.

  2. The design of a vehicle-mounted test system for the thermal performance of solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, S. R.; Wu, X. H.; Zhou, L.; Zheng, W.; Liu, L.; Yan, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    To increase the test efficiency of thermal performance of solar collector, a vehicle- mounted test system with high automation, simple operation, good mobility and stability is proposed in this paper. By refitting a medium bus, design of mechanical system and test loop, and using PC control technology, we implemented the vehicle-mounted system and realized effective integration between vehicle and test equipment. A number of tests have been done, and the results show that the vehicle-mounted test system has good parameters and performance and can be widely used to provide door-to-door testing services in the field of solar thermal application.

  3. Step tracking program for concentrator solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, D.; Jaliu, C.

    2016-08-01

    The increasing living standards in developed countries lead to increased energy consumption. The fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas effect that accompany the energy production can be reduced by using renewable energy. For instance, the solar thermal systems can be used in temperate climates to provide heating during the transient period or cooling during the warmer months. Most used solar thermal systems contain flat plate solar collectors. In order to provide the necessary energy for the house cooling system, the cooling machine uses a working fluid with a high temperature, which can be supplied by dish concentrator collectors. These collectors are continuously rotated towards sun by biaxial tracking systems, process that increases the consumed power. An algorithm for a step tracking program to be used in the orientation of parabolic dish concentrator collectors is proposed in the paper to reduce the consumed power due to actuation. The algorithm is exemplified on a case study: a dish concentrator collector to be implemented in Brasov, Romania, a location with the turbidity factor TR equal to 3. The size of the system is imposed by the environment, the diameter of the dish reflector being of 3 meters. By applying the proposed algorithm, 60 sub-programs are obtained for the step orientation of the parabolic dish collector over the year. Based on the results of the numerical simulations for the step orientation, the efficiency of the direct solar radiation capture on the receptor is up to 99%, while the energy consumption is reduced by almost 80% compared to the continuous actuation of the concentrator solar collector.

  4. Solar receiver performance of point focusing collector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y. C.; Wen, L. C.

    1978-01-01

    The solar receiver performance of cavity receivers and external receivers used in dispersed solar power systems was evaluated for the temperature range 300-1300 C. Several parameters of receiver and concentrator are examined. It was found that cavity receivers are generally more efficient than external receivers, especially at high temperatures which require a large heat transfer area. The effects of variation in the ratio of receiver area to aperture area are considered.

  5. Evaluation of Riverbank Filtration Efficiency with Radial Collector Well Systems near the Nakdong River, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.; Hyun, Y.; Lee, K.; Choi, D.; Kim, G.

    2009-12-01

    Evaluation of the efficiency of riverbank filtration (RBF) with radial collector well system near the Nakdong River, Korea is performed. We investigated the groundwater flow response to pumping at a radial collector well located in a RBF facility and measured the drawdowns and well yield. The distribution of water flux extracted from each horizontal arm and the removal efficiency of contaminants in the river water through the RBF are calculated through the numerical simulations. Sensitivity analyses about hydraulic conductivity, well flow coefficient, and retardation coefficients are performed to assess the effect of variations in the hydraulic conditions of the wells in the RBF facility on groundwater drawdowns and RBF. Simulation results indicate that the drawdowns and amount of recharged surface water change with the hydraulic conductivity and the well flow coefficient. The retardation coefficient and decay coefficient, which determine the amount of the contaminant filtrated during the RBF, play critical role in the efficiency of RBF. The simulation results confirm that the proposed method can be practically used for estimating the efficiency of the radial collector well for RBF.

  6. Study on a Flat Plate Solar Air Collector with Baffles%扰流板型太阳能平板空气集热器集热性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏佰林; 赵东亮; 代彦军; 李勇

    2011-01-01

    对一种扰流板型太阳能平板空气集热器的集热性能进行了研究,并对各种影响集热器热性能的因素进行了分析,揭示了总热损失系数、扰流板肋片效率、流道内空气流速和扰流板的间距对效率因子和热迁移因子的影响机理.获得了扰流板型太阳能平板空气集热器的集热效率理论表达式,为此类太阳能空气集热器的设计及应用提供了参考.%A flat plate solar air collector with baffles was studied. Several factors that have influence on the thermal performance of the solar collectors were analyzed. The paper investigated the relations between the efficiency factor, the heat-removal factor of the solar air collector and the total heat loss coefficient, baffles fin efficiency, air velocity inside the flow channel, the space between baffles, and the height of baffles. Also, the time constant of the collectors was studied. The theoretical formula of the collector's thermal efficiency was obtained, which can be used for design and application of such kind of collectors.

  7. Design approaches for solar industrial process-heat systems: nontracking and line-focus collector technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.; Davenport, R.L.; Dougherty, D.A.; Gee, R.C.; Masterson, P.M.; May, E.K.

    1982-08-01

    The design methodology for solar industrial process heat systems is described, and an overview is given of the use of solar energy in industry. A way to determine whether solar energy makes sense for a particular application is described. The basic system configurations used to supply hot water or steam are discussed, and computer-generated graphs are supplied that allow the user to select a collector type. Detailed energy calculations are provided, including the effects of thermal losses and storage. The selection of subsystem components is described, and control systems, installation and start-up details, economics, and safety and environmental issues are explained. (LEW)

  8. Energy transfer in double plate system dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katica (Stevanovic) Hedrih

    2008-01-01

    The study of energy transfer between coupled subsystems in a hybrid system is very important for applications. This paper presents an analytical analysis of energy transfer between plates of a visco-elastically connected double-plate system in free transversal vibrations. The analytical analysis shows that the visco-elastic connection between plates is responsible for the appearance of two-frequency regime in the time function, which corresponds to one eigen amplitude function of one mode, and also that time functions of different vibration modes are uncoupled, but energy transfer between plates in one eigen mode appears. It was shown for each shape of vibrations. Series of the two Lyapunov exponents corresponding to the one eigen amplitude mode are expressed by using the energy of the corresponding eigen amplitude time component.

  9. Efficiency and entropy generation in fined tube solar collectors systems; Eficiencia e geracao de entropia em sistemas de tubos aletados coletores de energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcio Bueno dos [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Integracao e Testes; Saboya, Sergio Mourao [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia

    1998-07-01

    This paper studies the efficiency of a fined tube solar collector used in artificial satellites and the relation of this efficiency with the entropy generation in the fin. The mathematical modeling of heat transfer in the collector leads to a non-linear integrodifferential system of equations, which is solved numerically. The solution gives the efficiency, which is presented as function of geometrical and physical characteristics of the collector. It is also shown that a minimum entropy generation in the fins, in a collector, whose characteristics are subjected to constraints, corresponds to an optimum efficiency, that is, an efficiency value advantageous to collector performance. (author)

  10. Enhancing the Heat Transfer of Flat-plate Solar Collector%平板太阳能集热器强化传热应用研究进展∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉佳文; 王文志; 李金凯; 段广彬; 刘宗明

    2016-01-01

    As the key part of the flat-plate solar water heater,the heat transfer performance of the collector is determined by the heat collector efficiency.The flat-plate solar collector with typical structure and heat transfer mode are described.Meanwhile the present technologies for enhancing heat transfer of flat-plate solar collector and the fu-ture development trend are reviewed and discussed.%集热器作为平板太阳能热水器的关键部分,其传热性能决定着热水器集热效率的高低。介绍了平板太阳能集热器的典型结构以及传热方式,综述了平板太阳能集热器目前所采用的强化传热方式及今后强化传热技术的发展趋势。

  11. Central Receiver Solar Thermal Power System, Phase 1. CDRL Item 2. Pilot Plant preliminary design report. Volume III, Book 1. Collector subsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The central receiver system consists of a field of heliostats, a central receiver, a thermal storage unit, an electrical power generation system, and balance of plant. This volume discusses the collector field geometry, requirements and configuration. The development of the collector system and subsystems are discussed and the selection rationale outlined. System safety and availability are covered. Finally, the plans for collector portion of the central receiver system are reviewed.

  12. Therminol VP-1导热油平板太阳能集热器的热工性能测试实验%Therminol VP-1 Heat Transfer Fluid Plate Solar Collector Thermal Performance Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐千喻; 王华; 王辉涛; 卿山

    2011-01-01

    Due to the advantages and disadvantages ofstructure of solar collectors, developed a new type of heat transfer fluid plate solar collectors, and test its performance. Measured results, it can achieve the thermal efficiency of 0.45, higher than the conventional flat solar collector Shows that the heat transfer fluid superior performance, have a good prospect.%针对市场上的平板太阳能集热器结构的优缺点,研制了新型的导热油平板太阳能集热器,并测试其性能.实测结果为,热效率能达到0.45,比普通平板集热器高.表明该导热油平板太阳能集热器性能优越,有很好的应用前景.

  13. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT SOLAR AIR COLLECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Karim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of using solar air collectors is to raise the atmospheric air temperature to a temperature which can be used for various low and medium temperature applications. Collector, absorber and airflow arrangement are the most important components in the solar air collector. The performance of the collector depends on its heat loss and the absorber area that is in contact with the airflow. This study involves the theoretical simulation of the effect of mass flow rate on the performance, for flat plate and v-groove collectors that are in single and double pass configurations. Results show that the v-groove double pass air collector has the highest efficiency value of 56% at . The performance is greater than flat plate double pass collector, which has an efficiency of 54% under the same operating conditions. KEYWORDS: solar air collector; flat plate collector (fpc; v-groove collector; efficiency; single pass; double pass

  14. Cysteine-cystine redox cycling in a gold-gold dual-plate generator-collector microtrench sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Jules L; Gross, Andrew J; Estrela, Pedro; Iniesta, Jesus; Green, Stephen J; Winlove, C Peter; Winyard, Paul G; Benjamin, Nigel; Marken, Frank

    2014-07-15

    Thiols and disulfides are ubiquitous and important analytical targets. However, their redox properties, in particular on gold sensor electrodes, are complex and obscured by strong adsorption. Here, a gold-gold dual-plate microtrench dual-electrode sensor with feedback signal amplification is demonstrated to give well-defined (but kinetically limited) steady-state voltammetric current responses for the cysteine-cystine redox cycle in nondegassed aqueous buffer media at pH 7 down to micromolar concentration levels.

  15. Study of Air Pollution Due to Plasma Cutting Process and Designing Local Ventilation System with Collector in Central Workshop of Mobarakeh Steel Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Atabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Cutting leads to production of different hazardous agents such as fumes, particles, gases and vapors. In various studies, the effects of fumes, gases, and vapors on workers and environment have been proved. Meanwhile, cutting alloying plates with plasma cutting machine due to containing various alloy materials produces a lot of air pollution. Therefore, using the ventilation system to remove the mentioned pollution has always been noteworthy. Method: This study was performed on plasma cutting machine at Mobarakeh Steel Company. At first, according to ASTM the elements from alloy plates with optical emission spectrometry crm-35000-quantometery were detected, the air pollution from cutting the mentioned plates was sampled and measured using NIOSH 7300 method and according to the ACGIH:VS-72-20, VS-70-12, VS-70-11 VS-916 push-pull ventilation with bag filter collector was designed. Results: Results of sampling from pollution of cutting the alloy material, concentration of iron, lead and cadmium fumes were more than the standard limits. After calculation for push system, air flow volume of 195.163 cfm, outgoing air velocity of 5937.4 fpm and for pull system air flow volume of 12498 cfm, minimum duct velocity of 3000 fpm and velocity pressure of duct of 0.717 inwg, for fan, total pressure of 6.301 inwg, static pressure of 0.587 inwg and power of 20.65 Bhp and for collector with pulse jet cleaning system air to cloth ratio of 7 and dimensions of 6.88ft × 6.56ft × 9.84ft were obtained. Conclusion: The result of study indicated that push pull ventilation compared to other ventilation system s for plasma cutting has more efficiency and makes suitable control for pollution.

  16. Hybrid thermoelectric solar collector design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.; Shaheen, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    A flat-plate solar collector is conceived where energy cascades through thermoelectric power modules generating direct-current electricity. The intent of this work was to choose a collector configuration and to perform a steady-state thermal performance assessment. A set of energy balance equations were written and solved numerically for the purpose of optimizing collector thermal and electrical performance. The collector design involves finned columns of thermoelectric modules imbedded in the absorber plate (hot junction) over a parallel array of vertical tubes. The thermoelectric power output is limited by the small hot-junction/cold-junction temperature difference which can be maintained under steady-state conditions. The electric power per unit tube pass area is found to have a maximum as a function of a geometric parameter, while electric power is maximized with respect to an electric resistance ratio. Although the electric power efficiency is small, results indicate that there is sufficient electric power production to drive a coolant circulator, suggesting the potential for a stand-alone system.

  17. Hybrid thermoelectric solar collector design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.; Shaheen, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    A flat-plate solar collector is conceived where energy cascades through thermoelectric power modules generating direct-current electricity. The intent of this work was to choose a collector configuration and to perform a steady-state thermal performance assessment. A set of energy balance equations were written and solved numerically for the purpose of optimizing collector thermal and electrical performance. The collector design involves finned columns of thermoelectric modules imbedded in the absorber plate (hot junction) over a parallel array of vertical tubes. The thermoelectric power output is limited by the small hot-junction/cold-junction temperature difference which can be maintained under steady-state conditions. The electric power per unit tube pass area is found to have a maximum as a function of a geometric parameter, while electric power is maximized with respect to an electric resistance ratio. Although the electric power efficiency is small, results indicate that there is sufficient electric power production to drive a coolant circulator, suggesting the potential for a stand-alone system.

  18. Experimental Analysis of Serpentine-flow Flat-plate Solar Collector%蛇形管平板式太阳能集热器的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊贤; 王辉涛; 王华; 包桂蓉

    2011-01-01

    A serpentine-flow flat-plate solar collector of small volume and large temperature difference is designed and developed in order to explore the fiat-plate solar collector used in high temperature situation. And experiment of stagnation and instantaneous efficiency is carried out. The results shown that stagnation temperature can reach 170.2 ℃ and heat loss coefficient is 5. 239 W/( m2 · ℃ ). Efficiency of solar collector between 52% —55% when inlet temperature of working fluid is 70 ℃. By comparison the temperature trend of various parts of the collector the corrective measure is proposed to improve performance of serpentine-flow fiat-plate solar collector in high temperature conditions.%为了探寻一种在中高温场合使用的平板式太阳能集热器,设计和开发了小流量、大温差的蛇形管平板式太阳能集热器,并进行了空晒试验和瞬时效率试验.试验结果表明:集热器的空晒温度可达170.2℃,热损系数为5.239 W/(m2·℃),载热工质进口温度70℃时效率52%-55%.通过对集热器各部分温度变化趋势的比较,提出改进措施,以提高蛇形管平板式集热器在中高温工况下的集热性能.

  19. Deep excavation, no problem. Rainwater collector systems for technical facilities; Tiefbau kein Problem. Regenwasser fuer die Haustechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, K.W. [Fachvereinigung Betriebs- und Regenwassernutzung e.V. (fbr), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    The days of do-it-yourself systems are over. Rainwater collector systems have developed from modular to compact system components, including concrete cisterns placed directly in the excavation pit of new buildings. In case of malfunctions, if any, producers offer a hotline for customer problems. (orig.)

  20. CONC/11: A computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    The CONC/11 computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems is discussed. This program is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. The CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended FORTRAN (similar to FORTRAN 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers. A user's manual is also provided for this program.

  1. CONC/11: a computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-02-15

    CONC/11 is a computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. It is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended Fortran (similar to Fortran 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers.

  2. Life cycle cost analysis of new FRP based solar parabolic trough collector hot water generation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. VALAN ARASU; T. SORNAKUMAR

    2008-01-01

    Parabolic trough collectors (PTCs) are employed for a variety of applications including steam generation and hot water generation. This paper deals with the experimental results and an economic analysis of a new fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) based solar PTC with an embedded electronic controlled tracking system designed and developed for hot water generation in a restaurant in Madurai, India. The new collector performance has been tested according to ASHRAE Standard 93 (1986). The performance of a new PTC hot water generation system with a well mixed hot water storage tank is investigated by a series of extensive tests over ten months period. The average maximum storage tank water temperature observed was 74.91 ℃, when no energy is withdrawn from the tank to the load during the collection period. The total cost of the new economic FRP based solar PTC for hot water generation with an embedded electronic controlled tracking system is Rs. 25000 (US$ 573) only. In the present work, life cycle savings (LCS) method is employed for a detailed economic analysis of the PTC system. A computer program is used as a tool for the economic analysis. The present worth of life cycle solar savings is evaluated for the new solar PTC hot water generation system that replaces an existing electric water heating system in the restaurant and attains a value of Rs. 23171.66 after 15 years, which is a significant saving. The LCS method and the MATLAB computer simulation program presented in this paper can be used to estimate the LCS of other renewable energy systems.

  3. Optimization of Serial Combined System of Ground-Coupled Heat Pump and Solar Collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jun; CHEN Yan; LU Suzhen; CUI Junkui

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical optimization model was set up for a ground-solar combined system based on in-situ experimental results,in which the solar collector was combined serially with a ground-coupled heat pump(GCHP).The universal optimal equations were solved by the constrained variable metric method considering both the performance and economics.Then the model was applied to a specific case concerning an actual solar assisted GCHP system for space heating.The results indicated a system coefficient of performance(COP)of 3.9 for the optimal method under the seriaI heating mode,and 3.2 for the conventional one.In addition,the optimum solution also showed advantages in energy and cost saving.1eading to a 16.7%improvement in the heat pump performance at 17.2%less energy consumption and 11.8%lower annual cost,respectively.

  4. Ceramic Plate Solar Collector and Column Pile Structure Ceramic Solar Roof%陶瓷太阳板与锚桩结构陶瓷太阳能房顶的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启正; 许建华

    2012-01-01

    陶瓷太阳板以普通瓷土、工业废弃物为原料,具有制造工艺简单、生产耗能少、成本低、寿命长、效率高的优点;锚桩陶瓷太阳能房顶与原房顶共用结构层、保温层、防水层,结构简单、与建筑一体化、与建筑同寿命,为建筑物提供热水、取暖、空调的功能。%Ceramic plate solar collector, manufactured by common porcelain clay and industrial waste,has a lot of advantages such as simple process,low energy consumption,low cost,long life, high efficiency etc. Ceramic plate solar collector roof share the structure layer,insulation layer and waterproof layer with the origin roof. The roof has a simple structure, integration and same life with the building. Ceramic plate solar collector roof can supply hot water, heating and air condition to the building.

  5. Transversal vibrations of double-plate systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katica(Stevanovi(c)) Hedrih

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical and numerical analysis of free and forced transversal vibrations of an elastically connected double-plate system. Analytical solutions of a system of coupled partial differential equations, which describe corresponding dynamical free and forced processes, are obtained using Bernoulli's particular integral and Lagrange's method of variation constants. It is shown that one-mode vibrations correspond to two-frequency regime for free vibrations induced by initial conditions and to three-frequency regime for forced vibrations induced by one-frequency external excitation and corresponding initial conditions. The analytical solutions show that the elastic connection between plates leads to the appearance of twofrequency regime of time function, which corresponds to one eigenamplitude function of one mode, and also that the time functions of different vibration modes are uncoupled, for each shape of vibrations. It has been proven that for both elastically connected plates, for every pair of m and n. two possibilities for appearance of the resonance dynamical states, as well as for appearance of the dynamical absorption, are present. Using the MathCad program, the corresponding visualizations of the characteristic forms of the plate middle surfaces through time are presented.

  6. Impact of natural cleaning on the selection of a washing system for solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstein, A.

    1981-04-01

    The desired optical properties (reflectivity, transmissivity, etc.) of solar energy collector surfaces such as mirrors and photovoltaic surfaces are degraded over time by soiling. Cost benefit evaluation of alternative methods for washing the surface or retarding the optical degradation must take into account natural cleaning processes such as precipitation and frost, which impact the scheduling as well as the benefits of washing. A probabilistic method developed to address this question is used to compare truck-mounted versus mirror-mounted washing systems for central receiver plants. The comparison of these systems is shown to be sensitive to the seasonally-varying frequency and effectiveness of natural cleaning processes. The implications of this analysis for such diverse issues as cost/benefit evaluation of soil-retardant mirror coatings and formulation of plant site selection criteria are noted.

  7. Design package for concentrating solar collector panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of the Northrup concentrating collector is presented. Included are the system performance specifications, the applications manual, and the detailed design drawings of the collector. The collector is a water/glycol/working fluid type, with a dipped galvanized steel housing, transparent acrylic Fresnel lens cover, copper absorber tube, and fiber glass insulation. It weights 98 pounds. A collector assembly includes four collector units within a tracking mount array.

  8. Short-Term Solar Collector Power Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Perers, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to online forecasting of power output from solar thermal collectors. The method is suited for online forecasting in many applications and in this paper it is applied to predict hourly values of power from a standard single glazed large area flat plate collector....... The method is applied for horizons of up to 42 hours. Solar heating systems naturally come with a hot water tank, which can be utilized for energy storage also for other energy sources. Thereby such systems can become an important part of energy systems with a large share of uncontrollable energy sources......, such as wind power. In such a scenario online forecasting is a vital tool for optimal control and utilization of solar heating systems. The method is a two-step scheme, where first a non-linear model is applied to transform the solar power into a stationary process, which then is forecasted with robust time...

  9. Root-Contact/Pressure-Plate Assembly For Hydroponic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carlton E.; Loretan, Philip A.; Bonsi, Conrad K.; Hill, Walter A.

    1994-01-01

    Hydroponic system includes growth channels equipped with rootcontact/pressure-plate assemblies. Pump and associated plumbing circulate nutrient liquid from reservoir, along bottom of growth channels, and back to reservoir. Root-contact/pressure-plate assembly in each growth channel stimulates growth of roots by applying mild contact pressure. Flat plate and plate connectors, together constitute pressure plate, free to move upward to accommodate growth of roots. System used for growing sweetpotatoes and possibly other tuber and root crops.

  10. SYMPLECTIC SOLUTION SYSTEM FOR REISSNER PLATE BENDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚伟岸; 隋永枫

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Hellinger-Reissner variatonal principle for Reissner plate bending and introducing dual variables, Hamiltonian dual equations for Reissner plate bending were presented. Therefore Hamiltonian solution system can also be applied to Reissner plate bending problem, and the transformation from Euclidian space to symplectic space and from Lagrangian system to Hamiltonian system was realized. So in the symplectic space which consists of the original variables and their dual variables, the problem can be solved via effective mathematical physics methods such as the method of separation of variables and eigenfunction-vector expansion. All the eigensolutions and Jordan canonical form eigensolutions for zero eigenvalue of the Hamiltonian operator matrix are solved in detail,and their physical meanings are showed clearly. The adjoint symplectic orthonormal relation of the eigenfunction vectors for zero eigenvalue are formed. It is showed that the all eigensolutions for zero eigenvalue are basic solutions of the Saint-Venant problem and they form a perfect symplectic subspace for zero eigenvalue. And the eigensolutions for nonzero eigenvalue are covered by the Saint-Venant theorem. The symplectic solution method is not the same as the classical semi- inverse method and breaks through the limit of the traditional semi-inverse solution. The symplectic solution method will have vast application.

  11. 混合工质太阳能平板热管集热器的传热性能%Heat Transfer Performance ofthe Flat Plate Heat Pipe Solar Collector with Mixture Working Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜胜华; 苏海鹏

    2014-01-01

    介绍了平板热管的基本结构与原理,在分析乙二醇及其混合工质的热物理学特性的基础上,建立平板热管的物理与数学模型。采用数值计算模拟方法,分析了混合工质平板热管集热器的传热性能,研究了集热器的效率、温升和启动性能随工作时间的变化规律。研究表明,乙二醇水混合工质平板热管集热器适宜于低温寒冷地区,具有较高的集热性能。%The basic structure and principle of flat plate heat pipe were introduced based on thermal physics characteristics analysis of ethylene glycol and mixtures , physical and mathematical models of flat plate heat pipe were established.By the numerical simulation method , the heat transfer performance of the flat heat pipe heat collector with mixture working fluid was analyzed , and the efficiency , temperature collector up and starting performance by time were studied.It showed that flat heat pipe heat collector with ethylene glycol water mixture was suitable for cold area , and the heat collecting performance was high.

  12. Study on heat collector of the solar system utilizing outdoor air. Experimental results in cases of cold and warm regions; Gaiki donyushiki solar system no shunetsubu ni kansuru kenkyu. Kanreichi to ondanchi ni okeru shunetsu jikken to kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komano, S.; Ebara, Y. [OM Solar Association, Shizuoka (Japan); Wada, H. [Wada Building Constructors Co. Ltd., Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    An experiment on heat collection was made in the heat collector of a solar system utilizing outdoor air in cold and warm regions. In this system, outdoor air is heated by the air circulation layer on the roof exposed to solar radiation. The heated air is supplied to the object space for heating and ventilation. In the experiment in a cold region, the heat collection characteristics can be adjusted by putting a baffle plate in the air duct according to the experiment of a glass heat collector. The heat collecting air layer on only the iron roof may leak or freeze in the region subject to coldness or heavy snowfall. Therefore, preheat forms the space of a garret, and the preheat temperature comparatively becomes low. The data in which the heat collection characteristics can be adjusted using only a glass heat collector is required corresponding to the regional situation. In the experiment in a warm region, an experiment was made inclusive of the preheat for which outdoor air is absorbed at the eaves. As a result, the heat collection characteristics of preheat were improved. Moreover, a heat collection temperature of about 60{degree}C was obtained on the heat collection surface including the preheat. 1 ref., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Thermal Efficiency of Power Module “Boiler with Solar Collectors as Additional Heat Source” For Combined Heat Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova A.E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of work is to increase the efficiency of the combined heat supply system with solar collectors as additional thermal generators. In order to optimize the parameters of combined heat supply system the mathematical modeling of thermal processes in multi module solar collectors as additional thermal generators for preheating of the water for boiler have been done. The method of calculation of multi-module solar collectors working with forced circulation for various configurations of hydraulic connection of solar collector modules as the new result of our work have been proposed. The results of numerical simulation of thermal efficiency of solar heat source for boiler of combined heat supply system with the account of design features of the circuit; regime parameters of thermal generators that allow establishing rational conditions of its functioning have been worked out. The conditions of functioning that provide required temperature of heat carrier incoming to boiler and value of flow rate at which the slippage of heat carrier is not possible for different hydraulic circuits of solar modules have been established.

  14. Investigation on Installation height of Storage Tank for Natural Circulation Flat Plate Solar Collector%自然循环平板式太阳能热水器水箱放置高度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑土逢; 李明; 魏生贤; 罗熙; 王炳灿

    2011-01-01

    The device of natural circulation flat plate solar water heater has been built.In accordance with the national testing standard methods, the efficiency of the system was tested.The transient model of NFSWH has been developed by using the TRNSYS simulation program.The effect of installation height between the bottom of the tank and the outlet of the collector on efficiency of the solar collector has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally.The data show the theoretical results are highly consistent with the experimental ones.Results indicate that the optimum value of installation height is 0.74m with the maximum efficiency of 67.5% for the system with a total area of 1.5m2 and a storage water tank capacity of 120L.When the installation height is between 0.44 and 1.04 m, the change of thermal efficiency of the solar system is at a range of 3%.%搭建了自然循环平板式太阳能热水器(NFSWH)的实验平台,根据太阳能热水器国家测试标准方法对系统的热效率进行测试.用TRNSYS软件建立了NFSWH的瞬态模型.模拟和实际测量了水箱放置高度对热水器热效率的影响.结果显示,实验与模拟吻合较好.对于集热面积为1.5m2水箱容积为120L的系统,水箱底到集热器出口的高度(Hr)为0.74m时,系统的热效率最大(67.7%).放置高度为0.44-1.04m时,系统集热效率变化不大,在3%以内.

  15. Heat transfer characteristics in the channel of a finned absorber solar collector; Caracteristicas da transferencia de calor no canal de um coletor solar de absorvedor aletado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saboya, Sergio Mourao [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica; Saboya, Francisco Eduardo Mourao [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: saboya@mec.ita.cta.br; fsaboya@mec.uff.br

    2000-07-01

    Finned absorber solar collectors are devices in which plates (fins) are fixed perpendicularly to the absorber plate. The purpose of these fins is to cause the so called 'cavity effect', lowering the collector losses. This paper studies the heat transfer that occurs in the collector channel. This analysis is done using the efficiency of the collector, which is calculated solving the system of equations that govern the collector thermal behavior, and the computation of the convection heat transfer between the fluid flowing in the channel and the absorber plate. This analysis allows the calculation of design parameters such as mass flow rate and exit bulk temperature of the fluid. (author)

  16. Application of local exhaust ventilation system and integrated collectors for control of air pollutants in mining company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Farasati, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems and integrated collectors were designed and implemented in a mining company in order to control emitted air pollutant from furnaces. The LEV was designed for capture and transition of air pollutants emitted from furnaces to the integrated collectors. The integrated collectors including four high efficiency Stairmand model cyclones for control of particulate matter, a venturi scrubber for control of the fine particles, SO(2) and a part of H(2)S to follow them, and a packed scrubber for treatment of the residual H(2)S and SO(2) were designed. Pollutants concentration were measured to determine system effectiveness. The results showed that the effectiveness of LEV for reducing workplace pollution is 91.83%, 96.32% and 83.67% for dust, SO(2) and H(2)S, respectively. Average removal efficiency of particles by combination of cyclone and venturi scrubber was 98.72%. Average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were 95.85% and 47.13% for the venturi scrubber and 68.45% and 92.7% for the packed bed scrubber. The average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were increased to 99.1% and 95.95% by the combination of venturi and packed bed scrubbers. According to the results, integrated collectors are a good air pollution control option for industries with economic constraints and ancient technologies.

  17. Indoor thermal performance evaluation of Daystar solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, K., Sr.

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used and results obtained from a test program to obtain thermal performance data on a Daystar Model 21B, S/N 02210, Unit 2, liquid solar collector under simulated conditions are described. The test article is a flat plate solar collector using liquid as a heat transfer medium. The absorber plate is copper and coated with black paint. Between the tempered low iron glass and absorber plate is a polycarbonate trap used to suppress convective heat loss. The collector incorporates a convector heat dump panel to limit temperature excursions during stagnation. The following tests were conducted: (1) collector thermal efficiency; (2) collector time constant; (3) collector incident angle modifier; (4) collector heat loss coefficient; and (5) collector stagnation.

  18. High-performance solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekley, D. C.; Mather, G. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Evacuated all-glass concentric tube collector using air or liquid transfer mediums is very efficient at high temperatures. Collector can directly drive existing heating systems that are presently driven by fossil fuel with relative ease of conversion and less expense than installation of complete solar heating systems.

  19. Coupled thermal fluid modelling of a low embedded energy solar thermal collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcoran, M.; Gibbons, C. [Cork Institute of Technology (Ireland). Energy Engineering Group

    2004-07-01

    A mathematical model was developed for a forced convection solar hot water system. The solar collector in this study incorporates a honeycombed extruded polycarbonate structure, for both the cover and water channels. The initial section of the program predicts solar radiation (hourly, monthly and yearly) as an input section to the solar collector calculations. As well as determining the collector performance, the model also facilitates changes to the collector physical properties such as dimensions of the channels, selective and non-selective absorbers, material thermal properties, as well as ambient temperature and flow rate, in order to optimise the system design. The results from the program will allow a full parametric study of different collector design criteria, with this polycarbonate structure. The results will be compared to a standard flat plate collector design, to see if this polycarbonate flat plate collector is a more effective design. ISO 9806-2 standards are being used to validate the results, for the parametric study in the lab, under steady state conditions. The final optimum design will then be tested outdoors using the quasi-dynamic conditions set out by the European Standard EN 12975-2. Weather data, obtained from the weather station set up at CIT, will be used as the input for the weather conditions for out door testing. (orig.)

  20. An Automatic Number Plate Recognition System under Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbjit Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Automatic Number Plate Recognition system is an application of computer vision and image processing technology that takes photograph of vehicles as input image and by extracting their number plate from whole vehicle image , it display the number plate information into text. Mainly the ANPR system consists of 4 phases: - Acquisition of Vehicle Image and Pre-Processing, Extraction of Number Plate Area, Character Segmentation and Character Recognition. The overall accuracy and efficiency of whol...

  1. Optimization of systems with the combination of ground-source heat pump and solar collectors in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Elisabeth; Hellström, Göran; Perers, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The use of ground-source heat pumps for heating and domestic hot water in dwellings is common in Sweden. The combination with solar collectors has been introduced to reduce the electricity demand in the system. In order to analyze different systems with combinations of solar collectors and ground......-source heat pumps, computer simulations have been carried out with the simulation program TRNSYS. Large differences were found between the system alternatives. The optimal design is when solar heat produces domestic hot water during summertime and recharges the borehole during wintertime. The advantage...... is related to the rate of heat extraction from the borehole as well as the overall design of the system. The demand of electricity may increase with solar recharging, because of the increased operating time of the circulation pumps. Another advantage with solar heat in combination with heat pumps is when...

  2. Modelling of Microclimate in collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ole

    1996-01-01

    Abstract It is important to avoid condensation in solar collectors, most of all because wetness of the absorber can damage the selective surface and cause corrosion on the absorber plate. During night time the cover of collectors will cool below ambient temperature due to thermal radiation...... to the cold sky. In climates where the air during night time becomes saturated with humidity (the relative humidity is 100%), condensation will form on the outside and inside of the collector glazing. If too much condensation takes place on the inside of the glazing, it will start to fall off...... on to the absorber surface. It is important to characterize microclimatic conditions in the collector, and at the Department of Buildings and Energy work is carried out with the improvement of a computer model. As a tool the computer model will be useful in developing guidelines to achieve the most favourable...

  3. Energy and exergy analysis of PV/T air collectors connected in series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Swapnil; Solanki, S.C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Tiwari, Arvind [Department of Design, Production and Management, University of Twente (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    In this paper an attempt has been made to derive the analytical expressions for N hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) air collectors connected in series. The performance of collectors is evaluated by considering the two different cases, namely, Case I (air collector is fully covered by PV module (glass to glass) and air flows above the absorber plate) and Case II (air collector is fully covered by PV module (glass to glass) and air flows below the absorber plate). This paper shows the detailed analysis of energy, exergy and electrical energy by varying the number of collectors and air velocity considering four weather conditions (a, b, c and d type) and five different cities (New Delhi, Bangalore, Mumbai, Srinagar, and Jodhpur) of India. It is found that the collectors fully covered by PV module and air flows below the absorber plate gives better results in terms of thermal energy, electrical energy and exergy gain. Physical implementation of BIPV system has also been evaluated. If this type of system is installed on roof of building or integrated with building envelope will simultaneously fulfill the electricity generation for lighting purpose and hot air can be used for space heating or drying. (author)

  4. Heat and electricity from the Sun using parabolic dish collector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscello, V. C.; Williams, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    Point focus distributed receiver solar thermal technology for the production of electric power and of industrial process heat is addressed. The thermal power systems project which emphasizes the development of cost effective systems which will accelerate the commercialization and industrialization of plants up to 10 MWe, using parabolic dish collectors is described. The projected size of the isolated load market in the 1990-2000 time period is 300 to 1000 MW/year. Although this market is small in comparison to the grid connected utility market, it is indicated that by assuming only a 20 percent market penetration, up to 10,000 power modules per year would be required to meet this need. At a production rate of 25,000 units/year and assuming no energy storage, levelized bus bar energy costs of 75 mills/kWeh are projected. These numbers are based on what is believed to be a conservative estimate regarding engine-generator conversion efficiency (40 percent) for the 1990 time period. With a more optimistic estimate of efficiency (i.e., 45 percent), the bus bar cost decreases to about 67 mills/kWeh. At very large production rates (400,000 modules/years), the costs decrease to 58 mills/kWeh. Finally, the present status of the technology development effort is discussed.

  5. Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; Braff, William

    2009-01-01

    In a substantial improvement over present alkaline systems, an advanced hybrid bipolar plate for a unitized fuel cell/electrolyzer has been developed. This design, which operates on pure feed streams (H2/O2 and water, respectively) consists of a porous metallic foil filled with a polymer that has very high water transport properties. Combined with a second metallic plate, the pore-filled metallic plates form a bipolar plate with an empty cavity in the center.

  6. 平板太阳能集热器热性能数学建模及模拟%Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of Thermal Properties of Flat-Plate Solar Collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢郁; 于洪文; 丁海成; 张艳丽; 刘宗明

    2013-01-01

    以平板太阳能集热器作为研究对象,通过对平板太阳能集热器热性能进行理论推导,引入效率因子,构建更为准确、便捷的平板集热器的数学模型,进行计算机程序模拟.根据模拟数据得出吸热体板芯几何结构、板芯用材对平板太阳能集热器性能的影响.在不降低集热器效率因子的情况下,使翅片的单位面积质量降低45.8%;在材料消耗相同的情况下,集热器效率因子提高了0.03.%Taking a flat-plate solar collector as research object and introducing an efficiency factor, we establish a mathematical model for the collector after theoretically deriving out the thermal properties of it, and numerically simulate it according to this model. Simulation results show that the mass per unit area of the collector drops 45. 8% with the same efficiency factor and the efficiency factor increasesby 0.03 with the same material consumption.

  7. 微热管阵列平板太阳能集热器中空保温层厚度优化%Optimization of hollow insulation layer for flat plate solar collector based on micro heat pipe array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓月超; 赵耀华; 全贞花; 刘中良

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional CFD numerical model of heat transfer and fluid flow was developed to simulate the thermal performance of the novel flat plate solar collector based on a micro heat pipe array to provide a theoretical basis for the structure improvement and optimization of the collector. The simulation of the novel collector with water flow included the CFD modeling of solar irradiation and the modes of mixed convection and radiation heat transfer between the absorber plate and glass cover, as well as the heat transfer in the circulating water inside the heat exchanger and conduction of the insulation. The fluid flow and heat transfer in the computational domain satisfied the continuity equation, the momentum equation, and the energy equation. The standardk-ε two-equation turbulence model was used in this paper. In order to predict the direct illumination energy source that results from incident solar radiation and the radiation field inside the collector, the discrete ordinate radiation model with a solar ray-tracing model was used. A commercial computational fluid dynamics program (Fluent 6.3 CFD software) was used to solve the coupled fluid flow, heat transfer, and the radiation equation. The solver used is the segregated solver. Body Force Weighted was selected as the discretization method for pressure, and the SIMPLE algorithm was used to resolve the coupling between pressure and velocity. The discretization methods for the solving of momentum, energy, radiation, and turbulence were second order upwind. The thermal performance could be achieved by simulation results under different conditions. Then, the experimental and numerical results were compared to validate the prediction of the CFD model. The results showed that the numerical results of the thermal efficiency of the novel collector were in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The validated CFD model was used to analyze the properties of the insulation layer. First, the

  8. Solar thermal collectors using planar reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    Specular reflectors have been used successfully with flat-plate collectors to achieve exceptionally high operating temperatures and high delivered energy per unit collector area. Optimal orientation of collectors and reflectors can result in even higher performance with an improved relationship between energy demand and supply. This paper reports on a study providing first order optimization of collector-reflector arrays in which single- and multiple-faceted reflectors in fixed or singly adjustable configurations provide delivered energy maxima in either summer or winter.

  9. Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T Air and Water Based Solar Collectors Suitable for Building Integrated Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of mass flow rates on the electrical, thermal and combined of photovoltaic thermal efficiencies of the hybrid collectors. Approach: Two photovoltaic thermal solar collectors were designed and fabricated. The first collector, known as spiral flow absorber collector, designed to generate hot water and electricity. The second collector, known as single pass rectangular tunnel absorber collector designed to generate hot air and electricity. Both absorber collectors were fixed underneath the flat plate single glazing sheet of polycrystalline silicon PV module. Water was used as a heat transfer medium in spiral flow absorber collector and air for the Single pass rectangular tunnel absorber collector respectively. Results: The experiment results showed that the single flow absorber collector generates combined PV/T efficiency of 64%, electrical efficiency of 11% and power maximum achieved at 25.35 W. Moreover, Single pass rectangular tunnel absorber collector generated combined PV/T efficiency of 55%, electrical efficiency of 10% and maximum power of 22.45 W. Conclusion/Recommendations: The best mass flow rate achieved for spiral flow absorber collector is 0.011 kg sec-1 at surface temperature of 55% and 0.0754 kg sec-1 at surface temperature of 39°C for single pass rectangular collector absorber. It was recommended for PV/T system to further improve its efficiency by optimizing the contact surfaces between the solar panel (photovoltaic module and the tubes underneath and also recommended to use other type of photovoltaic cell such as amorphous silicon cell that posses the black mat surfaces property that will improve it thermal absorption.

  10. License Plate Recognition for Parking Control System by Mathematical Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Ortiz; Alberto Gómez

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, license plate recognition for parking systems is a critical task to provide automatic control of customers and payment. This paper introduces a new method for automatic recognition of license plates of vehicles by mathematical morphology. The proposed method can provide the license plate number of the plates in different light conditions, colors, sizes, and inclination (angles). The algorithm can recognize the license plates of European Union vehicles quickly and correctly. The pattern learning of mathematical skeletons has high efficiency in the process. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated well by the test in a parking control system.

  11. Miniature, ruggedized data collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Scott; Calcutt, Wade; Knobler, Ron; Jones, Barry; Klug, Robert

    2009-05-01

    McQ has developed a miniaturized, programmable, ruggedized data collector intended for use in weapon testing or data collection exercises that impose severe stresses on devices under test. The recorder is designed to survive these stresses which include acceleration and shock levels up to 100,000 G. The collector acquires and stores up to four channels of signal data to nonvolatile memory for later retrieval by a user. It is small (< 7 in3), light weight (< 1 lb), and can operate from various battery chemistries. A built-in menuing system, accessible via a USB interface, allows the user to configure parameters of the recorder operation, such as channel gain, filtering, and signal offsets, and also to retrieve recorded data for analysis. An overview of the collector, its features, performance, and potential uses, is presented.

  12. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Thuc

    2015-01-01

    Novel minichannel-tube solar thermal collectors for low to medium temperature applications are introduced. Two types of minichannel solar thermal collectors are analyzed experimentally: aluminum minichannel solar collector for low temperature applications, and copper minichannel solar collector for low to medium temperature applications.The aluminum minichannel solar collector has been tested for over a year alongside a conventional copper flat-plate solar collector of similar dimensions as t...

  13. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, steel collector with one transparent cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are presented of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency was correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  14. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: An evacuated flatplate copper collector with a serpentine flow distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  15. Quality and efficiency of solar collectors in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennerholm, H.

    Transparent or translucent insulation materials (TIM's) represent a new class of materials with a high potential for increasing the efficiency of solar thermal conversion systems. A large number of materials have been subjected to theoretical and experimental investigation. If materials that suppress heat losses are transparent to solar radiation, vacuum, certain gases, convection barriers, etc., then they can be regarded as TIM's. Exploratory field and laboratory studies of degraded FEP-film convection barriers in flat plate thermal solar collectors are described. The study related to collectors that had been operating in Sweden for periods of one year to ten years. Both physical, functional (thermal) and chemical aspects of degradation were considered. The report identifies the mistakes made so that they need not be repeated by the solar collector manufacturers in the future.

  16. Phase 1 of the First Solar Small Power System Experiment (experimental System No. 1). Volume 1: Technical Studies for Solar Point-focusing, Distributed Collector System, with Energy Conversion at the Collector, Category C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T. B. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of a solar electric power plant for a small community is evaluated and specific system designs for development and demonstration are selected. All systems investigated are defined as point focusing, distributed receiver concepts, with energy conversion at the collector. The preferred system is comprised of multiple parabolic dish concentrators employing Stirling cycle engines for power conversion. The engine, AC generator, cavity receiver, and integral sodium pool boiler/heat transport system are combined in a single package and mounted at the focus of each concentrator. The output of each concentrator is collected by a conventional electrical distribution system which permits grid-connected or stand-alone operation, depending on the storage system selected.

  17. Validation of a simple dynamic thermal performance characterization model based on the piston flow concept for flat-plate solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Jie; Yang, Ming; Ma, Rongjiang

    2016-01-01

    dynamic model based on the first-order difference method is compared to that of the numerical solution of the collector ordinary differential equation (ODE) model using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The improved thermal inertia model (TIM) on the basis of closed-form solution presented by Deng et...

  18. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  19. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  20. Hamiltonian system for orthotropic plate bending based on analogy theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on analogy between plane elasticity and plate bending as well as variational principles of mixed energy, Hamiltonian system is further led to orthotropic plate bending problems in this paper. Thus many effective methods of mathematical physics such as separation of variables and eigenfunction expansion can be employed in orthotropic plate bending problems as they are used in plane elasticity. Analytical solutions of rectangular plate are presented directly, which expands the range of analytical solutions. There is an essential distinction between this method and traditional semi-inverse method. Numerical results of orthotropic plate with two lateral sides fixed are included to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of this method.

  1. Study On the Performance of Solar Air Collectors with Cross V-Shaped Absorbing Plate and V-Shaped Bottom Plate%交叉V形吸热板V形底板空气集热器性能特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫崇强; 李明; 季旭; 罗熙

    2013-01-01

    以两种不同的交叉V形吸热板V形底板空气集热器(垂直型集热器:V形吸热板的方向与流道方向垂直,V形底板的方向与流道方向平行;平行型集热器:V形吸热板的方向与流道方向平行,V形底板的方向与流道方向垂直)为研究对象,对不同倾角、不同空气流速下两种空气集热器的性能进行了比较实验研究,同时对正向和反向通气时垂直型空气集热器的性能进行了测试分析.结果表明:垂直型空气集热器的性能优于平行型空气集热器,45°倾角时两台集热器的温升最高;垂直型和平行型空气集热器的最大效率分别为71%,68%;垂直型空气集热器反向流动时比正向流动时性能更好.%Two different types of solar air collectors with cross V-shaped absorbing plate and V-shaped bottom plate (for the vertical type collector,the direction of the V-shaped bottom plate is parallel to the flow direction while the direction of the V-shaped absorbing plate is perpendicular to it; for the parallel type collector,the direction of the V-shaped absorbing plate is parallel to the flow direction while the direction of the V-shaped bottom plate is perpendicular to it) are used as the research object in this paper,and their performances are studied and compared under different dip angle and different air flow velocity; meanwhile,the performance of the vertical type air collector is tested and analysed under forward and reverse entilation.The results show that the performance of the vertical type air collector is better than that of the parallel type air collector,and the rise of temperature of both collectors is the highest with an angle of 45°.The maximum efficiency of the vertical and the parallel type is 71% and 68%,respectively.With a reverse flow,the performance of the vertical type air collector is better than with a forward flow.

  2. Orion Boiler Plate Airdrop Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Ricardo A.; Evans, Carol T.

    2013-01-01

    On the 29th of February 2012 the Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project attempted to perform an airdrop test of a boilerplate test article for the second time. The first attempt (Cluster Development Test 2, July 2008) to deliver a similar boilerplate from a C-17 using the Low Velocity Air Drop (LVAD) technique resulted in the programmer parachute failing to properly inflate, the test article failing to achieve the desired test initiation conditions, and the test article a total loss. This paper will pick up where the CDT-2 failure investigation left off, describing the test technique that was adopted, and outline the modeling that was performed to gain confidence that the second attempt would be successful. The second boiler plate test (Cluster Development Test 3-3) was indeed a complete success and has subsequently been repeated several times, allowing the CPAS project to proceed with the full scale system level development testing required to integrate the hardware to the first Entry Flight Test vehicle as well as go into the Critical Design Review with minimum risk and a mature design.

  3. A self-tractable solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhadi, M.; Ghorayeb, F.

    2006-06-01

    An analytical experimental investigation into the thermal performance of a tubeless hemispherical (a spherical cap) solar collector for use in heating and cooling purposes is presented. The receiver plate surface temperature was estimated at the prevailing steady-state conditions from the energy balance equation on the absorber plate. From the experimental analytical investigation, the present collector was found to be much more efficient than a flat-plate collector. Fluid outlet temperatures over 95°C could be provided on mid clear shining sunny days. Remembering the easiness of building a complex of such a collector, it follows that plenty of residential and industrial implementations, mostly in heating and cooling refrigeration absorption cycles, could be undertaken.

  4. 平板式热管太阳能空气集热器热性能研究%Experimental Investigation on Thermal Performance of Flat Plate Heat Pipe Solar Air Collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世平; 向开根; 李雯; 罗会龙; 王霜

    2015-01-01

    Heat pipe has many advantages, such as higher heat transfer coefficient, lower transfer temperature-difference and a one-way heat transfer. A new flat plate heat pipe solar air collector was designed and built based on a reasonable construction. The test results indicated that the instantaneous efficiency of collector is 15.3%~74.5% under the climatic conditions of daily solar radiation being about 14.4 to19.8MJ/m2·day. Its daily average thermal efficiency is about 32.6%~53.5%with heat loss coefficient being 3.6~8.4W/(m2·K). The maximum outlet air temperature can reach 79.1℃. Compared with conventional air collectors, the new flat plate heat pipe solar air collector has higher thermal efficiency and outlet air.%热管具有传热系数高、传热温差小及单向传热等诸多优良特性。以热管为集热部件,试制了一种平板式热管太阳能空气集热器。测试结果表明,在日总太阳辐射为14.4MJ/m2~19.8MJ/m2的气候条件下,平板式热管太阳能空气集热器的瞬时集热效率在15.3%~74.5%之间,集热器出口空气温度可达79.1℃,其日平均集热效率约为32.6%~53.5%,其热损失系数约为3.6~8.4W/(m2·K)。与常规的太阳能空气集热器相比,平板式热管太阳能空气集热器具有较高的集热效率和较低的热损失系数,并且供热温度较高。

  5. Evaluation of a Shaker Dust Collector for Use in a Recirculating Ventilation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Thomas M; Sawvel, Russell A; Park, Jae Hong; Anthony, T Renée

    2015-01-01

    General ventilation with recirculated air may be cost-effective to control the concentration of low-toxicity, contaminants in workplaces with diffuse, dusty operations, such as in agriculture. Such systems are, however, rarely adopted with little evidence showing improved air quality and ability to operate under harsh conditions. The goal of this work was to examine the initial and long-term performance of a fabric-filter shaker dust collector (SDC) in laboratory tests and as deployed within a recirculating ventilation system in an agricultural building. In laboratory tests, collection efficiency and pressure drop were tracked over several filter loading cycles, and the recovery of filter capacity (pressure drop) from filter shaking was examined. Collection efficiencies of particles larger than 5 μm was high (>95%) even when the filter was pristine, showing effective collection of large particles that dominate inhalable concentrations typical of agricultural dusts. For respirable-sized particles, collection efficiencies were low when the filter was pristine (e.g., 27% for 1 μm) but much higher when a dust cake developed on the filter (>99% for all size particles), even after shaking (e.g., 90% for 1 μm). The first shake of a filter was observed to recovery a substantial fraction of filter capacity, with subsequent shakes providing little benefit. In field tests, the SDC performed effectively over a period of three months in winter when incorporated in a recirculating ventilation system of a swine farrowing room. Trends in collection efficiency and pressure drop with loading were similar to those observed in the laboratory with overall collection efficiencies high (>80%) when pressure drop exceeded 230 Pa, or 23% of the maximum loading recommended by the manufacturer. This work shows that the SDC can function effectively over the harsh winter in swine rearing operations. Together with findings of improved air quality in the farrowing room reported in a

  6. Watergy. A moist air solar collector system with an integrated brine circuit for te heating of buildings; Watergy. Ein Feuchtluft-Solarkollektorsystem mit integriertem Solekreislauf zur Gebaeudeheizung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Martin; Buchholz, Reiner; Geyer, Philipp; Schmidt, Marco [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Gebaeudetechnik und Entwerfen

    2010-07-01

    Due to the Renewable Energy Law 2009, the proportion of renewable energies in the overall energy consumption of the European Union increased to 20 %. Currently, the proportion of the total heat energy consumption in Germany amounts nearly 40 %. Previous concepts for the storage of heat in the summer for use in winter are not convincing. The improvement of the efficiency of solar collectors and an increase in the collector surface result in increased investment costs and costs for heat supply. Thus, solar collector systems should be optimized for the operation of heaters. This is done for example by reducing the mean collector temperature using a combination of solar collectors with a heat pump. However, heat pumps are operated by means of electrical energy. Electrical energy can not be saved in the summer in order to be used in the winter. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the Watergy concept - a moist air solar collector system with an integrated brine circuit for heating of buildings.

  7. Central-receiver solar-thermal power system. Collector subsystem research experiments detail design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-02-24

    The detail design (DD) of research experiment hardware for the collector subsystem (heliostats) to support the 10 MW/sub e/ Pilot Plant preliminary design (PD) is presented. Additionally, test plans for assembly, integration, and array tests are presented, along with results of completed component/material tests. Research experiment DD and tests described were planned to provide design verification and supporting data, with hardware which either duplicates, or closely simulates the Pilot Plant PD baseline. (WHK)

  8. Solar Collector Thermal Power System. Volume 3. Basic Study and Experimental Evaluation of Thermal Train Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    the long- lifetime compatibility of sodium and high nickel- chrome alloys (such as Inconel 600) for the thermal train subsystem, an experimental effo...close wound Nichrome V Inconel sheathed resistance heaters were vacuum furnace brazed to the evaporator sections at 1850°F using 82 Au - 18 1. ASTM B...260-BAU-4). Four Inconel sheathed chromel-alumel thermocouples were attached by resistance spot welded Inconel tabs to 40 TABLE VII SOLAR COLLECTOR

  9. Experiments and simulations on a thermosyphon solar collector with integrated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toninelli, P.; Mariani, A.; Del, D., Col

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the thermal behaviour of a new type of flat solar collector that integrates the fluid storage tank. Often the main limitation of the solar thermosyphon installations is the prohibition to adopt external storage tanks due to their impact, especially for historical centres of particular architectural significance. To avoid this issue, a new system, that includes the collector and the storage, has been developed. This new apparatus works as a thermosyphon: it is possible to take advantage of the natural convection to avoid using a pump. Experimental tests have been conducted in such a collector with and without the absorbing plate. Furthermore, CFD simulations are reported to analyze in detail the dynamic thermal performance of the innovative solar collector and a good-agreement with the experimental tests has been found. Finally, both in numerical simulations and in experimental data the thermosyphon effect has been verified, obtaining the desired water temperature for domestic applications.

  10. Modeling and simulations of a 30 MWe solar electric generating system using parabolic trough collectors in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usta, Yasemin [Anyl Asansor Ltd (Turkey)], email: syusta@gmail.com; Baker, Derek [Middle East Technical University (Turkey)], email: dbaker@metu.edu.tr; Kaftanoglu, Bilgin [Atilim University (Turkey)], email: bilgink@atilim.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    With the energy crisis and the increasing concerns about climate change, the interest in concentrating solar power (CSP) systems is growing in Turkey. The aim of this paper is to develop a model of a CSP system using a field of parabolic trough collectors and to assess the predicted performance of the system. A model was developed for a 30MWe solar generating system in Antalya, Turkey, using TRNSYS software, the solar thermal electric components library and information on an existing system in Kramer Junction, California, United States. Annual simulations were then performed for both systems in Antalya and California using weather data. It was found that the predictions were in good agreement with published data. In addition results showed that Antalya's system would generate 30% less than Kramer Junction's system on an annual basis. This paper provides useful information on modeling and simulation of CSP systems.

  11. Irreversibility analysis of non isothermal flat plate solar collectors for air heating with a dimensionless model; Analisis de las irreversibilidades en colectores solares de placas planas no isotermicos para calentamiento de aire utilizando un modelo adimensional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracamonte-Baran, Johane Hans; Baritto-Loreto, Miguel Leonardo [Universidad Central de Venezuela (Venezuela)]. E-mails: johanehb@gmail.com; johane.bracamonte@ucv.ve; miguel.baritto@ucv.ve

    2013-04-15

    The dimensionless model developed and validated by Baritto and Bracamonte (2012) for the thermal behavior of flat plate solar collector without glass cover is improved by adding the entropy balance equation in a dimensionless form. The model is solved for a wide range of aspect ratios and mass flow numbers. A parametric study is developed and the distribution of internal irreversibilities along the collector is analyzed. The influence of the design parameters on the entropy generation by fluid friction and heat transfer is analyzed and it is found that for certain combinations of these parameters optimal thermodynamic operation can be achieved. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo, el modelo adimensional desarrollado y validado por Baritto y Bracamonte (2012) para describir el comportamiento termico de colectores solares de placas planas sin cubierta transparente, se complementa con la ecuacion adimensional de balance de entropia para un elemento diferencial de colector solar. El modelo se resuelve para un amplio rango de valores de relaciones de aspecto y numero de flujo de masa. A partir de los resultados del modelo se desarrolla un analisis detallado de la influencia de estos parametros sobre la distribucion de irreversibilidades internas a lo largo del colector. Adicionalmente se estudia la influencia de estos parametros sobre los numeros de generacion de entropia por friccion viscosa, por transferencia de calor y total. Se encuentra que existen combinaciones de los parametros antes mencionados, para los cuales, la operacion del colector es termodinamicamente optima para numeros de flujo de masa elevados.

  12. General solution of collector performance with axial conduction and end effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouman, A. R.; Tag, I. A.

    The Phillips solution of the flat-plate solar collector is extended and utilized to examine the influence of the end losses on collector performance. The results of this study show that the influence of the end temperatures of the absorber plate is more significant than the losses due to the axial conductivity of an insulated end collector plate. It will be shown that for an insulated end collector, the loss in the heat removal factor due to axial conductivity is negligible in the region of interest for flat-plate collectors. However, the end temperatures of the collector plate have more significant influence on the same factor, showing losses in some regions and improvements in other regions. This study emphasizes the necessity of measuring the temperature of the absorber plate at both the fluid inlet and exit locations in order to determine accurately the collector performance parameters.

  13. Automated Verification of Practical Garbage Collectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hawblitzel, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Garbage collectors are notoriously hard to verify, due to their low-level interaction with the underlying system and the general difficulty in reasoning about reachability in graphs. Several papers have presented verified collectors, but either the proofs were hand-written or the collectors were too simplistic to use on practical applications. In this work, we present two mechanically verified garbage collectors, both practical enough to use for real-world C# benchmarks. The collectors and their associated allocators consist of x86 assembly language instructions and macro instructions, annotated with preconditions, postconditions, invariants, and assertions. We used the Boogie verification generator and the Z3 automated theorem prover to verify this assembly language code mechanically. We provide measurements comparing the performance of the verified collector with that of the standard Bartok collectors on off-the-shelf C# benchmarks, demonstrating their competitiveness.

  14. Evaluating Picture Quality of Image Plates in Digital CR Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Byung Joon [Dept. of Radiological Tecnology, Choonhae College of Health Science, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ji Tae Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Science, Kaya University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Lab effectively supplemented the effects of outside radiation on image plates in the process of image acquisition of CR (computed radiography) systems and conducted for effective utilization in the case of clinical application. For this, Lab classified the storage places and time periods of image plates and compared and analyzed the differences between small dark spots. Lab also assessed the concentration distribution within the boundaries of images. Lab compared and measured the number of dark spots in a light room and a dark room depending on the storage places of image plates and found that dark spots slightly increased in an image plate when stored in a light room on the first and second days. Dark spots increased in proportion to the length of time stored. In the case of the image plate stored in a dark room, the number of dark spots remarkably decreased. With regard to picture quality as related to the location of image plates, the damage to picture quality could be reduced by locating regions of interest in the center. With regard to differences in sharpness following changes in the thickness of subjects, fewer scatter rays occurred and sharpness improved by reducing the thickness of subjects as much as possible. To get medical images of excellent quality, image plates should be managed effectively and it is desirable to keep images plates in dark iron plate boxes and not to expose them to outside radiation for a long time.

  15. A Vehicle License Plate Detection and Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid W. Maglad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Automatic vehicle license plate detection and recognition is a key technique in most of traffic related applications and is an active research topic in the image processing domain. Different methods, techniques and algorithms have been developed for license plate detection and recognitions. Approach: Due to the varying characteristics of the license plate from country to country like numbering system, colors, language of characters, style (font and sizes of license plate, further research is still needed in this area. Results: In most of the Middle East countries, they use the combination of Arabic and English letters, along with their countries logo. Thus, it makes the localization of plate number, the differentiation between Arabic and English letters and logo’s object and finally the recognition of those characters become a more challenging research task. The use of artificial neural network has proved itself beneficial for plate recognition, but it has not been applied for the plate detection. Radial Basis Function (RBF neural network is used both for the detection and recognition of Saudi Arabian license plates. Conclusion/Recommendations: The proposed approach has been tested on 200 front images of national license plate of Saudi Arabia. A higher percentage of accuracy has been obtained to show that the significant of this approach. The study could be further investigated in other Middle East countries.

  16. Simple, economical solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, K.

    1979-01-01

    Hot air solar collector designed for economy and simplicity is assembled from only three parts: (1) molded urethane foam body, (2) flat sheet metal collector panel and (3) transparent cover. Large arrays may be assembled by inserting male fittings of each collector into female fitting of adjacent collector.

  17. Indoor test and long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the solar energy system (liquid) solar collector. [Marshall Space Flight Center solar test facility and solar simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on a liquid solar collector are presented. The narrow flat plate collector with reflective concentrating mirrors uses water as the working fluid. The double-covered collector weighs 137 pounds and has overall dimensions of about 35" by 77" by 6.75". The test program was conducted to obtain the following information: thermal performance data under simulated conditions, structural behavior under static load, and the effects of long term exposure to natural weathering.

  18. A Malaysian Vehicle License Plate Localization and Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathy Velappa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological intelligence is a highly sought after commodity even in traffic-based systems. These intelligent systems do not only help in traffic monitoring but also in commuter safety, law enforcement and commercial applications. In this paper, a license plate localization and recognition system for vehicles in Malaysia is proposed. This system is developed based on digital images and can be easily applied to commercial car park systems for the use of documenting access of parking services, secure usage of parking houses and also to prevent car theft issues. The proposed license plate localization algorithm is based on a combination of morphological processes with a modified Hough Transform approach and the recognition of the license plates is achieved by the implementation of the feed-forward backpropagation artificial neural network. Experimental results show an average of 95% successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of 589 images captured from a complex outdoor environment.

  19. Outdoor performance results for NBS Round Robin collector no. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The efficiency of a PPG flat-plate solar collector was evaluated utilizing an outdoor solar collector test facility at the NASA-Lewis Research Center, as part of the National Bureau of Standards 'round robin' collector test program. The correlation equation for collector thermal efficiency Eta curve fit of the data was: Eta = 0.666 - 1.003(Btu/hr-sq ft-F) Theta, where the parameter Theta is the difference between the average fluid temperature and the ambient temperature, all divided by the total flux impinging on the collector.

  20. Performance correlations of five solar collectors tested simultaneously outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    Collector thermal efficiency, and efficiency degradation with time were measured for 5 flat-plate solar collectors tested simultaneously in an outdoor solar collector test facility. Results indicate that by using collector performance parameters which account for diffuse insolation, outdoor data recorded on 'cloudy' days can be used as a measure of performance, as long as the ratio of direct to total insolation exceeds approximately 0.6. These outdoor results also show good agreement with thermal efficiency data obtained indoors in a solar simulator. Significant efficiency degradation occurred on only one of the five collectors exposed to outdoor conditions for a period of one to two years.

  1. Simulation Application for Optimization of Solar Collector Array

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Shesho*,; Done Tashevsk

    2014-01-01

    Solar systems offer a comparatively low output density , so increasing the output always means a corresponding increase in the size of the collector area. Thus collector arrays are occasionally constructed (i.e. with different azimuth angles and/or slopes, which be imposed by the location and structure available to mount the collector. In this paper is developed simulation application for optimization for the solar collector array position and number of collectors in regard of...

  2. Linear concentrating collector as an air heater in the heating system of building in Polish climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemś Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the performance of a concentrating collector in the heating system of a residential building. Air was used as the working fluid. The heating requirements of the building were determined for each day of the year. The amount of direct irradiation reaching the absorber’s surface on all the days of the year was determined with the use of hourly meteorological data for Wroclaw, shared by the Ministry of Infrastructure and Growth. It was assumed that the collector is equipped with a tracking system working in one axis. Calculations and comparisons were made for the amount of solar irradiation for three values of the receiver’s inclination angle: β1=60°, β2=90° and β3=30°. Statistical method was used in order to determine the optimum inclination of the mirror and the amount of flowing air. This method involves creating a plan of experiment with three levels of changeability for two input factors. In the last stage, the amount of heat obtained from the installation during all the days of the year was analysed. The gains were juxtaposed on the diagram with the building’s heat demand. The analysis has shown that the heat requirements can be met only partially.

  3. The use of collector efficiency test results in long term performance calculations. Revisions and clarifications in view of proper collector characterization and inter comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Maria Joao; Horta, Pedro; Mendes, Joao Farinha [INETI - Inst. Nacional de Engenharia Tecnologia e Inovacao, IP, Lisboa (Portugal); Collares Pereira, Manuel; Carbajal, Wildor Maldonado [AO SOL, Energias Renovaveis, S.A., Samora Correia (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    There are a growing number of solar thermal collector types: flat plates, evacuated tubes with and without backing reflectors and different tubular spacing, low concentration collectors, using different types of concentrating optics. These different concepts and designs all compete to be more efficient or simply cheaper, easier to operate, etc. at ever higher temperatures, and even to extend the use of solar thermal energy in other applications beyond the most common water heating for domestic purposes. This means that there is a growing need for the existing and future simulation tools to be as accurate as possible in the treatment of these different collector types, to allow for the proper dimensioning of solar thermal systems as well as the proper comparison of different collector technologies for a given application. This paper develops a systematic approach to the problem of the proper handling of solar radiation available to each collector type. The proposed methodology subdivides radiation in its different components, folding that with the information available from efficiency curve tests (steady state) for each collector type and the way the optics of each particular case transforms and uses the incident solar radiation. The suggestions made will hopefully be taken at the level of the testing standards themselves, rendering them more complete and general. (orig.)

  4. A mobile apparatus for solar collector testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, G. B.; Simon, F. F.; Burmeister, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a mobile apparatus for solar collector testing (MASCOT) is described. The MASCOT is a self-contained test unit costing about $10,000 whose only external requirement for operation is electrical power and which is capable of testing two water-cooled flat-plate solar collectors simultaneously. The MASCOT is small enough and light enough to be transported to any geographical site for outdoor tests at the location of collector usage. It has been used in both indoor solar simulator tests and outdoor tests.

  5. Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    This report presents data provided by US-based manufacturers and importers of solar collectors. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the years 1974 through 1992. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the years 1982 through 1992. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1992. Appendix A describes the survey methodology. Appendix B contains the 1992 survey forms and instructions. Appendices C and D list the companies that responded to the 1992 surveys and granted permission for their names and addresses to appear in the report. Appendix E provides selected tables from this report with data shown in the International System of Units (SI) metric units. Appendix F provides an estimate of installed capacity and energy production from solar collectors for 1992.

  6. Absolute viscosity measured using instrumented parallel plate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, H. H.

    1967-01-01

    An automatic system measures the true average shear viscosity of liquids and viscoelastic materials, using the parallel plate method and automatically displays the results on a graphic record. This eliminates apparatus setup and extensive calculations.

  7. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  8. An Automatic Number Plate Recognition System under Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjit Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Number Plate Recognition system is an application of computer vision and image processing technology that takes photograph of vehicles as input image and by extracting their number plate from whole vehicle image , it display the number plate information into text. Mainly the ANPR system consists of 4 phases: - Acquisition of Vehicle Image and Pre-Processing, Extraction of Number Plate Area, Character Segmentation and Character Recognition. The overall accuracy and efficiency of whole ANPR system depends on number plate extraction phase as character segmentation and character recognition phases are also depend on the output of this phase. Further the accuracy of Number Plate Extraction phase depends on the quality of captured vehicle image. Higher be the quality of captured input vehicle image more will be the chances of proper extraction of vehicle number plate area. The existing methods of ANPR works well for dark and bright/light categories image but it does not work well for Low Contrast, Blurred and Noisy images and the detection of exact number plate area by using the existing ANPR approach is not successful even after applying existing filtering and enhancement technique for these types of images. Due to wrong extraction of number plate area, the character segmentation and character recognition are also not successful in this case by using the existing method. To overcome these drawbacks I proposed an efficient approach for ANPR in which the input vehicle image is pre-processed firstly by iterative bilateral filtering , adaptive histogram equalization and number plate is extracted from pre-processed vehicle image using morphological operations, image subtraction, image binarization/thresholding, sobel vertical edge detection and by boundary box analysis. Sometimes the extracted plate area also contains noise, bolts, frames etc. So the extracted plate area is enhanced by using morphological operations to improve the quality of

  9. Simulations of a dual TOF detector system for isochronous mass spectrometry in the collector ring at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diwisch, Marcel; Kuzminchuk-Feuerstein, Natalia [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Dickel, Timo; Geissel, Hans; Knoebel, Ronja; Plass, Wolfgang; Scheidenberger, Christoph [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Weick, Helmut [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Direct mass measurements of short-lived exotic nuclei yield key information for modern nuclear physics. Experimentally determined mass values of exotic nuclei have a big impact on numerous applications in fundamental and applied science. With the Superconducting-Fragment Separator (Super-FRS) at the new FAIR facility a whole new range of exotic nuclei far away from stability will be accessible. Higher beam intensities and larger phase space volumes impose new challenges for the detection systems. To measure masses of short-lived exotic nuclei one can use the Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) which presently is successfully performed at the FRS-ESR facility. For IMS in the future Collector Ring, (CR) a first version of a new dual Time-Of-Flight (TOF) detector system, which fulfills the requirements of the new beam parameters has been designed. Simulation results for the new TOF detector in the CR will be shown.

  10. Performance of solar collectors under low temperature conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunea, Mircea; Eicher, Sara; Hildbrand, Catherine

    The performance of four solar thermal collectors (flat plate, evacuated tube, unglazed with rear insulation and unglazed without rear insulation) was experimentally measured and simulated for temperatures below ambient. The influence of several parameters (e.g. collector inlet temperature, air...... temperature, condensation) is investigated under different operating conditions (day and night). Under some conditions condensation might occur and heat gains could represent up to 55% of the total unglazed collector energy by night. Two TRNSYS collector models including condensation heat gains are also...... to be around 2%, frost heat gains were measured to be up to 40% per day, under specific conditions. Overall, results have shown that unglazed collectors are more efficient than flat plate or evacuated tube collectors at low operation temperatures or for night conditions, making them more suitable for heat pump...

  11. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  12. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  13. Comparison between a simple solar collector accumulator and a conventional accumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasulo, AmIlcar [University National of San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); University National of Rio IV, Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Follari, Jorge [University National of San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Barral, Jorge [University National of Rio IV, Rio Cuarto (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    In dry regions with abundant solar radiation at Southern latitudes between 30 and 40deg, such as the central-western part of Argentina, it is possible to obtain domestic hot water by means of simple integral collector accumulator systems, which are less expensive than the classical flat plate active systems. The experimental assessment of two solar accumulator collector systems yielding 300 1 of hot water daily is reported in this work. Daily diurnal global efficiency and nocturnal thermal losses have been systematically determined over a 5-month period, from austral summer to austral winter. The results of these systems were compared with the results obtained from a high quality thermosyphon solar system composed of a flat plate collector and its corresponding insulated storage tank, tested at the same time. The experiments were carried out by measuring the climatic variables, temperatures in different parts of the collectors, and mass flow rates of water, during the test days. Based on these measurements, the behaviour of the systems was analysed by comparing exit temperatures, heat losses, and delivered useful energy. An economic evaluation was made considering the investment time recovery through the savings the system could provide working with different conventional sources of energy. The systems proved to work efficiently, although some improvements should be made on the semitransparent thermal insulation in order to enhance its winter performance. (Author)

  14. Cleaner for Solar-Collector Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickland, P. O.; Cleland, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Simple self-contained cleaning system proposed for solar collectors or solar-collector protective domes. Perforated transparent plastic cap attached to top of protective dome in heliostat solar-energy collection system distributes cleaning fluid over surface of dome without blocking significant fraction of solar radiation.

  15. System recognizing Bahamian license plate with touching characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Jingyu; Zhang, Sanyuan; Ye, Xiuzi; Zhang, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Various methods are proposed for license plate recognition, but none of them are universal. Some common methods for license plate localization, character extraction, and recognition are analyzed. Then a system is proposed to recognize the Bahamian license plate with touching characters. A vertical edge-based method with a modified sliding window technique is used to locate the license plate, and a machine learning process is used to trim the region. The located license plate is rectified by using the minimum enclosing box and the stroke width value. Then the vertical projection and pairs of extreme points are combined to segment the characters. Finally, a deep learning method is used to recognize the characters. 2996 images are experimented on and the total recognition accuracy achieves 83.29%. Typical methods of each stage are implemented to compare with the proposed methods. In addition, the proposed system is experimented on a public dataset to show the generalization ability of the system. The experimental results show that the proposed system performs better than the other methods and is able to be used in a real-time application.

  16. Survey of air pollutants emitted from rendering plant of poultry slaughterhouse and design of local ventilation system and suitable collector for control and treatment of air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Hesam

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Application of local exhaust ventilation system and integrated collectors for control of air pollutants in rendering plant can remove large amounts of particulate and gaseous pollutants. Control of these pollutants can cause loss of smell nuisance and environmental pollution and improving the health and welfare of workers and neighboring residents of such industries.

  17. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1997-01-01

    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle...

  18. Thermal effects of a wall solar collector-storage cell of energy, like conditioning system in residential air-conditioning; Efectos termicos de una pared colector-acumulador de energia solar, como sistema de acondicionamiento en la climatizacion habitacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivasplata, C.

    2008-07-01

    At UNJBG-CERT in Tacna, we count on a laboratory that in its architectonic development integrates a collector solar power accumulator all. It was built with granite. It is a part of an accumulation system of calorific energy as well as at the external surface is used as a collection plate of incidental solar energy, making possible with it a contribution of heat for convection, conduction and radiation. In this article, there are results of the behavior of the temperatures of the interior air in the laboratory in correlation with different temperature measurements in the external and internal surfaces of the wall. In the article. Also there are some theoretical and experimental comparative graphics between between external and internal temperatures and their fluctuation grade for 24-hour periods. (Author)

  19. The determination of space parameters of the heliostatic collector field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Kudelas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of perpetual perpendicular insolation of solar collector absorber surface may increase the insolation energy byca 42-45 %.. A consequence of theincrease in the energy production may be the reduction of the solar collectors’ surface area. For the large scale solar collector field conception is advantageous to build collector sections with several collectors in one heliostat. For the conception of the solar collector field with heliostat collectors is important to make a regular identification of space parameters of all parts of the solar system field. The placement of the heliostats is a basic condition for the optimal insolation conditions of heliostat solar collectors’ field.

  20. Study of Cylindrical Honeycomb Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atish Mozumder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of our investigation on cylindrical honeycomb solar collector. The honeycomb has been fabricated with transparent cellulose triacetate polymer sheets. Insulation characteristics of the honeycomb were studied by varying the separation between the honeycomb and the absorber plate. The optimal value of the separation was found to be 3.3 mm for which the heat transfer coefficient is 3.06 W m−2 K−1. This supports result of previous similar experiments. Further we test the honeycomb through a field experiment conducted in Delhi (28.6°N, 77°E and found that when the incident angle of the solar radiation is within 20° then the performance of the system with the honeycomb is better than the one without the honeycomb.

  1. Outdoor thermal efficiency evaluation of the Ying solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The test procedure used and the test results obtained during an evaluation test program to obtain thermal efficiency performance data are presented. The flat plate collector used water/prestone antifreeze solution as the working fluid.

  2. Weathering of a liquid-filled solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report describes procedures and results of tests for effects of weathering on flat-plate liquid solar collector. Thermal performance was measured before and after natural weathering for 15-1/2 months by using Marshall Space Flight solar simulator.

  3. Profitability Variations of a Solar System with an Evacuated Tube Collector According to Schedules and Frequency of Hot Water Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Porras-Prieto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of solar water heating systems with evacuated tube collectors has been experiencing a rapid growth in recent years. Times when there is demand for hot water, the days of use and the volumes demanded may determine the profitability of these systems, even within the same city. Therefore, this paper characterizes the behavior of a solar system with active circulation with the objective of determining the profitability variations according to the timing and schedule of demand. Through a simplified methodology based on regression equations, calculated for each hour of the day based on data from an experimental facility, the useful energy is estimated from the time and frequency of the demand for hot water at 60 °C. The analysis of the potential profitability of the system in more than 1000 scenarios analyzed shows huge differences depending on the number of days when the water is demanded, the time when demand occurs, the irradiation and the average price of energy. In cities with high irradiation and high energy prices, the system could be profitable even in homes where it is used only on weekends. The study of profitability in a building of 10 homes shows that by applying an average European household’s profile for hot water demand, levels close to full potential would be reached; for this, it is necessary to optimize the collection surface.

  4. EFFICIENCY AND LIFETIME OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR SOLAR HEATING PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Jianhua; Chen, Ziqian; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt; Karlsson, Björn

    2009-01-01

    The 12.5 m² flat plate solar collector HT, today marketed by Arcon Solvarme A/S, has been used in solar heating plants in Scandinavia since 1983. The collector is designed to operate in a temperature interval between 40°C and 90°C. The efficiency of the collector has been strongly improved since it was introduced on the market. The paper will present the increase of the efficiency of the collector due to technical improvements since 1983. Further, measurements from the spring of 2009 of the e...

  5. Performance test procedures for thermal collectors - Outdoor testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, W. B.

    A review of outdoor solar collector test methods is presented, based largely on the CEC Recommendations for European Solar Collector Test Methods. Test facility design and instrumentation are discussed, with reference to their influence on measured collector efficiencies. Steady state outdoor testing, mixed indoor/outdoor testing and transient testing are reviewed, and it is concluded that although the testing of simple flat plate water heaters is fairly well understood, more work is now required to develop test methods for the new high performance collectors which are coming onto the market.

  6. Operational success - Flat-plate photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, V. V.; Zwibel, H. S.

    The performance-to-date of 20 and 100 kW peak DOE photovoltaic array demonstration projects in New Mexico and Texas are reported. An El Paso 20 kW unit feeds power to an uninterruptible power supply for a computer controlling a 197 MW generator. System availability has been 97 percent after over 800 days of operation, and has reached monthly efficiencies of 5.3-6.2 percent. The Lovington, NM 100 kW unit has operated at an average 6.7 percent efficiency, furnishing over 15.8 MWh/mo for a 2 yr period. System availability has been 99 percent, although at increased costs due to regular maintenance.

  7. Performance evaluation of a liquid solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report describes thermal performance and structural-load tests on commercial single glazed flat-plate solar collector with gross area of 63.5 sq ft that uses water as heat-transfer medium. Report documents test instrumentation and procedures and presents data as tables and graphs. Results are analyzed by standard data-reduction methods.

  8. Performance evaluation of an air solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Indoor tests on signal-glazed flat-plate collector are described in report. Marhsall Space Flight Center solar simulator is used to make tests. Test included evaluations on thermal performance under various combinations of flow rate, incident flux, inlet temperature, and wind speed. Results are presented in graph/table form.

  9. Auditory signal design for automatic number plate recognition system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydra, C.G.; Jansen, R.J.; Van Egmond, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of an auditory signal for the Automatic Number Plate Recognition system of Dutch national police. The auditory signal is designed to alert police officers of suspicious cars in their proximity, communicating priority level and location of the suspicious car and takin

  10. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE AIR FLOW AROUND THE ARRAYS OF SOLAR COLLECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukman V Bakić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the numerical simulation of air around the arrays of flat plate collectors and determination of the flow field, which should provide a basis for estimating a convective heat losses, a parameter which influences their working characteristics. Heat losses are the result of the reflection on the glass, conductive losses at the collector's absorber plate, radiation of the absorber plate and convective losses on the glass. Wind velocity in the vicinity of the absorber plate depends on its position in the arrays of collectors. Results obtained in the numerical simulation of flow around collectors were used as boundary conditions in modeling of thermal-hydraulic processes inside the solar collector. A method for coupling thermal-hydraulic processes inside the collector with heat transfer from plate to tube bundle was developed, in order to find out the distribution of the temperature of the absorber plate and the efficiency of the flat plate collectors. Analyses of flow around arrays of collectors are preformed with RNG k - ε model. Three values for free-stream velocity were analysed, i.e. 1 m/s, 5 m/s and 10 m/s, as well as two values for the angle between the ground and the collector (20° and 40°. Heat transfer coefficient was determined from the theory of boundary layer. Heat transfer inside the plate cavity was analyzed assuming constant intensity of radiation.

  11. 平板式太阳能空气集热器流道改进的试验研究和数值模拟%Experimental investigation and numerical simulation on improvement of flat-plate solar air collector flow channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁刚; 左然; 张旭鹏; 王坤

    2011-01-01

    对传统平板式太阳能空气集热器的流道进行了改进,把对角型进出口流道改为多进出口式流道.对改进的集热器的性能进行了试验测试.新的进出口流道消除了吸热板和空气换热不均的现象,出口温度提升明显.在相同条件下,集热器的瞬时效率增加约20%.用CFD方法对集热器内部的流场结构和传热进行的数值模拟对比表明,传统集热器内部存在流动死区,中心截面温度分布不均匀,吸热板上有局部的高温区域,改进后的集热器流场和温度场分布得较均匀.%The flow channels of traditional flat-plate solar air collector were changed from diagonal inlet/outlet to multi-inlet/outlet. Experimental investigation on characteristics of solar air collectors after the improvement of flow channels was reported. The inlet and outlet channels of the conventional air collector were improved. The new flow channel eliminates the ununiformity of heat transfer between air and absorber plate, so there is a distinct temperature increasing at the outlet. The instantaneous efficiency is improved by about 20% at the same condition. An analysis of flow characteristics and heat transfer in the collectors had been carried out by using Computation Fluid Dynamic (CFD). There is the dead zone in flow field of traditional collector. The temperature distribution of center section is different and there is local high-temperature region on the heat-absorbing plate in the traditional collector, while the flow field and temperature distribution are uniform in the improved collector.

  12. Effect of Installation of Solar Collector on Performance of Balcony Split Type Solar Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of surface orientation and slope of solar collectors on solar radiation collection of balcony split type solar water heaters for six cities in China were analyzed by employing software TRNSYS. The surface azimuth had greater effect on solar radiation collection in high latitude regions. For deviation of the surface slope angle within ±20° around the optimized angle, the variation of the total annual collecting solar radiation was less than 5%. However, with deviation of 70° to 90°, the variation was up to 20%. The effects of water cycle mode, reverse slope placement of solar collector, and water tank installation height on system efficiency were experimentally studied. The thermal efficiencies of solar water heater with single row horizontal arrangement all-glass evacuated tubular collector were higher than those with vertical arrangement at the fixed surface slope angle of 90°. Compared with solar water heaters with flat-plate collector under natural circulation, the system thermal efficiency was raised up to 63% under forced circulation. For collector at reverse slope placement, the temperature-based water stratification in water tank deteriorated, and thus the thermal efficiency became low. For improving the system efficiency, an appropriate installation height of the water tank was suggested.

  13. Renewable Electricity Generation via Solar-Powered Methanol Reforming: Hybrid Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems Based on Novel Non-Concentrating, Intermediate-Temperature Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Daniel J.

    Tremendous research efforts have been conducted studying the capturing and conversion of solar energy. Solar thermal power systems offer a compelling opportunity for renewable energy utilization with high efficiencies and excellent cost-effectiveness. The goal of this work was to design a non-concentrating collector capable of reaching temperatures above 250 °C, use this collector to power methanol steam reforming, and operate a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell using the generated hydrogen. The study presents the construction and characterization of a non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature, fin-in-tube evacuated solar collector, made of copper and capable of reaching stagnation temperatures of 268.5 °C at 1000 W/m2 irradiance. The collector was used to power methanol steam reforming, including the initial heating and vaporization of liquid reactants and the final heating of the gaseous reactants. A preferential oxidation (PROX) catalyst was used to remove CO from simulated reformate gas, and this product gas was used to operate a PEM fuel cell. The results show 1) that the outlet temperature is not limited by heat transfer from the absorber coating to the heat transfer fluid, but by the amount of solar energy absorbed. This implicates a constant heat flux description of the heat transfer process and allows for the usage of materials with lower thermal conductivity than copper. 2) It is possible to operate a PEM fuel cell from reformate gas if a PROX catalyst is used to remove CO from the gas. 3) The performance of the fuel cell is only slightly decreased (~4%) by CO2 dilution present in the reformate and PROX gas. These results provide a foundation for the first renewable electricity generation via solar-powered methanol reforming through a hybrid PEM fuel cell system based on novel non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature solar collectors.

  14. Synthetic fiber air collectors for agricultural uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.

    Details are given on an innovative air collector system made of porous black synthetic fibers to take in air and absorb solar radiation to heat it. Synthetic fiber collectors are unexpensive, they are characterized by their efficient heat transfers, good working properties, and wind resistance. Excessive heating, condensates, and dusts are avoided using them. Schematic sketches facilitate access to the fibrous structure, uses, design and construction of solar air collectors made of Nicolon fibers. Temperature and collector capacity measuring results are shown in a diagram. Details are given on a small-scale solar drier drying herbs (solar collector system with a 36 m/sup 2/ fibrous absorber surface) as well as on experiences gained in the operation of more than 20 solar driers of the kind described. (HWJ).

  15. The Detector Control Systems for the CMS Resistive Plate Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Paolucci, P; Gómez-Reino, R; Viviani, C; Shahzad, R; Khurshid, T

    2010-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chamber system is composed by 912 double-gap chambers equipped with about $10^4$ front-end boards. The correct and safe operation of the RPC system requires a sophisticated and complex online Detector Control System, able to monitor and control 2$\\cdot10^4$ hardware devices distributed on an area of about 5000 m$^2$. The RPC DCS acquires, monitors and stores about $10^5$ parameters coming from the detector, the electronics, the power system, the gas, and cooling systems. The DCS system and the first results, obtained during the 2007 and 2008 CMS cosmic runs, will be described in this paper.

  16. A flat solar collector built from galvanized steel plate, working by thermosyphonic flow, optimized for Mexican conditions; Un colector solar plano construido de lamina de acero galvanizada, operando por flujo termosifonico, optimizado para las condiciones mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin de Jesus, A; Olivares Ramirez, J.M.; Ramos Lopez, G.A.; Pless, R.C. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: amarroquind@utsjr.edu.mx

    2009-07-15

    Design, construction, and testing of the thermal performance of a flat solar collector for domestic water heating are described. The absorbing plate is built from readily available materials: two sheets of galvanized steel, one of the channelled types, the other one flat, which are joined by electric welding. The absorber is connected to a 198-L thermotank, insulated with polyurethane foam. In terms of receiving surface, the prototype tested here has an area of 1.35 m{sup 2}, about 20% smaller than comparable copper-tube-based collectors offered in the market. Temperature measurements conducted over a 30-day period gave values which were a few degrees lower than the theoretically calculated water temperatures. Momentary thermal efficiency values between 35% and 77% were observed. The water temperature achieved the tank at the end of the day averages 65 degrees Celsius in winter weather conditions in the central Mexican highland. This design of solar water heater is well suited to Mexican conditions, as it makes use of the high local intensity of the solar radiation, and as the channel shape of the ducts minimizes bursting during the rare occurrences of freezing temperatures in the region; it also has the advantage of being manufacturable at low cost from simple materials. [Spanish] Se describe el diseno, construccion y pruebas del desempeno termico de un colector solar plano para calentamiento de agua para uso domestico. La placa absorbedora se construyo de materiales facilmente asequibles: dos placas de acero galvanizado, una del tipo acanalado y la otra plana, unidas mediante soldadura de acero electrico. La placa absorbedora esta conectada a un termotanque con capacidad de 198 L, aislado con espuma de poliuretano. La superficie receptora de este prototipo es de 1.35 m{sup 2}, aproximadamente 20% mas pequena comparado con los colectores, basados en tubos de cobre, ofertados en el mercado. Mediciones de temperatura por un periodo de 30 dias, arrojaron valores

  17. Combined solar collector

    OpenAIRE

    Voznyak, O.; Shapoval, S.; Pona, O.; Vengryn, I.

    2014-01-01

    In this article was analyzing the efficiency of the combined solar collector for heating buildings. This enhances the efficiency of solar system by increasing the area of the absorption of solar energy. There are describes the results of the research on solar radiation input on a combined solar collector. Проаналізовано ефективність використання комбінованого сонячного колектора для теплопостачання будівель. Він забезпечує підвищення ефективності геліосистеми за рахунок збільшення площі погли...

  18. Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee

    2005-12-22

    On-board reforming of liquid fuels into hydrogen is an enabling technology that could accelerate consumer usage of fuel cell powered vehicles. The technology would leverage the convenience of the existing gasoline fueling infrastructure while taking advantage of the fuel cell efficiency and low emissions. Commercial acceptance of on-board reforming faces several obstacles that include: (1) startup time, (2) transient response, and (3) system complexity (size, weight and cost). These obstacles are being addressed in a variety of projects through development, integration and optimization of existing fuel processing system designs. In this project, CESI investigated steam reforming (SR), water-gas-shift (WGS) and preferential oxidation (PrOx) catalysts while developing plate reactor designs and hardware where the catalytic function is integrated into a primary surface heat exchanger. The plate reactor approach has several advantages. The separation of the reforming and combustion streams permits the reforming reaction to be conducted at a higher pressure than the combustion reaction, thereby avoiding costly gas compression for combustion. The separation of the two streams also prevents the dilution of the reformate stream by the combustion air. The advantages of the plate reactor are not limited to steam reforming applications. In a WGS or PrOx reaction, the non-catalytic side of the plate would act as a heat exchanger to remove the heat generated by the exothermic WGS or PrOx reactions. This would maintain the catalyst under nearly isothermal conditions whereby the catalyst would operate at its optimal temperature. Furthermore, the plate design approach results in a low pressure drop, rapid transient capable and attrition-resistant reactor. These qualities are valued in any application, be it on-board or stationary fuel processing, since they reduce parasitic losses, increase over-all system efficiency and help perpetuate catalyst durability. In this program, CESI

  19. Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee

    2005-12-22

    On-board reforming of liquid fuels into hydrogen is an enabling technology that could accelerate consumer usage of fuel cell powered vehicles. The technology would leverage the convenience of the existing gasoline fueling infrastructure while taking advantage of the fuel cell efficiency and low emissions. Commercial acceptance of on-board reforming faces several obstacles that include: (1) startup time, (2) transient response, and (3) system complexity (size, weight and cost). These obstacles are being addressed in a variety of projects through development, integration and optimization of existing fuel processing system designs. In this project, CESI investigated steam reforming (SR), water-gas-shift (WGS) and preferential oxidation (PrOx) catalysts while developing plate reactor designs and hardware where the catalytic function is integrated into a primary surface heat exchanger. The plate reactor approach has several advantages. The separation of the reforming and combustion streams permits the reforming reaction to be conducted at a higher pressure than the combustion reaction, thereby avoiding costly gas compression for combustion. The separation of the two streams also prevents the dilution of the reformate stream by the combustion air. The advantages of the plate reactor are not limited to steam reforming applications. In a WGS or PrOx reaction, the non-catalytic side of the plate would act as a heat exchanger to remove the heat generated by the exothermic WGS or PrOx reactions. This would maintain the catalyst under nearly isothermal conditions whereby the catalyst would operate at its optimal temperature. Furthermore, the plate design approach results in a low pressure drop, rapid transient capable and attrition-resistant reactor. These qualities are valued in any application, be it on-board or stationary fuel processing, since they reduce parasitic losses, increase over-all system efficiency and help perpetuate catalyst durability. In this program, CESI

  20. LHCb Tag Collector

    CERN Document Server

    Fuente Fernàndez, P; Cousin, N

    2011-01-01

    The LHCb physics software consists of hundreds of packages, each of which is developed by one or more physicists. When the developers have some code changes that they would like released, they commit them to the version control system, and enter the revision number into a database. These changes have to be integrated into a new release of each of the physics analysis applications. Tests are then performed by a nightly build system, which rebuilds various configurations of the whole software stack and executes a suite of run-time functionality tests. A Tag Collector system has been developed using solid standard technologies to cover both the use cases of developers and integration managers. A simple Web interface, based on an AJAX-like technology, is available. Integration with software management and Nightly Build programs is possible via a Python API. Data are stored in a relational database with the help of an ORM (Object-Relational Mapping) library.

  1. Performance Evaluation of a Nanofluid-Based Direct Absorption Solar Collector with Parabolic Trough Concentrator

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Guoying; Chen, Wei; Deng, Shiming; Zhang, Xiaosong; Zhao, Sainan

    2015-01-01

    Application of solar collectors for hot water supply, space heating, and cooling plays a significant role in reducing building energy consumption. For conventional solar collectors, solar radiation is absorbed by spectral selective coating on the collectors’ tube/plate wall. The poor durability of the coating can lead to an increased manufacturing cost and unreliability for a solar collector operated at a higher temperature. Therefore, a novel nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collector...

  2. THE PARALLEL CONFOCAL DETECTING SYSTEM USING OPTICAL FIBER PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective Focusing on the problem such as slow scanning speed, complex system design and low light efficiency, a new parallel confocal 3D profile detecting method based on optical fiber technology, which realizes whole-field confocal detecting, is proposed. Methods The optical fiber plate generates an 2D point light source array, which splits one light beam into N2 subbeams and act the role of pinholes as point source and point detecting to filter the stray light and reflect light. By introducing the construction and working principle of the multi-beam 3D detecting system, the feasibility is investigated. Results Experiment result indicates that the optical fiber technology is applicable in rotation. The measuring parameters that influence the detecting can easily be adapted to satisfy different requirments of measurement. Compared with the conventional confocal method, the parallel confocal detecting system using optical fiber plate is simple in the mechanism, the measuring field is larger and the speed is faster.

  3. Design and evaluation of a computer controlled solar collector simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotas, J. F.; Wood, B. D.

    1980-11-01

    A computer-controlled system has been developed to simulate the thermal processes of a flat-plate solar collector. The simulator is based on four water heaters of capacities of 1.5, 2.5, 5.0 and 5.0 kW providing a maximum design output of 14.0 kW which are controlled by a Nova 3 minicomputer, which also monitors temperatures in the fluid stream. Measurements have been obtained of the steady-state operating values and time constants of the individual heaters at different flow rates in order to utilize effectively their thermal outputs. Software was designed to control the heater system so the total thermal output closely approximates that of an actual heater array, utilizing steady-state or dynamic control modes. Simulation of the heat output of a previously tested collector has resulted in simulated values differing from actual output by a maximum of 3% under identical operating conditions, thus indicating that the simulator represents a viable alternative to the testing of a large field of collectors.

  4. Results of IEA SHC Task 45: Large Scale Solar Heating and Cooling Systems. Subtask A: “Collectors and Collector Loop”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bava, Federico; Nielsen, Jan Erik; Knabl, Samuel;

    2016-01-01

    The IEA SHC Task 45 Large Scale Solar Heating and Cooling Systems, carried out between January 2011 and December 2014, had the main objective to assist in the development of a strong and sustainable market of large solar heating systems by focusing on high performance and reliability of systems. ...

  5. Dual-bath Plating of Composition Modulated Alloys (CMA) based on a newly developed Computer Controlled Plating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Leisner, Peter; Møller, Per

    1994-01-01

    of a computer controlled plating system for producing large scale CMA-coatings. Employing a dual-bath technique, multilayered materials with more than 1000 alternating layers have been manufactured and investigated. The thickness of each layer ranges from 25 nm to several microns. The characterisation results......, as obtained with SEM and applications for multilayered systems such as Cu/Ni and Cu/Co, as well as the possibilities and limitation of the plating system will be discussed....

  6. To the Problem of Designing Water Heating Solar Systems with Flat Collectors for Individual Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The variant of efficient combination of two renewable energy sources as a biogas system and a water heating solar system has been considered for power supply of individual dwellings. Criteria dependence has been suggested for determination of solar system power efficiency. Its legitimacy has been proved by an experiment. Power efficient solar system has been proposed with peculiar features of its designing and due account of energy flow distribution in technology of biogas production.

  7. 主食工程中太阳能集热系统应用技术%Application Technology of Solar Collector System in the Staple Food Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱克庆; 吕少芳

    2012-01-01

    The solar collector system, the sun's energy aggregation in the low temperature steam, steam heat demand in the field of food processing industry.Described for the main food processing industry in several thermal processes and parabolic trough concentrating collector the solar thermal conversion process and ancillary equip- ment installations.%太阳能集热系统将太阳的能源聚集而产生中低温蒸汽,蒸汽即是食品加工业领域所需求的热能。阐述了用于主食品加工业中的几个用热工序及槽式抛物面聚光集热器的光热转换工作过程和与之配套的设备装置。

  8. Adsorptive refrigeration system using a solar collector with a thermal insulating module; Sistema de refrigeracao adsortivo com a utilizacao de um coletor solar com anteparo otico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgel, Jose Mauricio [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Laboratorio de Energia Solar]. E-mail: gurgel@les.ufpb.br; Espinola Junior, Jose [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Andrade Filho, Luiz Simao [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Tecnologia da Construcao Civil; Marcondes, Francisco [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2000-07-01

    The use of a solid adsorption cooling unit based on the binary silica gel/water couple constitute an very promising way to harness solar energy refrigeration purposes. Here is presented a mathematical model for the simulation of the system under several use conditions and it was shown coherent when compared with some experimental results. The several accomplished simulations showed the need to be projected a modulate reactor that can offer cooling easiness during the night period and shown the advantage of the use of an solar collector that can be easily opened and your thermal insulating module placed across the glass close the thermal radiation when the desorption process finish. The simulations results presented here shown an better COP for this configuration through an better cooling of the collector at night. (author)

  9. Cascade impactor and jet plate for same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, Robert S.; Farthing, William E.; Landham Jr., Edward C.

    2004-02-03

    A sampling system and method for sampling particulate matter from a high-temperature, high-pressure gas stream. A cyclone sampler for use at high temperatures and pressures, and having threadless sacrificial connectors is disclosed. Also disclosed is an improved cascade impactor including jet plates with integral spacers, and alignment features provided for aligning the jet plates with their associated collection substrates. An activated bauxite alkali collector is disclosed, and includes an alumina liner. The sampling system can be operated remotely or locally, and can be permanently installed or configured as a portable system.

  10. Experimental study of an inexpensive solar collector cum storage system for agricultural uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, H.P.; Bhargave, A.K.; Mahajan, R.B.; Sharma, V.K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of an Augmented Integral Rock System. Experiments have been performed on such a solar air heater fabricated at the Institute. Experimental observations of fluid temperature, energy storage and other measures of system performance with variation of air mass flow rate, number of glazings and depth of rock bed are presented. The heat decay characteristics of the rock bed, while using a night insulation cover in addition to glass covers, are also reported in detail.

  11. Technical evaluation of a solar heating system having conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, R.J.

    1984-04-01

    A simple innovative solar heating design (Solar Option One) using conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab was constructed. An objective of hybrid solar design is to combine the relative advantages of active and passive design approaches while minimizing their respective disadvantages. A test house using the Solar Option One heating system was experimentally monitored to determine its energy based performance during the 1982-83 heating season. The test residence is located in Lyndonville, Vermont, an area which has a characteristically cold and cloudy climate. The two story residence has a floor area of about 1400 square feet and is constructed on a 720 square foot 5.5 inch thick floor slab. A 24 inch packed gravel bed is located beneath the slab and the slab-gravel bed is insulated by two inches of polystyrene insulation. The test building is of frame construction and uses insulation levels which have become commonplace throughout the country. The structure would not fall into the superinsulated category but was tightly constructed so as to have a low infiltration level. The building is sun-tempered in that windows were concentrated somewhat on the South side and all but avoided on the North. A solar greenhouse on the South side of the building was closed off from the structure permanently throughout the testing so as to better observe the solar heating invention without confounding variables. The monitoring equipment generated an internal gain of about 17,000 BTUs per day, roughly the equivalent of occupancy by two persons. A full description of the experimental testing program is given. System efficiency and performance are reported.

  12. Performance of a solar-thermal collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, W. H.

    1975-01-01

    Possible means of achieving the technology required for field application of solar thermal power systems are discussed. Simplifications in construction techniques as well as in measurement techniques for parabolic trough collectors are described. Actual measurement data is also given.

  13. Comparison of Electrical and Thermal Performances of Glazed and Unglazed PVT Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hee Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic-thermal (PVT collectors combine photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors, forming a single device that receives solar radiation and produces electricity and heat simultaneously. PVT collectors can produce more energy per unit surface area than side-by-side PV modules and solar thermal collectors. There are two types of liquid-type flat-plate PVT collectors, depending on the existence of glass cover over PV module: glass-covered (glazed PVT collectors, which produce relatively more thermal energy but have lower electrical yield, and uncovered (unglazed PVT collectors, which have relatively lower thermal energy with somewhat higher electrical performance. In this paper, the experimental performance of two types of liquid-type PVT collectors, glazed and unglazed, was analyzed. The electrical and thermal performances of the PVT collectors were measured in outdoor conditions, and the results were compared. The results show that the thermal efficiency of the glazed PVT collector is higher than that of the unglazed PVT collector, but the unglazed collector had higher electrical efficiency than the glazed collector. The overall energy performance of the collectors was compared by combining the values of the average thermal and electrical efficiency.

  14. The efficiency of active solar systems as a function of the collector-control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanis, N.; Clavet, A.; Legouis, T.

    The active water-circulation solar heating system of an experimental house near the city of Quebec, Canada, is simulated numerically using the TRNSYS program (Klein et al., 1978) to evaluate the effects of various modifications on the efficiency. Configurations modeled are the classic system (CS) with on-off freeze-protection control, CS with an optimized continuous-flow control, a modified system (MS) as proposed by Keller (1981) with on-off control, and MS with the optimized control. The simulation results are presented graphically. The optimized control subprogram is found to eliminate the evening and morning cycling problems encountered with on-off control. Best efficiencies (at given flow rates) were obtained with the CS/optimized-control combination. The economic feasibility of such a control is discussed.

  15. 77 FR 58580 - Interview Room Recording System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... of Justice Programs Interview Room Recording System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard... System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard Workshops. SUMMARY: The National Institute of Justice... development of NIJ performance standards for Interview Room Recording Systems and License Plate Readers used...

  16. Developments of solar collectors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Zhiqiang

    2009-01-01

    China has abundant solar energy resource. Solar thermal collectors, particularly all-glass evacuated tubular collectors, have been studied and developed for 30 years, and solar thermal industry has developed rapidly for 15 years. There are various solar thermal systems, with an operation area of around 108 million m2 in 2007. These systems mainly provide domestic hot water, but some other applications are under extensive study and development as well.

  17. System Advisor Model: Flat Plate Photovoltaic Performance Modeling Validation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.; Whitmore, J.; Kaffine, L.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software tool that performs detailed analysis of both system performance and system financing for a variety of renewable energy technologies. This report provides detailed validation of the SAM flat plate photovoltaic performance model by comparing SAM-modeled PV system generation data to actual measured production data for nine PV systems ranging from 75 kW to greater than 25 MW in size. The results show strong agreement between SAM predictions and field data, with annualized prediction error below 3% for all fixed tilt cases and below 8% for all one axis tracked cases. The analysis concludes that snow cover and system outages are the primary sources of disagreement, and other deviations resulting from seasonal biases in the irradiation models and one axis tracking issues are discussed in detail.

  18. Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, Attila [3M Company, St. Paul, MN (United States); Charles, Ruth [3M Company, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2014-07-31

    The intent of “Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP” program was to develop key technology elements for collectors in Phase 1 (Budget Period 1), design these elements in Phase 2 (Budget Period 2) and to deploy and test the final collector in Phase 3 (Budget Period 3). 3M and DOE mutually agreed to terminate the program at the end of Budget Period 1, primarily due to timeline issues. However, significant advancements were achieved in developing a next generation reflective material and panel that has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of CSP systems.

  19. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance of the Acurex solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed account of the methods used to make the predictions is given. The performance predictions are part of a program to measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhanced oil recovery applications.

  20. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility Program for predicting thermal performance of line-focusing, concentrating solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, T. D.

    1980-11-01

    The qualifications of the laboratories selected to do the testing and the procedure for selecting commercial collectors for testing are given. The testing program is outlined. The computer program for performance predictions is described. An error estimate for the predictions and a sample of outputs from the program are included.

  1. Experimental evaluation of a fixed collector employing vee-trough concentrator and vacuum tube receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    A test bed for experimental evaluation of a fixed solar collector which combines an evacuated glass tube solar receiver with a flat plate/black chrome plated copper absorber and an asymmetric vee-trough concentrator was designed and constructed. Earlier predictions of thermal performance were compared with test data acquired for a bare vacuum tube receiver; and receiver tubes with Alzak aluminum, aluminized FEP Teflon film laminated sheet metal and second surface ordinary mirror reflectors. Test results and system economics as well as objectives of an ongoing program to obtain long-term performance data are discussed.

  2. Thermal performance evaluation of the Semco (liquid) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Procedures used and results obtained during the evaluation test program on a flat plate collector which uses water as the working fluid are discussed. The absorber plate is copper tube soldered to copper fin coated with flat black paint. The glazing consists of two plates of Lo-Iron glass; the insulation is polyurethane foam. The collector weight is 242.5 pounds with overall external dimensions of approximately 48.8 in. x 120.8 in. x 4.1 in. The test program was conducted to obtain thermal performance data before and after 34 days of weather exposure test.

  3. Sensor network based vehicle classification and license plate identification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Janette Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brennan, Sean M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rosten, Edward J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raby, Eric Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kulathumani, Vinod K [WEST VIRGINIA UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    Typically, for energy efficiency and scalability purposes, sensor networks have been used in the context of environmental and traffic monitoring applications in which operations at the sensor level are not computationally intensive. But increasingly, sensor network applications require data and compute intensive sensors such video cameras and microphones. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of two such systems: a vehicle classifier based on acoustic signals and a license plate identification system using a camera. The systems are implemented in an energy-efficient manner to the extent possible using commercially available hardware, the Mica motes and the Stargate platform. Our experience in designing these systems leads us to consider an alternate more flexible, modular, low-power mote architecture that uses a combination of FPGAs, specialized embedded processing units and sensor data acquisition systems.

  4. Techno-economical assessment of solar detoxification systems with compound parabolic collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J.; Malato, S.; Milow, B.; Maldonado, M.I. [CIEMAT- Centro de Investigacion Energica Medioambiental y Technologia, Madrid (Spain); Fallmann, H.; Krutzler, T.; Bauer, R. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, TU Vienna (Italy)

    1999-03-01

    This paper is focussed on a techno-economical analysis comparing TiO{sub 2}-Persulfate and Photo-Fenton methods for Solar Detoxification of pesticides from an industrial point of view and considering the photocatalytic system coupled with a pesticide bottles recycling plant. The analysis is based on the experiments performed at PSA Solar Detox facility with 250 L of a mixture of 10 commercial pesticides, which have been treated with both photocatalytic methods in the same CPC-type reactor system. The initial TOC of the pollutants was 100 mg/L (considering not only the active ingredient but also the rest of the commercial formulation components) and the final TOC 10 mg/L (plant design parameters). Different experiments have been performed to optimize both treatments. In the experiments with Photo-Fenton 80% of the initial TOC were removed in 75 to 90 minutes and 90% in approximately 2 hours. In the experiment with TiO{sub 2}-Persulfate, 80% of the TOC was removed in 3 hours and 90% of the TOC after 4 hours. (authors)

  5. Large Parabolic Dish collectors with small gas-turbine, Stirling engine or photovoltaic power conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehlisch, K.; Heikal, H.; Mobarak, A.; Simon, M.

    1982-08-01

    A comparison for different solar thermal power plants is presented and demonstrates that the large parabolic dish in association with a gas turbine or a Sterling engine could be a competitive system design in the net power range of 50-1000KW. The important advantages of the Large Parabolic Dish concept compared to the Farm and Tower concept are discussed: concentration ratios up to 5000 and uniform heat flux distribution throughout the day which allow very high receiver temperatures and therefor high receiver efficiency to operate effectively Stirling motors or small gas turbines in the mentioned power range with an overall efficiency of 20 to 30%. The high focal plane concentration leads to the efficient use of ceramic materials for receivers of the next generation, applicable in temperature ranges up to 1,300 /sup 0/C for energy converters. Besides the production of electricity, the system can supply process heat in the temperature range of 100 to 400 /sup 0/C as waste heat from the gas turbo converter and heat at temperature levels from 500 to 900 /sup 0/C (1300 /sup 0/C) directly out of the receiver.

  6. Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report updates the baseline cost for parabolic trough solar fields in the United States within NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). SAM, available at no cost at https://sam.nrel.gov/, is a performance and financial model designed to facilitate decision making for people involved in the renewable energy industry. SAM is the primary tool used by NREL and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for estimating the performance and cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies and projects. The study performed a bottom-up build and cost estimate for two state-of-the-art parabolic trough designs -- the SkyTrough and the Ultimate Trough. The SkyTrough analysis estimated the potential installed cost for a solar field of 1500 SCAs as $170/m2 +/- $6/m2. The investigation found that SkyTrough installed costs were sensitive to factors such as raw aluminum alloy cost and production volume. For example, in the case of the SkyTrough, the installed cost would rise to nearly $210/m2 if the aluminum alloy cost was $1.70/lb instead of $1.03/lb. Accordingly, one must be aware of fluctuations in the relevant commodities markets to track system cost over time. The estimated installed cost for the Ultimate Trough was only slightly higher at $178/m2, which includes an assembly facility of $11.6 million amortized over the required production volume. Considering the size and overall cost of a 700 SCA Ultimate Trough solar field, two parallel production lines in a fully covered assembly facility, each with the specific torque box, module and mirror jigs, would be justified for a full CSP plant.

  7. Theoretical study on a solar collector loop during stagnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon;

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model simulating the stagnation behavior of a pressurized solar collector loop with solar collectors with a good emptying behavior is developed. Based on the pre-pressure of the expansion vessel, the system filling pressure of the solar collector loop and the design of the solar...... collector loop, the mass of the fluid flowing into the pressurized expansion vessel and the pressures at the top part and at the bottom part of the solar collector loop during stagnation for the solar collector loop are calculated. The theoretically calculated results are compared with experimental results....... There is a good agreement between calculations and measurements. The developed simulation model is therefore suitable to determine the behavior of solar collector loops during stagnation....

  8. Theoretical study on a solar collector loop during stagnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon;

    A mathematical model simulating the stagnation behavior of a pressurized solar collector loop with solar collectors with a good emptying behavior is developed. Based on the pre-pressure of the expansion vessel, the system filling pressure of the solar collector loop and the design of the solar...... collector loop, the mass of the fluid flowing into the pressurized expansion vessel and the pressures at the top part and at the bottom part of the solar collector loop during stagnation for the solar collector loop are calculated. The theoretically calculated results are compared with experimental results....... There is a good agreement between calculations and measurements. The developed simulation model is therefore suitable to determine the behavior of solar collector loops during stagnation....

  9. PRESENTATION AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A COLLECTOR/REGENERATOR FOR SOLAR LIQUID DESICCANT AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM%一种太阳能溶液除湿空调集热再生器及其性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左远志; 杨晓西; 丁静

    2007-01-01

    A new kind of collector/regenerator for solar liquid desiccant air conditioning system is presented, which adopts a fin-forming absorber plate and where the liquid desiccant flow-through process is divided into two stages: preheating stage and regenerating stage.Then the theoretical performance analysis is provided by using the isotherm model and the lumped parameter method. The main results are as follows: (1) the fin-forming absorber plate can increase heat and mass transfer areas and promote turbulence, so that it significantly enhances heat and mass transfer between the air and the liquid desiccant; (2) the two-stage process of liquid regeneration can ensure the mass transfer direction and achieve the approximate constant temperature regeneration process; (3) an increase of the absorber plate fin ratio within a certain range can help to improve the utilization factor of solar energy.%提出并设计了一种采用翅化表面吸热板,溶液流程分为集热加温段与集热再生段的太阳能溶液除湿空调集热再生器,采用等温模型与集总参数法对其做了初步的理论分析.分析结果表明:翅化表面吸热板可通过扩大传热传质面积与增进局部紊流强度来实现传热传质过程强化;溶液流程二段式布置可保证传质方向以及实现近似于等温的再生过程;在一定范围内,增加吸热板的翅化比有利于提高太阳能利用系数.

  10. 78 FR 59065 - Interview Room Recording System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... of Justice Programs Interview Room Recording System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard... Recording System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard Workshops. SUMMARY: The National Institute of... Plate Readers used by criminal justice agencies. Sessions are intended to inform manufacturers, test...

  11. An Automatic System of Vehicle Number-Plate Recognition Based on Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic system of vehicle number-plate recognition based on neural networks. In this system, location of number-plate and recognition of characters in number-plate can be automatically completed. Pixel colors of Number-plate area are classified using neural network, then color features are extracted by analyzing scanning lines of the cross-section of number-plate. It takes full use of number-plate color features to locate number plate. Characters in number-plate can be effectively recognized using the neural networks. Experimental results show that the correct rate of number-plate location is close to 100%, and the time of number-plate location is less than 1 second. Moreover, recognition rate of characters is improved due to the known number-plate type. It is also observed that this system is not sensitive to variations of weather, illumination and vehicle speed. In addition, and also the size of number-plate need not to be known in prior. This system is of crucial significance to apply and spread the automatic system of vehicle number-plate recognition.

  12. Biomechanical comparison of orthogonal versus parallel double plating systems in intraarticular distal humerus fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata C. Atalar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that both plating systems had similar biomechanical stabilities when anatomic plates with distal locking screws were used in intraarticular distal humerus fractures in artificial humerus models.

  13. Local Reasoning about a Copying Garbage Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Smith, Noah; Birkedal, Lars; Reynolds, John C.

    2008-01-01

    We present a programming language, model, and logic appropriate for implementing and reasoning about a memory management system. We state semantically what is meant by correctness of a copying garbage collector, and employ a variant of the novel separation logics to formally specify partial...... correctness of Cheney’s copying garbage collector in our program logic. Finally, we prove that our implementation of Cheney’s algorithm meets its specification using the logic we have given and auxiliary variables. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  14. Qualification test and analysis report: Solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Test results show that the Owens-Illinois Sunpak TM Model SEC 601 air-cooled collector meets the national standards and codes as defined in the Subsystem Peformance Specification and Verification Plan of NASA/MSFC, dated October 28, 1976. The program calls for the development, fabrication, qualification and delivery of an air-cooled solar collector for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and/or hot water systems.

  15. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  16. Evolution of the Mariana Convergent Plate Margin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Patricia

    1996-02-01

    The Mariana convergent plate margin system of the western Pacific provides opportunities for studying the tectonic and geochemical processes of intraoceanic plate subduction without the added complexities of continental geology. The system's relative geologic simplicity and the well-exposed sections of lithosphere in each of its tectonic provinces permit in situ examination of processes critical to understanding subduction tectonics. Its general history provides analogs to ancient convergent margin terranes exposed on land and helps to explain the chemical mass balance in convergent plate margins. The Mariana convergent margin's long history of sequential formation of volcanic arcs and extensional back arc basins has created a series of volcanic arcs at the eastern edge of the Philippine Sea plate. The trenchward edge of the overriding plate has a relatively sparse sediment cover. Rocks outcropping on the trench's inner slope are typical of the early formed suprasubduction zone's lithosphere and have been subjected to various processes related to its tectonic history. Pervasive forearc faulting has exposed crust and upper mantle lithosphere. Many large serpentinized peridotite seamounts are within 100 km of the trench axis. From these we can learn the history of regional metamorphism and observe and sample active venting of slab fluids. Ocean drilling recovered suprasubduction zone lava sequences erupted since the Eocene that suggest that the forearc region remains volcanologically dynamic. Seismic studies and seafloor mapping show evidence of deformation throughout forearc evolution. Large portions of uplifted southern forearc are exposed at the larger islands. Active volcanoes at the base of the eastern boundary fault of the Mariana Trough vary in size and composition along strike and record regional differences in source composition. Their locations along strike of the arc are controlled in part by cross-arc structures that also facilitate formation of submarine

  17. Horizontally mounted solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D. H. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Solar energy is collected by using a vertical deflector assembly, a stationary reflector and a horizontally mounted solar collector. The deflector assembly contains a plurality of vanes which change the direction of the solar energy to the vertical, while constantly keeping the same side of the deflector facing the sun. The vertical rays are then reflected off the stationary reflector and are then absorbed by the collector.

  18. General formula for on-axis sun-tracking system and its application in improving tracking accuracy of solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, K.K.; Wong, C.W. [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Off Jalan Genting Kelang, Setapak, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2009-03-15

    Azimuth-elevation and tilt-roll tracking mechanism are among the most commonly used sun-tracking methods for aiming the solar collector towards the sun at all times. It has been many decades that each of these two sun-tracking methods has its own specific sun-tracking formula and they are not interrelated. In this paper, the most general form of sun-tracking formula that embraces all the possible on-axis tracking methods is presented. The general sun-tracking formula not only can provide a general mathematical solution, but more significantly it can improve the sun-tracking accuracy by tackling the installation error of the solar collector. (author)

  19. PR NF EN 12975-1 Thermal solar systems and components - collectors - Part. 1: general requirements; Installations solaires thermiques et leurs composants. Capteurs solaires. Partie 1: exigences generales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    The document specifies requirements on durability (including mechanical strength), reliability and safety for liquid heating solar collectors. It also includes provisions for evaluation of conformity to these requirements. It is not applicable to those collectors in which the thermal storage unit is an integral part of the collector to such an extent, that the collection process cannot be separated from the storage process for the purpose of making measurements of those two processes. It is not applicable to tracking concentrating solar collectors. (author)

  20. Solar collector wireless tracking system based on ZigBee%基于ZigBee的太阳能集热器无线跟踪系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈卓民; 姜周曙; 黄国辉

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of solar collector,such as low efficiency to absorb the heat energy,large hardness to wiring and inconvenience to manage, ZigBee wireless communications technology was applied to the solar collector tracking system. After researching heat absorption efficiency of solar collector, the relationship between the position of the sun and the local location was established, and then wireless control system of collector for tracking the position of the sun accurately was developed. In this system, MCU of STM32W108, which is a 32 bit microprocessor with Cortex_M3 architecture, was used to integrate the ZigBee wireless communication module in microprocessor, global position system (GPS) was used to obtain the local geographical location and the local time for calculating position of the sun, the upper computer software designed by C# was used to monitor and manage the wireless system. Test results indicate that the system can track the sun accurately and improve collecting heat efficiency obviously. It also has advantages of convenient networking,less wiring and high reliability of data transmission and so on.%为解决太阳能集热器吸收热能效率低、布线难度大及管理不便等问题,将ZigBee无线通信技术应用到太阳能集热器跟踪系统中.开展了太阳能集热器热能吸收效率研究,建立了太阳位置和当地地理位置之间的关系,研制了精确跟踪太阳位置的集热器无线控制系统;采用了Cortex_M3架构的32位处理器STM32W108,在处理器内部集成了ZigBee无线通信部分;通过全球定位系统(GPS)获取了当地地理位置和本地时间计算太阳位置;采用了C#上位机软件监控和管理无线系统.测试结果表明:该系统能精确跟踪太阳,提高集热器吸热效率;并具有组网方便、布线少、数据传输可靠等特点.

  1. Thermal performance of integration of solar collectors and building envelopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国清; 龚小辉; 曹双华

    2009-01-01

    The integration of building with solar collector was studied. The theoretical model of integration of building envelopes and flat plate solar collectors was set up and the thermal performance of integration was studied in winter and summer,and compared to envelopes without solar collectors. The results show that the solar collection efficiency is raised in the integration of building envelopes and solar collectors with the air layer doors closed. This is true whether in winter or summer. The increment is higher as the inlet water temperature increases or the ambient temperature is low. In winter,the heat loss is significantly reduced through integration of the building envelopes and solar collectors with the closed air layer doors. The integration with the open air layer door is worse than that without collectors. In summer,the heat gains of the integration of envelopes and solar collectors are more obviously reduced than envelopes without collectors,the integration with the open air layer door is a little better than the closed one,but the difference is very small.

  2. Convection pattern and stress system under the African plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on tectonic forces from satellite-derived gravity data have revealed a subcrustal stress system which provides a unifying mechanism for uplift, depression, rifting, plate motion and ore formation in Africa. The subcrustal stresses are due to mantle convection. Seismicity, volcanicity and kimberlite magmatism in Africa and the development of the African tectonic and magnetic features are explained in terms of this single stress system. The tensional stress fields in the crust exerted by the upwelling mantle flows are shown to be regions of structural kinship characterized by major concentration of mineral deposits. It is probable that the space techniques are capable of detecting and determining the tectonic forces in the crust of Africa.

  3. Design and Development of Prototype Cylindrical Parabolic Solar Collector for Water Heating Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrushikesh Bhujangrao Kulkarni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Concentrating collectors absorbs solar energy and convert it into heat for generating hot water, steam at required temperature, which can be further used for solar thermal applications. The developing countries like India where solar energy is abundantly available; there is need to develop technology for harnessing solar energy for power production, but the main problem associated with concentrating solar power technology is the high cost of installation and low output efficiency. To solve this problem, a prototype cylindrical parabolic solar collector having aperture area of 1.89 m2 is designed and developed using low cost highly reflecting and absorbing material to reduce initial cost of project and improve thermal efficiency. ASHRAE Standard 93, 1986 was used to evaluate the thermal performance and it was observed that this system can generate hot water at an average temperature of 500C per day with an average efficiency of 49% which is considerable higher than flat plate solar collectors. Hot water produced by this system can be useful for domestic, agricultural, industrial process heat applications.Article History: Received Sept 19, 2015; Received in revised form Dec 23, 2015; Accepted February 2, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Bhujangrao, K.H. (2016. Design and Development of Prototype Cylindrical Parabolic Solar Collector for Water Heating Application. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(1, 49-55 http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.1.49-55 

  4. Effect of dividing daylight in symmetric prismatic daylight collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Chuan; Lu, Ju-Lin; Cheng, Yu-Chin

    2017-04-01

    This paper presented a symmetric prismatic daylight collector to collect daylight for the natural light illumination system. We analyzed the characteristics of the emerging light when the parallel light beam illuminate on the horizontally placed symmetric prismatic daylight collector. The ratio of the relative intensities of collected daylight that emerging from each surface of the daylight collector shown that the ratio is varied with the incident angle during a day. The simulation of the emerging light of the daylight collector shown that the ratio of emerging light is varied with the tilted angle when sunshine illuminated on a symmetric prismatic daylight collector which was not placed horizontally. The integration of normalized intensity is also varied with the tilted angle. The symmetric prismatic daylight collector with the benefits of reducing glare and dividing intensity of incident daylight, it is applicable to using in the natural light illumination system and hybrid system for improving the efficiency of utilizing of solar energy.

  5. Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the Lennox/Honeywell (liquid) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The test procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program of the Lennox/Honeywell double covered liquid solar collector. The tests were performed under simulated conditions, following long-term exposure to natural weathering conditions. The Lennox/Honeywell collector is a flat-plate solar collector. The absorber plate is steel with copper tubes bonded on the upper surface, and is coated with black chrome. Visual inspection of the collector indicated slight discoloration of the absorber plate. Results indicate that performance degradation had occurred. Absorptivity and/or transmissivity decreased as a result of the weathering.

  6. Experimental studies of a matrix-tubular solar air collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plesca, M.; Varlan, P. [Moldova Technical Univ., Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of). Dept. of Heat and Gas Supply and Ventilation

    2009-06-15

    The most common types of solar air collectors (SAC) are contact-type and matrix-type collectors, with the latter being more efficient. This paper described the design and testing of a matrix-tubular flat solar air collector in the city of Chisinau, Moldova, where the outdoor climatic radiation, heat, and humidity characteristics are favorable for the efficient use of solar energy for building heating and drying applications. The amount of solar energy absorbed by a solar energy air collector depends on the level of insulation and orientation of the solar collector; the absorbance of the absorber surface; and the transmittance of the cover material. This study examined the heat transfer, efficiency, and pressure drop using copper tubes inserted perpendicular to the plane of the absorber plate. The SAC consists of a glazed insulated case, an absorber, and ducting for cold air delivery and hot air discharge. Copper tubes are inserted perpendicular to the plane of the absorber. The absorber is installed in the body of the SAC in such a way that it divides it into an upper channel and lower channel. The channel bottom is lined with aluminium foil that reflects solar radiation coming through the tubes and decreases heat loss in the solar collector. Copper tubes increase the heat exchange surface, create air turbulence and intensify heat transfer. This increases the efficiency of the solar collector. The pressure drop of the matrix-tubular solar air collector is 40 per cent lower than that of the matrix-plate collectors. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. Modelling of a CHP SOFC system fed with biogas from anaerobic digestion of municipal waste integrated with solar collectors and storage unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Borello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of the sustainable energy community is recognized as the future energy approach due to its economical, technical and environmental benefits. Future systems should integrate renewable energy systems applying a “community-scale” approach to maximize energy performances, while minimizing environmental impacts. Efforts have to be directed toward the promotion of integrated technical systems needed to expand the use of renewable energy resources, to build sustainable local and national energy networks, to guarantee distribution systems for urban facilities and to reduce pollution. In this framework poly-generation is a promising design perspective, for building and district scale applications, in particular where different types of energy demand are simultaneously present and when sufficient energy intensity justifies investments in smart grids and district heating networks. In situ anaerobic digestion of biomass and organic waste has the potential to provide sustainable distributed generation of electric power together with a viable solution for the disposal of municipal solid wastes. A thermal recovery system can provide the heat required for district-heating. The system analysed is a waste-to-energy combined heat and power (CHP generation plant that perfectly fits in the sustainable energy community paradigm. The power system is divided in the following sections: a a mesophilic - single phase anaerobic digestion of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste for biogas production; b a fuel treatment section with desulphurizer and pre-reformer units; c a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC for CHP production; d a solar collector integrated system(integrated storage system - ISS. An integrated TRNSYS/ASPEN Plus model for simulating the power system behaviour during a typical reference period (day or year was developed and presented. The proposed ISS consists of a solar collector integrated with storage systems system designed to

  8. Dual-bath Plating of Composition Modulated Alloys (CMA) based on a newly developed Computer Controlled Plating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Leisner, Peter; Møller, Per;

    1994-01-01

    of a computer controlled plating system for producing large scale CMA-coatings. Employing a dual-bath technique, multilayered materials with more than 1000 alternating layers have been manufactured and investigated. The thickness of each layer ranges from 25 nm to several microns. The characterisation results...

  9. Effect of operating temperature on the HWB model for solar-collector design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Howell, J. R.

    1983-02-01

    The Hottel-Whillier-Bliss (HWB) Model for the thermal efficiency of a flat plate solar collector plots as a straight line in an esa/sub c/ approx. (T/sub f,in/ - T/sub a/)/g/sub s/ coordinate system under the following assumptions: (1) the effect of the thermal capacity in the collector is negligible; (2) F/sub R/, U/sub L/ are constant in the range of operating temperature. These assumptions simplify the model and make it convenient to use. Because of the intermittance of insulation and the variation of ambient temperature and wind speed, the thermal capacity of the collector may affect the transient efficiency of the collector. In addition, the values of F/sub R/ and U/sub L/ are actually not constant and cause deviation of the efficiency curve from a straight line. The concern is with the deviation of the confidence level for a specific operating range. The effect of operating temperature of the values of F/sub R/ and U/sub L/ is discussed.

  10. Simulation Application for Optimization of Solar Collector Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Shesho*,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar systems offer a comparatively low output density , so increasing the output always means a corresponding increase in the size of the collector area. Thus collector arrays are occasionally constructed (i.e. with different azimuth angles and/or slopes, which be imposed by the location and structure available to mount the collector. In this paper is developed simulation application for optimization for the solar collector array position and number of collectors in regard of maximum annual energy gain and thermal efficiency. It is analyzed solar collector array which has parallel and serial connected solar collectors with different tilt, orientation and thermal characteristics. Measurements are performed for determine the thermal performance of the system. Using the programming language INSEL it is developed simulation program for the analyzed system where optimization is done through parametric runs in the simulation program. Accent is given on the SE orientated collectors regarding their tilt and number, comparing two solutions-scenarios and the current system set situation of the in means of efficiency and total annual energy gain. The first scenario envisages a change of angle from 35 to 25 solar panels on the SE orientation, while the second scenario envisages retaining the existing angle of 35 and adding additional solar collector. Scenario 1 accounts for more than 13% energy gain on annual basis while Scenario 2 has 2% bigger thermal efficiency.

  11. A solar energy collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' yev, L.L.; Avakyan, Yu.V.; Bogdanov, V.M.; Gagiyan, L.A.; Grakovich, L.P.; Karapetyan, G.S.; Morgun, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    A collector whose primary component is a heating pipe is proposed. The evaporation zone located in the lower half of the heating pipe has an external absorption coating. Chambers that open upward and contain the evaporating fluid are mounted within this region along the top. In order to improve operational reliability of the collector, these chambers are mounted on one coated wall; the area of projection of each of the chambers onto the horizontal plane is greater than the area of the projection of each of the chambers placed above it. The coating may be in the form of photocells; a filter is mounted on the chamber side inside the evaporation zone. The evaporation zone may take the form of a cylinder with a segmented base; the photocells are mounted on a flat section of the lateral surface. The collector may be used to cool the photocells.

  12. Micro system comprising 96 micro valves on a titer plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe, S.; Flitsch, D.; Büchs, J.; Schomburg, W. K.

    2016-10-01

    A system of 96 micro valves has been developed and mounted on top of a 48-well micro titer plate providing two valves for each well controlling its air inlet and outlet. Testing of the valve system showed that all valves are working and are opened and closed reliably. A pneumatic system is switching inlet and outlet valves independently of each other. The geometry of the feed channels ensures an equal air flow through all wells, when the valves are open. Between the micro valves, one optical fibre was inserted through the lid of each well allowing measuring the oxygen partial pressure in the enclosed air volume by fluorescence sensor spots. Escherichia coli bacteria were grown inside the wells and their metabolism was observed by the oxygen partial pressure change due to respiration. In all 48 wells, the same oxygen transfer rate was observed within an averaged standard deviation of 1 mmol/L/h. The oxygen transfer rate differences compared to a macroscopic standard shake flask system were overall compatible within their uncertainties.

  13. Thermal performance evaluation of Solar Energy Products Company (SEPCO) 'Soloron' collector tested outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, J., Sr.

    1977-01-01

    The test article, Model EF-212, Serial Nr. 002, is a single glazed collector with a nonselective absorber plate, using flowing air as the heat transfer medium. The absorber plate and box frame are aluminum and the insulation is one inch isocyanurate foam board with thermal conductivity of 0.11 (BTU/sq ft Hr0/ft.) The tests included the following. (1) time constant test, (2) collector efficiency test, (3) collector stagnation test, (4) incident angle modifier test, (5) load test, (6) weathering test, and (7) absorber plate optical properties test. The results of these tests are tabulated, graphed, or otherwise recorded.

  14. Indoor test for thermal performance evaluation of Sunworks (liquid) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, K.

    1977-01-01

    Test procedures used and test results obtained from an evaluation test program conducted on a single covered liquid solar collector under simulated conditions are presented. The test article was a flat plate solar collector using water as the heat transfer medium. The absorber plate was copper with copper tubes bonded by soft solder. The plate was coated with Enthone selective black with an absorptivity factor of .87 approximately .92 and an emissivity factor of .10 approximately .20. A time constant test and incident angle modifier test were conducted to determine the transient effect and the incident angle effect on the collector.

  15. Dual PD Control Regulation with Nonlinear Compensation for a Ball and Plate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Galvan-Colmenares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The normal proportional derivative (PD control is modified to a new dual form for the regulation of a ball and plate system. First, to analyze this controller, a novel complete nonlinear model of the ball and plate system is obtained. Second, an asymptotic stable dual PD control with a nonlinear compensation is developed. Finally, the experimental results of ball and plate system are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  16. Characterization of a direct methanol fuel cell using Hilbert curve fractal current collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuan, Yean-Der [Department of Refrigeration, Air-Conditioning and Energy Engineering, National Chun-Yi University of Technology, NO 35, Lane 215, Section 1, Chung-Shan Road, Taiping City, 411 Taichung County (China); Chang, Jing-Yi [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, Tamkang University, Tamsui, 251 Taipei County (China); Lee, Shi-Min [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tamkang University, Tamsui, 251 Taipei County (China); Lee, Shah-Rong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technology and Science Institute of Northern Taiwan, Peitou, 112 Taipei (China)

    2009-02-01

    The current collector or bi-polar plate is a key component in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Current collector geometric designs have significant influence on cell performance. This paper presents a continuous type fractal geometry using the Hilbert curve applied to current collector design in a direct methanol fuel cell. The Hilbert curve fractal geometry current collector is named HFCC (Hilbert curve fractal current collector). This research designs the current collector using a first, second and third order open carved HFCC shape. The cell performances of the different current collector geometries were measured and compared. Two important factors, the free open ratio and total perimeter length of the open carved design are discussed. The results show that both the larger free open ratio and longer carved open perimeter length present higher performance. (author)

  17. Characterization of a direct methanol fuel cell using Hilbert curve fractal current collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Yean-Der; Chang, Jing-Yi; Lee, Shi-Min; Lee, Shah-Rong

    The current collector or bi-polar plate is a key component in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Current collector geometric designs have significant influence on cell performance. This paper presents a continuous type fractal geometry using the Hilbert curve applied to current collector design in a direct methanol fuel cell. The Hilbert curve fractal geometry current collector is named HFCC (Hilbert curve fractal current collector). This research designs the current collector using a first, second and third order open carved HFCC shape. The cell performances of the different current collector geometries were measured and compared. Two important factors, the free open ratio and total perimeter length of the open carved design are discussed. The results show that both the larger free open ratio and longer carved open perimeter length present higher performance.

  18. Automated solar collector installation design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-08-26

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives.

  19. Optimum solar collector fluid flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    1996-01-01

    the energy consumption of a normal ciculation pump in the solar heating system.Calculations showed that the highest thermal performances for small SDHW systems based on mantle tanks with constant volume flow rates in the solar collector loops are achieved if the flow rate is situated in the interval from 0...... to the temperature difference between the solar collector and the bottom of the mantle - an increase of about 1% of the thermal performance is possible.Finally, calculations showed that the highest thermal performance for large SDHW systems with constant volume flow rates in the solar collector loops are achieved....... The flow rate is increasing for increasing temperature.The flow rate at the high temperature level is typically 70 % greater than the flow rate at the low temperature level.Further, the energy consumption for the electronically controlled pump in a solar heating system will be somewhat smaller than...

  20. Black Liquid Solar Collector Demonstrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichman, F. L.; Austen, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the details of constructing, and use of, a solar collector. Uses a black liquid to absorb the energy, the thermosyphon effect to drive the liquid through the collector, and a floodlamp as a surrogate sun. (GA)

  1. Studies efficiency solar air collector

    OpenAIRE

    YORKIN SODIKOVICH ABBASOV; MIRSOLI ODILJANOVICH UZBEKOV

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the existing solar air collectors. A description of the design and the results of experimental studies on the effectiveness of the solar air collector with an absorber of from metal shavings.

  2. PTC摄影测量控制系统设计与实现%Design and realization of photogrammetry control system for parabolic trough collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威钢; 燕必希; 董明利; 王君; 孙鹏

    2016-01-01

    A photogrammetric control system of parabolic trough collector is designed in this paper . The photogrammetry image acquisition tasks can be automatically completed by this system . According as the front projection of PTC is 6 m × 14 m ,8 .5 m × 17 m rectangular rail is designed to carry the slider .According to the system requirements ,friction wheel drive transmission is adopted by slider to complete the movement of camera in the straight line .Servo provides power to the three-axis electric pan-tilt unit .The pan-tilt unit can complete the attitude adjustment of camera in three dimensions . PC control interface include system debug , parameter setting save and automatic operation functions .Finally ,various parts of photogrammetry control system is assembled .The design and production of photogrammetry control system for parabolic trough collector is completed .It was showed from experiments that the photogrammetry image acquisition tasks can be automatically completed by photogrammetric control system .%设计槽式集热器(parabolic trough collector ,PTC)摄影测量控制系统,可以自动完成摄影测量中的图像采集任务。根据系统需求,采用8.5 m×17 m的矩形导轨,作为滑块的搭载平台;采用摩擦轮驱动方式,完成相机在直线上的平移任务;采用由舵机提供动力输出的三轴云台,完成相机在三个维度上的姿态调整;系统控制软件在PC上运行,实现系统调试、站位参数设置与保存以及自动运行的功能。最终,对控制系统的各个部分进行组装,完成PTC摄影测量控制系统的样机设计与制作。系统调试表明,该控制系统满足设计要求,可以完成大型槽式太阳能集热器支架以及面形的图像采集任务。

  3. Sener Parabolic trough Collector Design and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, N.; Vazquez, J.; Domingo, M.

    2006-07-01

    Parabolic trough technology is nowadays the most extended solar system for electricity production or steam generation for industrial processes. It is basically composed of a collector field which converts solar irradiation into thermal energy- and a conventional thermal-toelectric conversion Rankine cycle. In these plants, a storage system can be implemented in order to increase plant production. Collector field represents more than half the total plant cost. Therefore, SENER has made an effort to improve current state of the art of parabolic trough collector (PTC from now on) design in order to reduce plant costs. Main characteristic of SENER design lies on the use of a torque tube as the central body of the collector. This tube is made of steel sheet, with a thickness depending on wind load requirements on the collector. This concept is very cost-effective, since the man-power needed to manufacture the tube has been minimized. Continuous cylindrical shape of the torque tube provides a high torsional stiffness, which is one of the main parameters affecting collector optical efficiency. Cantilever arms connect the mirrors to the central torque tube. These components are usually made of welded tube profiles. In SENER's new design, these cantilever arms are made using metal sheet stamping techniques (SENER patent), thus reducing manufacturing and mounting costs. SENER PTC module (called SENERTROUGH) is 12 meters long and has an aperture width of 5,76 m. HCE and curved mirrors existing in the market - as well as new products from different manufacturers - can be easily attached to collector structure. Two prototype modules of SENERTROUGH have been mounted and tested at the CIEMAT-PSA facilities. Several performance tests were performed in order to assure the validity of the concept. (Author)

  4. Theoretical variations of the thermal performance of different solar collectors and solar combi systems as function of the varying yearly weather conditions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The thermal performances of solar collectors and solar combi systems with different solar fractions are studied under the influence of the Danish Design Reference Year, DRY data file, and measured weather data from a solar radiation measurement station situated at the Technical University...... of Denmark in Kgs. Lyngby. The data from DRY data file are used for any location in Denmark. The thermal performances of the solar heating systems are calculated by means of validated computer models. The measured yearly solar radiation varies by approximately 23% in the period from 1990 until 2002......, and the investigations show that it is not possible to predict the yearly solar radiation on a tilted surface based on the yearly global radiation. The annual thermal performance of solar combi systems cannot with reasonable approximation be fitted to a linear function of the annual total radiation on the solar...

  5. Development and Clinical Evaluation of MatrixMANDIBLE Subcondylar Plates System (Synthes)

    OpenAIRE

    Cortelazzi, Roberto; Altacera, Mario; Turco, Monica; Antonicelli, Viviana; De Benedittis, Michele

    2014-01-01

    In this article, authors report the different steps of development and clinical validation of MatrixMANDIBLE Subcondylar Plates (Synthes, Soletta, Switzerland), a specialized osteosynthesis system developed by Synthes during the past 4 years. Between 2009 and 2013, a total of 62 patients were treated for subcondylar and condylar neck fractures via a preauricular or retromandibular/transparotid approach. The MatrixMANDIBLE Subcondylar Plates System consists of a Trapezoidal Plate, a three-dime...

  6. The Olympic Collectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Products bearing Beijing Olympics images are big business for China’s dedicated collectors As every December over last few years,retired teacher Li Mi in Beijing started to collect thick stacks of postcards sent by her former students from her mailbox in the weeks running up to the New Year.

  7. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  8. A dynamic model of an innovative high-temperature solar heating and cooling system

    OpenAIRE

    Buonomano Annamaria; Calise Francesco; Vicidomini Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a new simulation model of a novel solar heating and cooling system based on innovative high temperature flat plate evacuated solar thermal collector is presented. The system configuration includes: flat-plate evacuated solar collectors, a double-stage LiBr-H2O absorption chiller, gas-fired auxiliary heater, a closed loop cooling tower, pumps, heat exchangers, storage tanks, valves, mixers and controllers. The novelty of this study lies in the ...

  9. Two new designs of parabolic solar collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi Sadaghiyani Omid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two new compound parabolic trough and dish solar collectors are presented with their working principles. First, the curves of mirrors are defined and the mathematical formulation as one analytical method is used to trace the sun rays and recognize the focus point. As a result of the ray tracing, the distribution of heat flux around the inner wall can be reached. Next, the heat fluxes are calculated versus several absorption coefficients. These heat flux distributions around absorber tube are functions of angle in polar coordinate system. Considering, the achieved heat flux distribution are used as a thermal boundary condition. After that, Finite Volume Methods (FVM are applied for simulation of absorber tube. The validation of solving method is done by comparing with Dudley's results at Sandia National Research Laboratory. Also, in order to have a good comparison between LS-2 and two new designed collectors, some of their parameters are considered equal with together. These parameters are consist of: the aperture area, the measures of tube geometry, the thermal properties of absorber tube, the working fluid, the solar radiation intensity and the mass flow rate of LS-2 collector are applied for simulation of the new presented collectors. After the validation of the used numerical models, this method is applied to simulation of the new designed models. Finally, the outlet results of new designed collector are compared with LS-2 classic collector. Obviously, the obtained results from the comparison show the improving of the new designed parabolic collectors efficiency. In the best case-study, the improving of efficiency are about 10% and 20% for linear and convoluted models respectively.

  10. Evaluation of initial collector field performance at the Langley Solar Building Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, R. J.; Knoll, R. H.; Jensen, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal performance of the solar collector field for the NASA Langley Solar Building Test Facility is given for October 1976 through January 1977. An 1180 square meter solar collector field with seven collector designs helped to provide hot water for the building heating system and absorption air conditioner. The collectors were arranged in 12 rows with nominally 51 collectors per row. Heat transfer rates for each row are calculated and recorded along with sensor, insolation, and weather data every 5 minutes using a mini-computer. The agreement between the experimental and predicted collector efficiencies was generally within five percentage points.

  11. 一种新型双效太阳能平板集热器的光热性能研究%STUDY OF THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF A NOVEL DUAL-FUNCTION FLAT PLATE SOLAR COLLECTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季杰; 马进伟; 孙炜; 张杨; 范雯; 何伟; 张爱凤

    2011-01-01

    A novel flat-plane solar collector with L-shaped fins was proposed in this paper, which worked as air heater or water heater according to the season and applications. Experimental investigation was carried out to study the performance of the collector under different operating conditions. The experimental results indicate that the thermal efficiency reaches 40% as air heater that is higher than conventional flat plane air heater, the thermal efficiency of the collector is 49.7% as water heater. Therefore the novel collector can be applied as both air heater and water heater with high efficiency.%提出一种新型太阳能平板集热器,可实现加热空气与加热水两种工作模式,并设计了一种新型的“L”型翅片结构将两种功能有效结合.对这种新型集热器的不同工况分别进行了实验测试,得到两种工作状态下的太阳能光热转换效率.实验表明,空气集热日平均光热转换效率可达到40%以上,高于传统的空气集热器;水集热的效率达到49.7%.两种集热功能均能以高效率实现.

  12. Entropy generation in the flow system generated in between two parallel plates due to bivertical motion of the top plate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmet Z Sahin; Bekir S Yilbas

    2009-06-01

    Thermodynamic irreversibility in the flow system provides information on the energy and power losses in the system. Minimization of entropy generation in the flow system enables for the parametric optimization of the system operation. In the present study, parallel plates, in between, filled with the fluid are considered. The fluid motion resulted from the bi-vertical compression of the top plate of the parallel plates is examined. The entropy generation rate in the flow system is formulated after considering the constant movement of the top plate, constant applied load, and the combination of the constant velocity and applied load to the top plate. The optimum operating conditions related to the fluid motion in between the parallel plates is determined through the entropy analysis. It is found that the combination of the constant velocity and the constant applied load resulted in the low entropy generation rate.

  13. Development and Clinical Evaluation of MatrixMANDIBLE Subcondylar Plates System (Synthes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelazzi, Roberto; Altacera, Mario; Turco, Monica; Antonicelli, Viviana; De Benedittis, Michele

    2015-06-01

    In this article, authors report the different steps of development and clinical validation of MatrixMANDIBLE Subcondylar Plates (Synthes, Soletta, Switzerland), a specialized osteosynthesis system developed by Synthes during the past 4 years. Between 2009 and 2013, a total of 62 patients were treated for subcondylar and condylar neck fractures via a preauricular or retromandibular/transparotid approach. The MatrixMANDIBLE Subcondylar Plates System consists of a Trapezoidal Plate, a three-dimensional (3D) 4-hole 1.0-mm plate for smaller fracture areas, the Lambda Plate, a 7-hole 1.0-mm linear plate which mimics the two miniplates technique, and the Strut Plate, a 3D 1.0-mm plate with great versatility of employment. All devices satisfy the principles of a functionally stable osteosynthesis as stated by Champy et al. None of the plates broke and no macroscopic condylar displacement was noted on radiological follow-up. Clinical and functional parameters assessed at 6 months postoperative (mandibular range of motion, pain, dental occlusion) were almost restored. MatrixMANDIBLE Subcondylar Plates System (Synthes) has proved to provide sufficient mechanical stiffness and anatomically accurate fracture reduction to avoid major postoperative drawbacks of subcondylar and condylar neck fractures.

  14. Characterization of gold and nickel coating on AISI 304 stainless steel for use in the fabrication of current collector plates for fuel cells; Caracterizacion de recubrimientos de oro y niquel realizados sobre acero inoxidable AISI 304 para su empleo en la fabricacion de placas colectoras de corriente para celdas de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Hernandez, J. Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)] e-mail: jrflores@iie.org.mx; Aguilar Gama, M. Tulio [UNAM. Facultad de Quimica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cano Castillo, Ulises; Albarran, Lorena [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Olvera, J. Carlos; Orozco, German [CIDETEQ, Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Among the different components that compose fuel cell technology (MEA, bipolar plates, seals, etc.) current collector plates play an important role in the good performance of fuel cells, since they collect all of the current generated and distribute it to the external circuit. Therefore, the most important properties that the current collector plates should have are excellent conductivity and good resistance to the corrosive conditions present in the fuel cell. This document presents results obtained during the nickel and gold electrodeposition process on AISI 304 stainless steel and the morphology and thickness of each coating, their adhesion, hardness and conductivity values. Finally, results obtained during some of the electrochemical tests performed on the coatings are shown. [Spanish] De los diferentes componentes que integran la tecnologia de celdas de combustible (MEA's, placas bipolares, sellos, etc.), las placas colectoras de corriente tienen un importante rol en el buen desempeno de la celdas de combustibles, ya que en estas placas se colecta toda la corriente generada y se distribuye al circuito externo. Debido a esto, las propiedades mas importantes que deben tener las placas colectaras de corriente son: excelente conductividad y buena resistencia a las condiciones corrosivas presentes en la celda de combustible. En este documento se presentan los resultados obtenidos en el proceso de electrodeposicion de niquel y oro sobre acero inoxidable AISI 304, asi como la morfologia y el espesor de cada recubrimiento, sus valores de adherencia, dureza y conductividad. Finalmente se muestran tambien los resultados obtenidos de algunas pruebas electroquimicas a los que fueron sometidos los recubrimientos.

  15. PENGGUNAAN SANDWICH PLATE SYSTEM (SPS PADA KONSTRUKSI INNER BOTTOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Baidowi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi yang semakin maju memberikan alternatif-alternatif dalam memperbaiki berbagai bentuk sistem, termasuk di dalamnya konstruksi struktur kapal. Latar belakang dari penelitian ini adalah pada permasalahan kebutuhan material ringan pada kapal, kecepatan proses produksi, penyederhanaan konstruksi dan biaya perawatan kapal yang rendah. Penggunaan material ringan Sandwich Plate System (SPS menjadi salah satu jawaban dari permasalahan-permasalahan tersebut, penggunaan SPS dapat menyederhanakan bentuk dari konstruksi kapal dengan menghilangkan penegar inner bottom longitudinal dan mampu mengurangi Light Weight Tonnase (LWT. Artikel ini membahas perbandingan pola distribusi tegangan dan deformasi pada konstruksi bottom yang menggunakan SPS dan baja AH36, selain dari itu juga mengetahui seberapa besar pengurangan LWT yang dihasilkan untuk meningkatkan Payload kapal. Analisa dilakukan dengan simulasi numerik berdasarkan FEM pada konstruksi inner bottom dengan pembebanan muatan. Dari hasil simulasi didapatkan besar tegangan maksimal untuk material baja AH36 sebesar 226 Mpa dengan menggunakan penegar, sedangkan konstuksi dengan material SPS tegangan maksimal yang dihasilkan sebesar 221 Mpa tanpa penggunaan penegar, dengan deformasi maksimal untuk AH36 dan SPS yaitu 77 mm yang terjadi pada bagian tengah blok konstruksi inner bottom. Dengan hilangnya penegar berat konstruksi berkurang sebesar 13,05% dari penggunaan material baja AH36 sehingga memberikan peningkatan payload sebesar 13,05%. Simulasi penelitian dilakukan pada kapal Bulk Carrier (BC.

  16. Entrance C - New Automatic Number Plate Recognition System

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Entrance C (Satigny) is now equipped with a latest-generation Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) system and a fast-action road gate.   During the month of August, Entrance C will be continuously open from 7.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. (working days only). The security guards will open the gate as usual from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. For the rest of the working day (9.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.) the gate will operate automatically. Please observe the following points:       Stop at the STOP sign on the ground     Position yourself next to the card reader for optimal recognition     Motorcyclists must use their CERN card     Cyclists may not activate the gate and should use the bicycle turnstile     Keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front of you   If access is denied, please check that your vehicle regist...

  17. Entrance C - New Automatic Number Plate Recognition System

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Entrance C (Satigny) is now equipped with a latest-generation Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) system and a fast-action road gate.   During the month of August, Entrance C will be continuously open from 7.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. (working days only). The security guards will open the gate as usual from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. For the rest of the working day (9.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.) the gate will operate automatically. Please observe the following points:       Stop at the STOP sign on the ground     Position yourself next to the card reader for optimal recognition     Motorcyclists must use their CERN card     Cyclists may not activate the gate and should use the bicycle turnstile     Keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front of you   If access is denied, please check that your vehicle regist...

  18. Use of membrane collectors in electrostatic precipitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, D J; Pasic, H; Alam, M K; Shi, L; Haynes, B; Cochran, J; Khan, W

    2001-10-01

    Membrane collection surfaces, developed and patented by researchers at Ohio University, were used to replace steel plates in a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Such replacement facilitates tension-based rapping, which shears the adhered particle layer from the collector surface more effectively than hammer-based rapping. Tests were performed to measure the collection efficiency of the membranes and to quantify the potential improvements of this novel cleaning technique with respect to re-entrainment. Results indicate that even semiconductor materials (e.g., carbon fibers) collect ash nearly as efficiently as steel plates, potentially indicating that collection surface resistivity is primarily dictated by the accumulated ash layer and not by the underlying plate conductivity. In addition, virtually all sheared particles separated from the collecting membranes fell within the boundary layer of the membrane, indicating extremely low potential for re-entrainment.

  19. Study on Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Steam Generation System%抛物槽式太阳能蒸汽发生系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志超; 隋军; 刘启斌; 金红光

    2011-01-01

    针对600m2抛物槽式太阳能试验台,建立了太阳能蒸汽发生系统的数学模型,开展了模拟研究,并验证了集热场模型的正确性.研究了太阳直射辐射、入射角等因素对系统性能的影响,分析了系统动态特性,利用图像分析(EUD)方法分析了系统的能量转化过程.结果表明,系统集热效率在高温段下降程度加剧;集热效率随太阳入射角的增大而越小,入射角由0°变化到40°时,集热效率下降约30%,系统件能提升空间主要在降低光学损失和改善光热转化过程.研究结果将为抛物槽式太阳能集热技术和蒸汽发生系统的设计提供依据.%Based on the experimental devices of the 600 m2 parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) steam generation system, a comprehensive model was developed to predict overall system performance. This model was verified by the experimental data from literature. The effects of direct normal irradiation (DNI), incident angle and operational temperature were analyzed. Energy conversion process was evaluated with the aid of Energy Utilization Diagram (EUD) methodology.The results showed that, the energy efficiency decreased intensely in the high-temperature segment with the increase of the operation temperature; the energy efficiency of the collector dropped about 30%, when the incident angle increased from 0° to 40°. The study also pointed out that the exergy destruction mainly took place in the process of optical loss and optic-thermal conversion. The results will provide a reference for the design of parabolic trough solar collectors and steam generation system.

  20. Thermotropic layers for glazing of windows, facades and solar collectors. Final report; Thermotrope Systeme fuer Verglasung von Fenstern, Fassaden und Solarkollektoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahns, E.; Gerst, M.; Nitz, P. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany); Grochal, P.; Raicu, A. [Sto AG, Stuehlingen (Germany); Blessing, R.; Wilson, H.R. [INTERPANE Entwicklungs- und Beratungsgesellschaft mbH und Co. KG, Lauenfoerde (Germany); Wittwer, V.; Fuchs, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Increased use of solar energy is needed to save heating energy. In the German climate, however, passive use of solar energy with windows and facades in summer is also accompanied by the risk of overheating the living areas. Simple, automatically regulating systems to protect against overheating are not commercially available at present. The project, `Thermotropic Layers for Glazing of Windows, Facades and Solar Collectors`, aimed to develop thermotropic shading systems for windows, facades and solar collectors. Thermotropic hydrogels and polymer blends were developed, large-area samples produced and characterised under practice-relevant conditions. Building simulations proved that with the help of the polymer systems developed, heating costs can be saved by passive use of solar energy. The knowledge gained has not yet resulted in a commercially marketable product. Processing of large-area products and lifetime testing could not be brought to completion within the project duration. The project partners have thus lodged an application for funding by BMBF (German Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology) to continue the work. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Heizkostenersparnis ist der verstaerkte Einsatz von Sonnenenergie notwendig. In unserem Klima birgt die passive Nutzung von Sonnenenergie ueber Fenster und Fassaden im Sommer aber die Gefahr der Ueberhitzung der Wohnraeume. Einfache, selbstregelnde Systeme als Ueberhitzungsschutz sind zur Zeit am Markt nicht erhaeltlich. Das Projekt `Thermotrope Schichten fuer Verglasung von Fenstern, Fassaden und Solarkollektoren` hatte die Entwicklung von thermotropen Abschattungssystemen fuer Fenster, Fassaden und Sonnenkollektoren zum Ziel. Es wurden thermotrope Hydrogele und Polymerblends entwickelt, flaechige Muster hergestellt und in anwendungsnahen Pruefungen charakterisiert. Gebaeudesimulationen erbrachten den Nachweis, dass mit den entwickelten Polymersystemen eine Heizkostenersparnis durch passive

  1. Thermal performance evaluation of the Calmac (liquid) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, H.

    1978-01-01

    The procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on the S. N. 1, (liquid) solar collector are presented. The flat plate collector uses water as the working fluid. The absorber plate is aluminum with plastic tubes coated with urethane black. The glazing consists of .040 in fiberglass reinforced polyester. The collector weight is 78.5 pounds with overall external dimensions of approximately 50.3in. x 98.3in. x 3.8in. The following information is given: thermal performance data under simulated conditions, structural behavior under static loading, and the effects of long term exposure to natural weathering. These tests were conducted using the MSFC Solar Simulator.

  2. Investigation of methods to transfer heat from solar liquid-heating collectors to heat storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Winter, F.

    1976-01-01

    A number of possible solutions to the problems of corrosion and freezing in flat-plate collectors are listed and discussed briefly. Specific considerations involved in the choice and definition of these solutions are discussed in greater detail. (MHR)

  3. Analysis of Heat Transfer Behaviour of the Conduction Cold Plate System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangChun-xin; DangChao-Bin

    1995-01-01

    The heat-transfer behaviour of the conduction cold plate system used for avionics is investigated in this paper.The steady-state temperature profile for the cold plate is derived and the relationship between the coolant mass flowrate,the heat load and the highest cold plate temperature is established.A model is proposed to describe the transient thermal rosponse of the cold plate under thermal shock condition.The analytic solution of the transient heat transfer within the cold plate is provided.The results of this paper agree with those of the finite element method and can be used for the structural design and performance evaluation of cold plate system.

  4. Thermal performance evaluation of the Solargenics solar collector at outdoor conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Test procedures used during the performance of an evaluation program are presented. The test program was conducted to obtain the following performance data and information on the solar collector. (1) thermal performance data under outdoor conditions; (2) structural behavior of collector under static conditions; (3) effects of long term exposure to material weathering elements. The solargenics is a liquid, single-glazed, flat plate collector. Approximate dimensions of each collector are 240 inches long, 36 inches wide, and 3.5 inches in depth.

  5. Testing of a solar collector with concentrating mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Commerical flat-plate solar collector with concentrating mirrors has been tested for thermal performance, structured behavior under static load, and effects of long-term natural weathering. Report documents results of testing and concludes that absorptivity was degraded by weathering.

  6. Design and fabrication considerations of EUVL collectors for HVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, G.; Cassol, G. L.; Kools, J.; Prea, M.; Salmaso, G.; Valsecchi, G.; Zocchi, F. E.; Bolshukhin, D.; Schürmann, M.; Schriever, G.; Mader, A.; Zink, P.

    2009-03-01

    The power roadmap for EUVL high volume manufacturing (HVM) exceeds the 200W EUV in-band power at intermediate focus, thus posing more demanding requirements on HVM sources, debris suppression systems and collectors. Starting from the lessons learned in the design and fabrication of the grazing incidence collectors for the Alpha EUVL scanners, Media Lario Technologies is developing HVM optical solutions that enable designed-in lifetime improvements, such as larger source-collector distances, optimized collection efficiency through larger collected solid angles, and customized EUV reflective layers. The optical design of an HVM collector is described together with the selection of the sacrificial ruthenium reflective layer. The water cooling layout of the collector is evolved from the integrated cooling technology developed at Alpha level into an innovative cooling layout that minimizes the thermal gradients across the mirrors and allows controlling the optical performance at the far-field plane. Finally, the evolution of the collector's manufacturing technologies for HVM is discussed. XTREME technologies and Philips Extreme UV support this work by integrating the collector in the complete source collector module (SoCoMo). At system level, each component of the SoCoMo is part of a development and improvement plan leading to a comprehensive system that will fulfill the 200+ W EUV in-band power at intermediate focus.

  7. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: Solar kinetics T-600 solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, T. D.

    1981-04-01

    A program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors with potential for use in industrial process heat and enhanced oil recovery applications is discussed. The thermal performance predictions for the Solar Kinetics T-600 solar line focusing parabolic trough collector are presented for three output temperatures at five cities in the US.

  8. A solar energy collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyev, L.L.; Avakyan, Yu V.; Dabagyan, T.N.; Grakovich, L.P.; Khustalev, D.K.; Morgun, V.A.; Vartanyan, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    During collector operation, solar emission is absorbed by the evaporator section of the heating tube; the degree of blackness of the forward wall of the section is increased significantly by the use of corrugations in this section. Boiling of the working fluid in the longitudinal slotted channels is accompanied by outbursts of the steam fluid mixture in the direction of the forward wall, resulting in wetting of the longitudinal corrugation on this wall. In this solar collector, there is a continuous flow of the working fluid onto the internal surface of the leading wall of the evaporation section of the heat tube; the working fluid evaporation process is accelerated by the spraying resulting from the popping of vapor bubbles.

  9. Solar collector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  10. The Demonstrator for the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Euteneuer, F.; Ulbricht, D.; Lauterjung, J.; Bailo, D.; Jeffery, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    An important outcome of the 4-year Preparatory Phase of the ESFRI project European Plate Observing System (EPOS) was the development and first implementation of the EPOS Demonstrator by the project's ICT Working Group 7. The Demonstrator implements the vertical integration of the three-layer architectural scheme for EPOS, connecting the Integrated Core Services (ICS), Thematic Core Services (TCS) and the National Research Infrastructures (NRI). The demonstrator provides a single GUI with central key discovery and query functionalities, based on already existing services by the seismic, geologic and geodetic communities. More specifically the seismic services of the Demonstrator utilize webservices and APIs for data and discovery of raw seismic data (FDSN webservices by the EIDA Network), events (Geoportal by EMSC) and analytical data products (e.g., hazard maps by EFEHR via OGC WMS). For geologic services, the EPOS Demonstrator accesses OneGeology Europe which serves the community with geologic maps and point information via OGC webservices. The Demonstrator also provides access to raw geodetic data via a newly developed universal tool called GSAC. The Demonstrator itself resembles the future Integrated Core Service (ICS) and provides direct access to the end user. Its core functionality lies in a metadata catalogue, which serves as the central information hub and stores information about all RIs, related persons, projects, financial background and technical access information. The database schema of the catalogue is based on CERIF, which has been slightly adapted. Currently, the portal provides basic query functions as well as cross domain search. [www.epos.cineca.it

  11. Experimental and Theoretical Study for Performance Enhancement of Air Solar Collectors by Using Different Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Mohammad Saleh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and theoretical study has been done to investigate the thermal performance of different types of air solar collectors, In this work air solar collector with a dimensions of (120 cm x90 cm x12 cm , was tested under climate condition of Baghdad city with a (43° tilt angel by using the absorber plate (1.45 mm thickness, 115 cm height x 84 cm width, which was manufactured from iron painted with a black matt. The experimental test deals with five types of absorber:- Conventional smooth flat plate absorber , Finned absorber , Corrugated absorber plate, Iron wire mesh on absorber And matrix of porous media on absorber . The hourly and average efficiency of the collectors were investigated for three values of mass flow rates (0.016 kg/s to 0.027 kg/s for each type of collector and then the porosity for the last collector type was tested by changing the porosity of porous media. A typical air solar collector has been studied Theoretically to build a standard software for testing any type of air solar collectors with local weather data . From the experimental study it can be seen by using some obstacle material to the air flow (fins, corrugated absorber plate, iron wire mesh porous media on the absorber could be enhanced the efficiencies not less than 4 % for finned type and 8 % for corrugated and 25 % for mesh and 30 % for porous media comparing with flat plate (smooth collector . Theoretically, the results showed that the collector with high convention heat transfer coefficient porous media has high hourly efficiency about (η = 56 % and iron wire mesh on absorber ( η = 52 % , on the other side the minimum performance occurred in the flat plate absorber (η = 28 %. Comparison of results reveals that the theoretical predictions agree reasonably well with experimental results. And the difference between the theoretical and experimental efficiency in general was between (1─ 15 %.

  12. Risk factors for breakage of biodegradable plate systems after bilateral sagittal split mandibular setback surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Izumi; Igawa, Kaori; Nagata, Jyunko; Yoshida, Maho; Baba, Takashi; Ichiki, Takeshi; Kondoh, Yudai; Takamori, Koichi; Kashima, Koji; Sakoda, Sumio

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with breakage of biodegradable plate systems after bilateral sagittal split mandibular setback. We studied 169 Japanese adults (62 men, 107 women; age range 16-53 years) with deformities of the jaw diagnosed as mandibular prognathism. All patients were treated by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) with 2 biodegradable fixation plates and screws at the anterior mandibular ramus. We collected the following data from the medical records and radiological findings: sex; age; degree of setback; presence of asymmetry; presence of open bite; operation; design of the plate; operating time; and blood loss. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to find the factors that were independently associated with the dependent variable: breakage of the biodegradable plate system. In 10 of the 169 patients (6%) the biodegradable plate system for the BSSO broke. Factors that influenced whether or not the biodegradable plate system fractured were if they were asymmetrical (odds ratio (OR) 5.35; P=0.02) and had an open bite (OR 5.20; P=0.02). Asymmetry or open bite was significantly associated with breaks in the biodegradable plate system. Biodegradable plates should be used only when loading is minimal.

  13. 平板太阳能集热器与建筑物屋顶的一体化结构设计%Integrated Structural Design of Flat-plate Solar Collector and Building Roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁春华; 吴永明; 曾玲

    2015-01-01

    在建筑设计阶段考虑太阳能集热器与建筑物屋顶的一体化结构设计,可以满足太阳能利用、设施维护、屋顶空间利用和建筑美学等要求。在计算出接收太阳辐射的最佳屋顶坡度的基础上,对双坡对称屋顶、双坡不对称屋顶、单坡屋顶和平屋顶等几种屋顶结构形式进行太阳能集热器安装结构的设计比较,分别分析在不同纬度地区每种屋顶结构在可利用的屋面面积、有效集热器面积和屋顶空间利用等方面的优势和劣势。为了便于太阳能集热器及其水管的安装与维护,提出了一种有维护通道的坡屋顶结构形式。%Considering the integrated structural design of solar collectors and building roof in the building design stage, it is able to satisfy the requirements of solar energy utilization, equipment mainte-nance, roof-space utilization and architectural aesthetics. On the basis of calculating the roof obliquity for best receiving solar radiation, several forms of roof structure are presented, and their advantages and disad-vantages in areas of different latitude are analyzed in roof area, effective area of solar collector and roof space utilization. To be convenient for installation and maintenance of solar collectors and their pipes, a roof structure with maintenance alleyway is presented.

  14. Effects of Thickness Deviation of Elastic Plates in Multi-Layered Resonance Systems on Frequency Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; ZHANG Shu-Yi; FAN Li

    2009-01-01

    A model of high-overtone bulk acoustic resonators is used to study the effects of thickness deviation of elastic plates on resonance frequency spectra in planar multi-layered systems. The resonance frequency shifts induced by the thickness deviations of the elastic plates periodically vary with the resonance order, which depends on the acoustic impedance ratios of the elastic plates to piezoelectric patches. Additionally, the center lines of the frequency shift oscillations Hnearly change with the orders of the resonance modes, and their slopes are sensitive to the thickness deviations of the plates, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate the thickness deviations.

  15. Evaluation of tin plating systems for a high-noble alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbery, T A; Davis, R D

    1993-01-01

    The tensile bond strength of Panavia EX to a high-noble alloy prepared by abrasive spraying and tin plating was measured. Two different intraoperatory tin plating systems were compared. Disk-shaped specimens were cast in type III gold, abrasive sprayed with aluminum oxide, and divided into three groups of 30 specimens each. Specimens in one group were tin plated by using a Kura Ace Mini unit, those in the second group were tin plated by using a Micro Tin unit, and those in the third group were not tin plated and served as the control group. Disks within each group were luted to each other with Panavia EX. The specimens were thermocycled and tested in tension. There was no significant difference between the two tin plated groups; however, the luting bond of both experimental groups was significantly stronger than was that of the control (P < .05).

  16. Mathematical modelling of unglazed solar collectors under extreme operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunea, M.; Perers, Bengt; Eicher, S.

    2015-01-01

    average temperature levels at the evaporator. Simulation of these systems requires a collector model that can take into account operation at very low temperatures (below freezing) and under various weather conditions, particularly operation without solar irradiation.A solar collector mathematical model......Combined heat pumps and solar collectors got a renewed interest on the heating system market worldwide. Connected to the heat pump evaporator, unglazed solar collectors can considerably increase their efficiency, but they also raise the coefficient of performance of the heat pump with higher...... was found due to the condensation phenomenon and up to 40% due to frost under no solar irradiation. This work also points out the influence of the operating conditions on the collector's characteristics.Based on experiments carried out at a test facility, every heat flux on the absorber was separately...

  17. Thermal modeling and the optimized design of metal plate cooling systems for single concentrator solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Min; Chen Nuo-Fu; Deng Jin-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    A metal plate cooling model for 400× single concentrator solar cells was established.The effects of the thickness and the radius of the metal plate,and the air environment on the temperature of the solar cells were analyzed in detail.It is shown that the temperature of the solar cells decreased sharply at the beginning,with the increase in the thickness of the metal plate,and then changed more smoothly.When the radius of the metal plate was 4 cm and the thickness increased to 2 mm or thicker,the temperature of the solar cell basically stabilized at about 53 ℃.Increasing the radius of the metal plate and the convective transfer coefficient made the temperature of the solar cell decrease remarkably.The effects of A1 and Cu as the metal plate material on cooling were analyzed contrastively,and demonstrated the superiority of Al material for the cooling system.Furthermore,considering cost reduction,space holding and the stress of the system,we optimized the structural design of the metal plate.The simulated results can be referred to the design of the structure for the metal plate.Finally,a method to devise the structure of the metal plate for single concentrator solar cells was given.

  18. Cost Comparative Study On Steel Frame Folded Plate Roofing System Vs Conventional Truss Roofing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to ever-increasing of construction materials, it becomes the foremost duty of a civil engineer to design economical and durable structures. In this project an attempt has been made to compare the cost of two types of roofing systems viz. conventional truss roofing system and steel frame folded plate roofing system. The steel frame folded plate roofing system, though found to be economical, is not widely practiced in India due to lack of knowledge regarding its analysis and design. On contrary to it, the conventional truss roofing system still remains as the widely adopted method of roofing for different types of buildings due to the available literature on its analysis, design and construction. The analysis and design of conventional truss roofing system and folded plate roofing system have been carried out for various spans. The analysis is carried out in STAAD.Pro 2004, which is based on stiffness method. Load calculations and design done manually, based on IS:875-1987, IS:800- 1984 & SP:38(1987

  19. An analytical investigation of the performance of solar collectors as nighttime heat radiators in airconditioning cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

    1979-01-01

    It was found that if the upper and lower ends of a collector were opened, large free convention currents may be set up between the collector surface and the cover glass(es) which can result in appreciable heat rejection. If the collector is so designed that both plates surfaces are exposed to convection currents when the upper and lower ends of the collector enclosure are opened, the heat rejection rate is 300 watts sq m when the plate is 13 C above ambient. This is sufficient to permit a collector array designed to provide 100 percent of the heating needs of a home to reject the accumulated daily air conditioning load during the course of a summer night. This also permits the overall energy requirements for cooling to be reduced by at least 15 percent and shift the load on the utility entirely to the nighttime hours.

  20. New performance testing stand for the characterization of innovative collectors and optical components; Neuer Leistungsteststand zur Charakterisierung innovativer Kollektoren und optischer Komponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahr, Sven; Schaefer, Arim; Mehnert, Stefan; Kramer, Korbinian; Hess, Stefan; Thoma, Christoph; Richter, Jens; Stryi-Hipp, Gerhard [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany); Luginsland, Frank [PSE AG, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The variety of collector designs is on the increase. It is expected that technologies such as concentrating collectors, solar air collectors, heat pipe collectors and facade integrated collectors increase their market shares. In order to meet the various requirements for the measurement of this collector design, the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany) and PSE-AG (Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany) developed a new modular outdoor test stand was developed for performance testing. This test stand meets the highest requirements on tracking accuracy and flexibility. If necessary, mobile test equipment for testing of air temperature collectors and medium temperature collectors can be integrated easily.

  1. Study of corrosion in multimetallic systems. Task 2 of solar collector studies for solar heating and cooling applications. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegle, R B

    1980-04-11

    Corrosion measurements were made on candidate alloys of construction for non-concentrating solar collectors under simulated conditions of collector operation. Materials evaluated were aluminum alloys 1100, 3003, and 6061, copper alloy 122, Type 444 stainless steel, and 1018 plain carbon steel. The solutions used were equivolume mixtures of ethylene glycol and water, and propylene glycol and water. They were used without corrosion inhibitors but with addition of chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate ions. The influences of dissolved oxygen, solution flow velocity, and heat transfer were evaluated. Corrosion morphologies investigated were general attack, pitting, crevice corrosion, and galvanic corrosion. Experimental results indicated that aluminum alloys can experience severe pitting and crevice corrosion at chloride concentrations approaching 50 ppM. The corrosion rate of copper exceeded about 100 ..mu..m/yr in ethylene glycol solutions and about 80 ..mu..m/yr in propylene glycol solutions. Crevice corrosion was not observed for copper, but severe galvanic corrosion occurred when it was coupled to T444 stainless steel. T444 steel corroded at rates of less than 1 ..mu..m/yr under all exposure conditions. During circulation at 100 C in the presence of air, ethylene glycol solutions acidified because of degradation of the glycol. The initial pH of propylene glycol solutions was already low, about 4.5. The inherent corrosivity of propylene glycol was somewhat less than that of ethylene glycol, although this difference was usually less than a factor of two in measured corrosion rates. It was concluded that he corrosion rates of aluminum alloys and copper were prohibitively high in uninhibited glycol solutions, and that corrosion inhibitors are definitely necessary in operating systems.

  2. Selective optical coatings for solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    For best performance, energy-absorbing surface of solar collector should be characterized by high ratio of solar absorptance to thermal emitance. Report on optical characteristics of several chemical treatments and electrodeposited coatings for metal solar-absorbing surfaces should interest designers and users of solar-energy systems. Moisture resistance of some coatings is also reported.

  3. A test program for solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Rigorous environmental and performance tests qualify solar collector for use in residential solar-energy systems. Testing over 7 month period examined pressurized effects, wind and snow loading, hail damage, solar and thermal degradation, effects of pollutants, efficiency, and outgassing. Test procedures and results are summarized in tables, graphs, and text.

  4. Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the solargenics (liquid) solar collector at outdoor conditions. [Marshall Space Flight Center Solar test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures and the results obtained during the evaluation of a single-covered liquid solar collector are presented. The tests were performed under outdoor natural conditions. The collector was under stagnation conditions for a total of approximately ten months. The solar collector is a liquid, single-glazed, flat plate collector, and is about 240 inches long, and 3.8 inches in depth.

  5. EFFICIENCY AND LIFETIME OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR SOLAR HEATING PLANTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Chen, Ziqian; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The 12.5 m² flat plate solar collector HT, today marketed by Arcon Solvarme A/S, has been used in solar heating plants in Scandinavia since 1983. The collector is designed to operate in a temperature interval between 40°C and 90°C. The efficiency of the collector has been strongly improved since...... it was introduced on the market. The paper will present the increase of the efficiency of the collector due to technical improvements since 1983. Further, measurements from the spring of 2009 of the efficiency of two HT collectors, which have been in operation in the solar heating plant Ottrupgaard, Skørping......, Denmark since 1994 with a constant high flow rate and in the solar heating plant Marstal, Denmark since 1996 with a variable flow rate, will be presented. The efficiencies will be compared to the efficiencies of the collectors when they were first installed in the solar heating plants. The measurements...

  6. EFFICIENCY AND LIFETIME OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR SOLAR HEATING PLANTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 12.5 m² flat plate solar collector HT, today marketed by Arcon Solvarme A/S, has been used in solar heating plants in Scandinavia since 1983. The collector is designed to operate in a temperature interval between 40°C and 90°C. The efficiency of the collector has been strongly improved since...... it was introduced on the market. The paper will present the increase of the efficiency of the collector due to technical improvements since 1983. Further, measurements from the spring of 2009 of the efficiency of two HT collectors, which have been in operation in the solar heating plant Ottrupgaard, Skørping......, Denmark since 1994 with a constant high flow rate and in the solar heating plant Marstal, Denmark since 1996 with a variable flow rate, will be presented. The efficiencies will be compared to the efficiencies of the collectors when they were first installed in the solar heating plants. The measurements...

  7. Modelling Bending Wave Transmission across Coupled Plate Systems Comprising Periodic Ribbed Plates in the Low-, Mid-, and High-Frequency Ranges Using Forms of Statistical Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of bending wave transmission across systems of coupled plates which incorporate periodic ribbed plates is considered using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA in the low- and mid-frequency ranges and Advanced SEA (ASEA in the high-frequency range. This paper investigates the crossover from prediction with SEA to ASEA through comparison with Finite Element Methods. Results from L-junctions confirm that this crossover occurs near the frequency band containing the fundamental bending mode of the individual bays on the ribbed plate when ribs are parallel to the junction line. Below this frequency band, SEA models treating each periodic ribbed plate as a single subsystem were shown to be appropriate. Above this frequency band, large reductions occur in the vibration level when propagation takes place across successive bays on ribbed plates when the ribs are parallel to the junction. This is due to spatial filtering; hence it is necessary to use ASEA which can incorporate indirect coupling associated with this transmission mechanism. A system of three coupled plates was also modelled which introduced flanking transmission. The results show that a wide frequency range can be covered by using both SEA and ASEA for systems of coupled plates where some or all of the plates are periodic ribbed plates.

  8. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR TILTABLE PLATE WITH TWO DEGREES OF FREEDOM FOR RESEARCH OF DYNAMIC MANIPULATION PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dobriborsci

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of work on control system design for tiltable plate with two degrees of freedom. Designed robotic system includes technical vision system that provides an opportunity to get the position of the control object placed on the square plate. Two servomotors provide each tilting axis operation. Single-board computer transmits angle values and other design elements to the servomotors by USB interface from the workstation. The problem of the object stabilization in the given coordinates on the plate is solved.

  9. Design wind and sandstorm loads on trough collectors in fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bo; Wang, Zhifeng; Wei, Zeyu

    2017-06-01

    Trough collectors are laid out in rows in a field withrow spacing. Wind and sandstorm loads on the collectors will be influenced by surrounding collectors. This paper presents analyzed results from a combined wind tunnel and sandstorm tunnel study on a trough collector field with seven rows and five spans. In wind tunneltests, the measured model with pressure taps was installed in the field to measure wind pressures on the surfaces. Mean and fluctuating pressures on the model were measured by the synchronous multi-pressure sensing system under typical boundary layer wind flow field. In sandstorm tunneltests,a isolated trough collector model was measured by the high-frequency force balance technique under wind-blown sand flow field.

  10. The Core Services of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Euteneuer, F. H.; Lauterjung, J.

    2013-12-01

    The ESFRI project European Plate Observing System (EPOS) was launched in November 2010 and has now completed its year 3 of the four-year preparatory phase. EPOS will create a single sustainable, permanent observation infrastructure, integrating existing geophysical monitoring networks, local observatories and experimental laboratories in Europe and adjacent regions. EPOS' technical Work Package 6 has developed a three layer architectural model for the construction of the EPOS Core Services (CS) during the subsequent implementation phase. The Poster will present and detail on these three layers, consisting of the EPOS Integrated Core Services (ICS), the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and the existing National Research Infrastructures & Data Centers. The basic layer of the architecture is established by the National Research Infrastructures (RIs) & Data Centers, which generate data and information and are responsible for the operation of the instrumentation. National RIs will provide their data to the Thematic Cores Services. The Thematic Core Services constitute the community layer of EPOS architecture and they will: 1) consist of existing (e.g. ORFEUS, EMSC), developing (e.g. EUREF/GNSS) or still to be developed Service Providers for specific thematic communities, as represented within EPOS through the technical EPOS Working Groups (e.g., seismology, volcanology, geodesy, geology, analytic labs for rock physics, geomagnetism, geo-resources ... and many others), 2) provide data services to specific communities, 3) link the National Research Infrastructures to the EPOS Integrated Services, 4) include Service Providers (e.g. OneGeology+, Intermagnet) that may be merely linked or partially integrated and 5) consist of Integrated Laboratories and RIs spanning multiple EPOS disciplines and taking advantage of other existing Thematic Services. The EPOS Integrated Services constitute the ICT layer of the EPOS portal and they will: 1) provide access to multidisciplinary data

  11. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SOLAR COLLECTORS USING A SOLAR SIMULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Norhafana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar water heating systems is one of the applications of solar energy. One of the components of a solar water heating system is a solar collector that consists of an absorber. The performance of the solar water heating system depends on the absorber in the solar collector. In countries with unsuitable weather conditions, the indoor testing of solar collectors with the use of a solar simulator is preferred. Thus, this study is conducted to use a multilayered absorber in the solar collector of a solar water heating system as well as to evaluate the performance of the solar collector in terms of useful heat of the multilayered absorber using the multidirectional ability of a solar simulator at several values of solar radiation. It is operated at three variables of solar radiation of 400 W/m2, 550 W/m2 and 700 W/m2 and using three different positions of angles at 0º, 45º and 90º. The results show that the multilayer absorber in the solar collector is only able to best adapt at 45° of solar simulator with different values of radiation intensity. At this angle the maximum values of useful heat and temperature difference are achieved. KEYWORDS: solar water heating system; solar collector; multilayered absorber; solar simulator; solar radiation 

  12. Determining adaptive thresholds for image segmentation for a license plate recognition system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Norul Huda Sheikh Abdullah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle license plate recognition (LPR system is useful to many applications, such as entrance admission, security, parking control, airport and cargo, traffic and speed control. This paper describe an adaptive threshold for image segmentation applied to a system for Malaysian intelligent license plate recognition (MyiLPR. Due to the different types of license plates used, the requirements of an automatic LPR system are rather different for each country. Upon receiving the input car image, this system (MyiLPR detects and segments the license plate based on proposed adaptive threshold via image and blob histogram, and blob agglomeration, and finally, it extracts geometric character features and classifies them using neural network. The use of the proposed adaptive threshold increased the detection, segmentation and recognition rate to 99%, 94.98% and 90% correspondingly, from 95%, 78.27% and 71.08% obtained with the fixed threshold used in the originally proposed system.

  13. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Inn Motel, Savannah, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    The Solar System was designed to provide 50 percent of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. Liquid Flat Plate Collectors (900 square feet) are used for the collector subsystem. The collector subsystem is closed loop, using 50 percent Ethylene Glycol solution antifreeze for freeze protection. The 1,000 gallon fiber glass storage tank contains two heat exchangers. One of the heat exchangers heats the storage tank with the collector solar energy. The other heat exchanger preheats the cold supply water as it passes through on the way to the Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tank heaters. Electrical energy supplements the solar energy for the DHW. The Collector Mounting System utilizes guy wires to structurally tie the collector array to the building.

  14. Performance of a solar collector with antireflection treated glass cover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    The spectral transmittances of two different glass types have been measured in a spectrophotometer. Both glass types have been investigated with and without a Sunarc anti reflection surface (AR surface). The transmittance data for the AR treated samples have been used as input to the AR treatment...... process in order to improve the solar transmittance for the glass samples. A standard flat plate solar collector has been tested in the indoor solar simulator. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate the improvement in collector performance that can be expected by replacing the standard cover...

  15. Sensitivity analysis of thermal performances of flat plate solar air heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njomo, Donatien; Daguenet, Michel

    2006-10-01

    Sensitivity analysis is a mathematical tool, first developed for optimization methods, which aim is to characterize a system response through the variations of its output parameters following modifications imposed on the input parameters of the system. Such an analysis may quickly become laborious when the thermal model under consideration is complex or the number of input parameters is high. In this paper, we develop a mathematical model to analyse the heat exchanges in four different types of solar air collectors. When building this thermal model we show that for each collector, at quasi-steady state, the energy balance equations of the components of the collector cascade into a single first-order non-linear differential equation that is able to predict the thermal behaviour of the collector. Our heat transfer model clearly demonstrates the existence of an important dimensionless parameter, referred to as the thermal performance factor of the collector, that compares the useful thermal energy which can be extracted from the heater to the overall thermal losses of that collector for a given set of input parameters. A sensitivity analysis of our thermal model has been performed for the most significant input parameters such as the incident solar irradiation, the inlet fluid temperature, the air mass flow rate, the depth of the fluid channel, the number and nature of the transparent covers in order to measure the impact of each of these parameters on our model. An important result which can be drawn from this study is that the heat transfer model developed is robust enough to be used for thermal design studies of most known flat plate solar air heaters, but also of flat plate solar water collectors and linear solar concentrators.

  16. Plate Tectonics as a Far-From-Equilibrium Self-Organized Dissipative System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.

    2001-12-01

    A fluid above the critical Rayleigh number is far from equilibrium and spontaneously organizes itself into patterns involving the collective motion of large numbers of molecules which are resisted by the viscosity of the fluid. No external template is involved in forming the pattern. In 1928 Pearson showed that Bénard's experiments were driven by variations in surface tension at the top of the fluid and the surface motions drove convection in the fluid. In this case, the surface organized itself AND the underlying fluid. Both internal buoyancy driven flow and flow driven by surface forces can be far-from-equilibrium self-organized open systems that receive energy and matter from the environment. In the Earth, the cold thermal boundary layer at the surface drives plate tectonics and introduces temperature, shear and pressure gradients into the mantle that drive mantle convection. The mantle provides energy and material but may not provide the template. Plate tectonics is therefore a candidate for a far-from-equilibrium dissipative self-organizing system. Alternatively, one could view mantle convection as the self-organized system and the plates as simply the surface manifestation. Lithospheric architecture also imposes lateral temperature gradients onto the mantle which can drive and organize flow. Far-from-equilibrium self-organization requires; an open system, interacting parts, nonlinearities or feedbacks, an outside steady source of energy or matter, multiple possible states and a source of dissipation. In uniform fluids viscosity is the source of dissipation. Sources of dissipation in the plate system include bending, breaking, folding, shearing, tearing, collision and basal drag. These can change rapidly, in contrast to plate driving forces, and introduce the sort of fluctuations that can reorganize far-from-equilibrium systems. Global plate reorganizations can alternatively be thought of as convective overturns of the mantle, or thermal weakening of plates

  17. Advanced Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an advanced composite bipolar plate is proposed for a unitized regenerative fuel cell and electrolyzer system that operates on pure feed streams...

  18. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Polisolar model POL solar collector with glass reflector surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, T. D.

    1981-05-01

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Polisolar Model POL sola collector, with glass reflector surfaces, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  19. Indoor test for thermal performance evaluation of Lenox-Honeywell solar collector. [conducted using Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, K.

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used and the test results obtained from an evaluation test program conducted on a double-covered liquid solar collector under simulated conditions are presented. The test article was a flat plate solar collector using liquid as the heat transfer medium. The absorber plate was steel with the copper tubes bonded on the upper surface. The plate was coated with black chrome with an absorptivity factor of .95 and emissivity factor of .12. A time constant test and incident angle modifier test were conducted to determine the transient effect and the incident angle effect on the collector.

  20. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CRDL Item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume III, Book 2. Collector subsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The methods and plans for the manufacture of the 10-MW collector heliostats and associated controls for the pilot plant are detailed. An in-depth description of the production, installation, and verification testing of heliostats for the pilot plant is presented. Specifications for the performance, design, and test requirements for the pilot plant collector subsystem are included. Also, a heliostat location summary report is given. (WHK)

  1. Brunn: An open source laboratory information system for microplates with a graphical plate layout design process

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson Rolf; Spjuth Ola; Andersson Claes; Alvarsson Jonathan; Wikberg Jarl ES

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Compound profiling and drug screening generates large amounts of data and is generally based on microplate assays. Current information systems used for handling this are mainly commercial, closed source, expensive, and heavyweight and there is a need for a flexible lightweight open system for handling plate design, and validation and preparation of data. Results A Bioclipse plugin consisting of a client part and a relational database was constructed. A multiple-step plate ...

  2. Monitoring of a flat plate solar thermal field supplying process heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozzini Marco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports the performance data of a flat plate collector field installed in Austria and supplying process heat to a meat factory, up to a temperature of about 95 °C. The presented data span an entire year, thereby including seasonal effects and allowing for a full characterization of the system performances. Sensor uncertainty is also discussed in detail. Finally, a bin method analysis of the field efficiency is provided. To this purpose, different operating conditions are concisely represented by the so-called reduced temperature, typically used in solar collector applications.

  3. Flow Control of Closed Circulatory System for Solar Collector%太阳集热器闭式循环系统流量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张定学

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the basic requirements for flow control of the thermal performance testing system of solar collector,then gives a control measure of the small flow in a closed loop control system, solves the bubble problem when the flow medium temperature rises significantly, proposes a way to measure the flow accurately. Practice shows that this flow control system has fast response, small overshoot, and high steady-state accuracy.%首先介绍太阳集热器热性能测试系统对流量控制的基本要求,然后给出一种闭式循环系统中小流量的控制方法,解决闭式循环系统中流动介质温度大幅度升高时产生汽泡的问题,提出一种精确测量流量的办法.实践表明,这种流量控制系统具有响应速度快、超调量小、稳态精度高的特点.

  4. Mathematical Model of Double Pass Photovoltaic Thermal Air Collector with Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim M.A. Alfegi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The efficiency of photovoltaic cells is generally temperature dependent (efficiency decrease when the temperature of the photovoltaic cells increase. This problem can be solved by cooling the solar cells during operation and operated at low temperature. Approach: This study presented a numerical model of double pass Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T solar air collector with fins attached to the back side of the absorber plate to improve heat transfer to the flowing air for predicting the performance of the system. Results: Five coupled of unsteady nonlinear partial differential equations were formulated by using first order forward scheme in time and second order central difference scheme in space to predict the performance of PV/T solar air heater at different parameters and conditions. The temperatures of the solar cells, outlet fluid temperature and the temperature distribution of every static element in both models were predicted. The performance of the collector including photovoltaic, thermal and combined PV/T collector over range of operating conditions are discussed. Conclusion: Experimental and theoretical results were compared and showed that close agreement between these two values were obtained.

  5. Collector-Output Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glandorf, D. R.; Phillips, Robert F., II

    1986-01-01

    Collector-Output Analysis Program (COAP) programmer's aid for analyzing output produced by UNIVAC collector (MAP processor). COAP developed to aid in design of segmentation structures for programs with large memory requirements and numerous elements but of value in understanding relationships among components of any program. Crossreference indexes and supplemental information produced. COAP written in FORTRAN 77.

  6. Cooling Efficiency of Laminar Cooling System for Plate Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dian-hua; WANG Bing-xing; ZHOU Na; YU Ming; WANG Jun

    2008-01-01

    Heat transfer was researched from a perspective of the industry application.On the basis of the first law of thermodynamics,the cooling efficiency was deduced from the change of enthalpy inside hot plate.The relationship between the cooling efficiency and its influencing parameters was regressed from plenty of data collected from the worksite and discussed in detail.The temperature profiles resulting from the online model and the model modified by regressed formulas were presented and compared.The results indicated that the control accuracy of the modified model was increased obviously.

  7. Evaluation of heat transfer enhancement in air-heating collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattox, D. L.

    1979-06-01

    The present research effort was initiated for the purpose of increasing the thermal efficiency of air heating solar collectors through identification and development of optimum design and operation criteria for solar absorber-to-air heat exchangers. Initially this effort took the form of a solar collector systems analysis to evaluate the impact of various techniques for enhancing the heat transfer between the absorber and air stream on overall thermal performance of the entire solar collector. This systems analysis resulted in the selection of solar collector designs providing ducted cooling air on the absorber shaded side as a base line. A transient heat transfer analysis of a complete solar air heating collector was used to demonstrate that an optimum absorber-to-air heat exchanger design could be provided with several interrupted fin configurations. Additional analyses were performed to establish that the maximum solar collector thermal performance to required pumping power was realized for a Reynolds number range of 1000 to 2000. This Reynolds number range was used to establish a theoretical design limit curve for maximum thermal performance versus required pumping power for all interrupted fin designs as published in the open literature. Heat and momentum transfer empirical relationships were defined for scaling the state-of-the-art high conductance fin designs identified from a compact configuration to the less compact designs needed for solar collectors.

  8. Compilation of publication and results from project C2: Modelling of microclimates in collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holck, O. [ed.

    1999-08-01

    It is important to avoid condensation in solar collectors, most of all because wetness of the absorber can damage the selective surface and cause corrosion on the absorber plate. During night time the cover of collectors will cool below ambient temperature due to thermal radiation to the cold sky. In climates where the air during night time becomes saturated with humidity (the relative humidity is 100%), condensation will form on the outside and inside of the collector glazing. If too much condensation takes place on the inside of the glazing, it will start to fall off on to the absorber surface. The intent of the present work is improvement of a existing computer model for calculation of microclimates data in collectors. Calculations with the model give insight in the humidity and temperature for artificial or realistic climatic data. This design tool makes it possible to calculate the effect of ventilation and insulation materials. Results from investigation of ventilation rates together with a model of the moisture inside the collector are built into the computer program. It has been found that modelling of the moisture transfer in backside insulation is essential to determine the humidity in the air gap of the collector. The objective is to develop guidelines for solar collector design to achieve the most favourable microclimates condition for materials. As a tool the computer model will be useful to fulfil this. Guidelines for collectors will be essential for manufactures to improve the long-term durability of solar collectors. (au)

  9. Plate kinematics of the Afro-Arabian Rift System with emphasis on the Afar Depression, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottenberg, Helen Carrie

    This work utilizes the Four-Dimensional Plates (4DPlates) software, and Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) to examine plate-scale, regional-scale and local-scale kinematics of the Afro-Arabian Rift System with emphasis on the Afar Depression in Ethiopia. First, the 4DPlates is used to restore the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, the Afar Depression and the Main Ethiopian Rift to development of a new model that adopts two poles of rotation for Arabia. Second, the 4DPlates is used to model regional-scale and local-scale kinematics within the Afar Depression. Most plate reconstruction models of the Afro-Arabian Rift System relies on considering the Afar Depression as a typical rift-rift-rift triple junction where the Arabian, Somali and Nubian (African) plates are separating by the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and the Main Ethiopian Rift suggesting the presence of "sharp and rigid" plate boundaries. However, at the regional-scale the Afar kinematics are more complex due to stepping of the Red Sea propagator and the Gulf of Aden propagator onto Afar as well as the presence of the Danakil, Ali Sabieh and East Central Block "micro-plates". This study incorporates the motion of these micro-plates into the regional-scale model and defined the plate boundary between the Arabian and the African plates within Afar as likely a diffused zone of extensional strain within the East Central Block. Third, DInSAR technology is used to create ascending and descending differential interferograms from the Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) C-Band data for the East Central Block to image active crustal deformation related to extensional tectonics and volcanism. Results of the DInSAR study indicate no strong strain localization but rather a diffused pattern of deformation across the entire East Central Block.

  10. Behavior of CFRP Plate in Simulated ICCP System of Concrete Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jihua; Zhu, Miaochang; Han, Ningxu; Xing, Feng; LIU Wei; Bertolini, Luca

    2014-01-01

    An innovative effort was made to utilize carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) plate as an anode in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) of reinforced concrete structure. The feasibility was explored by bonding CFRP strips to concrete and then applying protection current through CFRP strips to steel rebar in concrete. Service life and performance of CFRP plate were investigated in simulated ICCP systems with various configurations. Steel potential results confirmed that the steel reb...

  11. A Process Heat Application Using Parabolic Trough Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, İbrahim Halil; Söylemez, Mehmet Sait; Hayta, Hakan; Yumrutaş, Recep

    A pilot study has been performed based on a heat process application that is designed, installed and tested at Gaziantep University to establish the technical and economic feasibility of high temperature solar-assisted cooking process. The system has been designed to be satisfying the process conditions integrated with parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC). It is primarily consists of the PTSC array, auxiliary heater, plate type heat exchanger, cooking system and water heating tanks. In the operation of the process heat application, the energy required to cook wheat (used as cooking material) has been supplied from solar energy which is transferred to heat transfer fluid (HTF) by heat exchanging units and finally discharged to water in order to produce bulgur. The performance parameters of the sub-systems and the process compatibility have been accomplished depending on the system operation. In addition that the system performance of the high temperature solar heat process has been presented and the recommendations on its improvement have been evaluated by performing an experimental study. As a result that the use of solar energy in process heat application has been projected and its contribution to economics view with respect to conventional cooking systems has been conducted.

  12. Spontaneous combined rupture of a pelvicalyceal cyst into the collector system and retroperitoneal space during the acquisition of computed tomography scan images: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Diogo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pelvicalyceal cysts are common findings in autopsies and can manifest with a variety of patterns. These cystic lesions are usually a benign entity with no clinical significance unless they enlarge enough to cause compression of the adjacent collecting system and consequently obstructive uropathy. Few cases of the spontaneous rupture of pelvicalyceal renal cysts have been published and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a combined rupture to collector system and retroperitoneal space documented during a multiphase computed tomography. Case presentation We report a case of a ‘real-time’ spontaneous rupture of a pelvicalyceal cyst into the collecting system with fistulization into the retroperitoneum. The patient was a 78-year-old Caucasian man with a previous history of renal stones and a large pelvicalyceal renal cyst who was admitted to our Emergency department with acute right flank pain. A multiphase computed tomography was performed and the pre-contrast images demonstrated a right pelvicalyceal renal cyst measuring 12.0 × 6.1cm in the lower pole causing moderate dilation of the upper right renal collection system. In addition, a partially obstructive stone on the left distal ureter with mild left hydronephrosis was noted. The nephrographic phase did not add any new information. The excretory phase (10-minute delay demonstrated a spontaneous rupture of the cyst into the pelvicalyceal system with posterior fistulization into the retroperitoneal space. Conclusion In this case study we present time-related changes of a rare pelvicalyceal cyst complication, which to the best of our knowledge has fortunately not been previously documented. Analysis of the sequential images and comparison with an earlier scan allowed us to better understand the physiopathological process of the rupture, the clinical presentation and to elaborate hypotheses for its etiopathogenesis.

  13. An electrostatic ion pump with nanostructured Si field emission electron source and Ti particle collectors for supporting an ultra-high vacuum in miniaturized atom interferometry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Velásquez-García, Luis F.

    2016-12-01

    We report a field emission-based, magnetic-less ion pump architecture for helping maintain a high vacuum within a small chamber that is compatible with miniaturized cold-atom interferometry systems. A nanostructured silicon field emitter array, with each nano-sharp tip surrounded by a self-aligned proximal gate electrode, is used to generate a surplus of electrons that cause impact ionization of gas molecules. A two-stage cylindrical electron collector, made of titanium, is used to increase the travel distance of the electrons, augmenting the ionization probability; gas ionization is subsequently followed by gettering of the ions by a negatively charged, annular-shaped titanium electrode. A proof-of-concept pump prototype was characterized using a 25 cm3 stainless steel vacuum chamber backed up by an external turbomolecular pump, a diaphragm pump, and a standard ion pump. Pumping action was observed with the electrostatic pump operating alone after an initial rapid rise of the chamber pressure due to electron/ion scrubbing. In addition, running the electrostatic pump in combination with the standard ion pump results in a lower vacuum level compared to the vacuum level produced by the standard ion pump acting alone. A proposed reduced-order model accurately predicts the functional dependence of the pressure versus time data and provides a good estimate of the characteristic pumping time constant inferred from the experiments.

  14. Experiment and simulation for convective heat transfer in all-glass evacuated tube solar collectors%全玻璃真空管太阳能集热器对流换热试验与模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 韩吉田; 田瑞; 于泽庭

    2016-01-01

    以可再生能源总能系统为研究背景,通过搭建太阳能辅助燃料电池试验平台,逐步完成不同涂层材料、内置导流板太阳能集热器自然对流试验研究;在试验验证基础上,分别建立太阳能集热器自然对流和强迫对流三维数学模型,应用场协同和火积理论分析流动和传热数据。自然对流研究表明,吸收率在0.95~1.0、发射率在0.06~0.16时,随吸收率升高,发射率降低,热效率升高1.71%,火积增量逐渐增大;加装导流板后,真空管内部混流消失,底部流动得到强化,实验热效率提高2.17%;确定全玻璃真空管热水器导流板合理板厚为2 mm,合理板长为距离真空管底部60~100 mm,合理位置为中心线以上16~20 mm;强迫对流研究表明,横双排集热器雷诺和努赛尔数、火积增量均高于竖单排集热器,火积耗散低于竖单排集热器。确定太阳能辅助燃料电池集热场在中低温条件下,自然对流采用内置导流板集热器,强迫对流采用横双排集热器。%The experimental study of natural convection for solar collectors with different coating materials and being equipped with guide plate is carried out step by step through the experimental platform of solar-assisted fuel cells under the research background of renewable total energy systems, which mainly include solar energy comprehensive utilization, solid oxide fuel cells, gas turbine and Kalina refrigeration cycle. The three-dimensional mathematical model on natural convection and forced convection of solar collectors is established to study the flow and heat transfer data with the field synergy and entransy principle on the basis of experimental verification. The natural convection results show that the thermal efficiency and the entransy increment rise gradually with the absorption rate increasing from 0.95 to 1.0 and the emission rate decreasing from 0.06 to 0.16, and the thermal

  15. Study on rigid-flexible coupling dynamics of hub-plate system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Feiyun; XIE Yongcheng; ZHANG Ming; HE Yinbiao

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic modeling of a rotating flexible hubplate system is investigated by using Jourdain's variation principle in which the finite element method (FEM) is used as discretization method for a flexible plate. Different from the previous modeling of a plate with a prescribed large overall motion, the coupling between large overall motion of the system and elastic deformation of the flexible plate is taken into account in the proposed coupling model. The quadratic terms are included in the strain-displacement expression,such that the dynamic stiffening terms are included. Simulation of a rotating hub-plate system indicates that the linear model based on linear strain-displacement assumption may lead to erroneous results in the case of high rotation speed. Conservation of energy verifies the validity of the proposed model. Furthermore, frequency analysis of a hub-plate system shows the difference between the frequencies of the system with free and prescribed large overall motion, and parameter analysis of the system reveals the coupling characteristics of the rotational motion and the deformation.

  16. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  17. 多孔体太阳空气集热供暖系统热性能实验研究%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF HEATING SYSTEMS USING PERFORATED-ABSORBER SOLAR AIR COLLECTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高林朝; 沈胜强; 郝庆英; 李士瑄; 肖菊

    2012-01-01

    A heating system of the perforated-absorber solar air collector integrated with buildings was designed. Experimental study on effect of pore size of the perforated-absorber collector, air circulating mode and mass flow rate within collector on thermal performance and indoor thermal environment was carried out. The results showed that the air temperature difference of collector at the air inlet/outlet can reach to 24.0℃ ; Under forced convection, the middle and outlet air temperature of perforated-absorber collector with small pore size (diameter 1. 6mm, hole spacing 12mm) are 6. 0℃ and 4. 7℃ higher than those with large pore size (diameter 5. 0mm, hole spacing 25 mm) , the average heat collecting efficiency is only difference from 0.045 to 0. 060; The improvement of thermal performance is not obvious by increasing pore size; In addition, the average indoor temperature of the tested room with 1. 85m2 collector is about 7. O℃, higher than that of the reference room. In the sunny daytime, the heating system can basically meet the requirements for indoor temperature in winter.%设计一种多孔体型太阳空气集热器建筑供暖系统.实验研究不同孔径集热板形式和空气循环流动方式对建筑供暖系统热性能及其室内热环境的影响.实测结果表明,集热器进、出风口空气平均温差达24.0℃以上;强制循环方式下孔径1.6mm、孔间距12mm的集热板较孔径5.0mm、孔间距25 mm的集热板中心点和出风口温度高6.0℃和4.7C,集热效率仅相差0.045~0.060;增大孔径对提高集热效率作用不明显;单台1.85m2集热面积晴好天气可使实验房白天室内温度较对比房高约7.0℃,可满足冬季室内温度要求.

  18. The JPL parabolic dish project. [solar collectors technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscello, V. C.; Williams, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    The parabolic dish solar collector is a highly versatile concentrating collector system that can produce heat for many thermal processes and electricity by coupling the collector to a suitable heat engine. This paper discusses a project for the development of these collector systems and summarizes contracts with industry for developing the dish subsystems which include concentrator, receiver, and heat engine. An early market for dishes is the dispersed small community market which depends heavily on oil to operate diesel or steam turbine plants in order to generate electricity. The present contracts with industry for conducting engineering experiments using the developed dish hardware to demonstrate the technology in these early opportunity markets is also discussed.

  19. Optical, Energetic and Exergetic Analyses of Parabolic Trough Collectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (O)ZT(U)RK Murat; (C)(I)(C)EK BEZ(I)R Nalan; (O)ZEK Nuri

    2007-01-01

    Parabolic trough collectors generate thermal energy from solar energy. Especially, they are very convenient for applications in high temperature solar power systems. To determine the design parameters, parabolic trough collectors must be analysed with optical analysis. In addition, thermodynamics (energy and exergy) analysis in the development of an energy efficient system must be achieved. Solar radiation passes through Earth's atmosphere until it reaches on Earth's surface and is focused from the parabolic trough collector to the tube receiver with a transparent insulated envelope. All of them constitute a complex mechanism. We investigate the geometry of parabolic trough reflector and characteristics of solar radiation to the reflecting surface through Earth's atmosphere, and calculate the collecting total energy in the receiver. The parabolic trough collector,of which design parameters are given, is analysed in regard to the energy and exergy analysis considering the meteorological specification in May, June, July and August in Isparta/Turkey, and the results are presented.

  20. Roof-harvested rainwater for potable purposes: application of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M T; Han, M Y

    2009-12-01

    The efficiency of solar disinfection (SODIS), recommended by the World Health Organization, has been determined for rainwater disinfection, and potential benefits and limitations discussed. The limitations of SODIS have now been overcome by the use of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS), for potential use of rainwater as a small-scale potable water supply, especially in developing countries. Rainwater samples collected from the underground storage tanks of a rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH) system were exposed to different conditions of sunlight radiation in 2-L polyethylene terephthalate bottles in a solar collector with rectangular base and reflective open wings. Total and fecal coliforms were used, together with Escherichia coli and heterotrophic plate counts, as basic microbial and indicator organisms of water quality for disinfection efficiency evaluation. In the SOCO-DIS system, disinfection improved by 20-30% compared with the SODIS system, and rainwater was fully disinfected even under moderate weather conditions, due to the effects of concentrated sunlight radiation and the synergistic effects of thermal and optical inactivation. The SOCO-DIS system was optimized based on the collector configuration and the reflective base: an inclined position led to an increased disinfection efficiency of 10-15%. Microbial inactivation increased by 10-20% simply by reducing the initial pH value of the rainwater to 5. High turbidities also affected the SOCO-DIS system; the disinfection efficiency decreased by 10-15%, which indicated that rainwater needed to be filtered before treatment. The problem of microbial regrowth was significantly reduced in the SOCO-DIS system compared with the SODIS system because of residual sunlight effects. Only total coliform regrowth was detected at higher turbidities. The SOCO-DIS system was ineffective only under poor weather conditions, when longer exposure times or other practical means of reducing the pH were required for the

  1. GMFilter and SXTestPlate: software tools for improving the SNPlex™ genotyping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber Stefan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is a fundamental technology in modern genetics. The SNPlex™ mid-throughput genotyping system (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA enables the multiplexed genotyping of up to 48 SNPs simultaneously in a single DNA sample. The high level of automation and the large amount of data produced in a high-throughput laboratory require advanced software tools for quality control and workflow management. Results We have developed two programs, which address two main aspects of quality control in a SNPlex™ genotyping environment: GMFilter improves the analysis of SNPlex™ plates by removing wells with a low overall signal intensity. It enables scientists to automatically process the raw data in a standardized way before analyzing a plate with the proprietary GeneMapper software from Applied Biosystems. SXTestPlate examines the genotype concordance of a SNPlex™ test plate, which was typed with a control SNP set. This program allows for regular quality control checks of a SNPlex™ genotyping platform. It is compatible to other genotyping methods as well. Conclusion GMFilter and SXTestPlate provide a valuable tool set for laboratories engaged in genotyping based on the SNPlex™ system. The programs enhance the analysis of SNPlex™ plates with the GeneMapper software and enable scientists to evaluate the performance of their genotyping platform.

  2. Accelerated Testing of Solar Collector Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1996-01-01

    A climatic simulator has been build to test the reliability and durability of solar collectors. In the climatic simulator the collector is expåosed to extreme climatic conditions and temperature variations in an accelerated way and during this process the function of the collector is tested...... and the microclimate in the collector box is measured....

  3. A Self-Biasing Pulsed Depressed Collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Mark A.; Jensen, Aaron; Neilson, Jeff; /SLAC

    2014-05-29

    Depressed collectors have been utilized successfully for many years to improve the electrical efficiency of vacuum electron devices. Increasingly, pulsed, high-peak power accelerator applications are placing a premium on electrical efficiency. As RF systems are responsible for a large percentage of the overall energy usage at accelerator laboratories, methods to improve upon the state-of-the-art in pulsed high-power sources are desired. This paper presents a technique for self-biasing the stages in a multistage depressed collector. With this technique, the energy lost during the rise and fall times of the pulse can be recovered, separate power supplies are not needed, and existing modulators can be retrofitted. Calculations show that significant cost savings can be realized with the implementation of this device in high-power systems. In this paper, the technique is described along with experimental demonstration. (auth)

  4. Analysis of errors induced by λ/4 wave plate in fiber-optic current sensor system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞峰

    2008-01-01

    1/4λ wave plate is a key element in the fiber-optic current sensor system. When a retardation error or an orientation error of birefringence axes of 1/4λ wave plate with respect to the hi-bi fiber axes occurs in the 1/4λ wave plate, the sensor system will output a wrong result of the measured current. The contributions of these two errors to the final result of the whole system were studied and the errors functions were deduced by establishing the measurement function of the current sensor system with Jones matrixes of the optical elements. The results show that that the greater the orientation error or the retardation error, the larger the final error, and that these two errors cannot be compensated each other.

  5. Experimental Investigation of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell with Hilbert Fractal Current Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hilbert curve is a continuous type of fractal space-filling curve. This fractal curve visits every point in a square grid with a size of 2×2, 4×4, or any other power of two. This paper presents Hilbert fractal curve application to direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC current collectors. The current collectors are carved following first, second, and third order Hilbert fractal curves. These curves give the current collectors different free open ratios and opening perimeters. We conducted an experimental investigation into DMFC performance as a function of the free open ratio and opening perimeter on the bipolar plates. Nyquist plots of the bipolar plates are made and compared using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS experiments to understand the phenomena in depth. The results obtained in this paper could be a good reference for future current collector design.

  6. Long term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the sunworks (liquid) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program of the Sunworks single-covered liquid solar collector are presented. The tests were performed under simulated conditions, following long-term exposure to natural weathering conditions. The sunworks collector is a flat-plate solar collector. The absorber plate is copper with copper tubes bonded by soft solder, and is coated with Enthon selective black with an absorptivity factor of .87 similar to .92 and an emissivity factor of .10 similar to .20. It has a single glass cover of 3/16 inches tempered glass and weighs about 115 pounds. The overall dimensions of the collector are 36 x 84 x 4 inches.

  7. Proceedings of the solar thermal concentrating collector technology symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, B.P.; Kreith, F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of the symposium was to review the current status of the concentrating collector technology, to disseminate the information gained from experience in operating solar systems, and to highlight the significant areas of technology development that must be vigorously pursued to foster early commercialization of concentrating solar collectors. Separate abstracts were prepared for thirteen invited papers and working group summaries. Two papers were previously abstracted for EDB.

  8. Manifold Insulation for Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Results of computer analysis of effects of various manifold insulation detailed in 23-page report show that if fluid is distributed to and gathered from array of solar collectors by external rather than internal manifold, effectiveness of manifold insulation has major influence on efficiency. Report describes required input data and presents equations that govern computer model. Provides graphs comparing collector efficiencies for representative manifold sizes and insulations.

  9. Performance evaluation of an active solar cooling system utilizing low cost plastic collectors and an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lof, G. O.; Westhoff, M. A.; Karaki, S.

    1984-02-01

    During the summer of 1982, air conditioning in Solar House 3 at Colorado State University was provided by an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. The single-effect lithium bromide chiller is an experimental three-ton unit from which heat is rejected by direct evaporative cooling of the condenser and absorber walls, thereby eliminating the need for a separate cooling tower. Domestic hot water was also provided by use of a double-walled heat exchanger and 80-gal hot water tank. A schematic of the system is given. Objectives of the project were: (1) evaluation of system performance over the course of one cooling season in Fort Collins, Colorado; (2) optimization of system operation and control; (3) development of a TRNSYS compatible model of the chiller; and (4) determination of cooling system performance in several U.S. climates by use of the model.

  10. Experimental investigations of hybrid PV/Spiral flow thermal collector system performance using Al2O3/water nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadevi, R.; Vinayagam, B. K.; Senthilraja, S.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the PV/T (Photovoltaic thermal unit) system is investigated experimentally to examine the thermal, electrical and overall efficiency by circulating Al2O3/water nanofluid of 1wt% and 2wt% with an optimum flow rate of 40L/H. The overall efficiency of PVT system is largely influenced by various factors such as heat due to photovoltaic action; energy radiated at the infrared wavelength of the solar spectrum, solar irradiance, mounting structure, tilt angle, wind speed direction, Ambient temperature and panel material composition. However, the major factor is considered in this study to extract the heat generated in the PV panel by using nanofluid as a coolant to increase the overall system efficiency. Therefore, the result shows that by using 2 wt% Al2O3/water nanofluid the electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency and overall efficiency of the PVT system enhanced by 13%, 45%, and 58% respectively compared with water.

  11. Solar radiation on a catenary collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchik, M.; Appelbaum, J.

    1992-01-01

    A tent-shaped structure with a flexible photovoltaic blanket acting as a catenary collector is presented. The shadow cast by one side of the collector produces a shadow on the other side of the collector. This self-shading effect is analyzed. The direct beam, the diffuse, and the albedo radiation on the collector are determined. An example is given for the insolation on the collector operating on Viking Lander 1 (VL1).

  12. Aging and characterization of PVC compound used as flat-panel of a low cost solar collector; Envelhecimento e caracterizacao de compostos de PVC usado em placas de coletores solares de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Bruna R.; Pinto, Tatiana T.; Bartoli, Julio R. [Depto. de Tecnologia de Polimeros, Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica/Universidade Estadual de Campinas. FEQ/UNICAMP, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: bartoli@feq.unicamp.br; Fernandes, Elizabeth G. [Tezca P and D Celulas Solares (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Regardless the excellent amount of solar irradiation in Brazil, the development and production of solar water heating systems did not reach the low-income families yet. The relatively high cost of conventional solar water heaters is still the main reason to prevent it. The development of a low cost solar water heater (around US$ 200), easy technology, was the scope of previous work. All-plastic solar collector prototypes were developed using unplasticized Poly (vinyl chloride) ceiling panels and tubes, commodities from building engineering. Nevertheless, the main thermal and photo degradation mechanisms for PVC are well known; the unusual application of PVC as solar collector materials should need a specific investigation on environmental aging. This work presents a study on outdoor aging and characterization of PVC flat-plate absorber of solar collectors after 5 years on use. (author)

  13. Simple procedure for predicting long-term average performance of nonconcentration and of concentrating solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collares-Pereira, M.; Rabl, A.

    1978-06-01

    The Liu and Jordan method of calculating long term average energy collection of flat plate collectors is simplified (by about a factor of 4), and generalized to all collectors, concentration and nonconcentrating. The only meteorological input needed are the long term average daily total hemispherical insolation H/sub h/ on a horizontal surface and, for thermal collectors the average ambient temperature. The collector is characterized by optical efficiency, heat loss (or U-value), heat extraction efficiency, concentration ratio and tracking mode. An average operating temperature is assumed. Interaction with storage can be included by combining the present model with the f-chart method of Beckman, Klein and Duffie. Formulas and examples are presented for five collector types: flat plate, compound parabolic concentrator, concentrator with E.-W. tracking axis, concentrator with polar tracking axis, and concentrator with two axis tracking. The examples show that even for relatively low temperature applications and cloudy climates (50/sup 0/C in New York in February), concentrating collectors can outperform the flat plate. The method has been validated against hourly weather data (with measurements of hemispherical and beam insolation), and has been found to have an average accuracy better than 3% for the long term average radiation available to solar collectors. The suitability of this method for comparison studies is illustrated by comparing in a location independent manner the radiation availability for several collector types or operating conditions: two axis tracking versus one axis tracking; polar tracking axis versus east-west tracking axis; fixed versus tracking flat plate; effect of ground reflectance; and acceptance for diffuse radiation as function of concentration ratio.

  14. Oscillations of a spring-magnet system damped by a conductive plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladera, C. L.; Donoso, G.

    2013-09-01

    We study the motion of a spring-magnet system that oscillates with very low frequencies above a circular horizontal non-magnetizable conductive plate. The magnet oscillations couple with the plate via the Foucault currents induced therein. We develop a simple theoretical model for this magneto-mechanical oscillator, a model that leads to the equation of a damped harmonic oscillator, whose weak attenuation constant depends upon the system parameters, e.g. the electrical conductivity of the constituent material of the plate and its thickness. We present a set of validating experiments, the results of which are predicted with good accuracy by our analytical model. Additional experiments can be performed with this oscillating system or its variants. This oscillator is simple and low-cost, easy to assemble, and can be used in experiments or project works in physics teaching laboratories at the undergraduate level.

  15. Electrochemical Properties of Current Collector in the All-vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Gan-Jin; Oh, Yong-Hwan; Ryu, Cheol-Hwi [Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ho-Sang [Kyungil University, Gyeongsan, (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Two commercial carbon plates were evaluated as a current collector (bipolar plate) in the all vanadium redox-flow battery (V-RFB). The performance properties of V-RFB were test in the current density of 60 mA/cm{sup 2}. The electromotive forces (OCV at SOC 100%) of V-RFB using A and B current collector were 1.47 V and 1.54 V. The cell resistance of V-RFB using A current collector was 4.44-5.00 Ω·cm{sup 2} and 3.28-3.75 Ω·cm{sup 2} for charge and discharge, respectively. The cell resistance of V-RFB using B current collector was 4.19-4.42Ω·cm{sup 2} and 4.71-5.49Ω·cm{sup 2} for charge and discharge, respectively. The performance of V-RFB using each current collector was evaluated. The performance of V-RFB using A current collector was 93.1%, 76.8% and 71.4% for average current efficiency, average voltage efficiency and average energy efficiency, respectively. The performance of V-RFB using B current collector was 96.4%, 73.6% and 71.0% for average current efficiency, average voltage efficiency and average energy efficiency, respectively.

  16. SOLAR NANTENNA ELECTROMAGNETIC COLLECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven D. Novack; Dale K. Kotter; Dennis Slafer; Patrick Pinhero

    2008-08-01

    This research explores a new efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun. A nanoantenna electromagnetic collector (NEC) has been designed, prototyped, and tested. Proof of concept has been validated. The device targets mid-infrared wavelengths where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells do not respond but is abundant in solar energy. The initial concept of designing NEC antennas was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory. This approach has proven unsuccessful by many due to not fully understanding and accounting for the optical behavior of materials in the THz region. Also until recent years the nanofabrication methods were not available to fabricate the optical antenna elements. We have addressed and overcome both technology barriers. Several factors were critical in successful implementation of NEC including: 1) frequency-dependent modeling of antenna elements, 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties and 3) novel manufacturing methods that enable economical large-scale manufacturing. The work represents an important step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity, which will lead to a wide spectrum, high conversion efficiency, and low cost solution to complement conventional PVs.

  17. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  18. Geodynamic Evolution of the Nubia-Arabia-Somalia Plate Boundary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilinger, R. E.; McClusky, S.; Vernant, P.; Ogubazghi, G.; Fisseha, S.; Arrajehi, A.; Bendick, R. O.; Sholan, J.

    2009-12-01

    We present a geodynamic scenario for the evolution of the Nubia (Nu)-Arabia (Ar)-Somalia (So) plate boundary system that is based on new geodetic constraints on the kinematics of active deformation, and published estimates of the timing of regional tectonic processes. This scenario supports two, long debated, principal hypotheses for plate dynamics, 1) plate motions are driven primarily by sinking of oceanic lithosphere at subduction zones, and 2) the lithosphere is strong in relation to plate boundaries and drag forces on the base of the lithosphere (and likely, resisting forces associate with continental collision). 1) During the Late Oligocene (~30 Ma), domal uplift of the Afar region due to the Afar hot spot caused regional extension and the initial development of the Afar Triple Junction (TJ) along pre-existing zones of weakness; 2) The So-Nu plate boundary, East African Rift (EAR), developed at a slow rate due to the absence of boundary-normal extensional stresses (i.e., no subduction “pulling” the So Plate), slow motion that continues to the present; 3) Larger extensional stresses across the Nu-Ar and Ar-So boundaries (Red Sea and Gulf of Aden) due to active subduction of the Neotethys ocean lithosphere beneath Eu caused more rapid extension of these early rifts, with full scale continental rifting beginning ~ 25-30 Ma; 4) Between 16 - 11 Ma full ocean rifting in the Gulf of Aden caused a decrease in the forces transmitted to the So and Nu plates, causing slowing of the Nu and So plates with respect to Eu and Ar, and (possibly) an additional component of N-S oriented extension across the Red Sea; 5) Around this time (~10 Ma), activity shifted from the Gulf of Suez to the DSF system in the N Red Sea, and the Danakil Block in the southern Red Sea began rotating with respect to Nu and Ar, both changes related to the change in Nu-Ar relative motion; and 6) The balance of forces on the plate system have remained roughly unchanged since ~10 Ma, as have

  19. Solar collector parameter identification from unsteady data by a discrete-gradient optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, G. B.; Burmeister, L. C.; Bishop, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    A discrete-gradient optimization algorithm is used to identify the parameters in a one-node and a two-node capacitance model of a flat-plate collector. Collector parameters are first obtained by a linear-least-squares fit to steady state data. These parameters, together with the collector heat capacitances, are then determined from unsteady data by use of the discrete-gradient optimization algorithm with less than 10 percent deviation from the steady state determination. All data were obtained in the indoor solar simulator at the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  20. Standard Practice for Generating All-Day Thermal Performance Data for Solar Collectors

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a means of generating all-day thermal performance data for flat-plate collectors, concentrating collectors, and tracking collectors. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in the parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. The Matrix Rib Plating System: improving aesthetic outcomes in microvascular breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahdoot, Michael A; Echo, Anthony; Otake, Leo R; Son, Ji; Zeidler, Kamakshi R; Saadian, Isaac; Lee, Gordon K

    2013-04-01

    During microvascular breast reconstruction, exposure of internal mammary vessels (IMVs) is facilitated by the removal of a portion of the rib resulting in occasional chest contour deformity (CCD). The use of rib plating may reduce CCD and reduce postoperative pain. All patients underwent microvascular breast reconstruction using IMVs. In the retrospective arm, photographs were assessed by a blinded reviewer for CCDs. In the prospective cohort, patients were randomized to rib plating with the Synthes Matrix Rib Plating System or no rib plating. Postoperatively, patients were assessed for CCD and pain. In the retrospective arm, 11 of 98 (11.2%) patients representing 12 of 130 (9.2%) breast reconstructions had a noticeable contour deformity. The average body mass index (BMI) of patients with CCDs was 26.6 kg/m. In the prospective arm, there was 16% (3 of 19) rate of visible and palpable CCDs among controls, compared to 0% rate of palpable and visible contour deformity in the rib plating group. Pain was decreased in the rib plating group on all postoperative days. The pain reduction was statistically significant at rest by postoperative day 30. The majority of patients (9 of 11) with compromised aesthetic outcomes had a BMI less than 30 kg/m, suggesting a paucity of overlying soft tissue contributed to visibility of these bony defects. Rib plating prevented chest contour deformity, reduced postoperative pain, and added limited additional morbidity. We believe that rib plating is a safe, useful adjunct to microvascular breast reconstruction using IMVs, as it may improve aesthetic outcomes and reduce postoperative pain.

  2. Solar heating system at Security State Bank, Starkville, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The 312 square feet of Solaron flat plate air collectors provide for 788 square feet of space heating, an estimated 55 percent of the heating load. Solar heated air is distributed to the 96 cubic foot steel cylinder, which contains two inch diameter rocks. An air handler unit moves the air over the collector and into the steel cylinder. Four motorized dampers and two gravity dampers are also part of the system. A Solaron controller which has sensors located at the collectors, rock storage, and at the return air, automatically controls the system. Auxiliary heating energy is provided by electric resistance duct heaters.

  3. 槽式太阳能跟踪控制系统的研制及应用%Development and application of sun-tracking control system for parabolic trough solar collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金平; 王军; 冯炜; 王登文; 张耀明

    2015-01-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Heat transfer fluid is heated by sun rays through the solar concentrator, then used as a heat source for a conventional power plant. A wide range of concentrating technologies has existed; the most developed are parabolic trough collector (PTC), linear fresnel reflector system (LF), power tower, and dish/engine system (DE). Parabolic trough collector is considered as one of the most mature applications of solar energy in these four technologies, which makes it worth developing. Sun-tracking system plays an important role in the development of solar energy applications, especially for the high solar concentration systems that directly convert the solar energy into thermal or electrical energy. High accuracy of sun-tracking is required to ensure that the solar collector is capable of harnessing the maximum solar energy throughout the day. Compared to fixed systems, power output of single-axis and dual-axis tracking systems can increase by 25% and 41% respectively under the same condition. It is clear that an accurate sun-tracking control system can make solar collectors receive more solar radiation energy to improve the solar energy utilization. A good sun-tracking system must be reliable and able to track the sun at the right angle even in the periods of cloud cover. Although the tracking system is more complex and costs higher than the fixed system, increasing the annual output power can reduce cost effectively. As for photoelectric tracking mode, a sun position sensor is used to provide feedback signals to judge where the sun is, but they don’t work on cloudy days because of the lower sensitivity. The stability of the solar tracking system is a key factor to obtain the maximum sunlight from parabolic trough collector. In order to improve tracking stability and accuracy of the parabolic trough collector sun-tracking control

  4. An analytical investigation of the performance of solar collectors as nighttime heat radiators in airconditioning cycles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.B.; Smetana, F.O.

    1979-03-01

    It was found that if the upper and lower ends of a collector were opened, large free convention currents may be set up between the collector surface and the cover glass(es) which can result in appreciable heat rejection. If the collector is so designed that both plates surfaces are exposed to convection currents when the upper and lower ends of the collector enclosure are opened, the heat rejection rate is 300 watts sq m when the plate is 13 C above ambient. This is sufficient to permit a collector array designed to provide 100 percent of the heating needs of a home to reject the accumulated daily air conditioning load during the course of a summer night. This also permits the overall energy requirements for cooling to be reduced by at least 15 percent and shift the load on the utility entirely to the nighttime hours.

  5. Design and Simulation of a Feedback Control System for a Steel Plate Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Torben; Feld; Holmgaard; Kristensen; Hans; Holm; Jesper; Hansen

    2002-01-01

    A discrete event heuristic feedback control system fo r a steel plate storage at Odense Steel Shipyard Ltd is developed and implemente d in a computer-based simulation model. The plant is subject to stochastic dist urbances. The control system is able to handle this stochastic behaviour bec ause of the feedback design. The present simulation results indicate that a bene fit in the range of 30%~40% is reachable by modifying the plant. Plant description The steel plate storage is located at Odense Steel ...

  6. Visual Servoing Tracking Control of a Ball and Plate System: Design, Implementation and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tzu Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, implementation and validation of real‐time visual servoing tracking control for a ball and plate system. The position of the ball is measured with a machine vision system. The image processing algorithms of the machine vision system are pipelined and implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA device to meet real‐ time constraints. A detailed dynamic model of the system is derived for the simulation study.By neglecting the high‐order coupling terms, the ball and plate system model is simplified into two decoupled ball and beam systems, and an approximate input‐ output feedback linearization approach is then used to design the controller for trajectory tracking. The designed control law is implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP. The validity of the performance of the developed control system is investigated through simulation and experimental studies. Experimental results show that the designed system functions well with reasonable agreement with simulations.

  7. Visual Servoing Tracking Control of a Ball and Plate System: Design, Implementation and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tzu Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, implementation and validation of real-time visual servoing tracking control for a ball and plate system. The position of the ball is measured with a machine vision system. The image processing algorithms of the machine vision system are pipelined and implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA device to meet real-time constraints. A detailed dynamic model of the system is derived for the simulation study. By neglecting the high-order coupling terms, the ball and plate system model is simplified into two decoupled ball and beam systems, and an approximate input-output feedback linearization approach is then used to design the controller for trajectory tracking. The designed control law is implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP. The validity of the performance of the developed control system is investigated through simulation and experimental studies. Experimental results show that the designed system functions well with reasonable agreement with simulations.

  8. Estimation of ash recirculation effect upon ash collector efficiency by the example of a TsBR-150U-1280 multicyclone collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsukov, V. K.; Latushkina, S. V.

    2014-10-01

    Problems of the mathematical estimation of the amount of recirculating ash and its effect upon the efficiency of gas treating within ash collectors with the scroll and semiscroll gas supply, which are equipped by a gas and ash recirculation system, are considered. Based on the analysis of various publications and operational experience, a conclusion is drawn regarding the complex and substantial effect of the recirculation system upon the ash collector efficiency. The following research tasks are posed: computational determination of ash weight at the ash collector inlet subject to its recirculation, development of measures for enhancement of the ash collector, and estimation of these measures. A computation procedure for consumption of recirculating ash in the ash collector and its sections with the use of formulas of the geometrical progression is represented. Based on the represented procedure as applied to a TsBR-150U-1280 multicyclone collector collecting ash of coal of an Irsha-Borodinsk coalfield, corresponding ash consumptions are determined, including that at which the effective operation of the ash collector is provided. Various variants of the modernization of the mentioned multicyclone collector are developed and estimated. Conclusions are drawn regarding the necessity for further investigations for improvement of the represented procedure, in particular, the effect of the gas speed (boiler load) upon the efficiency of various ash collector units, recirculating ash consumption, and clogging their cyclone units.

  9. Assessment of musculoskeletal load in refuse collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew W. Jóźwiak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this work was to assess the load on the musculoskeletal system and its effects in the collectors of solid refuse. The rationale behind this study was to formulate proposals how to reduce excessive musculoskeletal load in this group of workers. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 15 refuse collectors aged 25 to 50 years. Data about the workplace characteristics and subjective complaints of workers were collected by the free interview and questionnaire. During the survey the photorecording of the workpostures, the distance and velocity by GPS recorders, measurements of forces necessary to move containers, energy expenditure (lung ventilation method, workload estimation using the Firstbeat system and REBA method and stadiometry were done. Results: The distance walked daily by the collectors operating in terms of 2 to 3 in urban areas was about 15 km, and in rural areas about 18 km. The most frequent musculoskeletal complaints concerned the feet (60% subjects, knees, wrists and shoulders (over 40% subjects. After work-shift all examined workers had vertebral column shorter by 10 to 14 mm (11.4 mm mean. Conclusions: The results of our study show that the refuse collectors are subjected to a very high physical load because of the work organization and the way it is performed. To avoid adverse health effects and overload it is necessary to undertake ergonomic interventions, involving training of workers to improve the way of their job performance, active and passive leisure, technical control of the equipment and refuse containers, as well as the renegotiation of contracts with clients, especially those concerning non-standard containers. Med Pr 2013;64(4:507–519

  10. Solar energy system performance evaluation: Seasonal report for IBM System 2, Togus, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system, SIMS Prototype System 2, was designed to supply domestic hot water to single family residences. The system consists of flat plate collectors, silicone working fluid, storage tanks, pumps, heat exchanger, controls, and associated plumbing. The long term field performance of the installed system was analyzed and the results are described.

  11. Synergy effects of hybrid carbon system on properties of composite bipolar plates for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Wan; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kuilla, Tapas; Kim, Tae Jin; Rhee, Kyong Yop; Lee, Joong Hee

    A hybrid carbon system of graphite powder (GP) and continuous carbon fibre fabric (CFF) is used for an epoxy composite to improve the electrical conductivity, mechanical properties and mouldability of a composite bipolar plate. These improvements are achieved simultaneously by inserting several layers of CFF into the GP/epoxy composite to enhance the mechanical properties and in-plane conductivity. The electrical properties, flexural strength and mouldability of the composite plates are measured as a function of conducting filler content and number of CFF layers. The composites show improved electrical conductivity, flexural properties and mouldability. Composites with 70-75 vol.% carbon fillers have the highest electrical conductivity with reasonable flexural properties. These results suggest that the poor mouldability and low through-plane electrical conductivity of the continuous fibre composite bipolar plate, as well as the weak flexural properties of GP composites, can be overcome by incorporating a GP/CFF hybrid system.

  12. Electroless copper plating process of N, N, N, N′-tetrakis (2-hydroxypropyl) ethylenediamine system with high plating rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ya-jie; ZOU Wei-hong; YI Dan-qing; GONG Zhu-qing; LI Xin-hai

    2005-01-01

    Electroless copper plating process of N, N, N′, N′-tetrakis (2-hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine(THPED) chelating agent was researched comprehensively. The results indicate that plating rate decreases with the 3H2O has a bad effect on deposits quality, but 2, 2′-dipyridyl and PEG make deposits quality improve greatly. Low concentration of 2-mercaptobenzothiozole (2-MBT) increases plating rate and improves deposits quality, but decreases plating rate and worsens deposits quality when 2-MBT reaches 5 mg/L. The optimal conditions of this electroless MBT are 16.8 g/L, 16.0 mL/L, 13.3 g/L, 0.5 g/L, 5.0 mg/L and 2.0 mg/L, respectively, pH value is 12.75,bath temperature is 30 ℃. Plating rate reaches 9.54 μm/h plating for 30 min in the bath. The SEM images demonstrate that the surface of copper film is smooth and the crystal is fine.

  13. VAPI: low-cost, rapid automated visual inspection system for Petri plate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatburn, L. T.; Kirkup, B. C.; Polz, M. F.

    2007-09-01

    Most culture-based microbiology tasks utilize a petri plate during processing, but rarely do the scientists capture the full information available from the plate. In particular, visual analysis of plates is an under-developed rich source of data that can be rapid and non-invasive. However, collecting this data has been limited by the difficulties of standardizing and quantifying human observations, by the limits of a scientists' fatigue, and by the cost of automating the process. The availability of specialized counting equipment and intelligent camera systems has not changed this - they are prohibitively expensive for many laboratories, only process a limited number of plate types, are often destructive to the sample, and have limited accuracy. This paper describes an automated visual inspection solution, VAPI, that employs inexpensive consumer computing hardware and digital cameras along with custom cross-platform open-source software written in C++, combining Trolltech's Qt GUI toolkit with Intel's OpenCV computer vision library. The system is more accurate than common commercial systems costing many times as much, while being flexible in use and offering comparable responsiveness. VAPI not only counts colonies but also sorts and enumerates colonies by morphology, tracks colony growth by time series analysis, and provides other analytical resources. Output to XML files or directly to a database provides data that can be easily maintained and manipulated by the end user, offering ready access for system enhancement, interaction with other software systems, and rapid development of advanced analysis applications.

  14. Sectional Rail System as Base for a Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention concerns a sectional rail system which is constructed with the known outer rails with U-shaped cross-section and intermediate rails with C-shaped cross-section, and which is peculiar in that each of the retention means of the outer rail includes at least one stop pin which i...

  15. Shape Control of Solar Collectors Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobitz, D. W.; Grossman, J. W.; Allen, J. J.; Rice, T. M.; Liang, C.; Davidson, F. M.

    1996-01-01

    Solar collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun's rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper is principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a minimal amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical solar energy systems. In this paper the design, analysis and testing of a solar collector which is deformed into its desired shape by shape memory alloy actuators is presented. Computations indicate collector shapes much closer to spherical and with smaller focal lengths can be achieved by moving the actuators inward to a radius of approximately 6 inches. This would require actuators with considerably more stroke and some alternate SMA actuators are currently under consideration. Whatever SMA actuator is finally chosen for this application, repeatability and fatigue tests will be required to investigate the long term performance of the actuator.

  16. A vision-based material tracking system for heavy plate rolling mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tratnig, Mark; Reisinger, Johann; Hlobil, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    A modern heavy plate rolling mill can process more than 20 slabs and plates simultaneously. To avoid material confusions during a compact occupancy and the permanent discharging and re-entering of parts, one must know the identity and position of each part at every moment. One possibility to determine the identity and position of each slab and plate is the application of a comprehensive visual-based tracking system. Compared to a tracking system that calculates the position of a plate based on the diameter and the turns of the transport rolls, a visual system is not corrupted by a position- and material dependent transmission slip. In this paper we therefore present a vision-based material tracking system for the 2-dimensional tracking of glowing material in harsh environment. It covers the production area from the plant's descaler to the pre-stand of the rolling mill and consists of four independent, synchronized overlapping cameras. The paper first presents the conceptual design of the tracking system - and continues then with the camera calibration, the determination of pixel contours, the data segmentation and the fitting & modelling of the objects bodies. In a next step, the work will then show the testing setup. It will be described how the material tracking system was implemented into the control system of the rolling mill and how the delivered tracking data was checked on its correctness. Finally, the paper presents some results. It will be shown that the position of some moving plates was estimated with a precision of approx. 0.5m. The results will be analyzed and it will be explained where the inaccuracies come from and how they eventually can be removed. The paper ends with a conclusion and an outlook on future work.

  17. Control design and robustness analysis of a ball and plate system by using polynomial chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colón, Diego [University of São Paulo, Polytechnic School, LAC -PTC, São Paulo (Brazil); Balthazar, José M. [São Paulo State University - Rio Claro Campus, Rio Claro (Brazil); Reis, Célia A. dos [São Paulo State University - Bauru Campus, Bauru (Brazil); Bueno, Átila M.; Diniz, Ivando S. [São Paulo State University - Sorocaba Campus, Sorocaba (Brazil); Rosa, Suelia de S. R. F. [University of Brasilia, Brasilia (Brazil)

    2014-12-10

    In this paper, we present a mathematical model of a ball and plate system, a control law and analyze its robustness properties by using the polynomial chaos method. The ball rolls without slipping. There is an auxiliary robot vision system that determines the bodies' positions and velocities, and is used for control purposes. The actuators are to orthogonal DC motors, that changes the plate's angles with the ground. The model is a extension of the ball and beam system and is highly nonlinear. The system is decoupled in two independent equations for coordinates x and y. Finally, the resulting nonlinear closed loop systems are analyzed by the polynomial chaos methodology, which considers that some system parameters are random variables, and generates statistical data that can be used in the robustness analysis.

  18. Control design and robustness analysis of a ball and plate system by using polynomial chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, Diego; Balthazar, José M.; dos Reis, Célia A.; Bueno, Átila M.; Diniz, Ivando S.; de S. R. F. Rosa, Suelia

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present a mathematical model of a ball and plate system, a control law and analyze its robustness properties by using the polynomial chaos method. The ball rolls without slipping. There is an auxiliary robot vision system that determines the bodies' positions and velocities, and is used for control purposes. The actuators are to orthogonal DC motors, that changes the plate's angles with the ground. The model is a extension of the ball and beam system and is highly nonlinear. The system is decoupled in two independent equations for coordinates x and y. Finally, the resulting nonlinear closed loop systems are analyzed by the polynomial chaos methodology, which considers that some system parameters are random variables, and generates statistical data that can be used in the robustness analysis.

  19. 智能化空调系统中采集器模块的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Collector Module in Intelligent Air Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范楷; 覃雪玲

    2014-01-01

    在绿色建筑规划中,智能化空调系统通过温控面板,对建筑划分的空间进行温度调节和控制。采集器作为主要连接模块,完成两部分的工作。一是通过Modbus协议与温控面板进行数据交互,完成数据采集和面板控制;二是通过TCP/IP协议与上层服务器通信,完成数据上传,并接受来至PC终端的控制命令数据流。采集器模块搭建在以ARM9为核心的嵌入式平台上,在Linux操作系统上运行,采集器主要程序使用Linux-C语言设计完成。通过现场项目的反馈,该采集器模块运行稳定,实现了设计需求。%In the green building plan, the intelligent air conditioning system adjusts the temperature of the divided building space by the temperature control panel. As the main linking module, the task of the collector includes two parts. On the one hand, the collector collects the data and control the panel from connecting to temperature control panel by Modbus protocol. On the other hand, the collector uploads data and receives the data stream of PC control command from connecting to the upper server by TCP/IP protocol. The Collector module set up in embedded platform which with the ARM9 at the core and run on the Linux operating system, the main program design by Linux-C programming language. Through the feedback of the project, this collector module is stable, and it meets the design requirements.

  20. Dual curvature acoustically damped concentrating collector. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.A.; Rausch, R.A.

    1980-05-01

    A development program was conducted to investigate the design and performance parameters of a novel, dual curvature, concentrating solar collector. The reflector of the solar collector is achieved with a stretched-film reflective surface that approximates a hyperbolic paraboloid and is capable of line-focusing at concentration ratios ranging from 10 to 20X. A prototype collector was designed based on analytical and experimental component trade-off activities as well as economic analyses of solar thermal heating and cooling systems incorporating this type of collector. A prototype collector incorporating six 0.66 x 1.22 m (2 x 4 ft) was fabricated and subjected to a limited thermal efficiency test program. A peak efficiency of 36% at 121/sup 0/C (250/sup 0/F) was achieved based upon the gross aperture area. Commercialization activities were conducted, including estimated production costs of $134.44/m/sup 2/ ($12.49/ft/sup 2/) for the collector assembly (including a local suntracker and controls) and $24.33/m/sup 2/ ($2.26/ft/sup 2/) for the reflector subassembly.