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Sample records for plastid transformation system

  1. Plastid transformation in eggplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Kailash C; Singh, Ajay K

    2014-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an important vegetable crop of tropical and temperate regions of the world. Here we describe a procedure for eggplant plastid transformation, which involves preparation of explants, biolistic delivery of plastid transformation vector into green stem segments, selection procedure, and identification of the transplastomic plants. Shoot buds appear from cut ends of the stem explants following 5-6 weeks of spectinomycin selection after bombardment with the plastid transformation vector containing aadA gene as selectable marker. Transplastomic lines are obtained after the regenerated shoots are subjected to several rounds of spectinomycin selection over a period of 9 weeks. Homoplasmic transplastomic lines are further confirmed by spectinomycin and streptomycin double selection. The transplastomic technology development in this plant species will open up exciting possibilities for improving crop performance, metabolic engineering, and the use of plants as factories for producing biopharmaceuticals.

  2. Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts.

  3. Progress towards commercialization of plastid transformation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliga, Pal

    2003-01-01

    Tobacco chloroplasts are ready to be tested as a platform for the expression of recombinant proteins on a commercial scale. They hold the promise of reproducible yields of 5-25% of total soluble cellular protein in leaves and reliability has been achieved through refinement of an expression toolkit that includes vectors, recently developed expression cassettes and systems for marker gene removal. Implementation of plastid transformation technology in other crops, however, has met with difficulty and has delayed agronomic applications.

  4. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species.

  5. Plastid transformation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by polyethylene glycol treatment of protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelivelt, Cilia L C; van Dun, Kees M P; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; McCabe, Matthew S; Hogg, Bridget V; Nugent, Jacqueline M

    2014-01-01

    A detailed protocol for PEG-mediated plastid transformation of Lactuca sativa cv. Flora, using leaf protoplasts, is described. Successful plastid transformation using protoplasts requires a large number of viable cells, high plating densities, and an efficient regeneration system. Transformation was achieved using a vector that targets genes to the trnI/trnA intergenic region of the lettuce plastid genome. The aadA gene, encoding an adenylyltransferase enzyme that confers spectinomycin resistance, was used as a selectable marker. With the current method, the expected transformation frequency is 1-2 spectinomycin-resistant cell lines per 10(6) viable protoplasts. Fertile, diploid, homoplasmic, plastid-transformed lines were obtained. Transmission of the plastid-encoded transgene to the T1 generation was demonstrated.

  6. Efficient and stable transformation of Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco (lettuce) plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamoto, Hirosuke; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asao, Hiroshi; Okumura, Satoru; Takase, Hisabumi; Hattori, Masahira; Yokota, Akiho; Tomizawa, Ken-Ichi

    2006-04-01

    Transgenic plastids offer unique advantages in plant biotechnology, including high-level foreign protein expression. However, broad application of plastid genome engineering in biotechnology has been largely hampered by the lack of plastid transformation systems for major crops. Here we describe the development of a plastid transformation system for lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco. The transforming DNA carries a spectinomycin-resistance gene (aadA) under the control of lettuce chloroplast regulatory expression elements, flanked by two adjacent lettuce plastid genome sequences allowing its targeted insertion between the rbcL and accD genes. On average, we obtained 1 transplastomic lettuce plant per bombardment. We show that lettuce leaf chloroplasts can express transgene-encoded GFP to approximately 36% of the total soluble protein. All transplastomic T0 plants were fertile and the T1 progeny uniformly showed stability of the transgene in the chloroplast genome. This system will open up new possibilities for the efficient production of edible vaccines, pharmaceuticals, and antibodies in plants.

  7. Plastid Molecular Pharming I. Production of Oral Vaccines via Plastid Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecz, Bernadett; Zelenyánszki, Helga; Pólya, Sára; Tamás-Nyitrai, Cecília; Oszvald, Mária

    2017-01-01

    Vaccines produced in plants have opened up new opportunities in vaccination. Among the various categories of vaccines, the recombinant vaccine is generally regarded as the most economical and safest type because it cannot cause disease and does not require large-scale cultivation of pathogens. Due to the low cost of their cultivation, plants may represent viable alternative platforms for producing subunit vaccines. Genetic engineering of plastids is the innovation of the last three decades and has numerous benefits when compared to nuclear transformation. Due to the high level of expression, oral vaccines produced in transplastomic plants do not have to be purified as they can be consumed raw, which, therefore, reduces the cost of preparation, transportation and handling of the vaccines. Oral vaccination also excludes the risk of other infections or contaminations, while compartmentation of the plant cell provides an excellent encapsulation to the antigen within the plastid. Herein we review the main biotechnological and immunological aspects of the progress achieved in the field of plastid derived edible vaccines during the last decade. As there is a public debate against genetically modified crops, the advantages and limitations of oral vaccines are also discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops.

  9. Stable Plastid Transformation for High-Level Recombinant Protein Expression: Promises and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meili Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are a promising expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. However, low protein productivity remains a major obstacle that limits extensive commercialization of whole plant and plant cell bioproduction platform. Plastid genetic engineering offers several advantages, including high levels of transgenic expression, transgenic containment via maternal inheritance, and multigene expression in a single transformation event. In recent years, the development of optimized expression strategies has given a huge boost to the exploitation of plastids in molecular farming. The driving forces behind the high expression level of plastid bioreactors include codon optimization, promoters and UTRs, genotypic modifications, endogenous enhancer and regulatory elements, posttranslational modification, and proteolysis. Exciting progress of the high expression level has been made with the plastid-based production of two particularly important classes of pharmaceuticals: vaccine antigens, therapeutic proteins, and antibiotics and enzymes. Approaches to overcome and solve the associated challenges of this culture system that include low transformation frequencies, the formation of inclusion bodies, and purification of recombinant proteins will also be discussed.

  10. [Origination and evolution of plastids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhina, V S

    2014-01-01

    Plastids are photosynthetic DNA-containing organelles of plants and algae. In the review, the history of their origination and evolution within different taxa is considered. All of the plastids appear to be descendants of cyanobacteria that colonized eukaryotic cells. The first plastids arose through symbiosis of cyanobacteria with algal ancestors from Archaeplastida kingdom. Later, there occurred repeated secondary symbioses of other eukariotes with photosynthetic protists: in this way plastids emerged in organisms of other taxa. Co-evolution of cyanobacteria and ancestral algae led to extensive transformation of both: reduction of endosymbiont, mass transfer of cyanobacteria genes into karyogenome, formation of complex system of proteins transportation to plastids and their functioning regulation.

  11. Plant plastid engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Shabir H; Haider, Nadia; Kumar, Hitesh; Singh, N B

    2010-11-01

    Genetic material in plants is distributed into nucleus, plastids and mitochondria. Plastid has a central role of carrying out photosynthesis in plant cells. Plastid transformation is becoming more popular and an alternative to nuclear gene transformation because of various advantages like high protein levels, the feasibility of expressing multiple proteins from polycistronic mRNAs, and gene containment through the lack of pollen transmission. Recently, much progress in plastid engineering has been made. In addition to model plant tobacco, many transplastomic crop plants have been generated which possess higher resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and molecular pharming. In this mini review, we will discuss the features of the plastid DNA and advantages of plastid transformation. We will also present some examples of transplastomic plants developed so far through plastid engineering, and the various applications of plastid transformation.

  12. Metabolic engineering by plastid transformation as a strategy to modulate isoprenoid yield in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko; Miyake, Chikahiro

    2010-01-01

    Plants synthesize a large number of isoprenoid compounds that have diverse structures and functions. All isoprenoids are synthesized through consecutive condensation of five-carbon precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and its allyl isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). With recent success in the cloning of genes that encode the enzymes of isoprenoid biosynthesis, genetic engineering strategies for the improvement of plant isoprenoid metabolism have emerged. Plastid transformation technology offers attractive features in plant genetic engineering. It has many advantages over nuclear genome transformation: high-level foreign protein expression, no need for a transit peptide, absence of gene silencing, and convenient transgene stacking in operons. We demonstrated that this technology is a remarkable tool for the production of isoprenoids in plants through metabolic engineering. The expression of bacterial genes encoding CrtW (beta-carotene ketolase) and CrtZ (beta-carotene hydroxylase) or cyanobacterial genes encoding DXR (1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase) in the plastid genome leads to alteration in isoprenoid content of tobacco leaves.

  13. Synthetic biology in plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Lars B; Bock, Ralph

    2014-06-01

    Plastids (chloroplasts) harbor a small gene-dense genome that is amenable to genetic manipulation by transformation. During 1 billion years of evolution from the cyanobacterial endosymbiont to present-day chloroplasts, the plastid genome has undergone a dramatic size reduction, mainly as a result of gene losses and the large-scale transfer of genes to the nuclear genome. Thus the plastid genome can be regarded as a naturally evolved miniature genome, the gradual size reduction and compaction of which has provided a blueprint for the design of minimum genomes. Furthermore, because of the largely prokaryotic genome structure and gene expression machinery, the high transgene expression levels attainable in transgenic chloroplasts and the very low production costs in plant systems, the chloroplast lends itself to synthetic biology applications that are directed towards the efficient synthesis of green chemicals, biopharmaceuticals and other metabolites of commercial interest. This review describes recent progress with the engineering of plastid genomes with large constructs of foreign or synthetic DNA, and highlights the potential of the chloroplast as a model system in bottom-up and top-down synthetic biology approaches.

  14. The Chloroplast Min System Functions Differentially in Two Specific Nongreen Plastids in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jie; Su, Jianbin; Wang, Peng; Liu, Jun; Liu, Bing; Feng, Dongru; Wang, Jinfa; Wang, Hongbin

    2013-01-01

    The nongreen plastids, such as etioplasts, chromoplasts, etc., as well as chloroplasts, are all derived from proplastids in the meristem. To date, the Min system members in plants have been identified as regulators of FtsZ-ring placement, which are essential for the symmetrical division of chloroplasts. However, the regulation of FtsZ-ring placement in nongreen plastids is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the division site placement of nongreen plastids by examining the etioplasts as representative in Arabidopsis Min system mutants. Surprisingly, the shape and number of etioplasts in cotyledons of arc3, arc11 and mcd1 mutants were similar to that observed in wild-type plants, whereas arc12 and parc6 mutants exhibited enlarged etioplasts that were reduced in number. In order to examine nongreen plastids in true leaves, we silenced the ALB3 gene in these Min system mutant backgrounds to produce immature chloroplasts without the thylakoidal network using virus induced gene silencing (VIGS). Interestingly, consistent with our observations in etioplasts, enlarged and fewer nongreen plastids were only detected in leaves of parc6 (VIGS-ALB3) and arc12 (VIGS-ALB3) plants. Further, the FtsZ-ring assembled properly at the midpoint in nongreen plastids of arc3, arc11 and mcd1 (VIGS-ALB3) plants, but organized into multiple rings in parc6 (VIGS-ALB3) and presented fragmented filaments in arc12 (VIGS-ALB3) plants, suggesting that division site placement in nongreen plastids requires fewer components of the plant Min system. Taken together, these results suggest that division site placement in nongreen plastids is different from that in chloroplasts. PMID:23936263

  15. Plastid transformation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by biolistic DNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, Tracey A

    2014-01-01

    The interest in producing pharmaceutical proteins in a nontoxic plant host has led to the development of an approach to express such proteins in transplastomic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). A number of therapeutic proteins and vaccine antigen candidates have been stably integrated into the lettuce plastid genome using biolistic DNA delivery. High levels of accumulation and retention of biological activity suggest that lettuce may provide an ideal platform for the production of biopharmaceuticals.

  16. [Plastid genome engineering: novel optimization strategies and applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fei; Lu, Shizhan; Gao, Liang; Zhang, Juanjuan; Lin, Yongjun

    2015-08-01

    The plastid genome engineering system allows site-specific modifications via two homologous recombination events. It is much safer, more precise and efficient compared with the nuclear transformation system. This technology can be applied to the basic research to expand plastid genome function analysis, and it also provides an excellent platform for not only high-level production of recombinant proteins but also plant breeding. In this review, we summarize the state of the art and progresses in this field. We focus on novel breeding strategies in transformation system improvement and new tools to enhance plastid transgene expression levels. In addition, we highlight selected applications in resistance engineering and quality improvement via metabolic engineering. We believe that by overcoming current technological limitations in the plastid transformation system can another green revolution for crop breeding beckon.

  17. Three-Dimensional Visualization of the Tubular-Lamellar Transformation of the Internal Plastid Membrane Network during Runner Bean Chloroplast Biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast biogenesis is a complex process that is integrated with plant development, leading to fully differentiated and functionally mature plastids. In this work, we used electron tomography and confocal microscopy to reconstruct the process of structural membrane transformation during the etioplast-to-chloroplast transition in runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus). During chloroplast development, the regular tubular network of paracrystalline prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and the flattened porous membranes of prothylakoids develop into the chloroplast thylakoids. Three-dimensional reconstruction is required to provide us with a more complete understanding of this transformation. We provide spatial models of the bean chloroplast biogenesis that allow such reconstruction of the internal membranes of the developing chloroplast and visualize the transformation from the tubular arrangement to the linear system of parallel lamellae. We prove that the tubular structure of the PLB transforms directly to flat slats, without dispersion to vesicles. We demonstrate that the grana/stroma thylakoid connections have a helical character starting from the early stages of appressed membrane formation. Moreover, we point out the importance of particular chlorophyll-protein complex components in the membrane stacking during the biogenesis. The main stages of chloroplast internal membrane biogenesis are presented in a movie that shows the time development of the chloroplast biogenesis as a dynamic model of this process. PMID:27002023

  18. Plastid mRNAs are neither spliced nor edited in maize and cauliflower mitochondrial in organello systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bolle, Nina; Hinrichsen, Inga; Kempken, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The process of RNA editing in chloroplasts and higher plant mitochondria displays some similarities, raising the question of common or similar components in editing apparatus of these two organelles. To investigate the ability of plant mitochondria to edit plastid transcripts, we employed a previously established mitochondrial maize and cauliflower in organello system. Two plastid genes, Zea mays ndhB and ycf3 containing group II introns and several editing sites, were introduced into mitocho...

  19. Vesicles Are Persistent Features of Different Plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Emelie; Solymosi, Katalin; Aronsson, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    Peripheral vesicles in plastids have been observed repeatedly, primarily in proplastids and developing chloroplasts, in which they are suggested to function in thylakoid biogenesis. Previous observations of vesicles in mature chloroplasts have mainly concerned low temperature pretreated plants occasionally treated with inhibitors blocking vesicle fusion. Here, we show that such vesicle-like structures occur not only in chloroplasts and proplastids, but also in etioplasts, etio-chloroplasts, leucoplasts, chromoplasts and even transforming desiccoplasts without any specific pretreatment. Observations are made both in C3 and C4 species, in different cell types (meristematic, epidermis, mesophyll, bundle sheath and secretory cells) and different organs (roots, stems, leaves, floral parts and fruits). Until recently not much focus has been given to the idea that vesicle transport in chloroplasts could be mediated by proteins, but recent data suggest that the vesicle system of chloroplasts has similarities with the cytosolic coat protein complex II system. All current data taken together support the idea of an ongoing, active and protein-mediated vesicle transport not only in chloroplasts but also in other plastids, obviously occurring regardless of chemical modifications, temperature and plastid developmental stage.

  20. Plastids and carotenoid accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastids are ubiquitously in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids except proplastids can synth...

  1. Plastid thioredoxins: a “one-for-all” redox-signaling system in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrato, Antonio J.; Fernández-Trijueque, Juan; Barajas-López, Juan-de-Dios; Chueca, Ana; Sahrawy, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    The sessile nature of plants forces them to face an ever-changing environment instead of escape from hostile conditions as animals do. In order to overcome this survival challenge, a fine monitoring and controlling of the status of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and the general metabolism is vital for these organisms. Frequently, evolutionary plant adaptation has consisted in the appearance of multigenic families, comprising an array of enzymes, structural components, or sensing, and signaling elements, in numerous occasions with highly conserved primary sequences that sometimes make it difficult to discern between redundancy and specificity among the members of a same family. However, all this gene diversity is aimed to sort environment-derived plant signals to efficiently channel the external incoming information inducing a right physiological answer. Oxygenic photosynthesis is a powerful source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), molecules with a dual oxidative/signaling nature. In response to ROS, one of the most frequent post-translational modifications occurring in redox signaling proteins is the formation of disulfide bridges (from Cys oxidation). This review is focused on the role of plastid thioredoxins (pTRXs), proteins containing two Cys in their active site and largely known as part of the plant redox-signaling network. Several pTRXs types have been described so far, namely, TRX f, m, x, y, and z. In recent years, improvements in proteomic techniques and the study of loss-of-function mutants have enabled us to grasp the importance of TRXs for the plastid physiology. We will analyze the specific signaling function of each TRX type and discuss about the emerging role in non-photosynthetic plastids of these redox switchers. PMID:24319449

  2. Plastid thioredoxins: a "one-for-all" redox-signaling system in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jesús Serrato

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The sessile nature of plants forces them to face an ever-changing environment instead of escape from hostile conditions as animals do. In order to overcome this survival challenge, a fine monitoring and controlling of the status of the photosynthetic electron transport chain (PETC and the general metabolism is vital for these organisms. Frequently, evolutionary plant adaptation has consisted in the appearance of multigenic families, comprising an array of enzymes, structural components, or sensing and signaling elements, in numerous occasions with highly conserved primary sequences that sometimes make it difficult to discern between redundancy and specificity among the members of a same family. However, all this gene diversity is aimed to sort environment-derived plant signals to efficiently channel the external incoming information inducing a right physiological answer. Oxygenic photosynthesis is a powerful source of reactive oxygen species (ROS, molecules with a dual oxidative/signaling nature. In response to ROS, one of the most frequent post-translational modifications occurring in redox signaling proteins is the formation of disulfide bridges (from Cys oxidation. This review is focused on the role of plastid thioredoxins (pTRXs, proteins containing two Cys in their active site and largely known as part of the plant redox-signaling network. Several pTRXs types have been described so far, namely, TRX f, m, x, y, and z. In recent years, improvements in proteomic techniques and the study of loss-of-function mutants have enabled us to grasp the importance of TRXs for the plastid physiology. We will analyze the specific signaling function of each TRX type and discuss about the emerging role in non-photosynthetic plastids of these redox switchers.

  3. Plastid thioredoxins: a "one-for-all" redox-signaling system in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrato, Antonio J; Fernández-Trijueque, Juan; Barajas-López, Juan-de-Dios; Chueca, Ana; Sahrawy, Mariam

    2013-11-21

    The sessile nature of plants forces them to face an ever-changing environment instead of escape from hostile conditions as animals do. In order to overcome this survival challenge, a fine monitoring and controlling of the status of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and the general metabolism is vital for these organisms. Frequently, evolutionary plant adaptation has consisted in the appearance of multigenic families, comprising an array of enzymes, structural components, or sensing, and signaling elements, in numerous occasions with highly conserved primary sequences that sometimes make it difficult to discern between redundancy and specificity among the members of a same family. However, all this gene diversity is aimed to sort environment-derived plant signals to efficiently channel the external incoming information inducing a right physiological answer. Oxygenic photosynthesis is a powerful source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), molecules with a dual oxidative/signaling nature. In response to ROS, one of the most frequent post-translational modifications occurring in redox signaling proteins is the formation of disulfide bridges (from Cys oxidation). This review is focused on the role of plastid thioredoxins (pTRXs), proteins containing two Cys in their active site and largely known as part of the plant redox-signaling network. Several pTRXs types have been described so far, namely, TRX f, m, x, y, and z. In recent years, improvements in proteomic techniques and the study of loss-of-function mutants have enabled us to grasp the importance of TRXs for the plastid physiology. We will analyze the specific signaling function of each TRX type and discuss about the emerging role in non-photosynthetic plastids of these redox switchers.

  4. Functional analysis of plastid-encoded genes

    OpenAIRE

    Swiatek, Magdalena

    2002-01-01

    Plastid chromosomes from the variety of plant species contain several conserved open reading frames of unknown function, which most probably represent functional genes. The primary aim of this thesis was the analysis of the role of two such ORFs, designated ycfs or hypothetical chloroplast reading frames, namely ycf9 (ORF62) and ycf10 (ORF229, cemA). Both were analyzed in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) via their inactivation using biolistic plastid transformation. A new experiment...

  5. Differentiation transforming system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Cheng; Haibin Zhang; Bin Wang; Yonghua Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The differentiation transforming(DFT)system is developed to produce the tangent linear codes,which is used to calculate the Jacobian-and the Hessian-vector products with no truncation errors.This paper first gives the introduction of the functionality and features of the DFT system,and then discusses several techniques for the implementation of automatic differentiation tools,including data dependence analysis,singular differentiation and code optimization.Finally,the codes generated with DFT used in several applications have been demonstrated.

  6. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  7. Protein Targeting to the Plastid of Euglena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnford, Dion G; Schwartzbach, Steven D

    2017-01-01

    The lateral transfer of photosynthesis between kingdoms through endosymbiosis is among the most spectacular examples of evolutionary innovation. Euglena, which acquired a chloroplast indirectly through an endosymbiosis with a green alga, represents such an example. As with other endosymbiont-derived plastids from eukaryotes, there are additional membranes that surround the organelle, of which Euglena has three. Thus, photosynthetic genes that were transferred from the endosymbiont to the host nucleus and whose proteins are required in the new plastid, are now faced with targeting and plastid import challenges. Early immunoelectron microscopy data suggested that the light-harvesting complexes, photosynthetic proteins in the thylakoid membrane, are post-translationally targeted to the plastid via the Golgi apparatus, an unexpected discovery at the time. Proteins targeted to the Euglena plastid have complex, bipartite presequences that direct them into the endomembrane system, through the Golgi apparatus and ultimately on to the plastid, presumably via transport vesicles. From transcriptome sequencing, dozens of plastid-targeted proteins were identified, leading to the identification of two different presequence structures. Both have an amino terminal signal peptide followed by a transit peptide for plastid import, but only one of the two classes of presequences has a third domain-the stop transfer sequence. This discovery implied two different transport mechanisms; one where the protein was fully inserted into the lumen of the ER and another where the protein remains attached to, but effectively outside, the endomembrane system. In this review, we will discuss the biochemical and bioinformatic evidence for plastid targeting, discuss the evolution of the targeting system, and ultimately provide a working model for the targeting and import of proteins into the plastid of Euglena.

  8. A phylogenetic mosaic plastid proteome and unusual plastid-targeting signals in the green-colored dinoflagellate Lepidodinium chlorophorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inagaki Yuji

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plastid replacements through secondary endosymbioses include massive transfer of genes from the endosymbiont to the host nucleus and require a new targeting system to enable transport of the plastid-targeted proteins across 3-4 plastid membranes. The dinoflagellates are the only eukaryotic lineage that has been shown to have undergone several plastid replacement events, and this group is thus highly relevant for studying the processes involved in plastid evolution. In this study, we analyzed the phylogenetic origin and N-terminal extensions of plastid-targeted proteins from Lepidodinium chlorophorum, a member of the only dinoflagellate genus that harbors a green secondary plastid rather than the red algal-derived, peridinin-containing plastid usually found in photosynthetic dinoflagellates. Results We sequenced 4,746 randomly picked clones from a L. chlorophorum cDNA library. 22 of the assembled genes were identified as genes encoding proteins functioning in plastids. Some of these were of green algal origin. This confirms that genes have been transferred from the plastid to the host nucleus of L. chlorophorum and indicates that the plastid is fully integrated as an organelle in the host. Other nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted protein genes, however, are clearly not of green algal origin, but have been derived from a number of different algal groups, including dinoflagellates, streptophytes, heterokonts, and red algae. The characteristics of N-terminal plastid-targeting peptides of all of these genes are substantially different from those found in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates and green algae. Conclusions L. chlorophorum expresses plastid-targeted proteins with a range of different origins, which probably arose through endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT and horizontal gene transfer (HGT. The N-terminal extension of the genes is different from the extensions found in green alga and other dinoflagellates (peridinin- and

  9. Sucrose Metabolism in Plastids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, N.; Turk, S.C.H.J.; Dun, van K.P.M.; Hulleman, H.D.; Visser, R.G.F.; Weisbeek, P.J.; Smeekens, S.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The question whether sucrose (Suc) is present inside plastids has been long debated. Low Suc levels were reported to be present inside isolated chloroplasts, but these were argued to be artifacts of the isolation procedures used. We have introduced Suc-metabolizing enzymes in plastids and our experi

  10. Integration and Expression of gfp in the plastid of Medicago sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shaochen; Wei, Zhengyi; Wang, Yunpeng; Liu, Yanzhi; Lin, Chunjing

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe a protocol of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plastid transformation by which gfp, a gene encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP), is inserted into plastid genome via particle bombardment and homoplastomic plant is obtained. Plastid engineering is likely to make a significant contribution to the genetic improvement of this crop and the production of vaccines and therapeutic proteins.

  11. Wavelet transform domain communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Richard S.; Pike, Cameron; Lyall, Michael J.

    1995-04-01

    In this paper we introduce a new class of communications systems called wavelet transform domain (WTD) systems. WTD systems are transmultiplexer (TMUX) structures in which information to be communicated over a channel is encoded, via an inverse discrete wavelet transform (IDWT), as the wavelet coefficients of the transmitted signal, and extracted at the receiver by a discrete wavelet transform (DWT). WTD constructs can be used for covert, or low probability of intercept/detection (LPI/D) communications, baseband bandwidth efficient communications, or code-division multiple access (CDMA). This paper concentrates on the spread spectrum applications.

  12. Power Transformer Intelligence Monitor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jianshe; Shi Lei

    2006-01-01

    An auto-monitoring system has been created that could monitor the main parameter of power transformers. It reads data of V&I by precision rectifier circuit and amplifier, and converted electric energy into pulse signal by means of sensor technique and pulse converter circuit, it is sent into microcomputer to process, completed monitoring to power transformer parameters and running state by software system. It can register all kinds of key data, and provide all kinds of virtual technical data for managing sections and can auto-form all kinds of electric annual reports and monthly reports analysis graphs such as managing graphs. It notably improves the safety and reliability of transformer, with strong anti-jamming technique and unique function, it can be used on the transformers in railway' s self-closing lines and all kinds of transformer stations.

  13. Energy systems transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangerman, A T C Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-02-12

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO(2) emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the "Success to the Successful" mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy--the largest business on Earth--expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders.

  14. Plastids: the Green Frontiers for Vaccine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tahir eWaheed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases pose an increasing risk to health, especially in developing countries. Vaccines are available to either cure or prevent many of these diseases. However, there are certain limitations related to these vaccines, mainly the costs, which make these vaccines mostly unaffordable for people in resource poor countries. These costs are mainly related to production and purification of the products manufactured from fermenter-based systems. Plastid biotechnology has become an attractive platform to produce biopharmaceuticals in large amounts and cost-effectively. This is mainly due to high copy number of plastids DNA in mature chloroplasts, a characteristic particularly important for vaccine production in large amounts. An additional advantage lies in the maternal inheritance of plastids in most plant species, which addresses the regulatory concerns related to transgenic plants. These and many other aspects of plastids will be discussed in the present review, especially those that particularly make these green biofactories an attractive platform for vaccine production. A summary of recent vaccine antigens against different human diseases expressed in plastids will also be presented.

  15. The plastid outer envelope – a highly dynamic interface between plastid and cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique eBreuers

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plastids are the defining organelles of all photosynthetic eukaryotes. They are the site of photosynthesis and of a large number of other essential metabolic pathways, such as fatty acid and amino acid biosyntheses, sulfur and nitrogen assimilation, and aromatic and terpenoid compound production, to mention only a few examples. The metabolism of plastids is heavily intertwined and connected with that of the surrounding cytosol, thus causing massive traffic of metabolic precursors, intermediates, and products. Two layers of biological membranes that are called the inner (IE and the outer (OE plastid envelope membranes bound the plastids of Archaeplastida. While the IE is generally accepted as the osmo-regulatory barrier between cytosol and stroma, the OE was considered to represent an unspecific molecular sieve, permeable for molecules of up to 10 kDa. However, after the discovery of small substrate-specific pores in the OE, this view has come under scrutiny. In addition to controlling metabolic fluxes between plastid and cytosol, the OE is also crucial for protein import into the chloroplast. It contains the receptors and translocation channel of the TOC complex that is required for the canonical post-translational import of nuclear-encoded, plastid-targeted proteins. Further, the OE is a metabolically active compartment of the chloroplast, being involved in, e.g., fatty acid metabolism and membrane lipid production. Also, recent findings hint on the OE as a defense platform against several biotic and abiotic stress conditions, such as cold acclimation, freezing tolerance, and phosphate deprivation. Moreover, dynamic non-covalent interactions between the OE and the endomembrane system are thought to play important roles in lipid and non-canonical protein trafficking between plastid and endoplasmatic reticulum (ER. While proteomics and bioinformatics has provided us with comprehensive but still incomplete information on proteins localized in the

  16. Evidence for the retention of two evolutionary distinct plastids in dinoflagellates with diatom endosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehenberger, Elisabeth; Imanian, Behzad; Burki, Fabien; Keeling, Patrick J

    2014-09-01

    Dinoflagellates harboring diatom endosymbionts (termed "dinotoms") have undergone a process often referred to as "tertiary endosymbiosis"--the uptake of algae containing secondary plastids and integration of those plastids into the new host. In contrast to other tertiary plastids, and most secondary plastids, the endosymbiont of dinotoms is distinctly less reduced, retaining a number of cellular features, such as their nucleus and mitochondria and others, in addition to their plastid. This has resulted in redundancy between host and endosymbiont, at least between some mitochondrial and cytosolic metabolism, where this has been investigated. The question of plastidial redundancy is particularly interesting as the fate of the host dinoflagellate plastid is unclear. The host cytosol possesses an eyespot that has been postulated to be a remnant of the ancestral peridinin plastid, but this has not been tested, nor has its possible retention of plastid functions. To investigate this possibility, we searched for plastid-associated pathways and functions in transcriptomic data sets from three dinotom species. We show that the dinoflagellate host has indeed retained genes for plastid-associated pathways and that these genes encode targeting peptides similar to those of other dinoflagellate plastid-targeted proteins. Moreover, we also identified one gene encoding an essential component of the dinoflagellate plastid protein import machinery, altogether suggesting the presence of a functioning plastid import system in the host, and by extension a relict plastid. The presence of the same plastid-associated pathways in the endosymbiont also extends the known functional redundancy in dinotoms, further confirming the unusual state of plastid integration in this group of dinoflagellates.

  17. Early steps in plastid evolution: current ideas and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodył, Andrzej; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Stiller, John W

    2009-11-01

    Some nuclear-encoded proteins are imported into higher plant plastids via the endomembrane (EM) system. Compared with multi-protein Toc and Tic translocons required for most plastid protein import, the relatively uncomplicated nature of EM trafficking led to suggestions that it was the original transport mechanism for nuclear-encoded endosymbiont proteins, and critical for the early stages of plastid evolution. Its apparent simplicity disappears, however, when EM transport is considered in light of selective constraints likely encountered during the conversion of stable endosymbionts into fully integrated organelles. From this perspective it is more parsimonious to presume the early evolution of post-translational protein import via simpler, ancestral forms of modern Toc and Tic plastid translocons, with EM trafficking arising later to accommodate glycosylation and/or protein targeting to multiple cellular locations. This hypothesis is supported by both empirical and comparative data, and is consistent with the relative paucity of EM-based transport to modern primary plastids.

  18. Plastid Protein Targeting: Preprotein Recognition and Translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotewutmontri, P; Holbrook, K; Bruce, B D

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms are defined by their endomembrane system and various organelles. The membranes that define these organelles require complex protein sorting and molecular machines that selectively mediate the import of proteins from the cytosol to their functional location inside the organelle. The plastid possibly represents the most complex system of protein sorting, requiring many different translocons located in the three membranes found in this organelle. Despite having a small genome of its own, the vast majority of plastid-localized proteins is nuclear encoded and must be posttranslationally imported from the cytosol. These proteins are encoded as a larger molecular weight precursor that contains a special "zip code," a targeting sequence specific to the intended final destination of a given protein. The "zip code" is located at the precursor N-terminus, appropriately called a transit peptide (TP). We aim to provide an overview of plastid trafficking with a focus on the mechanism and regulation of the general import pathway, which serves as a central import hub for thousands of proteins that function in the plastid. We extend comparative analysis of plant proteomes to develop a better understanding of the evolution of TPs and differential TP recognition. We also review alternate import pathways, including vesicle-mediated trafficking, dual targeting, and import of signal-anchored and tail-anchored proteins. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Power System Transients Analysis by Wavelet Transforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈维荣; 宋永华; 赵蔚

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to Fourier transform, wavelet transform is especially suitable for transient analysis because of its time-frequency characteristics with automatically-adjusted window lengths. Research shows that wavelet transform is one of the most powerful tools for power system transient analysis. The basic ideas of wavelet transform are presented in the paper together with several power system applications. It is clear that wavelet transform has some clear advantages over other transforms in detecting, analyzing, and identifying various types of power system transients.

  20. Did some red alga-derived plastids evolve via kleptoplastidy? A hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodył, Andrzej

    2017-05-23

    The evolution of plastids has a complex and still unresolved history. These organelles originated from a cyanobacterium via primary endosymbiosis, resulting in three eukaryotic lineages: glaucophytes, red algae, and green plants. The red and green algal plastids then spread via eukaryote-eukaryote endosymbioses, known as secondary and tertiary symbioses, to numerous heterotrophic protist lineages. The number of these horizontal plastid transfers, especially in the case of red alga-derived plastids, remains controversial. Some authors argue that the number of plastid origins should be minimal due to perceived difficulties in the transformation of a eukaryotic algal endosymbiont into a multimembrane plastid, but increasingly the available data contradict this argument. I suggest that obstacles in solving this dilemma result from the acceptance of a single evolutionary scenario for the endosymbiont-to-plastid transformation formulated by Cavalier-Smith & Lee (1985). Herein I discuss data that challenge this evolutionary scenario. Moreover, I propose a new model for the origin of multimembrane plastids belonging to the red lineage and apply it to the dinoflagellate peridinin plastid. The new model has several general and practical implications, such as the requirement for a new definition of cell organelles and in the construction of chimeric organisms. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  1. Plastid ultrastructure and photosynthesis in greening petaloid hypsophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, M; Franz, A; Napp-Zinn, K

    1985-02-01

    The ultrastructural and biochemicalphysiological aspects of postfloral greening have been studied in hypsophylls of Heliconia aurantiaca Ghiesbr., Guzmania cf. x magnifica Richter and Spathiphyllum wallisii Regel. In all three species the greening of the hypsophylls is due to plastid transformation, chloroplast formation proceeding from the initially different types of plastids. The degradation process of the original plastid structures and the mode of thylakoid formation are distinct in each case. In none of the species do the transformed plastids look identical to the chloroplasts of the corresponding foliage leaves. On a chlorophyll basis, the rate of photosynthesis of the greened hypsophylls surpasses the rate of the leaves considerably in Spathiphyllum, but is much lower in Heliconia (no data for Guzmania). In all species, anatomy, plastid structure, pigments, 77° K-fluorescence emission, ribulose-1,5-bis-phosphate carboxylase activities and short-term photosynthesis (14)CO2-assimilation patterns prove the greened hypsophylls to be capable of providing additional carbon to the developing fruits, thus supplementing the import of organic matter from the foliage leaves.

  2. ftsZ gene and plastid division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Plastid is one of the most important cellular organelles, the normal division process of plastid is essential for the differentiation and development of plant cells. For a long time, morphological observations and genetic analyses to special mutants are the major research fields of plastid division, but the molecular mechanisms underlying plastid division are largely unknown. Because of the endosymbiotic origin, plastid division might have mechanisms in common with those involved in bacterial cell division. It has been proved that several prokaryotic cell division genes also participate in the plastid division. Recently, the mechanisms of prokaryotic cell division have been well documented, which provides a valuable paradigm for understanding the plastid division mechanisms. In plants, the functional analyses of ftsZ, a key gene involved both in bacteria and plastid division, have established the solid foundation for people to understand the plastid division in molecular level. In this paper we will make a review for the research history and progress of plastid division.

  3. Plastid genomics in horticultural species: importance and applications for plant population genetics, evolution, and biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, Marcelo; do Nascimento Vieira, Leila; Fraga, Hugo P.; Guerra, Miguel P.

    2015-01-01

    During the evolution of the eukaryotic cell, plastids, and mitochondria arose from an endosymbiotic process, which determined the presence of three genetic compartments into the incipient plant cell. After that, these three genetic materials from host and symbiont suffered several rearrangements, bringing on a complex interaction between nuclear and organellar gene products. Nowadays, plastids harbor a small genome with ∼130 genes in a 100–220 kb sequence in higher plants. Plastid genes are mostly highly conserved between plant species, being useful for phylogenetic analysis in higher taxa. However, intergenic spacers have a relatively higher mutation rate and are important markers to phylogeographical and plant population genetics analyses. The predominant uniparental inheritance of plastids is like a highly desirable feature for phylogeny studies. Moreover, the gene content and genome rearrangements are efficient tools to capture and understand evolutionary events between different plant species. Currently, genetic engineering of the plastid genome (plastome) offers a number of attractive advantages as high-level of foreign protein expression, marker gene excision, gene expression in operon and transgene containment because of maternal inheritance of plastid genome in most crops. Therefore, plastid genome can be used for adding new characteristics related to synthesis of metabolic compounds, biopharmaceutical, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we describe the importance and applications of plastid genome as tools for genetic and evolutionary studies, and plastid transformation focusing on increasing the performance of horticultural species in the field. PMID:26284102

  4. Rapid and accurate pyrosequencing of angiosperm plastid genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmerie William G

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plastid genome sequence information is vital to several disciplines in plant biology, including phylogenetics and molecular biology. The past five years have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of completely sequenced plastid genomes, fuelled largely by advances in conventional Sanger sequencing technology. Here we report a further significant reduction in time and cost for plastid genome sequencing through the successful use of a newly available pyrosequencing platform, the Genome Sequencer 20 (GS 20 System (454 Life Sciences Corporation, to rapidly and accurately sequence the whole plastid genomes of the basal eudicot angiosperms Nandina domestica (Berberidaceae and Platanus occidentalis (Platanaceae. Results More than 99.75% of each plastid genome was simultaneously obtained during two GS 20 sequence runs, to an average depth of coverage of 24.6× in Nandina and 17.3× in Platanus. The Nandina and Platanus plastid genomes shared essentially identical gene complements and possessed the typical angiosperm plastid structure and gene arrangement. To assess the accuracy of the GS 20 sequence, over 45 kilobases of sequence were generated for each genome using conventional sequencing. Overall error rates of 0.043% and 0.031% were observed in GS 20 sequence for Nandina and Platanus, respectively. More than 97% of all observed errors were associated with homopolymer runs, with ~60% of all errors associated with homopolymer runs of 5 or more nucleotides and ~50% of all errors associated with regions of extensive homopolymer runs. No substitution errors were present in either genome. Error rates were generally higher in the single-copy and noncoding regions of both plastid genomes relative to the inverted repeat and coding regions. Conclusion Highly accurate and essentially complete sequence information was obtained for the Nandina and Platanus plastid genomes using the GS 20 System. More importantly, the high accuracy

  5. Proof Systems and Transformation Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Yoram; Zuckerman, Michael; Wooldridge, Michael; Rosenschein, Jeffrey S.

    We introduce Transformation Games (TGs), a form of coalitional game in which players are endowed with sets of initial resources, and have capabilities allowing them to derive certain output resources, given certain input resources. The aim of a TG is to generate a particular target resource; players achieve this by forming a coalition capable of performing a sequence of transformations from its combined set of initial resources to the target resource. After presenting the TG model, and discussing its interpretation, we consider possible restrictions on the transformation chain, resulting in different coalitional games. After presenting the basic model, we consider the computational complexity of several problems in TGs, such as testing whether a coalition wins, checking if a player is a dummy or a veto player, computing the core of the game, computing power indices, and checking the effects of possible restrictions on the coalition. Finally, we consider extensions to the model in which transformations have associated costs.

  6. Signals and transforms in linear systems analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wasylkiwskyj, Wasyl

    2013-01-01

    Signals and Transforms in Linear Systems Analysis covers the subject of signals and transforms, particularly in the context of linear systems theory. Chapter 2 provides the theoretical background for the remainder of the text. Chapter 3 treats Fourier series and integrals. Particular attention is paid to convergence properties at step discontinuities. This includes the Gibbs phenomenon and its amelioration via the Fejer summation techniques. Special topics include modulation and analytic signal representation, Fourier transforms and analytic function theory, time-frequency analysis and frequency dispersion. Fundamentals of linear system theory for LTI analogue systems, with a brief account of time-varying systems, are covered in Chapter 4 . Discrete systems are covered in Chapters 6 and 7.  The Laplace transform treatment in Chapter 5 relies heavily on analytic function theory as does Chapter 8 on Z -transforms. The necessary background on complex variables is provided in Appendix A. This book is intended to...

  7. Maturation of Plastid c-type Cytochromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabilly, Stéphane T; Hamel, Patrice P

    2017-01-01

    Cytochromes c are hemoproteins, with the prosthetic group covalently linked to the apoprotein, which function as electron carriers. A class of cytochromes c is defined by a CXXCH heme-binding motif where the cysteines form thioether bonds with the vinyl groups of heme. Plastids are known to contain up to three cytochromes c. The membrane-bound cytochrome f and soluble cytochrome c6 operate in photosynthesis while the activity of soluble cytochrome c6A remains unknown. Conversion of apo- to holocytochrome c occurs in the thylakoid lumen and requires the independent transport of apocytochrome and heme across the thylakoid membrane followed by the stereospecific attachment of ferroheme via thioether linkages. Attachment of heme to apoforms of plastid cytochromes c is dependent upon the products of the CCS (for cytochrome csynthesis) genes, first uncovered via genetic analysis of photosynthetic deficient mutants in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The CCS pathway also occurs in cyanobacteria and several bacteria. CcsA and CCS1, the signature components of the CCS pathway are polytopic membrane proteins proposed to operate in the delivery of heme from the stroma to the lumen, and also in the catalysis of the heme ligation reaction. CCDA, CCS4, and CCS5 are components of trans-thylakoid pathways that deliver reducing equivalents in order to maintain the heme-binding cysteines in a reduced form prior to thioether bond formation. While only four CCS components are needed in bacteria, at least eight components are required for plastid cytochrome c assembly, suggesting the biochemistry of thioether formation is more nuanced in the plastid system.

  8. Maturation of Plastid c-type Cytochromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane T. Gabilly

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytochromes c are hemoproteins, with the prosthetic group covalently linked to the apoprotein, which function as electron carriers. A class of cytochromes c is defined by a CXXCH heme-binding motif where the cysteines form thioether bonds with the vinyl groups of heme. Plastids are known to contain up to three cytochromes c. The membrane-bound cytochrome f and soluble cytochrome c6 operate in photosynthesis while the activity of soluble cytochrome c6A remains unknown. Conversion of apo- to holocytochrome c occurs in the thylakoid lumen and requires the independent transport of apocytochrome and heme across the thylakoid membrane followed by the stereospecific attachment of ferroheme via thioether linkages. Attachment of heme to apoforms of plastid cytochromes c is dependent upon the products of the CCS (for cytochrome csynthesis genes, first uncovered via genetic analysis of photosynthetic deficient mutants in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The CCS pathway also occurs in cyanobacteria and several bacteria. CcsA and CCS1, the signature components of the CCS pathway are polytopic membrane proteins proposed to operate in the delivery of heme from the stroma to the lumen, and also in the catalysis of the heme ligation reaction. CCDA, CCS4, and CCS5 are components of trans-thylakoid pathways that deliver reducing equivalents in order to maintain the heme-binding cysteines in a reduced form prior to thioether bond formation. While only four CCS components are needed in bacteria, at least eight components are required for plastid cytochrome c assembly, suggesting the biochemistry of thioether formation is more nuanced in the plastid system.

  9. Codon Adaptation of Plastid Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Haruo; Morton, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Codon adaptation is codon usage bias that results from selective pressure to increase the translation efficiency of a gene. Codon adaptation has been studied across a wide range of genomes and some early analyses of plastids have shown evidence for codon adaptation in a limited set of highly expressed plastid genes. Here we study codon usage bias across all fully sequenced plastid genomes which includes representatives of the Rhodophyta, Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Euglenozoa, Glaucocystophyceae, Rhizaria, Stramenopiles and numerous lineages within the Viridiplantae, including Chlorophyta and Embryophyta. We show evidence that codon adaptation occurs in all genomes except for two, Theileria parva and Heicosporidium sp., both of which have highly reduced gene contents and no photosynthesis genes. We also show evidence that selection for codon adaptation increases the representation of the same set of codons, which we refer to as the adaptive codons, across this wide range of taxa, which is probably due to common features descended from the initial endosymbiont. We use various measures to estimate the relative strength of selection in the different lineages and show that it appears to be fairly strong in certain Stramenopiles and Chlorophyta lineages but relatively weak in many members of the Rhodophyta, Euglenozoa and Embryophyta. Given these results we propose that codon adaptation in plastids is widespread and displays the same general features as adaptation in eubacterial genomes. PMID:27196606

  10. Codon Adaptation of Plastid Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Suzuki

    Full Text Available Codon adaptation is codon usage bias that results from selective pressure to increase the translation efficiency of a gene. Codon adaptation has been studied across a wide range of genomes and some early analyses of plastids have shown evidence for codon adaptation in a limited set of highly expressed plastid genes. Here we study codon usage bias across all fully sequenced plastid genomes which includes representatives of the Rhodophyta, Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Euglenozoa, Glaucocystophyceae, Rhizaria, Stramenopiles and numerous lineages within the Viridiplantae, including Chlorophyta and Embryophyta. We show evidence that codon adaptation occurs in all genomes except for two, Theileria parva and Heicosporidium sp., both of which have highly reduced gene contents and no photosynthesis genes. We also show evidence that selection for codon adaptation increases the representation of the same set of codons, which we refer to as the adaptive codons, across this wide range of taxa, which is probably due to common features descended from the initial endosymbiont. We use various measures to estimate the relative strength of selection in the different lineages and show that it appears to be fairly strong in certain Stramenopiles and Chlorophyta lineages but relatively weak in many members of the Rhodophyta, Euglenozoa and Embryophyta. Given these results we propose that codon adaptation in plastids is widespread and displays the same general features as adaptation in eubacterial genomes.

  11. Exceptional inheritance of plastids via pollen in Nicotiana sylvestris with no detectable paternal mitochondrial DNA in the progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Gregory; Svab, Zora; Maliga, Pal

    2012-10-01

    Plastids and mitochondria, the DNA-containing cytoplasmic organelles, are maternally inherited in the majority of angiosperm species. Even in plants with strict maternal inheritance, exceptional paternal transmission of plastids has been observed. Our objective was to detect rare leakage of plastids via pollen in Nicotiana sylvestris and to determine if pollen transmission of plastids results in co-transmission of paternal mitochondria. As father plants, we used N. sylvestris plants with transgenic, selectable plastids and wild-type mitochondria. As mother plants, we used N. sylvestris plants with Nicotiana undulata cytoplasm, including the CMS-92 mitochondria that cause cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) by homeotic transformation of the stamens. We report here exceptional paternal plastid DNA in approximately 0.002% of N. sylvestris seedlings. However, we did not detect paternal mitochondrial DNA in any of the six plastid-transmission lines, suggesting independent transmission of the cytoplasmic organelles via pollen. When we used fertile N. sylvestris as mothers, we obtained eight fertile plastid transmission lines, which did not transmit their plastids via pollen at higher frequencies than their fathers. We discuss the implications for transgene containment and plant evolutionary histories inferred from cytoplasmic phylogenies.

  12. Toward transformational carbon capture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Litynski, John T. [Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington DC (United States); Brickett, Lynn A. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Morreale, Bryan D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States)

    2015-10-28

    This paper will briefly review the history and current state of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) research and development and describe the technical barriers to carbon capture. it will argue forcefully for a new approach to R&D, which leverages both simulation and physical systems at the laboratory and pilot scales to more rapidly move the best technoogies forward, prune less advantageous approaches, and simultaneously develop materials and processes.

  13. Systems Thinking for Transformational Change in Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Cameron D.; Best, Allan; Riley, Barbara; Herbert, Carol P.; Millar, John; Howland, David

    2014-01-01

    Incremental approaches to introducing change in Canada's health systems have not sufficiently improved the quality of services and outcomes. Further progress requires 'large system transformation', considered to be the systematic effort to generate coordinated change across organisations sharing a common vision and goal. This essay draws on…

  14. Dead sea transform fault system reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Garfunkel, Zvi; Kagan, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    The Dead Sea transform is an active plate boundary connecting the Red Sea seafloor spreading system to the Arabian-Eurasian continental collision zone. Its geology and geophysics provide a natural laboratory for investigation of the surficial, crustal and mantle processes occurring along transtensional and transpressional transform fault domains on a lithospheric scale and related to continental breakup. There have been many detailed and disciplinary studies of the Dead Sea transform fault zone during the last?20 years and this book brings them together.This book is an updated comprehensive coverage of the knowledge, based on recent studies of the tectonics, structure, geophysics, volcanism, active tectonics, sedimentology and paleo and modern climate of the Dead Sea transform fault zone. It puts together all this new information and knowledge in a coherent fashion.

  15. Stabilization of nonlinear systems by similarity transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina E. Zuber

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available For a system x˙=A(x+b(xu, u(x=s∗(xx, x∈ℝn, where the pair (A(x,b(x is given, we obtain the feedback vector s(x to stabilize the corresponding closed loop system. For an arbitrarily chosen constant vector g, a sufficient condition of the existence and an explicit form of a similarity transformation T(A(x,b(x,g is established. The latter transforms matrix A(x into the Frobenius matrix, vector b(x into g, and an unknown feedback vector s(x into the first unit vector. The boundaries of A˜(y,g are determined by the boundaries of {∂kA(x∂xk,∂kb(x∂xk}, k=0,n−1¯. The stabilization of the transformed system is subject to the choice of the constant vector g.

  16. Plastid origin: who, when and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ku

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The origin of plastids is best explained by endosymbiotic theory, which dates back to the early 1900s. Three lines of evidence based on protein import machineries and molecular phylogenies of eukaryote (host and cyanobacterial (endosymbiont genes point to a single origin of primary plastids, a unique and important event that successfully transferred two photosystems and oxygenic photosynthesis from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. The nature of the cyanobacterial lineage from which plastids originated has been a topic of investigation. Recent studies have focused on the branching position of the plastid lineage in the phylogeny based on cyanobacterial core genes, that is, genes shared by all cyanobacteria and plastids. These studies have delivered conflicting results, however. In addition, the core genes represent only a very small portion of cyanobacterial genomes and may not be a good proxy for the rest of the ancestral plastid genome. Information in plant nuclear genomes, where most genes that entered the eukaryotic lineage through acquisition from the plastid ancestor reside, suggests that heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria in Stanier’s sections IV and V are most similar to the plastid ancestor in terms of gene complement and sequence conservation, which is in agreement with models suggesting an important role of nitrogen fixation in symbioses involving cyanobacteria. Plastid origin is an ancient event that involved a prokaryotic symbiont and a eukaryotic host, organisms with different histories and genome evolutionary processes. The different modes of genome evolution in prokaryotes and eukaryotes bear upon our interpretations of plastid phylogeny.

  17. Transforming Power Systems through Global Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-04-01

    Ambitious and integrated policy and regulatory frameworks are crucial to achieve power system transformation. The 21st Century Power Partnership -- a multilateral initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial -- serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with energy efficiency and grid modernization.

  18. Transforming Power Systems Through Global Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-01

    Ambitious and integrated policy and regulatory frameworks are crucial to achieve power system transformation. The 21st Century Power Partnership -- a multilateral initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial -- serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with energy efficiency and grid modernization.

  19. Transforming student learning with classroom communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Beatty, I D

    2005-01-01

    Since 1993, the University of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group (UMPERG) has developed curriculum and pedagogic techniques for use with classroom communication systems (CCSs) and has researched the effectiveness of CCS-based teaching. This bulletin describes how CCSs can influence "interactive pedagogy" and fundamentally transform the learning process. It includes advice drawn from lessons learned through a decade of experience.

  20. Nuclear and plastid genetic engineering of plants: comparison of opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Benjamin; Zaltsman, Adi; Lacroix, Benoît; Kozlovsky, Stanislav V; Krichevsky, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering is one of the key technologies for crop improvement as well as an emerging approach for producing recombinant proteins in plants. Both plant nuclear and plastid genomes can be genetically modified, yet fundamental functional differences between the eukaryotic genome of the plant cell nucleus and the prokaryotic-like genome of the plastid will have an impact on key characteristics of the resulting transgenic organism. So, which genome, nuclear or plastid, to transform for the desired transgenic phenotype? In this review we compare the advantages and drawbacks of engineering plant nuclear and plastid genomes to generate transgenic plants with the traits of interest, and evaluate the pros and cons of their use for different biotechnology and basic research applications, ranging from generation of commercial crops with valuable new phenotypes to 'bioreactor' plants for large-scale production of recombinant proteins to research model plants expressing various reporter proteins.

  1. Construction of transformation system in Penicillium purpurogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Ryo; Arai, Teppei; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ogihara, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Penicillium purpurogenum attracts attention in the food industry and biomass degradation. We expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) with pBPE, a novel vector, and constructed a transformation system for P. purpurogenum. The accumulation of GFP was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. In future, this system may prove useful for the genetic modification of P. purpurogenum. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression of a Codon-Optimized dsdA Gene in Tobacco Plastids and Rice Nucleus Confers D-Serine Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanmei; Wang, Rui; Hu, Zongliang; Li, Hongcai; Lu, Shizhan; Zhang, Juanjuan; Lin, Yongjun; Zhou, Fei

    2016-01-01

    D-serine is toxic to plants. D-serine ammonia lyase, which is encoded by the dsdA gene, can attenuate this toxicity with high specificity. In the present study, we explored the function of codon-optimized dsdA with tobacco plastids and rice nuclear transformation system. It was shown that dsdA gene was site-specifically integrated into the tobacco plastid genome and displayed a high level of expression. Genetic analysis of the progenies showed that dsdA gene is maternally inherited and confers sufficient D-serine resistance in tobacco. The effective screening concentrations of D-serine for seed germination, callus regeneration and foliar spray were 10, 30, and 75 mM, respectively. In addition, calluses from homozygous transgenic rice lines also showed significant tolerance to D-serine (up to 75 mM). Our study proves the feasibility of using dsdA gene as a selectable marker in both plastid and nuclear transformation systems.

  3. AFFINE TRANSFORMATION IN RANDOM ITERATED FUNCTION SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊勇; 史定华

    2001-01-01

    Random iterated function systems (IFSs) is discussed, which is one of the methods for fractal drawing. A certain figure can be reconstructed by a random IFS. One approach is presented to determine a new random IFS, that the figure reconstructed by the new random IFS is the image of the origin figure reconstructed by old IFS under a given affine transformation. Two particular examples are used to show this approach.

  4. RESEARCH OF WAVELET TRANSFORM INSTRUMENT SYSTEM FOR SIGNAL ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    After brief describing the principle of wavelet transform (WT) of signals, a new signals analysis system based on wavelet transform is introduced. The design and development of the instrument of wavelet transform are described. A number of practical uses of this system demonstrate that wavelet transform system is specially functional in identifying and processing impulse, singular and nonsmooth signals,so that it should be evaluated the most advanced signal analyzing system.

  5. Robot Skills for Transformable Manufacturing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Rath

    Efficient, transformable production systems need robots that are flexible and effortlessly repurposed or reconfigured. The present dissertation argues that this can be achieved through the implementation and use of general, object-centered robot skills. In this dissertation, we focus on the design......, implementation and uses of a robot programming paradigm, focused on robot skills, that facilitates intuitive and explicit task-level programming by laymen, such as factory workers, as well as ad-hoc task planning in the skill domain. We show how these robot skills can be modeled and implemented, even...... on different robot systems. Furthermore, we show how laymen can intuitively program tasks on an advanced mobile manipulator, using the skills as the fundamental building blocks. Finally, we demonstrate how the same skills can be used for ad-hoc task planning, where the robot system instead constructs the task...

  6. Plastid-Nuclear Interaction and Accelerated Coevolution in Plastid Ribosomal Genes in Geraniaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Mao-Lun; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Jansen, Robert K

    2016-06-27

    Plastids and mitochondria have many protein complexes that include subunits encoded by organelle and nuclear genomes. In animal cells, compensatory evolution between mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded subunits was identified and the high mitochondrial mutation rates were hypothesized to drive compensatory evolution in nuclear genomes. In plant cells, compensatory evolution between plastid and nucleus has rarely been investigated in a phylogenetic framework. To investigate plastid-nuclear coevolution, we focused on plastid ribosomal protein genes that are encoded by plastid and nuclear genomes from 27 Geraniales species. Substitution rates were compared for five sets of genes representing plastid- and nuclear-encoded ribosomal subunit proteins targeted to the cytosol or the plastid as well as nonribosomal protein controls. We found that nonsynonymous substitution rates (dN) and the ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates (ω) were accelerated in both plastid- (CpRP) and nuclear-encoded subunits (NuCpRP) of the plastid ribosome relative to control sequences. Our analyses revealed strong signals of cytonuclear coevolution between plastid- and nuclear-encoded subunits, in which nonsynonymous substitutions in CpRP and NuCpRP tend to occur along the same branches in the Geraniaceae phylogeny. This coevolution pattern cannot be explained by physical interaction between amino acid residues. The forces driving accelerated coevolution varied with cellular compartment of the sequence. Increased ω in CpRP was mainly due to intensified positive selection whereas increased ω in NuCpRP was caused by relaxed purifying selection. In addition, the many indels identified in plastid rRNA genes in Geraniaceae may have contributed to changes in plastid subunits.

  7. Digital image pattern recognition system using normalized Fourier transform and normalized analytical Fourier-Mellin transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-Rábago, Rodrigo; Solorza-Calderón, Selene; Jordan-Aramburo, Adina

    2016-12-01

    This work presents an image pattern recognition system invariant to translation, scale and rotation. The system uses the Fourier transform to achieve the invariance to translation and the analytical Forier-Mellin transform for the invariance to scale and rotation. According with the statistical theory of box-plots, the pattern recognition system has a confidence level at least of 95.4%.

  8. Strategies for complete plastid genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyford, Alex D; Ness, Rob W

    2016-10-28

    Plastid sequencing is an essential tool in the study of plant evolution. This high-copy organelle is one of the most technically accessible regions of the genome, and its sequence conservation makes it a valuable region for comparative genome evolution, phylogenetic analysis and population studies. Here, we discuss recent innovations and approaches for de novo plastid assembly that harness genomic tools. We focus on technical developments including low-cost sequence library preparation approaches for genome skimming, enrichment via hybrid baits and methylation-sensitive capture, sequence platforms with higher read outputs and longer read lengths, and automated tools for assembly. These developments allow for a much more streamlined assembly than via conventional short-range PCR. Although newer methods make complete plastid sequencing possible for any land plant or green alga, there are still challenges for producing finished plastomes particularly from herbarium material or from structurally divergent plastids such as those of parasitic plants.

  9. Plastid and Stromule Morphogenesis in Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Pyke, Kevin A.; HOWELLS, CAROLINE A.

    2002-01-01

    By using green fluorescent protein targeted to the plastid organelle in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), the morphology of plastids and their associated stromules in epidermal cells and trichomes from stems and petioles and in the chromoplasts of pericarp cells in the tomato fruit has been revealed. A novel characteristic of tomato stromules is the presence of extensive bead‐like structures along the stromules that are often observed as free vesicles, distinct from and apparently uncon...

  10. Combined Method of Datum Transformation Between Different Coordinate Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The similarity transformation model between different coordinate systems is not accurate enough to describe the discrepancy of them.Therefore,the coordinate transformation from the coordinate frame with poor accuracy to that with high accuracy cannot guarantee a high precision of transformation.In this paper,a combined method of similarity transformation and regressive approximating is presented.The local error accumulation and distortion are taken into consideration and the precision of coordinate system is improved by using the recommended method.

  11. Formation and excretion of autophagic plastids (plastolysomes in Brassica napus embryogenic microspores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eParra-Vega

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The change in developmental fate of microspores reprogrammed towards embryogenesis is a complex but fascinating experimental system where microspores undergo dramatic changes derived from the developmental switch. After 40 years of study of the ultrastructural changes undergone by the induced microspores, many questions are still open. In this work, we analyzed the architecture of DNA-containing organelles such as plastids and mitochondria in samples of B. napus isolated microspore cultures covering the different stages before, during and after the developmental switch. Mitochondria presented a conventional oval or sausage-like morphology for all cell types studied, similar to that found in vivo in other cell types from vegetative parts. Similarly, plastids of microspores before induction and of non-induced cells showed conventional architectures. However, approximately 40% of the plastids of embryogenic microspores presented atypical features such as curved profiles, protrusions, and internal compartments filled with cytoplasm. Three-dimensional reconstructions confirmed that these plastids actually engulf cytoplasm regions, isolating them from the rest of the cell. Acid phosphatase activity was found in them, confirming the lytic activity of these organelles. In addition, digested plastid-like structures were found excreted to the apoplast. All these phenomena seemed transient, since microspore-derived embryos showed conventional plastids. Together, these results strongly suggested that under special circumstances, such as those of the androgenic switch, plastids of embryogenic microspores behave as autophagic plastids (plastolysomes, engulfing cytoplasm for digestion, and then are excreted out of the cytoplasm as part of a cleaning program necessary for microspores to become embryos.

  12. Investigating the production of foreign membrane proteins in tobacco chloroplasts: expression of an algal plastid terminal oxidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niaz Ahmad

    Full Text Available Chloroplast transformation provides an inexpensive, easily scalable production platform for expression of recombinant proteins in plants. However, this technology has been largely limited to the production of soluble proteins. Here we have tested the ability of tobacco chloroplasts to express a membrane protein, namely plastid terminal oxidase 1 from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr-PTOX1, which is predicted to function as a plastoquinol oxidase. A homoplastomic plant containing a codon-optimised version of the nuclear gene encoding PTOX1, driven by the 16S rRNA promoter and 5'UTR of gene 10 from phage T7, was generated using a particle delivery system. Accumulation of Cr-PTOX1 was shown by immunoblotting and expression in an enzymatically active form was confirmed by using chlorophyll fluorescence to measure changes in the redox state of the plastoquinone pool in leaves. Growth of Cr-PTOX1 expressing plants was, however, more sensitive to high light than WT. Overall our results confirm the feasibility of using plastid transformation as a means of expressing foreign membrane proteins in the chloroplast.

  13. CyanoClust: comparative genome resources of cyanobacteria and plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Naobumi V; Sato, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Cyanobacteria, which perform oxygen-evolving photosynthesis as do chloroplasts of plants and algae, are one of the best-studied prokaryotic phyla and one from which many representative genomes have been sequenced. Lack of a suitable comparative genomic database has been a problem in cyanobacterial genomics because many proteins involved in physiological functions such as photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation are not catalogued in commonly used databases, such as Clusters of Orthologous Proteins (COG). CyanoClust is a database of homolog groups in cyanobacteria and plastids that are produced by the program Gclust. We have developed a web-server system for the protein homology database featuring cyanobacteria and plastids. Database URL: http://cyanoclust.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp/.

  14. Fractional Fourier transform of apertured paraboloid refracting system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiannong Chen; Jinliang Yan; Defa Wang; Yongjiang Yu

    2007-01-01

    The limitation of paraxial condition of paraboloid refracting system in performing fractional Fourier transform acts like an aperture, which makes the system different from ideal systems. With aperture expanded as the sum of finite complex Gaussian terms, a more practical approximate analytical solution of fractional Fourier transform of Gaussian beam in an apertured paraboloid refracting system is obtained and also numerical investigation is presented. Complicated and practical fractional Fourier transform systems can be constructed by cascading several apertured paraboloid refracting systems which are the simplest and the most basic units for performing more precise transform.

  15. Engineering plastid fatty acid biosynthesis to improve food quality and biofuel production in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, Marcelo; Carrer, Helaine

    2011-06-01

    The ability to manipulate plant fatty acid biosynthesis by using new biotechnological approaches has allowed the production of transgenic plants with unusual fatty acid profile and increased oil content. This review focuses on the production of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) and the increase in oil content in plants using molecular biology tools. Evidences suggest that regular consumption of food rich in VLCPUFAs has multiple positive health benefits. Alternative sources of these nutritional fatty acids are found in cold-water fishes. However, fish stocks are in severe decline because of decades of overfishing, and also fish oils can be contaminated by the accumulation of toxic compounds. Recently, there is also an increase in oilseed use for the production of biofuels. This tendency is partly associated with the rapidly rising costs of petroleum, increased concern about the environmental impact of fossil oil and the attractive need to develop renewable sources of fuel. In contrast to this scenario, oil derived from crop plants is normally contaminant free and less environmentally aggressive. Genetic engineering of the plastid genome (plastome) offers a number of attractive advantages, including high-level foreign protein expression, marker-gene excision and transgene containment because of maternal inheritance of plastid genome in most crops. Here, we describe the possibility to improve fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, production of new fatty acids and increase their content in plants by genetic engineering of plastid fatty acid biosynthesis via plastid transformation.

  16. Spectinomycin resistance mutations in the rrn16 gene are new plastid markers in Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudas, Brigitta; Jenes, Barnabas; Kiss, Gyorgy Botond; Maliga, Pal

    2012-11-01

    We report here the isolation of spectinomycin-resistant mutants in cultured cells of Medicago sativa line RegenSY-T2. Spectinomycin induces bleaching of cultured alfalfa cells due to inhibition of protein synthesis on the prokaryotic type 70S plastid ribosomes. Spontaneous mutants resistant to spectinomycin bleaching were identified by their ability to form green shoots on plant regeneration medium containing selective spectinomycin concentrations in the range of 25-50 mg/l. Sequencing of the plastid rrn16 gene revealed that spectinomycin resistance is due to mutations in a conserved stem structure of the 16S rRNA. Resistant plants transferred to the greenhouse developed normally and produced spectinomycin-resistant seed progeny. In light of their absence in soybean, a related leguminous plant, the isolation of spectinomycin-resistant mutants in M. sativa was unexpected. The new mutations are useful for the study of plastid inheritance, as demonstrated by detection of predominantly paternal plastid inheritance in the RegenSY-T2 × Szapko57 cross, and can be used as selective markers in plastid transformation vectors to obtain cisgenic plants.

  17. A Baecklund transformation between two integrable discrete hungry systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Akiko, E-mail: j1409704@ed.kagu.tus.ac.j [Department of Mathematical Information Science, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Yamamoto, Yusaku [Graduate School of System Informatics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Iwasaki, Masashi [Department of Informatics and Environmental Science, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5, Nakaragi-cho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522 (Japan); Ishiwata, Emiko [Department of Mathematical Information Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Nakamura, Yoshimasa [Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2011-01-17

    The discrete hungry Toda (dhToda) equation and the discrete hungry Lotka-Volterra (dhLV) system are known as integrable discrete hungry systems. In this Letter, through finding the LR transformations associated with the dhToda equation and the dhLV system, we present a Baecklund transformation between these integrable systems.

  18. Design of Intelligent Control System of Transformer Oil Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caijun Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available in working process of power transformer, which directly affects the safe operation of transformer oil temperature as well as the stability of the network, so vital to transformer oil temperature detection and control. Based on single chip and chip design of digital temperature measurement transformer oil temperature of an intelligent control system. The system uses a digital temperature sensor DS18B20 collection transformer oil temperature, improves the accuracy of the system. The low power consumption, strong anti-jamming ability of the SCM STC89C51 as the main controller to achieve control and real-time monitoring of transformer oil temperature, and input control module is designed for different transformer oil temperature preset control during normal operation, improving system usability and human-computer interaction.

  19. Identification of the nonlinear vibration system of power transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Zheng; Hai, Huang; Pan, Jie; Yanni, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the identification of the nonlinear vibration system of power transformers. A Hammerstein model is used to identify the system with electrical inputs and the vibration of the transformer tank as the output. The nonlinear property of the system is modelled using a Fourier neural network consisting of a nonlinear element and a linear dynamic block. The order and weights of the network are determined based on the Lipschitz criterion and the back-propagation algorithm. This system identification method is tested on several power transformers. Promising results for predicting the transformer vibration and extracting system parameters are presented and discussed.

  20. Versatile roles of plastids in plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Takehito; Ito-Inaba, Yasuko

    2010-11-01

    Plastids, found in plants and some parasites, are of endosymbiotic origin. The best-characterized plastid is the plant cell chloroplast. Plastids provide essential metabolic and signaling functions, such as the photosynthetic process in chloroplasts. However, the role of plastids is not limited to production of metabolites. Plastids affect numerous aspects of plant growth and development through biogenesis, varying functional states and metabolic activities. Examples include, but are not limited to, embryogenesis, leaf development, gravitropism, temperature response and plant-microbe interactions. In this review, we summarize the versatile roles of plastids in plant growth and development.

  1. Transforming Research Management Systems at Mayo Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven C.; Gronseth, Darren L.

    2011-01-01

    In order for research programs at academic medical centers and universities to survive and thrive in the increasingly challenging economic, political and regulatory environment, successful transformation is extremely important. Transformation and quality management techniques are increasingly well established in medical practice organizations. In…

  2. Expression of a Codon-Optimized dsdA Gene in Tobacco Plastids and Rice Nucleus Confers D-Serine Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Yanmei eLi; Rui eWang; Zongliang eHu; Hongcai eLi; Shizhan eLu; Juanjuan eZhang; Yongjun eLin; Fei eZhou

    2016-01-01

    D-serine is toxic to plants. D-serine ammonia lyase, which is encoded by the dsdA gene, can attenuate this toxicity with high specificity. In the present study, we explored the function of codon-optimized dsdA with tobacco plastids and rice nuclear transformation system. It was shown that the dsdA gene was site-specifically integrated into the tobacco chloroplast genome and displayed a high level of expression. Genetic analysis of the progenies showed that the dsdA gene is maternally inherite...

  3. A truncated hepatitis E virus ORF2 protein expressed in tobacco plastids is immunogenic in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Xiang Zhou; Maggie Yuk-Ting Lee; James Ming-Him Ng; Mee-Len Chye; Wing-Kin Yip; Sze-Yong Zee; Eric Lam

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To cost-effectively express the 23-ku pE2, the most promising subunit vaccine encoded by the E2fragment comprising of the 3'-portion of hepatitis E virus (HEV) open reading frame 2 (ORF2) in plastids of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. SR1), to investigate the transgene expression and pE2 accumulation in plastids,and to evaluate the antigenic effect of the plastid-derived pE2 in mice.METHODS: Plastid-targeting vector pRB94-E2containing the E2 fragment driven by rice psbA promoter was constructed. Upon delivery into tobacco plastids,this construct could initiate homologous recombination in psaB-trnfM and trnG-psbC fragments in plastid genome, and result in transgene inserted between the two fragments. The pRB94-E2 was delivered with a biolistic particle bombardment method, and the plastid-transformed plants were obtained following the regeneration .of the bombarded leaf tissues on a spectinomycin-supplemented medium. Transplastomic status of the regenerated plants was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis, transgene expression was investigated by Northern blot analysis, and accumulation of pE2 was measured by ELISA. Furthermore, protein extracts were used to immunize mice, and the presence of the pE2-reactive antibodies in serum samples of the immunized mice was studied by ELISA.RESULTS: Transplastomic lines confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis could actively transcribe the E2 mRNA. The pE2 polypeptide was accumulated to a level as high as 13.27 μg/g fresh leaves. The pE2 could stimulate the immunized mice to generate pE2-specific antibodies.CONCLUSION: HEV-E2 fragment can be inserted into the plastid genome and the recombinant pE2 antigen derived is antigenic in mice. Hence, plastids may be a novel source for cost-effective production of HEV vaccines.

  4. A Blueprint for Innovation to Achieve Health System Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Anne W

    2017-01-01

    Global health systems are challenged by escalating costs and growing demands for care created by the demands of aging populations and rising rates of chronic illness which place unsustainable pressure on health systems to meet population health needs. To overcome these challenges, transformational change is needed to strengthen health system performance and sustainability. Innovation is widely viewed as the strategy to drive transformational change in health systems; yet to date, innovation has lacked a clearly defined focus or agenda to achieve transformation. An actionable innovation agenda is needed to achieve transformational change for health systems. The key conditions for success as an innovation strategy are examined, including clearly defined innovation objectives, key milestones, and actionable steps every system stakeholder must pursue in order to guide the innovation agenda and ultimately accelerate the transformational changes needed for a sustainable healthcare system that delivers value to populations.

  5. Regulatory Shifts in Plastid Transcription Play a Key Role in Morphological Conversions of Plastids during Plant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebers, Monique; Grübler, Björn; Chevalier, Fabien; Lerbs-Mache, Silva; Merendino, Livia; Blanvillain, Robert; Pfannschmidt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Plastids display a high morphological and functional diversity. Starting from an undifferentiated small proplastid, these plant cell organelles can develop into four major forms: etioplasts in the dark, chloroplasts in green tissues, chromoplasts in colored flowers and fruits and amyloplasts in roots. The various forms are interconvertible into each other depending on tissue context and respective environmental condition. Research of the last two decades uncovered that each plastid type contains its own specific proteome that can be highly different from that of the other types. Composition of these proteomes largely defines the enzymatic functionality of the respective plastid. The vast majority of plastid proteins is encoded in the nucleus and must be imported from the cytosol. However, a subset of proteins of the photosynthetic and gene expression machineries are encoded on the plastid genome and are transcribed by a complex transcriptional apparatus consisting of phage-type nuclear-encoded RNA polymerases and a bacterial-type plastid-encoded RNA polymerase. Both types recognize specific sets of promoters and transcribe partly over-lapping as well as specific sets of genes. Here we summarize the current knowledge about the sequential activity of these plastid RNA polymerases and their relative activities in different types of plastids. Based on published plastid gene expression profiles we hypothesize that each conversion from one plastid type into another is either accompanied or even preceded by significant changes in plastid transcription suggesting that these changes represent important determinants of plastid morphology and protein composition and, hence, the plastid type. PMID:28154576

  6. Plastid proteomics for elucidating iron limited remodeling of plastid physiology in diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, K. M.; Nunn, B. L.; Jenkins, B. D.

    2016-02-01

    Diatoms are important primary producers in the world's oceans and their growth is constrained in large regions by low iron availability. This low iron-induced limitation of primary production is due to the requirement for iron in components of essential metabolic pathways including key chloroplast functions such as photosynthesis and nitrate assimilation. Diatoms can bloom and accumulate high biomass during introduction of iron into low iron waters, indicating adaptations allowing for their survival in iron-limited waters and rapid growth when iron becomes more abundant. Prior studies have shown that under iron limited stress, diatoms alter plastid-specific processes including components of electron transport, size of light harvesting capacity and chlorophyll content, suggesting plastid-specific protein regulation. Due to their complex evolutionary history, resulting from a secondary endosymbiosis, knowledge regarding the complement of plastid localized proteins remains limited in comparison to other model photosynthetic organisms. While in-silico prediction of diatom protein localization provides putative candidates for plastid-localization, these analyses can be limited as most plastid prediction models were developed using plants, primary endosymbionts. In order to characterize proteins enriched in diatom chloroplast and to understand how the plastid proteome is remodeled in response to iron limitation, we used mass spectrometry based proteomics to compare plastid- enriched protein fractions from Thalassiosira pseudonana, grown in iron replete and limited conditions. These analyses show that iron stress alters regulation of major metabolic pathways in the plastid including the Calvin cycle and fatty acid synthesis. These components provide promising targets to further characterize the plastid specific response to iron limitation.

  7. Polynomial Transformations For Discrete-Time Linear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram, Yoram

    1991-01-01

    Transformations based on polynomial matrices of finite degree developed for use in computing functions for compensation, inversion, and approximation of discrete-time, multivariable, linear systems. Method derived from z-transform transfer-function form of matrices. Applicable to cascade-compensation problems in design of control systems.

  8. Challenging obduracy : How local communities transform the energy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Schoor, Tineke; Van Lente, Harro; Scholtens, Bert; Peine, Alex|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314407243

    2016-01-01

    The transformation from the current energy system to a decentralized renewable energy system requires the transformation of communities into energy neutral or even energy producing communities. Increasingly, citizens become 'prosumers' and pool their resources to start a local energy initiative. In

  9. Integration of plastids with their hosts: Lessons learned from dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrell, Richard G; Howe, Christopher J

    2015-08-18

    After their endosymbiotic acquisition, plastids become intimately connected with the biology of their host. For example, genes essential for plastid function may be relocated from the genomes of plastids to the host nucleus, and pathways may evolve within the host to support the plastid. In this review, we consider the different degrees of integration observed in dinoflagellates and their associated plastids, which have been acquired through multiple different endosymbiotic events. Most dinoflagellate species possess plastids that contain the pigment peridinin and show extreme reduction and integration with the host biology. In some species, these plastids have been replaced through serial endosymbiosis with plastids derived from a different phylogenetic derivation, of which some have become intimately connected with the biology of the host whereas others have not. We discuss in particular the evolution of the fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates, which have adapted pathways retained from the ancestral peridinin plastid symbiosis for transcript processing in their current, serially acquired plastids. Finally, we consider why such a diversity of different degrees of integration between host and plastid is observed in different dinoflagellates and how dinoflagellates may thus inform our broader understanding of plastid evolution and function.

  10. Genetic Transformation System for the Fungal Soybean Pathogen Cercospora kikuchii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, R G; Ehrenshaft, M; Walker, D C; Sanders, L A

    1991-10-01

    An altered beta-tubulin gene that confers resistance to the fungicide benomyl was isolated from a genomic library of a UV-induced mutant of Cercospora kikuchii and used as a selectable marker for transformation. The level of benomyl resistance conferred to the transformants was at least 150-fold greater than the intrinsic resistance of the C. kikuchii recipient protoplasts. In the majority of cases, the tubulin fragment was integrated at the native beta-tubulin locus, apparently by gene replacement or gene conversion. The frequency of transformation ranged from 0.2 to 6 transformants per mug of DNA, depending on the recipient strain. Transformation with linearized plasmid resulted in a higher frequency, without changing the type of integration event. Transformants were phenotypically stable after eight consecutive transfers on medium without benomyl. This is the first report of a genetic transformation system for a Cercospora species.

  11. Highly efficient transformation system for Malassezia furfur and Malassezia pachydermatis using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis, A M; Vos, A M; Triana, S; Medina, C A; Escobar, N; Restrepo, S; Wösten, H A B; de Cock, H

    2017-03-01

    Malassezia spp. are part of the normal human and animal mycobiota but are also associated with a variety of dermatological diseases. The absence of a transformation system hampered studies to reveal mechanisms underlying the switch from the non-pathogenic to pathogenic life style. Here we describe, a highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system for Malassezia furfur and M. pachydermatis. A binary T-DNA vector with the hygromycin B phosphotransferase (hpt) selection marker and the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) was introduced in M. furfur and M. pachydermatis by combining the transformation protocols of Agaricus bisporus and Cryptococcus neoformans. Optimal temperature and co-cultivation time for transformation were 5 and 7days at 19°C and 24°C, respectively. Transformation efficiency was 0.75-1.5% for M. furfur and 0.6-7.5% for M. pachydermatis. Integration of the hpt resistance cassette and gfp was verified using PCR and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. The T-DNA was mitotically stable in approximately 80% of the transformants after 10 times sub-culturing in the absence of hygromycin. Improving transformation protocols contribute to study the biology and pathophysiology of Malassezia.

  12. Control System Design Using Finite Laplace Transform Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subhendu

    2011-01-01

    The Laplace transform theory violates a very fundamental requirement of all engineering systems. We show that this theory assumes that all signals must exist over infinite time interval. Since in engineering this infinite time assumption is not meaningful and feasible, this paper presents a design for linear control systems using the well known theory of Finite Laplace transform (FLT). The major contributions of this paper can be listed as: (a) A design principle for linear control systems us...

  13. Main Achievements of Cotton Large-scale Transformation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fu-guang; LIU Chuan-liang; WU Zhi-xia; ZHANG Chao-jun; ZHANG Xue-yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton large-scale transformation methods system was established based on innovation of cotton transformation methods.It obtains 8000 transgenic cotton plants per year by combining Agrobacteriurn turnefaciens-mediated,pollen-tube pathway and biolistic methods together efficiently.More than 1000 transgenie lines are selected from the transgenic plants with molecular assistant breeding and conventional breeding methods.

  14. Main Achievements of Cotton Large-scale Transformation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton large-scale transformation methods system was established based on innovation of cotton transformation methods.It obtains 8000 transgenic cotton plants per year by combining Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated,pollen-tube pathway and biolistic methods together efficiently.More than

  15. Chaotic attractor transforming control of hybrid Lorenz-Chen system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Dong-Lian; Wang Qiao; Gu Hong

    2008-01-01

    Based on passive theory, this paper studies a hybrid chaotic dynamical system from the mathematics perspective to implement the control of system stabilization.According to the Jacobian matrix of the nonlinear system, the stabilization control region is gotten.The controller is designed to stabilize fast the minimum phase Lorenz-Chen chaotic system after equivalently transforming from chaotic system to passive system. The simulation results show that the system not only can be controlled at the different equilibria, but also can be transformed between the different chaotic attractors.

  16. Plastid Proteomic Analysis in Tomato Fruit Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Suzuki

    Full Text Available To better understand the mechanism of plastid differentiation from chloroplast to chromoplast, we examined proteome and plastid changes over four distinct developmental stages of 'Micro-Tom' fruit. Additionally, to discover more about the relationship between fruit color and plastid differentiation, we also analyzed and compared 'Micro-Tom' results with those from two other varieties, 'Black' and 'White Beauty'. We confirmed that proteins related to photosynthesis remain through the orange maturity stage of 'Micro-Tom', and also learned that thylakoids no longer exist at this stage. These results suggest that at a minimum there are changes in plastid morphology occurring before all related proteins change. We also compared 'Micro-Tom' fruits with 'Black' and 'White Beauty' using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We found a decrease of CHRC (plastid-lipid-associated protein and HrBP1 (harpin binding protein-1 in the 'Black' and 'White Beauty' varieties. CHRC is involved in carotenoid accumulation and stabilization. HrBP1 in Arabidopsis has a sequence similar to proteins in the PAP/fibrillin family. These proteins have characteristics and functions similar to lipocalin, an example of which is the transport of hydrophobic molecules. We detected spots of TIL (temperature-induced lipocalin in 2D-PAGE results, however the number of spots and their isoelectric points differed between 'Micro-Tom' and 'Black'/'White Beauty'. Lipocalin has various functions including those related to environmental stress response, apoptosis induction, membrane formation and fixation, regulation of immune response, cell growth, and metabolism adjustment. Lipocalin related proteins such as TIL and HrBP1 could be related to the accumulation of carotenoids, fruit color and the differentiation of chromoplast.

  17. Plastid Proteomic Analysis in Tomato Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Miho; Takahashi, Sachiko; Kondo, Takanori; Dohra, Hideo; Ito, Yumihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Marina; Kamiya, Shiori; Kato, Masaya; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Fukao, Yoichiro; Kobayashi, Megumi; Nagata, Noriko; Motohashi, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the mechanism of plastid differentiation from chloroplast to chromoplast, we examined proteome and plastid changes over four distinct developmental stages of 'Micro-Tom' fruit. Additionally, to discover more about the relationship between fruit color and plastid differentiation, we also analyzed and compared 'Micro-Tom' results with those from two other varieties, 'Black' and 'White Beauty'. We confirmed that proteins related to photosynthesis remain through the orange maturity stage of 'Micro-Tom', and also learned that thylakoids no longer exist at this stage. These results suggest that at a minimum there are changes in plastid morphology occurring before all related proteins change. We also compared 'Micro-Tom' fruits with 'Black' and 'White Beauty' using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We found a decrease of CHRC (plastid-lipid-associated protein) and HrBP1 (harpin binding protein-1) in the 'Black' and 'White Beauty' varieties. CHRC is involved in carotenoid accumulation and stabilization. HrBP1 in Arabidopsis has a sequence similar to proteins in the PAP/fibrillin family. These proteins have characteristics and functions similar to lipocalin, an example of which is the transport of hydrophobic molecules. We detected spots of TIL (temperature-induced lipocalin) in 2D-PAGE results, however the number of spots and their isoelectric points differed between 'Micro-Tom' and 'Black'/'White Beauty'. Lipocalin has various functions including those related to environmental stress response, apoptosis induction, membrane formation and fixation, regulation of immune response, cell growth, and metabolism adjustment. Lipocalin related proteins such as TIL and HrBP1 could be related to the accumulation of carotenoids, fruit color and the differentiation of chromoplast.

  18. INTERFERENCE MITIGATING BASED ON FRACTIONAL FOURIER TRANSFORM IN TRANSFORM DOMAIN COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chuandan; Zhang Zhongpei; Li Shaoqian

    2007-01-01

    The method of FRactional Fourier Transform (FRFT) is introduced to Transform Domain Communication System (TDCS) for signal transforming in the paper after theoretical analysis. The method yields optimal Basis Function (BF) by FRFT with optimal transform angle. The TDCS using the proposed method has wider usable spectrum, stronger robustness and better ability of anti non-stationary jamming than using usual methods, such as Fourier Transform (FT), Auto Regressive (AR), Wavelet Transform (WT), etc. The main simulation results are as follows. First, the Bit Error Rate (BER) Pb is close to theoretical bound of no jamming no matter in single tone or in linear chirp interference. Second, the interference-to-signal ratio J/E is at least 12dB more than that of Direct Spread Spectrum System (DSSS) under the same BER if the spectrum hopping-to-signal ratio is 1:20 in chirp plus hopping interfering. Third, the Eb/No (when estimation difference is 90% between transmitter and receiver) is about 3.5dB or about 0.5dB (when estimation difference is 10% between transmitter and receiver) more than that of theoretical result when no estimation difference under Pb = 10-2.

  19. The systems psychodynamic experiences of organisational transformation amongst support staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Steyn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The unconscious impact of organisational transformation is often neglected and even denied. This research revealed the manifestation and impact of high levels and different forms of anxiety experienced by employees during transformation.Research objective: The objective was to study and describe the manifesting systems psychodynamic behaviour amongst support staff during organisational transformation.Motivation for the study: Organisational transformation is mostly researched from a leadership viewpoint. Little research data are available on the experiences of support staff on the receiving end of decisions about and implementation of transformation.Research design, approach and method: A qualitative approach within the phenomenological hermeneutic interpretive stance was used. The research was set in a government organisation. A semi-structured interview with four conveniently and purposefully chosen support staff members was thematically analysed using systems psychodynamics as theoretical paradigm.Main findings: Four themes manifested, namely de-authorisation and detachment, being bullied and seduced by leadership, the organisation in the mind as incompetent, and a dangerous and persecutory system. In the discussion, the basic assumptions and relevant constructs are interpreted.Practical implications: Understanding the transformation experiences of support staff could assist the industrial psychologist to facilitate appropriate support in coaching more junior staff towards increasing wellness and work performance.Contribution: Organisational transformation is highlighted as an anxiety provoking experience especially on the lower levels of the organisation. Its potentially deep and complex psychological impact could possibly derail parts of the system if not managed in a psychologically contained manner.

  20. Using systems thinking to support clinical system transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Allan; Berland, Alex; Herbert, Carol; Bitz, Jennifer; van Dijk, Marlies W; Krause, Christina; Cochrane, Douglas; Noel, Kevin; Marsden, Julian; McKeown, Shari; Millar, John

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The British Columbia Ministry of Health's Clinical Care Management initiative was used as a case study to better understand large-scale change (LSC) within BC's health system. Using a complex system framework, the purpose of this paper is to examine mechanisms that enable and constrain the implementation of clinical guidelines across various clinical settings. Design/methodology/approach - Researchers applied a general model of complex adaptive systems plus two specific conceptual frameworks (realist evaluation and system dynamics mapping) to define and study enablers and constraints. Focus group sessions and interviews with clinicians, executives, managers and board members were validated through an online survey. Findings - The functional themes for managing large-scale clinical change included: creating a context to prepare clinicians for health system transformation initiatives; promoting shared clinical leadership; strengthening knowledge management, strategic communications and opportunities for networking; and clearing pathways through the complexity of a multilevel, dynamic system. Research limitations/implications - The action research methodology was designed to guide continuing improvement of implementation. A sample of initiatives was selected; it was not intended to compare and contrast facilitators and barriers across all initiatives and regions. Similarly, evaluating the results or process of guideline implementation was outside the scope; the methods were designed to enable conversations at multiple levels - policy, management and practice - about how to improve implementation. The study is best seen as a case study of LSC, offering a possible model for replication by others and a tool to shape further dialogue. Practical implications - Recommended action-oriented strategies included engaging local champions; supporting local adaptation for implementation of clinical guidelines; strengthening local teams to guide implementation; reducing

  1. Code orange: Towards transformational leadership of emergency management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Denis H J

    2015-09-01

    The 21(st) century calls upon health leaders to recognize and respond to emerging threats and systemic emergency management challenges through transformative processes inherent in the LEADS in a caring environment framework. Using a grounded theory approach, this qualitative study explores key informant perspectives of leaders in emergency management across Canada on pressing needs for relevant systemic transformation. The emerging model points to eight specific attributes of transformational leadership central to emergency management and suggests that contextualization of health leadership is of particular import.

  2. The Systems Approach to Transform the Capabilities of Military Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the potential and challenges of applying the systems approach to transform military logistics as an element of the armed forces development program. First of all, the structure of the military logistic system is identified and discussed. Secondly, the principles governing military logistics are studied in order to point out the requirements for a military logistic system. Thirdly, the operational capability based approach to transform and develop contemporary armed forces is considered. Finally, the systems approach to develop the capabilities of military logistics is operationalized and the tools supporting the planning of the military logistic system development are proposed.

  3. Dynamics of a combined Medea-underdominant population transformation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Chaitanya S; Reeves, Richard Guy; Reed, Floyd A

    2014-05-07

    Transgenic constructs intended to be stably established at high frequencies in wild populations have been demonstrated to "drive" from low frequencies in experimental insect populations. Linking such population transformation constructs to genes which render them unable to transmit pathogens could eventually be used to stop the spread of vector-borne diseases like malaria and dengue. Generally, population transformation constructs with only a single transgenic drive mechanism have been envisioned. Using a theoretical modelling approach we describe the predicted properties of a construct combining autosomal Medea and underdominant population transformation systems. We show that when combined they can exhibit synergistic properties which in broad circumstances surpass those of the single systems. With combined systems, intentional population transformation and its reversal can be achieved readily. Combined constructs also enhance the capacity to geographically restrict transgenic constructs to targeted populations. It is anticipated that these properties are likely to be of particular value in attracting regulatory approval and public acceptance of this novel technology.

  4. Transformations of the Pleiomorphic Plant MTOC during Sporogenesis in the Hepatic Marchantia polymorpha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sporogenesis in the hepatic Marchantia polymorpha L. provides an outstanding example of the pleiomorphic nature of the plant microtubule organizing center (MTOC). Microtubules are nucleated from γ-tubulin in MTOCs that change form during mitosis and meiosis. Following entry of cells into the reproductive pathway of sporogenesis, successive rounds of mitosis give rise to packets of 4-16 sporocytes. Mitotic spindles are organized at discrete polar organizers (POs), a type of MTOC that is unique to this group of early divergent land plants. An abrupt and radical transformation in microtubule organization occurs when sporocytes enter meiosis: POs are lost and γ-tubulin is closely associated with surfaces of two large elongated plastids that subsequently divide into four. Migration of the four plastid MTOCs into a tetrahedral arrangement establishes the future spore domains and the division polarity of meiosis. As is typical of many bryophytes,cones of microtubules from the four plastid MTOCs initiate a quadripolar microtubule system (QMS) in meiotic prophase.At this point a transformation in the organization of the MTOCs occurs. The γ-tubulin detaches from plastids and forms a diffuse spheroidal pole in each of the spore domains. The plastids, which are no longer MTOCs, continue to divide. The diffuse MTOCs continue to nucleate cones of microtubules during transformation of the QMS to a bipolar spindle. Following meiosis I, γ-tubulin is associated with nuclear envelopes, and the spindles of meiosis Ⅱ are organized from diffuse MTOCs at the tetrad poles. At simultaneous cytokinesis, radial microtubule systems are organized at nuclear envelope MTOCs in each of the tetrad members.

  5. Genetic structure of Populus hybrid zone along the Irtysh River provides insight into plastid-nuclear incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Duan, Ai-Guo; Abuduhamiti, Bawerjan

    2016-06-16

    In plants, the maintenance of species integrity despite hybridization has often been explained by the co-adaption of nuclear gene complexes. However, the interaction between plastid and nuclear sub-genomes has been underestimated. Here, we analyzed the genetic structure of a Populus alba and P. tremula hybrid zone along the Irtysh River system in the Altai region, northwest China, using both nuclear microsatellites and plastid DNA sequences. We found high interspecific differentiation, although the hybrid P. × canescens was prevalent. Bayesian inference classified most hybrids into F1, followed by a few back-crosses to P. alba, and fewer F2 hybrids and back-crosses to P. tremula, indicating a few introgressions but preference toward P. alba. When plastid haplotypes in parental species were distinct, P. × canescens carried the haplotypes of both parents, but showed significant linkage between intraspecific haplotype and nuclear genotypes at several microsatellite loci. Selection, rather than migration and assortative mating, might have contributed to such plastid-nuclear disequilibria. By removing later-generated hybrids carrying interspecific combinations of haplotype and nuclear genotypes, plastid-nuclear incompatibility has greatly limited the gene exchange between P. alba and P. tremula via backcrossing with hybrids, demonstrating a significant association between plastid haplotype and the proportion of nuclear admixture.

  6. TRANSFORMATION OF THE WORLD BANKING SYSTEM IN CHANGING GLOBAL IMBALANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shestopalova O. O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the processes of transformation in the global banking system amid the global financial and monetary crisis. The author argues that the globalization of the world economy has a significant impact on the development of the banking system as an important integral part of the financial system. The author comes to the conclusion that the crisis state of the U.S. economy and individual countries in Western Europe led to the transformation of the monetary and banking sector globally. Banking system world's leading economies are now in “at risk” because the instability of the U.S. dollar and the euro continues to make chaotic

  7. Flood Transformation Effect of a System of Small Water Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Tlapák

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper resumes the investigation of transformation of watershed flow off caused by retention volumes of small water reservoirs (SWR in landscape. Based on our work experience in the field of water reservoir design and research, we know that simple system of even small fishponds disposes of nonnegligible free retention volume. We decided to verify this assumption with aid of exact determination of discharge transformation within the basin containing realized system of small water reservoirs. The input water management data for design of water reservoirs are represented by water discharge in existing stream related to the point of designed SWR. In the Czech Republic, the data are provided by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI, however the data refer to an unaffected discharges, i.e. without consideration of transformation effects of existing small water reservoirs within the basin. Although the total available volume for transformation purposes of investigated SWR system is relatively small, the results show the transformation effect of such reservoirs is not insignificant. Furthermore the transformation effect is raised by proper design and functionality of the whole system of water reservoirs.

  8. Highly efficient transformation system for Malassezia furfur and Malassezia pachydermatis using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celis, A.M.; Vos, Aurin; Triana, S.; Medina, C.A.; Escobar Salazar, Natalia|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412500884; Restrepo, S.; Wosten, Han|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/120693186; de Cock, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087737116

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia spp. are part of the normal human and animal mycobiota but are also associated with a variety of dermatological diseases. The absence of a transformation system hampered studies to reveal mechanisms underlying the switch from the non-pathogenic to pathogenic life style. Here we describe,

  9. The plastid genome of the red macroalga Grateloupia taiwanensis (Halymeniaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S DePriest

    Full Text Available The complete plastid genome sequence of the red macroalga Grateloupia taiwanensis S.-M.Lin & H.-Y.Liang (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta is presented here. Comprising 191,270 bp, the circular DNA contains 233 protein-coding genes and 29 tRNA sequences. In addition, several genes previously unknown to red algal plastids are present in the genome of G. taiwanensis. The plastid genomes from G. taiwanensis and another florideophyte, Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui, are very similar in sequence and share significant synteny. In contrast, less synteny is shared between G. taiwanensis and the plastid genome representatives of Bangiophyceae and Cyanidiophyceae. Nevertheless, the gene content of all six red algal plastid genomes here studied is highly conserved, and a large core repertoire of plastid genes can be discerned in Rhodophyta.

  10. New insights into plastid nucleoid structure and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinska, Karin; Melonek, Joanna; Krause, Kirsten

    2013-03-01

    Investigations over many decades have revealed that nucleoids of higher plant plastids are highly dynamic with regard to their number, their structural organization and protein composition. Membrane attachment and environmental cues seem to determine the activity and functionality of the nucleoids and point to a highly regulated structure-function relationship. The heterogeneous composition and the many functions that are seemingly associated with the plastid nucleoids could be related to the high number of chromosomes per plastid. Recent proteomic studies have brought novel nucleoid-associated proteins into the spotlight and indicated that plastid nucleoids are an evolutionary hybrid possessing prokaryotic nucleoid features and eukaryotic (nuclear) chromatin components, several of which are dually targeted to the nucleus and chloroplasts. Future studies need to unravel if and how plastid-nucleus communication depends on nucleoid structure and plastid gene expression.

  11. TRANSFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  12. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  13. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  14. Respiratory processes in non-photosynthetic plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eRenato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlororespiration is a respiratory process located in chloroplast thylakoids which consists in an electron transport chain from NAD(PH to oxygen. This respiratory chain involves the NAD(PH dehydrogenase complex, the plastoquinone pool and the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX, and it probably acts as a safety valve to prevent the over-reduction of the photosynthetic machinery in stress conditions. The existence of a similar respiratory activity in non-photosynthetic plastids has been less studied. Recently, it has been reported that tomato fruit chromoplasts present an oxygen consumption activity linked to ATP synthesis. Etioplasts and amyloplasts contain several electron carriers and some subunits of the ATP synthase, so they could harbor a similar respiratory process. This review provides an update on the study about respiratory processes in chromoplasts, identifying the major gaps that need to be addressed in future research. It also reviews the proteomic data of etioplasts and amyloplasts, which suggest the presence of a respiratory electron transport chain in these plastids.

  15. School Finance in a Transformed Education System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipho, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of the impact of systemic educational change on the school funding mechanism addresses the forces driving school finance and examines new outcome-driven funding models. The implications of decentralization of school districts are considered; and advantages, disadvantages, and implementation of voucher and incentive models are presented.…

  16. [Transforming health systems based on primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Arenas, Luis; Salinas-Escudero, Guillermo; Granados-García, Víctor; Martínez-Valverde, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Access to health services is a social basic determinant of health in Mexico unlike what happens in developed countries. The demand for health services is focused on primary care, but the design meets only the supply of hospital care services. So it generates a dissonance between the needs and the effective design of health services. In addition, the term affiliation refers to population contributing or in the recruitment process, that has been counted as members of these social security institutions (SS) and Popular Insurance (SP). In the case of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) three of four contributors are in contact with health services; while in the SP, this indicator does not exist. Moreover, the access gap between health services is found in the health care packages so that members of the SS and SP do not have same type of coverage. The question is: which model of health care system want the Mexicans? Primary care represents the first choice for increasing the health systems performance, as well as to fulfill their function of social protection: universal access and coverage based on needs, regardless whether it is a public or private health insurance. A central aspect for development of this component is the definition of the first contact with the health system through the creation of a primary health care team, led by a general practitioner as the responsible of a multidisciplinary health team. The process addresses the concepts of primary care nursing, consumption of inputs (mainly medical drugs), maintenance and general services. Adopting a comprehensive strategy that will benefit all Mexicans equally and without discrimination, this primary care system could be financed with a total operating cost of approximately $ 22,809 million by year.

  17. Transformation of Taiwan's Upper Secondary Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueih-Lirng Laih

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the policy issues circling around the structural "transition" in upper secondary education implicit in the twenty-year increase in secondary and third-level school enrollment rates in Taiwan. This expansion has taken place within a secondary school system which is rigidly divided into both general, i.e., academic, and vocational tracks and into public and private sectors: the majority of students are enrolled in the private vocational sector which is only loosely articulated with the university sector. These features of the school system are analysed against the background of social and economic developments in Taiwan as well as public opinion. The analysis suggests that the present structures of school must be "reformed" in ways that will result in a more unified secondary system with both greater public funding and better articulation of all school types with the third level. The policy options that circle around the possibility of such reforms in the areas of curriculum, examination structures and second level-third level articulation are discussed and a policy framework for the reform of the Taiwan secondary education sector is outlined.

  18. Dynamic composition, shaping and organization of plastid nucleoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta ePowikrowska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article recent progress on the elucidation of the dynamic composition and structure of plastid nucleoids is reviewed from a structural perspective. Plastid nucleoids are compact structures of multiple copies of different forms of ptDNA, RNA, enzymes for replication and gene expression as well as DNA binding proteins. Although early electron microscopy suggested that plastid DNA is almost free of proteins, it is now well established that the DNA in nucleoids similarly as in the nuclear chromatin is associated with basic proteins playing key roles in organization of the DNA architecture and in regulation of DNA associated enzymatic activities involved in transcription, replication, and recombination. This group of DNA binding proteins has been named plastid nucleoid associated proteins (ptNAPs. Plastid nucleoids are unique with respect to their variable number, genome copy content and dynamic distribution within different types of plastids. The mechanisms underlying the shaping and reorganization of plastid nucleoids during chloroplast development and in response to environmental conditions involve posttranslational modifications of ptNAPs, similarly to those changes known for histones in the eukaryotic chromatin, as well as changes in the repertoire of ptNAPs, as known for nucleoids of bacteria. Attachment of plastid nucleoids to membranes is proposed to be important not only for regulation of DNA availability for replication and transcription, but also for the coordination of photosynthesis and plastid gene expression.

  19. The Plastid Genome of the Cryptomonad Teleaulax amphioxeia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Im Kim

    Full Text Available Teleaulax amphioxeia is a photosynthetic unicellular cryptophyte alga that is distributed throughout marine habitats worldwide. This alga is an important plastid donor to the dinoflagellate Dinophysis caudata through the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum in the marine food web. To better understand the genomic characteristics of T. amphioxeia, we have sequenced and analyzed its plastid genome. The plastid genome sequence of T. amphioxeia is similar to that of Rhodomonas salina, and they share significant synteny. This sequence exhibits less similarity to that of Guillardia theta, the representative plastid genome of photosynthetic cryptophytes. The gene content and order of the three photosynthetic cryptomonad plastid genomes studied is highly conserved. The plastid genome of T. amphioxeia is composed of 129,772 bp and includes 143 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA operons and 30 tRNA sequences. The DNA polymerase III gene (dnaX was most likely acquired via lateral gene transfer (LGT from a firmicute bacterium, identical to what occurred in R. salina. On the other hand, the psbN gene was independently encoded by the plastid genome without a reverse transcriptase gene as an intron. To clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the algae with red-algal derived plastids, phylogenetic analyses of 32 taxa were performed, including three previously sequenced cryptophyte plastid genomes containing 93 protein-coding genes. The stramenopiles were found to have branched out from the Chromista taxa (cryptophytes, haptophytes, and stramenopiles, while the cryptophytes and haptophytes were consistently grouped into sister relationships with high resolution.

  20. Endosymbiotic gene transfer in tertiary plastid-containing dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burki, Fabien; Imanian, Behzad; Hehenberger, Elisabeth; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Shinichiro; Keeling, Patrick J

    2014-02-01

    Plastid establishment involves the transfer of endosymbiotic genes to the host nucleus, a process known as endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT). Large amounts of EGT have been shown in several photosynthetic lineages but also in present-day plastid-lacking organisms, supporting the notion that endosymbiotic genes leave a substantial genetic footprint in the host nucleus. Yet the extent of this genetic relocation remains debated, largely because the long period that has passed since most plastids originated has erased many of the clues to how this process unfolded. Among the dinoflagellates, however, the ancestral peridinin-containing plastid has been replaced by tertiary plastids on several more recent occasions, giving us a less ancient window to examine plastid origins. In this study, we evaluated the endosymbiotic contribution to the host genome in two dinoflagellate lineages with tertiary plastids. We generated the first nuclear transcriptome data sets for the "dinotoms," which harbor diatom-derived plastids, and analyzed these data in combination with the available transcriptomes for kareniaceans, which harbor haptophyte-derived plastids. We found low level of detectable EGT in both dinoflagellate lineages, with only 9 genes and 90 genes of possible tertiary endosymbiotic origin in dinotoms and kareniaceans, respectively, suggesting that tertiary endosymbioses did not heavily impact the host dinoflagellate genomes.

  1. TRANSFORMER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  2. Materials for programmed, functional transformation in transient electronic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Suk-Won; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Huang, Xian; Brenckle, Mark A; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Rogers, John A

    2015-01-07

    Materials and device designs are presented for electronic systems that undergo functional transformation by a controlled time sequence in the dissolution of active materials and/or encapsulation layers. Demonstration examples include various biocompatible, multifunctional systems with autonomous behavior defined by materials selection and layout.

  3. Quantum Discrete Fourier Transform in an Ion Trap System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2007-01-01

    We propose two schemes for the implementation of quantum discrete Fourier transform in the ion trap system. In each scheme we design a tunable two-qubit phase gate as the main ingredient. The experimental implementation of the schemes would be an important step toward complex quantum computation in the ion trap system.

  4. Genetic transformation of the sugar beet plastome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Wang, Yongxin; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Arcioni, Sergio; Bellucci, Michele

    2009-02-01

    It is very important for the application of chloroplast engineering to extend the range of species in which this technology can be achieved. Here, we describe the development of a chloroplast transformation system for the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris, Sugar Beet Group) by biolistic bombardment of leaf petioles. Homoplasmic plastid-transformed plants of breeding line Z025 were obtained. Transformation was achieved using a vector that targets genes to the rrn16/rps12 intergenic region of the sugar beet plastome, employing the aadA gene as a selectable marker against spectinomycin and the gfp gene for visual screening of plastid transformants. gfp gene transcription and protein expression were shown in transplastomic plants. Detection of GFP in Comassie blue-stained gels suggested high GFP levels. Microscopy revealed GFP fluorescence within the chloroplasts. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering the sugar beet chloroplast genome; this technology provides new opportunities for the genetic improvement of this crop and for social acceptance of genetically modified sugar beet plants.

  5. Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability in Social-ecological Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Walker; C. S. Holling; Stephen R. Carpenter; Kinzig, Ann P.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of resilience has evolved considerably since Holling's (1973) seminal paper. Different interpretations of what is meant by resilience, however, cause confusion. Resilience of a system needs to be considered in terms of the attributes that govern the system's dynamics. Three related attributes of social-ecological systems (SESs) determine their future trajectories: resilience, adaptability, and transformability. Resilience (the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorgan...

  6. Evolution of red algal plastid genomes: ancient architectures, introns, horizontal gene transfer, and taxonomic utility of plastid markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Janouškovec

    Full Text Available Red algae have the most gene-rich plastid genomes known, but despite their evolutionary importance these genomes remain poorly sampled. Here we characterize three complete and one partial plastid genome from a diverse range of florideophytes. By unifying annotations across all available red algal plastid genomes we show they all share a highly compact and slowly-evolving architecture and uniquely rich gene complements. Both chromosome structure and gene content have changed very little during red algal diversification, and suggest that plastid-to nucleus gene transfers have been rare. Despite their ancient character, however, the red algal plastids also contain several unprecedented features, including a group II intron in a tRNA-Met gene that encodes the first example of red algal plastid intron maturase - a feature uniquely shared among florideophytes. We also identify a rare case of a horizontally-acquired proteobacterial operon, and propose this operon may have been recruited for plastid function and potentially replaced a nucleus-encoded plastid-targeted paralogue. Plastid genome phylogenies yield a fully resolved tree and suggest that plastid DNA is a useful tool for resolving red algal relationships. Lastly, we estimate the evolutionary rates among more than 200 plastid genes, and assess their usefulness for species and subspecies taxonomy by comparison to well-established barcoding markers such as cox1 and rbcL. Overall, these data demonstrates that red algal plastid genomes are easily obtainable using high-throughput sequencing of total genomic DNA, interesting from evolutionary perspectives, and promising in resolving red algal relationships at evolutionarily-deep and species/subspecies levels.

  7. INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES OF MONITORING POWER TRANSFORMERS CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinov V. N.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of reducing the power supply system’s reliability a prompt full-scale diagnostics based on modern methods can help. Inculcation of information systems for the operational diagnostics implementation allows providing the operating personnel with information that enables to predict possible infringements in power transformers work and to prepare in advance an action plan to address them. The paper presents fragments of the developed monitoring system of power transformer using programmable logic controllers. Within the work of the system there were marked such groups of controlled parameters as information about temperature and the cooling system work; magnitude of windings voltage per phase; the windings current values per phase; information about being transmitted and transmitted power; information about the insulation state. There is designed a functional scheme of the system for monitoring the state of the power transformer. There is described a general algorithm of system functioning. There is developed graphical operator interface that allows to monitor the object state and to manage the system state. Using XML markup language there was designed format of data packets. Designed hardware and software package can be used in the educational process, as it allows to improve the quality of students training, to bring them closer to the realities of modern professional activities; in operational activities as complying with the approved domestic calculating methods replacement of foreign software; in science in solving problems of analysis and optimization of operating parameters of power transformers

  8. Plastids of three Cuscuta species differing in plastid coding capacity have a common parasite-specific RNA composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Sabine; Krupinska, Karin; Krause, Kirsten

    2003-11-01

    The chlorophyll containing holoparasitic species Cuscuta reflexa, the achlorophyllous species Cuscuta odorata and the intermediate species Cuscuta gronovii, which contains only traces of chlorophyll, were compared with respect to their plastid coding capacity and plastid gene expression at the level of RNA. While extensive deletions have taken place in the plastid DNA of the achlorophyllous species C. odorata, the green species C. reflexa has retained an almost complete plastid genome. Although the plastid genome of the intermediate species C. gronovii has suffered extensive deletions, in contrast to the plastid genome of C. odorata it has retained photosynthesis-related genes. Hybridization with radioactive 3'-labelled RNA revealed that in all three species only a small 'parasite-specific' portion of the plastid genome consisting of mainly rRNAs and tRNAs is represented at the level of steady-state RNA. Run-on transcription assays revealed that in plastids of C. reflexa the entire genome is transcribed. Hence, the subset of RNA species required for a parasitic lifestyle is preferentially stabilized in Cuscuta plastids.

  9. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  10. Architectural transformations in network services and distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Luntovskyy, Andriy

    2017-01-01

    With the given work we decided to help not only the readers but ourselves, as the professionals who actively involved in the networking branch, with understanding the trends that have developed in recent two decades in distributed systems and networks. Important architecture transformations of distributed systems have been examined. The examples of new architectural solutions are discussed. Content Periodization of service development Energy efficiency Architectural transformations in Distributed Systems Clustering and Parallel Computing, performance models Cloud Computing, RAICs, Virtualization, SDN Smart Grid, Internet of Things, Fog Computing Mobile Communication from LTE to 5G, DIDO, SAT-based systems Data Security Guaranteeing Distributed Systems Target Groups Students in EE and IT of universities and (dual) technical high schools Graduated engineers as well as teaching staff About the Authors Andriy Luntovskyy provides classes on networks, mobile communication, software technology, distributed systems, ...

  11. AC system stabilization via phase shift transformer with thyristor commutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Carlos de; Guimaraes, Geraldo Caixeta; Moraes, Adelio Jose [Uberlandia Univ., MG (Brazil); Abreu, Jose Policarpo G. de [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Edimar Jose de [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This article aims to present initially the constructive and operative forms of a phase-shift autotransformer which provides both magnitude and phase angle change through thyristor commutation, including a technic to reduce the number of thyristors. Following, it is proposed a control system to make such equipment an efficient AC system stabilizing tool. It is presented some simulation results to show the operation of this transformer in an electrical system. (author) 3 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Software System for Finding the Incipient Faults in Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Petkova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new software system for finding of incipient faultsis presented.An experiment is made with real measurement of partial discharge(PD that appeared in power transformer. The software system usesacquisition data to define the real state of this transformer. One of the most important criteria for the power transformer’s state is the presence of partial discharges. The wave propagation caused by partial discharge depends on scheme of the winding and construction of the power equipment. In all cases, the PD source had a specific position so the wave measured from the PD –coupling device had a specific waveform. The waveform is different when PDcoupling device is put on a specific place. The waveform and the time of propagation are criteria for the localization of the source of incipient faults in the volume of power transformer.

  13. Transformers: Shape-Changing Space Systems Built with Robotic Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Prior approaches to transformer-like robots had only very limited success. They suffer from lack of reliability, ability to integrate large surfaces, and very modest change in overall shape. Robots can now be built from two-dimensional (2D) layers of robotic fabric. These transformers, a new kind of robotic space system, are dramatically different from current systems in at least two ways. First, the entire transformer is built from a single, thin sheet; a flexible layer of a robotic fabric (ro-fabric); or robotic textile (ro-textile). Second, the ro-textile layer is foldable to small volume and self-unfolding to adapt shape and function to mission phases.

  14. Organelle transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Anjanabha; Kumar, Anish; Desai, Nirali; Parikh, Seema

    2012-01-01

    The source of genetic information in a plant cell is contained in nucleus, plastids, and mitochondria. Organelle transformation is getting a lot of attention nowadays because of its superior performance over the conventional and most commonly used nuclear transformation for obtaining transgenic lines. Absence of gene silencing, strong predictable transgene expression, and its application in molecular pharming, both in pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals, are some of many advantages. Other important benefits of utilizing this technology include the absence of transgene flow, as organelles are maternally inherited. This may increase the acceptability of organelle transformation technology in the development of transgenic crops in a wider scale all over the globe. As the need for crop productivity and therapeutic compounds increases, organelle transformation may be able to bridge the gap, thereby having a definite promise for the future.

  15. Lie transform Hamiltonian perturbation theory for limit cycle systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Tirth; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2016-01-01

    Usage of a Hamiltonian perturbation theory for nonconservative system is counterintuitive and in general, a technical impossibility by definition. However, the dual (time independent) Hamiltonian formalism for nonconservative systems have opened the door for using various Hamiltonian (and hence, Lagrangian) perturbation theories for investigating the dynamics of such systems. Following the recent extension of the canonical perturbation theory that brings Li\\'enard systems possessing limit cycles under its scope, here we show that the Lie transform Hamiltonian perturbation theory can also be generalized to find perturbative solutions for similar systems. The Lie transform perturbation theories are comparatively easier while seeking higher order corrections in the perturbative series for the solutions and they are also numerically implementable using any symbolic algebra package. For the sake of concreteness, we have illustrated the methodology using the important example of the van der Pol oscillator. While th...

  16. Health System Transformation through a Scalable, Actionable Innovation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The authors who contributed to this issue of Healthcare Papers have provided rich insights into a promising innovation agenda to support transformational change aimed at achieving high-performing, person-centric health systems that are sustainable and deliver value. First and foremost, the commentaries make clear that a focused innovation agenda with defined goals, objectives and milestones is needed, if innovation is to be a viable and successful strategy to achieve health system transformation. To date, innovation has been a catch-all term for solving the many challenges health systems are experiencing. Yet, innovation on its own cannot fix all the ills of a health system; strategic goals and objectives are needed to define the way forward if innovation is to achieve value for Canadians. To this end, the authors identify goals and objectives that are worthy of serious consideration by all health system stakeholders.

  17. A superconducting transformer system for high current cable testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godeke, A; Dietderich, D R; Joseph, J M; Lizarazo, J; Prestemon, S O; Miller, G; Weijers, H W

    2010-03-01

    This article describes the development of a direct-current (dc) superconducting transformer system for the high current test of superconducting cables. The transformer consists of a core-free 10,464 turn primary solenoid which is enclosed by a 6.5 turn secondary. The transformer is designed to deliver a 50 kA dc secondary current at a dc primary current of about 50 A. The secondary current is measured inductively using two toroidal-wound Rogowski coils. The Rogowski coil signal is digitally integrated, resulting in a voltage signal that is proportional to the secondary current. This voltage signal is used to control the secondary current using a feedback loop which automatically compensates for resistive losses in the splices to the superconducting cable samples that are connected to the secondary. The system has been commissioned up to 28 kA secondary current. The reproducibility in the secondary current measurement is better than 0.05% for the relevant current range up to 25 kA. The drift in the secondary current, which results from drift in the digital integrator, is estimated to be below 0.5 A/min. The system's performance is further demonstrated through a voltage-current measurement on a superconducting cable sample at 11 T background magnetic field. The superconducting transformer system enables fast, high resolution, economic, and safe tests of the critical current of superconducting cable samples.

  18. Complex Transforms for Systems of Fractional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabha W. Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a complex transform that maps the complex fractional differential equation into a system of fractional differential equations. The homogeneous and nonhomogeneous cases for equivalence equations are discussed and also nonequivalence equations are studied. Moreover, the existence and uniqueness of solutions are established and applications are illustrated.

  19. Model Transformation for a System of Systems Dependability Safety Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Judy; Driskell, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The presentation reviews the dependability and safety effort of NASA's Independent Verification and Validation Facility. Topics include: safety engineering process, applications to non-space environment, Phase I overview, process creation, sample SRM artifact, Phase I end result, Phase II model transformation, fault management, and applying Phase II to individual projects.

  20. Terpenoid Metabolism in Plastids 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Bilal; Bardat, Françoise; Dogbo, Odette; Brangeon, Judy; Monéger, René

    1983-01-01

    A technique for the isolation and the purification of Capsicum annum L. var. Yolo Wonder chromoplasts is described. The degree of purity of the isolated chromoplasts is greatly improved by the absence of MgCl2 in the extraction medium and in the gradient purification system, as shown by electron micrographs and the near absence of antimycin-insensitive NADH:cytochrome c reductase activity and succinate:cytochrome c reductase activity. Furthermore, phosphatidylserine was absent and the phosphatidylethanolamine content was reduced by a factor of 5 in these preparations, which were active in the synthesis of galactolipids, prenylquinones, and carotenoids. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16663194

  1. Fourier transform infrared spectra applications to chemical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    1978-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical Systems presents the chemical applications of the Fourier transform interferometry (FT-IR).The book contains discussions on the applications of FT-IR in the fields of chromatography FT-IR, polymers and biological macromolecules, emission spectroscopy, matrix isolation, high-pressure interferometry, and far infrared interferometry. The final chapter is devoted to the presentation of the use of FT-IR in solving national technical problems such as air pollution, space exploration, and energy related subjects.Researc

  2. Plastid sigma factors: Their individual functions and regulation in transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Wei; He, Baoye; Mao, Juan; Jiang, Jingjing; Zhang, Lixin

    2015-09-01

    Sigma factors are the predominant factors involved in transcription regulation in bacteria. These factors can recruit the core RNA polymerase to promoters with specific DNA sequences and initiate gene transcription. The plastids of higher plants originating from an ancestral cyanobacterial endosymbiont also contain sigma factors that are encoded by a small family of nuclear genes. Although all plastid sigma factors contain sequences conserved in bacterial sigma factors, a considerable number of distinct traits have been acquired during evolution. The present review summarises recent advances concerning the regulation of the structure, function and activity of plastid sigma factors since their discovery nearly 40 years ago. We highlight the specialised roles and overlapping redundant functions of plastid sigma factors according to their promoter selectivity. We also focus on the mechanisms that modulate the activity of sigma factors to optimise plastid function in response to developmental cues and environmental signals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast Biogenesis.

  3. Fourier transform for fermionic systems and the spectral tensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    Leveraging the decomposability of the fast Fourier transform, I propose a new class of tensor network that is efficiently contractible and able to represent many-body systems with local entanglement that is greater than the area law. Translationally invariant systems of free fermions in arbitrary dimensions as well as 1D systems solved by the Jordan-Wigner transformation are shown to be exactly represented in this class. Further, it is proposed that these tensor networks be used as generic structures to variationally describe more complicated systems, such as interacting fermions. This class shares some similarities with the Evenbly-Vidal branching multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz, but with some important differences and greatly reduced computational demands.

  4. SALTO : System for Assembly-Language Transformation and Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Rohou, Erven; Bodin, François; Seznec, André; Le Fol, Gwendal; Charot, François; Raimbault, Frédéric

    1996-01-01

    On critical applications, particularly embedded systems, the performance tuning requires multiple passes. SALTO (System for Assembly Language Transformation and Optimization) is a retargetable framework for developing all the spectrum of tools that are needed for performance tuning on low-level codes (assembly-languages) on uniprocessors. SALTO enables the building of profiling, tracing and optimization tools. The user is responsible for giving a machine description of the target architecture...

  5. Transformation of fraud activities in procurement system in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiani, N.; Huda, S. N.; Pulungan, R.; Winarko, E.

    2017-03-01

    E-procurement has been applied in Indonesia since 2008 through the adoption of Electronic Procurement System (SPSE). The purpose of the use of SPSE in the procurement process is to improve the efficiency of goods or services procurement. In the bidding process, intensive communication and data exchange between providers and organizers are urgently needed. Through SPSE, the frequency of face to face meetings between providers and the committee can be reduced. This is expected to minimize potential fraud behaviors in the goods or services procurement conducted through the tender process. There exists a transformation of activities in the procurement through SPSE from the tender process that was previously done manually. In this paper, we analyze this transformation between manual procurement process and SPSE-based procurement process. The result of the analysis is exploited for investigating the possibility of fraud behavior transformations in every phase of e-procurement activities.

  6. A Study on System Identification Using Wavelet Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Wook Jin; Han, Jeong Woo; Kang, Sung Ju [Department of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea); Chung, Chang Bock [Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    The wavelet transformation, which was developed in order to overcome the defects of traditional Fourier transformation, is applied to many fields of study in various ways-for example, de-noising, data compression and mathematic applications such as solving partial differential equations, etc. De-noising is one of the wavelet transformation and has been studied by many researchers. The effect of de-noising depends upon the shrinkage function and the method of choosing the threshold value for the function. The objective of this work is to analyze the results of applying various threshold algorithms according to characteristics for signals and noise level. By applying the de-noising to the system identification, we compared the performances of signals which went through the de-noising process with those of signals with out de-noising. 28 refs., 12 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. A SUSTAINABLE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM REQUIRES MANAGEMENT TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos Dimitros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to be the health care system sustainable , management transformations must be based on very precise diagnostic analysis that includes complete and current information. It is necessary to implement an information system that collects information in real time, that watches the parameters that significantly influence the sustainability of the system. Such an information system should point out a radiography(a scan of the system at some time under following aspects:: 1. An overview of system; 2 An overview of the economic situation; 3 A technical presentation ;4. A legal overview; 5. A social overview ; 6. A management overview .Based on these Xrays of the health system, it outlines a series of conclusions and recommendations together with a SWOT analysis that highlights the potential internal (strengths and weaknesses and external potential (opportunities and threats. Based on this analysis and recommendations, the management is going to redesign the system in order to be adapted to the changing environmental requirements. Management transformation is recommended to be by following steps. :1. The development of a new management system that would make a positive change in the health care system 2. Implementation of the new management system 3. Assessment of the changes

  8. Plastid chaperonin proteins Cpn60α and Cpn60β are required for plastid division in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osteryoung Katherine W

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plastids arose from a free-living cyanobacterial endosymbiont and multiply by binary division as do cyanobacteria. Plastid division involves nucleus-encoded homologs of cyanobacterial division proteins such as FtsZ, MinD, MinE, and ARC6. However, homologs of many other cyanobacterial division genes are missing in plant genomes and proteins of host eukaryotic origin, such as a dynamin-related protein, PDV1 and PDV2 are involved in the division process. Recent identification of plastid division proteins has started to elucidate the similarities and differences between plastid division and cyanobacterial cell division. To further identify new proteins that are required for plastid division, we characterized previously and newly isolated plastid division mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Leaf cells of two mutants, br04 and arc2, contain fewer, larger chloroplasts than those of wild type. We found that ARC2 and BR04 are identical to nuclear genes encoding the plastid chaperonin 60α (ptCpn60α and chaperonin 60β (ptCpn60β proteins, respectively. In both mutants, plastid division FtsZ ring formation was partially perturbed though the level of FtsZ2-1 protein in plastids of ptcpn60β mutants was similar to that in wild type. Phylogenetic analyses showed that both ptCpn60 proteins are derived from ancestral cyanobacterial proteins. The A. thaliana genome encodes two members of ptCpn60α family and four members of ptCpn60β family respectively. We found that a null mutation in ptCpn60α abolished greening of plastids and resulted in an albino phenotype while a weaker mutation impairs plastid division and reduced chlorophyll levels. The functions of at least two ptCpn60β proteins are redundant and the appearance of chloroplast division defects is dependent on the number of mutant alleles. Conclusion Our results suggest that both ptCpn60α and ptCpn60β are required for the formation of a normal plastid division apparatus, as

  9. Transformations among CE–CVM model parameters for multicomponent systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Nageswara Sarma; Shrikant Lele

    2005-06-01

    In the development of thermodynamic databases for multicomponent systems using the cluster expansion–cluster variation methods, we need to have a consistent procedure for expressing the model parameters (CECs) of a higher order system in terms of those of the lower order subsystems and to an independent set of parameters which exclusively represent interactions of the higher order systems. Such a procedure is presented in detail in this communication. Furthermore, the details of transformations required to express the model parameters in one basis from those defined in another basis for the same system are also presented.

  10. Solving systems of fractional differential equations using differential transform method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Vedat Suat; Momani, Shaher

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents approximate analytical solutions for systems of fractional differential equations using the differential transform method. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. The application of differential transform method, developed for differential equations of integer order, is extended to derive approximate analytical solutions of systems of fractional differential equations. The solutions of our model equations are calculated in the form of convergent series with easily computable components. Some examples are solved as illustrations, using symbolic computation. The numerical results show that the approach is easy to implement and accurate when applied to systems of fractional differential equations. The method introduces a promising tool for solving many linear and nonlinear fractional differential equations.

  11. Scalable Fourier transform system for instantly structured illumination in lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yan; Xu, Fengchuan; Wei, Guojun; Xu, Yishen; Pu, Donglin; Chen, Linsen; Huang, Zhiwei

    2017-05-15

    We report the development of a unique scalable Fourier transform 4-f system for instantly structured illumination in lithography. In the 4-f system, coupled with a 1-D grating and a phase retarder, the ±1st order of diffracted light from the grating serve as coherent incident sources for creating interference patterns on the image plane. By adjusting the grating and the phase retarder, the interference fringes with consecutive frequencies, as well as their orientations and phase shifts, can be generated instantly within a constant interference area. We demonstrate that by adapting this scalable Fourier transform system into lithography, the pixelated nano-fringe arrays with arbitrary frequencies and orientations can be dynamically produced in the photoresist with high variation resolution, suggesting its promising application for large-area functional materials based on space-variant nanostructures in lithography.

  12. Overvoltages related to distributed generation-power system interconnection transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamanillo, G.R.; Gomez, J.C.; Florena, E.F. [Rio Cuarto National University (IPSEP/UNRC), Cordoba (Argentina). Electric Power Systems Protection Institute], Email: jcgomez@ing.unrc.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    The energy crisis that experiences the world drives to carry to an extreme, the use of all energy sources which are available. The sources need to be connected to the electric network in their next point, requiring of electric-electronic interfaces. The traditional electric power systems are changing their characteristics, in what concerns to structure, operation and on overvoltage generation. This change is not taking place in coordinated form among the involved sectors. The interconnection of a Distributed Generator (DG) directly with the power system is objectionable and risky. It is required of an interconnection transformer which performs several functions. Rigid specifications do not exist in this respect, for the variety of systems in use in the world, nevertheless there are utilities recommendations. Overvoltages caused by the DG, which arise due to the change of structure of the electric system, are explained. The transformer connection selection, presents positive and negative aspects that impact the utility and the user in a different or many times in an antagonistic way. The phenomenon of balanced and unbalanced ferroresonance overvoltage is studied. This phenomenon can takes place when using DG, either with synchronous or asynchronous generator, and for any type of connection of the transformer. The necessary conditions so that the phenomenon appears are presented. Eight interconnection transformer connection ways were studied. It is concluded that the solutions to reach by means of the employment of the DG, offer technical-economic advantages so much to the utility as to the user. It is also concluded in this work that the more advisable interconnection type is function of the system connection type. (author)

  13. On the Hilbert-Huang Transform Data Processing System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Flatley, Thomas P.; Huang, Norden E.; Cornwell, Evette; Smith, Darell

    2003-01-01

    One of the main heritage tools used in scientific and engineering data spectrum analysis is the Fourier Integral Transform and its high performance digital equivalent - the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The Fourier view of nonlinear mechanics that had existed for a long time, and the associated FFT (fairly recent development), carry strong a-priori assumptions about the source data, such as linearity and of being stationary. Natural phenomena measurements are essentially nonlinear and nonstationary. A very recent development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), known as the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) proposes a novel approach to the solution for the nonlinear class of spectrum analysis problems. Using the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) followed by the Hilbert Transform of the empirical decomposition data (HT), the HHT allows spectrum analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary data by using an engineering a-posteriori data processing, based on the EMD algorithm. This results in a non-constrained decomposition of a source real value data vector into a finite set of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that can be further analyzed for spectrum interpretation by the classical Hilbert Transform. This paper describes phase one of the development of a new engineering tool, the HHT Data Processing System (HHTDPS). The HHTDPS allows applying the "T to a data vector in a fashion similar to the heritage FFT. It is a generic, low cost, high performance personal computer (PC) based system that implements the HHT computational algorithms in a user friendly, file driven environment. This paper also presents a quantitative analysis for a complex waveform data sample, a summary of technology commercialization efforts and the lessons learned from this new technology development.

  14. The foundation of extranuclear inheritance: plastid and mitochondrial genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Rudolf

    2010-03-01

    In 1909 two papers by Correns and by Baur published in volume 1 of Zeitschrift für induktive Abstammungs- und Vererbungslehre (now Molecular Genetics and Genomics) reported on the non-Mendelian inheritance of chlorophyll deficiencies. These papers, reporting the very first cases of extranuclear inheritance, laid the foundation for a new field: non-Mendelian or extranuclear genetics. Correns observed a purely maternal inheritance (in Mirabilis), whereas Baur found a biparental inheritance (in Pelargonium). Correns suspected the non-Mendelian factors in the cytoplasm, while Baur believed that the plastids carry these extranuclear factors. In the following years, Baur's hypothesis was proved to be correct. Baur subsequently developed the theory of plastid inheritance. In many genera the plastids are transmitted only uniparentally by the mother, while in a few genera there is a biparental plastid inheritance. Commonly there is random sorting of plastids during ontogenetic development. Renner and Schwemmle as well as geneticists in other countries added additional details to this theory. Pioneering studies on mitochondrial inheritance in yeast started in 1949 in the group of Ephrussi and Slonimski; respiration-deficient cells (petites in yeast, poky in Neurospora) were demonstrated to be due to mitochondrial mutations. Electron microscopical and biochemical studies (1962-1964) showed that plastids and mitochondria contain organelle-specific DNA molecules. These findings laid the molecular basis for the two branches of extranuclear inheritance: plastid and mitochondrial genetics.

  15. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp, separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp. The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome.

  16. The plastid terminal oxidase: its elusive function points to multiple contributions to plastid physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Wojciech J; Tourasse, Nicolas J; Taly, Antoine; Rappaport, Fabrice; Wollman, Francis-André

    2015-01-01

    Plastids have retained from their cyanobacterial ancestor a fragment of the respiratory electron chain comprising an NADPH dehydrogenase and a diiron oxidase, which sustain the so-called chlororespiration pathway. Despite its very low turnover rates compared with photosynthetic electron flow, knocking out the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) in plants or microalgae leads to severe phenotypes that encompass developmental and growth defects together with increased photosensitivity. On the basis of a phylogenetic and structural analysis of the enzyme, we discuss its physiological contribution to chloroplast metabolism, with an emphasis on its critical function in setting the redox poise of the chloroplast stroma in darkness. The emerging picture of PTOX is that of an enzyme at the crossroads of a variety of metabolic processes, such as, among others, the regulation of cyclic electron transfer and carotenoid biosynthesis, which have in common their dependence on the redox state of the plastoquinone pool, set largely by the activity of PTOX in darkness.

  17. Classification of Transient Phenomena in Distribution System using wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Alireza

    2014-05-01

    An efficient procedure for classification of transient phenomena in distribution systems is proposed in this paper. The proposed method has been applied to classify some transient phenomena such as inrush current, load switching, capacitor switching and single phase to ground fault. The new scheme is based on wavelet transform algorithm. All of the events for feature extraction and test are simulated using Electro Magnetic Transient Program (EMTP). Results show high accuracy of proposed method.

  18. An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Ali; Zhang, Jiaxin; Amirian, Rasoul; Zhuge, Qiang

    2014-06-13

    Poplar is a model system for the regeneration and genetic transformation of woody plants. To shorten the time required for studies of transgenic poplar, efforts have been made to optimize transformation methods that use Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In this study, an Agrobacterium infective suspension was treated at 4 °C for at least 10 h before infecting explants. By transforming the Populus hybrid clone "Nanlin895" (Populus deltoides×P. euramericana) with Agrobacterium harboring the PBI121:CarNAC6 binary vector, we showed that the transformation efficiency was improved significantly by multiple independent factors, including an Agrobacterium infective suspension with an OD600 of 0.7, an Agrobacterium infection for 120 min, an Agrobacterium infective suspension at a pH of 5.0, an acetosyringone concentration of 200 µM, a cocultivation at 28 °C, a cocultivation for 72 h and a sucrose concentration of 30 g/L in the cocultivation medium. We also showed that preculture of wounded leaf explants for two days increased the regeneration rate. The integration of the desired gene into transgenic poplars was detected using selective medium containing kanamycin, followed by southern blot analysis. The expression of the transgene in the transgenic lines was confirmed by northern blot analysis.

  19. An Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation System for Poplar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Movahedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Poplar is a model system for the regeneration and genetic transformation of woody plants. To shorten the time required for studies of transgenic poplar, efforts have been made to optimize transformation methods that use Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In this study, an Agrobacterium infective suspension was treated at 4 °C for at least 10 h before infecting explants. By transforming the Populus hybrid clone “Nanlin895” (Populus deltoides × P. euramericana with Agrobacterium harboring the PBI121:CarNAC6 binary vector, we showed that the transformation efficiency was improved significantly by multiple independent factors, including an Agrobacterium infective suspension with an OD600 of 0.7, an Agrobacterium infection for 120 min, an Agrobacterium infective suspension at a pH of 5.0, an acetosyringone concentration of 200 µM, a cocultivation at 28 °C, a cocultivation for 72 h and a sucrose concentration of 30 g/L in the cocultivation medium. We also showed that preculture of wounded leaf explants for two days increased the regeneration rate. The integration of the desired gene into transgenic poplars was detected using selective medium containing kanamycin, followed by southern blot analysis. The expression of the transgene in the transgenic lines was confirmed by northern blot analysis.

  20. Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability in Social-ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Walker

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience has evolved considerably since Holling's (1973 seminal paper. Different interpretations of what is meant by resilience, however, cause confusion. Resilience of a system needs to be considered in terms of the attributes that govern the system's dynamics. Three related attributes of social-ecological systems (SESs determine their future trajectories: resilience, adaptability, and transformability. Resilience (the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedbacks has four components - latitude, resistance, precariousness, and panarchy - most readily portrayed using the metaphor of a stability landscape. Adaptability is the capacity of actors in the system to influence resilience (in a SES, essentially to manage it. There are four general ways in which this can be done, corresponding to the four aspects of resilience. Transformability is the capacity to create a fundamentally new system when ecological, economic, or social structures make the existing system untenable. The implications of this interpretation of SES dynamics for sustainability science include changing the focus from seeking optimal states and the determinants of maximum sustainable yield (the MSY paradigm, to resilience analysis, adaptive resource management, and adaptive governance.

  1. Targeting of the polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthetic pathway to the plastids of Arabidopsis thaliana results in high levels of polymer accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrath, C.; Poirier, Y.; Somerville, C. (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA (United States))

    1994-12-20

    In the bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus, three genes encode the enzymes necessary to catalyze the synthesis of poly[(R)-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) from acetyl-CoA. In order to target these enzymes into the plastids of higher plants, the genes were modified by addition of DNA fragments encoding a pea chloroplast transit peptide, a constitutive plant promoter, and a poly(A) addition sequence. Each of the modified bacterial genes was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and plants containing all three genes were obtained by sexual crosses. These plans accumulated PHB up to 14% of the dry weight as 0.2- to 0.7-[mu]m granules within plastids. In contrast to earlier experiments in which expression of the PHB biosynthetic pathway in the cytoplasm led to a deleterious effect on growth, expression of the PHB biosynthetic pathway in plastids had no obvious effect on the growth or fertility of the transgenic plants and resulted in a 100-fold increase in the amount of PHB in higher plants. The high level of PHB accumulation also suggests that the synthesis of plastid acetyl-CoA is regulated by a mechanism which responds to metabolic demand. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Coevolution of plastid genomes and transcript processing pathways in photosynthetic alveolates

    OpenAIRE

    Dorrell, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Following their endosymbiotic uptake, plastids undergo profound changes to genome content and to their associated biochemistry. I have investigated how evolutionary transitions in plastid genomes may impact on biochemical pathways associated with plastid gene expression, focusing on the highly unusual plastids found in one group of eukaryotes, the alveolates. The principal photosynthetic alveolate lineage is the dinoflagellate algae. Most dinoflagellate species harbour unusual plastids derive...

  3. Lithuanian financial system transformation in the context of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturas Balkevicius

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the article is to discuss the transformation of the Lithuania finance system in the context of globalization. Exploring the interdependence between the financial system and the economy, in different periods. Analyze the country’s financial system transformation after the crisis period. Methods: Contribution use general scientific methods, especially analysis, synthesis, comparison, induction and deduction. Essential sources of information were professional publications , statistic data of state Statistics Department, Bank of Lithuania, Euro stat. Scientific aim: Main aim of this article is to analyze the transformation of the Lithuania financial system and fined out the country’s economic growth and the financial system correlation, the main factors having a both positive and negative impact on economic growth. Findings: Findings of this article are new information in this area, which can be useful for another research. The correlation between the banks ‚ loans and GDP. However, this does not apply at the time of the economy fall. Conclusions: Economic growth in the financial sector and economic development is best visible analyzing in the correlation between the banks ‚ loans and GDP. However, this does not apply at the time of the economy fall. Banks ‚ relative indicators better reflects the weight of the financial sector and the impact on the national economy. We can see that 2011 banks relative indicators dropped to 2006 level. This shows how much the financial sector’s contribution decreased to economic development. Banks’ loans demand fall down. Lithuania has taken strict fiscal discipline and austerity measures. This have produced results quite quickly, in 2010 GDP grew by 3.4 percent, and in 2011 even 11.5 percent. Lithuania’s economy is recovering, but the financial sector and in particular banks still not recovering. The economic crisis has intervened in the banking system and has been surviving

  4. Experimental construction of a transformable folding tensioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos César Morales Guzmán

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Construcción experimental de un sistema transformable tensado plegableResumenEl objetivo de esta investigación es el desarrollo de un modelo experimental con el fin de estudiar las características de los sistemas retráctiles. El modelo experimental consistió en la construcción de un paraguas retráctil de 4 miembros. Luego se mejoró el modelo experimental al agregarle 8 miembros, con el objeto de mantener un mejor equilibrio estructural. El diseño del modelo está sustentado por el código europeo EHE08, pero se rediseñó con el código de LRFD para tener un diámetro acorde a los requerimientos locales. Además, el modelo ayudó a formar conceptos constructivos del movimiento de los sistemas plegables en forma de paraguas, lo que dio como resultado un sistema plegable retráctil, el cual se inclinó sobre la construcción de un nodo para unir dos elementos creando un sistema estructural resistente. Con este trabajo se concluyó que los sistemas transformables pueden ayudar a mejorar los diseños de sistemas estructurales flexibles.Palabras clave: diseño estructural, detalles constructivos, investigación y desarrollo, sistema plegable retráctil, simulación estructural. Experimental construction of a transformable folding tensioning systemAbstractThe objective of this research is to develop an experimental model to study the characteristics of retractable systems. The experimental model involved the construction of a 4 limbs retractable umbrella. The experimental model by adding 8 members, in order to maintain better structural balance is then improved. The design model is supported by the European code EHE08, but was redesigned with LRFD code to have a diameter according to local requirements. In addition, the model helped form constructive concepts of movement of the folding systems umbrella-shaped, which resulted in a retractable folding system, which is bent on building a node to join two elements creating a structural system

  5. Recombinase-mediated Gene Stacking as a Transformation Operating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David W. Ow

    2011-01-01

    The current method for combining transgenes into a genome is through the assortment of independent loci, a classical operating system compatible with transgenic traits created by different developers, at different times and/or through different transformation techniques. However, as the number of transgenic loci increases over time, increasingly larger populations are needed to find the rare individual with the desired assortment of transgenic loci along with the non-transgenic elite traits. Introducing a transgene directly into a field cultivar would bypass the need to introgress the engineered trait. However, this necessitates separate transformations into numerous field cultivars, along with the characterization and regulatory approval of each independent transformation event. Reducing the number of segregating transgenic loci could be achieved if multiple traits are introduced at the same time, a preferred option if each of the many traits is new or requires re-engineering. If reengineering of prewously introduced traits is not needed, then appending a new trait to an existing locus would be a rational strategy. The insertion of new DNA at a known locus can be accomplished by sitespecific integration, through a host-dependent homology-based process, or a heterologous site-specific recombination system. Here, we discuss gene stacking through the use of site-specific recombinases.

  6. Leadership and transformational change in healthcare organisations: a qualitative analysis of the North East Transformation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Jonathan; Hunter, David J; Small, Adrian; Hicks, Chris; McGovern, Tom; Lugsden, Ed; Whitty, Paula; Steen, Nick; Eccles, Martin Paul

    2013-02-01

    The research project 'An Evaluation of Transformational Change in NHS North East' examines the progress and success of National Health Service (NHS) organisations in north east England in implementing and embedding the North East Transformation System (NETS), a region-wide programme to improve healthcare quality and safety, and to reduce waste, using a combination of Vision, Compact, and Lean-based Method. This paper concentrates on findings concerning the role of leadership in enabling tranformational change, based on semi-structured interviews with a mix of senior NHS managers and quality improvement staff in 14 study sites. Most interviewees felt that implementing the NETS requires committed, stable leadership, attention to team-building across disciplines and leadership development at many levels. We conclude that without senior leader commitment to continuous improvement over a long time scale and serious efforts to distribute leadership tasks to all levels, healthcare organisations are less likely to achieve positive changes in managerial-clinical relations, sustainable improvements to organisational culture and, ultimately, the region-wide step change in quality, safety and efficiency that the NETS was designed to deliver.

  7. Intra-plastid protein trafficking; how plant cells adapted prokaryotic mechanisms to the eukaryotic condition

    OpenAIRE

    Celedon, Jose M.; Cline, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Protein trafficking and localization in plastids involves a complex interplay between ancient (prokaryotic) and novel (eukaryotic) translocases and targeting machineries. During evolution, ancient systems acquired new functions and novel translocation machineries were developed to facilitate the correct localization of nuclear encoded proteins targeted to the chloroplast. Because of its post-translational nature, targeting and integration of membrane proteins posed the biggest challenge to th...

  8. Intra-plastid protein trafficking; how plant cells adapted prokaryotic mechanisms to the eukaryotic condition

    OpenAIRE

    Celedon, Jose M.; Cline, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Protein trafficking and localization in plastids involves a complex interplay between ancient (prokaryotic) and novel (eukaryotic) translocases and targeting machineries. During evolution, ancient systems acquired new functions and novel translocation machineries were developed to facilitate the correct localization of nuclear encoded proteins targeted to the chloroplast. Because of its post-translational nature, targeting and integration of membrane proteins posed the biggest challenge to th...

  9. The complete plastid genome sequence of Bomarea edulis (Alstroemeriaceae: Liliales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Sung; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Yoon, Chang Young; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2016-05-01

    Bomarea, a member of the family Alstroemeriaceae, is distributed from Chile to Mexico and includes approximately 120 species. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have clarified the monophyly of the family within the order Liliales and the sister relationship with the family Colchicaceae. At this time, five plastid genomes of Liliales have been analyzed at the familial level. To examine plastid genome variation at the generic level, we sequenced the plastid genome of Bomarea edulis, which is the most widely distributed species in the genus, and compared it with Alstroemeria aurea. The plastid genome sequence of B. edulis was 154,925 bp in length with a similar structure as A. aurea, excluding the IR-LSC junction. Ycf68 and infA were pseudogenes caused by frameshift mutations, and the ycf15 gene was deleted, similar to A. aurea.

  10. The plastid genome of the red alga Laurencia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Heroen; Costa, Joana F

    2015-06-01

    We present the 174,935 nt long plastid genome of the red alga Laurencia sp. JFC0032. It is the third plastid genome characterized for the largest order of red algae (Ceramiales). The circular-mapping plastid genome is small compared to most florideophyte red algae, and our comparisons show a trend toward smaller plastid genome sizes in the family Rhodomelaceae, independent from a similar trend in Cyanidiophyceae. The Laurencia genome is densely packed with 200 annotated protein-coding genes (188 widely conserved, 3 open reading frames shared with other red algae and 9 hypothetical coding regions). It has 29 tRNAs, a single-copy ribosomal RNA cistron, a tmRNA, and the RNase P RNA. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  11. The plastid-dividing machinery: formation, constriction and fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yamato; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Plastids divide by constriction of the plastid-dividing (PD) machinery, which encircles the division site. The PD machinery consists of the stromal inner machinery which includes the inner PD and filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) rings and the cytosolic outer machinery which includes the outer PD and dynamin rings. The major constituent of the PD machinery is the outer PD ring, which consists of a bundle of polyglucan filaments. In addition, recent proteomic studies suggest that the PD machinery contains additional proteins that have not been characterized. The PD machinery forms from the inside to the outside of the plastid. The constriction seems to occur by sliding of the polyglucan filaments of the outer PD ring, aided by dynamin. The final fission of the plastid is probably promoted by the 'pinchase' activity of dynamin.

  12. Pressure-Point Strategy: Leverages for Urban Systemic Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katleen De Flander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability can be understood as a specific kind of problem framing that emphasizes the interconnectedness of different problems and scales and calls for new forms of problem handling that are much more process-oriented, reflexive and iterative in nature. Closely related with the notion of reflexive governance, we propose such an alternative strategy for societal problem handling and change management in the urban context. The strategy starts from stress states in the urban system(s and uses their initial momentum to encourage systemic change through intraventions—rather than interventions—at selected pressure points. This paper highlights the potential to evolve what has often been an intuitive practice, led by community or elected leaders with unique wisdom about functions and pressure points in their urban system, into a more accessible strategy for shaping socio-ecological transformation in urban practice.

  13. Human Iris Recognition System using Wavelet Transform and LVQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwan Yong; Lim, Shin Young [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (Korea); Cho, Seong Won [Hongik University (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    The popular methods to check the identity of individuals include passwords and ID cards. These conventional methods for user identification and authentication are not altogether reliable because they can be stolen and forgotten. As an alternative of the existing methods, biometric technology has been paid much attention for the last few decades. In this paper, we propose an efficient system for recognizing the identity of a living person by analyzing iris patterns which have a high level of stability and distinctiveness than other biometric measurements. The proposed system is based on wavelet transform and a competitive neural network with the improved mechanisms. After preprocessing the iris data acquired through a CCD camera, feature vectors are extracted by using Haar wavelet transform. LVQ(Learning Vector Quantization) is exploited to classify these feature vectors. We improve the overall performance of the proposed system by optimizing the size of feature vectors and by introducing an efficient initialization of the weight vectors and a new method for determining the winner in order to increase the recognition accuracy of LVQ. From the experiments, we confirmed that the proposed system has a great potential of being applied to real applications in an efficient and effective way. (author). 14 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Fine structure of plastids during androgenesis in Hordeum vulgare L.

    OpenAIRE

    Fortunat Młodzianowski; Krystyna Idzikowska

    2014-01-01

    The fine structure of plastids was studied in the course of androgenesis in in the pollen of Hordeum vulgare L. It was found that these organelles occur in all stages of androgenesis. Their structure was simple and was frequently manifested on the cross section only by the presence of the envelope and matrix of different degree of density. Single thylakoids, nucleoid-like regions and starch grains were, however, also noted. The structure of plastids in embryoids formed from microspores of bar...

  15. Entire plastid phylogeny of the carrot genus (Daucus, Apiaceae):Concordance with nuclear data and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA insertions to the plastid

    Science.gov (United States)

    We explored the phylogenetic utility of entire plastid DNA sequences in Daucus and compared the results to prior phylogenetic results using plastid, nuclear, and mitochondrial DNA sequences. We obtained, using Illumina sequencing, full plastid sequences of 37 accessions of 20 Daucus taxa and outgrou...

  16. Electrodynamic energy harvester for electrical transformer's temperature monitoring system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Farid Khan; Shadman Razzaq

    2015-10-01

    The development of an electrodynamic energy harvester (EDEH) for operating a wireless temperature monitoring system for electrical transformer is reported in this work. Analytical modeling, fabrication and characterization of EDEH prototype are performed. The developed EDEH consists of a mild steel core, a wound copper coil and Teflon housing. COMSOL Multiphysics software is used to optimize the design of the harvester. The split-cylindrical design of the developed EDEH permitted the harvester to be wrapped around the output power cable of the electrical transformer without shutting-off the power or disconnecting the power cable. From the electrical transformer, at current levels of 27, 72 and 155 A in the main power line, the energy harvester produced maximum RMS load voltages of 0.356, 1.09 and 2.58 V respectively, when connected to 100 load resistance. However, at matching impedance of 24 (resistance of the coil), the EDEH produced the maximum power levels of 2.99, 19.66 and 112.03 mW for a cable currents of 27, 72 and 155 A respectively. The simulation results of the devised analytical model of the harvester are in good agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, at a cable current of 93 A, when the harvester is connected to the rectifying circuit, the optimum impedance shifted to 185 and the maximum power of 19 mW is generated at that load. The reduction in power generation is attributed to the power consumption of the rectifying circuit. When the rectified DC voltage is used to charge a 3.8 V, Nickel–Cadmium (Ni–Cd) rechargeable battery, it took 3 h to completely charge the battery from 1 to 3.85 V. With the charged battery a wireless temperature sensor node is successfully operated for monitoring the temperature of the electrical transformer.

  17. Faithful transcription initiation from a mitochondrial promoter in transgenic plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohne, Alexandra-Viola; Ruf, Stephanie; Börner, Thomas; Bock, Ralph

    2007-01-01

    The transcriptional machineries of plastids and mitochondria in higher plants exhibit striking similarities. All mitochondrial genes and part of the plastid genes are transcribed by related phage-type RNA polymerases. Furthermore, the majority of mitochondrial promoters and a subset of plastid promoters show a similar structural organization. We show here that the plant mitochondrial atpA promoter is recognized by plastid RNA polymerases in vitro and in vivo. The Arabidopsis phage-type RNA polymerase RpoTp, an enzyme localized exclusively to plastids, was found to recognize the mitochondrial atpA promoter in in vitro assays suggesting the possibility that mitochondrial promoters might function as well in plastids. We have, therefore, generated transplastomic tobacco plants harboring in their chloroplast genome the atpA promoter fused to the coding region of the bacterial nptII gene. The chimeric nptII gene was found to be efficiently transcribed in chloroplasts. Mapping of the 5' ends of the nptII transcripts revealed accurate recognition of the atpA promoter by the chloroplast transcription machinery. We show further that the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the mitochondrial atpA transcript is capable of mediating translation in chloroplasts. The functional and evolutionary implications of these findings as well as possible applications in chloroplast genome engineering are discussed.

  18. A Transformer Partial Discharge Measurement System Based on Fluorescent Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the physical phenomena of optical effects produced by the partial discharge (PD and on the characteristics of fluorescent fiber sensing of weak fluorescent signals, a PD measurement system using a fluorescent fiber sensor was designed. The main parameters of the sensing system were calculated, an experimental testing platform for PD simulation in the lab was established, and PD signals were then detected through ultra-high frequency (UHF and optical methods under a needle-plate discharge model. PD optical pulses in transformer oil contained signal-peak and multi-peak pulse waveforms. Compared with UHF detection results, the number of PD pulses and the elapsed PD pulse phase time revealed a good corresponding relationship. However, PD signal amplitudes presented the opposite, thus indicating that PD UHF signals reflected pulse amplitude value, whereas PD optical signals reflected pulse energy magnitude. The n-u-φ three-dimensional distributions indicated that most of the PD signals concentrated in the nearby industrial frequency voltage peak value. Overall, the proposed fluorescent fiber sensing system design can be used successfully in transformer PD signal detection.

  19. Initiating nuclear-chemical transformations in native systems: Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timashev, S. F.

    2016-10-01

    A possible mechanism of nuclear transformations in biological systems in vivo is proposed. Reasons why there is no ionizing radiation that could be detrimental to native systems during the corresponding nuclear reactions are given. It is established that the initial stage of these processes is associated with that of ATP hydrolysis, which initiates the action of the inner-shell electron of an atom participating in the reaction on its nucleus according to the mechanism of weak nuclear interaction. This results in the formation of a nucleus in a metastable state with a disturbed nucleon structure and a charge one unit lower than that of the initial nucleus. It is also assumed that the atom participating in the reaction is adsorbed near the mouth of one of the transport ATPases in the cell's cytoplasmic membrane, and the reason for the initiating impact the electron has on the nucleus is due to the emergence of a local electric field formed during ATP hydrolysis near the ion channel of a donor-acceptor pair of charges that is opposite to the direction of the average membrane field. It is concluded that as a result of the key role of weak nuclear interaction in these processes, the energy of nuclear transformations in biological systems in vivo is released through the emission of neutrino-antineutrino pairs that are harmless to living organisms.

  20. A social-ecological systems framework for food systems research: accommodating transformation systems and their products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham R. Marshall

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The social-ecological systems (SES framework was developed to support communication across the multiple disciplines concerned with sustainable provision and/or appropriation of common-pool resources (CPRs. Transformation activities (e.g. processing, distribution, retailing in which value is added to resource units appropriated from CPRs were assumed in developing the framework to be exogenous to the SES of focal concern. However, provision and appropriation of CPRs are nowadays often closely integrated with the market economy, so significant interdependence exists between many CPR provision/appropriation activities and the activities in which appropriated resource units are transformed into the products ultimately marketed. This paper presents a modified version of the SES framework designed to better account for transformation activities in order to be more suitable for diagnosing those sustainability problems where it is inappropriate to define all such activities as exogenous to the SES of focal concern. The need for such modification was identified in a research project examining the challenges faced by Cambodian cattle-owning smallholders in accessing value chains for premium-priced beef. Hence the immediate focus was on strengthening the SES framework’s value for facilitating a multi-disciplinary diagnostic approach to food system research projects of this kind. The modified SES framework’s potential in this respect was illustrated by a preliminary application that drew on literature reviewed for the Cambodian project. Significant further potential exists in using the modified framework as a foundation from which to develop a version that is suitable for application to SESs in which transformation systems are appropriately represented as endogenous. Maintaining consistency with the standard SES framework will enable communication to occur more effectively between food system researchers and CPR scholars more generally.

  1. Microscope system with on axis programmable Fourier transform filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, José Luis; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Moreno, Ignacio

    2017-02-01

    We propose an on-axis microscope optical system to implement programmable optical Fourier transform image processing operations, taking advantage of phase and polarization modulation of a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) display. We use a Hamamatsu spatial light modulator (SLM), free of flickering, which therefore can be tuned to fully eliminate the zero order component of the encoded diffractive filter. This allows the realization of filtering operation on axis (as opposed to other systems in the literature that require operating off axis), therefore making use of the full space bandwidth provided by the SLM. The system is first demonstrated by implementing different optical processing operations based on phase-only blazed gratings such as phase contrast, band-pass filtering, or additive and substractive imaging. Then, a simple Differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging is obtained changing to a polarization modulation scheme, achieved simply by selecting a different incident state of polarization on the incident beam.

  2. [Influence of collimation system on static Fourier transform spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng-Zhi; Liang, Jing-Qiu; Liang, Zhong-Zhu; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Wei-Biao

    2014-01-01

    Collimation system provides collimated light for the static Fourier-transform spectroscopy (SFTS). Its quality is crucial to the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of SFTS. In the present paper, the physical model of SFTS was established based on the Fresnel diffraction theory by means of numerical software. The influence of collimation system on the SFTS was discussed in detail focusing on the aberrations of collimation lens and the quality of extended source. The results of simulation show that the influences of different kinds of aberrations on SNR take on obvious regularity, and in particular, the influences of off-axis aberrations on SNR are closely related to the location of off-axis point source. Finally the extended source's maximum radius allowed was obtained by simulation, which equals to 0.65 mm. The discussion results will be used for the design of collimation system.

  3. Converting Differential Photometry Results to the Standard System using Transform Generator and Transform Applier (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, M.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) Since Fall of 2014, AAVSO made available two very useful software tools: transform generator (tg) and transform applier (ta). tg, authored by Gordon Myers (gordonmyers@hotmail.com), is a program, running under python that allows the user to obtain the transformation coefficients of their imaging train. ta, authored by George Silvis, allows users to apply the transformation coefficients obtained previously to their photometric observation. The data so processed become then directly comparable to those of other observers. I will show how to obtain transform coefficient using two Standard Field (M 67 and NGC7790), how consistent the results are and as an application, I will present transformed data for two AAVSO Target stars, AE UMA and RR CET.

  4. Status Report on Power System Transformation: A 21st Century Power Partnership Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martinot, Eric [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China); Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Speer, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booth, Sam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zissler, Romain [Japan Renewable Energy Foundation (Japan); Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Soonee, S. K. [Power System Operation Corporation, Ltd (India); Audinet, Pierre [World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program, Washington, DC (United States); Munuera, Luis [International Energy Agency, Paris (France); Arent, Doug [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-05-27

    This report has three primary goals: (1) to articulate the concept of power system transformation; (2) to explore the current global landscape of ‘innovations’ that constitute power system transformation and provide evidence of how these innovations are emerging; and (3) to suggest an analytical framework for assessing the status of power system transformation on an on-going basis.

  5. The plastid genome of Eutreptiella provides a window into the process of secondary endosymbiosis of plastid in euglenids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štěpánka Hrdá

    Full Text Available Euglenids are a group of protists that comprises species with diverse feeding modes. One distinct and diversified clade of euglenids is photoautotrophic, and its members bear green secondary plastids. In this paper we present the plastid genome of the euglenid Eutreptiella, which we assembled from 454 sequencing of Eutreptiella gDNA. Comparison of this genome and the only other available plastid genomes of photosynthetic euglenid, Euglena gracilis, revealed that they contain a virtually identical set of 57 protein coding genes, 24 genes fewer than the genome of Pyramimonas parkeae, the closest extant algal relative of the euglenid plastid. Searching within the transcriptomes of Euglena and Eutreptiella showed that 6 of the missing genes were transferred to the nucleus of the euglenid host while 18 have been probably lost completely. Euglena and Eutreptiella represent the deepest bifurcation in the photosynthetic clade, and therefore all these gene transfers and losses must have happened before the last common ancestor of all known photosynthetic euglenids. After the split of Euglena and Eutreptiella only one additional gene loss took place. The conservation of gene content in the two lineages of euglenids is in contrast to the variability of gene order and intron counts, which diversified dramatically. Our results show that the early secondary plastid of euglenids was much more susceptible to gene losses and endosymbiotic gene transfers than the established plastid, which is surprisingly resistant to changes in gene content.

  6. The Gradual Transformation of the Polish Public Science System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinecke, Steffi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates institutional change in the Polish public science system (PPSS) in the past twenty years. Employing macro-statistical data, the paper argues that this change process has unfolded stepwise and relatively late despite major political and economic transformations in post-socialist Poland. Using a historical-institutionalist perspective, the paper focuses on processes of institutional change, including layering, displacement, and dismantling. One major finding is that the speed and depth of the gradual transformation differs considerably between the three research performing sectors of the Polish public science system. As the Polish Academy of Sciences was reproduced institutionally, the former governmental units for applied R&D were partly dismantled and displaced by private sector R&D units. In contrast, the Higher Education sector underwent a strong expansion and, thus, layering of new research activities and fields. Since policy shifts within the PPSS occurred relatively late, the more than two decades following the collapse of communism are of special interest to scholars of incremental, yet cumulative, institutional change. PMID:27077386

  7. The Gradual Transformation of the Polish Public Science System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinecke, Steffi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates institutional change in the Polish public science system (PPSS) in the past twenty years. Employing macro-statistical data, the paper argues that this change process has unfolded stepwise and relatively late despite major political and economic transformations in post-socialist Poland. Using a historical-institutionalist perspective, the paper focuses on processes of institutional change, including layering, displacement, and dismantling. One major finding is that the speed and depth of the gradual transformation differs considerably between the three research performing sectors of the Polish public science system. As the Polish Academy of Sciences was reproduced institutionally, the former governmental units for applied R&D were partly dismantled and displaced by private sector R&D units. In contrast, the Higher Education sector underwent a strong expansion and, thus, layering of new research activities and fields. Since policy shifts within the PPSS occurred relatively late, the more than two decades following the collapse of communism are of special interest to scholars of incremental, yet cumulative, institutional change.

  8. Quantitative transformation for implementation of adder circuits in physical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff; Whiting, James G H; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Computing devices are composed of spatial arrangements of simple fundamental logic gates. These gates may be combined to form more complex adding circuits and, ultimately, complete computer systems. Implementing classical adding circuits using unconventional, or even living substrates such as slime mould Physarum polycephalum, is made difficult and often impractical by the challenges of branching fan-out of inputs and regions where circuit lines must cross without interference. In this report we explore whether it is possible to avoid spatial propagation, branching and crossing completely in the design of adding circuits. We analyse the input and output patterns of a single-bit full adder circuit. A simple quantitative transformation of the input patterns which considers the total number of bits in the input string allows us to map the respective input combinations to the correct outputs patterns of the full adder circuit, reducing the circuit combinations from a 2:1 mapping to a 1:1 mapping. The mapping of inputs to outputs also shows an incremental linear progression, suggesting its implementation in a range of physical systems. We demonstrate an example implementation, first in simulation, inspired by self-oscillatory dynamics of the acellular slime mould P. polycephalum. We then assess the potential implementation using plasmodium of slime mould itself. This simple transformation may enrich the potential for using unconventional computing substrates to implement digital circuits.

  9. Comparative analysis of the complete sequence of the plastid genome of Parthenium argentatum and identification of DNA barcodes to differentiate Parthenium species and lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornish Katrina

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenium argentatum (guayule is an industrial crop that produces latex, which was recently commercialized as a source of latex rubber safe for people with Type I latex allergy. The complete plastid genome of P. argentatum was sequenced. The sequence provides important information useful for genetic engineering strategies. Comparison to the sequences of plastid genomes from three other members of the Asteraceae, Lactuca sativa, Guitozia abyssinica and Helianthus annuus revealed details of the evolution of the four genomes. Chloroplast-specific DNA barcodes were developed for identification of Parthenium species and lines. Results The complete plastid genome of P. argentatum is 152,803 bp. Based on the overall comparison of individual protein coding genes with those in L. sativa, G. abyssinica and H. annuus, we demonstrate that the P. argentatum chloroplast genome sequence is most closely related to that of H. annuus. Similar to chloroplast genomes in G. abyssinica, L. sativa and H. annuus, the plastid genome of P. argentatum has a large 23 kb inversion with a smaller 3.4 kb inversion, within the large inversion. Using the matK and psbA-trnH spacer chloroplast DNA barcodes, three of the four Parthenium species tested, P. tomentosum, P. hysterophorus and P. schottii, can be differentiated from P. argentatum. In addition, we identified lines within P. argentatum. Conclusion The genome sequence of the P. argentatum chloroplast will enrich the sequence resources of plastid genomes in commercial crops. The availability of the complete plastid genome sequence may facilitate transformation efficiency by using the precise sequence of endogenous flanking sequences and regulatory elements in chloroplast transformation vectors. The DNA barcoding study forms the foundation for genetic identification of commercially significant lines of P. argentatum that are important for producing latex.

  10. Implications of the plastid genome sequence of typha (typhaceae, poales) for understanding genome evolution in poaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisinger, Mary M; Chumley, Timothy W; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Boore, Jeffrey L; Jansen, Robert K

    2010-02-01

    Plastid genomes of the grasses (Poaceae) are unusual in their organization and rates of sequence evolution. There has been a recent surge in the availability of grass plastid genome sequences, but a comprehensive comparative analysis of genome evolution has not been performed that includes any related families in the Poales. We report on the plastid genome of Typha latifolia, the first non-grass Poales sequenced to date, and we present comparisons of genome organization and sequence evolution within Poales. Our results confirm that grass plastid genomes exhibit acceleration in both genomic rearrangements and nucleotide substitutions. Poaceae have multiple structural rearrangements, including three inversions, three genes losses (accD, ycf1, ycf2), intron losses in two genes (clpP, rpoC1), and expansion of the inverted repeat (IR) into both large and small single-copy regions. These rearrangements are restricted to the Poaceae, and IR expansion into the small single-copy region correlates with the phylogeny of the family. Comparisons of 73 protein-coding genes for 47 angiosperms including nine Poaceae genera confirm that the branch leading to Poaceae has significantly accelerated rates of change relative to other monocots and angiosperms. Furthermore, rates of sequence evolution within grasses are lower, indicating a deceleration during diversification of the family. Overall there is a strong correlation between accelerated rates of genomic rearrangements and nucleotide substitutions in Poaceae, a phenomenon that has been noted recently throughout angiosperms. The cause of the correlation is unknown, but faulty DNA repair has been suggested in other systems including bacterial and animal mitochondrial genomes.

  11. A small portion of plastid transcripts is polyadenylated in the flagellate Euglena gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záhonová, Kristína; Hadariová, Lucia; Vacula, Rostislav; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav; Eliáš, Marek; Krajčovič, Juraj; Vesteg, Matej

    2014-03-03

    Euglena gracilis possesses secondary plastids of green algal origin. In this study, E. gracilis expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from polyA-selected mRNA were searched and several ESTs corresponding to plastid genes were found. PCR experiments failed to detect SL sequence at the 5'-end of any of these transcripts, suggesting plastid origin of these polyadenylated molecules. Quantitative PCR experiments confirmed that polyadenylation of transcripts occurs in the Euglena plastids. Such transcripts have been previously observed in primary plastids of plants and algae as low-abundance intermediates of transcript degradation. Our results suggest that a similar mechanism exists in secondary plastids.

  12. Flow electrification characteristics of transformer oil by rotating electrode systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadish, R.; Poovamma, P.K. [Central Power Research Inst., Bangalore (India)

    1995-07-01

    Flow electrification has been found to be the principal cause of a number of failures of forced oil cooled power transformers. Flow charging characteristics of oil/cellulose system with factors like electrode configuration, electrode material, presence of Benzotriazole (BTA), metallic contaminants and Copper coils were investigated for paraffinic oil by employing rotating electrode system. A few hydrodynamic parameters viz. Reynolds number, boundary layer thickness and friction factor were correlated with flow charging characteristics of oil for varying temperatures and concentrations of BTA. With lower concentrations of BTA in oil viz. 10 ppm and 25 ppm a marginal reduction in flow charging of oil was noticed, but about 40% reduction was observed with 150 ppm of BTA. A significant reduction in the flow charging characteristics of untreated and BTA treated oils was also observed in the presence of Copper coils and metallic particle contaminants.

  13. Our Stories Transforming Our Libraries: The York County Library System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Edmondson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available These narratives chronicle the authors’ journeys to collaborate and discover the transformative impact that stories have on library culture and library staff. This study describes a research collaboration between York County Libraries and Penn State York. In Phase I, we collected stories from library staff as the library system was being challenged to reimage public libraries for the future. The major themes and types of organizational stories identified in the initial narrative project were presented during a county-wide all-staff in-service training. The library District Consultant (first author and the Penn State professor (second author then facilitated a workshop designed to lead staff in their exploration of these topics and generate a written record of their storytelling/discussions. This data became the basis for Phase II of the project and allowed the system to strategically assess its evolving culture and identity.

  14. Optimization of beam transformation system for laser-diode bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junhong; Guo, Linhui; Wu, Hualing; Wang, Zhao; Gao, Songxin; Wu, Deyong

    2016-08-22

    An optimized beam transformation system (BTS) is proposed to improve the beam quality of laser-diode bars. Through this optimized design, the deterioration of beam quality after the BTS can be significantly reduced. Both the simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the optimized system enables the beam quality of a mini-bar (9 emitters) approximately equal to 5.0 mm × 3.6 mrad in the fast-axis and slow-axis. After beam shaping by the optimized BTS, the laser-diode beam can be coupled into a 100 μm core, 0.15 numerical aperture (NA) fiber with an output power of over 100 W and an electric-optical efficiency of 46.8%.

  15. Unbalanced Load Simulation of Electronic Power Transformer in Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dan; Mao Chengxiong; Lu Jiming; Fan Shu; Cao Jiewei; Wang Ben

    2006-01-01

    A control scheme of electronic power transformer (EPT) in a three-phase four-wire distribution system, which included an input section, an isolating section and an output section, was researched under unbalanced loads. The simple and appropriate control scheme was developed through analyzing the system requirements of the primary side and the load requirements of the secondary side. In the input section, a dual-loop control in synchronous rotating d-q coordinates was introduced, and in the output section, a dual-loop control based on instantaneous output voltage wasused. Load characteristics of EPT were investigated by using Matlab/Simulink software. Simulation results showed that, with the proposed control scheme, the EPT has good performances and the sinusoidal input current and constant output voltage can be realized under both balanced and unbalanced loads.

  16. Optimal PMU placement using topology transformation method in power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nadia H A; Zobaa, Ahmed F

    2016-09-01

    Optimal phasor measurement units (PMUs) placement involves the process of minimizing the number of PMUs needed while ensuring the entire power system completely observable. A power system is identified observable when the voltages of all buses in the power system are known. This paper proposes selection rules for topology transformation method that involves a merging process of zero-injection bus with one of its neighbors. The result from the merging process is influenced by the selection of bus selected to merge with the zero-injection bus. The proposed method will determine the best candidate bus to merge with zero-injection bus according to the three rules created in order to determine the minimum number of PMUs required for full observability of the power system. In addition, this paper also considered the case of power flow measurements. The problem is formulated as integer linear programming (ILP). The simulation for the proposed method is tested by using MATLAB for different IEEE bus systems. The explanation of the proposed method is demonstrated by using IEEE 14-bus system. The results obtained in this paper proved the effectiveness of the proposed method since the number of PMUs obtained is comparable with other available techniques.

  17. Transformation of legacy network management system to service oriented architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyan, Jithesh; Shenoy, Krishnananda

    2007-09-01

    Service providers today are facing the challenge of operating and maintaining multiple networks, based on multiple technologies. Network Management System (NMS) solutions are being used to manage these networks. However the NMS is tightly coupled with Element or the Core network components. Hence there are multiple NMS solutions for heterogeneous networks. Current network management solutions are targeted at a variety of independent networks. The wide spread popularity of IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is a clear indication that all of these independent networks will be integrated into a single IP-based infrastructure referred to as Next Generation Networks (NGN) in the near future. The services, network architectures and traffic pattern in NGN will dramatically differ from the current networks. The heterogeneity and complexity in NGN including concepts like Fixed Mobile Convergence will bring a number of challenges to network management. The high degree of complexity accompanying the network element technology necessitates network management systems (NMS) which can utilize this technology to provide more service interfaces while hiding the inherent complexity. As operators begin to add new networks and expand existing networks to support new technologies and products, the necessity of scalable, flexible and functionally rich NMS systems arises. Another important factor influencing NMS architecture is mergers and acquisitions among the key vendors. Ease of integration is a key impediment in the traditional hierarchical NMS architecture. These requirements trigger the need for an architectural framework that will address the NGNM (Next Generation Network Management) issues seamlessly. This paper presents a unique perspective of bringing service orientated architecture (SOA) to legacy network management systems (NMS). It advocates a staged approach in transforming a legacy NMS to SOA. The architecture at each stage is detailed along with the technical advantages and

  18. A Survey of Rewriting Strategies in Program Transformation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Eelco

    2002-01-01

    Program transformation is used in a wide range of applications including compiler construction, optimization, program synthesis, refactoring, software renovation, and reverse engineering. Complex program transformations are achieved through a number of consecutive modifications of a program. Transfo

  19. [Politics as a tool in National Health System transformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila Torres, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The politics as an activity oriented to the decision making process, seeks to achieve specific objectives, and it is a fundamental tool for the transformation of the National Health System (NHS). It is important to point out that there are different elements, interest and participants that take part in the design and implementation of these policies. Therefore, it should be considered the presence of the health care institutions in the development of the health policies, as well as the participation of the Congress where each political party presents and defends their proposals, negotiate the approval and assignation of the financial budget, among others. Nowadays, there are elements with a relevant presence on these policies and in the transformation process of the NHS such as the media and laboral force represented by the unions. Finally, some general statements are expressed to contribute with the advances in the integration process for a stronger NHS. This should consider the economic, demographic and social changes in the country; furthermore it should focus on universal coverage and provision of a better health care for the Mexican population.

  20. System for electronic transformation and geographic correlation of satellite television information. [cloud cover photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubenskiy, V. P.; Nemkovskiy, B. L.; Rodionov, B. N.

    1974-01-01

    An electronic transformation and correlation system has been developed for the Meteor space weather system which provides transformation and scaling of the original picture, accounts for satellite flight altitude and inclinations of the optical axes of the transmitting devices, and simultaneously superposes the geographical coordinate grid on the transformed picture.

  1. Application of the Sumudu Transform to Discrete Dynamic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiru, Muniru Aderemi

    2003-01-01

    The Sumudu transform is an integral transform introduced to solve differential equations and control engineering problems. The transform possesses many interesting properties that make visualization easier and application has been demonstrated in the solution of partial differential equations, integral equations, integro-differential equations and…

  2. Stability of linear systems in second-order form based on structure preserving similarity transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Pommer, Christian; Kliem, Wolfhard

    2015-01-01

    of the transformation parameters into a new system (I, B 1, C 1) with a symmetrizable matrix C 1. This procedure facilitates stability investigations. We also consider systems with a Hamiltonian spectrum which discloses marginal stability after a Jordan form preserving transformation.......This paper deals with two stability aspects of linear systems of the form Ix¨+Bx˙+Cx=0 given by the triple (I, B, C). A general transformation scheme is given for a structure and Jordan form preserving transformation of the triple. We investigate how a system can be transformed by suitable choices...

  3. Sustainable urban systems: Co-design and framing for transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert; Bai, Xuemei; Smith, Mark Stafford; Costanza, Robert; Griggs, David; Moglia, Magnus; Neuman, Michael; Newman, Peter; Newton, Peter; Norman, Barbara; Ryan, Chris; Schandl, Heinz; Steffen, Will; Tapper, Nigel; Thomson, Giles

    2017-08-01

    Rapid urbanisation generates risks and opportunities for sustainable development. Urban policy and decision makers are challenged by the complexity of cities as social-ecological-technical systems. Consequently there is an increasing need for collaborative knowledge development that supports a whole-of-system view, and transformational change at multiple scales. Such holistic urban approaches are rare in practice. A co-design process involving researchers, practitioners and other stakeholders, has progressed such an approach in the Australian context, aiming to also contribute to international knowledge development and sharing. This process has generated three outputs: (1) a shared framework to support more systematic knowledge development and use, (2) identification of barriers that create a gap between stated urban goals and actual practice, and (3) identification of strategic focal areas to address this gap. Developing integrated strategies at broader urban scales is seen as the most pressing need. The knowledge framework adopts a systems perspective that incorporates the many urban trade-offs and synergies revealed by a systems view. Broader implications are drawn for policy and decision makers, for researchers and for a shared forward agenda.

  4. Plastid gene expression during fruit ripening in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechulla, B; Imlay, K R; Gruissem, W

    1985-11-01

    A tomato chloroplast genome map has been constructed with the restriction enzymes Hpa I, Pvu II, and Sal I. Twelve plastid genes have been located on the tomato plastid genome (159 kb).The expression of plastid genes during tomato fruit ripening has been studied. The levels of transcripts of various genes coding for proteins of the photosystem I (psaA), photosystem II (psbA, psbB, psbC, psbD) and the stroma (rbcL) decrease when plastids differentiate from chloroplasts to chromoplasts. The amount of plastid ribosomal RNA also decreases. Transcripts of the genes for the P700 reaction center protein (psaA), for the photosystem II-associated proteins (psbC, psbD) and for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) cannot be detected in chromoplasts. In contrast, a relatively high level of mRNA is present for the 32 kD protein ('herbicide-binding protein', psbA) in red fruit.

  5. Digital health and the challenge of health systems transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Hassane; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Fortin, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Information and communication technologies have transformed all sectors of society. The health sector is no exception to this trend. In light of "digital health", we see multiplying numbers of web platforms and mobile health applications, often brought by new unconventional players who produce and offer services in non-linear and non-hierarchal ways, this by multiplying access points to services for people. Some speak of a "uberization" of healthcare. New realities and challenges have emerged from this paradigm, which question the abilities of health systems to cope with new business and economic models, governance of data and regulation. Countries must provide adequate responses so that digital health, based increasingly on disruptive technologies, can benefit for all.

  6. Establishment of Plant Acceptor System for Hyperosmosis Transformation.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Calli and adventitious buds induced from different explants such as young stems and leaves of tomato variety Moneymaker, and mature embryos and young spikelets of rice variety TP309 were used to establish hyperosmotic transformation system at various osmotica treatments.The results revealed that the calli induced from tomato young leaves and rice young spikelets were the ideal transfomation acceptor. The cells of calli were still vigorous when treated wity 0.75 mol/L hyperosmotic solution for 4 hours. The differentiation rates of calli varied from 7.5% to 93.3% in different media. The bud differentiation was apparently inhibited by hyperosmotic treatments. O.75mol/L sucrose hypertonic solution and O.2mol/L CaCl2 solution were favorable hyperosmoticum and hypoosmoticum respectively.

  7. Transformer Model in Wide Frequency Bandwidth for Power Electronics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gonzalez-Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the smart grids leads to new challenges on the power electronics equipment and power transformers. The use of power electronic transformer presents several advantages, but new problems related with the application of high frequency voltage and current components come across. Thus, an accurate knowledge of the transformer behavior in a wide frequency range is mandatory. A novel modeling procedure to relate the transformer physical behavior and its frequency response by means of electrical parameters is presented. Its usability is demonstrated by an example where a power transformer is used as filter and voltage reducer in an AC-DC-AC converter.

  8. Lz-transform and inverse Lz-transform application to dynamic reliability assessment for multi-state system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisnianski, A.; Ding, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a new method for reliability assessment for complex multi-state system. The system and its components can have different performance levels ranging from perfect functioning to complete failure. Straightforward Markov method applied to solve the problem will require building...... such as reliability function, mean time to failure etc. inverse LZ-transform is using that completely reveals underlying output process....

  9. Plastid genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus: further insights on the evolution of red-algal derived plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corre Erwan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterokont algae, together with cryptophytes, haptophytes and some alveolates, possess red-algal derived plastids. The chromalveolate hypothesis proposes that the red-algal derived plastids of all four groups have a monophyletic origin resulting from a single secondary endosymbiotic event. However, due to incongruence between nuclear and plastid phylogenies, this controversial hypothesis remains under debate. Large-scale genomic analyses have shown to be a powerful tool for phylogenetic reconstruction but insufficient sequence data have been available for red-algal derived plastid genomes. Results The chloroplast genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus, have been fully sequenced. These species represent two distinct orders of the Phaeophyceae, which is a major group within the heterokont lineage. The sizes of the circular plastid genomes are 139,954 and 124,986 base pairs, respectively, the size difference being due principally to the presence of longer inverted repeat and intergenic regions in E. siliculosus. Gene contents of the two plastids are similar with 139-148 protein-coding genes, 28-31 tRNA genes, and 3 ribosomal RNA genes. The two genomes also exhibit very similar rearrangements compared to other sequenced plastid genomes. The tRNA-Leu gene of E. siliculosus lacks an intron, in contrast to the F. vesiculosus and other heterokont plastid homologues, suggesting its recent loss in the Ectocarpales. Most of the brown algal plastid genes are shared with other red-algal derived plastid genomes, but a few are absent from raphidophyte or diatom plastid genomes. One of these regions is most similar to an apicomplexan nuclear sequence. The phylogenetic relationship between heterokonts, cryptophytes and haptophytes (collectively referred to as chromists plastids was investigated using several datasets of concatenated proteins from two cyanobacterial genomes and 18 plastid genomes, including

  10. Plastid genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus: further insights on the evolution of red-algal derived plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corguillé, Gildas; Pearson, Gareth; Valente, Marta; Viegas, Carla; Gschloessl, Bernhard; Corre, Erwan; Bailly, Xavier; Peters, Akira F; Jubin, Claire; Vacherie, Benoit; Cock, J Mark; Leblanc, Catherine

    2009-10-16

    Heterokont algae, together with cryptophytes, haptophytes and some alveolates, possess red-algal derived plastids. The chromalveolate hypothesis proposes that the red-algal derived plastids of all four groups have a monophyletic origin resulting from a single secondary endosymbiotic event. However, due to incongruence between nuclear and plastid phylogenies, this controversial hypothesis remains under debate. Large-scale genomic analyses have shown to be a powerful tool for phylogenetic reconstruction but insufficient sequence data have been available for red-algal derived plastid genomes. The chloroplast genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus, have been fully sequenced. These species represent two distinct orders of the Phaeophyceae, which is a major group within the heterokont lineage. The sizes of the circular plastid genomes are 139,954 and 124,986 base pairs, respectively, the size difference being due principally to the presence of longer inverted repeat and intergenic regions in E. siliculosus. Gene contents of the two plastids are similar with 139-148 protein-coding genes, 28-31 tRNA genes, and 3 ribosomal RNA genes. The two genomes also exhibit very similar rearrangements compared to other sequenced plastid genomes. The tRNA-Leu gene of E. siliculosus lacks an intron, in contrast to the F. vesiculosus and other heterokont plastid homologues, suggesting its recent loss in the Ectocarpales. Most of the brown algal plastid genes are shared with other red-algal derived plastid genomes, but a few are absent from raphidophyte or diatom plastid genomes. One of these regions is most similar to an apicomplexan nuclear sequence. The phylogenetic relationship between heterokonts, cryptophytes and haptophytes (collectively referred to as chromists) plastids was investigated using several datasets of concatenated proteins from two cyanobacterial genomes and 18 plastid genomes, including most of the available red algal and chromist

  11. A major role for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase complex in the expression of plastid transfer RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Carrier, Rosalind; Zoschke, Reimo; Belcher, Susan; Pfalz, Jeannette; Barkan, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast transcription in land plants relies on collaboration between a plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) of cyanobacterial ancestry and a nucleus-encoded RNA polymerase of phage ancestry. PEP associates with additional proteins that are unrelated to bacterial transcription factors, many of which have been shown to be important for PEP activity in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the biochemical roles of these PEP-associated proteins are not known. We describe phenotypes conditioned by transposon insertions in genes encoding the maize (Zea mays) orthologs of five such proteins: ZmPTAC2, ZmMurE, ZmPTAC10, ZmPTAC12, and ZmPRIN2. These mutants have similar ivory/virescent pigmentation and similar reductions in plastid ribosomes and photosynthetic complexes. RNA gel-blot and microarray hybridizations revealed numerous changes in plastid transcript populations, many of which resemble those reported for the orthologous mutants in Arabidopsis. However, unanticipated reductions in the abundance of numerous transfer RNAs (tRNAs) dominated the microarray data and were validated on RNA gel blots. The magnitude of the deficiencies for several tRNAs was similar to that of the most severely affected messenger RNAs, with the loss of trnL-UAA being particularly severe. These findings suggest that PEP and its associated proteins are critical for the robust transcription of numerous plastid tRNAs and that this function is essential for the prodigious translation of plastid-encoded proteins that is required during the installation of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  12. Transformation of Mortierella alpina (fatty acid supplier myceliums via AMT system (Agrobacterium Mediated Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Javanmard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mortierella alpina is one of the most important fungi in food industry because of having ability of synthesizing unsaturated fatty acids, particularly Arashidonic Acid. This is a precursor of Eicosanoidregulate-lipoprotein metabolism which is involved in blood rheology, platelet activation and leukocyte-function, and the functional characteristics of the cell membrane. Materials and methods: In this study genetic transformation of M. alpina CBS754.68 fungus was evaluated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Agrobacteriums containing pBI121 vector were used for transformation of three days of old mycelia. Three days old hyphae were exposed to the bacteria with three level of time (one, two and three hours in the present of acetosyringone. Mitotic stability of the third generation of transgenic (T2 was confirmed by GUS assay and amplification of CaMV 35S promoter by polymerase chain reaction. Results: The highest percentage of transformation and mitotic stability were obtained by using A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenese, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: The results showed that to obtain more efficient and more stable transformation, the fundamental factor is the use of suitable species of Agrobacterium. It is the first report for transformation of autothroph strain of M. alpine via Agrobacterium.

  13. A HYPOTHESIS FOR PLASTID EVOLUTION IN CHROMALVEOLATES(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Puerta, M Virginia; Delwiche, Charles F

    2008-10-01

    Four eukaryotic lineages, namely, haptophytes, alveolates, cryptophytes, and heterokonts, contain in most cases photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic members-the photosynthetic ones with secondary plastids with chl c as the main photosynthetic pigment. These four photosynthetic lineages were grouped together on the basis of their pigmentation and called chromalveolates, which is usually understood to imply loss of plastids in the nonphotosynthetic members. Despite the ecological and economic importance of this group of organisms, the phylogenetic relationships among these algae are only partially understood, and the so-called chromalveolate hypothesis is very controversial. This review evaluates the evidence for and against this grouping and summarizes the present understanding of chromalveolate evolution. We also describe a testable hypothesis that is intended to accommodate current knowledge based on plastid and nuclear genomic data, discuss the implications of this model, and comment on areas that require further examination.

  14. Fine structure of plastids during androgenesis in Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortunat Młodzianowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure of plastids was studied in the course of androgenesis in in the pollen of Hordeum vulgare L. It was found that these organelles occur in all stages of androgenesis. Their structure was simple and was frequently manifested on the cross section only by the presence of the envelope and matrix of different degree of density. Single thylakoids, nucleoid-like regions and starch grains were, however, also noted. The structure of plastids in embryoids formed from microspores of barley was compared with embryos developed from fertilized egg cell, and we did not found any fundamental differences between them. However, only plastid ribosomes were difficult to identify on ultrathin sections in embryoids and in the embryos.

  15. UNH's Transforming Earth System Science Education (TESSE) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, R. K.; Graham, K.; Bryce, J.; Finkel, L.; Froburg, E.; Hale, S. R.; Johnson, J.; von Damm, K.

    2008-12-01

    The University of New Hampshire's Transforming Earth System Science Education (UNH TESSE) project is designed to enrich the education and professional development of in-service and pre-service teachers who currently teach or plan to teach Earth science curricula. A key TESSE program goal is to foster the development of middle and high school students' ESS literacy by training teachers through an intensive summer institute, authentic research experiences, and an academic-year follow-up scientist-liaison program. The TESSE approach integrates inquiry-based teaching practices with ESS content, emphasizing both timescales and systems. Earth System Science Teaching 1 (ESST-1) is a course offered to in-service teachers in need of ESS content or interested in updating their traditional content background to include a systems approach and is also designed to provide teachers with the tools necessary to implement an inquiry- based approach to teaching Earth science. Time scale and system interactions significant in the Earth System are introduced through authentic research conducted during field trips, research experiences and via working with long-term datasets. ESST-1 teachers are also provided the opportunity to work with graduate fellows who act as scientist liaisons during the academic year, bringing research expertise and resources into the classroom. Earth System Science Teaching 2 (ESST-2) is a ten-day intensive research experience wherein in-service teachers pose their own research questions, collect and analyze samples and report their findings in a public forum. Pre-service science teachers in the TESSE program participate in an eight-week summer Research Immersion Experience (RIE) and participate with faculty, graduate fellows and in-service teachers in the two-week ESST-1 workshop. The goal of the RIE is to provide authentic research skills and with the goal of bringing research-based inquiry into these future teachers' classrooms. Pre-service teachers work

  16. Photometric transformation from RGB Bayer filter system to Johnson-Cousins BVR filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woojin; Pak, Soojong; Shim, Hyunjin; Le, Huynh Anh N.; Im, Myungshin; Chang, Seunghyuk; Yu, Joonkyu

    2016-01-01

    The RGB Bayer filter system consists of a mosaic of R, G , and B filters on the grid of the photo sensors which typical commercial DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) cameras and CCD cameras are equipped with. Lot of unique astronomical data obtained using an RGB Bayer filter system are available, including transient objects, e.g. supernovae, variable stars, and solar system bodies. The utilization of such data in scientific research requires that reliable photometric transformation methods are available between the systems. In this work, we develop a series of equations to convert the observed magnitudes in the RGB Bayer filter system (RB,GB , and BB) into the Johnson-Cousins BVR filter system (BJ,VJ , and RC). The new transformation equations derive the calculated magnitudes in the Johnson-Cousins filters (BJcal,VJcal , and RCcal) as functions of RGB magnitudes and colors. The mean differences between the transformed magnitudes and original magnitudes, i.e. the residuals, are Δ (BJ -BJcal) = 0.064 mag, Δ (VJ -VJcal) = 0.041 mag, and Δ (RC -RCcal) = 0.039 mag. The calculated Johnson-Cousins magnitudes from the transformation equations show a good linear correlation with the observed Johnson-Cousins magnitudes.

  17. The SUFBC2 D complex is required for the biogenesis of all major classes of plastid Fe-S proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xueyun; Kato, Yukako; Sumida, Akihiro; Tanaka, Ayumi; Tanaka, Ryouichi

    2017-04-01

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins play crucial roles in plastids, participating in photosynthesis and other metabolic pathways. Fe-S clusters are thought to be assembled on a scaffold complex composed of SUFB, SUFC and SUFD proteins. However, several additional proteins provide putative scaffold functions in plastids, and, therefore, the contribution of SUFB, C and D proteins to overall Fe-S assembly still remains unclear. In order to gain insights regarding Fe-S cluster biosynthesis in plastids, we analyzed the complex composed of SUFB, C and D in Arabidopsis by blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Using this approach, a major complex of 170 kDa containing all subunits was detected, indicating that these proteins constitute a SUFBC2 D complex similar to their well characterized bacterial counterparts. The functional effects of SUFB, SUFC or SUFD depletion were analyzed using an inducible RNAi silencing system to specifically target the aforementioned components; resulting in a decrease of various plastidic Fe-S proteins including the PsaA/B and PsaC subunits of photosystem I, ferredoxin and glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase. In contrast, the knockout of potential Fe-S scaffold proteins, NFU2 and HCF101, resulted in a specific decrease in the PsaA/B and PsaC levels. These results indicate that the functions of SUFB, SUFC and SUFD for Fe-S cluster biosynthesis cannot be replaced by other scaffold proteins and that SUFBC2 D, NFU2 and HCF101 are involved in the same pathway for the biogenesis of PSI. Taken together, our results provide in vivo evidence supporting the hypothesis that SUFBC2 D is the major, and possibly sole scaffold in plastids.

  18. High-Performance Work Systems: American Models of Workplace Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Eileen; Batt, Rosemary

    Rising competition in world and domestic markets for the past 2 decades has necessitated that U.S. companies undergo significant transformations to improve their performance with respect to a wide array of efficiency and quality indicators. Research on the transformations recently undertaken by some U.S. companies to boost performance revealed two…

  19. PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1 and PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1-RELATED1 Mediate Photorelocation Movements of Both Chloroplasts and Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Higa, Takeshi; Kong, Sam-Geun; Wada, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    Organelle movement and positioning play important roles in fundamental cellular activities and adaptive responses to environmental stress in plants. To optimize photosynthetic light utilization, chloroplasts move toward weak blue light (the accumulation response) and escape from strong blue light (the avoidance response). Nuclei also move in response to strong blue light by utilizing the light-induced movement of attached plastids in leaf cells. Blue light receptor phototropins and several factors for chloroplast photorelocation movement have been identified through molecular genetic analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1 (PMI1) is a plant-specific C2-domain protein that is required for efficient chloroplast photorelocation movement. There are two PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1-RELATED (PMIR) genes, PMIR1 and PMIR2, in the Arabidopsis genome. However, the mechanism in which PMI1 regulates chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements and the involvement of PMIR1 and PMIR2 in these organelle movements remained unknown. Here, we analyzed chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements in mutant lines of PMI1, PMIR1, and PMIR2. In mesophyll cells, the pmi1 single mutant showed severe defects in both chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements resulting from the impaired regulation of chloroplast-actin filaments. In pavement cells, pmi1 mutant plants were partially defective in both plastid and nuclear photorelocation movements, but pmi1pmir1 and pmi1pmir1pmir2 mutant lines lacked the blue light-induced movement responses of plastids and nuclei completely. These results indicated that PMI1 is essential for chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements in mesophyll cells and that both PMI1 and PMIR1 are indispensable for photorelocation movements of plastids and thus, nuclei in pavement cells.

  20. An Analysis of a Transport System Using Non-Affine Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Ficzer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated the transformation possibilities and particularly the usage of non-affine transformations of maps in order to analyse the current status and development possibilities of the Hungarian railway system. In the introduction, the authors overview the theoretical background of map transformations and then present the detailed description of the non-parameter affine transformations and their applicability to the evaluation of railway networks.

  1. Herds on the Move: Transformations in Tibetan Nomadic Pastoral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Miller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Miller. 2015. Herds on the Move: Transformations in Tibetan Nomadic Pastoral Systems in Gerald Roche, Keith Dede, Fernanda Pirie, and Benedict Copps (eds Asian Highlands Perspectives 37 Centering the Local, A Festschrift for Dr. Charles Kevin Stuart on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, 207-220. Eight thousand years ago, an event took place that changed the world. In the mountain valleys where modern Iraq, Turkey, and Iran intersect, some enterprising farmers determined that it was easier to make a living by specializing in raising livestock than growing crops. They left their farms and moved into the grasslands, herding their animals over a vast area, traveling to different seasonal pastures throughout the year with their belongings and homes rolled up and carried on the backs of animals. This was the first stage of what later became known as nomadic pastoralism, and the people that followed the herds were called nomadic pastoralists, or simply, nomads. Sheep and goats were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago, but it took another couple thousand years before some hardy farmers, who raised both crops and livestock, ventured into the steppes and developed a culture that specialized in raising livestock. Since they first left the fertile, agricultural valleys with their livestock and moved into the steppes, they have been out there on the edge of civilization – out where the vast rolling grasslands meet the purple haze of the horizon – living a life that many aspire to, but which few were able to follow.

  2. Transformations of television systems: Implications for media content, political parties and political attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbaoui, B.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates the transformation of West-European television systems since the onset of the liberalisation process through a systematic comparison of 17 television systems between 1980 and 2008. The transformation of West-European television systems is analysed through a dualistic

  3. Expression of a codon-optimized dsdA gene in tobacco plastids and rice nuclear confers D-serine tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei eLi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available D-serine is toxic to plants. D-serine ammonia lyase, which is encoded by the dsdA gene, can attenuate this toxicity with high specificity. In the present study, we explored the function of codon-optimized dsdA with tobacco plastids and rice nuclear transformation system. It was shown that the dsdA gene was site-specifically integrated into the tobacco chloroplast genome and displayed a high level of expression. Genetic analysis of the progenies showed that the dsdA gene is maternally inherited and confers sufficient D-serine resistance in tobacco. The effective screening concentrations of D-serine for seed germination, callus regeneration and foliar spray were 10 mM, 30 mM and 75 mM, respectively. In addition, calluses from homozygous transgenic rice lines also showed significant tolerance to D-serine (up to 75 mM. Our study proves the feasibility of using dsdA gene as a selectable marker in both chloroplast and nuclear transformation systems.

  4. Proteome Dynamics during Plastid Differentiation in Rice1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleffmann, Torsten; von Zychlinski, Anne; Russenberger, Doris; Hirsch-Hoffmann, Matthias; Gehrig, Peter; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Baginsky, Sacha

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed proteome dynamics during light-induced development of rice (Oryza sativa) chloroplasts from etioplasts using quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry protein identification. In the dark, the etioplast allocates the main proportion of total protein mass to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and a surprisingly high number of proteins to the regulation and expression of plastid genes. Chaperones, proteins for photosynthetic energy metabolism, and enzymes of the tetrapyrrole pathway were identified among the most abundant etioplast proteins. The detection of 13 N-terminal acetylated peptides allowed us to map the exact localization of the transit peptide cleavage site, demonstrating good agreement with the prediction for most proteins. Based on the quantitative etioplast proteome map, we examined early light-induced changes during chloroplast development. The transition from heterotrophic metabolism to photosynthesis-supported autotrophic metabolism was already detectable 2 h after illumination and affected most essential metabolic modules. Enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, and gene expression were up-regulated, whereas enzymes in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism were significantly decreased in relative abundance. Enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, and redox regulation remained unchanged. Phosphoprotein-specific staining at different time points during chloroplast development revealed light-induced phosphorylation of a nuclear-encoded plastid RNA-binding protein, consistent with changes in plastid RNA metabolism. Quantitative information about all identified proteins and their regulation by light is available in plprot, the plastid proteome database (http://www.plprot.ethz.ch). PMID:17189339

  5. Quantum Fourier Transform and Phase Estimation in Qudit System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ye; PENG Shi-Guo; ZHENG Chao; LONG Gui-Lu

    2011-01-01

    The quantum Fourier transform and quantum phase estimation are the key components for many quantum algorithms, such as order-finding, factoring, and etc.In this article, the general procedure of quantum Fourier transform and phase estimation are investigated for high dimensional case.They can be seen as subroutines in a main program run in a qudit quantum computer, and the quantum circuits are given.

  6. Solution Transformations and Their Effects on the Systems with Open Boundary Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Guo-Xing; ZHAO Xian-Lin

    2002-01-01

    The solution transformations and properties of the R-matrices for two-component systems uner these transformations are analyzed in details.Not all transformed R-matrices can be put into the Skalyanin's formalism.For those R-matrices with all required properties,the effects of solution transformations to the six- and eight-vertex systems with open boundary conditions are discussed.These effects can be one of the following types: The Hamiltonian is invariant or transposition-invariant or made in a similarity transformation,or its coupling coefficients are multiplied by an overall factor,or the spin of the system is rotated around the z axis or/and reflected with respect to some plane.In these cases,the transformed systems remain to be integrable.

  7. Mechanism for the primary transformation of acetaminophen in a soil/water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chuanzhou; Lan, Zhonghui; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Yingbao

    2016-07-01

    The transformation of acetaminophen (APAP) in a soil/water system was systematically investigated by a combination of kinetic studies and a quantitative analysis of the reaction intermediates. Biotransformation was the predominant pathway for the elimination of APAP, whereas hydrolysis or other chemical transformation, and adsorption processes made almost no contribution to the transformation under a dark incubation. Bacillus aryabhattai strain 1-Sj-5-2-5-M, Klebsiella pneumoniae strain S001, and Bacillus subtilis strain HJ5 were the main bacteria identified in the biotransformation of APAP. The soil-to-water ratio and soil preincubation were able to alter the transformation kinetic pattern. Light irradiation promoted the overall transformation kinetics through enhanced biotransformation and extra photosensitized chemical reactions. The transformation pathways were strongly dependent on the initial concentration of APAP. The main primary transformation products were APAP oligomers and p-aminophenol, with the initial addition of 26.5 and 530 μM APAP, respectively. APAP oligomers accounted for more than 95% of transformed APAP, indicating that almost no bound residues were generated through the transformation of APAP in the soil/water system. The potential environmental risks of APAP could increase following the transformation of APAP in the soil/water system because of the higher toxicity of the transformation intermediates.

  8. Review of modular power converters solutions for smart transformer in distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alzola, Rafael Pena; Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Mathe, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    While the use of power electronics based Smart Transformer (ST) is becoming a reality in traction applications, and it has been considered as an interesting option for interfacing different transmission systems, the possibility to use it in distribution systems is still considered futuristic....... Replacing primary distribution transformers with ST can lead to more flexible handling of the distribution feeders, while replacing secondary distribution transformers can allow decoupling of distribution network. This paper reviews different power converter solutions for the ST focusing on modularity...

  9. Discrete Multiwavelet Critical-Sampling Transform-Based OFDM System over Rayleigh Fading Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer A. Dawood; Malek, F.; M. S. ANUAR; Suha Q. Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Discrete multiwavelet critical-sampling transform (DMWCST) has been proposed instead of fast Fourier transform (FFT) in the realization of the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system. The proposed structure further reduces the level of interference and improves the bandwidth efficiency through the elimination of the cyclic prefix due to the good orthogonality and time-frequency localization properties of the multiwavelet transform. The proposed system was simulated using MATL...

  10. Hybridization study of developmental plastid gene expression in mustard (Sinapsis alba L.) with cloned probes for most plastid DNA regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, G

    1984-07-01

    An approach to assess the extent of developmental gene expression of various regions of plastid (pt)DNA in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) is described. It involves cloning of most ptDNA regions. The cloned regions then serve as hybridization probes to detect and assess the abundance of complementary RNA sequences represented in total plastid RNA. By comparison of the hybridization pattern observed with plastid RNA from either dark-grown or light-grown plants it was found that many ptDNA regions are constitutively expressed, while several 'inducible' regions account for much higher transcript levels in the chloroplast than in the etioplast stage. The reverse situation, i.e. 'repressed' regions which would account for higher transcript levels in the etioplast, was not observed. The hybridization results obtained with RNA from 'intermediatetype' plastids suggest that transient gene expression is a common feature during light-induced chloroplast development. The time-course of gene expression differs for various ptDNA regions.

  11. Multiple multilocus DNA barcodes from the plastid genome discriminate plant species equally well.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron J Fazekas

    Full Text Available A universal barcode system for land plants would be a valuable resource, with potential utility in fields as diverse as ecology, floristics, law enforcement and industry. However, the application of plant barcoding has been constrained by a lack of consensus regarding the most variable and technically practical DNA region(s. We compared eight candidate plant barcoding regions from the plastome and one from the mitochondrial genome for how well they discriminated the monophyly of 92 species in 32 diverse genera of land plants (N = 251 samples. The plastid markers comprise portions of five coding (rpoB, rpoC1, rbcL, matK and 23S rDNA and three non-coding (trnH-psbA, atpF-atpH, and psbK-psbI loci. Our survey included several taxonomically complex groups, and in all cases we examined multiple populations and species. The regions differed in their ability to discriminate species, and in ease of retrieval, in terms of amplification and sequencing success. Single locus resolution ranged from 7% (23S rDNA to 59% (trnH-psbA of species with well-supported monophyly. Sequence recovery rates were related primarily to amplification success (85-100% for plastid loci, with matK requiring the greatest effort to achieve reasonable recovery (88% using 10 primer pairs. Several loci (matK, psbK-psbI, trnH-psbA were problematic for generating fully bidirectional sequences. Setting aside technical issues related to amplification and sequencing, combining the more variable plastid markers provided clear benefits for resolving species, although with diminishing returns, as all combinations assessed using four to seven regions had only marginally different success rates (69-71%; values that were approached by several two- and three-region combinations. This performance plateau may indicate fundamental upper limits on the precision of species discrimination that is possible with DNA barcoding systems that include moderate numbers of plastid markers. Resolution to the

  12. Photometry Transformation from $RGB$ Bayer Filter System to Johnson-Cousins $BVR$ Filter System

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Woojin; Shim, Hyunjin; Le, Huynh Anh N; Im, Myungshin; Chang, Seunghyuk; Yu, Joonkyu

    2015-01-01

    The $RGB$ Bayer filter system consists of mosaic $R$, $G$, and $B$ filters on the grid of photo sensors which typical commercial DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) cameras and CCD cameras are equipped with. Many unique astronomical data obtained using a $RGB$ Bayer filter system are available, including transient objects, e.g., supernovae, variable stars, and solar system bodies. The utilization of such data in scientific research strongly requires reliable photometry transformation methods. In this work, we develop a series of equations to convert the observed magnitudes in the $RGB$ Bayer filter system ($R_B$, $G_B$, and $B_B$) into the Johnson-Cousins $BVR$ filter system ($B_J$, $V_J$, and $R_C$). The new transformation equations derive the calculated magnitudes in Johnson-Cousins filters ($B_{Jcal}$, $V_{Jcal}$, and $R_{Ccal}$) as functions of magnitudes and colors. The mean differences between the transformed magnitudes and original magnitudes, i.e., the residuals, are $\\Delta(B_J-B_{Jcal})$ = 0.104 mag, ...

  13. Darboux transformation of the Drinfeld–Sokolov–Satsuma–Hirota system and exact solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Xianguo; Li, Ruomeng, E-mail: li_ruomeng@163.com

    2015-10-15

    A Darboux transformation for the Drinfeld–Sokolov–Satsuma–Hirota system of coupled equations is constructed with the aid of gauge transformations between the Lax pairs. As an application, several types of solutions of the Drinfeld–Sokolov–Satsuma–Hirota system are obtained, including soliton solutions, periodic solutions, rational solutions and others.

  14. Mutations in a plastid-localized elongation factor G alter early stages of plastid development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangarter Roger P

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proper development of plastids in embryo and seedling tissues is critical for plant development. During germination, plastids develop to perform many critical functions that are necessary to establish the seedling for further growth. A growing body of work has demonstrated that components of the plastid transcription and translation machinery must be present and functional to establish the organelle upon germination. Results We have identified Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in a gene that encodes a plastid-targeted elongation factor G (SCO1 that is essential for plastid development during embryogenesis since two T-DNA insertion mutations in the coding sequence (sco1-2 and sco1-3 result in an embryo-lethal phenotype. In addition, a point mutation allele (sco1-1 and an allele with a T-DNA insertion in the promoter (sco1-4 of SCO1 display conditional seedling-lethal phenotypes. Seedlings of these alleles exhibit cotyledon and hypocotyl albinism due to improper chloroplast development, and normally die shortly after germination. However, when germinated on media supplemented with sucrose, the mutant plants can produce photosynthetically-active green leaves from the apical meristem. Conclusion The developmental stage-specific phenotype of the conditional-lethal sco1 alleles reveals differences in chloroplast formation during seedling germination compared to chloroplast differentiation in cells derived from the shoot apical meristem. Our identification of embryo-lethal mutant alleles in the Arabidopsis elongation factor G indicates that SCO1 is essential for plant growth, consistent with its predicted role in chloroplast protein translation.

  15. Lie algebraic similarity transformed Hamiltonians for lattice model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlen-Strothman, Jacob M.; Jiménez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a class of Lie algebraic similarity transformations generated by exponentials of two-body on-site Hermitian operators whose Hausdorff series can be summed exactly without truncation. The correlators are defined over the entire lattice and include the Gutzwiller factor ni ↑ni ↓ , and two-site products of density (ni ↑+ni ↓) and spin (ni ↑-ni ↓) operators. The resulting non-Hermitian many-body Hamiltonian can be solved in a biorthogonal mean-field approach with polynomial computational cost. The proposed similarity transformation generates locally weighted orbital transformations of the reference determinant. Although the energy of the model is unbound, projective equations in the spirit of coupled cluster theory lead to well-defined solutions. The theory is tested on the one- and two-dimensional repulsive Hubbard model where it yields accurate results for small and medium sized interaction strengths.

  16. Fourier transform infrared spectra applications to chemical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    1985-01-01

    The final and largest volume to complete this four-volume treatise is published in response to the intense commercial and research interest in Fourier Transform Interferometry.Presenting current information from leading experts in the field, Volume 4 introduces new information on, for example, applications of Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Far-Infrared Region. The editors place emphasis on surface studies and address advances in Capillary Gas Chromatography - Fourier Transform Interferometry.Volume 4 especially benefits spectroscopists and physicists, as well as researchers

  17. Towards automated software model checking using graph transformation systems and Bogor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vahid RAFE; Adel T.RAHMANI

    2009-01-01

    Graph transformation systems have become a general formal modeling language to describe many models in software development process. Behavioral modeling of dynamic systems and model-to-model transformations are only a few examples in which graphs have been used to software development. But even the perfect graph transformation system must be equipped with automated analysis capabilities to let users understand whether such a formal specification fulfills their requirements. In this paper,we present a new solution to verify graph transformation systems using the Bogor model checker. The attributed graph grammars (AGG)-Iike graph transformation systems are translated to Bandera intermediate representation (BIR), the input language of Bogor,and Bogor verifies the model against some interesting properties defined by combining linear temporal logic (LTL) and special-purpose graph rules. Experimental results are encouraging, showing that in most cases oar solution improves existing approaches in terms of both performance and expressiveness.

  18. Establishment of the straightforward electro-transformation system for Phytophthora infestans and its comparison with the improved PEG/CaCl₂ transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Zhu, Xiangyuan; Cui, Haichen; Ojika, Makoto; Wang, Ruigang; Liu, Huirong

    2015-05-01

    Phytophthora infestans is the most devastating pathogen of potato. For the biology study of P. infestans at the molecular level, one of the difficulties is the technique for the genetic transformation. In this study, the straightforward electro-transformation system was established for P. infestans with a green fluorescent protein expression vector and compared with the improved PEG/CaCl2 mediated protoplast transformation system. The results showed that the straightforward electro-transformation could work in P. infestans and 32 positive transformants were obtained per about 1.10×10(6) zoospores. The transformants per μg of vector DNA were 1.08. The transformation efficiency of the straightforward electro-transformation was approximately 2 times higher than that of the improved PEG/CaCl2 mediated protoplast transformation (17 positive transformants per about 1.05×10(6) protoplasts, 0.58 transformants per μg of vector DNA) according to the reported procedures. Furthermore, compared with the improved PEG/CaCl2 transformation, the straightforward electroporation is simpler and requires less starting materials and operating time from collecting material to obtaining the resistant transformants. Our work will lay a foundation for the biology study of P. infestans in the future.

  19. Earthquake Response and Isolation Layer Parameter Effect of Seismic Isolation Systems of Transformers With Bushings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Meigen; ZHOU Fulin; TAN Ping; ZHANG Guangping; GAO Zhengguo

    2012-01-01

    Seismic damage data and experiences on power transformers at home and abroad indicate that the destruction type of high-power transformers is various and the vulnerability is very high. Furthermore, the post-disaster reconstruction of transformers, which needs a long recovery cycle and a high cost, will be very difficult. Studies have shown that the acceleration response of the transformer and bushings will be quickly reduced and seismic reliability of transformer will be improved because there is one seismic isolation layer between the bottom of transformer tank and the base which form the seismic isolation system of the transformer and bushings (SISTB). But isolation layer design and parameters selection of SISTB have larger difference with general structures.

  20. First-order systems of linear partial differential equations: normal forms, canonical systems, transform methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Toparkus

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider first-order systems with constant coefficients for two real-valued functions of two real variables. This is both a problem in itself, as well as an alternative view of the classical linear partial differential equations of second order with constant coefficients. The classification of the systems is done using elementary methods of linear algebra. Each type presents its special canonical form in the associated characteristic coordinate system. Then you can formulate initial value problems in appropriate basic areas, and you can try to achieve a solution of these problems by means of transform methods.

  1. Intra-plastid protein trafficking: how plant cells adapted prokaryotic mechanisms to the eukaryotic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedon, Jose M; Cline, Kenneth

    2013-02-01

    Protein trafficking and localization in plastids involve a complex interplay between ancient (prokaryotic) and novel (eukaryotic) translocases and targeting machineries. During evolution, ancient systems acquired new functions and novel translocation machineries were developed to facilitate the correct localization of nuclear encoded proteins targeted to the chloroplast. Because of its post-translational nature, targeting and integration of membrane proteins posed the biggest challenge to the organelle to avoid aggregation in the aqueous compartments. Soluble proteins faced a different kind of problem since some had to be transported across three membranes to reach their destination. Early studies suggested that chloroplasts addressed these issues by adapting ancient-prokaryotic machineries and integrating them with novel-eukaryotic systems, a process called 'conservative sorting'. In the last decade, detailed biochemical, genetic, and structural studies have unraveled the mechanisms of protein targeting and localization in chloroplasts, suggesting a highly integrated scheme where ancient and novel systems collaborate at different stages of the process. In this review we focus on the differences and similarities between chloroplast ancestral translocases and their prokaryotic relatives to highlight known modifications that adapted them to the eukaryotic situation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Import and Quality Control in Mitochondria and Plastids.

  2. Fate and transformation of silver nanoparticles in urban wastewater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaegi, Ralf; Voegelin, Andreas; Ort, Christoph; Sinnet, Brian; Thalmann, Basilius; Krismer, Jasmin; Hagendorfer, Harald; Elumelu, Maline; Mueller, Elisabeth

    2013-08-01

    Discharge of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) from textiles and cosmetics, todays major application areas for metallic Ag-NP, into wastewater is inevitable. Transformation and removal processes in sewers and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) will determine the impact of Ag-NP on aquatic and terrestrial environments, via the effluents of the WWTP and via the use of digested sludge as fertilizer. We thus conducted experiments addressing the behavior of Ag-NP in sewers and in WWTP. We spiked Ag-NP to a 5 km long main trunk sewer and collected 40 wastewater samples after 500 m, 2400 m and 5000 m each according to the expected travel times of the Ag-NP. Excellent mass closure of the Ag derived by multiplying the measured Ag concentrations times the volumetric flow rates indicate an efficient transport of the Ag-NP without substantial losses to the sewer biofilm. Ag-NP reacted with raw wastewater in batch experiments were sulfidized to roughly 15% after 5 h reaction time as revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). However, acid volatile sulfide (AVS) concentrations were substantially higher in the sewer channel (100 μM) compared to the batch experiments (3 μM; still sufficient to sulfidize spiked 2 μM Ag) possibly resulting in a higher degree of sulfidation in the sewer channel. We further investigated the removal efficiency of 10 nm and 100 nm Ag- and gold (Au)-NP coated with citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone in activated sludge batch experiments. We obtained very high removal efficiencies (≈ 99%) irrespective of size and coating for Ag- and Au-NP, the latter confirming that the particle type was of minor importance with respect to the degree of NP removal. We observed a strong size dependence of the sulfidation kinetics. We conclude that Ag-NP discharged to the wastewater stream will become sulfidized to various degrees in the sewer system and are efficiently transported to the WWTP. The sulfidation of the Ag-NP will continue in the WWTP, but primarily

  3. Transforming Teacher Education to Reform America's P-20 Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Mary Hatwood

    2010-01-01

    Moving beyond "reform", teacher education programs need to be "transformed" to better prepare teachers, school counselors, and administrators to teach, guide, and lead in this complex society. Educators must have the skills, knowledge, and commitment to be part of the leadership team that assumes the responsibility for carrying the mantra of the…

  4. Simulation Test System of Non-Contact D-dot Voltage Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Wang, Jingang; Luo, Ruixi; Gao, Can; Songnong, Li; Kongjun, Zhou

    2016-04-01

    The development trend of future voltage transformer in smart grid is non-contact measurement, miniaturization and intellectualization. This paper proposes one simulation test system of non-contact D-dot transformer for voltage measurement. This simulation test system consists of D-dot transformer, signal processing circuit and ground PC port. D-dot transformer realizes the indirect voltage measurement by measuring the change rate of electric displacement vector, a non-contact means (He et al. 2004, Principles and experiments of voltage transformer based on self-integrating D-dot probe. Proc CSEE 2014;15:2445-51). Specific to the characteristics of D-dot transformer signals, signal processing circuits with strong resistance to interference and distortion-free amplified sensor output signal are designed. WIFI wireless network is used to transmit the voltage detection to LabVIEW-based ground collection port and LabVIEW technology is adopted for signal reception, data processing and analysis and other functions. Finally, a test platform is established to simulate the performance of the whole test system of single-phase voltage transformer. Test results indicate that this voltage transformer has sound real-time performance, high accuracy and fast response speed and the simulation test system is stable and reliable and can be a new prototype of voltage transformers.

  5. The Design of Lens Imaging System by Means of Fractional Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jiannong; XU Qiang; D.R.Selviah

    2002-01-01

    The relation between the 2nd fractional Fourier transform and the imaging process of an optical system is discussed. By changing the coordinate scales of the input plane in respect to the magnification of the optical imaging system, the fractional Fourier transform can be a powerful tool in designing specific imaging system. The Gaussian imaging formula of single lens is obtained by using the tool. Finally the procedures are generalized for designing a double-lens imaging system through an example.

  6. Development of a Simplified Calculation Tool for Voltage Drop caused by Transformer Inrush in Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakachi, Yoshiki; Fukae, Takayuki; Sugahara, Toshinori; Nakamura, Hayato; Koyama, Mitsuaki; Ueda, Fukashi

    It is well known that the voltage drop due to the inrush current at energizing transformer, may at times, interrupt electrical equipment. Generally, the voltage drop is calculated by using the sophisticated tool such as EMTP, so the transformer saturation phenomenon has been properly represented. However, it is not practical for distribution system engineers to calculate the voltage drop with transformer inrush by using EMTP, because there are a lot of network access requests needing such calculations with many kinds of transformers. Therefore, in this paper, a simplified and easy-to-use calculation tool for voltage drop caused by transformer inrush in distribution system is developed. In order to grasp the voltage drop by inrush current during the planning stage, it is formulated by considering the transformer saturation/unsaturation periods in each winding type, the developed tool is based on the versatile spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel®. It can be used with accuracy almost similar to the EMTP.

  7. A Theory of Transformative Agency in Linked Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances R. Westley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the literature on leadership in linked social-ecological systems and combined it with the literature on institutional entrepreneurship in complex adaptive systems to develop a new theory of transformative agency in linked social-ecological systems. Although there is evidence of the importance of strategic agency in introducing innovation and transforming approaches to management and governance of such systems, there is no coherent theory to explain the wide diversity of strategies identified. Using Holling’s adaptive cycle as a model of phases present in innovation and transformation of resilient social-ecological systems, overlaid by Dorado’s model of opportunity context (opaque, hazy, transparent in complex adaptive systems, we propose a more coherent theory of strategic agency, which links particular strategies, on the part of transformative agents, to phases of system change.

  8. Analytic discrete cosine harmonic wavelet transform based OFDM system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M N Suma; S V Narasimhan; B Kanmani

    2015-02-01

    An OFDM based on Analytic Discrete Cosine HarmonicWavelet Transform (ADCHWT_OFDM) has been proposed in this paper. Analytic DCHWT has been realized by applying DCHWT to the original signal and to its Hilbert transform. ADCHWT has been found to be computationally efficient and very effective in improving Bit Error Rate (BER) and Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) performance. Improvement compared to that of Haar-WT OFDM and DFT OFDM is achieved without employing Cyclic Prefix BER is 0.002 for ADCHWT OFDM compared to Haar WT, DFT OFDM which have BER of 0.06 and 0.4, respectively, at 15 dB SNR. PAPR is also reduced by 3 dB compared to DFT OFDM and 0.3 dB reduction compared to Haar WT OFDM.

  9. Physiological roles of plastid terminal oxidase in plant stress responses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xin Sun; Tao Wen

    2011-12-01

    The plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) is a plastoquinol oxidase localized in the plastids of plants. It is able to transfer electrons from plastoquinone (PQ) to molecular oxygen with the formation of water. Recent studies have suggested that PTOX is beneficial for plants under environmental stresses, since it is involved in the synthesis of photoprotective carotenoids and chlororespiration, which could potentially protect the chloroplast electron transport chain (ETC) from over-reduction. The absence of PTOX in plants usually results in photo-bleached variegated leaves and impaired adaptation to environment alteration. Although PTOX level and activity has been found to increase under a wide range of stress conditions, the functions of plant PTOX in stress responses are still disputed now. In this paper, the possible physiological roles of PTOX in plant stress responses are discussed based on the recent progress.

  10. Plastid endosymbiosis, genome evolution and the origin of green plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller, John W

    2007-09-01

    Evolutionary relationships among complex, multicellular eukaryotes are generally interpreted within the framework of molecular sequence-based phylogenies that suggest green plants and animals are only distantly related on the eukaryotic tree. However, important anomalies have been reported in phylogenomic analyses, including several that relate specifically to green plant evolution. In addition, plants and animals share molecular, biochemical and genome-level features that suggest a relatively close relationship between the two groups. This article explores the impacts of plastid endosymbioses on nuclear genomes, how they can explain incongruent phylogenetic signals in molecular data sets and reconcile conflicts among different sources of comparative data. Specifically, I argue that the large influx of plastid DNA into plant and algal nuclear genomes has resulted in tree-building artifacts that obscure a relatively close evolutionary relationship between green plants and animals.

  11. Phases of the energy system transformation; Phasen der Energiesystemtransformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischedick, Manfred; Samadi, Sascha [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany); Hoffmann, Clemens [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany); Henning, Hans-Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Pregger, Thomas [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany); Leprich, Uwe [Institut fuer ZukunftsEnergieSysteme (IZES), Saarbruecken (Germany); Schmidt, Maike [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    The energy transition is an ambitious and highly complex process of transformation. This article presents eight theses that can help to better understand the challenges and to identify starting points for future action and to identify research needs. [German] Die Energiewende stellt einen ambitionierten und zugleich hochkomplexen Transformationsprozess dar. Der vorliegende Artikel stellt acht Thesen auf, die dabei helfen koennen, die Herausforderungen besser zu verstehen und Ansatzpunkte fuer zukuenftiges Handeln zu identifizieren sowie Forschungsbedarf aufzuzeigen.

  12. Entire plastid phylogeny of the carrot genus (Daucus, Apiaceae): Concordance with nuclear data and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA insertions to the plastid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, David M; Ruess, Holly; Iorizzo, Massimo; Senalik, Douglas; Simon, Philipp

    2017-02-01

    We explored the phylogenetic utility of entire plastid DNA sequences in Daucus and compared the results with prior phylogenetic results using plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. We used Illumina sequencing to obtain full plastid sequences of 37 accessions of 20 Daucus taxa and outgroups, analyzed the data with phylogenetic methods, and examined evidence for mitochondrial DNA transfer to the plastid (DcMP). Our phylogenetic trees of the entire data set were highly resolved, with 100% bootstrap support for most of the external and many of the internal clades, except for the clade of D. carota and its most closely related species D. syrticus. Subsets of the data, including regions traditionally used as phylogenetically informative regions, provide various degrees of soft congruence with the entire data set. There are areas of hard incongruence, however, with phylogenies using nuclear data. We extended knowledge of a mitochondrial to plastid DNA insertion sequence previously named DcMP and identified the first instance in flowering plants of a sequence of potential nuclear genome origin inserted into the plastid genome. There is a relationship of inverted repeat junction classes and repeat DNA to phylogeny, but no such relationship with nonsynonymous mutations. Our data have allowed us to (1) produce a well-resolved plastid phylogeny of Daucus, (2) evaluate subsets of the entire plastid data for phylogeny, (3) examine evidence for plastid and nuclear DNA phylogenetic incongruence, and (4) examine mitochondrial and nuclear DNA insertion into the plastid. © 2017 Spooner et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons public domain license (CC0 1.0).

  13. Microprocessor based protecting and monitoring system for transformer of electric furnace in nickel smelting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖力清; 曾可; 凌玉华; 杨欣荣; 陈燕辉

    2001-01-01

    In nickel smelting process, the working conditions and surroundings for the transformer of electric furnace are worse than general electric power transformer. It is difficult to meet the requirements on reliability and safety by the conventional centralized control protection. With the development of microcomputer and field-bus technology, it is necessary to design a new type of protection and monitoring system for transformer of electric furnace. A microprocessor-based protection and monitoring system was described, which uses the embedded high performance microprocessor 87C196KC20 as its most important micro-controller unit & the technology of CAN (Controller Area Network) making it a fully distributed microcomputer system not only to perform all sorts of the transformer protection and function of automatic coinciding and communicate with the monitoring host, but also to carry with it the function of protecting, measuring, and fault diagnosis for transformer of electric furnace.

  14. A high-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Kenjirou

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of rice has been routinely performed according to the protocol reported by Hiei et al. (Plant J. 6:271-282, 1994). However, several elite japonica and many indica varieties cannot be efficiently transformed by Agrobacterium system. Also a large number of transformants are required to generate T-DNA insertion and FOX libraries as well as gene-targeting studies. To overcome these challenges, we established a high-efficiency transformation system in rice by cocultivating rice calli with Agrobacterium on filter papers moistened with enriched liquid media instead of using solid media (Ozawa, Plant Sci. 176:522-527, 2009; Ozawa and Takaiwa, Plant Sci. 179:333-337, 2010). In this system, the transformation efficiency of the calli is almost 100% in many varieties.

  15. Dual Targeting and Retrograde Translocation: Regulators of Plant Nuclear Gene Expression Can Be Sequestered by Plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Krupinska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the developmental or metabolic state of plastids can trigger profound changes in the transcript profiles of nuclear genes. Many nuclear transcription factors were shown to be controlled by signals generated in the organelles. In addition to the many different compounds for which an involvement in retrograde signaling is discussed, accumulating evidence suggests a role for proteins in plastid-to-nucleus communication. These proteins might be sequestered in the plastids before they act as transcriptional regulators in the nucleus. Indeed, several proteins exhibiting a dual localization in the plastids and the nucleus are promising candidates for such a direct signal transduction involving regulatory protein storage in the plastids. Among such proteins, the nuclear transcription factor WHIRLY1 stands out as being the only protein for which an export from plastids and translocation to the nucleus has been experimentally demonstrated. Other proteins, however, strongly support the notion that this pathway might be more common than currently believed.

  16. Conformal invariance and conserved quantities of non-conservative Lagrange systems by point transformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chang; Mei Feng-Xiang; Guo Yong-Xin

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the conformal invariance by infinitesimal point transformations of non-conservative Lagrange systems. It gives the necessary and sufficient conditions of conformal invariance by the action of infinitesimal point transformations being Lie symmetric simultaneously. Then the Noether conserved quantities of conformal invariance are obtained. Finally an illustrative example is given to verify the results.

  17. Molecular transformation, gene cloning, and gene expression systems for filamentous fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Scott E.; Duick, John W.; Redman, Regina S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter discusses the molecular transformation, gene cloning, and gene expression systems for filamentous fungi. Molecular transformation involves the movement of discrete amounts of DNA into cells, the expression of genes on the transported DNA, and the sustainable replication of the transforming DNA. The ability to transform fungi is dependent on the stable replication and expression of genes located on the transforming DNA. Three phenomena observed in bacteria, that is, competence, plasmids, and restriction enzymes to facilitate cloning, were responsible for the development of molecular transformation in fungi. Initial transformation success with filamentous fungi, involving the complementation of auxotrophic mutants by exposure to sheared genomic DNA or RNA from wt isolates, occurred with low transformation efficiencies. In addition, it was difficult to retrieve complementing DNA fragments and isolate genes of interest. This prompted the development of transformation vectors and methods to increase efficiencies. The physiological studies performed with fungi indicated that the cell wall could be removed to generate protoplasts. It was evident that protoplasts could be transformed with significantly greater efficiencies than walled cells.

  18. A generalized Hirota-Satsuma coupled KdV system: Darboux transformations and reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lingling; Liu, Q. P.; Wang, Dengshan

    2016-08-01

    A Darboux transformation is constructed for the generalized Hirota-Satsuma coupled KdV system and the result is compared with the recent work of Geng and his collaborators [X. G. Geng et al., Phys. Rev. E 79, 056602 (2009) and X. G. Geng and G. L. He, J. Math. Phys. 51, 033514 (2010)]. It is shown that our Darboux transformation may be applied to three interesting reductions of the general system. In addition, the iteration of this Darboux transformation is worked out, and some solutions to the associated systems are obtained.

  19. Multisolitonic solutions from a B\\"acklund transformation for a parametric coupled Korteweg-de Vries system

    CERN Document Server

    Vega, L Cortés; Sotomayor, A

    2014-01-01

    We obtain a B\\"acklund transformation for a parametric coupled KdV system. We prove the associated permutability theorem corresponding to such transformation and we generate new multi-solitonic and periodic solutions for the system. We introduce a generalized Gardner transformation and obtain from the associated $\\varepsilon$- deformed system the infinite sequence of conserved quantities for the parametric coupled system.

  20. Intercalation of psoralen into DNA of plastid chromosomes decreases late during barley chloroplast development.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, J. P.; Thompson, R.J.; Mosig, G

    1991-01-01

    We have used a DNA crosslinking assay to measure intercalation of the psoralen derivative HMT (4'-hydroxymethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen) into barley (Hordeum vulgare) plastid chromosomal DNA during chloroplast and etioplast development. Intercalation into DNA in intact plastids in vivo and in plastid lysates in vitro shows that chromosomal DNA in the most mature chloroplasts intercalates HMT less efficiently than DNA in younger chloroplasts. In contrast, there is no change in HMT intercalati...

  1. Research about vibration characteristics of timing chain system based on short-time Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jiaxin; Liu, Ning

    2017-09-01

    Vibration characteristic of timing chain system is very important for an engine. In this study, we used a bush roller chain drive system as an example to explain how to use mulitybody dynamic techniques and short-time Fourier transform to investigate vibration characteristics of timing chain system. Multibody dynamic simulation data as chain tension force and external excitation sources curves were provided for short-time Fourier transform study. The study results of short-time Fourier transform illustrate that there are two main vibration frequency domain of timing chain system, one is the low frequency vibration caused by crankshaft sprocket velocity and camshaft sprocket torque. Another is vibration around 1000Hz lead by hydraulic tensioner. Hence, short-time Fourier transform method is useful for basic research of vibration characteristics for timing chain system.

  2. On-Line Partial Discharge Monitoring and Diagnostic System for Power Transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Du; JIANG Lei; LI Fuqi; ZHU Deheng; TAN Kexiong; WU Chengqi; JIN Xianhe; WANG Changchang; CHENG T. C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a computerized on-line partial discharge (PD) monitoring and diagnostic system for transformers. The system, which is already in use in a power station, uses wide-band active transducers and a data acquisition unit with modularized and exchangeable components. The system software is a power equipment monitoring and diagnostic system, which is based on the component object model, and was developed for monitoring multiple parameters in multiple power supply systems. The statistical characteristics of PDs in power transformers were studied using 7 experimental models for simulating PDs in transformers and 3 models for simulating interfering discharges in air. The discharge features were analyzed using a 3-D pattern chart with a three-layer back-propagation artificial neural network used to recognize the patterns. The results show that PDs in air and oil can be distinguished. The model can be used for interference rejection on-line monitoring of partial discharge in transformers.

  3. Plastidic phosphoglucomutase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase mutants impair starch synthesis in rice pollen grains and cause male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Kyu; Eom, Joon-Seob; Hwang, Seon-Kap; Shin, Dongjin; An, Gynheung; Okita, Thomas W; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2016-10-01

    To elucidate the starch synthesis pathway and the role of this reserve in rice pollen, we characterized mutations in the plastidic phosphoglucomutase, OspPGM, and the plastidic large subunit of ADP-glucose (ADP-Glc) pyrophosphorylase, OsAGPL4 Both genes were up-regulated in maturing pollen, a stage when starch begins to accumulate. Progeny analysis of self-pollinated heterozygous lines carrying the OspPGM mutant alleles, osppgm-1 and osppgm-2, or the OsAGPL4 mutant allele, osagpl4-1, as well as reciprocal crosses between the wild type (WT) and heterozygotes revealed that loss of OspPGM or OsAGPL4 caused male sterility, with the former condition rescued by the introduction of the WT OspPGM gene. While iodine staining and transmission electron microscopy analyses of pollen grains from homozygous osppgm-1 lines produced by anther culture confirmed the starch null phenotype, pollen from homozygous osagpl4 mutant lines, osagpl4-2 and osagpl4-3, generated by the CRISPR/Cas system, accumulated small amounts of starch which were sufficient to produce viable seed. Such osagpl4 mutant pollen, however, was unable to compete against WT pollen successfully, validating the important role of this reserve in fertilization. Our results demonstrate that starch is mainly polymerized from ADP-Glc synthesized from plastidic hexose phosphates in rice pollen and that starch is an essential requirement for successful fertilization in rice.

  4. Computer Aided Design of Transformer Station Grounding System Using CDEGS Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nikolovski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computer-aided design of a transformer station grounding system. Fault conditions in a transformer station can produce huge damage to transformer station equipment if the grounding system is not designed properly. A well designed grounding system is a very important part of the project for transformer station design as a whole. This paper analyses a procedure for transformer grounding system design and spatial distribution of touch and step voltage on the ground surface level, using the CDEGS (Current Distribution Electromagnetic Interference Grounding and Soil Structure Analysis software. Spatial distribution is needed for checking and finding dangerous step and touch voltages above and around the transformer station. Apparent earth resistivity data is measured and analyzed using the RESAP module of the CDEGS software. Because of the very high current flow into the grounding system during a single line to ground fault or a three phase fault in the transformer station, very high and dangerous potentials can be induced on the metallic structures including the fence, which can cause dangerous situations for people and animals near the station and for the personnel inside the station. The PLOT module of CDEGS is used to view the results of the scalar potential, step and touch voltage on the surface. Graphic displays include equipotent contour lines and potential profiles (gradients in 3D and 2D perspective and apparent soil resistivity (Wm versus inter electrode spacing (m. The results of alternative grid designs may be displayed simultaneously for the purpose of comparison.

  5. In vivo analysis of interactions between GFP-labeled microfilaments and plastid stromules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok Ernest Y

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plastid stromules are stroma-filled tubules that extend from the surface of plastids in higher plants and allow the exchange of protein molecules between plastids. These structures are highly dynamic; stromules change both their shape and position in the cytoplasm very rapidly. Previous studies with microfilament inhibitors indicated that stromule shape and movement are dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. To learn more about the nature of the interactions of stromules and the cytoskeleton, we imaged fluorescently-labeled microfilaments and plastids. Results We have used Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing green fluorescent protein fused to the human actin-binding protein talin to observe microfilaments and their relationship to stromules in vivo. Microfilaments were observed in close contact with stromules and plastid bodies of hypocotyl epidermis. Time-lapse confocal microscopy revealed that microfilament rearrangements were associated with changes in plastid and stromule morphology and position. We also observed close interactions between mitochondria and stromules in double-labeled cells. Conclusion Our results indicate a correlation between the rearrangement of microfilaments and changes in the shape and position of plastids and stromules. Stromules interact with microfilaments that may also be utilized by mitochondria and other organelles. The interaction of microfilaments and plastids is likely to be mediated by actin-binding proteins on the plastid envelope membrane.

  6. Production of high levels of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate in plastids of Camelina sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Meghna R; Yang, Wenyu; Patterson, Nii; Tang, Jihong; Wellinghoff, Rachel L; Preuss, Mary L; Burkitt, Claire; Sharma, Nirmala; Ji, Yuanyuan; Jez, Joseph M; Peoples, Oliver P; Jaworski, Jan G; Cahoon, Edgar B; Snell, Kristi D

    2015-06-01

    Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production in plastids of Camelina sativa seeds was investigated by comparing levels of polymer produced upon transformation of plants with five different binary vectors containing combinations of five seed-specific promoters for expression of transgenes. Genes encoding PHB biosynthetic enzymes were modified at the N-terminus to encode a plastid targeting signal. PHB levels of up to 15% of the mature seed weight were measured in single sacrificed T1 seeds with a genetic construct containing the oleosin and glycinin promoters. A more detailed analysis of the PHB production potential of two of the best performing binary vectors in a Camelina line bred for larger seed size yielded lines containing up to 15% polymer in mature T2 seeds. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of distinct granules of PHB in the seeds. PHB production had varying effects on germination, emergence and survival of seedlings. Once true leaves formed, plants grew normally and were able to set seeds. PHB synthesis lowered the total oil but not the protein content of engineered seeds. A change in the oil fatty acid profile was also observed. High molecular weight polymer was produced with weight-averaged molecular weights varying between 600 000 and 1 500 000, depending on the line. Select lines were advanced to later generations yielding a line with 13.7% PHB in T4 seeds. The levels of polymer produced in this study are the highest reported to date in a seed and are an important step forward for commercializing an oilseed-based platform for PHB production.

  7. Flavin nucleotide metabolism in plants: monofunctional enzymes synthesize fad in plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Francisco J; Zhang, Yi; Roje, Sanja

    2008-11-07

    FAD synthetases (EC 2.7.7.2) catalyze biosynthesis of FAD from FMN and ATP. Monofunctional FAD synthetases are known to exist in mammals and yeast; bifunctional enzymes also catalyzing phosphorylation of riboflavin to FMN are known to exist in bacteria. Previously known eukaryotic enzymes with FAD synthetase activity have no sequence similarity to prokaryotic enzymes with riboflavin kinase and FAD synthetase activities. Proteins homologous to bacterial bifunctional FAD synthetases, yet shorter and lacking amino acid motifs at the C terminus, were found by bioinformatic analyses in vascular plant genomes, suggesting that plants contain a type of FAD synthetase previously known to exist only in prokaryotes. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes two of such proteins. Both proteins, which we named AtRibF1 and AtRibF2, carry N-terminal extensions with characteristics of organellar targeting peptides. AtRibF1 and AtRibF2 cDNAs were cloned by reverse transcription-PCR. Only FAD synthetase activity was detected in the recombinant enzymes produced in Escherichia coli. FMN and ATP inhibited both enzymes. Kinetic parameters of AtRibF1 and AtRibF2 for the two substrates were similar. Confocal microscopy of protoplasts transformed with enhanced green fluorescence protein-fused proteins showed that AtRibF1 and AtRibF2 are targeted to plastids. In agreement with subcellular localization to plastids, Percoll-isolated chloroplasts from pea (Pisum sativum) synthesized FAD from imported riboflavin. Riboflavin kinase, FMN hydrolase, and FAD pyrophosphatase activities were detected in Percoll-isolated chloroplasts and mitochondria from pea. We propose from these new findings a model for subcellular distribution of enzymes that synthesize and hydrolyze flavin nucleotides in plants.

  8. Study on Calibration System for Electronic Transformers Based on High-Accuracy PCI Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With preliminary applying of Electronic Transformer (ET based on IEC 61850 standards in power grid, the calibrations of tested transformers have attracted extensive research attention. This study proposes a novel Calibration System of ET (CSET based on high-accuracy card. Data acquisition of ET and Standard Trans-former (ST is gotten by optic Ethernet and PCI-4462 data acquisition card, respectively. Meanwhile, the synchronized sampling between ET and ST is completed on the optic/electronic pulse signal of PCI synchronization card. The signals processing and human interface are realized by Labview software. The system proposed in the study is feasible for calibrating Electronic Voltage/Current Transformers (EVT/ECT of different voltage classes. System tests show that the precision of the system can get to 0.2°.

  9. Study on Calibration System for Electronic Transformers Based on High-Accuracy PCI Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With preliminary applying of Electronic Transformer (ET based on IEC 61850 standards in power grid, the calibration of tested transformers has attracted extensive research attention. This study proposes a novel Calibration System of ET (CSET based on high-accuracy card. Data acquisition of ET and standard trans-former (ST is gotten by optic Ethernet and PCI-4462 data acquisition card, respectively. Meanwhile, the synchronized sampling between ET and ST is completed on the optic/electronic pulse signal of PCI synchronization card. The signals processing and human interface are realized by Lab view software. The system proposed in the study is feasible for calibrating Electronic Voltage/Current Transformers (EVT/ECT of different voltage classes. System tests show that the precision of the system can get to 0.2°.

  10. Action-embedded transformational leadership in self-managing global information systems development teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eseryel, U. Yeliz; Eseryel, Deniz

    While software development teams are becoming more and more distributed around the globe, most software development methodologies used by global teams prescribe self-managing teams. Transformational leadership is the key to successful information systems development and use for competitive

  11. Transformation optics that mimics the system outside a Schwarzschild black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Huanyang; Miao, Rong-Xin; Li, Miao

    2009-01-01

    We applied the transformation optics to mimic a black hole of Schwarzschild form. Similar properties of photon sphere were also found numerically for the metamaterial black hole. Several reduced versions of the black hole systems were proposed for easier implementations.

  12. Some remarks on the Wigner transform and the Wigner-Poisson system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sean Bohun

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the derivation of the quantum Liouville equation and the Wigner-Poisson system (or quantum Vlasov equation from elementary quantum mechanical principles via the Wigner transformation.

  13. DYNAMICS MODEL OF MOISTURE IN PAPER INSULATION-TRANSFORMER OIL SYSTEM IN NON-STATIONARY THERMAL MODES OF THE POWER TRANSFORMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Vasilevskij

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An important problem in power transformers resource prognosis is the formation of moisture dynamics trends of transformer insulation. Purpose. Increasing the accuracy of power transformer insulation resource assessment based on accounting of moisture dynamics in interrelation with temperature dynamics. Working out of moisture dynamics model in paper insulation-transformer oil system in conjunction with thermodynamic model, load model and technical maintenance model. Methodology. The mathematical models used for describe the moisture dynamics are grounded on nonlinear differential equations. Interrelation moisture dynamics model with thermodynamic, load and technical maintenance models described by UML model. For confirming the adequacy of model used computer simulation. Results. We have implemented the model of moisture dynamics in power transformers insulation in interrelation with other models, which describe the state of power transformer in operation. The proposed model allows us to form detailed trends of moisture dynamics in power transformers insulation basing on monitoring data or power transformers operational factors simulation results. We have performed computer simulation of moisture exchange processes and calculation of transformer insulation resource for different moisture trends. Originality. The offered model takes into account moisture dynamics in power transformers insulation under the influence of changes of the power transformers thermal mode and operational factors. Practical value. The offered model can be used in power transformers monitoring systems for automation of resource assessment of oil-immersed power transformers paper insulation at different phase of lifecycle. Model also can be used for assessment of projected economic efficiency of power transformers exploitation in projected operating conditions.

  14. Transformations of ray transferences of optical systems to augmented Hamiltonian matrices and the problem of the average system

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    The first-order optical nature of an optical system (including an eye) is completely characterized by a 55 ×  matrix called the ray transference.  It is known  that the image of a ray transference by the matrix logarithm function is an augmented Hamiltonian matrix.  It turns out that there are other ways of transforming transferences into augmented Hamiltonian matrices.  They include Cayley transforms and modified Cayley transforms.  This paper will describe these transforms with a view to fi...

  15. Discrete Spectral Transformations of Skew Orthogonal Polynomials and Associated Discrete Integrable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Miki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Discrete spectral transformations of skew orthogonal polynomials are presented. From these spectral transformations, it is shown that the corresponding discrete integrable systems are derived both in 1+1 dimension and in 2+1 dimension. Especially in the (2+1-dimensional case, the corresponding system can be extended to 2×2 matrix form. The factorization theorem of the Christoffel kernel for skew orthogonal polynomials in random matrix theory is presented as a by-product of these transformations.

  16. Reform of the United Nations and Transformation of the International System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The reform of the United Nations is closely related with the transformation of the International system. The United Nations has made great success since it started a comprehensive reform in 2005. Such a reform is necessary both for the transition of the largest international organization in the world and transformation of the international system. The United Nations still has a long way to go in the comprehensive reform because of many factors.

  17. Phylogeny of nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted GAPDH gene supports separate origins for the peridinin- and the fucoxanthin derivative-containing plastids of dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takishita, Kiyotaka; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2004-12-01

    Although most photosynthetic dinoflagellates have plastids with peridinin, the three dinoflagellate genera Karenia, Karlodinium, and Takayama possess anomalously pigmented plastids that contain fucoxanthin and its derivatives (19'-hexanoyloxy-fucoxanthin and 19'-butanoyloxy-fucoxanthin) instead of the peridinin. This pigment composition is similar to that of haptophytes. All peridinin-containing dinoflagellates investigated so far have at least two types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH): cytosolic and plastid-targeted forms. In the present study, we cloned and sequenced genes encoding cytosolic and plastid-targeted GAPDH proteins from three species of the fucoxanthin derivative-containing dinoflagellates. Based on the molecular phylogeny, the plastid-targeted GAPDH genes of the fucoxanthin derivative-containing dinoflagellates were closely related to those of haptophyte algae rather than to the peridinin-containing dinoflagellates, while one of several cytosolic versions from the peridinin- and the fucoxanthin derivative-containing dinoflagellates are closely related to each other. Considering a previously reported theory that the plastid-targeted GAPDH from the peridinin-containing dinoflagellates originated by a gene duplication of the cytosolic form before the splitting of the dinoflagellate lineage, it is highly likely that the plastid-targeted GAPDH gene of the peridinin-containing dinoflagellates is original in this algal group and that in the fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates, the original plastid-targeted GAPDH was replaced by that of a haptophyte endosymbiont during a tertiary endosymbiosis. The present results strongly support the hypothesis that the plastids of the peridinin- and the fucoxanthin derivative-containing dinoflagellates are of separate origin.

  18. The impact of photovoltaic systems on distribution transformer: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Humberto; Gonzalez, Raul; Huacuz, Jorge; Lagunas, Javier [IIE, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62091 (Mexico). Non-Conventional Energy Sources Department; Calleja, Hugo [Cenidet, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62050 (Mexico). Electronics Department

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, the results obtained after monitoring a distribution transformer during an 18 months period are described and discussed. The transformer fed several households, each with a grid connected photovoltaic system, and it was found that the power factor at the transformer attained unusually low levels. This was due to the fact that under some conditions, the systems provided a large portion of the active power demanded by the households, while the grid supplied all the reactive and distortion powers. The operating temperature was used as an indicator of the stress on the transformer. The temperature was at its lowest when the systems were providing the maximum energy available from the solar cells. (author)

  19. Phase transformation in the alumina-titania system during flash sintering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, S.K.; Lebrun, J.M.; Raj, R. (Colorado)

    2016-02-01

    We show that phase transformation in the alumina–titania system, which produces aluminum-titanate, follows an unusual trajectory during flash sintering. The experiments begin with mixed powders of alumina–titania and end in dense microstructures that are transformed into aluminum-titanate. The sintering and the phase transformation are separated in time, with the sintering occurs during Stage II, and phase transformation during Stage III of the flash sintering experiment. Stage III is the steady-state condition of flash activated state that is established under current control, while Stage II is the period of transition from voltage to current control. The extent of phase transformation increases with the current density and the hold time in Stage III.

  20. Optimisation of Transmission Systems by use of Phase Shifting Transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verboomen, J.

    2008-10-13

    In this thesis, transmission grids with PSTs (Phase Shifting Transformers) are investigated. In particular, the following goals are put forward: (a) The analysis and quantification of the impact of a PST on a meshed grid. This includes the development of models for the device; (b) The development of methods to obtain optimal coordination of several PSTs in a meshed grid. An objective function should be formulated, and an optimisation method must be adopted to solve the problem; and (c) The investigation of different strategies to use a PST. Chapter 2 gives a short overview of active power flow controlling devices. In chapter 3, a first step towards optimal PST coordination is taken. In chapter 4, metaheuristic optimisation methods are discussed. Chapter 5 introduces DC load flow approximations, leading to analytically closed equations that describe the relation between PST settings and active power flows. In chapter 6, some applications of the methods that are developed in earlier chapters are presented. Chapter 7 contains the conclusions of this thesis, as well as recommendations for future work.

  1. Frequency Transformation in the Auditory Lemniscal Thalamocortical System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo eImaizumi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The auditory lemniscal thalamocortical (TC pathway conveys information from the ventral division of the medial geniculate body to the primary auditory cortex (A1. Although their general topographic organization has been well characterized, functional transformations at the lemniscal TC synapse still remain incompletely codified, largely due to the need for integration of functional anatomical results with the variability observed with various animal models and experimental techniques. In this review, we discuss these issues with classical approaches, such as in vivo extracellular recordings and tracer injections to physiologically identified areas in A1, and then compare these studies with modern approaches, such as in vivo two-photon calcium imaging, in vivo whole-cell recordings, optogenetic methods, and in vitro methods using slice preparations. A surprising finding from a comparison of classical and modern approaches is the similar degree of convergence from thalamic neurons to single A1 neurons and clusters of A1 neurons, although, thalamic convergence to single A1 neurons is more restricted areas within putative thalamic frequency lamina. These comparisons suggest that frequency convergence from thalamic input to A1 is functionally limited. Finally, we consider synaptic organization of TC projections and future directions for research.

  2. A FAMILY OF INTEGRABLE SYSTEMS OF LIOUVILLE AND LAX REPRESENTATION, DARBOUX TRANSFORMATIONS FOR ITS CONSTRAINED FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉峰; 张鸿庆

    2002-01-01

    A family of integrable systems of Liouville are obtained by Tu pattern. Using higher-order potential-eigenfunction constraints, the integrable systems are factorized to two x- and tn-integrable Hamiltonian systems whose Lax representation and three kinds of Darboux transformations are presented.

  3. Model Transformers for Dynamical Systems of Dynamic Epistemic Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendsvig, Rasmus Kræmmer

    2015-01-01

    I artiklen tages et dynamisk system-perspektiv på dynamisk epistemisk logik, og undersøger opdateringskraften af forskellige måder at definere evolutionsafbildninger på.......I artiklen tages et dynamisk system-perspektiv på dynamisk epistemisk logik, og undersøger opdateringskraften af forskellige måder at definere evolutionsafbildninger på....

  4. Surprises of the Transformer as a Coupled Oscillator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J. P.; Silvestre, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    We study a system of two RLC oscillators coupled through a variable mutual inductance. The system is interesting because it exhibits some peculiar features of coupled oscillators: (i) there are two natural frequencies; (ii) in general, the resonant frequencies do not coincide with the natural frequencies; (iii) the resonant frequencies of both…

  5. [Development of genetic transformation system of Valsa mali of apple mediated by PEG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Li, Yanbo; Ke, Xiwang; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2011-09-01

    The genetic transformation of Valsa mali var. mali was developed by PEG-mediated protoplasts transformation. It was transformed by PEG-induced fusion of protoplasts. The plasmid pBIG2RHPH2-GFP-GUS carrying hph gene was used and Valsa mali var. mali 03-8 isolate was used as the host strain. At 50 mg/mL driselase + 10 mg/mL lysing enzymes concentration, the mycelium of Valsa mali var. mali cultured in YEPD medium for 48 h was hydrolyzed in 10 mL enzymes liquid /0.5 g wet mycelium for 2 h. The protoplast yield was 4 x 10(7) CFU/mg. The transformation efficiency was 44 per g DNA. Analysis of the transformants by PCR and Southern blotting showed that the selectable marker gene hph was integrated effectively into the genome of Valsa mali var. mali. After 5 subculturing on PDA, 87.5% transformants could grow. This stability test of transformants suggested that the foreign gene hph was stable in heredity. This transformation system is a valuable and important tool for the further study of the pathogenic gene of Valsa mali.

  6. Alteration of the interconversion of pyruvate and malate in the plastid or cytosol of ripening tomato fruit invokes diverse consequences on sugar but similar effects on cellular organic acid, metabolism, and transitory starch accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Sonia; Vallarino, José G; Szecowka, Marek; Ufaz, Shai; Tzin, Vered; Angelovici, Ruthie; Galili, Gad; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of decreased cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and plastidic NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ripening. Transgenic tomato plants with strongly reduced levels of PEPCK and plastidic NADP-ME were generated by RNA interference gene silencing under the control of a ripening-specific E8 promoter. While these genetic modifications had relatively little effect on the total fruit yield and size, they had strong effects on fruit metabolism. Both transformants were characterized by lower levels of starch at breaker stage. Analysis of the activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase correlated with the decrease of starch in both transformants, which suggests that it is due to an altered cellular redox status. Moreover, metabolic profiling and feeding experiments involving positionally labeled glucoses of fruits lacking in plastidic NADP-ME and cytosolic PEPCK activities revealed differential changes in overall respiration rates and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux. Inactivation of cytosolic PEPCK affected the respiration rate, which suggests that an excess of oxaloacetate is converted to aspartate and reintroduced in the TCA cycle via 2-oxoglutarate/glutamate. On the other hand, the plastidic NADP-ME antisense lines were characterized by no changes in respiration rates and TCA cycle flux, which together with increases of pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities indicate that pyruvate is supplied through these enzymes to the TCA cycle. These results are discussed in the context of current models of the importance of malate during tomato fruit ripening.

  7. Integrative transformation system for the metabolic engineering of the sphingoid base-producing yeast Pichia ciferrii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jung-Hoon; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Park, Chang-Seo; Rhee, Joon-Shick; Choi, Eui-Sung

    2003-02-01

    We have developed an integrative transformation system for metabolic engineering of the tetraacetyl phytosphingosine (TAPS)-secreting yeast Pichia ciferrii. The system uses (i) a mutagenized ribosomal protein L41 gene of P. ciferrii as a dominant selection marker that confer resistance to the antibiotic cycloheximide and (ii) a ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragment of P. ciferrii as a target for multicopy gene integration into the chromosome. A locus within the nontranscribed region located between 5S and 26S rDNAs was selected as the integration site. A maximum frequency of integrative transformation of approximately 1,350 transformants/ microg of DNA was observed. To improve the de novo synthesis of sphingolipid, the LCB2 gene, encoding a subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase, which catalyzes the first committed step of sphingolipid synthesis, was cloned from P. ciferrii and overexpressed under the control of the P. ciferrii glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. After transformation of an LCB2 gene expression cassette, several transformants that contained approximately five to seven copies of transforming DNA in the chromosome and exhibited about 50-fold increase in LCB2 mRNA relative to the wild type were identified. These transformants were observed to produce approximately two times more TAPS than the wild type.

  8. Socioemotional Transformations in the Family System Following Infant Crawling Onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Joseph J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined the possibility that relations in the family system are affected when infants begin to crawl. Parents' expressions of prohibition and anger, and their use of physical punishment, increased after infants began to crawl. (BG)

  9. Amoeba Management System Transformation in the Light of Organisational Change Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Wieslaw

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is the system of amoebas founded originally in Japanese Kyocera. The study aims to identify milestones of the transformation in a company organisational system to the Amoeba Management System (AMS. The study takes a conceptual research approach. It starts from the analysis of available sources on the AMS, identifies the most challenging points of this system, and afterwards, based on organisational change literature, formulates the main steps of transformation towards AMS. The following milestones of AMS implementation emerge from organisational change theories: (1 the preparation for AMS, (2 the change of organisational structure, (3 the design and introduction of a new accounting system, (4 the introduction of inner prices between amoebas, and (5 the transformation of the organisational culture. At the end of the study, the most important issues for future research are listed.

  10. Endosymbiosis undone by stepwise elimination of the plastid in a parasitic dinoflagellate

    KAUST Repository

    Gornik, Sebastian G.

    2015-04-20

    Organelle gain through endosymbiosis has been integral to the origin and diversification of eukaryotes, and, once gained, plastids and mitochondria seem seldom lost. Indeed, discovery of nonphotosynthetic plastids in many eukaryotes - notably, the apicoplast in apicomplexan parasites such as the malaria pathogen Plasmodium - highlights the essential metabolic functions performed by plastids beyond photosynthesis. Once a cell becomes reliant on these ancillary functions, organelle dependence is apparently difficult to overcome. Previous examples of endosymbiotic organelle loss (either mitochondria or plastids), which have been invoked to explain the origin of eukaryotic diversity, have subsequently been recognized as organelle reduction to cryptic forms, such as mitosomes and apicoplasts. Integration of these ancient symbionts with their hosts has been too well developed to reverse. Here, we provide evidence that the dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp., a marine parasite of crustaceans, represents a rare case of endosymbiotic organelle loss by the elimination of the plastid. Extensive RNA and genomic sequencing data provide no evidence for a plastid organelle, but, rather, reveal a metabolic decoupling from known plastid functions that typically impede organelle loss. This independence has been achieved through retention of ancestral anabolic pathways, enzyme relocation from the plastid to the cytosol, and metabolic scavenging from the parasite\\'s host. Hematodinium sp. thus represents a further dimension of endosymbiosis-life after the organelle. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

  11. Combined heat shock protein 90 and ribosomal RNA sequence phylogeny supports multiple replacements of dinoflagellate plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Minge, Marianne A; Cavalier-Smith, Tom; Nedreklepp, Joachim M; Klaveness, Dag; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2006-01-01

    Dinoflagellates harbour diverse plastids obtained from several algal groups, including haptophytes, diatoms, cryptophytes, and prasinophytes. Their major plastid type with the accessory pigment peridinin is found in the vast majority of photosynthetic species. Some species of dinoflagellates have other aberrantly pigmented plastids. We sequenced the nuclear small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of the "green" dinoflagellate Gymnodinium chlorophorum and show that it is sister to Lepidodinium viride, indicating that their common ancestor obtained the prasinophyte (or other green alga) plastid in one event. As the placement of dinoflagellate species that acquired green algal or haptophyte plastids is unclear from small and large subunit (LSU) rRNA trees, we tested the usefulness of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 gene for dinoflagellate phylogeny by sequencing it from four species with aberrant plastids (G. chlorophorum, Karlodinium micrum, Karenia brevis, and Karenia mikimotoi) plus Alexandrium tamarense, and constructing phylogenetic trees for Hsp90 and rRNAs, separately and together. Analyses of the Hsp90 and concatenated data suggest an ancestral origin of the peridinin-containing plastid, and two independent replacements of the peridinin plastid soon after the early radiation of the dinoflagellates. Thus, the Hsp90 gene seems to be a promising phylogenetic marker for dinoflagellate phylogeny.

  12. Fluorescent protein aided insights on plastids and their extensions: A critical appraisal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eDelfosse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-coloured fluorescent proteins targeted to plastids have provided new insights on the dynamic behaviour of these organelles and their interactions with other cytoplasmic components and compartments. Sub-plastidic components such as thylakoids, stroma, the inner and outer membranes of the plastid envelope, nucleoids, plastoglobuli and starch grains have been efficiently highlighted in living plant cells. In addition, stroma filled membrane extensions called stromules have drawn attention to the dynamic nature of the plastid and its interactions with the rest of the cell. Use of dual and triple fluorescent protein combinations has begun to reveal plastid interactions with mitochondria, the nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum and F-actin and suggests integral roles of plastids in retrograde signalling, cell to cell communication as well as plant-pathogen interactions. While the rapid advances and insights achieved through fluorescent protein based research on plastids are commendable it is necessary to endorse meaningful observations but subject others to closer scrutiny. Here, in order to develop a better and more comprehensive understanding of plastids and their extensions we provide a critical appraisal of recent information that has been acquired using targeted fluorescent protein probes.

  13. Chimeric origins of ochrophytes and haptophytes revealed through an ancient plastid proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrell, Richard G; Gile, Gillian; McCallum, Giselle; Méheust, Raphaël; Bapteste, Eric P; Klinger, Christen M; Brillet-Guéguen, Loraine; Freeman, Katalina D; Richter, Daniel J; Bowler, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Plastids are supported by a wide range of proteins encoded within the nucleus and imported from the cytoplasm. These plastid-targeted proteins may originate from the endosymbiont, the host, or other sources entirely. Here, we identify and characterise 770 plastid-targeted proteins that are conserved across the ochrophytes, a major group of algae including diatoms, pelagophytes and kelps, that possess plastids derived from red algae. We show that the ancestral ochrophyte plastid proteome was an evolutionary chimera, with 25% of its phylogenetically tractable nucleus-encoded proteins deriving from green algae. We additionally show that functional mixing of host and plastid proteomes, such as through dual-targeting, is an ancestral feature of plastid evolution. Finally, we detect a clear phylogenetic signal from one ochrophyte subgroup, the lineage containing pelagophytes and dictyochophytes, in plastid-targeted proteins from another major algal lineage, the haptophytes. This may represent a possible serial endosymbiosis event deep in eukaryotic evolutionary history. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23717.001 PMID:28498102

  14. Characterization of the plastid-specific germination and seedling establishment transcriptional programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarsy, E; Buhr, F; Lambert, E; Lerbs-Mache, S

    2012-01-01

    Upon imbibition, dry seeds rapidly gain metabolic activity and the switching on of a germination-specific transcriptional programme in the nucleus goes ahead, with the induction of many nucleus-encoded transcripts coding for plastid-localized proteins. Dedifferentiated plastids present in dry seeds differentiate into chloroplasts in cotyledons and into amyloplasts in the root and in the hypocotyl, raising the question of whether the beginning of a new plant's life cycle is also characterized by specific changes in the plastid transcriptional programme. Here the plastid transcriptome is characterized during imbibition/stratification, germination, and early seedling outgrowth. It is shown that each of these three developmental steps is characterized by specific changes in the transcriptome profile, due to differential activities of the three plastid RNA polymerases and showing the integration of plastids into a germination-specific transcriptional programme. All three RNA polymerases are active during imbibition; that is, at 4 °C in darkness. However, activity of plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) is restricted to the rrn operon. After cold release, PEP changes specificity by also transcribing photosynthesis-related genes. The period of germination and radicle outgrowth is further characterized by remarkable antisense RNA production that diminishes during greening when photosynthesis-related mRNAs accumulate to their highest but to very different steady-state levels. During stratification and germination mRNA accumulation is not paralleled by protein accumulation, indicating that plastid transcription is more important for efficient germination than translation.

  15. Origin and the embryonic transformations of vertebrate heart conducting system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tverdokhleb I.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As the embryonic structure, the cardiac conduction system must continue to develop in a coordinated manner at all embryonic stages. This requires not only the formation of distinct components of the conduction system, but the integration of these components into a functioning whole. The development of the chambered heart and a conduction system requires the proper arrangement of a number of embryonic building blocks, comprising inflow tract, atria, atrioventricular canal, compact and trabecular ventricular myocardium, and outflow tract. In the mammalian heart, the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes will aggregate in the slow-conducting inflow tract and atrioventricular canal. The ventricular conduction system may develop in its entirety from the trabecular ventricular myocardium, the remodeling of which results in a gradual transition toward the compact myocardium. So the development of the conduction system does not require the invention of new building components but a remodeling of existing components. Many details in the fashioning of the embryonic blocks of the heart into the conduction system of the formed heart still need to be worked out. The factors that specify the cardiac building blocks and regulate their coordinated morphogenesis have remained largely unknown. Their identification will benefit from combined molecular, genetic, and morphological approaches.

  16. Enhancement of islanding-detection of distributed generation systems via wavelet transform-based approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Tao [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan 70101 (China); Lin, Jeu-Min [Department of Electrical Engineering, Far Eat University, Tainan 70101 (China); Huang, Shyh-Jier [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101 (China)

    2008-12-15

    In this paper, a wavelet transform-based approach is proposed to detect the occurrence of islanding events in distributed generation systems. Thanks to time-frequency localization capabilities exhibited by wavelet transform, the approach embedded with this transform technique has grasped the appearance of the islanding event in a highly effective manner. Moreover, for those regions which are in need of a better visualization, the proposed approach would serve as an efficient aid such that the mains power disconnection can be better distinguished. To validate the feasibility of this approach, the method has been validated through several scenarios. Test results supported the effectiveness of the method for the application considered. (author)

  17. Multistep epsilon-algorithm, Shanks' transformation, and Lotka-Volterra system by Hirota's method

    CERN Document Server

    Brezinski, Claude; Hu, Xing-Biao; Redivo-Zaglia, Michela; Sun, Jian-Qing

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give a multistep extension of the epsilon-algorithm of Wynn, and we show that it implements a multistep extension of the Shanks' sequence transformation which is defined by ratios of determinants. Reciprocally, the quantities defined in this transformation can be recursively computed by the multistep epsilon-algorithm. The multistep epsilon-algorithm and the multistep Shanks' transformation are related to an extended discrete Lotka-Volterra system. These results are obtained by using the Hirota's bilinear method, a procedure quite useful in the solution of nonlinear partial differential and difference equations.

  18. Linear-algebraic bath transformation for simulating complex open quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Huh, Joonsuk; Fujita, Takatoshi; Yung, Man-Hong; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-01-01

    In studying open quantum systems, the environment is often approximated as a collection of non-interacting harmonic oscillators, a configuration also known as the star-bath model. It is also well known that the star-bath can be transformed into a nearest-neighbor interacting chain of oscillators. The chain-bath model has been widely used in renormalization group approaches. The transformation can be obtained by recursion relations or orthogonal polynomials. Based on a simple linear algebraic approach, we propose a bath partition strategy to reduce the system-bath coupling strength. As a result, the non-interacting star-bath is transformed into a set of weakly-coupled multiple parallel chains. The transformed bath model allows complex problems to be practically implemented on quantum simulators, and it can also be employed in various numerical simulations of open quantum dynamics.

  19. Coordinate System And Coordinate Transformations Based On Wave Nature Of Light

    CERN Document Server

    Yagan, M F

    2006-01-01

    The Classical Coordinate System is geometrical by nature with time being an external variable. Constructing a classical coordinate system employs a point-like signal with infinite speed. In Special Relativity Theory the speed is limited but the signal is a point-like particle (photon). If the oscillatory nature of light is considered, an event in absolute space is to be characterized by three coordinates namely, distance, time and phase. The Galilean transformation equations for space and time coordinates should be complemented by a third equation that accounts for the phase transformation. Wave equation remains invariant under such transformation and kinematical equivalence of inertial reference frames is conserved. Lorentz transforms apply to wave length and wave period of the exchanged light signal in a dynamic set-up.

  20. Real-Valued Discrete Gabor Transform of Linear Time-Varying Systems: Exact Representation and Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Liang; LUO Bin

    2005-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for the representation and approximation of linear time-varying systems is presented via the fast real-valued discrete Gabor transform. Compared with the existing algorithm based on the traditional complex-valued discrete Gabor transform, the proposed algorithm runs faster, can more easily be implemented in software or hardware, and leads to a more compact representation. Simulation results are given for demonstration.

  1. USTOPIA Requirements -- Thoughts on a User-friendly System for Transformation Of Programs In Abstracto

    OpenAIRE

    Boiten, Eerke Albert; van den Brand, M.G.J.; Diepen, N.W.P.; Koster, C.H.A.; Partsch, H.A.; Völker, N.

    1992-01-01

    E.A. Boiten , http://adam.fwi.uva.nl/~markvdb/ , http://www.sci.kun.nl/cgi-bin-thalia/smoelfind?medewerkers/niekd.html , http://www.sci.kun.nl/cgi-bin-thalia/smoelfind?medewerkers/kees.html , http://www.informatik.uni-ulm.de/pm/mitarbeiter/helmuth.html & http://www.fernuni-hagen.de/DVT/Mitarbeiter/voelker.html : USTOPIA Requirements - Thoughts on a User-friendly System for Transformation Of Programs In Abstracto Transformational programming is a program development method which is usually...

  2. USTOPIA Requirements -- Thoughts on a User-friendly System for Transformation Of Programs In Abstracto

    OpenAIRE

    Boiten, Eerke Albert; van den Brand, M.G.J.; Diepen, N.W.P. van; Koster, C.H.A.; Partsch, H.A.; Völker, N.

    1992-01-01

    E.A. Boiten , http://adam.fwi.uva.nl/~markvdb/ , http://www.sci.kun.nl/cgi-bin-thalia/smoelfind?medewerkers/niekd.html , http://www.sci.kun.nl/cgi-bin-thalia/smoelfind?medewerkers/kees.html , http://www.informatik.uni-ulm.de/pm/mitarbeiter/helmuth.html & http://www.fernuni-hagen.de/DVT/Mitarbeiter/voelker.html : USTOPIA Requirements - Thoughts on a User-friendly System for Transformation Of Programs In Abstracto Transformational programming is a program development method which is usually...

  3. Plastid-bearing sea slugs fix CO2 in the light but do not require photosynthesis to survive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christa, Gregor; Zimorski, Verena; Woehle, Christian; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Wägele, Heike; Martin, William F; Gould, Sven B

    2014-01-01

    Several sacoglossan sea slugs (Plakobranchoidea) feed upon plastids of large unicellular algae. Four species--called long-term retention (LtR) species--are known to sequester ingested plastids within specialized cells of the digestive gland. There, the stolen plastids (kleptoplasts) remain photosynt

  4. Plastid-bearing sea slugs fix CO2 in the light but do not require photosynthesis to survive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Christa (Gregor); V. Zimorski (Verena); C. Woehle (Christian); A.G.M. Tielens (Aloysius); H. Wägele (Heike); W. Martin (William); D.B. Gould (Douglas )

    2013-01-01

    textabstractSeveral sacoglossan sea slugs (Plakobranchoidea) feed upon plastids of large unicellular algae. Four species-called long-term retention (LtR) species-are known to sequester ingested plastids within specialized cells of the digestive gland. There, the stolen plastids (kleptoplasts) remain

  5. Whole mitochondrial and plastid genome SNP analysis of nine date palm cultivars reveals plastid heteroplasmy and close phylogenetic relationships among cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal S M Sabir

    Full Text Available Date palm is a very important crop in western Asia and northern Africa, and it is the oldest domesticated fruit tree with archaeological records dating back 5000 years. The huge economic value of this crop has generated considerable interest in breeding programs to enhance production of dates. One of the major limitations of these efforts is the uncertainty regarding the number of date palm cultivars, which are currently based on fruit shape, size, color, and taste. Whole mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences were utilized to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of date palms to evaluate the efficacy of this approach for molecular characterization of cultivars. Mitochondrial and plastid genomes of nine Saudi Arabian cultivars were sequenced. For each species about 60 million 100 bp paired-end reads were generated from total genomic DNA using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. For each cultivar, sequences were aligned separately to the published date palm plastid and mitochondrial reference genomes, and SNPs were identified. The results identified cultivar-specific SNPs for eight of the nine cultivars. Two previous SNP analyses of mitochondrial and plastid genomes identified substantial intra-cultivar ( = intra-varietal polymorphisms in organellar genomes but these studies did not properly take into account the fact that nearly half of the plastid genome has been integrated into the mitochondrial genome. Filtering all sequencing reads that mapped to both organellar genomes nearly eliminated mitochondrial heteroplasmy but all plastid SNPs remained heteroplasmic. This investigation provides valuable insights into how to deal with interorganellar DNA transfer in performing SNP analyses from total genomic DNA. The results confirm recent suggestions that plastid heteroplasmy is much more common than previously thought. Finally, low levels of sequence variation in plastid and mitochondrial genomes argue for using nuclear SNPs for

  6. RNase P RNA from the Recently Evolved Plastid of Paulinella and from Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Bernal-Bayard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The RNase P RNA catalytic subunit (RPR encoded in some plastids has been found to be functionally defective. The amoeba Paulinella chromatophora contains an organelle (chromatophore that is derived from the recent endosymbiotic acquisition of a cyanobacterium, and therefore represents a model of the early steps in the acquisition of plastids. In contrast with plastid RPRs the chromatophore RPR retains functionality similar to the cyanobacterial enzyme. The chromatophore RPR sequence deviates from consensus at some positions but those changes allow optimal activity compared with mutated chromatophore RPR with the consensus sequence. We have analyzed additional RPR sequences identifiable in plastids and have found that it is present in all red algae and in several prasinophyte green algae. We have assayed in vitro a subset of the plastid RPRs not previously analyzed and confirm that these organelle RPRs lack RNase P activity in vitro.

  7. Large-scale phylogenomic analyses indicate a deep origin of primary plastids within cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuolo, Alexis; Gribaldo, Simonetta

    2011-11-01

    The emergence of photosynthetic eukaryotes has played a crucial role in evolution and has strongly modified earth's ecology. Several phylogenetic analyses have established that primary plastids arose from a cyanobacterium through endosymbiosis. However, the question of which present-day cyanobacterial lineage is most closely related to primary plastids has been unclear. Here, we have performed an extensive phylogenomic investigation on the origin of primary plastids based on the analysis of up to 191 protein markers and over 30,000 aligned amino acid sites from 22 primary photosynthetic eukaryotes and 61 cyanobacteria representing a wide taxonomic sampling of this phylum. By using a number of solutions to circumvent a large range of systematic errors, we have reconstructed a robust global phylogeny of cyanobacteria and studied the placement of primary plastids within it. Our results strongly support an early emergence of primary plastids within cyanobacteria, prior to the diversification of most present-day cyanobacterial lineages for which genomic data are available.

  8. Development of Active Noise Control System for Quieting Transformer Noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bok Kyu; Song, Seik Young; Choi, Huo Yul [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Dae Hea; Lee, Hyuk Jae [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The passive noise control technique made use of sound-absorbing or soundproofing materials, so it required a large area and high cost for installation and had a drawback of poor performance at low frequency. Compared to this, the Active Noise Control attenuates noise sound pressure by using secondary source which has same performance ay low-frequency. Furthermore, it is able to save space and expenses. - research on adaptive algorithms - evaluation of global attenuation of the control - computer simulation - real-time Active Noise Control System Hardware Implementation - ANC system setting in the noisy area.

  9. Development of Active Noise Control System for Quieting Transformer Noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bok Kyu; Song, Seik Young; Choi, Huo Yul [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Dae Hea; Lee, Hyuk Jae [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The passive noise control technique made use of sound-absorbing or soundproofing materials, so it required a large area and high cost for installation and had a drawback of poor performance at low frequency. Compared to this, the Active Noise Control attenuates noise sound pressure by using secondary source which has same performance ay low-frequency. Furthermore, it is able to save space and expenses. - research on adaptive algorithms - evaluation of global attenuation of the control - computer simulation - real-time Active Noise Control System Hardware Implementation - ANC system setting in the noisy area.

  10. Transformations of ray transferences of optical systems to augmented Hamiltonian matrices and the problem of the average system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Cardoso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The first-order optical nature of an optical system (including an eye is completely characterized by a 55 ×  matrix called the ray transference.  It is known  that the image of a ray transference by the matrix logarithm function is an augmented Hamiltonian matrix.  It turns out that there are other ways of transforming transferences into augmented Hamiltonian matrices.  They include Cayley transforms and modified Cayley transforms.  This paper will describe these transforms with a view to finding the most suitable one for quantitative analyses of eyes and other systems in augmented Hamiltonian spaces.  In particular we look at the calculation of average systems.

  11. The coordinate system transformation of a serial kinematic structures and use in the derivation of systems motion equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zátopek Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This text discusses the use of transformation matrices to determine the motion equations of the complex mechanical structure. Use of the transformation matrix does not apply only to motion equations but has the general use in relative positions determine of objects in the 3D space. Analysed model is divided into seven physical objects, the transformation matrix and the corresponding inertia/pseudo-inertia matrix is included in each of them. This matrices are strictly necessary to the system dynamic description using the matrix form of Lagrange Equations of the Second Type. Another possibility to use the transformation matrix is shown in the camera system measurement. Model was designed in 3D CAD system SolidWorks, MATLAB was used for the mathematical calculations.

  12. Transforming System Engineering through Model-Centric Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-18

    Resilient System Conceptual Representation of Environment [63] - Enhanced.... 26 Figure 13. Measurement Collection Instrument...Model- Based Enterprise [81], which brings in more focus on manufacturability. The concept characterized as Digital Thread2 envisions a frameworks ...that merges physics- based models generated by the discipline engineers during the detailed design process with MBSE’s conceptual and top-level

  13. Transforming Graphical System Models to Graphical Attack Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof;

    2016-01-01

    Manually identifying possible attacks on an organisation is a complex undertaking; many different factors must be considered, and the resulting attack scenarios can be complex and hard to maintain as the organisation changes. System models provide a systematic representation of organisations that...

  14. Observability analysis of nonlinear systems using pseudo-linear transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawano, Yu; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    In the linear control theory, the observability Popov-Belevitch-Hautus (PBH) test plays an important role in studying observability along with the observability rank condition and observability Gramian. The observability rank condition and observability Gramian have been extended to nonlinear system

  15. Transforming graphical system models to graphical attack models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof; Kammüller, Florian; Mauw, S.; Kordy, B.

    2015-01-01

    Manually identifying possible attacks on an organisation is a complex undertaking; many different factors must be considered, and the resulting attack scenarios can be complex and hard to maintain as the organisation changes. System models provide a systematic representation of organisations that he

  16. A polarized digital shearing speckle pattern interferometry system based on temporal wavelet transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ziang; Gao, Zhan; Zhang, Xiaoqiong; Wang, Shengjia; Yang, Dong; Yuan, Hao; Qin, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Digital shearing speckle pattern interferometry (DSSPI) has been recognized as a practical tool in testing strain. The DSSPI system which is based on temporal analysis is attractive because of its ability to measure strain dynamically. In this paper, such a DSSPI system with Wollaston prism has been built. The principles and system arrangement are described and the preliminary experimental result of the displacement-derivative test of an aluminum plate is shown with the wavelet transformation method and the Fourier transformation method. The simulations have been conducted with the finite element method. The comparison of the results shows that quantitative measurement of displacement-derivative has been realized.

  17. Effects of Hospital Systems on Medical Home Transformation in Primary Care Residency Training Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Kyle; Hall, Tristen; Fernald, Douglas; Staff, Thomas J; Buscaj, Emilie; Allen, Jessica Cornett; Onysko, Mary; Dickinson, W Perry

    2016-11-23

    Most primary care residency training practices have close financial and administrative relationships with teaching hospitals and health systems. Many residency practices have begun integrating the core principles of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) into clinical workflows and educational experiences. Little is known about how the relationships with hospitals and health systems affect these transformation efforts. Data from the Colorado Residency PCMH Project were analyzed. Results show that teaching hospitals and health systems have significant opportunities to influence residency practices' transformation, particularly in the areas of supporting team-based care, value-based payment reforms, and health information technology.

  18. Combining discrete cosine transform with clipping for PAPR reduction in intensity-modulated OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-peng; Chen, Shou-fa; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Ming; Tang, Jin; Chen, Lin

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal is reduced by combining the discrete cosine transform (DCT) with clipping in optical intensity-modulated direct-detection (IM/DD) OFDM systems. First, the data are transformed into new modified data by DCT. Second, the proposed scheme utilizes the clipping technique to further reduce the PAPR of OFDM signal. We experimentally demonstrate that the optical OFDM transmission system with this proposed scheme can achieve significant performance improvement in terms of PAPR and bit error rate (BER) compared with the original optical OFDM systems.

  19. Accelerated evolution of functional plastid rRNA and elongation factor genes due to reduced protein synthetic load after the loss of photosynthesis in the chlorophyte alga Polytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, D; Gutell, R R; Cannone, J J; Rumpf, R W; Birky, C W

    2001-09-01

    Polytoma obtusum and Polytoma uvella are members of a clade of nonphotosynthetic chlorophyte algae closely related to Chlamydomonas humicola and other photosynthetic members of the Chlamydomonadaceae. Descended from a nonphotosynthetic mutant, these obligate heterotrophs retain a plastid (leucoplast) with a functional protein synthetic system, and a plastid genome (lpDNA) with functional genes encoding proteins required for transcription and translation. Comparative studies of the evolution of genes in chloroplasts and leucoplasts can identify modes of selection acting on the plastid genome. Two plastid genes--rrn16, encoding the plastid small-subunit rRNA, and tufA, encoding elongation factor Tu--retain their functions in protein synthesis after the loss of photosynthesis in two nonphotosynthetic Polytoma clades but show a substantially accelerated rate of base substitution in the P. uvella clade. The accelerated evolution of tufA is due, at least partly, to relaxed codon bias favoring codons that can be read without wobble, mainly in three amino acids. Selection for these codons may be relaxed because leucoplasts are required to synthesize fewer protein molecules per unit time than are chloroplasts (reduced protein synthetic load) and thus require a lower rate of synthesis of elongation factor Tu. Relaxed selection due to a lower protein synthetic load is also a plausible explanation for the accelerated rate of evolution of rrn16, but the available data are insufficient to test the hypothesis for this gene. The tufA and rrn16 genes in Polytoma oviforme, the sole member of a second nonphotosynthetic clade, are also functional but show no sign of relaxed selection.

  20. Driving Energy System Transformation with "Vehicle-to-Grid" Power

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, F

    2006-01-01

    Today's electricity and transport systems face a number of challenges related to reliability, security and environmental sustainability. New technologies may provide a means by which to overcome some of these challenges, yet many such technologies are confronted with substantial technical or commercial hurdles. This report explores one promising technology, "Vehicle-to-Grid" (V2G) power generation, whereby parked Electric-Drive Vehicles (EDVs) are used to provide electricity to the grid. EDV...

  1. Are wildcard events on infrastructure systems opportunities for transformational change?

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, C. L.; Glendinning, S; Castan Broto, V.; Dewberry, E.; Powell, M

    2015-01-01

    Infrastructure systems face a number of pressing challenges relating to demographics, environment, finance and governance pressures. Furthermore, infrastructure mediates the way in which everyday lives are conducted; their form and function creating a persistence of unsustainable practice and behaviour that cannot be changed even if change is desired. There is a need to find means by which this obduracy can be broken so that new, more sustainable futures can be planned. This paper develops a ...

  2. Power System Transformation toward Renewables: Investment Scenarios for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We analyze distinctive investment scenarios for the integration of fluctuating renewables in the German power system. Using a combined model for dispatch, transmission, and investment, three different investment options are considered, including gas-fired power plants, pumped hydro storage, and transmission lines. We find that geographically optimized power plant investments dominate in the reference scenarios for 2024 and 2034. In scenarios with decreasedrenewable curtailment, storage and tr...

  3. The slash-and-burn agriculture: a system in transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Novaes Pedroso Júnior

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Slash-and-burn agriculture has been practiced for thousands of years in the forests around the world, especially in the tropics, where it provides for the livelihood of countless poor rural populations. Characterized by an array of techniques based on crop diversification and shifting land use, this cultivation system has on the utilization of forest decomposing vegetation´s energetic capital its main asset. Many studies claim that slash-and-burn agriculture is sustainable only when performed under conditions of low human demographic density and maintenance or even increase of local biodiversity. However, it is growing in the academic literature, as well as in development debates, the concern regarding the role that this system has been playing in the deforestation of the planet´s tropical forests. This process appears to be closely linked to changes in land use patterns (agricultural intensification and urban and rural demographic growth. On the thread of these concerns, this article presents a critical review of the international and national academic literature on slash-and-burn agriculture. Thus, this review intend to draw a broad scenario of the current academic debate on this issue, as well as to identify the main alternatives strategies proposed to maintain or replace this cultivation system.

  4. Subcellular immunocytochemical analysis detects the highest concentrations of glutathione in mitochondria and not in plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmann, B; Mauch, F; Sticher, L; Müller, M

    2008-01-01

    The tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant and redox buffer with multiple roles in plant metabolism. Glutathione biosynthesis is restricted to the cytosol and the plastids and the product is distributed to the various organelles by unknown mechanisms. In the present study immunogold cytochemistry based on anti-glutathione antisera and transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the relative concentration of glutathione in different organelles of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf and root cells. Glutathione-specific labelling was detected in all cellular compartments except the apoplast and the vacuole. The highest glutathione content was surprisingly not found in plastids, which have been described before as a major site of glutathione accumulation, but in mitochondria which lack the capacity for glutathione biosynthesis. Mitochondria of both leaf and root cells contained 7-fold and 4-fold, respectively, higher glutathione levels than plastids while the density of glutathione labelling in the cytosol, nuclei, and peroxisomes was intermediate. The accuracy of the glutathione labelling is supported by two observations. First, pre-adsorption of the anti-glutathione antisera with glutathione reduced the density of the gold particles in all organelles to background levels. Second, the overall glutathione-labelling density was reduced by about 90% in leaves of the glutathione-deficient Arabidopsis mutant pad2-1 and increased in transgenic plants with enhanced glutathione accumulation. Hence, there was a strong correlation between immunocytochemical and biochemical data of glutathione accumulation. Interestingly, the glutathione labelling of mitochondria in pad2-1 remained very similar to wild-type plants thus suggesting that the high mitochondrial glutathione content is maintained in a situation of permanent glutathione-deficiency at the expense of other glutathione pools. High and constant levels of glutathione in mitochondria appear to be particularly

  5. Maternal inheritance of plastids and mitochondria in Cycas L. (Cycadaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhi-Rong; Li, Nan; Qian, Dan; Jin, Jian-Hua; Chen, Tao

    2011-12-01

    Cycas is often considered a living fossil, thereby providing a unique model for revealing the evolution of spermatophytes. To date, the genetic inheritance of these archaic plants is not fully understood. The present study seeks to document the process of organelle inheritance in an interspecific cross of Cycas species. Extranuclear organelle DNA from chloroplasts and mitochondria was analyzed using both polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and microscopy. Here, we show that the chloroplasts and mitochondria in the progeny of interspecific crosses between Cycas taitungensis and Cycas ferruginea were exclusively inherited from the female parent. Epifluorescence microscopic analyses of the pollen cells from Cycas elongata indicated that there was a significant degradation of organelle DNA in male reproductive cells following maturation; the DNA fluorescent signals were only seen after pollen mitosis two, but not detectable at mature stage. Lack of organelle DNA fluorescent signal in prothallial cells was confirmed by the absence of plastids and mitochondria in electronic microscopic images. In conclusion, these data suggest that the maternal plastid and mitochondrial inheritance in Cycas, native to the old world, are the same as seen in seed plants.

  6. A sea slug’s guide to plastid symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan de Vries

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Some 140 years ago sea slugs that contained chlorophyll-pigmented granules similar to those of plants were described. While we now understand that these “green granules” are plastids the slugs sequester from siphonaceous algae upon which they feed, surprisingly little is really known about the molecular details that underlie this one of a kind animal-plastid symbiosis. Kleptoplasts are stored in the cytosol of epithelial cells that form the slug’s digestive tubules, and one would guess that the stolen organelles are acquired for their ability to fix carbon, but studies have never really been able to prove that. We also do not know how the organelles are distinguished from the remaining food particles the slugs incorporate with their meal and that include algal mitochondria and nuclei. We know that the ability to store kleptoplasts long-term has evolved only a few times independently among hundreds of sacoglossan species, but we have no idea on what basis. Here we take a closer look at the history of sacoglossan research and discuss recent developments. We argue that, in order to understand what makes this symbiosis work, we will need to focus on the animal’s physiology just as much as we need to commence a detailed analysis of the plastids’ photobiology. Understanding kleptoplasty in sacoglossan slugs requires an unbiased multidisciplinary approach.

  7. The Transformation of Ergonomic Affordances into Cultural Affordances: The Case of the Alnuset System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to study the ergonomic affordances offered by a system designed for educational aims and their transformation into cultural affordances? To this purpose, what references can we adopt? This work describes the theoretical framework used to realise this study referring to AlNuSet, a system realised within the EC ReMath project to…

  8. The Relationship between Chief Information Officer Transformational Leadership and Computing Platform Operating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, George W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to relate the strength of Chief Information Officer (CIO) transformational leadership behaviors to 1 of 5 computing platform operating systems (OSs) that may be selected for a firm's Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) business system. Research shows executive leader behaviors may promote innovation through the use of…

  9. The Relationship between Chief Information Officer Transformational Leadership and Computing Platform Operating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, George W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to relate the strength of Chief Information Officer (CIO) transformational leadership behaviors to 1 of 5 computing platform operating systems (OSs) that may be selected for a firm's Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) business system. Research shows executive leader behaviors may promote innovation through the use of…

  10. Establishment of Genetic Transformation System for Miscanthus sacchariflorus and Obtaining of Its Transgenic Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zili(易自力); Zhou Puhua; Chu Chengcai; Li Xiang; Tian Wenzhong; Wang Li; Cao Shouyun; Tang Zuoshun

    2004-01-01

    The initiation and regeneration system for embryogenic callus of Miscanthus sacchariflrus is established at very high frequency. Potato proteinaseⅡ(pinⅡ) genes are introduced into the callus of Miscanthus sacchariflorus and some transgenic plants are obtained by the particle bombardment transformation system. PCR and Southern analysis show that target genes are integrated into the genome of these transgenic plants.

  11. Transformation of value system of the Ukrainian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmanko Oleh Volodymyrovych

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies the trends in development of the Ukrainian youth’s value system in transit Ukrainian society. The author also reveals that in present conditions, when post-Soviet stereotypes have not gone back and the new European standards are not yet firmly established, there is danger of alienation value and filling this gap with negative elements. At the same time the course of studies marked a tendency to increase the civic awareness of the younger generation, patriotism, tolerance, respect for freedoms and rights.

  12. Concordium 2015: Strategic Uses of Evidence to Transform Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holve, Erin; Weiss, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015 the EDM Forum hosted AcademyHealth's newest national conference, Concordium. The 11 papers featured in the eGEMs "Concordium 2015" special issue successfully reflect the major themes and issues discussed at the meeting. Many of the papers address informatics or methodological approaches to natural language processing (NLP) or text analysis, which is indicative of the importance of analyzing text data to gain insights into care coordination and patient-centered outcomes. Perspectives on the tools and infrastructure requirements that are needed to build learning health systems were also recurrent themes.

  13. An Agrobacterium mediated transformation system of guava (Psidium guajava L. with endochitinase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Mishra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Genetic transformation of guava (Psidium guajava L. was developed for the first time using in vitro grown shoot tip explant cocultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring binary vector pIIHR-JBMch with endochitinase and nptII genes. The highest transformation efficiency was achieved by wounding explants with tungsten particles (0.5 µm through particle acceleration system, followed by infection for 45 minutes with A. tumefaciens, grown overnight with 100 µM acetosyringone, corresponding to OD600=0.5 followed by co-cultivation for 72 hours under dark condition on co-cultivation medium (MS+100 µM acetosyringone+100 mg L-1 L-Cystein. Putative transformed explants regenerated shoots on selection medium stressed with 200 mg L-1 kanamycin for 12 weeks. Molecular analysis of putative transformants by PCR confirmed the integration of endochitinase and nptII gene in the plant nuclear genome

  14. Rejection of Linear FM Interference in DSSS System Based on Fractional Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Lin; TAO Ran; ZHOU Si-yong

    2005-01-01

    A new method for the rejection of linear frequency modulation (LFM) interference in direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) system based on the fractional Fourier transform is proposed, and the configuration of the receiver with an interference exciser is also presented. Based on the property that the fractional Fourier transform of a signal is equivalent to rotating the signal in the time-frequency plane, the received signal is transform into a certain fractional Fourier domain, this transform will result in the least spectrum overlap between the signal and interference. Then, a narrowband filter is exploited to extract most of the interference energy. The performance analyses show that remarkable improvements in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and biterror-ratio (BER) are obtained.

  15. NASA's Space Launch System: A Transformative Capability for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Cook, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Currently making rapid progress toward first launch in 2018, NASA's exploration-class Space Launch System (SLS) represents a game-changing new spaceflight capability, enabling mission profiles that are currently impossible. Designed to launch human deep-space missions farther into space than ever before, the initial configuration of SLS will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), and will send NASA's new Orion crew vehicle into lunar orbit. Plans call for the rocket to evolve on its second flight, via a new upper stage, to a more powerful configuration capable of lofting 105 t to LEO or comanifesting additional systems with Orion on launches to the lunar vicinity. Ultimately, SLS will evolve to a configuration capable of delivering more than 130 t to LEO. SLS is a foundational asset for NASA's Journey to Mars, and has been recognized by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group as a key element for cooperative missions beyond LEO. In order to enable human deep-space exploration, SLS provides unrivaled mass, volume, and departure energy for payloads, offering numerous benefits for a variety of other missions. For robotic science probes to the outer solar system, for example, SLS can cut transit times to less than half that of currently available vehicles, producing earlier data return, enhancing iterative exploration, and reducing mission cost and risk. In the field of astrophysics, SLS' high payload volume, in the form of payload fairings with a diameter of up to 10 meters, creates the opportunity for launch of large-aperture telescopes providing an unprecedented look at our universe, and offers the ability to conduct crewed servicing missions to observatories stationed at locations beyond low Earth orbit. At the other end of the spectrum, SLS opens access to deep space for low-cost missions in the form of smallsats. The first launch of SLS will deliver beyond LEO 13 6U smallsat payloads, representing multiple

  16. NASA's Space Launch System: A Transformative Capability for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Cook, Jerry; Hitt, David

    2016-01-01

    Currently making rapid progress toward first launch in 2018, NASA's exploration-class Space Launch System (SLS) represents a game-changing new spaceflight capability, enabling mission profiles that are currently impossible. Designed to launch human deep-space missions farther into space than ever before, the initial configuration of SLS will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), and will send NASA's new Orion crew vehicle into lunar orbit. Plans call for the rocket to evolve on its second flight, via a new upper stage, to a more powerful configuration capable of lofting 105 tons to LEO or co-manifesting additional systems with Orion on launches to the lunar vicinity. Ultimately, SLS will evolve to a configuration capable of delivering more than 130 tons to LEO. SLS is a foundational asset for NASA's Journey to Mars, and has been recognized by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group as a key element for cooperative missions beyond LEO. In order to enable human deep-space exploration, SLS provides unrivaled mass, volume, and departure energy for payloads, offering numerous benefits for a variety of other missions. For robotic science probes to the outer solar system, for example, SLS can cut transit times to less than half that of currently available vehicles, producing earlier data return, enhancing iterative exploration, and reducing mission cost and risk. In the field of astrophysics, SLS' high payload volume, in the form of payload fairings with a diameter of up to 10 meters, creates the opportunity for launch of large-aperture telescopes providing an unprecedented look at our universe, and offers the ability to conduct crewed servicing missions to observatories stationed at locations beyond low Earth orbit. At the other end of the spectrum, SLS opens access to deep space for low-cost missions in the form of smallsats. The first launch of SLS will deliver beyond LEO 13 6-unit smallsat payloads

  17. Discrete Multiwavelet Critical-Sampling Transform-Based OFDM System over Rayleigh Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A. Dawood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete multiwavelet critical-sampling transform (DMWCST has been proposed instead of fast Fourier transform (FFT in the realization of the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system. The proposed structure further reduces the level of interference and improves the bandwidth efficiency through the elimination of the cyclic prefix due to the good orthogonality and time-frequency localization properties of the multiwavelet transform. The proposed system was simulated using MATLAB to allow various parameters of the system to be varied and tested. The performance of DMWCST-based OFDM (DMWCST-OFDM was compared with that of the discrete wavelet transform-based OFDM (DWT-OFDM and the traditional FFT-based OFDM (FFT-OFDM over flat fading and frequency-selective fading channels. Results obtained indicate that the performance of the proposed DMWCST-OFDM system achieves significant improvement compared to those of DWT-OFDM and FFT-OFDM systems. DMWCST improves the performance of the OFDM system by a factor of 1.5–2.5 dB and 13–15.5 dB compared with the DWT and FFT, respectively. Therefore the proposed system offers higher data rate in wireless mobile communications.

  18. Precipitate-Coacervate Transformation in Polyelectrolyte-Mixed Micelle Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comert, Fatih; Nguyen, Duy; Rushanan, Marguerite; Milas, Peker; Xu, Amy Y; Dubin, Paul L

    2017-05-04

    The polycation/anionic-nonionic mixed micelle, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-sodium dodecyl sulfate/Triton X-100 (PDADMAC-SDS/TX100), is a model polyelectrolyte-colloid system in that the micellar mole fraction of SDS (Y) controls the micelle surface charge density, thus modulating the polyelectrolyte-colloid interaction. The exquisite temperature dependence of this system provides an important additional variable, controlling both liquid-liquid (L-L) and liquid-solid (L-S) phase separation, both of which are driven by the entropy of small ion release. In order to elucidate these transitions, we applied high-precision turbidimetry (±0.1 %), isothermal titration calorimetry, and epifluorescence microscopy which demonstrates preservation of micelle structure under all conditions. The L-S region at large Y including precipitation displays a remarkable linear, inverse Y-dependence of the L-S transition temperature Ts. In sharp contrast, the critical temperature for L-L coacervation Tφ, shows nearly symmetrical effects of positive and negative deviations in Y from the point of soluble complex neutrality, which is controlled in solution by the micelle charge and the number of micelles bound per polymer chain n (Zcomplex = Zpolymer + nZmicelle). In solid-like states, n no longer signifies the number of micelles bound per polymer chain, since the proximity of micelles inverts the host-guest relationship with each micelle binding multiple PE chains. This intimate binding goes hand-in-hand with the entropy of release of micelle-localized charge-compensating ions whose concentration depends on Y. These ions need not be released in L-L coacervation, but during L-S transition their displacement by PE accounts for the inverse dependence of Ts on micelle charge, Y.

  19. Perspective loads of transformer substations at development of urban power supply systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Guseva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In work the system approach to formation of the urban power supply system is given. The hierarchical structure of the construction, voltage levels and load densities is considered. The mathematical and geometrical modeling of service areas for transformer substations of diff erent voltage is fulfi lled. Determination of perspective loads of transformer substations is given. The method of graphic placement of transformer substations in the city territory for new substations at existing structure of networks is off ered. The calculation program Microsoft EXCEL and the graphic program AutoCad are used for realization of method. The method allows fi nding a rational decision for the development of urban power supply system on the beginning design stages in conditions of the information uncertainty.

  20. Mechanism of Occurring Over-Voltage Phenomena in Distributed Power System on Energization of Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakachi, Yoshiki; Ueda, Fukashi; Kajikawa, Takuya; Amau, Tooru; Kameyama, Hirokazu; Ito, Hisanori

    This paper verifies the mechanism of occurring over voltage phenomena in the distributed power system on energizing the transformer. This over-voltage, which is observed at the actual distributed power system, with heavy inrush current is found to occur at about 0.1-0.2sec after the energizing and continue for a duration of more than 0.1[sec]. There is a concern that this over-voltage may operate the protection relay and deteriorate the insulation of apparatus. It is basically caused by the resonance between the shunt capacitors and saturated/unsaturated magnetizing inductance of transformer, system inductance. By using analytical formulation of a simple equivalent circuit, its mechanism has been verified through simulations carried out by using EMTP. Moreover, the sympathetic interaction between transformers is prolonged the duration of the over-voltage by the field test data is discussed in this paper.

  1. Transformation research for a sustainable energy system. Contributions; Transformationsforschung fuer ein nachhaltiges Energiesystem. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadermann, Gerd; Szczepanski, Petra; Wunschick, Franziska; Martin, Niklas (comps.)

    2012-03-15

    Within the 2011 annual meeting of the Renewable Energy Research Association (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) from 12th to 13th October 2011, the following lectures were held: (1) Environmentally safe and socially compatible transformation of energy systems (G. Schuette); (2) Open questions on the transformation of energy systems (E. Weber); (3) System analysis on the transformation of energy systems up to 2050 (J. Schmid); (4) Economic aspects: Chances, markets and workplaces (F. Staiss); (5) Perspectives for an interplay of energy efficiency and renewable energy resources as well as their implementation in the energy system (A. Bett); (6) New accents of research promotion for a more rapid development of renewable energy sources (K. Deller); (7) The 6th Energy Research Program of the Federal Government (R. Tryfonidou); (8) Recommendations of the FVEE for the research policy of the Research Government (G. Sadermann); (9) How can research and politics promote the system transformation (M. Hustedt); (10) The energy system of tomorrow - Strategies and research for the transformation of high amounts of renewable energy resources (W. Duerrschmidt); (11) Long-term strategies for the development of renewable energies in Germany (J. Nitsch); (12) Development of storage capacities for an efficient power generation by renewable energy resources in Germany and Europe by 2050 (Y. Scholz); (13) Prognoses of temporal and spatial variability of renewable energy resources (B. Lange); (14) Smart Grids - Transformation of our electrical energy supply (G. Ebert); (15) Model regions for intelligently networked energy systems; (16) Cities and concepts of neighbourhood - model cities (D. Schmidt); (17) Transformation of the German power system to a decentral regenerative economy (U. Leprich); (18) Alteration of the general conditions for new incentive models, heat acts, restoration of buildings (M. Schmidt); (19) Acceptance and participation research on energy sustainability (P

  2. Ultrastructural transformations in the cytoplasm of differentiating Hyacinthus orientalis L. pollen cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Bednarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sequence of ultrastructural changes in the cytoplasm during the successive stages of pollen grain development in Hyacinthus orientulis pollen cells was studied. The cytoplasmic transformations of the generative cell included the elimination of plastids, increase in the number of mitochondria, assumption of a spindle shape with the aid of microtubules and the characteristic development of the vacuole system with the formation of so-called colored bodies. The cytoplasmic transformations of the generative cell encompassed changes in the plastids, which began to accumulate starch soon after the cell was formed, then released it shortly before anthesis, an increase in the number of mitochondria and an increase in the number of highly active dictyosomes just before anthesis. Changes in the structure of the border region between the differentiating pollen cells were associated mainly with the periodical appearance of a callose wall and the presence of lysosome-like bodies in the cytoplasm of the vegetative cell surrounding the generative cell. They arose soon after the disappearance of the callose wall and disappeared shortly before anthesis.

  3. AtSIG6 and other members of the sigma gene family jointly but differentially determine plastid target gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia eBock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants contain a nuclear gene family for plastid sigma factors, i.e. proteins that associate with the bacterial-type organellar RNA polymerase and confer the ability for correct promoter binding and transcription initiation. Questions that are still unresolved relate to the division of labour among members of the sigma family, both in terms of their range of target genes and their temporal and spatial activity during development. Clues to the in vivo role of individual sigma genes have mainly come from studies of sigma knockout lines. Despite its obvious strengths, however, this strategy does not necessarily trace-down causal relationships between mutant phenotype and a single sigma gene, if other family members act in a redundant and/or compensatory manner. We made efforts to reduce the complexity by genetic crosses of Arabidopsis single mutants (with focus on a chlorophyll-deficient sig6 line to generate double knockout lines. The latter typically had a similar visible phenotype as the parental lines, but tended to be more strongly affected in the transcript patterns of both plastid and sigma genes. Because triple mutants were lethal under our growth conditions, we exploited a strategy of transformation of single and double mutants with RNAi constructs that contained sequences from the unconserved sigma region (UCR. These RNAi/knockout lines phenotypically resembled their parental lines, but were even more strongly affected in their plastid transcript patterns. Expression patterns of sigma genes revealed both similarities and differences compared to the parental lines, with transcripts at reduced or unchanged amounts and others that were found to be present in higher (perhaps compensatory amounts. Together, our results reveal considerable flexibility of gene activity at the levels of both sigma and plastid gene expression. A (still viable basal state seems to be reached, if 2 - 3 of the 6 Arabidopsis sigma genes are functionally compromised.

  4. AtSIG6 and other members of the sigma gene family jointly but differentially determine plastid target gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Sylvia; Ortelt, Jennifer; Link, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Plants contain a nuclear gene family for plastid sigma factors, i.e., proteins that associate with the "bacterial-type" organellar RNA polymerase and confer the ability for correct promoter binding and transcription initiation. Questions that are still unresolved relate to the "division of labor" among members of the sigma family, both in terms of their range of target genes and their temporal and spatial activity during development. Clues to the in vivo role of individual sigma genes have mainly come from studies of sigma knockout lines. Despite its obvious strengths, however, this strategy does not necessarily trace-down causal relationships between mutant phenotype and a single sigma gene, if other family members act in a redundant and/or compensatory manner. We made efforts to reduce the complexity by genetic crosses of Arabidopsis single mutants (with focus on a chlorophyll-deficient sig6 line) to generate double knockout lines. The latter typically had a similar visible phenotype as the parental lines, but tended to be more strongly affected in the transcript patterns of both plastid and sigma genes. Because triple mutants were lethal under our growth conditions, we exploited a strategy of transformation of single and double mutants with RNAi constructs that contained sequences from the unconserved sigma region (UCR). These RNAi/knockout lines phenotypically resembled their parental lines, but were even more strongly affected in their plastid transcript patterns. Expression patterns of sigma genes revealed both similarities and differences compared to the parental lines, with transcripts at reduced or unchanged amounts and others that were found to be present in higher (perhaps compensatory) amounts. Together, our results reveal considerable flexibility of gene activity at the levels of both sigma and plastid gene expression. A (still viable) "basal state" seems to be reached, if 2-3 of the 6 Arabidopsis sigma genes are functionally compromised.

  5. Transforming mental health and substance abuse data systems in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Rosanna M; Buck, Jeffrey A; Kassed, Cheryl A; Dilonardo, Joan; Forhan, Carol; Marder, William D; Vandivort-Warren, Rita

    2008-11-01

    State efforts to improve mental health and substance abuse service systems cannot overlook the fragmented data systems that reinforce the historical separateness of systems of care. These separate systems have discrete approaches to treatment, and there are distinct funding streams for state mental health, substance abuse, and Medicaid agencies. Transforming mental health and substance abuse services in the United States depends on resolving issues that underlie separate treatment systems--access barriers, uneven quality, disjointed coordination, and information silos across agencies and providers. This article discusses one aspect of transformation--the need for interoperable information systems. It describes current federal and state initiatives for improving data interoperability and the special issue of confidentiality associated with mental health and substance abuse treatment data. Some achievable steps for states to consider in reforming their behavioral health data systems are outlined. The steps include collecting encounter-level data; using coding that is compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, including national provider identifiers; forging linkages with other state data systems and developing unique client identifiers among systems; investing in flexible and adaptable data systems and business processes; and finding innovative solutions to the difficult confidentiality restrictions on use of behavioral health data. Changing data systems will not in itself transform the delivery of care; however, it will enable agencies to exchange information about shared clients, to understand coordination problems better, and to track successes and failures of policy decisions.

  6. Study on the Characteristics of Loosely Coupled Transformer in Inductive Power Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruizhen Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of non-contact loosely coupled transformer of transmission method was proposed based on the principle of electromagnetic, thus to solve the problems of signal transmission in boring machine processing non-cylinder piston pin hole system. In this study, the factors that influence loosely coupled transformer characteristics are discussed, including coil position and air gap. Then, their influences are detailed presented by means of ANSYS simulation. Furthermore, choose appropriate coil position structure and air gap provides the reliable theory basis for non-contact power transfer system transmission.

  7. A Population Health Approach to System Transformation for Children's Healthy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Paul H; Sood, Aradhana Bela

    2016-04-01

    What if the goal of child health services was not "merely" treating, or even preventing, childhood diseases and disorders, but was expanded to that of promoting children's optimal healthy development? Pediatrics has evolved from an exclusive focus on the treatment of illness to the opportunity to promote children's healthy development. This evolution has profound implications for the content of child health services and programs, for system transformation, and for public policy. Enhanced understanding of the impact of social determinants on children's health and developmental outcomes underscores the importance of an evolving framework for system transformation with key policy implications.

  8. Lightning effects on distribution transformers and reliability of power distribution systems in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aranguren

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Failure rates of rural power systems are statistically studied based on lightning parameters and a two-state weather model (normal and adverse. Lightning information is matched with geographical coordinates of 251,024 power transformers in a vast area in Central Colombia. An important portion of transformers present failure rates 45 times higher than normal, and very large overhead lines, representing a high portion of the total system, present very high failure rates over 75 times higher than in normal weather conditions.

  9. The Global Uncertainty as a Sign of the Transformation of Socio-Economic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkodinа Iryna V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined that the transformation of socio-economic system is related with an increase in uncertainty, as the usual functional linkages are no longer operational as a result of the emergence of new institutions and interdependencies, leading to complication or replacement of an institutional structure. The article allocates and considers the main phenomena that are fundamentally changing the systemic properties of the contemporary socio-economic system (information technology, networked economy, decentralization of power, virtual economy, sharing economy, non-market production, system of universal basic income, etc., and thus result is transformation of the market economy (capitalism as a model of public organization. A new macro-economy, based on other laws than classical, is emerging. It is therefore necessary to make more active use of economic science, because there is a need to study the profound socio-economic foundations of the transformation of economic systems, for regardless of the extent of transformation (further complication of market-economy institutions or a radical change in the social-economic system, the global peace will not return to the «past» institutional models.

  10. Color information verification system based on singular value decomposition in gyrator transform domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq

    2014-06-01

    A new color image security system based on singular value decomposition (SVD) in gyrator transform (GT) domains is proposed. In the encryption process, a color image is decomposed into red, green and blue channels. Each channel is independently modulated by random phase masks and then separately gyrator transformed at different parameters. The three gyrator spectra are joined by multiplication to get one gray ciphertext. The ciphertext is separated into U, S, and V parts by SVD. All the three parts are individually gyrator transformed at different transformation angles. The three encoded information can be assigned to different authorized users for highly secure verification. Only when all the authorized users place the U, S, and V parts in correct multiplication order in the verification system, the correct information can be obtained with all the right keys. In the proposed method, SVD offers one-way asymmetrical decomposition algorithm and it is an optimal matrix decomposition in a least-square sense. The transformation angles of GT provide very sensitive additional keys. The pre-generated keys for red, green and blue channels are served as decryption (private) keys. As all the three encrypted parts are the gray scale ciphertexts with stationary white noise distributions, which have camouflage property to some extent. These advantages enhance the security and robustness. Numerical simulations are presented to support the viability of the proposed verification system.

  11. Stable Membrane-Association of mRNAs in Etiolated, Greening and Mature Plastids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legen, Julia; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Chloroplast genes are transcribed as polycistronic precursor RNAs that give rise to a multitude of processing products down to monocistronic forms. Translation of these mRNAs is realized by bacterial type 70S ribosomes. A larger fraction of these ribosomes is attached to chloroplast membranes. This study analyzed transcriptome-wide distribution of plastid mRNAs between soluble and membrane fractions of purified plastids using microarray analyses and validating RNA gel blot hybridizations. To determine the impact of light on mRNA localization, we used etioplasts, greening plastids and mature chloroplasts from Zea mays as a source for membrane and soluble extracts. The results show that the three plastid types display an almost identical distribution of RNAs between the two organellar fractions, which is confirmed by quantitative RNA gel blot analyses. Furthermore, they reveal that different RNAs processed from polycistronic precursors show transcript-autonomous distribution between stroma and membrane fractions. Disruption of ribosomes leads to release of mRNAs from membranes, demonstrating that attachment is likely a direct consequence of translation. We conclude that plastid mRNA distribution is a stable feature of different plastid types, setting up rapid chloroplast translation in any plastid type. PMID:28858216

  12. Dinoflagellate nuclear SSU rRNA phylogeny suggests multiple plastid losses and replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga, J F; Taylor, F J; Keeling, P J; Cavalier-Smith, T

    2001-09-01

    Dinoflagellates are a trophically diverse group of protists with photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic members that appears to incorporate and lose endosymbionts relatively easily. To trace the gain and loss of plastids in dinoflagellates, we have sequenced the nuclear small subunit rRNA gene of 28 photosynthetic and four non-photosynthetic species, and produced phylogenetic trees with a total of 81 dinoflagellate sequences. Patterns of plastid gain, loss, and replacement were plotted onto this phylogeny. With the exception of the apparently early-diverging Syndiniales and Noctilucales, all non-photosynthetic dinoflagellates are very likely to have had photosynthetic ancestors with peridinin-containing plastids. The same is true for all dinoflagellates with plastids other than the peridinin-containing plastid: their ancestors have replaced one type of plastid for another, in some cases most likely through a non-photosynthetic intermediate. Eight independent instances of plastid loss and three of replacement can be inferred from existing data, but as more non-photosynthetic lineages are characterized these numbers will surely grow.

  13. Conformal Invariance of Higher-Order Lagrange Systems by Lie Point Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei-Li; CAI Jian-Le

    2011-01-01

    Conformal invariance and conserved quantities for a higher-order Lagrange system by Lie point transformation of groups are studied. The differential equation of motion for the higher-order Lagrange system is introduced. The definition of conformal invariance for the system together with its determining equations and conformal factor are provided. The necessary and sufficient condition that the system's conformal invariance would be Lie symmetry by the infinitesimal one-parameter point transformation group is deduced. The conserved quantity of the system is derived using the structural equation satisfied by the gauge function. An example of a higher-order mechanical system is offered to illustrate the application of the result.%Conformal invariance and conserved quantities for a higher-order Lagrange system by Lie point transformation of groups are studied.The differential equation of motion for the higher-order Lagrange system is introduced.The definition of conformal invariance for the system together with its determining equations and conformal factor are provided.The necessary and sufficient condition that the system's conformal invariance would be Lie symmetry by the infinitesimal one-parameter point transformation group is deduced.The conserved quantity of the system is derived using the structural equation satisfied by the gauge function.An example of a higher-order mechanical system is offered to illustrate the application of the result.Since the Noether theorem was published in 1918,[1] the symmetry and conserved quantity for a dynamical system play important roles in the fields of modern science and technology,and some important results have been gained so far.[2-21] Conformal invariance is a modern method for finding conserved quantities.In 1997,Galiullin etal.[22] studied conformal invariance of Birkhoff systems under special infinitesimal transformations.In recent years,we have discussed the conformal invariance of Lie symmetry for Lagrange systems

  14. Evolutionary aspects of plastid proteins involved in transcription: the transcription of a tiny genome is mediated by a complicated machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Yusuke; Shiina, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Chloroplasts in land plants have a small genome consisting of only 100 genes encoding partial sets of proteins for photosynthesis, transcription and translation. Although it has been thought that chloroplast transcription is mediated by a basically cyanobacterium-derived system, due to the endosymbiotic origin of plastids, recent studies suggest the existence of a hybrid transcription machinery containing non-bacterial proteins that have been newly acquired during plant evolution. Here, we highlight chloroplast-specific non-bacterial transcription mechanisms by which land plant chloroplasts have gained novel functions.

  15. Establishment of a high efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Kenjirou

    2009-04-01

    Technologies for transformation of rice have been developed to meet the requirements of functional genomics in order to enable the production of transgenic rice plants with useful agricultural characters. However, many rice varieties are not efficiently transformed by Agrobacterium. We have succeeded in establishing a highly efficient transformation system in rice by co-cultivating rice calli with Agrobacterium on three filter papers moistened with enriched N6 or DKN media instead of using solid media. Rice calli immersed in Agrobacterium suspension (EHA101, Agrobacterium concentration of OD600=0.04) were co-cultured on three pieces of filter paper (9cm in diameter) moistened with 5.5mL of N6 or DKN liquid co-cultivation medium supplemented with 2,4-d (2mg/L), proline (10mM), casein hydrolysate (300mg/L), sucrose (30g/L), glucose (5g/L), l-cysteine (100mg/L) and acetosyringone (15mg/L) at 25°C for 3 days in the dark. Compared with the transformation efficiency of calli co-cultivated on solid media, transformation efficiency was increased by about fivefold by using the filter paper method for many varieties of rice, including those that previously yielded much poor transformation rates.

  16. Wavelet Transform - A New Tool for Analysis of Harmonics in Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipov D. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of application of discrete wavelet transform in power system transient analyses. Based on the discrete time domain approximation, the system components such as resistor and inductor are modeled respectively in discrete wavelet domain for the purpose of transient and steady state analyses. Numerical results for transient inductor model can be implemented by any kind of power system including normal and emergency operating modes.

  17. A DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM – SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION SYSTEM FOR IMAGE CODING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. de Jesús Ochoa-Domínguez,

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A system that combines techniques of wavelet transform (DWT and singular value decomposition (SVD toencode images is presented. The image is divided into tiles or blocks of 64x64 pixels. The decision criterionas to which transform to use is based on the standard deviation of the 8x8 pixel subblocks of the tile toencode. A successive approximation quantizer is used to encode the subbands and vector quantization/scalarquantization is used to encode the SVD eigenvectors/eigenvalues, respectively. For coding color images, theRGB components are transformed into YCbCr before encoding in 4:2:0 format. Results show that theproposed system outperforms the JPEG and approaches the JPEG2000.

  18. Mental Health System Transformation: Drivers for Change, Organizational Preparation, Engaging Partners and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corring, Deborah J; Whittall, Sandy; MustinPowell, Jill; Jarmain, Sarah; Chapman, Patty; Sussman, Sam

    2016-01-01

    St. Joseph's Health Care London (hereafter referred to as St. Joseph's) is a publicly funded hospital that has led mental health (MH) service system transformation in south west Ontario following directives from the Health Services Restructuring Commission (HSRC) (Sinclair 2000). This paper documents how provincial policy; HSRC directives; use of change management activities; organizational planning; and partnerships with other hospitals, community agencies and LHINs drove, shaped and accomplished the transformational change. The transformation included divestment of beds and related ambulatory services to four other hospitals, closure of beds and employment services and the construction of two state-of-the-art facilities. This paper documents the tracking of system performance measures and the outcomes that resulted.

  19. Two-body coordinate system generation using body-fitted coordinate system and complex variable transformation. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts are made to generate acceptable coordinate systems for two-body configurations. The first method to be tried was to use the body-fitted coordinate system technique to obtain the best system. This technique alone did not produce very good results, so another approach was investigated. This new approach involved using a combination of the body fitted coordinate system procedure and a complex variable transformation method that was used successfully in conformal mapping.

  20. Development of efficient catharanthus roseus regeneration and transformation system using agrobacterium tumefaciens and hypocotyls as explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Quan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a valuable medicinal plant, Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus produces many terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs, such as vindoline, ajamlicine, serpentine, catharanthine, vinblastine and vincristine et al. Some of them are important components of drugs treating cancer and hypertension. However, the yields of these TIAs are low in wild-type plants, and the total chemical synthesis is impractical in large scale due to high-cost and their complicated structures. The recent development of metabolic engineering strategy offers a promising solution. In order to improve the production of TIAs in C. roseus, the establishment of an efficient genetic transformation method is required. Results To develop a genetic transformation method for C. roseus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 was employed which harbors a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 containing a report β-glucuronidase (GUS gene and a selectable marker neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (NTPII. The influential factors were investigated systematically and the optimal transformation condition was achieved using hypocotyls as explants, including the sonication treatment of 10 min with 80 W, A. tumefaciens infection of 30 min and co-cultivation of 2 d in 1/2 MS medium containing 100 μM acetosyringone. With a series of selection in callus, shoot and root inducing kanamycin-containing resistance media, we successfully obtained stable transgenic regeneration plants. The expression of GUS gene was confirmed by histochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, and genomic southern blot analysis. To prove the efficiency of the established genetic transformation system, the rate-limiting gene in TIAs biosynthetic pathway, DAT, which encodes deacetylvindoline-4-O-acetyltransferase, was transferred into C. roseus using this established system and 9 independent transgenic plants were obtained. The results of metabolite analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC

  1. Transformation Method of Exterior Orientation Angular Elements Obtained via Position and Orientation System Under Gauss-Kruger Projection Coordinate System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Xiuxiao; ZHANG Xueping; FU Jianhong

    2010-01-01

    Data obtained via airborne position and orientation system (POS) is in WGS 84 global geocentric reference frame, while the national coordinate reference system for topographic mapping in China is generally Gauss-Kruger projection coordinate system.Therefore, data obtained via a POS must be transformed to national coordinate system. Owing to the effects of earth curvature and meridian deviation, there are some errors in the process of angle transformation from roll, pitch, and heading (φ,(I),ψ) obtained directly via a POS to the attitude angles of images (φ,ω, κ) needed in photogrammetry. On the basis of effect theories of earth curvature and meridian deviation on exterior orientation angular elements of images, a method using a compensation matrix to correct the transformation errors from attitude angles obtained via the POS to exterior orientation angular elements of images is proposed in this paper.Moreover, the rigorous formula of the compensation matrix is deduced. Two sets of actual data obtained via a POS AV 510, which are different in scale and terrain, are selected and used to perform experiments. The empirical results not only indicate that the compensation matrix proposed in this paper is correct and practical but also show that transformation accuracy of exterior orientation angular elements obtained via the POS based on compensation matrix is relevant to the selection of vertical axis (a projection of central meridian) of Gauss-Kruger projection coordinate system; the proper vertical axis should be the Gauss-Kruger projection of the central meridian of projection zone in which the survey area locates. However, the transformation accuracy of exterior orientation angular elements is irrelevant to the choice of origin of coordinate system; it is appropriate that the origin of coordinate system locates at the center point of the survey area. Moreover, transformation accuracy of exterior orientation angular elements achieved based on the compensation

  2. Thermal Constraints on the Rheology of Segmented Oceanic Transform Fault Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson-Schwehr, M. L.; Boettcher, M. S.; Behn, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridge transform fault (RTF) systems may be comprised of two or more fault segments that are physically offset by an extensional basin or intra-transform spreading center. These intra-transform offsets affect the thermal structure underlying the transform fault and may act as barriers to rupture propagation. The seismogenic zone of RTFs is thermally controlled and limited by the 600°C isotherm, as evidenced by earthquake hypocentral depths and laboratory friction experiments. Observations from a recent ocean bottom seismic study found that RTF earthquakes rarely occur above ~2 km depth. These findings suggest that the seismogenic zone on RTFs likely extends from ~2 km to the 600°C isotherm. Here we utilize finite element analysis to model the thermal structure of a RTF system comprised of two transform fault segments separated by an extensional offset. The mantle is assumed to have a visco-plastic rheology to simulate brittle failure at temperatures bounded by areas of increased microseismicity, which act as barriers to large rupture propagation. Previously, we used well-located earthquakes recorded on a NOAA hydrophone array together with a relative relocation technique to determine the absolute positions for the five rupture patches on Discovery, which host 5.4 ≤ Mw ≤ 6.0 earthquakes. In this study, we combine absolute locations of the largest earthquakes, our detailed analysis of the fault trace of Discovery, and our thermal modeling results to assess how intra-transform offsets on Discovery affect the subsurface thermal structure. Along the 6 km intra-transform spreading center we find the 600°C isotherm is shallower than 2 km, suggesting that the thermal structure of this offset creates a rupture barrier between the adjoining fault segments. By contrast, intra-transform offsets surface trace of each segment only minimally affect the depth of the 600°C isotherm, resulting in a continuous seismogenic zone between the fault segments. This

  3. Study on Management System for Agricultural Sci-tech Achievement Transformation Funding Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Hong; YU; Jun

    2013-01-01

    Relying on the management system for agricultural sci-tech achievement transformation funding project in Zhejiang Province, on the basis of current situations and demand of agricultural sci-tech achievement transformation funding project management system, we present a B/S-structured and J2EE platform-based system which adopts MVC mode and integrates mainstream open-source frame technologies such as Spring, Struts2, ExtJs, TopLink and FreeMarker, etc. Practice has shown that this system provides an original model for management of sci-tech project application, and various projects can be expanded on this model. With the aid of this system, sci-tech project management personnel can be relieved from trivial manual works, so as to increase working efficiency and improve management level of sci-tech project management.

  4. Joint image encryption and compression scheme based on a new hyperchaotic system and curvelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Tong, Xiaojun

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes a joint image encryption and compression scheme based on a new hyperchaotic system and curvelet transform. A new five-dimensional hyperchaotic system based on the Rabinovich system is presented. By means of the proposed hyperchaotic system, a new pseudorandom key stream generator is constructed. The algorithm adopts diffusion and confusion structure to perform encryption, which is based on the key stream generator and the proposed hyperchaotic system. The key sequence used for image encryption is relation to plain text. By means of the second generation curvelet transform, run-length coding, and Huffman coding, the image data are compressed. The joint operation of compression and encryption in a single process is performed. The security test results indicate the proposed methods have high security and good compression effect.

  5. Model Transformation for Model Driven Development of Semantic Web Enabled Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardas, G.; Göknil, Arda; Dikenelli, O.; Topaloglu, N.Y.; Weyns, D.; Holvoet, T.

    2007-01-01

    Model Driven Development (MDD) provides an infrastructure that simplifies Multi-agent System (MAS) development by increasing the abstraction level. In addition to defining models, transformation process for those models is also crucial in MDD. On the other hand, MAS modeling should also take care of

  6. Bäcklund-Darboux Transformation for Non-Isospectral Canonical System and Riemann-Hilbert Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sakhnovich

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A GBDT version of the Bäcklund-Darboux transformation is constructed for a non-isospectral canonical system, which plays essential role in the theory of random matrix models. The corresponding Riemann-Hilbert problem is treated and some explicit formulas are obtained. A related inverse problem is formulated and solved.

  7. New Phase Regions of Ir-Ru-Ti System with Eutectic-Peritectic Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsyk, V.; Vorob'eva, V.

    2013-12-01

    Special surfaces, corresponding to phase transformation type changing, have been found and designed within six three-phase regions of the system Ti-Ir-Ru with a help of 3D computer model of its T-x-y diagram.

  8. Model Transformation for Model Driven Development of Semantic Web Enabled Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardas, G.; Göknil, A.; Dikenelli, O.; Topaloglu, N.Y.

    2007-01-01

    Model Driven Development (MDD) provides an infrastructure that simplifies Multi-agent System (MAS) development by increasing the abstraction level. In addition to defining models, transformation process for those models is also crucial in MDD. On the other hand, MAS modeling should also take care of

  9. Finite BRST-BFV transformations for dynamical systems with second-class constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.; Tyutin, Igor V.

    2015-06-01

    We study finite field-dependent BRST-BFV transformations for dynamical systems with first- and second-class constraints within the generalized Hamiltonian formalism. We find explicitly their Jacobians and the form of a solution to the compensation equation necessary for generating an arbitrary finite change of gauge-fixing functionals in the path integral.

  10. Finite BRST-BFV transformations for dynamical systems with second-class constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Batalin, Igor A; Tyutin, Igor V

    2015-01-01

    We study finite field dependent BRST-BFV transformations for dynamical systems with first- and second-class constraints within the generalized Hamiltonian formalism. We find explicitly their Jacobians and the form of a solution to the compensation equation necessary for generating an arbitrary finite change of gauge-fixing functionals in the path integral.

  11. Generalized results on the role of new-time transformations in finite-dimensional Poisson systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Bermejo, Benito, E-mail: benito.hernandez@urjc.e [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Calle Tulipan S/N, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-01-25

    The problem of characterizing all new-time transformations preserving the Poisson structure of a finite-dimensional Poisson system is completely solved in a constructive way. As a corollary, this leads to a broad generalization of previously known results. Examples are given.

  12. Postdispersion system for astronomical observations with Fourier transform spectrometers in the thermal infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Guenter; Jennings, D. E.; Hanel, R. H.; Kunde, V. G.; Moseley, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    A postdispersion system for astronomical observations with Fourier transform spectrometers in the thermal infrared has been developed which improves the sensitivity of radiation noise limited observations by reducing the spectral range incident on the detector. Special attention is given to the first-generation blocked impurity band detector. Planetary, solar, and stellar observations are reported.

  13. Integration and transformation of rural service delivery: The role of management information and decision support systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with two main themes: 1) the integration and transformation of rural service delivery; and 2) role of management information and decision support systems in this process. Referring specifically to the types of rural areas, conditions...

  14. Action-embedded transformational leadership in self-managing global information systems development teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eseryel, U. Yeliz; Eseryel, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    While software development teams are becoming more and more distributed around the globe, most software development methodologies used by global teams prescribe self-managing teams. Transformational leadership is the key to successful information systems development and use for competitive advantage

  15. Transformation of Operations Management through Information Technology and Information System in Suning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Houcai; YAN Xiaojun

    2004-01-01

    Information technology and information system today play major roles in companies who are competitive in the global market. In this paper, we will study how Suning Appliance Chain changes her operations by using information technology and information system. Suning's Strategy,operations structure, especially her logistics system are discussed firstly; how information technology and information system support her operation and logistics to gain competitive capabilities are further discussed. Finally, the operation system transformation through IT/IS in Suning is studied by the use of a stochastic inventory model.

  16. Current transformer verification system for in situ, live line end-to-end calibration of medium and high voltage current transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, C.; Irwin, L.; Marr, D. [Schneider Electric Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    IEC Instrument Transformer Standard 60044-1 was created in response to recent industrial and regulatory trends for improved metering performance. The accuracy of high voltage (HV) metering depends on the quality of the instrument transformer signals feeding the energy meters. The complete current transformer (CT) system, including the end-to-end interconnection and metering burden, must be routinely verified in order to claim ongoing compliance. However, utilities rarely perform routine verification and calibration of medium voltage (MV) and HV current instrument transformers because of the complexities associated with CT primary circuit removal and subsequent primary injection. In some cases, routine verification and calibration is not performed due to the belief that conventional CT performance is a constant that never changes. However, conventional CT accuracies may change over time due to transformer insulation breakdown, electric field effects, core magnetization, and burden wiring effects. In addition, CT secondary circuits may be shared with multiple metering and protection devices that present a complex burden to the CT. Changes in burden impedance can also have an effect on CT accuracy. This paper presented the Current Transformer Verification System (CTVS), which provides a unique and novel means to precisely characterize and verify the actual end-to-end performance of MV and HV current transformers while still energized. The CTVS system takes into account any voltage or specific installed site burden dependency that may be present. It provides the utility with the ability to verify CTs in-situ without system interruption through live-line deployment and to readily check the accuracy of metering systems to ensure compliance with industry requirements. 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  17. Transforming to a computerized system for nursing care: organizational success within Magnet idealism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Carolyn L; Elie, Leslie G; Vidal, Elizabeth C; Vasserman, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In reaching the goal for standardized, quality care, a not-for-profit healthcare system consisting of seven institutional entities is transforming nursing practice guidelines, patient care workflow, and patient documents into electronic, online, real-time modalities for use across departments and all healthcare delivery entities of the system. Organizational structure and a strategic plan were developed for the 2-year Clinical Transformation Project. The Siemens Patient Care Document System was adopted and adapted to the hospitals' documentation and information needs. Two fast-track sessions of more than 100 nurses and representatives from other health disciplines were held to standardize assessments, histories, care protocols, and interdisciplinary plans of care for the top 10 diagnostic regulatory groups. Education needs of the users were addressed. After the first year, a productive, functional system is evidenced. For example, the bar-coded Medication Administration Check System is in full use on the clinical units of one of the hospitals, and the other institutional entities are at substantial stages of implementation of Patient Care Documentation System. The project requires significant allocation of personnel and financial resources for a highly functional informatics system that will transform clinical care. The project exemplifies four of the Magnet ideals and serves as a model for others who may be deciding about launching a similar endeavor.

  18. A New OFDM System Based on Lifting Wavelet Transform for Wireless Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian-bo; ZHAO Er-yuan

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing(OFDM) system has a high ability to overcome the effect of multipath and can obtain high spectral efficiency in the wireless communication channel. However, avoid Interchannel Interference (ICI) and Intersymbol Interference (ISI) in wireless channel, a guard interval longer than channel delay is used in conventional OFDM system, which cause the efficiency of bandwidth usage reduced. Due to the superior spectral containment of wavelets, this paper proposed a new OFDM system based on Lifting Wavelet Transform (LWT-OFDM), which adopts lifting wavelet transform to replace the conventional Fourier transform. This new OFDM system doesn't need the Cyclic Prefix (CP) so its structure is more simply than FFT-OFDM and its algorithm is as simply as FFT-OFDM. The new LWT-OFDM system can mitigates some disadvantages of FFT-OFDM system, such as a relatively large peak-to-average power ratio, more sensitive to carrier frequency offset and phase noise. Simulations show that the LWT-OFDM system is more effective and attractive than conversional FFT-OFDM in wireless channel.

  19. Setting the Foundation for Transforming the U.S. Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jon M.; Virden, Jud W.; Walton, Terry L.; Brog, Terrence K.; Stiles, Dennis L.; Alderson, Karis P.; Melland, Jodi C.; Hobbs, Lori L.; Martinez, Sam J.; Quadrel, Marilyn J.; Quinn, Rod K.

    2008-12-29

    Setting the Foundation for Transforming the U.S. Energy System: Three Federal Action Plans for Near- and Long-term Success is a short document written for the incoming U.S. Federal Administration's Transistion Team. The document represents what we believe to be foundational elements of a broad campaign to make rapid progress towards these goals for the longterm transformation necessary to meet our national economic, security, and environmental goals. The three immediate action plans include: * Creating Tomorrow’s Electricity Infrastructure * Decarbonizing the Energy Economy *Enabling Science-Based Policy

  20. Hamiltonian Systems and Darboux Transformation Associated with a 3 × 3 Matrix Spectral Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Starting from a 3 × 3 matrix spectral problem, we derive a hierarchy of nonlinear equations. It is shown that the hierarchy possesses bi-Hamiltonian structure. Under the symmetry constraints between the potentials and the eigenfunctions, Lax pair and adjoint Lax pairs including partial part and temporal part are nonlinearied into two finitedimensional Hamiltonian systems (FDHS) in Liouville sense. Moreover, an explicit N-fold Darboux transformation for CDNS equation is constructed with the help of a gauge transformation of the spectral problem.

  1. Accurate and robust unitary transformation of a high-dimensional quantum system

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, B E; Riofrío, C A; Deutsch, I H; Jessen, P S

    2014-01-01

    Quantum control in large dimensional Hilbert spaces is essential for realizing the power of quantum information processing. For closed quantum systems the relevant input/output maps are unitary transformations, and the fundamental challenge becomes how to implement these with high fidelity in the presence of experimental imperfections and decoherence. For two-level systems (qubits) most aspects of unitary control are well understood, but for systems with Hilbert space dimension d>2 (qudits), many questions remain regarding the optimal design of control Hamiltonians and the feasibility of robust implementation. Here we show that arbitrary, randomly chosen unitary transformations can be efficiently designed and implemented in a large dimensional Hilbert space (d=16) associated with the electronic ground state of atomic 133Cs, achieving fidelities above 0.98 as measured by randomized benchmarking. Generalizing the concepts of inhomogeneous control and dynamical decoupling to d>2 systems, we further demonstrate t...

  2. A simplification of the fractional Hartley transform applied to image security system in phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Carlos J.; Vilardy, Juan M.; Perez, Ronal

    2017-01-01

    In this work we develop a new encryption system for encoded image in phase using the fractional Hartley transform (FrHT), truncation operations and random phase masks (RPMs). We introduce a simplification of the FrHT with the purpose of computing this transform in an efficient and fast way. The security of the encryption system is increased by using nonlinear operations, such as the phase encoding and the truncation operations. The image to encrypt (original image) is encoded in phase and the truncation operations applied in the encryption-decryption system are the amplitude and phase truncations. The encrypted image is protected by six keys, which are the two fractional orders of the FrHTs, the two RPMs and the two pseudorandom code images generated by the amplitude and phase truncation operations. All these keys have to be correct for a proper recovery of the original image in the decryption system. We present digital results that confirm our approach.

  3. Introducing Model Based Systems Engineering Transforming System Engineering through Model-Based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    MOF   Meta  Object  Facility   MOP   Measure  of  Performance   MVS   Multiple...Virtual   Storage   NASA   National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration   NAVAIR   U.S.  Navy  Naval  Air  Systems  Command... MOF ®,   XMI®,   SysML™,   BPML™   are   registered   trademarks   or   trademarks   of   the   Object  Management

  4. Integrative Transformation System for the Metabolic Engineering of the Sphingoid Base-Producing Yeast Pichia ciferrii

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Jung-Hoon; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Park, Chang-Seo; Rhee, Joon-Shick; Choi, Eui-Sung

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an integrative transformation system for metabolic engineering of the tetraacetyl phytosphingosine (TAPS)-secreting yeast Pichia ciferrii. The system uses (i) a mutagenized ribosomal protein L41 gene of P. ciferrii as a dominant selection marker that confer resistance to the antibiotic cycloheximide and (ii) a ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragment of P. ciferrii as a target for multicopy gene integration into the chromosome. A locus within the nontranscribed region located between 5...

  5. The 10 Conditions That Increased Vermont's Readiness to Implement Statewide Health System Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grembowski, David; Marcus-Smith, Miriam

    2017-08-22

    Following an arduous, 6-year policy-making process, Vermont is the first state implementing a unified, statewide all-payer integrated delivery system with value-based payment, along with aligned medical and social service reforms, for almost all residents and providers in a state. Commercial, Medicare, and Medicaid value-based payment for most Vermonters will be administered through a new statewide accountable care organization in 2018-2022. The purpose of this article is to describe the 10 conditions that increased Vermont's readiness to implement statewide system transformation. The authors reviewed documents, conducted internet searches of public information, interviewed key informants annually in 2014-2016, cross-validated factual and narrative interpretation, and performed content analyses to derive conditions that increased readiness and their implications for policy and practice. Four social conditions (leadership champions; a common vision; collaborative culture; social capital and collective efficacy) and 6 support conditions (money; statewide data; legal infrastructure; federal policy promoting payment reform; delivery system transformation aligned with payment reform; personnel skilled in system reform) increased Vermont's readiness for system transformation. Vermont's experience indicates that increasing statewide readiness for reform is slow, incremental, and exhausting to overcome the sheer inertia of large fee-based systems. The new payments may work because statewide, uniform population-based payment will affect the health care of almost all Vermonters, creating statewide, uniform provider incentives to reduce volume and making the current fee-based system less viable. The conditions for readiness and statewide system transformation may be more likely in states with regulated markets, like Vermont, than in states with highly competitive markets.

  6. Performance analysis of a finite radon transform in OFDM system under different channel models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawood, Sameer A.; Anuar, M. S.; Fayadh, Rashid A. [School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP) Pauh Putra, 02000 Arau, Parlis (Malaysia); Malek, F.; Abdullah, Farrah Salwani [School of Electrical System Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP) Pauh Putra, 02000 Arau, Parlis (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a class of discrete Radon transforms namely Finite Radon Transform (FRAT) was proposed as a modulation technique in the realization of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). The proposed FRAT operates as a data mapper in the OFDM transceiver instead of the conventional phase shift mapping and quadrature amplitude mapping that are usually used with the standard OFDM based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), by the way that ensure increasing the orthogonality of the system. The Fourier domain approach was found here to be the more suitable way for obtaining the forward and inverse FRAT. This structure resulted in a more suitable realization of conventional FFT- OFDM. It was shown that this application increases the orthogonality significantly in this case due to the use of Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) twice, namely, in the data mapping and in the sub-carrier modulation also due to the use of an efficient algorithm in determining the FRAT coefficients called the optimal ordering method. The proposed approach was tested and compared with conventional OFDM, for additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, flat fading channel, and multi-path frequency selective fading channel. The obtained results showed that the proposed system has improved the bit error rate (BER) performance by reducing inter-symbol interference (ISI) and inter-carrier interference (ICI), comparing with conventional OFDM system.

  7. Separating Adaptive Maintenance (Resilience and Transformative Capacity of Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Wilson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many rural communities are vulnerable social-ecological systems (SES that must do more than become resilient to future environmental and social shocks: they must transform to achieve sustainability. We aimed first to conceptually explore the proposition that SES characteristics (identity, feedbacks, structure, and functions necessary for transformation may be distinct from those necessary for adaptive maintenance or resilience, and second, to propose metrics that may be used to assess these two types of system changes. We did this by interrogating literature and by investigating two rural towns in Australia using a combination of quantitative methods and focus groups to interrogate community social networks, capitals (human, natural, built, and social and future scenarios. Results indicated that (1 it is practicable to carry out a holistic assessment of SES characteristics (identity, feedbacks, structure, and functions, and (2 purposeful, positive transformation is supported by vision, identification with place, unhappiness (with the status quo, high personal contribution to social capital, open social networks, and latent capital(s. We conclude that rural communities possess capacities for adaptive maintenance (resilience and for system-wide transformation, and that the metrics used to assess each are sometimes discrete, sometimes common.

  8. Technical Note: The normal quantile transformation and its application in a flood forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bogner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Normal Quantile Transform (NQT has been used in many hydrological and meteorological applications in order to make the Cumulated Distribution Function (CDF of the observed, simulated and forecast river discharge, water level or precipitation data Gaussian. It is also the heart of the meta-Gaussian model for assessing the total predictive uncertainty of the Hydrological Uncertainty Processor (HUP developed by Krzysztofowicz. In the field of geo-statistics this transformation is better known as the Normal-Score Transform. In this paper some possible problems caused by small sample sizes when applying the NQT in flood forecasting systems will be discussed and a novel way to solve the problem will be outlined by combining extreme value analysis and non-parametric regression methods. The method will be illustrated by examples of hydrological stream-flow forecasts.

  9. Construction of a transformation system for the stable expression of foreign genes in Chlorella sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yiyun; Gao Xiaorong; Wang Changhai

    2007-01-01

    A stable transformation system for the expression of foreign genes in the unicellular green marine alga (Chlorella sp. MACC/C95) was established. Using electroporation, the alga was transformed with a plasmid containing the phytase gene under the control of CaMV35S promoter and the neomycin phosphotransferase(npt)as a seleetable marker gene. The integration of the phytase gene into the Chlorella genome was revealed by PCR and Southern blotting analysis. RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of phytasegene at the transcript level. The enhanced activity of phytase enzyme in the transformants confirmed the integration and successful expression of phytase gene. The introduced phytase gene and its protein expression were stably maintained for at least 30 generations in media devoid of selectable antibiotics G418. This is an important step toward the production of useful foreign proteins in Chlorella sp. MACC/C95.

  10. Transformation of a Silent Adrencorticotrophic Pituitary Tumor Into Central Nervous System Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon A. Miller MD, PhD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Silent adrenocorticotrophic pituitary adenomas are nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas that express adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH but do not cause the clinical or laboratory features of hypercortisolemia. Primary central nervous system (CNS melanoma is well documented, but rarely originates in the sellar region or pituitary gland. Here we report transformation of an aggressive silent adrenocorticotrophic pituitary adenoma that transformed into CNS melanoma and review other presentations of pituitary melanoma. A 37-year-old woman initially presented with apoplexy and an invasive nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma for which she underwent transphenoidal surgery. The patient underwent 3 subsequent surgeries as the tumor continued to progress. Pathology from the first 3 operations showed pituitary adenoma or carcinoma. Pathology from the final surgery showed melanoma and the magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of the tumor had changed to become consistent with CNS melanoma. Dermatologic and ophthalmologic examinations did not identify cutaneous or ocular melanoma. The patient’s disease progressed despite aggressive surgical, medical and radiologic treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating transformation of a primary pituitary tumor into melanoma. The mechanism of tumor transformation is unclear, but it is possible that a mutation in the original ACTH-producing tumor lead to increased cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin or ACTH into α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, which in turn stimulated the expression of microopthalmia transcription factor, leading to melanocytic phenotype transformation.

  11. An Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Strawberry cv. Camarosa by a Dual Plasmid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Haddadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method was applied to introduce the luciferase reporter gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in the pGreen0049 binary vector into strawberry cv. Camarosa. The in vitro regeneration system of strawberry leaves to be used in the transformation was optimized using different TDZ concentrations in MS medium. TDZ at 16 µM showed the highest percentage (100% of shoot formation and the highest mean number of shoots (24 produced per explant. Studies on the effects of different antibiotics, namely timentin, cefotaxime, carbenicillin and ampicillin, on shoot regeneration of strawberry leaf explants showed the best shoot regeneration in the presence of 300 mg/L timentin and 150 mg/L cefotaxime. Assessment of the different factors affecting Agrobacterium mediated-transformation of strawberry with the luciferase gene showed the highest efficiency of putative transformant production (86% in the treatment with no preculture, bacterial OD600 of 0.6 and the addition of 150 mg/L cefotaxime in the pre-selection and selection media. The presence of the luciferase gene in the plant genome was verified by the luciferase reporter gene assay, nested PCR amplification and dot blot of genomic DNA isolated from the young leaves of each putatively transformed plantlet.

  12. An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of strawberry cv. Camarosa by a dual plasmid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, Fatemeh; Aziz, Maheran Abd; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Tan, Soon Guan; Kamaladini, Hossein

    2015-02-23

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method was applied to introduce the luciferase reporter gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in the pGreen0049 binary vector into strawberry cv. Camarosa. The in vitro regeneration system of strawberry leaves to be used in the transformation was optimized using different TDZ concentrations in MS medium. TDZ at 16 µM showed the highest percentage (100%) of shoot formation and the highest mean number of shoots (24) produced per explant. Studies on the effects of different antibiotics, namely timentin, cefotaxime, carbenicillin and ampicillin, on shoot regeneration of strawberry leaf explants showed the best shoot regeneration in the presence of 300 mg/L timentin and 150 mg/L cefotaxime. Assessment of the different factors affecting Agrobacterium mediated-transformation of strawberry with the luciferase gene showed the highest efficiency of putative transformant production (86%) in the treatment with no preculture, bacterial OD600 of 0.6 and the addition of 150 mg/L cefotaxime in the pre-selection and selection media. The presence of the luciferase gene in the plant genome was verified by the luciferase reporter gene assay, nested PCR amplification and dot blot of genomic DNA isolated from the young leaves of each putatively transformed plantlet.

  13. Hadamard Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

  14. Plastid-like Seq in mt Genome - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available erences for individual fragments is available. Data file...t were migrated from the plastid genome to the mitochondrial genome. Information on sizes, positions, gene names, homologies and diff

  15. Intercalation of psoralen into DNA of plastid chromosomes decreases late during barley chloroplast development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J P; Thompson, R J; Mosig, G

    1991-01-01

    We have used a DNA crosslinking assay to measure intercalation of the psoralen derivative HMT (4'-hydroxymethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen) into barley (Hordeum vulgare) plastid chromosomal DNA during chloroplast and etioplast development. Intercalation into DNA in intact plastids in vivo and in plastid lysates in vitro shows that chromosomal DNA in the most mature chloroplasts intercalates HMT less efficiently than DNA in younger chloroplasts. In contrast, there is no change in HMT intercalation during etioplast differentiation in the dark. Our results also show that DNA in higher plant plastid chromosomes is under superhelical tension in vivo. The lower susceptibility to HMT intercalation of DNA in the most mature chloroplasts indicates that late during chloroplast development the superhelical tension or the binding of proteins to the DNA or both change. Images PMID:1923805

  16. Newly discovered deep-branching marine plastid lineages are numerically rare but globally distributed

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Choi, C.J.; Bachy, C.; Jaeger, G.S.; Poirier, C.; Sudek, L.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Mahadevan, A.; Giovannoni, S.J.; Worden, A.Z.

    on the biological communities that carry out marine photosynthesis. Phytoplankton perform half of global biological CO2 uptake, fuel marine food chains, and include diverse eukaryotic algae that have photosynthetic organelles (plastids) acquired through multiple...

  17. The Idea of Conformation in the Study of Systemic Socio-Economic Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valentinovna Brizhak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The author shows the idea of conformation at studying the issues of intracorporate structure, corporate capital and economic (productive relations in the context of specific systemic socio-economic transformations. The dynamism and depth of current changes makes reflect on their nature, their objective conditionality, their dependence on existing factors. The problems of systemic market reforms are projected to private transformations. They relate both to individual economic entities (firms, companies, corporations, and to individual regions and territories of the national economy. In such conditions the aims of economic system development are changing and being corrected, and the possibilities are being reestimated. In the process of reforming the Russian economy some of the borrowed elements were rejected as inadequate and socially unacceptable. The other part was modified and embedded in public life in the course of implementation, so that they often served the opposite purposes in comparison with those for which they were borrowed. The article reveals the mission of conformation as a seamless integration of this process into the context of systemic socio-economic reforms, ensuring the necessary proportionality of transformations, the prevention of arousing gaps that threaten the sustainable movement in the corporate sector and systemic organization of economic relations at the intra-corporate level. Core development of contradictions, sprouts of post-market relations, components of the traditional capitalist market organization in terms of socio-economic transformation of Russia have impact on the economic behavior of corporations and on the specifics of intracorporate relations and interests. The corporation’s behavior is always focused on the specifics of domestic relations, the stability of legal and political system, property rights protection, preservation of national culture, etc. The author carries out the present research on the

  18. The complete plastid genomes of the two 'dinotoms' Durinskia baltica and Kryptoperidinium foliaceum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Imanian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In one small group of dinoflagellates, photosynthesis is carried out by a tertiary endosymbiont derived from a diatom, giving rise to a complex cell that we collectively refer to as a 'dinotom'. The endosymbiont is separated from its host by a single membrane and retains plastids, mitochondria, a large nucleus, and many other eukaryotic organelles and structures, a level of complexity suggesting an early stage of integration. Although the evolution of these endosymbionts has attracted considerable interest, the plastid genome has not been examined in detail, and indeed no tertiary plastid genome has yet been sequenced. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe the complete plastid genomes of two closely related dinotoms, Durinskia baltica and Kryptoperidinium foliaceum. The D. baltica (116470 bp and K. foliaceum (140426 bp plastid genomes map as circular molecules featuring two large inverted repeats that separate distinct single copy regions. The organization and gene content of the D. baltica plastid closely resemble those of the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The K. foliaceum plastid genome is much larger, has undergone more reorganization, and encodes a putative tyrosine recombinase (tyrC also found in the plastid genome of the heterokont Heterosigma akashiwo, and two putative serine recombinases (serC1 and serC2 homologous to recombinases encoded by plasmids pCf1 and pCf2 in another pennate diatom, Cylindrotheca fusiformis. The K. foliaceum plastid genome also contains an additional copy of serC1, two degenerate copies of another plasmid-encoded ORF, and two non-coding regions whose sequences closely resemble portions of the pCf1 and pCf2 plasmids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that while the plastid genomes of two dinotoms share very similar gene content and genome organization with that of the free-living pennate diatom P. tricornutum, the K. folicaeum plastid genome has absorbed two

  19. Bäcklund transformations for many-body systems related to KdV

    CERN Document Server

    Hone, A N W; Ragnisco, O

    1999-01-01

    We present Backlund transformations (BTs) with parameter for certain classical integrable n-body systems, namely the many-body generalised Henon-Heiles, Garnier and Neumann systems. Our construction makes use of the fact that all these systems may be obtained as particular reductions (stationary or restricted flows) of the KdV hierarchy; alternatively they may be considered as examples of the reduced sl(2) Gaudin magnet. The BTs provide exact time-discretizations of the original (continuous) systems, preserving the Lax matrix and hence all integrals of motion, and satisfy the spectrality property with respect to the Backlund parameter.

  20. Genome fragmentation is not confined to the peridinin plastid in dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelund, Mari; Minge, Marianne A; Gabrielsen, Tove M; Nederbragt, Alexander J; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique; Lemieux, Claude; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2012-01-01

    When plastids are transferred between eukaryote lineages through series of endosymbiosis, their environment changes dramatically. Comparison of dinoflagellate plastids that originated from different algal groups has revealed convergent evolution, suggesting that the host environment mainly influences the evolution of the newly acquired organelle. Recently the genome from the anomalously pigmented dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum plastid was uncovered as a conventional chromosome. To determine if this haptophyte-derived plastid contains additional chromosomal fragments that resemble the mini-circles of the peridin-containing plastids, we have investigated its genome by in-depth sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology, PCR and clone library analysis. Sequence analyses show several genes with significantly higher copy numbers than present in the chromosome. These genes are most likely extrachromosomal fragments, and the ones with highest copy numbers include genes encoding the chaperone DnaK(Hsp70), the rubisco large subunit (rbcL), and two tRNAs (trnE and trnM). In addition, some photosystem genes such as psaB, psaA, psbB and psbD are overrepresented. Most of the dnaK and rbcL sequences are found as shortened or fragmented gene sequences, typically missing the 3'-terminal portion. Both dnaK and rbcL are associated with a common sequence element consisting of about 120 bp of highly conserved AT-rich sequence followed by a trnE gene, possibly serving as a control region. Decatenation assays and Southern blot analysis indicate that the extrachromosomal plastid sequences do not have the same organization or lengths as the minicircles of the peridinin dinoflagellates. The fragmentation of the haptophyte-derived plastid genome K. veneficum suggests that it is likely a sign of a host-driven process shaping the plastid genomes of dinoflagellates.

  1. Application of wavelet transform de-noising in pole identification of a system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shi-Guo; ZHANG Ruan-Yu; WANG Peng; LI Tai-Hua

    2004-01-01

    Due to the multiscale character of wavelet transform, the method of wavelet transform de-noising (WTDN) is introduced. The WTDN method neither requires extra limit of frequency range for the processed signal,nor needs a prior estimate of impulse response for an identified system, so it is especially suitable to de-noise the wide-band signal and the impulse response of a blind system. The numerical simulation results indicate that the WTDN method is reliable. The WTDN method was used to process the sampled data from a preamplifier coupled to a gas detector. The experimental results also show that the WTDN method can effectively improve the SNR of sampled data and enhance the accuracy in pole identification of the system.

  2. Improved decryption quality and security of a joint transform correlator-based encryption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardy, Juan M.; Millán, María S.; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet

    2013-02-01

    Some image encryption systems based on modified double random phase encoding and joint transform correlator architecture produce low quality decrypted images and are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. In this work, we analyse the algorithm of some reported methods that optically implement the double random phase encryption in a joint transform correlator. We show that it is possible to significantly improve the quality of the decrypted image by introducing a simple nonlinear operation in the encrypted function that contains the joint power spectrum. This nonlinearity also makes the system more resistant to chosen-plaintext attacks. We additionally explore the system resistance against this type of attack when a variety of probability density functions are used to generate the two random phase masks of the encryption-decryption process. Numerical results are presented and discussed.

  3. Control Strategy Based on Wavelet Transform and Neural Network for Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an energy management of a hybrid power generation system. The proposed control strategy for the energy management is based on the combination of wavelet transform and neural network arithmetic. The hybrid system in this paper consists of an emulated wind turbine generator, PV panels, DC and AC loads, lithium ion battery, and super capacitor, which are all connected on a DC bus with unified DC voltage. The control strategy is responsible for compensating the difference between the generated power from the wind and solar generators and the demanded power by the loads. Wavelet transform decomposes the power difference into smoothed component and fast fluctuated component. In consideration of battery protection, the neural network is introduced to calculate the reference power of battery. Super capacitor (SC is controlled to regulate the DC bus voltage. The model of the hybrid system is developed in detail under Matlab/Simulink software environment.

  4. Quantum memory effects in noninteracting cold-atom systems: Hysteresis loop and lattice transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chihchun; Metcalf, Mekena; Lai, Chenyen

    2016-05-01

    Memory effects are observable in magnetization, rechargeable batteries, and many systems exhibiting history-dependent states. Quantum memory effects are observable, for instance, in atomic superfluids. A counter-intuitive question is whether quantum memory effects can exist in noninteracting systems. Here we present two examples of cold-atom systems demonstrating memory effects in noninteracting systems. The first example is a ring-shaped potential loaded with noninteracting fermions. An artificial vector potential drives a current and with a tunable dissipative background, the current lags behind the driving and exhibits hysteresis loops. The dissipative energy can be controlled by the coupling between the fermions and the background. In the second example, cold atoms loaded in a tunable optical lattice transformed from the triangular to the kagome geometry. The kagome lattice supports a flat-band consisting of degenerate localized states. Quantum memory effects are observable after a lattice transformation as the steady-state density depends on the rate of the transformation. The versatility of memory effects in cold-atom systems promises novel applications in atomtronics.

  5. Biodiversity governance and social-ecological system dynamics: transformation in the Australian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lockwood

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation continues to be a challenging task for societies worldwide. We undertook a resilience assessment to address the following question: What are the ramifications of social-ecological system dynamics for biodiversity governance of a nationally significant landscape? Resilience assessment offers promise for guiding response strategies, potentially enabling consideration of ecological, social, economic, and governance influences on biodiversity-related activities. Most resilience assessments have, however, struggled to effectively incorporate governance influences. We applied a modified version of the Resilience Alliance workbook approach to explicitly address governance influences at each stage of an assessment of internationally significant biodiversity features in protected areas of the Australian Alps. The vulnerability of the Alps system to climate change suggests that it is moving into a release stage, with subsequent transformation hypothesized. Network governance is argued as enabling flexible, adaptive management and comprehensive engagement of stakeholders, both of which are critical to shaping how this transformation of the Alps as a valued focal system will occur. The Australian Alps Liaison Committee provides a promising governance structure for collaboration and comanagement across multiple jurisdictions. Our contribution was to demonstrate how a resilience assessment that explicitly embeds governance influences in social-ecological system dynamics can point to pathways for governance reform in the context of system transformation.

  6. Implementation of unscented transform to estimate the uncertainty of a liquid flow standard system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Sejong; Choi, Hae-Man; Yoon, Byung-Ro; Kang, Woong [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    First-order partial derivatives of a mathematical model are an essential part of evaluating the measurement uncertainty of a liquid flow standard system according to the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM). Although the GUM provides a straightforward method to evaluate the measurement uncertainty of volume flow rate, the first-order partial derivatives can be complicated. The mathematical model of volume flow rate in a liquid flow standard system has a cross-correlation between liquid density and buoyancy correction factor. This cross-correlation can make derivation of the first-order partial derivatives difficult. Monte Carlo simulation can be used as an alternative method to circumvent the difficulty in partial derivation. However, the Monte Carlo simulation requires large computational resources for a correct simulation because it considers the completeness issue whether an ideal or a real operator conducts an experiment to evaluate the measurement uncertainty. Thus, the Monte Carlo simulation needs a large number of samples to ensure that the uncertainty evaluation is as close to the GUM as possible. Unscented transform can alleviate this problem because unscented transform can be regarded as a Monte Carlo simulation with an infinite number of samples. This idea means that unscented transform considers the uncertainty evaluation with respect to the ideal operator. Thus, unscented transform can evaluate the measurement uncertainty the same as the uncertainty that the GUM provides.

  7. Understanding social-ecological change and transformation through community perceptions of system identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Andrachuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed an empirical approach to consider social-ecological system change and transformation by drawing on resource users' knowledge and perceptions. We applied this approach in the Cau Hai lagoon, a coastal area dominated by small-scale fisheries in central Vietnam. Nine focus groups with more than 70 fishers were used to gather information about key social-ecological system elements and interactions, historical social-ecological dynamics, and possible thresholds between distinct social-ecological system identities. The patterns of change in livelihoods and resource exploitation in the Cau Hai lagoon are similar to those seen in other coastal lagoon and small-scale fishery contexts. Our findings show some promise for the use of local knowledge and the perceptions of resource user communities to understand and characterize social-ecological transformations. Importantly, however, we also demonstrate how social-ecological transformations are complicated processes driven by many factors beyond the control of any singular individual or group. We argue that (1 the occurrence of social-ecological transformations can result in either positive or negative outcomes and (2 that we need to direct our thinking away from drawing tidy conclusions about if and when social-ecological transformations take place. Our research also encourages scholars to carefully consider how we frame the benefits of participatory, community-based governance initiatives. Importantly, we need to examine the ways that governance initiatives will be beneficial for some people and detrimental for others, and we need to be fully aware of locally contested interests and acknowledge competing priorities for fisheries management and human well-being. Community-oriented assessments informed by resilience thinking can help to open up questions about economic, political, cultural, and environmental aspects of undesirable path dependencies and traps.

  8. Plastid osmotic stress influences cell differentiation at the plant shoot apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret E; Mixdorf, Matthew; Berg, R Howard; Haswell, Elizabeth S

    2016-09-15

    The balance between proliferation and differentiation in the plant shoot apical meristem is controlled by regulatory loops involving the phytohormone cytokinin and stem cell identity genes. Concurrently, cellular differentiation in the developing shoot is coordinated with the environmental and developmental status of plastids within those cells. Here, we employ an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant exhibiting constitutive plastid osmotic stress to investigate the molecular and genetic pathways connecting plastid osmotic stress with cell differentiation at the shoot apex. msl2 msl3 mutants exhibit dramatically enlarged and deformed plastids in the shoot apical meristem, and develop a mass of callus tissue at the shoot apex. Callus production in this mutant requires the cytokinin receptor AHK2 and is characterized by increased cytokinin levels, downregulation of cytokinin signaling inhibitors ARR7 and ARR15, and induction of the stem cell identity gene WUSCHEL Furthermore, plastid stress-induced apical callus production requires elevated plastidic reactive oxygen species, ABA biosynthesis, the retrograde signaling protein GUN1, and ABI4. These results are consistent with a model wherein the cytokinin/WUS pathway and retrograde signaling control cell differentiation at the shoot apex. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Complex evolution in Arundinarieae (Poaceae: Bambusoideae): incongruence between plastid and nuclear GBSSI gene phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Xiao; Zeng, Chun-Xia; Li, De-Zhu

    2012-06-01

    The monophyly of tribe Arundinarieae (the temperate woody bamboos) has been unequivocally recovered in previous molecular phylogenetic studies. In a recent phylogenetic study, 10 major lineages in Arundinarieae were resolved based on eight non-coding plastid regions, which conflicted significantly with morphological classifications both at the subtribal and generic levels. Nevertheless, relationships among and within the 10 lineages remain unclear. In order to further unravel the evolutionary history of Arundinarieae, we used the nuclear GBSSI gene sequences along with those of eight plastid regions for phylogenetic reconstruction, with an emphasis on Chinese species. The results of the plastid analyses agreed with previous studies, whereas 13 primary clades revealed in the GBSSI phylogeny were better resolved at the generic level than the plastid phylogeny. Our analyses also revealed many inconsistencies between the plastid DNA and the nuclear GBSSI trees. These results implied that the nuclear genome and the plastid genome had different evolutionary trajectories. The patterns of incongruence suggested that lack of informative characters, incomplete lineage sorting, and/or hybridization (introgression) could be the causes. Seven putative hybrid species were hypothesized, four of which are discussed in detail on the basis of topological incongruence, chromosome numbers, morphology, and distribution patterns, and those taxa probably resulted from homoploid hybrid speciation. Overall, our study indicates that the tribe Arundinarieae has undergone a complex evolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Proteomic amino-termini profiling reveals targeting information for protein import into complex plastids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitter F Huesgen

    Full Text Available In organisms with complex plastids acquired by secondary endosymbiosis from a photosynthetic eukaryote, the majority of plastid proteins are nuclear-encoded, translated on cytoplasmic ribosomes, and guided across four membranes by a bipartite targeting sequence. In-depth understanding of this vital import process has been impeded by a lack of information about the transit peptide part of this sequence, which mediates transport across the inner three membranes. We determined the mature N-termini of hundreds of proteins from the model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, revealing extensive N-terminal modification by acetylation and proteolytic processing in both cytosol and plastid. We identified 63 mature N-termini of nucleus-encoded plastid proteins, deduced their complete transit peptide sequences, determined a consensus motif for their cleavage by the stromal processing peptidase, and found evidence for subsequent processing by a plastid methionine aminopeptidase. The cleavage motif differs from that of higher plants, but is shared with other eukaryotes with complex plastids.

  11. Visualisation of plastid outgrowths in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers by carboxyfluorescein diacetate staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, Wojciech; Bederska, Magdalena; Sujkowska-Rybkowska, Marzena

    2015-05-01

    We describe two types of plastid outgrowths visualised in potato tubers after carboxyfluorescein diacetate staining. Probable esterase activity of the outgrowths has been demonstrated for the first time ever. Plastid outgrowths were observed in the phelloderm and storage parenchyma cells of red potato (S. tuberosum L. cv. Rosalinde) tubers after administration of carboxyfluorescein diacetate stain. Endogenous esterases cleaved off acetic groups to release membrane-unpermeable green fluorescing carboxyfluorescein which accumulated differentially in particular cell compartments. The intensive green fluorescence of carboxyfluorescein exhibited highly branched stromules (stroma-filled plastid tubular projections of the plastid envelope) and allowed distinguishing them within cytoplasmic strands of the phelloderm cells. Stromules (1) were directed towards the nucleus or (2) penetrated the whole cells through the cytoplasmic bands of highly vacuolated phelloderm cells. Those directed towards the nucleus were flattened and adhered to the nuclear envelope. Stromule-like interconnections between two parts of the same plastids (isthmuses) were also observed. We also documented the formation of another type of the stroma-filled plastid outgrowths, referred to here as protrusions, which differed from previously defined stromules in both morphology and esterase activity. Unlike stromules, the protrusions were found to be associated with developmental processes leading to starch accumulation in the storage parenchyma cells. These results strongly suggest that stromules and protrusions exhibit esterase activity. This has been demonstrated for the first time. Morphological and biochemical features as well as possible functions of stromules and protrusions are discussed below.

  12. Genetic Analysis of Arabidopsis Mutants Impaired in Plastid Lipid Import Reveals a Role of Membrane Lipids in Chloroplast Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, J.; Xu, C.

    2011-03-01

    The biogenesis of photosynthetic membranes in plants relies largely on lipid import from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and this lipid transport process is mediated by TGD proteins in Arabidopsis. Such a dependency of chloroplast biogenesis on ER-to-plastid lipid transport was recently exemplified by analyzing double mutants between tgd1-1 or tgd4-3 and fad6 mutants. The fad6 mutants are defective in the desaturation of membrane lipids in chloroplasts and therefore dependent on import of polyunsaturated lipid precursors from the ER for constructing a competent thylakoid membrane system. In support of a critical role of TGD proteins in ER-to-plastid lipid trafficking, we showed that the introduction of the tgd mutations into fad6 mutant backgrounds led to drastic reductions in relative amounts of thylakoid lipids. Moreover, the tgd1-1 fad6 and tgd4-3 fad6 double mutants were deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids in chloroplast membrane lipids, and severely compromised in the biogenesis of photosynthetic membrane systems. Here we report that these double mutants are severely impaired in chloroplast division. The possible role of membrane lipids in chloroplast division is discussed.

  13. Dynamic interferometer alignment and its utility in UV Fourier transform spectrometer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorval, Rick K.; Engel, James R.; Wyntjes, Geert J.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic alignment has been demonstrated as a practical approach to alignment maintenance for systems in the infrared region of the spectrum. On the basis of work done by OPTRA, this technique was introduced in commercial Fourier transform spectrometer systems in 1982 and in various forms is now available from a number of manufacturers. This paper reports on work by OPTRA to extend the basic technique to systems operating in the ultraviolet. In addition, this paper reports the preliminary results of the development of an alignment system using a laser diode in place of a gas laser normally found in dynamic alignment systems. A unique optical system and spatial heterodyne technique allows for achievement of a metrology system with characteristics that fully satisfy the requirements of an ultraviolet spectrometer system.

  14. Improvement of Transient Stability of Power System by Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifter Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The improvement of transient stability of the power system was one of the most challenging research areas in power engineer. Approach: This study presents the method to improve transient stability of power system by Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifter Transformer (TCPST. The mathematical model of power system equipped with a TCPST was systematically derived. The parameters of TCPST are modeled into power flow equation and thus it was used to determine control strategy. The swing curves of the three phase faulted power system without and with a TCPST are tested and compared in various cases. Results: The swing curve of system without a TCPST gets increases monotonically and thus the system can be considered as unstable whereas the swing curves of system with a TCPST can return to stable equilibrium point. Conclusion: From the simulation results, the TCPST can increase transient stability of power system.

  15. Rubisco oligomers composed of linked small and large subunits assemble in tobacco plastids and have higher affinities for CO2 and O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Spencer Michael; Kane, Heather Jean; Houtz, Robert L; Sharwood, Robert Edward

    2009-04-01

    Manipulation of Rubisco within higher plants is complicated by the different genomic locations of the large (L; rbcL) and small (S; RbcS) subunit genes. Although rbcL can be accurately modified by plastome transformation, directed genetic manipulation of the multiple nuclear-encoded RbcS genes is more challenging. Here we demonstrate the viability of linking the S and L subunits of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Rubisco using a flexible 40-amino acid tether. By replacing the rbcL in tobacco plastids with an artificial gene coding for a S40L fusion peptide, we found that the fusions readily assemble into catalytic (S40L)8 and (S40L)16 oligomers that are devoid of unlinked S subunits. While there was little or no change in CO2/O2 specificity or carboxylation rate of the Rubisco oligomers, their Kms for CO2 and O2 were reduced 10% to 20% and 45%, respectively. In young maturing leaves of the plastome transformants (called ANtS40L), the S40L-Rubisco levels were approximately 20% that of wild-type controls despite turnover of the S40L-Rubisco oligomers being only slightly enhanced relative to wild type. The reduced Rubisco content in ANtS40L leaves is partly attributed to problems with folding and assembly of the S40L peptides in tobacco plastids that relegate approximately 30% to 50% of the S40L pool to the insoluble protein fraction. Leaf CO2-assimilation rates in ANtS40L at varying pCO2 corresponded with the kinetics and reduced content of the Rubisco oligomers. This fusion strategy provides a novel platform to begin simultaneously engineering Rubisco L and S subunits in tobacco plastids.

  16. Conditional Depletion of the Chlamydomonas Chloroplast ClpP Protease Activates Nuclear Genes Involved in Autophagy and Plastid Protein Quality Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramundo, Silvia; Casero, David; Mühlhaus, Timo; Hemme, Dorothea; Sommer, Frederik; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Rahire, Michèle; Schroda, Michael; Rusch, Jannette; Goodenough, Ursula; Pellegrini, Matteo; Perez-Perez, Maria Esther; Crespo, José Luis; Schaad, Olivier; Civic, Natacha; Rochaix, Jean David

    2014-05-01

    Plastid protein homeostasis is critical during chloroplast biogenesis and responses to changes in environmental conditions. Proteases and molecular chaperones involved in plastid protein quality control are encoded by the nucleus except for the catalytic subunit of ClpP, an evolutionarily conserved serine protease. Unlike its Escherichia coli ortholog, this chloroplast protease is essential for cell viability. To study its function, we used a recently developed system of repressible chloroplast gene expression in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Using this repressible system, we have shown that a selective gradual depletion of ClpP leads to alteration of chloroplast morphology, causes formation of vesicles, and induces extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization that is reminiscent of autophagy. Analysis of the transcriptome and proteome during ClpP depletion revealed a set of proteins that are more abundant at the protein level, but not at the RNA level. These proteins may comprise some of the ClpP substrates. Moreover, the specific increase in accumulation, both at the RNA and protein level, of small heat shock proteins, chaperones, proteases, and proteins involved in thylakoid maintenance upon perturbation of plastid protein homeostasis suggests the existence of a chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling pathway involved in organelle quality control. We suggest that this represents a chloroplast unfolded protein response that is conceptually similar to that observed in the endoplasmic reticulum and in mitochondria.

  17. Conditional Depletion of the Chlamydomonas Chloroplast ClpP Protease Activates Nuclear Genes Involved in Autophagy and Plastid Protein Quality Control[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramundo, Silvia; Casero, David; Mühlhaus, Timo; Hemme, Dorothea; Sommer, Frederik; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Rahire, Michèle; Schroda, Michael; Rusch, Jannette; Goodenough, Ursula; Pellegrini, Matteo; Perez-Perez, Maria Esther; Crespo, José Luis; Schaad, Olivier; Civic, Natacha; Rochaix, Jean David

    2014-01-01

    Plastid protein homeostasis is critical during chloroplast biogenesis and responses to changes in environmental conditions. Proteases and molecular chaperones involved in plastid protein quality control are encoded by the nucleus except for the catalytic subunit of ClpP, an evolutionarily conserved serine protease. Unlike its Escherichia coli ortholog, this chloroplast protease is essential for cell viability. To study its function, we used a recently developed system of repressible chloroplast gene expression in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Using this repressible system, we have shown that a selective gradual depletion of ClpP leads to alteration of chloroplast morphology, causes formation of vesicles, and induces extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization that is reminiscent of autophagy. Analysis of the transcriptome and proteome during ClpP depletion revealed a set of proteins that are more abundant at the protein level, but not at the RNA level. These proteins may comprise some of the ClpP substrates. Moreover, the specific increase in accumulation, both at the RNA and protein level, of small heat shock proteins, chaperones, proteases, and proteins involved in thylakoid maintenance upon perturbation of plastid protein homeostasis suggests the existence of a chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling pathway involved in organelle quality control. We suggest that this represents a chloroplast unfolded protein response that is conceptually similar to that observed in the endoplasmic reticulum and in mitochondria. PMID:24879428

  18. Production of L-phenylacetylcarbinol by microbial transformation in polyethylene glycol-induced cloud point system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenzhi; Wang, Zhilong; Li, Wei; Zhuang, Baohua; Qi, Hanshi

    2008-02-01

    Microbial transformation of benzaldehyde into L: -phenylacetylcarbinol by whole cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been carried out in a novel polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced cloud point system. The system is composed of 80 g PEG 20,000, 75 ml Triton X-100, 20 g peptone, 10 g yeast extract, 25 g glucose, 1 g MgSO(4).7H(2)O, 0.05 g CaCl(2).2H(2)O, 35 g Na(2)HPO(4).12H(2)O, and 10.7 g citric acid per liter of tap water. The microbial transformation is conducted at 0.6 ml of acetaldehyde (35% volume content), 0.9 ml of benzaldehyde, and 7 g of wet cell per 100 ml of the PEG-induced cloud point system. Under the conditions, a relatively longer-term bioactivity of whole cell microorganism in the PEG-induced cloud point system has been achieved. A fed-batch microbial transformation process with a discrete addition of glucose and substrate gets a high final product concentration of about 8 g/l.

  19. A NEW FRACTIONAL MODEL OF SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEM, BY USING GENERALIZED DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORM METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASHEM SABERI NAJAFI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Generalized differential transform method (GDTM is a powerful method to solve the fractional differential equations. In this paper, a new fractional model for systems with single degree of freedom (SDOF is presented, by using the GDTM. The advantage of this method compared with some other numerical methods has been shown. The analysis of new approximations, damping and acceleration of systems are also described. Finally, by reducing damping and analysis of the errors, in one of the fractional cases, we have shown that in addition to having a suitable solution for the displacement close to the exact one, the system enjoys acceleration once crossing the equilibrium point.

  20. Streptomyces lipmanii expresses two restriction systems that inhibit plasmid transformation and bacteriophage plaque formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, P; Baltz, R H

    1989-06-01

    Bacteriophage host range studies suggested that several beta-lactam-producing streptomycetes express similar restriction-modification systems. Streptomyces lipmanii LE32 expressed two restriction-modification systems, designated SliI and SliII. A mutant strain, PM87, was defective only in SliI restriction but expressed both SliI and SliII modification. Streptomyces sp. strain A57986, a natural isolate partially deficient in the expression of SliI and SliII restriction, nevertheless modified bacteriophage DNA for both SliI and SliII specificities. Protoplasts of PM87 and A57986 were transformed by several plasmids, and the modified plasmids isolated from these strains transformed wild-type S. lipmanii efficiently.

  1. An Improved Brain Tumour Classification System using Wavelet Transform and Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhas, DAS; Madheswaran, M

    2015-06-09

    An improved brain tumour classification system using wavelet transform and neural network is developed and presented in this paper. The anisotropic diffusion filter is used for image denoising and the performance of oriented rician noise reducing anisotropic diffusion (ORNRAD) filter is validated. The segmentation of the denoised image is carried out by Fuzzy C-means clustering. The features are extracted using Symlet and Coiflet Wavelet transform and Levenberg Marquardt algorithm based neural network is used to classify the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. This MRI classification technique is tested and analysed with the existing methodologies and its performance is found to be satisfactory with a classification accuracy of 93.02%. The developed system can assist the physicians for classifying the MRI images for better decision-making.

  2. Power System Parameters Forecasting Using Hilbert-Huang Transform and Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kurbatsky, Victor G.; Spiryaev, Vadim A.; Tomin, Nikita V.; Leahy, Paul G.; Sidorov, Denis N.; Zhukov, Alexei V.

    2014-01-01

    A novel hybrid data-driven approach is developed for forecasting power system parameters with the goal of increasing the efficiency of short-term forecasting studies for non-stationary time-series. The proposed approach is based on mode decomposition and a feature analysis of initial retrospective data using the Hilbert-Huang transform and machine learning algorithms. The random forests and gradient boosting trees learning techniques were examined. The decision tree techniques were used to ra...

  3. Predictive Network-Centric Intelligence: Toward a Total-Systems Transformation of Analysis and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-15

    data are required to bring it to full fruition and prove its superiority to the inevitable legions of doubters. As Galileo Galilei could attest...0 Predictive Network-Centric Intelligence: Toward a Total-Systems Transformation of Analysis and Assessment Winner, 2006 Galileo ...Two previous Galileo papers also have called for the application of scientific method to intelligence assessment: Bruce, James: “Dynamic Adaptation

  4. Investigation of PAPR in Discrete Wavelet Transform based Multi-carrier Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Neha S; Thushara S; Ramanathan R

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to formulate a measure to reduce PAPR problem in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. To mitigate the problem of PAPR, a Discrete Wavelet Transform based system is employed instead of conventional OFDM. For the comparative study, the PAPR in conventional OFDM is analyzed for varying number of subcarriers and for different channel taps. The result of conventional OFDM is compared with wavelet based OFDM, employing wavelets namely - ‘Haar’, ‘Daubechies’, ‘Sy...

  5. Thermal Error Modelling of the Spindle Using Data Transformation and Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method for predicting spindle deformation based on temperature data. The method introduces the adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS, which is a neurofuzzy modeling approach that integrates the kernel and geometrical transformations. By utilizing data transformation, the number of ANFIS rules can be effectively reduced and the predictive model structure can be simplified. To build the predictive model, we first map the original temperature data to a feature space with Gaussian kernels. We then process the mapped data with the geometrical transformation and make the data gather in the square region. Finally, the transformed data are used as input to train the ANFIS. A verification experiment is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Six Pt100 thermal resistances are used to monitor the spindle temperature, and a laser displacement sensor is used to detect the spindle deformation. Experimental results show that the proposed method can precisely predict the spindle deformation and greatly improve the thermal performance of the spindle. Compared with back propagation (BP networks, the proposed method is more suitable for complex working conditions in practical applications.

  6. HMM based Offline Signature Verification system using ContourletTransform and Textural features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N PUSHPALATHA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Handwritten signatures occupy a very special place in the identification of an individual and it is a challenging task because of the possible variations in directions and shapes of the constituent strokes of written samples. In this paper we investigated offline verifications system based on fusion of contourlet transform, directional features and Hidden Markov Model (HMM as classifier. The handwritten signature image is preprocessed for noise removal and a two level contourlet transform is applied to get feature vector. The textural features are computed and concatenated with coefficients of contourlet transform to form the final feature vector. A two level contourlet transform is applied to get feature vector after the signature images of both query and database are preprocessed for noise removal. The classification results are computed using HTK tool with HMM classifier. The experimental results are computed using GPDS-960 database images to get the parameters like False Rejection Rate (FRR, False Acceptance Rate (FAR and Total Success Rate (TSR. The results show that the values of FRR and FAR are improved compared to the existing algorithm.

  7. Resource constraint, sustainable economic growth pattern and transformation of economic system in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yafei; Huang Xiaojun

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, China has made spectacular achievements in economic growth as well as in the transformation of economic growth pattern. Industrial structure is being updated, and technology is playing a more and more important role in economic development. The energy and resource consumption in many industries and enterprises are reducing. However, we should realize that there are still many problems in changing the economic growth pattern,such as high input, high consumption, high discharge, inharmony, recycling difficulty, and low efficiency, which have greatly impaired and restrict Chinese economic development. Therefore, the fundamental change of the economic growth pattern is inevitable. Based on the analysis on the status quo and the exploit of resources, this paper suggests that the transformation from unsustainable to sustainable growth is the only choice in changing the economic growth pattern. In addition, the transformation should not completely rely on the fundamental effects of market mechanism. We should make full use of the power of governments to speed up the transformation of economic system.

  8. Light regulation to chlorophyll synthesis and plastid development of the chlorophyll-less golden-leaf privet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming; Xu, Mo-Yun; Yuan, Shu; Chen, Yang-Er; Du, Jun-Bo; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Guo, Zi-Chan; Zhao, Zhong-Yi; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2010-09-01

    Ligustrum vicaryi L. is a hybrid of Ligustrum ovalifolium Hassk. var. aureo-marginatum and Ligustrum vulgale L., and displays a chlorophyll-less phenotype. Therefore it is widely used as a horticultural shrub because of its golden-color leaves. Its putative mechanism, light responses, chlorophyll synthesis and plastid development were studied. L. vicaryi has a higher level of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), but lower levels of chlorophylls compared with L. quihoui. The yellowish phenotype of L. vicaryi upper leaves could be attributed to their hampered conversion from chlorophyllide into chlorophyll a. Despite the enhanced ALA level and the decreased thylakoid stacking in plastids, L. vicaryi golden leaves contain normal levels of Lhcb transcripts and photosystem apoproteins. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation is almost the same in L. vicaryi and L. quihoui. The golden leaves often turn green and the contents of chlorophylls increase with decreasing light intensity. Dynamic changes of chlorophyll-synthesis-system under the light transition were also analyzed.

  9. The evolution of glycogen and starch metabolism in eukaryotes gives molecular clues to understand the establishment of plastid endosymbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Steven; Colleoni, Christophe; Cenci, Ugo; Raj, Jenifer Nirmal; Tirtiaux, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    Solid semi-crystalline starch and hydrosoluble glycogen define two distinct physical states of the same type of storage polysaccharide. Appearance of semi-crystalline storage polysaccharides appears linked to the requirement of unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria to fuel nitrogenase and protect it from oxygen through respiration of vast amounts of stored carbon. Starch metabolism itself resulted from the merging of the bacterial and eukaryote pathways of storage polysaccharide metabolism after endosymbiosis of the plastid. This generated the three Archaeplastida lineages: the green algae and land plants (Chloroplastida), the red algae (Rhodophyceae), and the glaucophytes (Glaucophyta). Reconstruction of starch metabolism in the common ancestor of Archaeplastida suggests that polysaccharide synthesis was ancestrally cytosolic. In addition, the synthesis of cytosolic starch from the ADP-glucose exported from the cyanobacterial symbiont possibly defined the original metabolic flux by which the cyanobiont provided photosynthate to its host. Additional evidence supporting this scenario include the monophyletic origin of the major carbon translocators of the inner membrane of eukaryote plastids which are sisters to nucleotide-sugar transporters of the eukaryote endomembrane system. It also includes the extent of enzyme subfunctionalization that came as a consequence of the rewiring of this pathway to the chloroplasts in the green algae. Recent evidence suggests that, at the time of endosymbiosis, obligate intracellular energy parasites related to extant Chlamydia have donated important genes to the ancestral starch metabolism network.

  10. Stability and oscillations in a slow-fast flexible joint system with transformation delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan-Ying; Xu, Jian; Yan, Yao

    2014-10-01

    Flexible joints are usually used to transfer velocities in robot systems and may lead to delays in motion transformation due to joint flexibility. In this paper, a link-rotor structure connected by a flexible joint or shaft is firstly modeled to be a slow-fast delayed system when moment of inertia of the lightweight link is far less than that of the heavy rotor. To analyze the stability and oscillations of the slow-fast system, the geometric singular perturbation method is extended, with both slow and fast manifolds expressed analytically. The stability of the slow manifold is investigated and critical boundaries are obtained to divide the stable and the unstable regions. To study effects of the transformation delay on the stability and oscillations of the link, two quantitatively different driving forces derived from the negative feedback of the link are considered. The results show that one of these two typical driving forces may drive the link to exhibit a stable state and the other kind of driving force may induce a relaxation oscillation for a very small delay. However, the link loses stability and undergoes regular periodic and bursting oscillation when the transformation delay is large. Basically, a very small delay does not affect the stability of the slow manifold but a large delay affects substantially.

  11. Evaluation of Harmonic Content from a Tap Transformer Based Grid Connection System for Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Apelfröjd

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulations done in MATLAB/Simulink together with experiments conducted at the Ångströms laboratory are used to evaluate and discuss the total harmonic distortion (THD and total demand distortion (TDD of a tap transformer based grid connection system. The grid connection topology can be used with different turbine and generator topologies and is here applied on a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG and its operational scheme. The full variable-speed wind conversion system consists of a diode rectifier, DC link, IGBT inverter, LCL-filter, and tap transformer. The full variable-speed operation is enabled by the use of the different step-up ratios of the tap transformer. In the laboratory study, a full experimental setup of the system was used, a clone of the on-site PMSG driven by a motor was used, and the grid was replaced with a resistive load. With a resistive load, grid harmonics and possible unbalances are removed. The results show a TDD and THD below 5% for the full operating range and harmonic values within the limits set up by IEEE-519. Furthermore, a change in tap, going to a lower step-up ratio, results in a reduction in both THD and TDD for the same output power.

  12. The Research on Improved Companding Transformation for Reducing PAPR in Underwater Acoustic OFDM Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinqiu Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM for the underwater acoustic communication system, the paper offers a method of reducing PAPR which combines the amplitude limiting and the improved nonlinear transformation. Traditional amplitude limiting technique can reduce PAPR in OFDM system effectively, at the cost of reducing the bit error rate (BER. However the companding transformation has far less computation complexity than SLM or PTS technologies and can improve the BER performance compared to the amplitude limiting technique simultaneously. The paper combines these two kinds of techniques, takes full use of advantages of the two method, and puts forward a low-complexity scheme choosing parameters that are more appropriate to the underwater acoustic field, with the result of improved BER performance even in lower SNR. Both simulation and experiment results show that the new method which combines clipping and companding transformation can effectively reduce the PAPR in the underwater acoustic OFDM communication system and improve the BER performance simultaneously.

  13. Intra-plastid protein trafficking; how plant cells adapted prokaryotic mechanisms to the eukaryotic condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedon, Jose M.; Cline, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Protein trafficking and localization in plastids involves a complex interplay between ancient (prokaryotic) and novel (eukaryotic) translocases and targeting machineries. During evolution, ancient systems acquired new functions and novel translocation machineries were developed to facilitate the correct localization of nuclear encoded proteins targeted to the chloroplast. Because of its post-translational nature, targeting and integration of membrane proteins posed the biggest challenge to the organelle to avoid aggregation in the aqueous compartments. Soluble proteins faced a different kind of problem since some had to be transported across three membranes to reach their destination. Early studies suggested that chloroplasts addressed these issues by adapting ancient-prokaryotic machineries and integrating them with novel-eukaryotic systems, a process called ‘conservative sorting’. In the last decade, detailed biochemical, genetic, and structural studies have unraveled the mechanisms of protein targeting and localization in chloroplasts, suggesting a highly integrated scheme where ancient and novel systems collaborate at different stages of the process. In this review we focus on the differences and similarities between chloroplast ancestral translocases and their prokaryotic relatives to highlight known modifications that adapted them to the eukaryotic situation. PMID:22750312

  14. An improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for the functional genetic analysis of Penicillium marneffei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummasook, Aksarakorn; Cooper, Chester R; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2010-12-01

    We have developed an improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) system for the functional genetic analysis of Penicillium marneffei, a thermally dimorphic, human pathogenic fungus. Our AMT protocol included the use of conidia or pre-germinated conidia of P. marneffei as the host recipient for T-DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and co-cultivation at 28°C for 36 hours. Bleomycin-resistant transformants were selected as yeast-like colonies following incubation at 37°C. The efficiency of transformation was approximately 123 ± 3.27 and 239 ± 13.12 transformants per plate when using 5 × 10(4) conidia and pre-germinated conidia as starting materials, respectively. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that 95% of transformants contained single copies of T-DNA. Inverse PCR was employed for identifying flanking sequences at the T-DNA insertion sites. Analysis of these sequences indicated that integration occurred as random recombination events. Among the mutants isolated were previously described stuA and gasC defective strains. These AMT-derived mutants possessed single T-DNA integrations within their particular coding sequences. In addition, other morphological and pigmentation mutants possessing a variety of gene-specific defects were isolated, including two mutants having T-DNA integrations within putative promoter regions. One of the latter integration events was accompanied by the deletion of the entire corresponding gene. Collectively, these results indicated that AMT could be used for large-scale, functional genetic analyses in P. marneffei. Such analyses can potentially facilitate the identification of those genetic elements related to morphogenesis, as well as pathogenesis in this medically important fungus.

  15. A Mutation in Arabidopsis SEEDLING PLASTID DEVELOPMENT1 Affects Plastid Differentiation in Embryo-Derived Tissues during Seedling Growth1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Nicholas J.; Logsdon, Charles A.; Whippo, Craig W.; Inoue, Kentaro; Hangarter, Roger P.

    2011-01-01

    Oilseed plants like Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) develop green photosynthetically active embryos. Upon seed maturation, the embryonic chloroplasts degenerate into a highly reduced plastid type called the eoplast. Upon germination, eoplasts redifferentiate into chloroplasts and other plastid types. Here, we describe seedling plastid development1 (spd1), an Arabidopsis seedling albino mutant capable of producing normal green vegetative tissues. Mutant seedlings also display defects in etioplast and amyloplast development. Precocious germination of spd1 embryos showed that the albino seedling phenotype of spd1 was dependent on the passage of developing embryos through the degreening and dehydration stages of seed maturation, suggesting that SPD1 is critical during eoplast development or early stages of eoplast redifferentiation. The SPD1 gene was found to encode a protein containing a putative chloroplast-targeting sequence in its amino terminus and also domains common to P-loop ATPases. Chloroplast localization of the SPD1 protein was confirmed by targeting assays in vivo and in vitro. Although the exact function of SPD1 remains to be defined, our findings reveal aspects of plastid development unique to embryo-derived cells. PMID:21045120

  16. Genetic transformation of Fusarium avenaceum by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation and the development of a USER-Brick vector construction system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Lisette Quaade; Lysøe, Erik; Larsen, Jesper Erup

    2014-01-01

    single step vector construction strategy relying on Uracil Specific Excision Reagent (USER) Fusion cloning, is developed. Results: The new vector construction system, termed USER-Brick, is based on a limited number of PCR amplified vector fragments (core USER-Bricks) which are combined with PCR generated...... FaPKS3 vector was used for optimizing A. tumefaciens mediated transformation (ATMT) of F. avenaceum with respect to six variables. Acetosyringone concentration, co-culturing time, co-culturing temperature and fungal inoculum were found to significantly impact the transformation frequency. Following...... optimization, an average of 140 transformants per 10(6) macroconidia was obtained in experiments aimed at introducing targeted genome modifications. Targeted deletion of FaPKS6 (FA08709.2) in F. avenaceum showed that this gene is essential for biosynthesis of the polyketide/nonribosomal compound fusaristatin A...

  17. Application of Lie transform perturbation method for multidimensional non-Hermitian systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asiri Nanayakkara

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional non-Hermitian systems are investigated using classical perturbation theory based on Lie transformations. Analytic expressions for total energy in terms of action variables are derived. Both real and complex semiclassical eigenvalues are obtained by quantizing the action variables. It was found that semiclassical energy eigenvalues calculated with the classical perturbation theory are in very good agreement with exact energies and for certain non-Hermitian systems second-order classical perturbation theory performed better than the secondorder Rayleigh–Schroedinger perturbation theory.

  18. Increasing efficiency of a wireless energy transfer system by spatial translational transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shichao; An, Di; He, Sailing

    2016-01-01

    An optical translational projector (OTP) designed by transformation optics is applied to improve the energy transfer efficiency in a wireless energy transfer (WET) system. Numerical simulation results show our OTP can greatly enhance the energy transfer efficiency (e.g. nearly 2 orders, compared to the case without our OTP) in WET systems, which is much larger than previous methods (e.g. magnetic super-lens). A 3D reduced OTP composed by layered isotropic magnetic materials is designed, whose performance has been verified by 3D numerical simulations in 10MHz. We also study the influence of loss of metamaterials on the performance of proposed OTP.

  19. Real-space decoupling transformation for quantum many-body systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenbly, G; Vidal, G

    2014-06-06

    We propose a real-space renormalization group method to explicitly decouple into independent components a many-body system that, as in the phenomenon of spin-charge separation, exhibits separation of degrees of freedom at low energies. Our approach produces a branching holographic description of such systems that opens the path to the efficient simulation of the most entangled phases of quantum matter, such as those whose ground state violates a boundary law for entanglement entropy. As in the coarse-graining transformation of Vidal [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 220405 (2007).

  20. Propagation of broadband gaussian Schell-model beams in the apertured fractional Fourier transformation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Haidan; Du, Xinyue; Chen, Linfei; Zhao, Daomu

    2011-06-01

    On the basis of the fact that a hard-edged aperture function can be expressed as finite matrices with different weighting coefficients, we obtain the analytical formula for the propagation of the broadband gaussian Schell-model (BGSM) beam through the apertured fractional Fourier transformation (AFrFT) system. It is shown by numerical examples that the intensity distribution in the plane of a small fractional order is obviously influenced by the bandwidth when the BGSM beams propagate through the AFrFT system. Further extensions are also pointed out.

  1. Consensus of Multiagent Systems with Directed Topology and Communication Time Delay Bases on the Laplace Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the consensus problem of multiagent systems with directed topologies. Different from the literatures, a new method, the Laplace transform, to study the consensus of multiagent systems with directed topology and communication time delay is proposed. The accurate state of the consensus center and the upper bound of the communication delay to make the agents reach consensus are given. It is proved that all the agents could aggregate and eventually form a cohesive cluster in finite time under certain conditions, and the consensus center is only determined by the initial states and the communication configuration among the agents. Finally, simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  2. Correlated image set compression system based on new fast efficient algorithm of Karhunen-Loeve transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatenko, Yurij S.; Kurashov, Vitalij N.

    1998-10-01

    The paper presents improved version of our new method for compression of correlated image sets Optimal Image Coding using Karhunen-Loeve transform (OICKL). It is known that Karhunen-Loeve (KL) transform is most optimal representation for such a purpose. The approach is based on fact that every KL basis function gives maximum possible average contribution in every image and this contribution decreases most quickly among all possible bases. So, we lossy compress every KL basis function by Embedded Zerotree Wavelet (EZW) coding with essentially different loss that depends on the functions' contribution in the images. The paper presents new fast low memory consuming algorithm of KL basis construction for compression of correlated image ensembles that enable our OICKL system to work on common hardware. We also present procedure for determining of optimal losses of KL basic functions caused by compression. It uses modified EZW coder which produce whole PSNR (bitrate) curve during the only compression pass.

  3. Regeneration and gene transformation systems of Robinia pseudoacacia 'Idaho' mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Min; Cai Zao; Sun De-you; Yin Wei-lun; Chen Shou-yi; Wang Hua-fang

    2006-01-01

    Robinia pseudoacacia 'Idaho' is one of several multi-purpose trees used in ornamental, soil and water conservation, fodder and nectar sources. Plant abiotic stress tolerance transformed by genes could meet the requirements for reclamation of arid or alkalid lands and vegetation restoration. For this paper, we studied the effects of auxin and cytokine on Idaho locust in vitro regeneration and the establishment of gene transformation systems for plants mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Results showed that the ratios of cytokinin and auxin were the major factors affecting adventitious bud differentiation on a MS medium; the concentration of 0.5inhibit rooting. The most effective antitoxin for screening transgenic Idaho locust shoots was G418 and the most sensitive concentration of it was 8 mg·L-1.

  4. The numerical Laplace transform: An accurate technique for analyzing electromagnetic transients on power system devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Pablo [Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Av. I.P.N., Col. Lindavista, 07738 Mexico (Mexico); Uribe, Felipe A. [Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierias, Universidad de Guadalajara, Blvd. Marcelino Garcia Barragan 1421, Col. Universitaria, C.P. 44430 Guadalajara, Jal. (Mexico)

    2009-02-15

    A detailed description of the numerical Laplace transform (NLT) for electromagnetic transient calculation on power system devices under linear and non-linear conditions is presented in this paper. The development and main advantages of the NLT are reviewed, as compared to the conventional time domain simulation, including current practices for reducing numerical errors derived from data truncation and discretization of the analytical equations. A simple technique based on the superposition principle to include non-linear conditions in the frequency domain is also fully described. Besides, important results obtained recently with the NLT for different power components are presented, including comparisons with widely used time domain methods, such as the method of characteristics, and the professional simulation program EMTDC. Such comparisons reveal a high accuracy of the numerical Laplace transform when applied to the presented studies. (author)

  5. Micro-Tom Tomato as an Alternative Plant Model System: Mutant Collection and Efficient Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikata, Masahito; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Tomato is a model plant for fruit development, a unique feature that classical model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice do not have. The tomato genome was sequenced in 2012 and tomato is becoming very popular as an alternative system for plant research. Among many varieties of tomato, Micro-Tom has been recognized as a model cultivar for tomato research because it shares some key advantages with Arabidopsis including its small size, short life cycle, and capacity to grow under fluorescent lights at a high density. Mutants and transgenic plants are essential materials for functional genomics research, and therefore, the availability of mutant resources and methods for genetic transformation are key tools to facilitate tomato research. Here, we introduce the Micro-Tom mutant database "TOMATOMA" and an efficient transformation protocol for Micro-Tom.

  6. Reducing aberration effect of Fourier transform lens by modifying Fourier spectrum of diffractive optical element in beam shaping optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Zhu, Jing; Song, Qiang; Yue, Weirui; Liu, Jingdan; Wang, Jian; Situ, Guohai; Huang, Huijie

    2015-10-20

    In general, Fourier transform lenses are considered as ideal in the design algorithms of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). However, the inherent aberrations of a real Fourier transform lens disturb the far field pattern. The difference between the generated pattern and the expected design will impact the system performance. Therefore, a method for modifying the Fourier spectrum of DOEs without introducing other optical elements to reduce the aberration effect of the Fourier transform lens is proposed. By applying this method, beam shaping performance is improved markedly for the optical system with a real Fourier transform lens. The experiments carried out with a commercial Fourier transform lens give evidence for this method. The method is capable of reducing the system complexity as well as improving its performance.

  7. Direction-sensitive smart monitoring of structures using heterogeneous smartphone sensor data and coordinate system transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ekin; Feng, Maria Q.

    2017-04-01

    Mobile, heterogeneous, and smart sensor networks produce pervasive structural health monitoring (SHM) information. With various embedded sensors, smartphones have emerged to innovate SHM by empowering citizens to serve as sensors. By default, smartphones meet the fundamental smart sensor criteria, thanks to the built-in processor, memory, wireless communication units and mobile operating system. SHM using smartphones, however, faces technical challenges due to citizen-induced uncertainties, undesired sensor-structure integration, and lack of control over the sensing platform. Previously, the authors presented successful applications of smartphone accelerometers for structural vibration measurement and proposed a monitoring framework under citizen-induced spatiotemporal uncertainties. This study aims at extending the capabilities of smartphone-based SHM with a special focus on the lack of control over the sensor (i.e., the phone) positioning by citizens resulting in unknown sensor orientations. Using smartphone gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer; instantaneous sensor orientation can be obtained with respect to gravitational and magnetic north directions. Using these sensor data, mobile operating system frameworks return processed features such as attitude and heading that can be used to correct misaligned sensor signals. For this purpose, a coordinate transformation procedure is proposed and illustrated on a two-story laboratory structural model and real-scale bridges with various sensor positioning examples. The proposed method corrects the sensor signals by tracking their orientations and improves measurement accuracy. Moreover, knowing structure’s coordinate system a priori, even the data from arbitrarily positioned sensors can automatically be transformed to the structural coordinates. In addition, this paper also touches some secondary mobile and heterogeneous data issues including imperfect sampling and geolocation services. The coordinate system

  8. Design and implementation of five-axis transformation function in CNC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Feng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To implement five-axis functions in CNC system, based on domestic system Lan Tian series, an improved design method for the system software structure is proposed in this paper. The numerical control kernel of CNC system is divided into the task layer and the motion layer. A five-axis transformation unit is integrated into the motion layer. After classifying five-axis machines into different types and analyzing their geometry information, the five-axis kinematic library is designed according to the abstract factory pattern. Furthermore, by taking CA spindle-tilting machine as an example, the forward and the inverse kinematic transformations are deduced. Based on the new software architecture and the five-axis kinematic library, algorithms of RTCP (rotation tool center point control and 3D radius compensation for end-milling are designed and realized. The milling results show that, with five-axis functions based on such software structure, the instructions with respect to the cutter’s position and orientation can be directly carried out in the CNC system.

  9. The plastidic DEAD-box RNA helicase 22, HS3, is essential for plastid functions both in seed development and in seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Masatake; Hayashi, Makoto; Kondo, Maki; Nishimura, Mikio

    2013-09-01

    Plants accumulate large amounts of storage products in seeds to provide an energy reserve and to supply nutrients for germination and post-germinative growth. Arabidopsis thaliana belongs to the Brassica family, and oil is the main storage product in Arabidopsis seeds. To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of oil biosynthesis in seeds, we screened for high density seeds (heavy seed) that have a low oil content. HS3 (heavy seed 3) encodes the DEAD-box RNA helicase 22 that is localized to plastids. The triacylglycerol (TAG) content of hs3-1 seeds was 10% lower than that of wild-type (WT) seeds, while the protein content was unchanged. The hs3-1 plants displayed a pale-green phenotype in developing seeds and seedlings, but not in adult leaves. The HS3 expression level was high in developing seeds and seedlings, but was low in stems, rosette leaves and flowers. The plastid gene expression profile of WT developing seeds and seedlings differed from that of hs3-1 developing seeds and seedlings. The expression of several genes was reduced in developing hs3-1 seeds, including accD, a gene that encodes the β subunit of carboxyltransferase, which is one component of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in plastids. In contrast, no differences were observed between the expression profiles of WT and hs3-1 rosette leaves. These results show that HS3 is essential for proper mRNA accumulation of plastid genes during seed development and seedling growth, and suggest that HS3 ensures seed oil biosynthesis by maintaining plastid mRNA levels.

  10. Carbon stock and turnover in riparian soils under lowland rainforest transformation systems on Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennings, Nina; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    In many tropical areas, rainforests are being cleared in order to exploit timber and other forest products as well as plant crops for food, feed and fuel use. The determinants of different patterns of deforestation and the roles of resulting transformation systems of tropical riparian rainforests for ecological functions have yet received little attention in scientific research. Especially C stocks in riparian zones are strongly affected by climate and land use changes that lead to changes in water regime and ground water level drops. We investigated the effects of land transformations in riparian ecosystems of Sumatra, on soil C content, stocks and decomposability at the landscape scale. We compare C losses in transformation systems and rainforests and estimate the contribution of soil erosion and organic matter mineralization. Further, these losses are related to changing water level and temperature increase along increasing distance to the stream. This approach is based on changing δ13C values of SOC in the topsoil as compared to those in subsoil. The shift of δ13C of SOC in the topsoil from the linear regression calculated by δ13C value with log(SOC) in the topsoil represents the modification of the C turnover rate in the top soil. Erosion is estimated by the shift of the δ13C value of SOC in the subsoil under plantations. Further, the δ13C and δ15N soil profiles and their comparison with litter of local vegetation, can be used to estimate the contribution of autochthonous and allochthonous organics to soil C stocks. Preliminary results show strong increase of erosive losses, increased decomposition with land-use transformation and decrease of C stocks with decreasing water table.

  11. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated sorghum transformation using a mannose selection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhensheng; Xie, Xueju; Ling, Yan; Muthukrishnan, Subbarat; Liang, George H

    2005-11-01

    A dual-marker plasmid containing the selectable marker gene, manA, and the reporter gene, sgfp, was used to transform immature sorghum embryos by employing an Agrobacterium-mediated system. Both genes were under the control of the ubi1 promoter in a binary vector pPZP201. The Escherichia coli phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) gene, pmi, was used as the selectable marker gene and mannose was used as the selective agent. The sgfp gene encoding green fluorescence protein (GFP) was the reporter gene and served as a visual screening marker. A total of 167 transgenic plants were obtained from nine different embryogenic callus lines grown on a selection medium containing 1%-2% mannose. Embryoids and shoots regenerated via embryogenesis, that showed strong GFP fluorescence, were selected from two sorghum genotypes: C401, an inbred line, and Pioneer 8505, a commercial hybrid. The GFP accumulation in transgenic plants was observed with a dissecting stereomicroscope. The integration and expression of the manA gene was confirmed by Southern blot and Western blot analyses, and the feasibility of manA selection was demonstrated by the chlorophenol red (CPR) assay. Our results indicated that transgenes segregated in the Mendelian fashion in the T1 generation. The conversion of mannose to a metabolizable fructose carbon source is beneficial to plants. In addition, except in soybean and a few legumes, no endogenous PMI activity has been detected in plant species, indicating that PMI is useful in the transformation of sorghum. In addition, PMI has no sequence homology to known allergens. Optimization of this selection system for sorghum transformation provides an efficient way to produce transgenic plants without using antibiotic or herbicidal agents as selectable markers, and our results showed that the transformation efficiency reached 2.88% for Pioneer 8505 and 3.30% for C401, both values higher than in previously published reports.

  12. Optimizing Culture System of Ri T-DNA Transformed Roots for Citrus grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-hong; SUN Zhong-hai; TONG Rui-jian

    2006-01-01

    Genetic transformation experiments of the different explants from Citrus grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes were carried out in darkness or in light. The optimizing culture system of Ri T-DNA transformed roots for C. grandis cv. Changshou Shatian You was constructed as follows: After the ventral wounded striations on the single activation cotyledon were inoculated by A. rhizogenes A4 (logarithmic period), they were cocultured at (25 ± 2)℃ in darkness for 25-30 days; some transformed roots were generated from wounded striations of most cotyledons. The genetically transformed ratio is (83 ± 11)%. Axenic Ri T-DNA transformed roots (hairy roots) were harvested after five subcultures. Explants were activated on MT medium. The MS medium was used for subculture of transformed roots. Mass Ri T-DNA transformed roots in which the hormone was produced independently were harvested from this optimizing culture system. White, fresh Ri T-DNA transformed roots were (1.14 ± 0.07) cm long, (0.73 ± 0.04) mm wide, and the growth direction of transformed roots was negative geotropism.

  13. Unintended Transformations of Clinical Relations with a Computerized Physician Order Entry System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle; Böttger, Ulrich; Boye, Niels

    2007-01-01

    A socio-technical approach was used to study the qualitative effects of deploying a medication CPOE (Computerized Physician Order Entry System with no decision support) at two internal medical wards in a hospital in Denmark. Our results show spatial and temporal transformations of core acts...... and relations in medication work, i.e. of the intended use of the system inscribed in hardware and software, in the relations of care between doctors and patients, of collaboration between doctors and nurses, and prospectively of the patients’ trajectories when readmitted to hospital or another health care...... institution, reusing data from the system. This study throws light on problems of continuity of patient care paths, patient-related and IT-system-related error handling and time spent on core activities – when ubiquitous IT is used locally in a real physical setting with specific traditions of performing...

  14. Transforming stand-alone expert system into a community of cooperating agents

    CERN Document Server

    Jennings, N R; Aarnts, R P; Fuchs, J; Skarek, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI) systems in which multiple problem solving agents cooperate to achieve a common objective is a rapidly emerging and promising technology. However, as yet, there have been relatively few reported cases of such systems being employed to tackle real-world problems in realistic domains. One of the reasons for this is that DAI researchers have given virtually no consideration to the process of incorporating pre-existing systems into a community of cooperating agents. Yet reuse is a primary consideration for any organisation with a large software base. To redress the balance, this paper reports on an experiment undertaken at the CERN laboratories, in which two pre-existing and standalone expert systems for diagnosing faults in a particle accelerator were transformed into a community of cooperating agents. The experiences and insights gained during this process provide a valuable first step towards satisfying the needs of potential users of DAI technology - identifying the ty...

  15. Propagation of a general-type beam through a truncated fractional Fourier transform optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chengliang; Cai, Yangjian

    2010-03-01

    Paraxial propagation of a general-type beam through a truncated fractional Fourier transform (FRT) optical system is investigated. Analytical formulas for the electric field and effective beam width of a general-type beam in the FRT plane are derived based on the Collins formula. Our formulas can be used to study the propagation of a variety of laser beams--such as Gaussian, cos-Gaussian, cosh-Gaussian, sine-Gaussian, sinh-Gaussian, flat-topped, Hermite-cosh-Gaussian, Hermite-sine-Gaussian, higher-order annular Gaussian, Hermite-sinh-Gaussian and Hermite-cos-Gaussian beams--through a FRT optical system with or without truncation. The propagation properties of a Hermite-cos-Gaussian beam passing through a rectangularly truncated FRT optical system are studied as a numerical example. Our results clearly show that the truncated FRT optical system provides a convenient way for laser beam shaping.

  16. A Targeted Enrichment Strategy for Massively Parallel Sequencing of Angiosperm Plastid Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory W. Stull

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: We explored a targeted enrichment strategy to facilitate rapid and low-cost next-generation sequencing (NGS of numerous complete plastid genomes from across the phylogenetic breadth of angiosperms. Methods and Results: A custom RNA probe set including the complete sequences of 22 previously sequenced eudicot plastomes was designed to facilitate hybridization-based targeted enrichment of eudicot plastid genomes. Using this probe set and an Agilent SureSelect targeted enrichment kit, we conducted an enrichment experiment including 24 angiosperms (22 eudicots, two monocots, which were subsequently sequenced on a single lane of the Illumina GAIIx with single-end, 100-bp reads. This approach yielded nearly complete to complete plastid genomes with exceptionally high coverage (mean coverage: 717×, even for the two monocots. Conclusions: Our enrichment experiment was highly successful even though many aspects of the capture process employed were suboptimal. Hence, significant improvements to this methodology are feasible. With this general approach and probe set, it should be possible to sequence more than 300 essentially complete plastid genomes in a single Illumina GAIIx lane (achieving 50× mean coverage. However, given the complications of pooling numerous samples for multiplex sequencing and the limited number of barcodes (e.g., 96 available in commercial kits, we recommend 96 samples as a current practical maximum for multiplex plastome sequencing. This high-throughput approach should facilitate large-scale plastid genome sequencing at any level of phylogenetic diversity in angiosperms.

  17. Metabolic pathway redundancy within the apicomplexan-dinoflagellate radiation argues against an ancient chromalveolate plastid

    KAUST Repository

    Waller, Ross F.

    2015-12-08

    The chromalveolate hypothesis presents an attractively simple explanation for the presence of red algal-derived secondary plastids in 5 major eukaryotic lineages: “chromista” phyla, cryptophytes, haptophytes and ochrophytes; and alveolate phyla, dinoflagellates and apicomplexans. It posits that a single secondary endosymbiotic event occurred in a common ancestor of these diverse groups, and that this ancient plastid has since been maintained by vertical inheritance only. Substantial testing of this hypothesis by molecular phylogenies has, however, consistently failed to provide support for the predicted monophyly of the host organisms that harbour these plastids—the “chromalveolates.” This lack of support does not disprove the chromalveolate hypothesis per se, but rather drives the proposed endosymbiosis deeper into the eukaryotic tree, and requires multiple plastid losses to have occurred within intervening aplastidic lineages. An alternative perspective on plastid evolution is offered by considering the metabolic partnership between the endosymbiont and its host cell. A recent analysis of metabolic pathways in a deep-branching dinoflagellate indicates a high level of pathway redundancy in the common ancestor of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, and differential losses of these pathways soon after radiation of the major extant lineages. This suggests that vertical inheritance of an ancient plastid in alveolates is highly unlikely as it would necessitate maintenance of redundant pathways over very long evolutionary timescales.

  18. Cyanobacterial contribution to the genomes of the plastid-lacking protists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuzaki Motomichi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic genes with cyanobacterial ancestry in plastid-lacking protists have been regarded as important evolutionary markers implicating the presence of plastids in the early evolution of eukaryotes. Although recent genomic surveys demonstrated the presence of cyanobacterial and algal ancestry genes in the genomes of plastid-lacking protists, comparative analyses on the origin and distribution of those genes are still limited. Results We identified 12 gene families with cyanobacterial ancestry in the genomes of a taxonomically wide range of plastid-lacking eukaryotes (Phytophthora [Chromalveolata], Naegleria [Excavata], Dictyostelium [Amoebozoa], Saccharomyces and Monosiga [Opisthokonta] using a novel phylogenetic pipeline. The eukaryotic gene clades with cyanobacterial ancestry were mostly composed of genes from bikonts (Archaeplastida, Chromalveolata, Rhizaria and Excavata. We failed to find genes with cyanobacterial ancestry in Saccharomyces and Dictyostelium, except for a photorespiratory enzyme conserved among fungi. Meanwhile, we found several Monosiga genes with cyanobacterial ancestry, which were unrelated to other Opisthokonta genes. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that a considerable number of genes with cyanobacterial ancestry have contributed to the genome composition of the plastid-lacking protists, especially bikonts. The origins of those genes might be due to lateral gene transfer events, or an ancient primary or secondary endosymbiosis before the diversification of bikonts. Our data also show that all genes identified in this study constitute multi-gene families with punctate distribution among eukaryotes, suggesting that the transferred genes could have survived through rounds of gene family expansion and differential reduction.

  19. Nitrogen transformations in intensive aquaculture system and its implication to climate change through nitrous oxide emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Sharma, Keshab; Brotto, Ariane Coelho; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2013-02-01

    The rapid development of aquaculture could result in significant environmental concerns such as eutrophication and climate change. However, to date, very few studies have been conducted to investigate nitrogen transformations in aquaculture systems; and specifically the emission of nitrous oxide (N(2)O), which is an important greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting substance. In this study, nitrogen transformations in intensive laboratory-scale Chinese catfish (Clarias fuscus) aquaculture systems were investigated by identifying and quantifying N(2)O emissions. Results indicated that about 1.3% of the nitrogen input was emitted as N(2)O gas. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and feeding rates had significant effects on N(2)O emissions. Higher N(2)O emissions were obtained in aquaculture systems with lower DO concentrations and higher feeding rates. Both nitrification and denitrification appeared to be responsible for the emissions of N(2)O. Key factors which correlated with the N(2)O emission rate in aquaculture systems were NO(2)(-), DO and total ammonia nitrogen concentrations.

  20. Establishment of a Genetic Transformation System and Its Application in Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Liu; Chuan Wang; Haihua Yang; Huarong Tan

    2012-01-01

    The whole-genome sequence of Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis,an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium isolated from the Tengchong hot spring in China,was completed in 2002.However,in vivo studies on the genes of this strain have been hindered in the absence of genetic manipulation system.In order to establish such a system,the plasmid pBOL01 containing the replication origin of the T.tengcongensis chromosome and a kanamycin resistance cassette,in which kanamycin resistance gene expression was controlled by the tte1482 promoter from T.tengcongensis,was constructed and introduced into T.tengcongensis via electroporation.Subsequently,the high transformation efficiency occurred when using freshly cultured T.tengcongensis cells without electroporation treatment,suggesting that T.tengcongensis is naturally competent under appropriate growth stage.A genetic transformation system for this strain was then established based on these important components,and this system was proved to be available for studying physiological characters of T.tengcongensis in vivo by means of hisG gene disruption and complementation.

  1. Transformation of AgCl nanoparticles in a sewer system — A field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaegi, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.kaegi@eawag.ch [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Voegelin, Andreas; Sinnet, Brian [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Zuleeg, Steffen [KUSTER + HAGER Group, Oberstrasse 222, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Siegrist, Hansruedi [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Burkhardt, Michael [HSR University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Environmental and Process Engineering (UMTEC), Oberseestrasse 10, 8640 Rapperswil (Switzerland)

    2015-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are increasingly used in consumer products and their release during the use phase may negatively affect aquatic ecosystems. Research efforts, so far, have mainly addressed the application and use of metallic Ag(0)-NP. However, as shown by recent studies on the release of Ag from textiles, other forms of Ag, especially silver chloride (AgCl), are released in much larger quantities than metallic Ag(0). In this field study, we report the release of AgCl-NP from a point source (industrial laundry that applied AgCl-NP during a piloting phase over a period of several months to protect textiles from bacterial regrowth) to the public sewer system and investigate the transformation of Ag during its transport in the sewer system and in the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). During the study period, the laundry discharged ~ 85 g of Ag per day, which dominated the Ag loads in the sewer system from the respective catchment (72–95%) and the Ag in the digested WWTP sludge (67%). Combined results from electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the Ag discharged from the laundry to the sewer consisted of about one third AgCl and two thirds Ag{sub 2}S, both forms primarily occurring as nanoparticles with diameters < 100 nm. During the 800 m transport in the sewer channel to the nearby WWTP, corresponding to a travel time of ~ 30 min, the remaining AgCl was transformed into nanoparticulate Ag{sub 2}S. Ag{sub 2}S-NP also dominated the Ag speciation in the digested sludge. In line with results from earlier studies, the very low Ag concentrations measured in the effluent of the WWTP (< 0.5 μg L{sup −1}) confirmed the very high removal efficiency of Ag from the wastewater stream (> 95%). - Highlights: • First field study on the transformation of AgCl nanoparticles released from a point source into the municipal sewer system. • Transformation of AgCl-NP into Ag{sub 2}S already occurred during 30-min transport in the

  2. Transformation of Ground Vibration Signal for Debris-Flow Monitoring and Detection in Alarm Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems.

  3. Transformation of ground vibration signal for debris-flow monitoring and detection in alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Fritschi, Bruno; Graf, Christoph; Moya, José

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems.

  4. Application of 3D wavelet transforms for crack detection in rotor systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Nagaraju; K Narayana Rao; K Mallikarjuna Rao

    2009-06-01

    The dynamics and diagnostics of a cracked rotor have been gaining importance in recent years. The early detection of faults like fatigue cracks in rotor shafts are very important to prevent catastrophic failure of the rotor system. Vibration monitoring during start up or shut-down is as important as during steady state operation to detect cracks especially for machines such as aircraft engines which start and stop quite frequently and run at high speeds. So, the transient data of the cracked rotor has been transformed using the wavelet transforms for crack detection. Most of the works quoted in the literature used 1D wavelets or 2D wavelets (Continuous Wavelet Transform-CWT) for crack detection. The crack detectors in the signals are both time as well as frequency dependent. So, the use of 2D wavelets is also not enough to detect the crack. In the present work a 3D wavelet (CWT) has been utilized which clearly indicates both the time and frequency features of the crack. The presence of sub-criticals in the CWT may be a best crack indicator but it is not always reliable. The addition of noise to the signal may sometimes lead to inaccurate results. So, there is a need to identify a parameter in addition to the sub-criticals. The phase angle between the two signals (cracked and un-cracked) or two transverse vibrations can be a better crack indicator because it is very less sensitive to noise disturbance. So, to extract the above phase angle a new transform has been applied called Cross Wavelet Transform (XWT). The XWT is exploited for the first time to a rotor fault detection system in the present work. Some interesting results have been obtained using the same. The advantage of the XWT is that both, the phase angles between the transverse signals and also the amplitudes of sub-criticals are viewed in a single plot. Parametric analysis is also carried out by varying crack depth and crack position for diagnostic purposes. The inverse problem of crack identi

  5. Hardware and software system for monitoring oil pump operation in power high-voltage transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михайло Дмитрович Дяченко

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the basic prerequisites for the creation of an automated monitoring system for oil pumps of high-voltage transformers. This is due to the fact that the long operation of oil pumps results in deterioration and destruction of bearings, rubbing of the rotor, breakage and damage to the impeller, leakage, etc., which inevitably causes a significant decrease in the insulating properties of the transformer oil and leads to expenditures for its further recovery. False triggerings of gas protection sometimes occur. Continuous operation of the electric motor also requires additional equipment to protect the motor itself from various emergency situations, such as a short in the stator winding, a housing breakdown, an incomplete phase mode, etc. The use of stationary systems provides: diagnosing defects at an early stage of their development, increasing the reliability and longevity of the equipment components, increasing the overhaul period, decreasing the number of emergency stops, and adjusting the schedule of preventative maintenance. The basic principles of identification of the damaged part of the oil pump are given, the hardware and algorithmic solutions are considered in the work. The full-scale tests of the model sample on the power transformer of the high-voltage substation confirmed the assumption of the possibility of detecting the damaged unit separating it from the rest connected in one mechanical structure. A detailed analysis of the operation of each of the units is carried out by means of the general substation switchboard and displayed as graphs, diagrams and text messages. When the limit values of vibration are reached, faults in the operation of the unit are detected, the overlimit current values, a warning alarm is activated, and the command to disconnect the damaged unit is issued. The optimal solution for the organization of the information collection system using the principle of sensor networks, but combined

  6. A SIMPLIFIED MODEL OF THREE-PHASE BANK OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS IN THE DYNAMIC SIMULATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Novash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  The article presents and substantiates a simplified mathematical simulation model realization technique for a three-phase bank of current transformers (CT based on their nameplate data. The secondary windings and load of the current transformers form a Y-connected circuit with neutral conductor. Consistent with the presented technique the simplified mathematical simulation realizes in the dynamic-modeling environment of MatLab–Simulink–SimPowerSystems. This simulation allows obtaining the secondary current curve shape entering only the nameplate data of the CT being simulated. Thus, the simulation under consideration enables the assessment of technical feasibility of the CT from viewpoint of correct functioning of the relay protective devices during transient processes in the electric energy systems.Employing the model, the authors conduct computational experiments simulating the CT typical operating modes: short-circuit current passage with presence/absence of the direct component and short-circuit current passage with presence of the direct component and residual magnetic induction of the CT. The paper examines the modes of automatic re-closing failure at different stages of the breaker closure with oscillograms drawn illustrating each characteristic case.The authors compare two methods for the CT iron magnetization-curve assigning: manual approximation and the Ollendorf-formula approximation. Relying on this comparison they conclude on feasability of application of the magnetization-curve approximating function for the CT operating analysis during transient processes in the electric energy systems. An elaborated user-friendly graphic interface provides a means of visual assigning the CT nominal parameters, the residual magnetic induction, and the method of the transformer iron magnetization curve approximation. The results of conducted computational experiments prove feasibility of the CT-bank simulation model.

  7. A new Watermarking System based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) in color biometric images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Sengul; Tuncer, Turker; Avci, Engin; Gulten, Arif

    2012-08-01

    This paper recommend a biometric color images hiding approach An Watermarking System based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), which is used to protect the security and integrity of transmitted biometric color images. Watermarking is a very important hiding information (audio, video, color image, gray image) technique. It is commonly used on digital objects together with the developing technology in the last few years. One of the common methods used for hiding information on image files is DCT method which used in the frequency domain. In this study, DCT methods in order to embed watermark data into face images, without corrupting their features.

  8. Ciphertext-only attack on a joint transform correlator encryption system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenggong; Liao, Meihua; He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang

    2013-11-18

    A ciphertext-only attack (COA) on a joint transform correlator (JTC) encryption system is proposed. From the perspective view of optical cryptanalysis, we find out that the issue to be solved in the COA scheme could be transferred into a phase retrieval problem with single intensity measurement. And in this paper, the hybrid input-output (HIO) algorithm is employed to handle this issue with the help of an inartificial signal domain support and a given frequency domain constraint. Meanwhile, we provide a set of numerical simulations to demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the presented method.

  9. Differential transform method for solving linear and non-linear systems of partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi Kanth, A.S.V. [Applied Mathematics Division, School of Science and Humanities, V.I.T. University, Vellore-632 014, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: asvravikanth@yahoo.com; Aruna, K. [Applied Mathematics Division, School of Science and Humanities, V.I.T. University, Vellore-632 014, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-11-17

    In this Letter, we propose a reliable algorithm to develop exact and approximate solutions for the linear and non-linear systems of partial differential equations. The approach rest mainly on two-dimensional differential transform method which is one of the approximate methods. The method can easily be applied to many linear and non-linear problems and is capable of reducing the size of computational work. Exact solutions can also be achieved by the known forms of the series solutions. Several illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present method.

  10. [The role of educational institutions in the transformation of the Mexican health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue-Wiechers, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The vocation of any medical school is educate the physicians that the country needs to address current and future health challenges, and able to work effectively in the gradual transformation of the health system of our country. The reason for the inclusion of this topic in this symposium is to ask whether this has been happening and if has been appropriate, and if so, to what extent medical education institutions establish actions and directions for the better and more quickly achieve the desired goal.

  11. Like daughter, like son? Fertility decline and the transformation of gender systems in the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keera Allendorf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND An important question for population research is whether fertility decline transforms gender systems. OBJECTIVE This paper contributes to answering this broad question by examining how fertility decline may change the relative value and roles of daughters versus sons in families. First, I outline theoretical pathways, suggesting that a key factor is the gender composition of families. As fertility declines, the proportion of families with children of only one gender increases, which may facilitate greater gender symmetry between daughters and sons. Second, I explore how fertility decline may be transforming the relative value and roles of sons and daughters in practice in one place. METHODS The analysis draws primarily on semi-structured interviews with 30 respondents living in one Indian village. RESULTS In recent decades, fertility has declined to at least replacement levels. Respondents also perceive changes in the gender system, including less son preference, more equal schooling for sons and daughters, more freedom in marriage and pre-marital relationships, and perhaps greater daughter support of parents in old age. CONCLUSIONS The results describe changes in the relative value, treatment, and behavior of sons and daughters that are consistent with the theorized effects of fertility decline. Future research is needed, however, to determine whether fertility decline makes a unique causal contribution to changes in the gender system.

  12. Efficient Temperature-Dependent Green's Functions Methods for Realistic Systems: Compact Grids for Orthogonal Polynomial Transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananenka, Alexei A; Phillips, Jordan J; Zgid, Dominika

    2016-02-01

    The Matsubara Green's function that is used to describe temperature-dependent behavior is expressed on a numerical grid. While such a grid usually has a couple of hundred points for low-energy model systems, for realistic systems with large basis sets the size of an accurate grid can be tens of thousands of points, constituting a severe computational and memory bottleneck. In this paper, we determine efficient imaginary time grids for the temperature-dependent Matsubara Green's function formalism that can be used for calculations on realistic systems. We show that, because of the use of an orthogonal polynomial transform, we can restrict the imaginary time grid to a few hundred points and reach micro-Hartree accuracy in the electronic energy evaluation. Moreover, we show that only a limited number of orthogonal polynomial expansion coefficients are necessary to preserve accuracy when working with a dual representation of the Green's function or self-energy and transforming between the imaginary time and frequency domain.

  13. Efficient temperature-dependent Green's functions methods for realistic systems: compact grids for orthogonal polynomial transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Kananenka, Alexei A; Zgid, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    The temperature-dependent Matsubara Green's function that is used to describe temperature-dependent behavior is expressed on a numerical grid. While such a grid usually has a couple of hundred points for low-energy model systems, for realistic systems in large basis sets the size of an accurate grid can be tens of thousands of points, constituting a severe computational and memory bottleneck. In this paper, we determine efficient imaginary time grids for the temperature-dependent Matsubara Green's function formalism that can be used for calculations on realistic systems. We show that due to the use of orthogonal polynomial transform, we can restrict the imaginary time grid to few hundred points and reach micro-Hartree accuracy in the electronic energy evaluation. Moreover, we show that only a limited number of orthogonal polynomial expansion coefficients are necessary to preserve accuracy when working with a dual representation of Green's function or self-energy and transforming between the imaginary time and...

  14. Quantitative analysis of transformed ray transferences of optical systems in a space of augmented Hamiltonian matrices*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for methods for quantitative analysis of the first-order optical character of optical systems including the eye and components of the eye.  Because of their symplectic nature ray transferences themselves are not closed under addition and multiplication by ascalar and, hence, are not amenable to conventional quantitative analysis such as the calculation of an arithmetic mean.  However transferences can be transformed into augmented Hamiltonian matrices which are amenable to such analysis.  This paper provides a general methodology and in particular shows how to calculate means and variance-covariances representing the first-order optical character of optical systems.  The systems may be astigmatic and may have decentred elements.  An accompanying paper shows application to the cornea of the human eye with allowance for thickness.

  15. Collusion-resistant audio fingerprinting system in the modulated complex lapped transform domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Juan Garcia-Hernandez

    Full Text Available Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios.

  16. Collusion-resistant audio fingerprinting system in the modulated complex lapped transform domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Juan; Feregrino-Uribe, Claudia; Cumplido, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios.

  17. Analyzing Nonstationary Random Response of a SDOF System under the Evolutionary Random Excitation by Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fang-bing; ZHANG Tian-shu

    2006-01-01

    For evolutionary random excitations, a general method of analyzing nonstationary random responses of systems was presented in this paper. Firstly, for the evolutionary random excitation model, the evolutionary power spectrum density function (EPSD) of a random excitation was given by wavelet transform. Based on the EPSD, the nonstationary responses of a SDOF system subjected to evolutionary random excitations were studied. The application and validity of presented method were illustrated by numerical examples. In numerical examples, the recently developed stochastic models for EI Contro (1934) and Mexico City (1985) earthquakes which preserve the nonstationary evolutions of amplitude and frequency content of ground accelerations were used as excitations. The nonstationary random mean-square responses of a SDOF system under these two excitations were evaluated and compared with simulated results.

  18. Stable reduced-order models of generalized dynamical systems using coordinate-transformed Arnoldi algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, L.M.; Kamon, M.; Elfadel, I.; White, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Model order reduction based on Krylov subspace iterative methods has recently emerged as a major tool for compressing the number of states in linear models used for simulating very large physical systems (VLSI circuits, electromagnetic interactions). There are currently two main methods for accomplishing such a compression: one is based on the nonsymmetric look-ahead Lanczos algorithm that gives a numerically stable procedure for finding Pade approximations, while the other is based on a less well characterized Arnoldi algorithm. In this paper, we show that for certain classes of generalized state-space systems, the reduced-order models produced by a coordinate-transformed Arnoldi algorithm inherit the stability of the original system. Complete Proofs of our results will be given in the final paper.

  19. Investigations on Incipient Fault Diagnosis of Power Transformer Using Neural Networks and Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandkumar Wagh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuity of power supply is of utmost importance to the consumers and is only possible by coordination and reliable operation of power system components. Power transformer is such a prime equipment of the transmission and distribution system and needs to be continuously monitored for its well-being. Since ratio methods cannot provide correct diagnosis due to the borderline problems and the probability of existence of multiple faults, artificial intelligence could be the best approach. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA interpretation may provide an insight into the developing incipient faults and is adopted as the preliminary diagnosis tool. In the proposed work, a comparison of the diagnosis ability of backpropagation (BP, radial basis function (RBF neural network, and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS has been investigated and the diagnosis results in terms of error measure, accuracy, network training time, and number of iterations are presented.

  20. ON THE TRANSFORMATION OF REPRESENTATION OF NUMBERS IN THE RESIDUO FROM ONE MODULE SYSTEM TO ANOTHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. D. Polissky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this work is the theoretical foundation of one of the approaches to improve the effectiveness of the number system in nonpositional residual classes non-modular, so-called complex operation, the realization of which requires knowledge of all the digits of operands charges. The operation consists in transformation of the representation of one of the modules of its representation in the other system of modules. Methodology. The tools of research methodology are the system analysis, theory of numbers, the Chinese remainder theorem. The technique uses a representation of number as its residues, and in the polyadic code and is based on the determination of the balance of the module based on the obtained residues on the remaining modules of the original system. Such a determination is performed by sequentially subtracting of constants from the obtained residues of the original number and summing of these constants to the results, which are formed by the required modules. Thus, constant at each iteration are selected from pre-calculated tables depending on the value of the residue in the analyzed discharge. The proposed method is algorithmically simple and at circuit implementation can create the computational structures of high performance and reliability. Findings. The theoretical justification for this approach to obtain effective solutions of non-modular transformation operation in the system of residual classes for transition from representation of the number by the one system of units to its representation by the other system of modules. Originality. A theoretical justification of the proposed approach to the solution of a non-modular conversion operations in the residue number system for the transition from representation of number in one system of units to its representation in the other system of modules was proposed. This approach is appropriate to consider as one of the areas of research ways to improve the

  1. Cell and plastid division are coordinated through the prereplication factor AtCDT1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, Cécile; Perennes, Claudette; Reuzeau, Christophe; Catrice, Olivier; Brown, Spencer; Bergounioux, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The cell division cycle involves nuclear and cytoplasmic events, namely organelle multiplication and distribution between the daughter cells. Until now, plastid and plant cell division have been considered as independent processes because they can be uncoupled. Here, down-regulation of AtCDT1a and AtCDT1b, members of the prereplication complex, is shown to alter both nuclear DNA replication and plastid division in Arabidopsis thaliana. These data constitute molecular evidence for relationships between the cell-cycle and plastid division. Moreover, the severe developmental defects observed in AtCDT1-RNA interference (RNAi) plants underline the importance of coordinated cell and organelle division for plant growth and morphogenesis. PMID:15928083

  2. Plastidic aspartate aminotransferases and the biosynthesis of essential amino acids in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Fernando; Cañas, Rafael A; Pascual, M Belén; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2014-10-01

    In the chloroplasts and in non-green plastids of plants, aspartate is the precursor for the biosynthesis of different amino acids and derived metabolites that play distinct and important roles in plant growth, reproduction, development or defence. Aspartate biosynthesis is mediated by the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1), which catalyses the reversible transamination between glutamate and oxaloacetate to generate aspartate and 2-oxoglutarate. Plastids contain two aspartate aminotransferases: a eukaryotic-type and a prokaryotic-type bifunctional enzyme displaying aspartate and prephenate aminotransferase activities. A general overview of the biochemistry, regulation, functional significance, and phylogenetic origin of both enzymes is presented. The roles of these plastidic aminotransferases in the biosynthesis of essential amino acids are discussed.

  3. The plastid ancestor originated among one of the major cyanobacterial lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa de Alda, Jesús A G; Esteban, Rocío; Diago, María Luz; Houmard, Jean

    2014-09-15

    The primary endosymbiotic origin of chloroplasts is now well established but the identification of the present cyanobacteria most closely related to the plastid ancestor remains debated. We analyse the evolutionary trajectory of a subset of highly conserved cyanobacterial proteins (core) along the plastid lineage, those which were not lost after the endosymbiosis. We concatenate the sequences of 33 cyanobacterial core proteins that share a congruent evolutionary history, with their eukaryotic counterparts to reconstruct their phylogeny using sophisticated evolutionary models. We perform an independent reconstruction using concatenated 16S and 23S rRNA sequences. These complementary approaches converge to a plastid origin occurring during the divergence of one of the major cyanobacterial lineages that include N2-fixing filamentous cyanobacteria and species able to differentiate heterocysts.

  4. Plastid ribosomal protein S5 plays a critical role in photosynthesis, plant development, and cold stress tolerance in arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastid ribosomal proteins (RPs) are essential components for protein synthesis machinery and exert diverse roles in plant growth and development. Mutations in plastid RPs lead to a range of developmental phenotypes in plants. However, how they regulate these processes is not fully understood and th...

  5. A complete plastid phylogeny of Daucus – concordance to nuclear results, and markers necessary for phylogenetic resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premise of study: Our purposes were to (1) obtain a well-resolved plastid counterpart to the 94 gene nuclear ortholog gene phylogeny of Arbizu et al. (2014, Amer. J. Bot. 101:1666-1685; and Syst. Bot., in press), and (2) to investigate various classes and numbers of plastid markers necessary for a c...

  6. Plastid ribosomal protein S5 is involved in photosynthesis, plant development, and cold stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junxiang; Yuan, Hui; Yang, Yong; Fish, Tara; Lyi, Sangbom M; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Zhang, Lugang; Li, Li

    2016-04-01

    Plastid ribosomal proteins are essential components of protein synthesis machinery and have diverse roles in plant growth and development. Mutations in plastid ribosomal proteins lead to a range of developmental phenotypes in plants. However, how they regulate these processes is not fully understood, and the functions of some individual plastid ribosomal proteins remain unknown. To identify genes responsible for chloroplast development, we isolated and characterized a mutant that exhibited pale yellow inner leaves with a reduced growth rate in Arabidopsis. The mutant (rps5) contained a missense mutation of plastid ribosomal protein S5 (RPS5), which caused a dramatically reduced abundance of chloroplast 16S rRNA and seriously impaired 16S rRNA processing to affect ribosome function and plastid translation. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that the rps5 mutation suppressed the expression of a large number of core components involved in photosystems I and II as well as many plastid ribosomal proteins. Unexpectedly, a number of proteins associated with cold stress responses were greatly decreased in rps5, and overexpression of the plastid RPS5 improved plant cold stress tolerance. Our results indicate that RPS5 is an important constituent of the plastid 30S subunit and affects proteins involved in photosynthesis and cold stress responses to mediate plant growth and development.

  7. Horizontal transfer of DNA from the mitochondrial to the plastid genome and its subsequent evolution in milkweeds (Apocynaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon C.K. Straub; Richard C. Cronn; Christopher Edwards; Mark Fishbein; Aaron. Liston

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of DNA from the plastid to the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of higher plants is a common phenomenon; however, plastid genomes (plastomes) are highly conserved and have generally been regarded as impervious to HGT. We sequenced the 158 kb plastome and the 690 kb mitochondrial genome of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca [Apocynaceae...

  8. Bäcklund transformations, Lax system, conservation laws and multisoliton solutions for Jimbo-Miwa equation with Bell-polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjit; Gupta, R. K.

    2016-08-01

    Based on binary Bell polynomial approach, the bilinear equation and B a ¨cklund transformations for (3+1)-dimensional Jimbo-Miwa equation are obtained. By virtue of Cole-Hopf transformation, Lax system is constructed by direct linearization of coupled system of binary Bell polynomials. Furthermore, infinite conservation laws are obtained from two field condition in quick and natural way. Finally, a test function of extended three wave method is used to construct multisoliton solutions via bilinear equation.

  9. A Numerical Computation of a System of Linear and Nonlinear Time Dependent Partial Differential Equations Using Reduced Differential Transform Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an analytical solution of an initial value system of time dependent linear and nonlinear partial differential equations by implementing reduced differential transform (RDT method. The effectiveness and the convergence of RDT method are tested by means of five test problems, which indicates the validity and great potential of the reduced differential transform method for solving system of partial differential equations.

  10. The food system transformation in Vietnam : challanges for the horticultural sector posed by exports and changing consumer preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Mergenthaler, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    On the background of the food system transformation in developing countries, this cumulative dissertation answers the following research question in three articles: What are the determinants and implications of the food system transformation in the horticultural sector in Vietnam? The first article is entitled ?Quality Assurance Programs and International Market Access: Empirical Evidence from the Vietnamese Horticultural Industry?. It is based on a sample of 50 registered fruit and vegeta...

  11. An Efficient Secure Biometric System with Non-Invertible Gabor Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Radha

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric scheme are being widely employed because their security merits over the earlier authentication system based on records that can be easily lost, guessed or forged. High scale employments and the related template storage have increased the requirement to guard the biometric data stored in the system. Theft of biometric information is a negotiation of the users privacy. In Addition, the stolen biometric information can be used to access other biometric systems that have the similar feature provided for the user. Several alternative functions have been identified in literature for creating revocable or non-invertible biometric templates. Although, their security examination either disregards the distribution of biometric features or uses inefficient feature matching. This generally shows the way to unrealistic approximation of security. In this paper a novel approach for the Non-Invertible biometric system is proposed to secure the biometric template. Security of a feature transformation method can be assessed according to the two main factors: i non-invertibility, and ii diversity. Non-invertibility represents the complexity in obtaining the original biometric when the secure template is provided and diversity represents the complexity in guessing one secure template when a different secure template created from the identical biometric is provided. The proposed Non-invertible Gabor transform possess both the non invertible and diversity features which enhances the security of the system to a large extent. The proposed approach is very much resistant to minor translation error and rotation distortion. The experimental result shows the better performance of the proposed technique compared to the existing system.

  12. RECG maintains plastid and mitochondrial genome stability by suppressing extensive recombination between short dispersed repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Odahara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of plastid and mitochondrial genome stability is crucial for photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. Recently, we have reported that RECA1 maintains mitochondrial genome stability by suppressing gross rearrangements induced by aberrant recombination between short dispersed repeats in the moss Physcomitrella patens. In this study, we studied a newly identified P. patens homolog of bacterial RecG helicase, RECG, some of which is localized in both plastid and mitochondrial nucleoids. RECG partially complements recG deficiency in Escherichia coli cells. A knockout (KO mutation of RECG caused characteristic phenotypes including growth delay and developmental and mitochondrial defects, which are similar to those of the RECA1 KO mutant. The RECG KO cells showed heterogeneity in these phenotypes. Analyses of RECG KO plants showed that mitochondrial genome was destabilized due to a recombination between 8-79 bp repeats and the pattern of the recombination partly differed from that observed in the RECA1 KO mutants. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA instability was greater in severe phenotypic RECG KO cells than that in mild phenotypic ones. This result suggests that mitochondrial genomic instability is responsible for the defective phenotypes of RECG KO plants. Some of the induced recombination caused efficient genomic rearrangements in RECG KO mitochondria. Such loci were sometimes associated with a decrease in the levels of normal mtDNA and significant decrease in the number of transcripts derived from the loci. In addition, the RECG KO mutation caused remarkable plastid abnormalities and induced recombination between short repeats (12-63 bp in the plastid DNA. These results suggest that RECG plays a role in the maintenance of both plastid and mitochondrial genome stability by suppressing aberrant recombination between dispersed short repeats; this role is crucial for plastid and mitochondrial functions.

  13. Complete Plastid Genome of the Brown Alga Costaria costata (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Costaria costata is a commercially and industrially important brown alga. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to determine the complete plastid genome of C. costata. The genome consists of a 129,947 bp circular DNA molecule with an A+T content of 69.13% encoding a standard set of six ribosomal RNA genes, 27 transfer RNA genes, and 137 protein-coding genes with two conserved open reading frames (ORFs. The overall genome structure of C. costata is nearly the same as those of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida. The plastid genomes of these three algal species retain a strong conservation of the GTG start codon while infrequently using TGA as a stop codon. In this regard, they differ substantially from the plastid genomes of Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus. Analysis of the nucleic acid substitution rates of the Laminariales plastid genes revealed that the petF gene has the highest substitution rate and the petN gene contains no substitution over its complete length. The variation in plastid genes between C. costata and S. japonica is lower than that between C. costata and U. pinnatifida as well as that between U. pinnatifida and S. japonica. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that C. costata and U. pinnatifida have a closer genetic relationship. We also identified two gene length mutations caused by the insertion or deletion of repeated sequences, which suggest a mechanism of gene length mutation that may be one of the key explanations for the genetic variation in plastid genomes.

  14. Comparative analysis of complete plastid genomes from wild soybean (Glycine soja) and nine other Glycine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Aaqil Khan, Muhammad; Muhammad Imran, Qari; Kang, Sang-Mo; Al-Hosni, Khdija; Jeong, Eun Ju; Lee, Ko Eun; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The plastid genomes of different plant species exhibit significant variation, thereby providing valuable markers for exploring evolutionary relationships and population genetics. Glycine soja (wild soybean) is recognized as the wild ancestor of cultivated soybean (G. max), representing a valuable genetic resource for soybean breeding programmes. In the present study, the complete plastid genome of G. soja was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing and then compared it for the first time with previously reported plastid genome sequences from nine other Glycine species. The G. soja plastid genome was 152,224 bp in length and possessed a typical quadripartite structure, consisting of a pair of inverted repeats (IRa/IRb; 25,574 bp) separated by small (178,963 bp) and large (83,181 bp) single-copy regions, with a 51-kb inversion in the large single-copy region. The genome encoded 134 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes, and 39 transfer RNA genes, and possessed 204 randomly distributed microsatellites, including 15 forward, 25 tandem, and 34 palindromic repeats. Whole-plastid genome comparisons revealed an overall high degree of sequence similarity between G. max and G. gracilis and some divergence in the intergenic spacers of other species. Greater numbers of indels and SNP substitutions were observed compared with G. cyrtoloba. The sequence of the accD gene from G. soja was highly divergent from those of the other species except for G. max and G. gracilis. Phylogenomic analyses of the complete plastid genomes and 76 shared genes yielded an identical topology and indicated that G. soja is closely related to G. max and G. gracilis. The complete G. soja genome sequenced in the present study is a valuable resource for investigating the population and evolutionary genetics of Glycine species and can be used to identify related species. PMID:28763486

  15. Swapping FAD binding motifs between plastidic and bacterial ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Matías A; Botti, Horacio; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A

    2011-03-29

    Plant-type ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductases (FNRs) are grouped in two classes, plastidic with an extended FAD conformation and high catalytic rates and bacterial with a folded flavin nucleotide and low turnover rates. The 112-123 β-hairpin from a plastidic FNR and the carboxy-terminal tryptophan of a bacterial FNR, suggested to be responsible for the FAD differential conformation, were mutually exchanged. The plastidic FNR lacking the β-hairpin was unable to fold properly. An extra tryptophan at the carboxy terminus, emulating the bacterial FNR, resulted in an enzyme with decreased affinity for FAD and reduced diaphorase and ferredoxin-dependent cytochrome c reductase activities. The insertion of the β-hairpin into the corresponding position of the bacterial FNR increased FAD affinity but did not affect its catalytic properties. The same insertion with simultaneous deletion of the carboxy-terminal tryptophan produced a bacterial chimera emulating the plastidic architecture with an increased k(cat) and an increased catalytic efficiency for the diaphorase activity and a decrease in the enzyme's ability to react with its substrates ferredoxin and flavodoxin. Crystallographic structures of the chimeras showed no significant changes in their overall structure, although alterations in the FAD conformations were observed. Plastidic and bacterial FNRs thus reveal differential effects of key structural elements. While the 112-123 β-hairpin modulates the catalytic efficiency of plastidic FNR, it seems not to affect the bacterial FNR behavior, which instead can be improved by the loss of the C-terminal tryptophan. This report highlights the role of the FAD moiety conformation and the structural determinants involved in stabilizing it, ultimately modulating the functional output of FNRs.

  16. System efficiency of a tap transformer based grid connection topology applied on a direct driven generator for wind power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelfröjd, Senad; Eriksson, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Results from experiments on a tap transformer based grid connection system for a variable speed vertical axis wind turbine are presented. The tap transformer based system topology consists of a passive diode rectifier, DC-link, IGBT inverter, LCL-filter, and tap transformer. Full range variable speed operation is enabled by using the different step-up ratios of a tap transformer. Simulations using MATLAB/Simulink have been performed in order to study the behavior of the system. A full experimental set up of the system has been used in the laboratory study, where a clone of the on-site generator was driven by an induction motor and the system was connected to a resistive load to better evaluate the performance. Furthermore, the system is run and evaluated for realistic wind speeds and variable speed operation. For a more complete picture of the system performance, a case study using real site Weibull parameters is done, comparing different tap selection options. The results show high system efficiency at nominal power and an increase in overall power output for full tap operation in comparison with the base case, a standard transformer. In addition, the loss distribution at different wind speeds is shown, which highlights the dominant losses at low and high wind speeds. Finally, means for further increasing the overall system efficiency are proposed.

  17. Unified optical distortion correction method for imaging systems using a concise geometrical transformation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shengqian; Liu, Siqi; Yuan, Fei; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2017-01-01

    Since optical distortion has been a big trouble for various kinds of imaging systems, finding a simple correction method with wide applications is of significant importance. In this paper, we propose a unified and simple correction method, performing well for both photographic and projective imaging systems. The basic idea is regarding the optical distortion as geometrical deformation between the object and image, without considering the specific features of an optical system. First of all, a calibration template is employed to establish the geometrical transformation model (GTM) for the distortion of a built optical system. Two alternative algorithms are given to estimate the GTM in algebraic form. The computation is very simple because no intrinsic parameters of the optical system are needed to establish the GTM. Besides, the errors introduced by the fabricating and assembling process can be eliminated. Then, the corrected image of the photographic system or the pre-distorted image of the projective systems can be obtained accordingly utilizing the GTM. Experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method with wide applications.

  18. Transformation of personal computers and mobile phones into genetic diagnostic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Faye M; Ahmad, Kareem M; Eisenstein, Michael; Soh, H Tom

    2014-09-16

    Molecular diagnostics based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offer rapid and sensitive means for detecting infectious disease, but prohibitive costs have impeded their use in resource-limited settings where such diseases are endemic. In this work, we report an innovative method for transforming a desktop computer and a mobile camera phone--devices that have become readily accessible in developing countries--into a highly sensitive DNA detection system. This transformation was achieved by converting a desktop computer into a de facto thermal cycler with software that controls the temperature of the central processing unit (CPU), allowing for highly efficient PCR. Next, we reconfigured the mobile phone into a fluorescence imager by adding a low-cost filter, which enabled us to quantitatively measure the resulting PCR amplicons. Our system is highly sensitive, achieving quantitative detection of as little as 9.6 attograms of target DNA, and we show that its performance is comparable to advanced laboratory instruments at approximately 1/500th of the cost. Finally, in order to demonstrate clinical utility, we have used our platform for the successful detection of genomic DNA from the parasite that causes Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, directly in whole, unprocessed human blood at concentrations 4-fold below the clinical titer of the parasite.

  19. Complete sequence and analysis of plastid genomes of two economically important red algae: Pyropia haitanensis and Pyropia yezoensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pyropia haitanensis and P. yezoensis are two economically important marine crops that are also considered to be research models to study the physiological ecology of intertidal seaweed communities, evolutionary biology of plastids, and the origins of sexual reproduction. This plastid genome information will facilitate study of breeding, population genetics and phylogenetics. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have fully sequenced using next-generation sequencing the circular plastid genomes of P. hatanensis (195,597 bp and P. yezoensis (191,975 bp, the largest of all the plastid genomes of the red lineage sequenced to date. Organization and gene contents of the two plastids were similar, with 211-213 protein-coding genes (including 29-31 unknown-function ORFs, 37 tRNA genes, and 6 ribosomal RNA genes, suggesting a largest coding capacity in the red lineage. In each genome, 14 protein genes overlapped and no interrupted genes were found, indicating a high degree of genomic condensation. Pyropia maintain an ancient gene content and conserved gene clusters in their plastid genomes, containing nearly complete repertoires of the plastid genes known in photosynthetic eukaryotes. Similarity analysis based on the whole plastid genome sequences showed the distance between P. haitanensis and P. yezoensis (0.146 was much smaller than that of Porphyra purpurea and P. haitanensis (0.250, and P. yezoensis (0.251; this supports re-grouping the two species in a resurrected genus Pyropia while maintaining P. purpurea in genus Porphyra. Phylogenetic analysis supports a sister relationship between Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae, though precise phylogenetic relationships between multicellular red alage and chromists were not fully resolved. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that Pyropia have compact plastid genomes. Large coding capacity and long intergenic regions contribute to the size of the largest plastid genomes reported for the red lineage. Possessing

  20. Quantum Color Image Encryption Algorithm Based on A Hyper-Chaotic System and Quantum Fourier Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ru-Chao; Lei, Tong; Zhao, Qing-Min; Gong, Li-Hua; Zhou, Zhi-Hong

    2016-12-01

    To improve the slow processing speed of the classical image encryption algorithms and enhance the security of the private color images, a new quantum color image encryption algorithm based on a hyper-chaotic system is proposed, in which the sequences generated by the Chen's hyper-chaotic system are scrambled and diffused with three components of the original color image. Sequentially, the quantum Fourier transform is exploited to fulfill the encryption. Numerical simulations show that the presented quantum color image encryption algorithm possesses large key space to resist illegal attacks, sensitive dependence on initial keys, uniform distribution of gray values for the encrypted image and weak correlation between two adjacent pixels in the cipher-image.