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Sample records for plastic-like effect laboratory

  1. Abnormal Bidirectional Plasticity-Like Effects in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Zu; Rothwell, John C.; Lu, Chin-Song; Chuang, Wen-Li; Chen, Rou-Shayn

    2011-01-01

    Levodopa-induced dyskinesia is a major complication of long-term dopamine replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease that becomes increasingly problematic in advanced Parkinson's disease. Although the cause of levodopa-induced dyskinesias is still unclear, recent work in animal models of the corticostriatal system has suggested that…

  2. A Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ty Davis

    Electric propulsion technologies promise to revolutionize access to space, opening the door for mission concepts unfeasible by traditional propulsion methods alone. The Hall effect thruster is a relatively high thrust, moderate specific impulse electric propulsion device that belongs to the class of electrostatic thrusters. Hall effect thrusters benefit from an extensive flight history, and offer significant performance and cost advantages when compared to other forms of electric propulsion. Ongoing research on these devices includes the investigation of mechanisms that tend to decrease overall thruster efficiency, as well as the development of new techniques to extend operational lifetimes. This thesis is primarily concerned with the design and construction of a Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster (SMLHET), and its operation on argon propellant gas. Particular attention was addressed at low-cost, modular design principles, that would facilitate simple replacement and modification of key thruster parts such as the magnetic circuit and discharge channel. This capability is intended to facilitate future studies of device physics such as anomalous electron transport and magnetic shielding of the channel walls, that have an impact on thruster performance and life. Preliminary results demonstrate SMLHET running on argon in a manner characteristic of Hall effect thrusters, additionally a power balance method was utilized to estimate thruster performance. It is expected that future thruster studies utilizing heavier though more expensive gases like xenon or krypton, will observe increased efficiency and stability.

  3. The Effect of Chemistry Laboratory Activities on Students' Chemistry Perception and Laboratory Anxiety Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Cemil

    2017-01-01

    Chemistry lesson should be supported with experiments to understand the lecture effectively. For safety laboratory environment and to prevent laboratory accidents; chemical substances' properties, working principles for chemical substances' usage should be learnt. Aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of experiments which depend on…

  4. Effect of a Virtual Chemistry Laboratory on Students' Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatli, Zeynep; Ayas, Alipasa

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that laboratory applications are of significant importance in chemistry education. However, laboratory applications have generally been neglected in recent educational environments for a variety of reasons. In order to address this gap, this study examined the effect of a virtual chemistry laboratory (VCL) on student achievement…

  5. The Cost-Effective Laboratory: Implementation of Economic Evaluation of Laboratory Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogavac-Stanojevic Natasa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory testing as a part of laboratory in vitro diagnostic (IVD has become required tool in clinical practice for diagnosing, monitoring and prognosis of diseases, as well as for prediction of treatment response. The number of IVD tests available in laboratory practice has increased over the past decades and is likely to further increase in the future. Consequently, there is growing concern about the overutilization of laboratory tests and rising costs for laboratory testing. It is estimated that IVD accounts for between 1.4 and 2.3% of total healthcare expenditure and less than 5% of total hospital cost (Lewin Group report. These costs are rather low when compared to pharmaceuticals and medical aids which account for 15 and 5%, respectively. On the other hand, IVD tests play an important role in clinical practice, as they influence from 60% to 70% of clinical decision-making. Unfortunately, constant increases in healthcare spending are not directly related to healthcare benefit. Since healthcare resources are limited, health payers are interested whether the benefits of IVD tests are actually worth their cost. Many articles have introduced frameworks to assess the economic value of IVD tests. The most appropriate tool for quantitative assessment of their economic value is cost-effectiveness (CEA and cost-utility (CUA analysis. The both analysis determine cost in terms of effectiveness or utilities (combine quantity and quality of life of new laboratory test against its alternative. On the other hand, some investigators recommended calculation of laboratory test value as product of two ratios: Laboratory test value = (Technical accuracy/Turnaround time × (Utility/Costs. Recently, some researches used multicriteria decision analysis which allows comparison of diagnostic strategies in terms of benefits, opportunities, costs and risks. All analyses are constructed to identify laboratory test that produce the greatest healthcare benefit with

  6. Scaling up Effects in the Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Anna; Lindstrom, Ulf M.

    2004-01-01

    A simple and effective way of exposing chemistry students to some of the effects of scaling up an organic reaction is described. It gives the student an experience that may encounter in an industrial setting.

  7. The Effect of Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Experiments on Science Education Students' Chemistry Laboratory Attitudes, Anxiety and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Evrim

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to search the effect of guided inquiry laboratory experiments on students' attitudes towards chemistry laboratory, chemistry laboratory anxiety and their academic achievement in the laboratory. The study has been carried out with 37 third-year, undergraduate science education students, as a part of their Science Education Laboratory…

  8. The Butterfly Effect for Physics Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Valentine, John H.

    2015-01-01

    A low-cost chaos dynamics lab is developed for quantitative demonstration of the butterfly effect using a magnetic pendulum. Chaotic motion is explored by recording magnetic time series. Students analyze the data in Excel® to investigate the butterfly effect as well as the reconstruction of the strange attractor using time delay plots. The lab…

  9. The Effects of Integrating Laboratory Work with Theory on Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effects of Integrating Laboratory Work with Theory on Academic Achievement in Secondary School Physics. ... Journal Home > Vol 4, No 4 (2010) > ... better than those taught by treating practical work after and separate from theory.

  10. A laboratory exercise on systematic effects in gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrik Ramebaeck

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory exercise for calculation of true coincidence summing correction factors as well as calculating the effect of deviations between sample and standard source (filling height) was developed. This laboratory exercise was held in a masters course in nuclear chemistry the first time during fall 2013. The aim of the exercise was to high-light the importance of correcting for biases due to different systematic effects in gamma spectrometric measurements. (author)

  11. Virtual Laboratory "vs." Traditional Laboratory: Which Is More Effective for Teaching Electrochemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Ian; Phelps, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of virtual laboratories has become an increasing issue regarding science laboratories due to the increasing cost of hands-on laboratories, and the increase in distance education. Recent studies have looked at the use of virtual tools for laboratory to be used as supplements to the regular hands-on laboratories but many virtual tools have…

  12. Effects of Students' Pre- and Post-Laboratory Concept Maps on Students' Attitudes toward Chemistry Laboratory in University General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ziya; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Dogan, Alev

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scientific discussions based on student-constructed pre- and post-laboratory concept maps on students' attitudes toward chemistry laboratory in the university general chemistry. As part of instruction, during the first four laboratory sessions, students were taught how to construct and…

  13. Comparing sensitivity of ecotoxicological effect endpoints between laboratory and field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, H.; Riemann, B.; Christoffersen, K.

    2002-01-01

    multispecies field tests using tributyltin (TBT) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) were compared with published laboratory single-species test results and measured in situ concentrations. Extrapolation methods were evaluated by comparing predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs), calculated by AF...

  14. Laboratory investigation of the loading rate effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huy, N.Q.; Van Tol, A.F.; Hölscher, P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the interpretation of the quasi-static (e.g. Statnamic) pile load tests, a research project has been started to investigate effects of the loading rate on the bearing capacity of a pile in sand. A series of laboratory tests has been carried out. The testing program consists of a

  15. The WEBSIM FISHBANKS Simulation Laboratory: Analysis of Its Ripple Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes do Amaral, João Alberto; Hess, Aurélio

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the ripple effects of the WEBSIM FISHBANKS Simulation Laboratory held at Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) in 2014, held as a result of a partnership between the Sloan School of Management of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the UNIFESP, and the Brazilian Chapter of the System Dynamics Society of…

  16. Fine Sediment Effects on Brook Trout Eggs in Laboratory Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    David G. Argent; Patricia A. Flebbe

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to determine effects of different fine sediments (0.43-0.85 mm in diameter) on survival of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) eggs during early developmental stages under laboratory conditions. Intragravel permeability and dissolved oxygen declined with increasing fine sediment amounts. Survival at each developmental stage...

  17. Industrial versus Laboratory Clinker Processing Using Grinding Aids (Scale Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jean Assaad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of grinding aid (GA effect on clinker processing in laboratory grinding mills is relatively simple. Yet, the results obtained cannot be directly transposed to industrial mills, given the fundamentally different operational modes and grinding parameters. This paper seeks to evaluate the scale effect by comparing the results obtained from a closed-circuit tube mill operating at 90 ton/hr to those determined using a 50-liter laboratory mill. Tests results have shown that the decrease in specific energy consumption (Ec due to glycol or amine-based GA can be evaluated under laboratory conditions. However, such tests underestimate the actual performance that could be achieved in real-scale mills; the Ec reduction due to GA is around twofold higher when grinding is performed in real-scale mill. Compared to industrial tests, the cement particle size distribution curves widened and shifted towards higher diameters when grinding was performed under laboratory conditions, particularly with GA additions. This led to remarkable changes in water demand, setting time, and 1- and 28-day compressive strengths.

  18. The ATLAS project: The effects of a constructionist digital laboratory project on undergraduate laboratory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoepe, Todd C; Cavedon, Dana K; Derian, Joseph M; Levy, Celine S; Morales, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Anatomical education is a dynamic field where developments in the implementation of constructive, situated-learning show promise in improving student achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an individualized, technology heavy project in promoting student performance in a combined anatomy and physiology laboratory course. Mixed-methods research was used to compare two cohorts of anatomy laboratories separated by the adoption of a new laboratory atlas project, which were defined as preceding (PRE) and following the adoption of the Anatomical Teaching and Learning Assessment Study (ATLAS; POST). The ATLAS project required the creation of a student-generated, photographic atlas via acquisition of specimen images taken with tablet technology and digital microscope cameras throughout the semester. Images were transferred to laptops, digitally labeled and photo edited weekly, and compiled into a digital book using Internet publishing freeware for final project submission. An analysis of covariance confirmed that student final examination scores were improved (P project (PRE, n = 75; POST, n = 90; means ± SE; 74.9 ± 0.9 versus 78.1 ± 0.8, respectively) after controlling for cumulative student grade point average. Analysis of questionnaires collected (n = 68) from the post group suggested students identified with atlas objectives, appreciated the comprehensive value in final examination preparation, and the constructionism involved, but recommended alterations in assignment logistics and the format of the final version. Constructionist, comprehensive term-projects utilizing student-preferred technologies could be used to improve performance toward student learning outcomes. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. Evaluation of three oil spill laboratory dispersant effectiveness tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, D.; Farlow, J.; Sahatjian, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical dispersants can be used to reduce the interfacial tension of floating oil slicks so that the oils disperse more rapidly into the water column and thus pose less of a threat to shorelines, birds, and marine mammals. The laboratory test currently specified in federal regulations to measure dispersant effectiveness is not especially easy or inexpensive, and generates a rather large quantity of oily waste water. This paper describes the results of an effort by the EPA to identify a more suitable laboratory dispersant effectiveness test. EPA evaluated three laboratory methods: the Revised Standard Dispersant Effectiveness Test currently used (and required by regulation) in the United States, the swirling flask test (developed by Environment Canada), and the IFP-dilution test (used in france and other European countries). Six test oils and three dispersants were evaluated; dispersants were applied to the oil at an average 1:10 ratio (dispersant to oil) for each of the three laboratory methods. Screening efforts were used to focus on the most appropriate oil/dispersant combination for detailed study. A screening criterion was established that required a combination that gave at least 20% effectiveness results. The selected combination turned out to be Prudhoe Bay crude oil and the dispersant Corexit 9527. This combination was also most likely to be encountered in US coastal waters. The EPA evaluation concluded that the three tests gave similar precision results, but that the swirling flask test was fastest, cheapest, simplest, and required least operator skill. Further, EPA is considering conducting the dispersant effectiveness test itself, rather than having data submitted by a dispersant manufacturer, and establishing an acceptability criterion (45% efficiency) which would have to be met before a dispersant could be placed on the Product Schedule of the National Contingency Plan (NCP)

  20. Evaluating the effectiveness of an online medical laboratory technician program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen-Suchy, Kara

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of an online medical laboratory technician program in the academic preparation and development of laboratory professionals. A semi-quantitative comparative research design was used. Several factors were considered in this evaluation. Academic outcomes between online and campus medical laboratory technician (MLT) students was determined by comparing overall and categorical scores on certification exams as well as first time pass rate. Certification exam scores and first time pass rates were also compared to national norms when possible to do so. Demographic data, including age and experience were compared. Additionally, learning styles were assessed to determine if there was a correlation to overall GPA and MLT GPA and if learning styles could be used to predict successful completion of an online Associates of Applied Science. The research was conducted at an academic university located in the mountain west United States. Participants consisted of online and campus students enrolled in a Medical Laboratory Technician program that graduated with their Associate of Applied Science degree between the years 2007-2009. Results of these years were also compared to graduates from 2004-2006 in the same program. Certification performance and first time pass rates were the major outcomes measured. Age and experience were correlated. Online learning styles and GPA were also compared to successful degree completion. The researcher found no significant difference in certification performance with regard to total and categorical scores, and first time pass rates between campus and online MLT students. Online students were slightly older and had more experience working in a laboratory in some capacity. Correlation studies showed significant positive correlation between learning styles, GPA, and successful completion of an Associate of Applied Science degree. When registry scores were compared to the prior cohort of online

  1. Behavioral effects of nerve agents: laboratory animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse and often subtle behavioral consequences have been reported for humans exposed to nerve agents. Laboratory studies of nerve agent exposure offer rigorous control over important variables, but species other than man must be used. Nonhuman primate models offer the best means of identifying the toxic nervous system effects of nerve agent insult and the countermeasures best capable of preventing or attenuating these effects. Comprehensive behavioral models must evaluate preservation and recovery of function as well as new learning ability. The throughput and sensitivity of the tests chosen are important considerations. A few nonhuman primate studies will be discussed to elaborate recent successes, current limitations, and future directions.(author)

  2. Cost effectiveness of adopted quality requirements in hospital laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Alneil; Ahmed-Abakur, Eltayib; Abugroun, Elsir; Bakhit, Siham; Holi, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed in quasi-experiment to assess adoption of the essential clauses of particular clinical laboratory quality management requirements based on international organization for standardization (ISO 15189) in hospital laboratories and to evaluate the cost effectiveness of compliance to ISO 15189. The quality management intervention based on ISO 15189 was conceded through three phases; pre - intervention phase, Intervention phase and Post-intervention phase. In pre-intervention phase the compliance to ISO 15189 was 49% for study group vs. 47% for control group with P value 0.48, while the post intervention results displayed 54% vs. 79% for study group and control group respectively in compliance to ISO 15189 and statistically significant difference (P value 0.00) with effect size (Cohen's d) of (0.00) in pre-intervention phase and (0.99) in post - intervention phase. The annual average cost per-test for the study group and control group was 1.80 ± 0.25 vs. 1.97 ± 0.39, respectively with P value 0.39 whereas the post-intervention results showed that the annual average total costs per-test for study group and control group was 1.57 ± 0.23 vs 2.08 ± 0.38, P value 0.019 respectively, with cost-effectiveness ratio of (0.88) in pre -intervention phase and (0.52) in post-intervention phase. The planned adoption of quality management requirements (QMS) in clinical laboratories had great effect to increase the compliance percent with quality management system requirement, raise the average total cost effectiveness, and improve the analytical process capability of the testing procedure.

  3. TUAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY: EFFECT OF CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep TATLI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The lab applications, which were started to be applied through mid 19th century, not only provide a new point of view but also bring about a new dimension to the lessons. At early times they were used to prove theoretical knowledge but lately they turned into environments where students freely discover knowledge as an individual or in groups. The activities that have come up with the recent form of labs substantially contributed to training ideal students for constructivist approach, who research, inquire, test, seek solutions, wear scientist shoes and deeply reason about the concept of concern. However, on the present stage of our educational system, these activities cannot be included in science lessons for several reasons. At that point virtual labs emerged as an alternative solution for the problems of the instruction in science courses. Thanks to virtual labs presenting different disciplines in a flexible manner, the interaction between the teacher and the learner become 7/24 independent from time and place. This article presents a study that provides insight in the appropriateness of Virtual and real laboratory applications on constructivist learning environment using interactive virtual chemistry laboratory (VCL development was used in academic year of 2009-2010 for a six week period. The sample of this quasi-experimental study was 90 students from three different 9th grade classrooms of an Anatolian Secondary school in the center of Trabzon city. The student groups were randomly attained as one experimental and two control groups. The data collection tools of the study were; questionnaire of teaching philosophy (QTP, Semi-structured interviews and unstructured observations. The results showed that virtual chemistry laboratory software was just as effective as real chemistry laboratory and it positively affected the facilitating of constructivist learning environment. It was determined that the students in experimental group conducted the

  4. Relativistic jets: An astrophysical laboratory for the Doppler effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2018-05-01

    Special Relativity is one of the most abstract courses in the standard curriculum for physics majors, and therefore practical applications or laboratory exercises are particularly valuable for providing real-world experiences with this subject. This course poses a challenge for lab development because relativistic effects manifest themselves only at speeds close to the speed of light. The laboratory described in this paper constitutes a low-cost, low-barrier exercise suitable for students whose only background is the standard mechanics-plus-electromagnetism sequence. The activity uses research-quality astronomical data on SS433—a fascinating Galactic X-ray binary consisting of a compact object (a neutron star or a black hole) and a normal star. A pair of moderately relativistic jets moving with v ˜ 0.3 c in opposite directions emanate from the vicinity of the compact object and are clearly detected in optical and radio observations. Following step-by-step instructions, students develop a full kinematic model of a complex real-world source, use the model to fit the observational data, obtain best-fit parameters, and understand the limitations of the model. The observations are in exquisite agreement with the Doppler effect equations of Special Relativity. The complete lab manual, the dataset and the solutions are available in online supplemental materials; this paper presents the scientific and pedagogical background for the exercise.

  5. Study of CSR Effects in the Jefferson Laboratory FEL Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, C. C. [Colorado State U.; Biedron, S. [Colorado State U.; Burleson, Theodore A. [Colorado State U.; Milton, Stephen V. [Colorado State U.; Morin, Auralee L. [Colorado State U.; Benson, Stephen V. [JLAB; Douglas, David R. [JLAB; Evtushenko, Pavel E. [JLAB; Hannon, Fay E. [JLAB; Li, Rui [JLAB; Tennant, Christopher D. [JLAB; Zhang, Shukui [JLAB; Carlsten, Bruce E. [LANL; Lewellen, John W. [LANL

    2013-08-01

    In a recent experiment conducted on the Jefferson Laboratory IR FEL driver the effects of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) on beam quality were studied. The primary goal of this work was to explore CSR output and effect on the beam with variation of the bunch compression in the IR chicane. This experiment also provides a valuable opportunity to benchmark existing CSR models in a system that may not be fully represented by a 1-D CSR model. Here we present results from this experiment and compare to initial simulations of CSR in the magnetic compression chicane of the machine. Finally, we touch upon the possibility for CSR induced microbunching gain in the magnetic compression chicane, and show that parameters in the machine are such that it should be thoroughly damped.

  6. Cataclastic effects in rock salt laboratory and in situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramberg, J.; Roest, J.P.A.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the research is the determination of eventual cataclastic effects in environmental rock salt of a heated part of a vertical deep test bore hole, a model for HLW disposal. Known cataclastic systems from hard rock mining and rock salt mines will form the starting point for the explanation of convergence of underground cavity walls. In rock salt, however, different elements seem to prevail: crystal plasticity and micro-cataclasis. The environmental measurements at the deep bore hole have to be carried out from a distance. To this end the acoustic micro-seismic method will be a suitable one. The appropriate equipment for micro-seismic cross hole measurement is designed, constructed and tested in the laboratory as well as underground. Acoustic velocity data form a crucial point. A micro-seismic acoustic P-wave model, adapted to the process of structural changes, is developed. P-wave velocity measurements in rock salt cubes in the laboratory are described. An underground cross hole measurement in the wall of a gallery with semi-circular section is treated and analysed. A conclusion was that, in this case, no macro-cataclasis (systematic large fractures) will be involved in the process of gallery convergence, but that the mechanism proved to be a combination of crystal plasticity and micro-cataclasis. The same mechanism might be expected to be present in the environmental rock salt of the HLW-disposal deep bore hole. As a result this environmental rock salt might be expected to be impermeable. A plan for the application of the developed equipment during the heating test on the ECN-deep-bore-hole is shown. A theory on ''disking'' or ''rim cracks'' is presented in an annex

  7. Ultra-Short-Pulse Laser Effects Research and Analysis Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables research into advanced laser countermeasure techniques.DESCRIPTION: This laser facility has a capability to produce very high peak power levels of...

  8. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Nuclear Test Effects and Geologic Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, N.W.

    1976-01-01

    Data on the geology of the USERDA Nevada Test Site have been collected for the purpose of evaluating the possibility of release of radioactivity at proposed underground nuclear test sites. These data, including both the rock physical properties and the geologic structure and stratigraphy of a large number of drill-hole sites, are stored in the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Earth Sciences Division Nuclear Test Effects and Geologic Data Bank. Retrieval programs can quickly provide a geological and geophysical comparison of a particular site with other sites where radioactivity was successfully contained. The data can be automatically sorted, compared, and averaged, and information listed according to site location, drill-hole construction, rock units, depth to key horizons and to the water table, and distance to faults. These programs also make possible ordered listings of geophysical properties (interval bulk density, overburden density, interval velocity, velocity to the surface, grain density, water content, carbonate content, porosity, and saturation of the rocks). The characteristics and capabilities of the data bank are discussed

  9. Cost-effective utilisation of basic biochemical laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Chemical Pathology, University of KwaZulu-Natal/National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) ... the basic principles that govern the selection ... issues of quality control and the audit trail of quality assurance in the maintenance of the.

  10. Comparative study of effects of table sugar, laboratory grade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    In the second phase of the experiment, the quantity of carbohydrates ... Key words: Banana, tissue culture, sugars, table sugar, laboratory grade sucrose, mannitol. ..... 9. TAIZ, L. & ZEIGER, E., 2006. Stress physiology. Plant Physiology, Taiz, L.

  11. DO TIE LABORATORY BASED ASSESSMENT METHODS REALLY PREDICT FIELD EFFECTS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both porewaters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question of whethe...

  12. Effect of Using Separate Laboratory and Lecture Courses for Introductory Crop Science on Student Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebold, W. J.; Slaughter, Leon

    1986-01-01

    Reviews a study that examined the effects of laboratories on the grade performance of undergraduates in an introductory crop science course. Results indicated that students enrolled in lecture and laboratory concurrently did not receive higher lecture grades than students enrolled solely in lecture, but did have higher laboratory grades. (ML)

  13. Effects of delayed laboratory processing on platelet serotonin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanner, Jennifer E; Frazier, Lorraine; Udtha, Malini

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of established guidelines for measuring platelet serotonin, these guidelines may be difficult to follow in a hospital setting where time to processing may vary from sample to sample. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the time to processing of human blood samples on the stability of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of platelet serotonin levels in human plasma. Human blood samples collected from a convenience sample of eight healthy volunteers were analyzed to determine platelet serotonin levels from plasma collected in ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) tubes and stored at 4°C for 3 hr, 5 hr, 8 hr, and 12 hr. Refrigeration storage at 4°C for 3 hr, 5 hr, 8 hr, and 12 hr altered the platelet serotonin measurement when compared to immediate processing. The bias for the samples stored at 4°C for 3 hr was 102.3 (±217.39 ng/10(9) platelets), for 5 hr was 200.1 (±132.76 ng/10(9) platelets), for 8 hr was 146.9 (±221.41 ng/10(9) platelets), and for 12 hr was -67.6 (±349.60 ng/10(9) platelets). Results from this study show that accurate measurement of platelet serotonin levels is dependent on time to processing. Researchers should therefore follow a standardized laboratory guideline for obtaining immediate platelet serotonin levels after blood sample collection.

  14. Engineered nanomaterials: toward effective safety management in research laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groso, Amela; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Hofmann, Heinrich; Meyer, Thierry

    2016-03-15

    It is still unknown which types of nanomaterials and associated doses represent an actual danger to humans and environment. Meanwhile, there is consensus on applying the precautionary principle to these novel materials until more information is available. To deal with the rapid evolution of research, including the fast turnover of collaborators, a user-friendly and easy-to-apply risk assessment tool offering adequate preventive and protective measures has to be provided. Based on new information concerning the hazards of engineered nanomaterials, we improved a previously developed risk assessment tool by following a simple scheme to gain in efficiency. In the first step, using a logical decision tree, one of the three hazard levels, from H1 to H3, is assigned to the nanomaterial. Using a combination of decision trees and matrices, the second step links the hazard with the emission and exposure potential to assign one of the three nanorisk levels (Nano 3 highest risk; Nano 1 lowest risk) to the activity. These operations are repeated at each process step, leading to the laboratory classification. The third step provides detailed preventive and protective measures for the determined level of nanorisk. We developed an adapted simple and intuitive method for nanomaterial risk management in research laboratories. It allows classifying the nanoactivities into three levels, additionally proposing concrete preventive and protective measures and associated actions. This method is a valuable tool for all the participants in nanomaterial safety. The users experience an essential learning opportunity and increase their safety awareness. Laboratory managers have a reliable tool to obtain an overview of the operations involving nanomaterials in their laboratories; this is essential, as they are responsible for the employee safety, but are sometimes unaware of the works performed. Bringing this risk to a three-band scale (like other types of risks such as biological, radiation

  15. Boundary effects on the MHD dynamo in laboratory plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Y.L.; Prager, S.C.

    1989-07-01

    In recent laboratory experiments, a dynamo-like mechanism has been demonstrated in which a portion of the axisymmetric component of the magnetic field is believed to be sustained by 3D spatial fluctuations in the field and flow. With a conducting shell at the plasma surface, past MHD computation shows that sustainment arises from fluctuations which cause magnetic reconnection. If the conducting wall is retracted from the plasma surface, the fluctuations are amplified and the dynamo sustainment is still active for the times studied, but an increased energy input to the plasma is required through the applied electric field. The retraction of the conducting wall enhances the helicity dissipation rate by the intersection of the fields with the resistive surface which bounds the plasma. This enhanced helicity dissipation is balanced by the helicity injection that accompanies the increased applied electric field. 17 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  16. Effect of Virtual Analytical Chemistry Laboratory on Enhancing Student Research Skills and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnik, Boris; Stozhko, Natalia; Pervukhina, Irina; Tchernysheva, Albina; Belysheva, Galina

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to determine the effect of a virtual chemistry laboratory on university student achievement. The article describes a model of a laboratory course that includes a virtual component. This virtual component is viewed as a tool of student pre-lab autonomous learning. It presents electronic resources designed for a virtual laboratory…

  17. Effects of chlorpyrifos on individuals and populations of Daphnia pulex in the laboratory and field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven, N. van der; Gerritsen, A.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (cpf) on young (laboratory. Populations of D. pulex exposed to cpf were studied in the laboratory and field. In the field, cpf was applied in

  18. Investigating the Effect of Argument-Driven Inquiry in Laboratory Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircioglu, Tuba; Ucar, Sedat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of argument-driven inquiry (ADI) based laboratory instruction on the academic achievement, argumentativeness, science process skills, and argumentation levels of pre-service science teachers in the General Physics Laboratory III class. The study was conducted with 79 pre-service science teachers.…

  19. Effects of social isolation and environmental enrichment on laboratory housed pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pig is becoming an increasingly important laboratory animal species. However, a laboratory setting often requires individual and sterile housing, which may impose stress. The objective of this study was to determine physiological, haematological and behavioral effects of isolation and environmen...

  20. Effective Laboratory Method of Chromite Content Estimation in Reclaimed Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaszak Z.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an original method of measuring the actual chromite content in the circulating moulding sand of foundry. This type of material is applied for production of moulds. This is the case of foundry which most frequently perform heavy casting in which for the construction of chemical hardening mould is used, both the quartz sand and chromite sand. After the dry reclamation of used moulding sand, both types of sands are mixed in various ratios resulting that in reclaimed sand silos, the layers of varying content of chromite in mixture are observed. For chromite recuperation from the circulating moulding sand there are applied the appropriate installations equipped with separate elements generating locally strong magnetic field. The knowledge of the current ratio of chromite and quartz sand allows to optimize the settings of installation and control of the separation efficiency. The arduous and time-consuming method of determining the content of chromite using bromoform liquid requires operational powers and precautions during using this toxic liquid. It was developed and tested the new, uncomplicated gravimetric laboratory method using powerful permanent magnets (neodymium. The method is used in the production conditions of casting for current inspection of chromite quantity in used sand in reclamation plant.

  1. Effects of laboratory heating, cyclic pore pressure, and cyclic loading on fracture properties of asphalt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This study involved the identification and evaluation of laboratory conditioning methods and testing protocols considering heat oxidation, moisture, and load that more effectively simulate asphalt mixture aging in the field, and thereby help to prope...

  2. About the Associate Director for Health of EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Ronald Hines serves as Associate Director for Health for the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD).

  3. About the Director of EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Wayne Cascio serves as Acting Director for the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD).

  4. Effect of science laboratory centrifuge of space station environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searby, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that it is essential to have a centrifuge operating during manned space station operations. Background information and a rationale for the research centrifuge are given. It is argued that we must provide a controlled acceleration environment for comparison with microgravity studies. The lack of control groups in previous studies throws into question whether the obseved effects were the result of microgravity or not. The centrifuge could be used to provide a 1-g environment to supply specimens free of launch effects for long-term studies. With the centrifuge, the specimens could be immediately transferred to microgravity without undergoing gradual acclimation. Also, the effects of artificial gravity on humans could be investigated. It is also argued that the presence of the centrifuge on the space station will not cause undo vibrations or other disturbing effects.

  5. Laboratory Measurement of the Brighter-fatter Effect in an H2RG Infrared Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Plazas, A. A.; Shapiro, C.; Smith, R.; Huff, E.; Rhodes, J.

    2018-01-01

    The "brighter-fatter" (BF) effect is a phenomenon (originally discovered in charge coupled devices) in which the size of the detector point spread function (PSF) increases with brightness. We present, for the first time, laboratory measurements demonstrating the existence of the effect in a Hawaii-2RG HgCdTe near infrared (NIR) detector. We use the Precision Projector Laboratory, a JPL facility for emulating astronomical observations with UV/VIS/NIR detectors, to project about 17,000 point so...

  6. Line radiation effects in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kerr, F.M.; Gouveia, A.; Renner, Oldřich; Rose, S. J.; Scott, H.A.; Wark, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 99, - (2006), s. 363-369 ISSN 0022-4073 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : radiation transport * plasmas * opacity effects Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.599, year: 2006

  7. 412 The Effects of Integrating Laboratory Work with Theory on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... This study was an attempt to investigate the effects of integrating ... which is antithesis of true science. ... Where O1 and O3 are pretest measurement of experimental and ... schools in the study area formed the sample for the study. ... questions drawn from the selected physics concepts, elasticity, simple.

  8. Modular laboratories--cost-effective and sustainable infrastructure for resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Daniel J; Colborn, James; Chan, Adeline S T; Winters, Anna M; Dengala, Dereje; Fornadel, Christen M; Kosloff, Barry

    2014-12-01

    High-quality laboratory space to support basic science, clinical research projects, or health services is often severely lacking in the developing world. Moreover, the construction of suitable facilities using traditional methods is time-consuming, expensive, and challenging to implement. Three real world examples showing how shipping containers can be converted into modern laboratories are highlighted. These include use as an insectary, a molecular laboratory, and a BSL-3 containment laboratory. These modular conversions have a number of advantages over brick and mortar construction and provide a cost-effective and timely solution to offer high-quality, user-friendly laboratory space applicable within the developing world. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Some pregnancy-related effects of artemether in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiofor, Janet I; Kwanashie, Helen O; Anuka, Joseph A

    2006-01-01

    Artemether, highly effective in multi-drug-resistant malaria is not routinely available for use in pregnancy due to the lack of adequate research data in animals and man. This study was therefore aimed at investigating some pregnancy-related effects of artemether. Artemether (1.5, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg i.p. daily for 7 days) did not produce changes in rat oestrous cycle. The drug did not prevent or prolong the rate of conception or parturition, cause pre-term delivery and affect litter size. Birth weight and growth rate of pups from artemether-pretreated dams were within the normal range. Artemether (48-480 microg/ml) had no agonist effect on the isolated uterine smooth muscles of both non-pregnant and pregnant rats and guinea pigs. However, the drug (24- 240 microg/ml) reduced oxytocin-induced contraction of uterine tissues concentration-dependently, particularly in pregnant uteri. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Laboratory effectiveness testing of water-in-oil emulsion breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Bier, I.; Conrod, D.; Tennyson, E.

    1995-01-01

    The physics and chemistry of water-in-oil emulsions dominate the development of effectiveness tests. Emulsions are variable in stability--this variability is largely dependent on oil type and degree of weathering. These factors complicate the development of a test. Emulsions which have low stability will apparently break easily with chemical emulsion breakers. Broken emulsions will form a foam-like material, called rag, which retains water which is not part of the stable emulsions. Analytical methods used to determine the final stability of the broken or unbroken emulsion were evaluated. Measurements of water content and viscosity measurements show correlation to emulsion stability. Viscosity provides a more reliable measure of emulsion stability but water content measurements are more convenient and are largely used in this study. Twelve tests were developed in the past. Two testing methods have been developed to a usable stage. These tests are described and data using them provided. The effects of mixing time, agent amount, settling time and mixing energy on effectiveness results are presented

  11. Sleep disturbance effects of traffic noise—A laboratory study on after effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhrström, E.; Rylander, R.

    1982-09-01

    Body movements during sleep and subjective sleep quality, as well as mood and performance were investigated after exposure to intermittent and continuous traffic noise during the night. In a first experiment, six young subjects slept in the laboratory for five nights; in a second experiment 12 subjects slept six consecutive nights in the laboratory. A good dose-response relationship was obtained between intermittent noise and subjective sleep quality: i.e., the higher the noise level, the poorer the sleep quality. A similar dose-response relationship was found for body movements immediately following noise peaks during nights with intermittent noise. Performance and mood tended to be worse after intermittent noise. However, these effects did not increase with an increase in noise levels. Compared with intermittent noise, continuous noise had a significantly smaller effect on sleep quality. Mood and performance were not worse after continuous noise. The results suggest that increased attention should be paid to peak noise levels when standards for nocturnal noise are set.

  12. The effects of total laboratory automation on the management of a clinical chemistry laboratory. Retrospective analysis of 36 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkozi, Laszlo; Simson, Elkin; Ramanathan, Lakshmi

    2003-03-01

    Thirty-six years of data and history of laboratory practice at our institution has enabled us to follow the effects of analytical automation, then recently pre-analytical and post-analytical automation on productivity, cost reduction and enhanced quality of service. In 1998, we began the operation of a pre- and post-analytical automation system (robotics), together with an advanced laboratory information system to process specimens prior to analysis, deliver them to various automated analytical instruments, specimen outlet racks and finally to refrigerated stockyards. By the end of 3 years of continuous operation, we compared the chemistry part of the system with the prior 33 years and quantitated the financial impact of the various stages of automation. Between 1965 and 2000, the Consumer Price Index increased by a factor of 5.5 in the United States. During the same 36 years, at our institution's Chemistry Department the productivity (indicated as the number of reported test results/employee/year) increased from 10,600 to 104,558 (9.3-fold). When expressed in constant 1965 dollars, the total cost per test decreased from 0.79 dollars to 0.15 dollars. Turnaround time for availability of results on patient units decreased to the extent that Stat specimens requiring a turnaround time of productivity together with decreased operational cost. It enabled us to significantly increase our workload together with a reduction of personnel. In addition, stats are handled easily and there are benefits such as safer working conditions and improved sample identification, which are difficult to quantify at this stage.

  13. Effect of Diet on Metabolism of Laboratory Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P. C.; Riskowski, G. L.; McKee, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    In previous studies when rats were fed a processed, semipurified, extruded rodent food bar (RFB) developed for space science research, we noted a difference in the appearance of gastrointestinal tissue (GI); therefore the following study evaluated GI characteristics and growth and metabolic rates of rats fed chow (C) or RFB. Two hundred and twenty-four rats (78 g mean body weight) were randomly assigned to 28 cages and provided C or RFB. Each cage was considered the experimental unit and a 95 percent level of significance, indicated by ANOVA, was used for inference. After each 30-, 60-, and 90-day period, eight cages were shifted from the C to RFB diet and housing density was reduced by two rats per cage. The two rats removed from each cage were sacrificed and used for GI evaluation. Metabolic rates of the rats in each cage were determined by indirect calorimetry. No differences in body weight were detected at 0, 30, 60 or 90 days between C and RFB. Heat production (kcal/hr/kg), CO2 production (L/hr/kg) and O2 consumption (L/hr/kg) were different by light:dark and age with no effect of diet. Respiratory quotient was different by age with no effect of light:dark or diet. Rats on the C diet ate less food and drank more water than those on RFB. C rats produced more fecal and waste materials than the RFB. GI lengths increased with age but were less in RFB than C. GI full and empty weights increased with age but weighed less in RFB than C. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) numbers increased with age with no effect of diet. No differences in ileum-associated GALT area were detected between C and RFB. Switching C to RFB decreased GI length, GI full and empty weights, with no changes in GALT number or area. We concluded RFB decreased GI mass without affecting metabolic rate or general body growth.

  14. Interim Report of the Commission to Review the Effectiveness of the National Energy Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohon, Jared L. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Glauthier, T. J. [TJG Energy Associates, LLC., Bloomberg, VA (United States); Augustine, Norman R. [U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security, Washington, DC (United States); Austin, Wanda M. [Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA (United States); Elachi, Charles [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Fleury, Paul A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hockfield, Susan J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Meserve, Richard A. [Covington and Burling LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Murray, Cherry A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-02-27

    The Commission to Review the Effectiveness of the National Energy Laboratories was charged by Congress in January 2014 to evaluate the mission, capabilities, size, performance, governance, and agency oversight of the 17 Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories. Given the incredibly broad scope and aggressive timeline (the original deadline was February 2015), the Secretary of Energy and Congress agreed to split the task into two phases. This interim report contains the preliminary observations and recommendations gleaned from Phase 1 of the study, which consisted of a literature review; visits to five of the National Laboratories; semi-structured interviews with staff from across the National Laboratories, DOE, other Federal agencies, companies, other non-governmental organizations, and additional interested parties; and presentations at monthly public Commission meetings. The Commission notes that the purpose of the National Laboratories is to provide critical capabilities and facilities in service of DOE’s mission and the needs of the broader national and international science and technology (S&T) community, including other Federal agencies, academia, and private industry. The National Laboratories are successfully fulfilling that mission today. While the Commission believes significant improvements can be made to many aspects of DOE management and governance of the laboratories, those issues do not detract from the National Laboratories’ remarkable contributions to the American public. In Phase 2 the Commission will focus on ways to make the process of carrying out their missions more efficient and effective.

  15. Factors Influencing Laboratory Information System Effectiveness Through Strategic Planning in Shiraz Teaching Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahador, Fateme; Sharifian, Roxana; Farhadi, Payam; Jafari, Abdosaleh; Nematolahi, Mohtram; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    This study aimed to develop and test a research model that examined 7effective factors on the effectiveness of laboratory information system (LIS) through strategic planning. This research was carried out on total laboratory staff, information technology staff, and laboratory managers in Shiraz (a city in the south of Iran) teaching hospitals by structural equation modeling approach in 2015. The results revealed that there was no significant positive relationship between decisions based on cost-benefit analysis and LIS functionality with LIS effectiveness, but there was a significant positive relationship between other factors and LIS effectiveness. As expected, high levels of strategic information system planning result in increasing LIS effectiveness. The results also showed that the relationship between cost-benefit analysis, LIS functionality, end-user involvement, and information technology-business alignment with strategic information system planning was significant and positive.

  16. Mixed waste and waste minimization: The effect of regulations and waste minimization on the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagan, E.B.; Selby, K.B.

    1993-08-01

    The Hanford Site is located in the State of Washington and is subject to state and federal environmental regulations that hamper waste minimization efforts. This paper addresses the negative effect of these regulations on waste minimization and mixed waste issues related to the Hanford Site. Also, issues are addressed concerning the regulations becoming more lenient. In addition to field operations, the Hanford Site is home to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory which has many ongoing waste minimization activities of particular interest to laboratories

  17. Application of peer instruction in the laboratory task of measuring the effective mass of a spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Ling; Hou, Zhen-Yu; Si, Yu-Chang; Wen, Xiao-Qing; Tang, Lei

    2017-11-01

    Peer instruction (PI) is an effective interactive approach to teaching and learning that has principally been used to modify the experience of learning in traditional physics lecture settings. This article further illustrates how the concept of PI can be effectively applied in the physics student laboratory setting. The setting used is a laboratory task that calls for the measurement of the effective mass of the spring of a Jolly balance. Through PI the students gain a better understanding of what is meant by the construct ‘effective mass of a spring’, and thereby competently work out how the mass, shape, wire diameter, and number of turns of the spring can all affect the effective mass of the spring. Furthermore, using stopwatches the students were also able to appreciate how recorded times at the equilibrium position had greater uncertainty than measurements made at the maximum displacement. This led to their calculations of the effective mass of the spring being impressively close to the theoretical value. Such laboratory tasks are extremely challenging to introductory level students and the success attained by the students in this study indicates that there is much potential in the application of PI in laboratory settings. PI should be used to teach in the laboratory and results should be reported in order for our community to build on these experiences. This article is a contribution to that effort.

  18. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  19. COMPARING BEHAVIORAL DOSE-EFFECT CURVES FOR HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS ACUTELY EXPOSED TO TOLUENE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of laboratory animal data in toxicology depends upon the ability to generalize the results quantitatively to humans. To compare the acute behavioral effects of inhaled toluene in humans to those in animals, dose-effect curves were fitted by meta-analysis of published...

  20. Examining the Effects of Reflective Journals on Pre-Service Science Teachers' General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Canan; Karatas, Faik Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities…

  1. Further details on the applicability of Thellier paleointensity method: The effect of magnitude of laboratory field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Juan; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Alva-Valdivia, Luis M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2006-06-01

    Twenty years after Tanaka and Kono's pioneering contribution (Tanaka and Kono, 1984), we give some new details on the effect of applied field strength during Thellier paleointensity experiments. Special attention is paid to the relation of magnitude of laboratory field and Coe's quality factors (Coe et al., 1978). Full thermoremanent magnetizations were imparted on natural samples containing low-Ti titanomagnetites of pseudo-single domain structure in a 40-μT magnetic field from 600 °C to room temperature. The samples were subjected to the routine Thellier procedure using a wide range of applied laboratory fields. Results indicate that values of laboratory fields may be accurately reproduced within 2% of standard error. The quality factors, however, decrease when the magnitude of 'ancient' field does not match to applied laboratory fields. To cite this article: J. Morales et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  2. [Effectiveness assessment of public clinical laboratories: the case of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Leyla Gomes; Vargens, José Muniz da Costa; Sancho, Rafael Gomes

    2011-01-01

    The organization of public clinical laboratories is experiencing changes without, however, an organizational assessment of its effectiveness. The study aimed to determine a parameter of effectiveness for public clinical laboratories of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, and set cut-off points for the sections of these laboratories. In order to do so, the total production and number of hours worked during a period of 7 months in the year 2008 were consolidated. Due to the entrance of the workers in the mode of production in the laboratories network, it could be observed a variability regarding the performance of these workers. The effectiveness parameter of the network was established in 29.90 tests per hour. As a consequence of this first analysis, the cut-off points are: 15.50 for the hematology section; 67.29 for chemistry; 6.45 for parasitology; 11.35 for urinalysis; 4.94 for microbiology and 19.03 for immunology. From these results, it was concluded that the working process in laboratories can generate a decrease in effectiveness.

  3. Effects of earthquake induced rock shear on containment system integrity. Laboratory testing plan development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, Rodney S.

    2011-07-01

    This report describes a laboratory-scale testing program plan to address the issue of earthquake induced rock shear effects on containment system integrity. The document contains a review of relevant literature from SKB covering laboratory testing of bentonite clay buffer material, scaled analogue tests, and the development of related material models to simulate rock shear effects. The proposed testing program includes standard single component tests, new two-component constant volume tests, and new scaled analogue tests. Conceptual drawings of equipment required to undertake these tests are presented along with a schedule of tests. The information in this document is considered sufficient to engage qualified testing facilities, and to guide implementation of laboratory testing of rock shear effects. This document was completed as part of a collaborative agreement between SKB and Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in Canada

  4. Effects of earthquake induced rock shear on containment system integrity. Laboratory testing plan development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Rodney S. (RSRead Consulting Inc. (Canada))

    2011-07-15

    This report describes a laboratory-scale testing program plan to address the issue of earthquake induced rock shear effects on containment system integrity. The document contains a review of relevant literature from SKB covering laboratory testing of bentonite clay buffer material, scaled analogue tests, and the development of related material models to simulate rock shear effects. The proposed testing program includes standard single component tests, new two-component constant volume tests, and new scaled analogue tests. Conceptual drawings of equipment required to undertake these tests are presented along with a schedule of tests. The information in this document is considered sufficient to engage qualified testing facilities, and to guide implementation of laboratory testing of rock shear effects. This document was completed as part of a collaborative agreement between SKB and Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in Canada

  5. Effect of a standardised dietary restriction protocol on multiple laboratory strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Grandison

    Full Text Available Outcomes of lifespan studies in model organisms are particularly susceptible to variations in technical procedures. This is especially true of dietary restriction, which is implemented in many different ways among laboratories.In this study, we have examined the effect of laboratory stock maintenance, genotype differences and microbial infection on the ability of dietary restriction (DR to extend life in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. None of these factors block the DR effect.These data lend support to the idea that nutrient restriction genuinely extends lifespan in flies, and that any mechanistic discoveries made with this model are of potential relevance to the determinants of lifespan in other organisms.

  6. Effect of virtual analytical chemistry laboratory on enhancing student research skills and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bortnik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to determine the effect of a virtual chemistry laboratory on university student achievement. The article describes a model of a laboratory course that includes a virtual component. This virtual component is viewed as a tool of student pre-lab autonomous learning. It presents electronic resources designed for a virtual laboratory and outlines the methodology of e-resource application. To find out how virtual chemistry laboratory affects student scientific literacy, research skills and practices, a pedagogical experiment has been conducted. Student achievement was compared in two learning environments: traditional – in-class hands-on – learning (control group and blended learning – online learning combined with in-person learning (experimental group. The effectiveness of integrating an e-lab in the laboratory study was measured by comparing student lab reports of the two groups. For that purpose, a set of 10 criteria was developed. The experimental and control student groups were also compared in terms of test results and student portfolios. The study showed that the adopted approach blending both virtual and hands-on learning environments has the potential to enhance student research skills and practices in analytical chemistry studies.

  7. A Vodcasted, Cross-Disciplinary, Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory Exercise Investigating the Effects of Methamphetamine on Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Ryan A.; Southard, E. Megan; Tarnowski, Laura; Bruster, Matthew; Wingate, Stacia W.; Dalman, Nancy; Lloyd, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a laboratory experience utilizing videos to engage students in hypothesis-driven experimentation in behavioral neuroscience. It provides students with an opportunity to investigate the effects of chronic methamphetamine exposure on aggression in adult mice using a resident-intruder paradigm. Instructors and students only…

  8. Effects of processing method and moisture history on laboratory fungal resistance of wood-HDPE composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of composite processing and moisture sorption on laboratory fungal resistance of wood-plastic composites. A 2-week water soaking or cyclic boiling-drying procedure was used to infuse moisture into composites made from high-density polyethylene filled with 50 percent wood flour and processed by extrusion, compression...

  9. A Measure of the Effectiveness of Incorporating 3D Human Anatomy into an Online Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbelink, Amy J.

    2009-01-01

    Results of a study designed to determine the effectiveness of implementing three-dimensional (3D) stereo images of a human skull in an undergraduate human anatomy online laboratory were gathered and analysed. Mental model theory and its applications to 3D relationships are discussed along with the research results. Quantitative results on 62 pairs…

  10. From the Laboratory to the Classroom: The Effects of Equivalence-Based Instruction on Neuroanatomy Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienup, Daniel M.; Mylan, Sanaa E.; Brodsky, Julia; Pytte, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Equivalence-based instruction (EBI) has been used to successfully teach college-level concepts in research laboratories, but few studies have examined the results of such instruction on classroom performance. The current study answered a basic question about the ordering of training stimuli as well as an applied question regarding the effects of…

  11. Stable isotope enrichment in laboratory ant colonies: effects of colony age, metamorphosis, diet, and fat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecologists use stable isotopes to infer diets and trophic levels of animals in food webs, yet some assumptions underlying these inferences have not been thoroughly tested. We used laboratory-reared colonies of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Formicidae: Solenopsidini) to test the effects of metamorphosis,...

  12. Effect of individually tailored biopsychosocial workplace interventions on chronic musculoskeletal pain and stress among laboratory technicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Hansen, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is prevalent among laboratory technicians and work-related stress may aggravate the problem. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effect of a multifaceted worksite intervention on pain and stress among laboratory technicians with chronic musculoskeletal......: neck, shoulder, lower and upper back, elbow, and hand at 10 week follow-up. The secondary outcome measure was stress assessed by Cohen´s perceived stress questionnaire. In addition, an explorative dose-response analysis was performed on the adherence to PCMT with pain and stress, respectively......, as outcome measures. RESULTS: A significant (P stress was observed (treatment by time P = 0.16). Exploratory analyses for each body...

  13. Reality check of laboratory service effectiveness during pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catton, Michael; Druce, Julian; Papadakis, Goergina; Tran, Thomas; Birch, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    In Australia, the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 began in Melbourne, Victoria; in the first 17 days, the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory detected 977 cases. Although the laboratory had a pandemic plan in place, a retrospective evaluation found 3 major variations from plan assumptions: 1) higher peak demand not limited by a case definition, 2) prolonged peak demand because containment attempts continued despite widespread influenza, and 3) unexpected influence of negative test results on public health actions. Although implementation of the plan was generally successful, the greatest challenges were limited availability of skilled staff and test reagents. Despite peak demand of 1,401 tests per day, results were provided within the usual 24 hours of specimen receipt; however, turnaround time seemed slower because of slow transport times (>3 days for 45% of specimens). Hence, effective laboratory capability might be enhanced by speeding transport of specimens and improving transmission of clinical data.

  14. Potential effect of fiddler crabs on organic matter distribution: A combined laboratory and field experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natálio, Luís F.; Pardo, Juan C. F.; Machado, Glauco B. O.; Fortuna, Monique D.; Gallo, Deborah G.; Costa, Tânia M.

    2017-01-01

    Bioturbators play a key role in estuarine environments by modifying the availability of soil elements, which in turn may affect other organisms. Despite the importance of bioturbators, few studies have combined both field and laboratory experiments to explore the effects of bioturbators on estuarine soils. Herein, we assessed the bioturbation potential of fiddler crabs Leptuca leptodactyla and Leptuca uruguayensis in laboratory and field experiments, respectively. We evaluated whether the presence of fiddler crabs resulted in vertical transport of sediment, thereby altering organic matter (OM) distribution. Under laboratory conditions, the burrowing activity by L. leptodactyla increased the OM content in sediment surface. In the long-term field experiment with areas of inclusion and exclusion of L. uruguayensis, we did not observe influence of this fiddler crab in the vertical distribution of OM. Based on our results, we suggest that small fiddler crabs, such as the species used in these experiments, are potentially capable of alter their environment by transporting sediment and OM but such effects may be masked by environmental drivers and spatial heterogeneity under natural conditions. This phenomenon may be related to the small size of these species, which affects how much sediment is transported, along with the way OM interacts with biogeochemical and physical processes. Therefore, the net effect of these burrowing organisms is likely to be the result of a complex interaction with other environmental factors. In this sense, we highlight the importance of performing simultaneous field and laboratory experiments in order to better understanding the role of burrowing animals as bioturbators.

  15. Lasting effects of workplace strength training for neck/shoulder/arm pain among laboratory technicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter; Larsen, Anders I; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study investigated long-term effects and implementation processes of workplace strength training for musculoskeletal disorders. Methods. 333 and 140 laboratory technicians from private and public sector companies, respectively, replied to a 3-year follow-up questionnaire subseque...... be implemented successfully at different companies during working hours on a long-term basis with lasting effects on pain in neck, shoulder, and arm....

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System 2011 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farren Hunt

    2011-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an annual Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) effectiveness review per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223-1, 'Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.' The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and helped identify target areas for focused improvements and assessments for fiscal year (FY) 2012. The information presented in this review of FY 2011 shows that the INL has performed many corrective actions and improvement activities, which are starting to show some of the desired results. These corrective actions and improvement activities will continue to help change culture that will lead to better implementation of defined programs, resulting in moving the Laboratory's performance from the categorization of 'Needs Improvement' to the desired results of 'Effective Performance.'

  17. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System 2010 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas J. Haney

    2010-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory completes an annual Integrated Safety Management System effectiveness review per 48 CFR 970.5223-1 “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assesses ISMS effectiveness, provides feedback to maintain system integrity, and helps identify target areas for focused improvements and assessments for the following year. Using one of the three Department of Energy (DOE) descriptors in DOE M 450.4-1 regarding the state of ISMS effectiveness during Fiscal Year (FY) 2010, the information presented in this review shows that INL achieved “Effective Performance.”

  18. Effects of the Physical Laboratory versus the Virtual Laboratory in Teaching Simple Electric Circuits on Conceptual Achievement and Attitudes Towards the Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekbiyik, Ahmet; Ercan, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Current study examined the effects of virtual and physical laboratory practices on students' conceptual achievement in the subject of electricity and their attitudes towards simple electric circuits. Two groups (virtual and physical) selected through simple random sampling was taught with web-aided material called "Electricity in Our…

  19. Effect of Cooperative Learning and Traditional Methods on Students' Achievements and Identifications of Laboratory Equipments in Science-Technology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Suleyman

    2011-01-01

    Science lessons taught via experiments motivate the students, and make them more insistent on learning science. This study aims to examine the effects of cooperative learning on students' academic achievements and their skills in identifying laboratory equipments. The sample for the study consisted of a total of 43 sophomore students in primary…

  20. Laboratory measures of methylphenidate effects in cocaine-dependent patients receiving treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roache, J D; Grabowski, J; Schmitz, J M; Creson, D L; Rhoades, H M

    2000-02-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of methylphenidate in male and female patients enrolled in an outpatient treatment program for primary cocaine dependence. The first study was a component of a double-blind efficacy trial wherein 57 patients were first tested in a human laboratory for their initial responsiveness to medication. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or methylphenidate treatment and received their first dose in the human laboratory environment before continuing in outpatient treatment. Methylphenidate was given as a 20-mg sustained-release dose (twice daily) plus an additional 5-mg immediate-release dose combined with the morning dose. Methylphenidate increased heart rate and subjective ratings; however, the subjective effects were primarily of a "dysphoric" nature, and significant effects were limited to increases in anxiety, depression, and anger on the Profile of Mood States; shaky/jittery ratings on a visual analog scale; and dysphoria on the lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) scale of the Addiction Research Center Inventory. Methylphenidate did not increase cocaine craving nor ratings suggesting abuse potential (i.e., Morphine-Benzedrine Group or drug-liking scores, etc.). None of the drug effects observed in the human laboratory was of clinical concern, and no subject was precluded from continuing in the outpatient study. After outpatient treatment completion, 12 patients were brought back into a second double-blind human laboratory study in which three doses (15, 30, and 60 mg) of immediate-release methylphenidate were administered in an ascending series preceded and followed by placebo. Methylphenidate produced dose-related increases in heart rate, subjective ratings of shaky/jittery, and LSD/dysphoria without significantly altering cocaine craving or stimulant euphoria ratings. These results suggest that stimulant substitution-type approaches to the treatment of cocaine dependence are not necessarily contraindicated

  1. Study of embryotoxic effects of intranasally administred desloratadine on laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekhina Т.А.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to detect possible changes in embryogenesis and negative effects of third generation antihistamine – desloratadine – after intranasal administration of 1.3 mg/m3 and 13.0 mg/m3 of the substance to laboratory animals during their prenatal period. In these circumstances, desloratadine does not cause any significant changes of embryogenesis parameters. Macroscopic examination of the fetus and placenta in animals of experimental groups did not reveal any pathology or physiological deviations from the norm. 13.0 mg/m3 concentration of the drug caused a decrease in the weight of embryos in comparison with control group of animals and physiological data, despite a well developed, without visible pathology, placenta. This neces­sitates an in-depth study of possible teratogenic effects of intranasally administred desloratadine to laboratory animals.

  2. The leverage effect on wealth distribution in a controllable laboratory stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenge; Yang, Guang; An, Kenan; Huang, Jiping

    2014-01-01

    Wealth distribution has always been an important issue in our economic and social life, since it affects the harmony and stabilization of the society. Under the background of widely used financial tools to raise leverage these years, we studied the leverage effect on wealth distribution of a population in a controllable laboratory market in which we have conducted several human experiments, and drawn the conclusion that higher leverage leads to a higher Gini coefficient in the market. A higher Gini coefficient means the wealth distribution among a population becomes more unequal. This is a result of the ascending risk with growing leverage level in the market plus the diversified trading abilities and risk preference of the participants. This work sheds light on the effects of leverage and its related regulations, especially its impact on wealth distribution. It also shows the capability of the method of controllable laboratory markets which could be helpful in several fields of study such as economics, econophysics and sociology.

  3. Space Charge Effects for the ERL Prototype Injector Line at Daresbury Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Muratori, Bruno; Owen, Hywel; de Loos, Marieke; van der Geer, Bas

    2005-01-01

    Daresbury Laboratory is currently building an Energy Recovery Linac Prototype (ERLP) that will operate at a beam energy of 35 MeV. In this paper we examine the space charge effects on the beam dynamics in the ERLP injector line. A Gaussian particle distribution is tracked with GPT (General Particle Tracer) through the injection line to the main linac to calculate the effect of 3Dspace charge in the dipoles. The nominal beam energy in the injection line is 8.3 MeV and the bunch charge 80 pC. The effects of space charge on the transverse and longitudinal emittance are studied for various electron beam parameter settings.

  4. Application of failure mode and effects analysis in a clinical chemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Hongmin; Ding, Siyi; Liu, Qin

    2015-08-25

    Timely delivery of correct results has long been considered as the goal of quality management in clinical laboratory. With increasing workload as well as complexities of laboratory testing and patient care, the traditional technical adopted like internal quality control (IQC) and external quality assessment (EQA) may not enough to cope with quality management problems for clinical laboratories. We applied failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), a proactive tool, to reduce errors associated with the process beginning with sample collection and ending with a test report in a clinical chemistry laboratory. Our main objection was to investigate the feasibility of FMEA in a real-world situation, namely the working environment of hospital. A team of 8 people (3 laboratory workers, 2 couriers, 2 nurses, and 1 physician) from different departments who were involved in the testing process were recruited and trained. Their main responsibility was to analyze and score all possible clinical chemistry laboratory failures based on three aspects: the severity of the outcome (S), the likeliness of occurrence (O), and the probability of being detected (D). These three parameters were multiplied to calculate risk priority numbers (RPNs), which were used to prioritize remedial measures. Failure modes with RPN≥200 were deemed as high risk, meaning that they needed immediate corrective action. After modifications that were put, we compared the resulting RPN with the previous one. A total of 33 failure modes were identified. Many of the failure modes, including the one with the highest RPN (specimen hemolysis) appeared in the pre-analytic phase, whereas no high-risk failure modes (RPN≥200) were found during the analytic phase. High-priority risks were "sample hemolysis" (RPN, 336), "sample delivery delay" (RPN, 225), "sample volume error" (RPN, 210), "failure to release results in a timely manner" (RPN, 210), and "failure to identify or report critical results" (RPN, 200). The

  5. Laboratory activity to effectively teach introductory geomicrobiology concepts to non-geology majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Davila-Vazquez, Yarely C; Martinez, Lilliam Casillas

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a three-week experiment that can complement any microbiology course, to teach main geomicrobiology concepts for non-geology majors. One of the most difficult concepts for non-geology majors to comprehend is how bacteria serve as a platform for different mineralization reactions. In our three-week laboratory practice, students learn the main principles and conditions required for an induced bacterial mineralization. Upon completion of the laboratory experience, students will: 1) learn how microbial-induced mineralization (such as calcium carbonate formation) is affected by differential media and growth conditions; 2) understand how bacterial physiology affects any induced in situ or in vitro mineralization; 3) comprehend how growing conditions and bacterial physiologies interrelate, resulting in differential crystal formation. The teaching-learning process was assessed using a pre-/posttest with an increase from 26% to 76% in the number of positive answers from the students. We also measured the students' proficiency while conducting specific technical tasks, revealing no major difficulties while conducting the experiments. A final questionnaire was provided with satisfactory evaluations from the students regarding the organization and content of the practices. 84-86% of the students agreed that the exercises improved their knowledge in geomicrobiology and would like to attend similar laboratories in the future. Such response is the best indicator that the laboratory practice can be implemented in any undergraduate/graduate microbiology course to effectively teach basic geomicrobiology concepts to non-geology majors.

  6. Laboratory Activity to Effectively Teach Introductory Geomicrobiology Concepts to Non-Geology Majors †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Davila-Vazquez, Yarely C.; Martinez, Lilliam Casillas

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a three-week experiment that can complement any microbiology course, to teach main geomicrobiology concepts for non-geology majors. One of the most difficult concepts for non-geology majors to comprehend is how bacteria serve as a platform for different mineralization reactions. In our three-week laboratory practice, students learn the main principles and conditions required for an induced bacterial mineralization. Upon completion of the laboratory experience, students will: 1) learn how microbial-induced mineralization (such as calcium carbonate formation) is affected by differential media and growth conditions; 2) understand how bacterial physiology affects any induced in situ or in vitro mineralization; 3) comprehend how growing conditions and bacterial physiologies interrelate, resulting in differential crystal formation. The teaching-learning process was assessed using a pre-/posttest with an increase from 26% to 76% in the number of positive answers from the students. We also measured the students’ proficiency while conducting specific technical tasks, revealing no major difficulties while conducting the experiments. A final questionnaire was provided with satisfactory evaluations from the students regarding the organization and content of the practices. 84–86% of the students agreed that the exercises improved their knowledge in geomicrobiology and would like to attend similar laboratories in the future. Such response is the best indicator that the laboratory practice can be implemented in any undergraduate/graduate microbiology course to effectively teach basic geomicrobiology concepts to non-geology majors. PMID:24358384

  7. Effect of ultraviolet radiation on laboratory cultures of green algae and cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palffy, K.; Ordog, V.; Voros, L.

    2004-01-01

    Since the discovery of the ozone hole, an increasing amount of work has been devoted to measuring the impact of the UV-radiation on living organisms. In this point of view, algae as the primer producers of aquatic ecosystems, get to the central part of the interest. The aim of the study was to study the effect of ultraviolet radiation on laboratory cultures of green algae and cyanobacteria

  8. Exploratory simulations of multiphase effects in gas injection and ventilation tests in an underground rock laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterle, S.

    1990-06-01

    This report is one of a series documenting the results of the Nagra-DOE Cooperative (NDC-I) research program in which the cooperating scientists explore the geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical, and structural effects was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the Swiss Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaella (Nagra) and concluded in September 1989. 16 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Effects of acidified drinking water on the teeth of laboratory mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kostov, Marko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the effects of hydrochloric acid used as hygienic measure in drinking water (pH2) on teeth of conventional and germfree laboratory mice. Four groups of 10 animals each were used. Group 1 : Conventional animals (tap water) Group 2 : Conventional animals (tap water, acidified ) Group 3 : Germfree animals (tap water, sterilized ) Group 4 : Germfree animals (tap water , acidified, sterilized ) The application of acidified drinking ...

  10. The Effect of Conflict History on Cooperation Within and Between Groups: Evidence from a Laboratory Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Beekman, Gonne; Cheung, Stephen L.; Levely, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We study cooperation within and between groups in the laboratory, comparing treatments in which two groups have previously been (i) in conflict with one another, (ii) in conflict with a different group, or (iii) not previously exposed to con flict. We model conflict using an inter-group Tullock contest, and measure its effects upon cooperation using a multi-level public good game. We demonstrate that con flict increases cooperation within groups, while decreasing cooperation between groups. M...

  11. Application of failure mode and effect analysis in an assisted reproduction technology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, Giulia; Alteri, Alessandra; Corti, Laura; Rabellotti, Elisa; Papaleo, Enrico; Restelli, Liliana; Biondo, Stefania; Garancini, Maria Paola; Candiani, Massimo; Viganò, Paola

    2016-08-01

    Assisted reproduction technology laboratories have a very high degree of complexity. Mismatches of gametes or embryos can occur, with catastrophic consequences for patients. To minimize the risk of error, a multi-institutional working group applied failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) to each critical activity/step as a method of risk assessment. This analysis led to the identification of the potential failure modes, together with their causes and effects, using the risk priority number (RPN) scoring system. In total, 11 individual steps and 68 different potential failure modes were identified. The highest ranked failure modes, with an RPN score of 25, encompassed 17 failures and pertained to "patient mismatch" and "biological sample mismatch". The maximum reduction in risk, with RPN reduced from 25 to 5, was mostly related to the introduction of witnessing. The critical failure modes in sample processing were improved by 50% in the RPN by focusing on staff training. Three indicators of FMEA success, based on technical skill, competence and traceability, have been evaluated after FMEA implementation. Witnessing by a second human operator should be introduced in the laboratory to avoid sample mix-ups. These findings confirm that FMEA can effectively reduce errors in assisted reproduction technology laboratories. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A laboratory dispersant effectiveness test which reflects dispersant efficiency in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunel, T.; Wood, P.

    1996-01-01

    Oil dispersion efficiencies of surfactants, from laboratory dispersion tests and field data were compared and calibrated. Data from an oil spill, where dispersants were used as a major part of the response, was analysed. The data was accumulated through the monitoring of the dispersant operation of the Sea Empress spill incident, in which Forties Blend oil was spilled at sea. This detailed data set was used to calibrate existing laboratory dispersant tests, and to devise a new International Dispersant Effectiveness Test. The objective was to create a comprehensive guide to decision making on whether and when to start a dispersant spraying operation. The dispersion efficiencies obtained from the laboratory dispersant tests were compared with field data. Flume tests produced the highest percentage of dispersed oil for all the dispersal tests. However, it was emphasised that the total percentage of oil dispersed should not be the only measure of dispersant effectiveness, since it does not distinguish between the contribution of natural and chemically enhanced dispersion. 9 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs

  13. Correction of stream quality trends for the effects of laboratory measurement bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Richard B.; Smith, Richard A.; Schwarz, Gregory E.

    1993-01-01

    We present a statistical model relating measurements of water quality to associated errors in laboratory methods. Estimation of the model allows us to correct trends in water quality for long-term and short-term variations in laboratory measurement errors. An illustration of the bias correction method for a large national set of stream water quality and quality assurance data shows that reductions in the bias of estimates of water quality trend slopes are achieved at the expense of increases in the variance of these estimates. Slight improvements occur in the precision of estimates of trend in bias by using correlative information on bias and water quality to estimate random variations in measurement bias. The results of this investigation stress the need for reliable, long-term quality assurance data and efficient statistical methods to assess the effects of measurement errors on the detection of water quality trends.

  14. Physicochemical inactivation of Lassa, Ebola, and Marburg viruses and effect on clinical laboratory analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, S.W.; McCormick, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Clinical specimens from patients infected with Lassa, Ebola, or Marburg virus may present a serious biohazard to laboratory workers. The authors have examined the effects of heat, alteration of pH, and gamma radiation on these viruses in human blood and on the electrolytes, enzymes, and coagulation factors measured in laboratory tests that are important in the care of an infected patient. Heating serum at 60 degrees C for 1 h reduced high titers of these viruses to noninfectious levels without altering the serum levels of glucose, blood urea nitrogen, and electrolytes. Dilution of blood in 3% acetic acid, diluent for a leukocyte count, inactivated all of these viruses. All of the methods tested for viral inactivation markedly altered certain serum proteins, making these methods unsuitable for samples that are to be tested for certain enzyme levels and coagulation factors

  15. Effectiveness of a GUM-compliant course for teaching measurement in the introductory physics laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, Seshini; Buffler, Andy; Lubben, Fred; Allie, Saalih

    2008-01-01

    An evaluation of a course aimed at developing university students' understanding of the nature of scientific measurement and uncertainty is described. The course materials follow the framework for metrology as recommended in the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). The evaluation of the course is based on responses to written questionnaires administered to a cohort of 76 first year physics students both pre- and post-instruction, which were interpreted in terms of 'point' or 'set' reasoning. These findings are compared with responses from a control group of 70 students who completed a similar laboratory course apart from the use of traditional approaches to measurement and data analysis. The results suggest that the GUM framework, together with the specific teaching strategies described, provides opportunities for more effective learning of measurement and uncertainty in the introductory laboratory

  16. [Implementation of "5S" methodology in laboratory safety and its effect on employee satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Yavuz; Ozkutuk, Aydan; Dogan, Ozlem

    2014-04-01

    Health institutions use the accreditation process to achieve improvement across the organization and management of the health care system. An ISO 15189 quality and efficiency standard is the recommended standard for medical laboratories qualification. The "safety and accommodation conditions" of this standard covers the requirement to improve working conditions and maintain the necessary safety precautions. The most inevitable precaution for ensuring a safe environment is the creation of a clean and orderly environment to maintain a potentially safe surroundings. In this context, the 5S application which is a superior improvement tool that has been used by the industry, includes some advantages such as encouraging employees to participate in and to help increase the productivity. The main target of this study was to implement 5S methods in a clinical laboratory of a university hospital for evaluating its effect on employees' satisfaction, and correction of non-compliance in terms of the working environment. To start with, first, 5S education was given to management and employees. Secondly, a 5S team was formed and then the main steps of 5S (Seiri: Sort, Seiton: Set in order, Seiso: Shine, Seiketsu: Standardize, and Shitsuke: Systematize) were implemented for a duration of 3 months. A five-point likert scale questionnaire was used in order to determine and assess the impact of 5S on employees' satisfaction considering the areas such as facilitating the job, the job satisfaction, setting up a safe environment, and the effect of participation in management. Questionnaire form was given to 114 employees who actively worked during the 5S implementation period, and the data obtained from 63 (52.3%) participants (16 male, 47 female) were evaluated. The reliability of the questionnaire's Cronbach's alpha value was determined as 0.858 (p5S it was observed and determined that facilitating the job and setting up a safe environment created a statistically significant effect on

  17. Laboratory Measurement of the Brighter-fatter Effect in an H2RG Infrared Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazas, A. A.; Shapiro, C.; Smith, R.; Huff, E.; Rhodes, J.

    2018-06-01

    The “brighter-fatter” (BF) effect is a phenomenon—originally discovered in charge coupled devices—in which the size of the detector point-spread function (PSF) increases with brightness. We present, for the first time, laboratory measurements demonstrating the existence of the effect in a Hawaii-2RG HgCdTe near-infrared (NIR) detector. We use JPL’s Precision Projector Laboratory, a facility for emulating astronomical observations with UV/VIS/NIR detectors, to project about 17,000 point sources onto the detector to stimulate the effect. After calibrating the detector for nonlinearity with flat-fields, we find evidence that charge is nonlinearly shifted from bright pixels to neighboring pixels during exposures of point sources, consistent with the existence of a BF-type effect. NASAs Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will use similar detectors to measure weak gravitational lensing from the shapes of hundreds of million of galaxies in the NIR. The WFIRST PSF size must be calibrated to ≈0.1% to avoid biased inferences of dark matter and dark energy parameters; therefore further study and calibration of the BF effect in realistic images will be crucial.

  18. The Prosocial Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): Controlled Studies in Humans and Laboratory Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilar-Britt, Philip; Bedi, Gillinder

    2015-01-01

    Users of ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ‘ecstasy’) report prosocial effects such as sociability and empathy. Supporting these apparently unique social effects, data from controlled laboratory studies indicate that MDMA alters social feelings, information processing, and behavior in humans, and social behavior in rodents. Here, we review this growing body of evidence. In rodents, MDMA increases passive prosocial behavior (adjacent lying) and social reward while decreasing aggression, effects that may involve serotonin 1A receptor mediated oxytocin release interacting with vasopressin receptor 1A. In humans, MDMA increases plasma oxytocin and produces feelings of social affiliation. It decreases identification of negative facial expressions (cognitive empathy) and blunts responses to social rejection, while enhancing responses to others’ positive emotions (emotional empathy) and increasing social approach. Thus, consistent with drug folklore, laboratory administration of MDMA robustly alters social processing in humans and increases social approach in humans and animals. Effects are consistent with increased sociability, with mixed evidence about enhanced empathy. These neurobiologically-complex prosocial effects likely motivate recreational ecstasy use. PMID:26408071

  19. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  20. A cost-effective approach to establishing a surgical skills laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, David A; Milner, Richard E; Fisher, Carol A; Goldberg, Amy J; Dempsey, Daniel T; Grewal, Harsh

    2007-11-01

    Recent studies comparing inexpensive low-fidelity box trainers to expensive computer-based virtual reality systems demonstrate similar acquisition of surgical skills and transferability to the clinical setting. With new mandates emerging that all surgical residency programs have access to a surgical skills laboratory, we describe our cost-effective approach to teaching basic and advanced open and laparoscopic skills utilizing inexpensive bench models, box trainers, and animate models. Open models (basic skills, bowel anastomosis, vascular anastomosis, trauma skills) and laparoscopic models (basic skills, cholecystectomy, Nissen fundoplication, suturing and knot tying, advanced in vivo skills) are constructed using a combination of materials found in our surgical research laboratories, retail stores, or donated by industry. Expired surgical materials are obtained from our hospital operating room and animal organs from food-processing plants. In vivo models are performed in an approved research facility. Operation, maintenance, and administration of the surgical skills laboratory are coordinated by a salaried manager, and instruction is the responsibility of all surgical faculty from our institution. Overall, the cost analyses of our initial startup costs and operational expenditures over a 3-year period revealed a progressive decrease in yearly cost per resident (2002-2003, $1,151; 2003-2004, $1,049; and 2004-2005, $982). Our approach to surgical skills education can serve as a template for any surgery program with limited financial resources.

  1. Field experiments and laboratory study of plasma turbulence and effects on EM wave propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.C.; Kuo, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    Both active experiments in space and laboratory experiments with plasma chambers have been planned to investigate plasma turbulence and effects on electromagnetic wave propagation. Plasma turbulence can be generated by intense waves or occur inherently with the production of plasmas. The turbulence effects to be singled out for investigation include nonlinear mode conversion process and turbulence scattering of electromagnetic waves by plasma density fluctuations. The authors have shown theoretically that plasma density fluctuations can render the nonlinear mode conversion of electromagnetic waves into lower hybrid waves, leading to anomalous absorption of waves in magnetoplasmas. The observed spectral broadening of VLF waves is the evidence of the occurrence of this process. Since the density fluctuations may have a broad range of scale lengths, this process is effective in weakening the electromagnetic waves in a wideband. In addition, plasma density fluctuations can scatter waves and diversify the electromagnetic energy. Schemes of generating plasma turbulence and the diagnoses of plasma effects are discussed

  2. Cold storage effects on egg hatch in laboratory-reared Culicoides variipennis sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G J; Tabachnick, W J

    1995-09-01

    The effects of cold storage (5 degrees C) on the hatching rates of laboratory-reared Culicoides variipennis sonorensis eggs were examined. Mortality increased with storage time. Average maximum embryo survivorship for 4 trials was 55.0 +/- 4.2 (+/- SEM) days. Alternating daily cycles of high and then low mean hatching rates occurred and possibly were due to location differences in temperature within the temperature-controlled rearing system. During cold storage at 5 degrees C, C. v. sonorensis eggs may be kept for ca. 28 days with an anticipated hatching rate of about 50%.

  3. Effects of exercise on craving and cigarette smoking in the human laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurti, Allison N; Dallery, Jesse

    2014-06-01

    Exercise is increasingly being pursued as a treatment to reduce cigarette smoking. The efficacy of clinical, exercise-based cessation interventions may be enhanced by conducting laboratory studies to determine maximally effective conditions for reducing smoking, and the mechanisms through which the effects on smoking are achieved. The main purpose of this study was to assess whether the effects of exercise on two components of craving (anticipated reward from smoking, anticipated relief from withdrawal) mediated the relationship between exercise and delay (in min) to ad libitum smoking. Experiment 1 (N=21) assessed the effects of exercise intensity (inactivity, low, moderate) on craving components up to 60 min post-exercise. Because moderate-intensity exercise most effectively reduced craving on the reward component, all participants exercised at a moderate intensity in Experiment 2. Using an ABAB within-subjects design, Experiment 2 (N=20) evaluated whether the effects of moderate-intensity exercise on reward and relief components of craving mediated the relationship between exercise and participants' delays (in min) to ad libitum smoking. Delays were significantly longer after exercise (M=21 min) versus inactivity (M=4 min), and the effects of exercise on delay were mediated through the reward component of craving. Future research should continue to explore the mechanisms through which exercise influences behavioral indices of smoking in the human laboratory. Additionally, given the benefits uniquely afforded by exercise-based cessation interventions (e.g., improving mood and other health outcomes), implementing these interventions in clinical settings may contribute substantially to improving public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biobehavioral mechanisms of topiramate's effects on alcohol use: an investigation pairing laboratory and ecological momentary assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Robert; MacKillop, James; Treloar, Hayley; Blanchard, Alexander; Tidey, Jennifer W; Swift, Robert M; Chun, Thomas; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Monti, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Topiramate reduces drinking, but little is known about the mechanisms that precipitate this effect. This double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study assessed the putative mechanisms by which topiramate reduces alcohol use among 96 adult non-treatment-seeking heavy drinkers in a laboratory-based alcohol cue reactivity assessment and in the natural environment using ecological momentary assessment methods. Topiramate reduced the quantity of alcohol heavy drinkers consumed on drinking days and reduced craving while participants were drinking but did not affect craving outside of drinking episodes in either the laboratory or in the natural environment. Topiramate did not alter the stimulant or sedative effects of alcohol ingestion during the ascending limb of the blood alcohol curve. A direct test of putative mechanisms of action using multilevel structural equation mediation models showed that topiramate reduced drinking indirectly by blunting alcohol-induced craving. These findings provide the first real-time prospective evidence that topiramate reduces drinking by reducing alcohol's priming effects on craving and highlight the importance of craving as an important treatment target of pharmacotherapy for alcoholism. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. EFFECTS OF AZADIRACHTIN ON THE SUNN PEST, EURYGASTER INTEGRICEPS PUT. (HETEROPTERA, SCUTELLERIDAE IN THE LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müjgan KIVAN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of azadirachtin on different stages of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Put. (Het., Scutelleridae in the laboratory, a commercial neem insecticide (NeemAzal T/S was applied at dose of 0.5 % by dipping insects. No effect was observed for 1. instar nymphs at 1 day after application, although adults had slightly effect (20 %. Adults and nymphs were infl uenced 7 days after the treatment and mortality rates for adults and nymphs were recorded 44.0 and 51.9 %, respectively. The hatching of treated eggs was reduced than control. These results indicate that NeemAzal T/S may be used in integrated sunn pest management, but should be evaluated for fi eld efficacy.

  6. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System FY 2016 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Farren J.

    2016-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory's (INL's) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) effectiveness review of fiscal year (FY) 2016 shows that INL has integrated management programs and safety elements throughout the oversight and operational activities performed at INL. The significant maturity of Contractor Assurance System (CAS) processes, as demonstrated across INL's management systems and periodic reporting through the Management Review Meeting process, over the past two years has provided INL with current real-time understanding and knowledge pertaining to the health of the institution. INL's sustained excellence of the Integrated Safety and effective implementation of the Worker Safety and Health Program is also evidenced by other external validations and key indicators. In particular, external validations include VPP, ISO 14001, DOELAP accreditation, and key Laboratory level indicators such as ORPS (number, event frequency and severity); injury/illness indicators such as Days Away, Restricted and Transfer (DART) case rate, back & shoulder metric and open reporting indicators, demonstrate a continuous positive trend and therefore improved operational performance over the last few years. These indicators are also reflective of the Laboratory's overall organizational and safety culture improvement. Notably, there has also been a step change in ESH&Q Leadership actions that have been recognized both locally and complex-wide. Notwithstanding, Laboratory management continues to monitor and take action on lower level negative trends in numerous areas including: Conduct of Operations, Work Control, Work Site Analysis, Risk Assessment, LO/TO, Fire Protection, and Life Safety Systems, to mention a few. While the number of severe injury cases has decreased, as evidenced by the reduction in the DART case rate, the two hand injuries and the fire truck/ambulance accident were of particular concern. Aggressive actions continue in order to understand the causes and define actions

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program for science educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amolins, Michael W; Ezrailson, Cathy M; Pearce, David A; Elliott, Amy J; Vitiello, Peter F

    2015-12-01

    The process of developing effective science educators has been a long-standing objective of the broader education community. Numerous studies have recommended not only depth in a teacher's subject area but also a breadth of professional development grounded in constructivist principles, allowing for successful student-centered and inquiry-based instruction. Few programs, however, have addressed the integration of the scientific research laboratory into the science classroom as a viable approach to professional development. Additionally, while occasional laboratory training programs have emerged in recent years, many lack a component for translating acquired skills into reformed classroom instruction. Given the rapid development and demand for knowledgeable employees and an informed population from the biotech and medical industries in recent years, it would appear to be particularly advantageous for the physiology and broader science education communities to consider this issue. The goal of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program focused on the integration of reformed teaching principles into the classrooms of secondary teachers. This was measured through the program's ability to instill in its participants elevated academic success while gaining fulfillment in the classroom. The findings demonstrated a significant improvement in the use of student-centered instruction and other reformed methods by program participants as well as improved self-efficacy, confidence, and job satisfaction. Also revealed was a reluctance to refashion established classroom protocols. The combination of these outcomes allowed for construction of an experiential framework for professional development in applied science education that supports an atmosphere of reformed teaching in the classroom. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program for science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amolins, Michael W.; Ezrailson, Cathy M.; Pearce, David A.; Elliott, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    The process of developing effective science educators has been a long-standing objective of the broader education community. Numerous studies have recommended not only depth in a teacher's subject area but also a breadth of professional development grounded in constructivist principles, allowing for successful student-centered and inquiry-based instruction. Few programs, however, have addressed the integration of the scientific research laboratory into the science classroom as a viable approach to professional development. Additionally, while occasional laboratory training programs have emerged in recent years, many lack a component for translating acquired skills into reformed classroom instruction. Given the rapid development and demand for knowledgeable employees and an informed population from the biotech and medical industries in recent years, it would appear to be particularly advantageous for the physiology and broader science education communities to consider this issue. The goal of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program focused on the integration of reformed teaching principles into the classrooms of secondary teachers. This was measured through the program's ability to instill in its participants elevated academic success while gaining fulfillment in the classroom. The findings demonstrated a significant improvement in the use of student-centered instruction and other reformed methods by program participants as well as improved self-efficacy, confidence, and job satisfaction. Also revealed was a reluctance to refashion established classroom protocols. The combination of these outcomes allowed for construction of an experiential framework for professional development in applied science education that supports an atmosphere of reformed teaching in the classroom. PMID:26628658

  9. Laboratory piping system vibration tests to determine parametric effects on damping in the seismic frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    A pipe damping research program is being conducted for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to establish more realistic, best-estimate damping values for use in dynamic structural analyses of piping systems. As part of this program, tests were conducted on a 5-in. (128 mm ID) laboratory piping system to determine the effects of pressure, support configuration, insulation and response amplitude on damping. The tests were designed to produce a wide range of damping values, from very low damping in lightly excited uninsulated systems with few supports, to higher damping under conditions of either/or insulation, high level excitation, and various support arrangements. The effect of pressure at representative seismic levels was considered to be minimal. The supports influence damping at all excitation levels; damping was highest when a mechanical snubber was present in the system. The addition of insulation produced a large increase in damping for the hydraulic shaker excitation tests, but there was no comparable increase for the snapback excitation tests. Once a response amplitude of approximately one-half yield stress was reached, overall damping increased to relatively high levels (>10% of critical)

  10. Effect of Soil Fumigation on Degradation of Pendimethalin and Oxyfluorfen in Laboratory and Ginger Field Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Li, Jun; Fang, Wensheng; Liu, Pengfei; Guo, Meixia; Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qiuxia; Cao, Aocheng

    2016-11-23

    Herbicides are usually applied to agricultural fields following soil fumigation to provide effective weed control in high-value cash crops. However, phytotoxicity has been observed in ginger seedlings following the application of herbicides in fumigated fields. This study tested a mixture of herbicides (pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen) and several fumigant treatments in laboratory and field studies to determine their effect on the growth of ginger. The results showed that soil fumigation significantly (P oxyfluorfen was extended by an average of about 1.19 times in the field and 1.32 times in the laboratory. Moreover, the extended period of herbicide degradation in the fumigant and nonfumigant treatments significantly reduced ginger plant height, leaf number, stem diameter, and the chlorophyll content. The study concluded that applying a dose below the recommended rate of these herbicides in chloropicrin (CP) or CP + 1,3-dichloropropene fumigated ginger fields is appropriate, as application of the recommended herbicide dose in fumigated soil may be phytotoxic to ginger.

  11. Vaccine effectiveness against medically attended laboratory-confirmed influenza in Japan, 2011-2012 Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2011-2012 season in Japan using a test-negative case-control study design. The effect of co-circulating non-influenza respiratory viruses (NIRVs on VE estimates was also explored. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs in a community hospital in Nagasaki, Japan. Thirteen respiratory viruses (RVs, including influenza A and B, were identified from the samples using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The difference in VE point estimates was assessed using three different controls: ILI patients that tested negative for influenza, those that tested negative for all RVs, and those that tested positive for NIRVs. The adjusted VE against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza using all influenza-negative controls was 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], -60.5 to 44.1. The adjusted VEs using RV-negative and NIRV-positive controls were -1.5% (95% CI, -74.7 to 41 and 50% (95% CI, -43.2 to 82.5, respectively. Influenza VE was limited in Japan during the 2011-2012 season. Although the evidence is not conclusive, co-circulating NIRVs may affect influenza VE estimates in test-negative case-control studies.

  12. Some effects of temperature and starvation on the bivalve @iDonax vittatus@@ (da Costa) in experimental laboratory populations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansell, A.D.; Sivadas, P.

    The effect of temperature on the body weight and composition, and on respiration, filtration and NH, excretion of the bivalve Donax uittatus (da Costa) has been investigated in laboratory-maintained populations under conditions of starvation In all...

  13. Caloric restriction in lean and obese strains of laboratory rat: effects on body composition, metabolism, growth and overall health

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data related to obese and lean strains of rat commonly used in the laboratory that are calorically restricted and its effects on physiologic parameters (Body...

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program for science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amolins, Michael Wayne

    The development of effective science educators has been a long-standing goal of the American education system. Numerous studies have suggested a breadth of professional development programs that have sought to utilize constructivist principles in order to orchestrate movement toward student-led, inquiry-based instruction. Very few, however, have addressed a missing link between the modern scientific laboratory and the traditional science classroom. While several laboratory-based training programs have begun to emerge in recent years, the skills necessary to translate this information into the classroom are rarely addressed. The result is that participants are often left without an outlet or the confidence to integrate these into their lessons. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program focused on classroom integration and reformed science teaching principles. This was measured by the ability to invigorate its seven participants in order to achieve higher levels of success and fulfillment in the classroom. These participants all taught at public high schools in South Dakota, including both rural and urban locations, and taught a variety of courses. Participants were selected for this study through their participation in the Sanford Research/USD Science Educator Research Fellowship Program. Through the use of previously collected data acquired by Sanford Research, this study attempted to detail the convergence of three assessments in order to demonstrate the growth and development of its participants. First, pre- and post-program surveys were completed in order to display the personal and professional growth of its participants. Second, pre- and post-program classroom observations employing the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol allowed for the assessment of pedagogical modifications being integrated by each participant, as well as the success of such modifications in constructively

  15. The Effect of an Open-Ended Design Experience on Student Achievement in an Engineering Laboratory Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Cullin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effect of incorporating an Open-Ended Design Experience (OEDE into an undergraduate materials science laboratory taken by third-year mechanical engineering students. The focus of the OEDE was carbon fiber reinforced plastics and sandwich structures. The results indicate that the incorporation of OEDE’s in laboratory courses produces significant benefits in terms of student engagement, participation, and perception of competence. In addition, the OEDE was found to enhance students’ ability to apply related concepts as compared to non-OEDE lab activities. The authors conclude that the incorporation of OEDE’s can increase the effectiveness of engineering laboratory courses.

  16. Antinociceptive effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine in the hot-plate test in laboratory rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sara Hestehave; Munro, Gordon; Brønnum Pedersen, Tina

    2017-01-01

    the animal to a thermal stimulus using a hot plate, significant antinociceptive effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine administered in Nutella® were demonstrated. This was evident at doses of 1.0 mg/kg 60 and 120 min post administration (Peffects were not as marked......Researchers performing experiments on animals should always strive towards the refinement of experiments, minimization of stress and provision of better animal welfare. An adequate analgesic strategy is important to improve post-operative recovery and welfare in laboratory rats and mice....... In addition, it is desirable to provide post-operative analgesia using methods that are minimally invasive and stressful. This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of orally administered buprenorphine ingested in Nutella® in comparison with subcutaneous buprenorphine administration. By exposing...

  17. Laboratory simulation of interplanetary ultraviolet radiation (broad spectrum) and its effects on Deinococcus radiodurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino-Lima, Ivan Gláucio; Pilling, Sérgio; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; de Brito, Arnaldo Naves; Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro Gonçalves; Leitão, Alvaro Costa; Lage, Claudia de Alencar Santos

    2010-08-01

    The radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans was exposed to a simulated interplanetary UV radiation at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Bacterial samples were irradiated on different substrates to investigate the influence of surface relief on cell survival. The effects of cell multi-layers were also investigated. The ratio of viable microorganisms remained virtually the same (average 2%) for integrated doses from 1.2 to 12 kJ m -2, corresponding to 16 h of irradiation at most. The asymptotic profiles of the curves, clearly connected to a shielding effect provided by multi-layering cells on a cavitary substrate (carbon tape), means that the inactivation rate may not change significantly along extended periods of exposure to radiation. Such high survival rates reinforce the possibility of an interplanetary transfer of viable microbes.

  18. Effects of cadmium on the performance and microbiology of laboratory-scale lagoons treating domestic sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, J L; Bohatier, J; Pépin, D

    1999-06-01

    Two experiments were performed to assess the impact of cadmium on the sewage lagoon wastewater treatment process. For each one, three laboratory-scale pilot plants with one tank receiving the same raw effluent were used; one plant served as control and the other two were contaminated once only with cadmium. In the first study, the effects of a shock load of two concentrations of cadmium chloride (60 and 300 micrograms/l) on the plant performance, microbial populations (protists and bacteria) and enzyme activities were determined. Initially, most of the performance parameters were affected concentration-dependently. A reduction in the protist population density and some influence on the total bacterial population were observed, and the potential enzymatic activities were also modified. A second experiment with a lower cadmium concentration (30 micrograms/l), supplied as chloride or sulphate, still perturbed most of the parameters studied, and the effects of the two cadmium salts were identical.

  19. Part I: Virtual Laboratory versus Traditional Laboratory: Which Is More Effective for Teaching Electrochemistry? Part II: The Green Synthesis of Aurones Using a Deep Eutectic Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Ian C.

    2013-01-01

    The role of the teaching laboratory in science education has been debated over the last century. The goals and purposes of the laboratory are still debated and while most science educators consider laboratory a vital part of the education process, they differ widely on the purposes for laboratory and what methods should be used to teach…

  20. Collaborative Testing in Practical Laboratories: An Effective Teaching-Learning Method in Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuping; Li, Enzhong

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an experimental teaching and learning program used in histology with first-year students in the second term in the Faculty of Biology at Huanghuai University, China. Eighty-six students were divided randomly into two groups (n=43 per group). Tests were conducted at the end of each practical laboratory (10 laboratories in total) in which collaborative testing was used in the experimental group and traditional testing in the control group. To assess achievement, a final examination in histology was carried out at the end of the course. To determine students' attitude to the teaching styles, a questionnaire survey was conducted at the end of the term. Results showed that students preferred the collaborative testing format. In the experimental group, students' scores were significantly higher than those of students in the control group in final examinations. These findings indicate that collaborative testing enhances student learning and understanding of the material taught, and suggest that collaborative testing is an effective teaching-learning method in histology.

  1. Is there a First Night Effect on Sleep Bruxism? A Sleep Laboratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yoko; Lavigne, Gilles; Rompré, Pierre; Kato, Takafumi; Urade, Masahiro; Huynh, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep bruxism (SB) is reported to vary in frequency over time. The aim of this study was to assess the first night effect on SB. Methods: A retrospective polysomnographic (PSG) analysis was performed of data from a sample of SB patients (12 females, 4 males; age range: 17-39 years) recorded in a sleep laboratory over 2 consecutive nights. Sleep parameters and jaw muscle activity variables (i.e., rhythmic masticatory muscle activity [RMMA]) for SB were quantified and compared between the 2 nights. Subjects were classified into groups according to severity of RMMA frequency, such as low frequency (2-4 episodes/h and/or bruxism time index, and mean burst duration (repeated measure ANOVAs, p ≤ 0.05). Five patients of 8 in the low frequency group were classified into the moderate-high frequency group on the second night, whereas only one patient in the moderate-high frequency group moved to the low frequency group. Conclusions: The results showed no overall first night effect on severity of RMMA frequency in young and healthy patients with SB. In clinical practice, one-night sleep recording may be sufficient for moderate-high frequency SB patients. However, low RMMA frequency in the first night could be confirmed by a second night based on the patient's medical and dental history. Citation: Hasegawa Y; Lavigne G; Rompré P; Kato T; Urade M; Huynh N. Is there a first night effect on sleep bruxism? A sleep laboratory study. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(11):1139-1145. PMID:24235894

  2. Effects of Breeding Configuration on Maternal and Weanling Behavior in Laboratory Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Gillian C; Rasmussen, Skye; Monette, Sebastien; Tolwani, Ravi J

    2017-07-01

    Although numerous studies have evaluated the effect of housing density on the wellbeing of laboratory mice, little is known about the effect of breeding configuration on mouse behavior. The 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals lists the recommended minimal floor area per animal for a female mouse and her litter as 51 in.2 We sought to determine the effects of pair, trio, and harem breeding configurations on the maternal and weanling behavior of C57BL/6J (B6) and 129S6/SvEvTac (129) mice on the basis of nest scores and performance in pup retrieval tests, open-field test (OFT), elevated plus maze, and tail suspension test; we concurrently evaluated cage microenvironment, reproductive indices, and anatomic and clinical pathology. Harem breeding configurations enhanced B6 maternal behaviors as evidenced by significantly shorter pup retrieval times. Trio- and harem-raised B6 weanlings showed increased exploratory behaviors, as evidenced by greater time spent in the center of the OFT, when compared with pair-raised B6 mice. Conversely, breeding configuration did not alter pup retrieval times for 129 mice, and on the day of weaning trio- and harem-raised 129 mice demonstrated increased anxiety-like behavior, as evidenced by greater time spent in the periphery of the OFT, when compared with pair-raised counterparts. Behavioral differences were not noted on subsequent days for either strain. Trio- and harem-raised B6 and 129 weanling mice had significantly higher weaning weights than weanlings raised in a pair breeding configuration. Trio and harem breeding in a standard 67-in.2 shoebox cage did not detrimentally affect the evaluated welfare parameters in either C57BL/6J or 129S6/SvEvTac mice.

  3. Laboratory-scale measurements of effective relative permeability for layered sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butts, M.G.; Korsgaard, S.

    1996-12-31

    Predictions of the impact of remediation or the extent of contamination resulting from spills of gasoline, solvents and other petroleum products, must often be made in complex geological environments. Such problems can be treated by introducing the concept of effective parameters that incorporate the effects of soil layering or other heterogeneities into a large-scale flow description. Studies that derive effective multiphase parameters are few, and approximations are required to treat the non-linear multiphase flow equations. The purpose of this study is to measure effective relative permeabilities for well-defined multi-layered soils at the laboratory scale. Relative permeabilities were determined for homogeneous and layered, unconsolidated sands using the method of Jones and Roszelle (1978). The experimental data show that endpoint relative permeabilities are important in defining the shape of the relative permeability curves, but these cannot be predicted by estimation methods base on capillary pressure data. The most significant feature of the measured effective relative permeability curves is that the entrapped (residual) oil saturation is significantly larger than the residual saturation of the individual layers. This observation agrees with previous theoretical predictions of large-scale entrapment Butts, 1993 and (1995). Enhanced entrapment in heterogeneous soils has several important implications for spill remediation, for example, the reduced efficiency of direct recovery. (au) 17 refs.

  4. Effects of Tween 80 on growth and biofilm formation in laboratory media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Krogsård Nielsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tween 80 is a widely used nonionic emulsifier that is added to cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and foods. Because of its widespread use we need to understand how it affects bacteria on our skin, in our gut, and in food products. The aim of this study is to investigate how Tween 80 affects the growth and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas fluorescens, which are common causes of spoilage and foodborne illnesses. Addition of 0.1% Tween 80 to laboratory growth media increased the growth rate of planktonic S. aureus batch cultures, and it also increased the total biomass when S. aureus was grown as biofilms. In contrast, Tween 80 had no effect on batch cultures of L. monocytogenes, it slowed the growth rate of P. fluorescens, and it led to formation of less biofilm by both L. monocytogenes and P. fluorescens. Furthermore, Tween 80 lowered the antibacterial efficacy of two hydrophobic antimicrobials: rifampicin and the essential oil isoeugenol. Our findings underline the importance of documenting indirect effects of emulsifiers when studying the efficacy of hydrophobic antimicrobials that are dispersed in solution by emulsification, or when antimicrobials are applied in food matrixes that include emulsifiers. Furthermore, the species-specific effects on microbial growth suggests that Tween 80 in cosmetics and food products could affect the composition of skin and gut microbiota, and the effect of emulsifiers on the human microbiome should therefore be explored to uncover potential health effects.

  5. Laboratory-scale measurements of effective relative permeability for layered sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butts, M.G.; Korsgaard, S.

    1996-01-01

    Predictions of the impact of remediation or the extent of contamination resulting from spills of gasoline, solvents and other petroleum products, must often be made in complex geological environments. Such problems can be treated by introducing the concept of effective parameters that incorporate the effects of soil layering or other heterogeneities into a large-scale flow description. Studies that derive effective multiphase parameters are few, and approximations are required to treat the non-linear multiphase flow equations. The purpose of this study is to measure effective relative permeabilities for well-defined multi-layered soils at the laboratory scale. Relative permeabilities were determined for homogeneous and layered, unconsolidated sands using the method of Jones and Roszelle (1978). The experimental data show that endpoint relative permeabilities are important in defining the shape of the relative permeability curves, but these cannot be predicted by estimation methods base on capillary pressure data. The most significant feature of the measured effective relative permeability curves is that the entrapped (residual) oil saturation is significantly larger than the residual saturation of the individual layers. This observation agrees with previous theoretical predictions of large-scale entrapment Butts, 1993 and (1995). Enhanced entrapment in heterogeneous soils has several important implications for spill remediation, for example, the reduced efficiency of direct recovery. (au) 17 refs

  6. Human-health effects of radium: an epidemiolgic perspective of research at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The topic of health effects of radium has recently been considerably broadened by the identification of multiple myeloma as a specific outcome of bone-seeking radionuclides, and by evidence that the incidence of breast cancer may be significantly increased by radium exposure. All soft-tissue tumors are now suspect, especially leukemias. Concepts of dose-response need to be broadened to include the concept of risk factors, or, if one prefers, of susceptible subgroups. Biological factors relating to radium uptake and retention require study, as do risk factors modifying risk of both the clasical tumors, osteosarcoma and nasal sinus/mastoid, and the more recently suspect soft-tissue tumors. The history, organization, and current research activities in epidemiology at Argonne National Laboratory are described, and findings of the last decade and a half reviewed. Plans for future research are briefly discussed

  7. Human health effects of radium: an epidemiologic perspective of research at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The topic of health effects of radium has recently been considerably broadened by the identification of multiple myeloma as a specific outcome of bone-seeking radionuclides, and by evidence that the incidence of breast cancer may be significantly increased by radium exposure. All soft-tissue tumors are now suspect, especially leukemias. Concepts of dose-response need to be broadened to include the concept of risk factors, or, if one prefers, of susceptible subgroups. Biological factors relating to radium uptake and retention require study, as do risk factors modifying risk of both the classical tumors, osteosarcoma and nasal sinus/mastoid, and the more recently suspect soft-tissue tumors. The history, organization, and current research activities in epidemiology at Argonne National Laboratory are described, and findings of the last decade and a half reviewed. Plans for future research are briefly discussed

  8. Laboratory investigations of stormwater remediation via slag: Effects of metals on phosphorus removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okochi, Nnaemeka C.; McMartin, Dena W.

    2011-01-01

    The use of electric arc furnace (EAF) slag for the removal of phosphorus (P) from various simulated stormwater blends was investigated in the laboratory. The form of P measured was the inorganic orthophosphate (PO 4 -P). The stormwater solutions used in this preliminary study were synthesized as blends of P and typical concentrations of some of the most common and abundant metals in stormwater (e.g. cadmium, copper, lead and zinc), and contacted with EAF slag to determine P removal efficiency and sorptive competition. Results showed that the presence of cadmium, lead and zinc had minimal effect on the removal process; copper was a significant inhibitor of P uptake by the EAF slag media. P removal was greatest in the metal-free and multi-metal stormwater solutions.

  9. Laboratory investigations of stormwater remediation via slag: Effects of metals on phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okochi, Nnaemeka C; McMartin, Dena W

    2011-03-15

    The use of electric arc furnace (EAF) slag for the removal of phosphorus (P) from various simulated stormwater blends was investigated in the laboratory. The form of P measured was the inorganic orthophosphate (PO(4)-P). The stormwater solutions used in this preliminary study were synthesized as blends of P and typical concentrations of some of the most common and abundant metals in stormwater (e.g. cadmium, copper, lead and zinc), and contacted with EAF slag to determine P removal efficiency and sorptive competition. Results showed that the presence of cadmium, lead and zinc had minimal effect on the removal process; copper was a significant inhibitor of P uptake by the EAF slag media. P removal was greatest in the metal-free and multi-metal stormwater solutions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Laboratory investigations of stormwater remediation via slag: Effects of metals on phosphorus removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okochi, Nnaemeka C. [Environmental Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada); McMartin, Dena W., E-mail: dena.mcmartin@uregina.ca [Environmental Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    The use of electric arc furnace (EAF) slag for the removal of phosphorus (P) from various simulated stormwater blends was investigated in the laboratory. The form of P measured was the inorganic orthophosphate (PO{sub 4}-P). The stormwater solutions used in this preliminary study were synthesized as blends of P and typical concentrations of some of the most common and abundant metals in stormwater (e.g. cadmium, copper, lead and zinc), and contacted with EAF slag to determine P removal efficiency and sorptive competition. Results showed that the presence of cadmium, lead and zinc had minimal effect on the removal process; copper was a significant inhibitor of P uptake by the EAF slag media. P removal was greatest in the metal-free and multi-metal stormwater solutions.

  11. The effect of filtration on radon daughter atmospheres: Laboratory and field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonassen, N.; Jensen, B.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne radon daughters may be removed from the air by internal filtration using mechanical or electrofilters. The effect of the filtration may be evaluated in absolute measure by the decrease in the potential alpha energy concentration (or equivalent equilibrium concentration) or relatively by the decrease in the equilibrium factor. The filtration, however, may also change the distribution of airborne radon daughter activity between the unattached and the aerosol-attached state in a way to increase the radiological dose corresponding to a given potential alpha energy concentration. The paper describes a series of laboratory and field experiments which indicate that it is possible by the use of household electrofilters with filtration rates of 2-3 h -1 to lower the radon daughter concentrations to about 20 -30 % and the average radiological dose to about 50-60 % of the value in unfiltered air

  12. Human-health effects of radium: an epidemiolgic perspective of research at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbings, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The topic of health effects of radium has recently been considerably broadened by the identification of multiple myeloma as a specific outcome of bone-seeking radionuclides, and by evidence that the incidence of breast cancer may be significantly increased by radium exposure. All soft-tissue tumors are now suspect, especially leukemias. Concepts of dose-response need to be broadened to include the concept of risk factors, or, if one prefers, of susceptible subgroups. Biological factors relating to radium uptake and retention require study, as do risk factors modifying risk of both the clasical tumors, osteosarcoma and nasal sinus/mastoid, and the more recently suspect soft-tissue tumors. The history, organization, and current research activities in epidemiology at Argonne National Laboratory are described, and findings of the last decade and a half reviewed. Plans for future research are briefly discussed.

  13. Effect of temperature on the effectiveness of artificial reproduction of dace [Cyprinidae (Leuciscus leuciscus (L.))] under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosad, Joanna; Targońska, Katarzyna; Chwaluczyk, Rafał; Kaszubowski, Rafał; Kucharczyk, Dariusz

    2014-10-01

    This study sought to determine the effect of water temperature on the effectiveness of artificial reproduction of dace brooders under laboratory and field conditions. Three temperatures were tested in the laboratory: 9.5, 12 and 14.5 °C (± 0.1 °C). The water temperature under field conditions was 11.0 ± 0.3 °C (Czarci Jar Fish Farm) and 13.2 ± 1.4 °C (Janowo Fish Farm). The study showed that artificial reproduction of dace is possible in all the temperature ranges under study and an embryo survival rate of over 87% can be achieved. Dace has also been found to be very sensitive to rapid temperature changes, even within the temperature ranges optimal for the species. Such changes have an adverse effect on the outcome of the reproduction process, such as a decrease in the percentage of reproducing females, a decrease in the pseudo-gonado-somatic index (PGSI) and a decrease in the embryo survival rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A clinical laboratory model for evaluating the acute effects of electronic "cigarettes": nicotine delivery profile and cardiovascular and subjective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansickel, Andrea R; Cobb, Caroline O; Weaver, Michael F; Eissenberg, Thomas E

    2010-08-01

    Electronic "cigarettes" are marketed to tobacco users as potential reduced exposure products (PREP), albeit with little information regarding electronic cigarette user toxicant exposure and effects. This information may be obtained by adapting clinical laboratory methods used to evaluate other PREPs for smokers. Thirty-two smokers participated in four independent Latin-square ordered conditions that differed by product: own brand cigarette, "NPRO" electronic cigarettes (NPRO EC; 18 mg cartridge), "Hydro" electronic cigarettes (Hydro EC; 16 mg cartridge), or sham (unlit cigarette). Participants took 10 puffs at two separate times during each session. Plasma nicotine and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration, heart rate, and subjective effects were assessed. Own brand significantly increased plasma nicotine and CO concentration and heart rate within the first five minutes of administration whereas NPRO EC, Hydro EC, and sham smoking did not. Own brand, NPRO EC, and Hydro EC (but not sham) significantly decreased tobacco abstinence symptom ratings and increased product acceptability ratings. The magnitude of symptom suppression and increased acceptability was greater for own brand than for NPRO EC and Hydro EC. Under these acute testing conditions, neither of the electronic cigarettes exposed users to measurable levels of nicotine or CO, although both suppressed nicotine/tobacco abstinence symptom ratings. This study illustrates how clinical laboratory methods can be used to understand the acute effects of these and other PREPs for tobacco users. The results and methods reported here will likely be relevant to the evaluation and empirically based regulation of electronic cigarettes and similar products. (c)2010 AACR.

  15. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System FY 2012 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farren Hunt

    2012-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an Annual Effectiveness Review of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223 1, “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and identified target areas for focused improvements and assessments for fiscal year (FY) 2013. Results of the FY 2012 annual effectiveness review demonstrated that the INL’s ISMS program was significantly strengthened. Actions implemented by the INL demonstrate that the overall Integrated Safety Management System is sound and ensures safe and successful performance of work while protecting workers, the public, and environment. This report also provides several opportunities for improvement that will help further strengthen the ISM Program and the pursuit of safety excellence. Demonstrated leadership and commitment, continued surveillance, and dedicated resources have been instrumental in maturing a sound ISMS program. Based upon interviews with personnel, reviews of assurance activities, and analysis of ISMS process implementation, this effectiveness review concludes that ISM is institutionalized and is “Effective”.

  16. Direct and Indirect Effects of Pesticides on the Insidious Flower Bug (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) Under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Nathan J; Cloyd, Raymond A

    2017-06-01

    Greenhouse producers are interested in integrating natural enemies along with pesticides to suppress western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), populations. The insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say), is a commercially available natural enemy of western flower thrips. We conducted a series of laboratory experiments to determine the direct and indirect effects of 28 pesticides (insecticides, miticides, and fungicides), 4 pesticide mixtures, and 4 surfactants (36 total treatments plus a water control) on the adult O. insidiosus survival and predation on western flower thrips adults under laboratory conditions. The number of live and dead O. insidiosus adults was recorded after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. The results of the study indicate that the fungicides (aluminum tris, azoxystrobin, fenhexamid, and kresoxim-methyl), insect growth regulators (azadirachtin, buprofezin, kinoprene, and pyriproxyfen), botanicals (Capsicum oleoresin extract, garlic oil, soybean oil; and rosemary, rosemary oil, peppermint oil, and cottonseed oil), and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae) were minimally directly harmful to adult O. insidiosus, with 80% to 100% adult survival. However, abamectin, spinosad, pyridalyl, chlorfenapyr, tau-fluvalinate, imidacloprid, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam directly affected O. insidiosus survival after 96 h (0-60% adult survival). The pesticide mixtures of abamectin + spinosad and chlorfenapyr + dinotefuran reduced adult survival (20% and 0%, respectively, after 48 h). Furthermore, the surfactants were not directly harmful to O. insidiosus adults. All western flower thrips adults were killed by the surviving adult O. insidiosus after 48 h, indicating no indirect effects of the pesticides on predation. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Laboratory testing of waste glass aqueous corrosion; effects of experimental parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.; Mazer, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    A literature survey has been performed to assess the effects of the temperature, glass surface area/leachate volume ratio, leachant composition, leachant flow rate, and glass composition (actual radioactive vs. simulated glass) used in laboratory tests on the measured glass reaction rate. The effects of these parameters must be accounted for in mechanistic models used to project glass durability over long times. Test parameters can also be utilized to highlight particular processes in laboratory tests. Waste glass corrosion results as water diffusion, ion-exchange, and hydrolysis reactions occur simultaneously to devitrify the glass and release soluble glass components into solution. The rates of these processes are interrelated by the affects of the solution chemistry and glass alteration phases on each process, and the dominant (fastest) process may change as the reaction progresses. Transport of components from the release sites into solution may also affect the observed corrosion rate. The reaction temperature will affect the rate of each process, while other parameters will affect the solution chemistry and which processes are observed during the test. The early stages of corrosion will be observed under test conditions which maintain dilute leachates and the later stages will be observed under conditions that generate more concentrated leachate solutions. Typically, water diffusion and ion-exchange reactions dominate the observed glass corrosion in dilute solutions while hydrolysis reactions dominant in more concentrated solutions. Which process(es) controls the long-term glass corrosion is not fully understood, and the long-term corrosion rate may be either transport- or reaction-limited

  18. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  19. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...

  20. Determining the effects of films with suicidal content: a laboratory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Benedikt; Strauss, Markus; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Media stories on suicide can increase suicidal ideation, but little is known about variations in media effects with regard to audience vulnerability and story contents. We investigated the impact of three drama films with suicidal content that varied with regard to the final outcome (suicide completion, mastery of crisis and death by natural causes) and tested the moderating effect of baseline suicidality of the participants on the effects. Within a laboratory setting, we randomly assigned 95 adults to three film groups. We used questionnaires to analyse the effects of the films on mood, depression, life satisfaction, self-worth, assumed benevolence of the world and suicidality, as well as identification with the protagonist. We stratified the sample into participants with suicidal tendencies above and below the sample median. The film that ended with the protagonist's suicide led to a deterioration of mood particularly in individuals with baseline suicidality below the median, who also experienced an increase in self-worth. Participants with stronger suicidal tendencies experienced a rise in suicidality that depended on their level of identification with the protagonist. The film featuring the main character positively coping with his crisis increased life satisfaction particularly among participants with higher suicidal tendencies. The effects of suicide-related media material seem to vary with individual vulnerability and with type of media portrayal. Individuals with lower vulnerability experience more emotional reactions when exposed to a film culminating in suicide, but individuals with higher vulnerability experience a rise in suicidal tendencies particularly if they identify with the protagonist who died by suicide. In contrast, portrayals of individual mastery of crisis may have beneficial effects in more vulnerable individuals. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  1. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System FY 2013 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Farren [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an Annual Effectiveness Review of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223 1, “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and identified target areas for focused improvements and assessments for Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Results of the FY 2013 annual effectiveness review demonstrate that the INL’s ISMS program is “Effective” and continually improving and shows signs of being significantly strengthened. Although there have been unacceptable serious events in the past, there has also been significant attention, dedication, and resources focused on improvement, lessons learned and future prevention. BEA’s strategy of focusing on these improvements includes extensive action and improvement plans that include PLN 4030, “INL Sustained Operational Improvement Plan, PLN 4058, “MFC Strategic Excellence Plan,” PLN 4141, “ATR Sustained Excellence Plan,” and PLN 4145, “Radiological Control Road to Excellence,” and the development of LWP 20000, “Conduct of Research.” As a result of these action plans, coupled with other assurance activities and metrics, significant improvement in operational performance, organizational competence, management oversight and a reduction in the number of operational events is being realized. In short, the realization of the fifth core function of ISMS (feedback and continuous improvement) and the associated benefits are apparent.

  2. Effectiveness of daylighting design and occupant visual satisfaction in a LEED gold laboratory building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Ying; Oswald, Anne [Department of Design and Environmental Analysis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Yang, Xiaodi [School of Architecture, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Using daylight as primary light source has been widely recognized as an important strategy to reduce building energy demand and enhance indoor environment quality. However, to design and operate a building to make full use of daylight, which is a dynamic light source, to meet diverse occupant needs remains a challenge. This paper reports a post-occupancy study of the visual environment in a laboratory building on a university campus, and puts a spotlight on the building occupants as it examines the effectiveness of the daylighting design and systems integration in creating a visual environment to support occupant comfort and satisfaction while reducing artificial lighting demand. Results show generally high satisfaction with daylit work environment and positive effect of the horizontal shading strategy. Issues about the integration between daylighting and electric lighting systems and level of occupant control are identified and discussed for improving the effectiveness of daylighting and enhancing the quality of the visual environment in the building of study. A multiple-tool methodology is developed and tested, which included occupant surveys, interviews, illuminance measurements, continuous data loggers, fisheye-lens camera and glare-identifying software, and documentation of spatial settings, systems features, and user behavior. (author)

  3. The effectiveness of digital microscopy as a teaching tool in medical laboratory science curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Demetra

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental component to the practice of Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) is the microscope. While traditional microscopy (TM) is gold standard, the high cost of maintenance has led to an increased demand for alternative methods, such as digital microscopy (DM). Slides embedded with blood specimens are converted into a digital form that can be run with computer driven software. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of digital microscopy as a teaching tool in the field of Medical Laboratory Science. Participants reviewed known study slides using both traditional and digital microscopy methods and were assessed using both methods. Participants were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 performed TM as the primary method and DM as the alternate. Group 2 performed DM as the primary and TM as the alternate. Participants performed differentials with their primary method, were assessed with both methods, and then performed differentials with their alternate method. A detailed assessment rubric was created to determine the accuracy of student responses through comparison of clinical laboratory and instructor results. Student scores were reflected as a percentage correct from these methods. This assessment was done over two different classes. When comparing results between methods for each, independent of the primary method used, results were not statistically different. However, when comparing methods between groups, Group 1 (n = 11) (TM = 73.79% +/- 9.19, DM = 81.43% +/- 8.30; paired t10 = 0.182, p < 0.001) showed a significant difference from Group 2 (n = 14) (TM = 85.64% +/- 5.30, DM = 85.91% +/- 7.62; paired t13 = 3.647, p = 0.860). In the subsequent class, results between both groups (n = 13, n = 16, respectively) did not show any significant difference between groups (Group 1 TM = 86.38% +/- 8.17, Group 1 DM = 88.69% +/- 3.86; paired t12 = 1.253, p = 0.234; Group 2 TM = 86.75% +/- 5.37, Group 2 DM = 86.25% +/- 7.01, paired t15 = 0.280, p

  4. The effect of sucralfate on the reduction of radiation esophagitis: clinical and laboratory data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Mison; Kim, Juree; Hahm, Kibaik; Kim, Jinhong

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Sucralfate is a common ulcer healing drug. This study was conducted between June 1995 and February 1996, to verify the sucralfate effect on the reduction of esophagitis, radiation induced mucosal damage. Materials and Methods: Initially, a total of 39 patients (31 lung cancer, 8 esophageal cancer) received either sucralfate or a placebo before each meal (TID) starting the 1st day of the radiation treatment and continuing during the treatment without interruption. Patients were evaluated weekly by the same personnel using a pain scale. Subsequently, sucralfate was given 4 times daily (QID), with each meal and right before treatment, to 14 patients. Esophageal biopsies were taken from 14 patients (9 from the sucralfate group and 5 from the placebo group) on the third week of radiation treatment, when the patients usually received 2000 to 2500 cGy to the thoracic esophagus. We evaluated the change of reactive oxygen metabolites and reactive nitrogen metabolites such as NOS(constitutive and inducible form of nitric oxide synthetase) generated by irradiation. Myeloperoxidase(MPO) activities were measured spectroscopically. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBA-RS) and chemiluminescence (CL) as an index of lipid peroxidation were also measured. Results: There was a considerable reduction of severe esophagitis (≥ 4 pain scale) in patients with regular sucralfate medication compared to patients with the placebo ((6(20))(30%) vs(14(19)) (74%)). Sucralfate QID group patients showed more improvement than the TID group, with only 2 out of 14 (14%) suffering severe esophagitis. The laboratory results are shown below : Conclusion: This data confirmed that sucralfate significantly reduced severe esophagitis symptoms during the radiation therapy course, and made it easier for patients to tolerate the thoracic radiation treatment. Moreover, the laboratory data showed a significant reduction in the level of all reactive oxygen metabolites generated by the

  5. Indomethacin nanocrystals prepared by different laboratory scale methods: effect on crystalline form and dissolution behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martena, Valentina; Censi, Roberta [University of Camerino, School of Pharmacy (Italy); Hoti, Ela; Malaj, Ledjan [University of Tirana, Department of Pharmacy (Albania); Di Martino, Piera, E-mail: piera.dimartino@unicam.it [University of Camerino, School of Pharmacy (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    The objective of this study is to select very simple and well-known laboratory scale methods able to reduce particle size of indomethacin until the nanometric scale. The effect on the crystalline form and the dissolution behavior of the different samples was deliberately evaluated in absence of any surfactants as stabilizers. Nanocrystals of indomethacin (native crystals are in the {gamma} form) (IDM) were obtained by three laboratory scale methods: A (Batch A: crystallization by solvent evaporation in a nano-spray dryer), B (Batch B-15 and B-30: wet milling and lyophilization), and C (Batch C-20-N and C-40-N: Cryo-milling in the presence of liquid nitrogen). Nanocrystals obtained by the method A (Batch A) crystallized into a mixture of {alpha} and {gamma} polymorphic forms. IDM obtained by the two other methods remained in the {gamma} form and a different attitude to the crystallinity decrease were observed, with a more considerable decrease in crystalline degree for IDM milled for 40 min in the presence of liquid nitrogen. The intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) revealed a higher dissolution rate for Batches A and C-40-N, due to the higher IDR of {alpha} form than {gamma} form for the Batch A, and the lower crystallinity degree for both the Batches A and C-40-N. These factors, as well as the decrease in particle size, influenced the IDM dissolution rate from the particle samples. Modifications in the solid physical state that may occur using different particle size reduction treatments have to be taken into consideration during the scale up and industrial development of new solid dosage forms.

  6. Single Event Effects Test Facility Options at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, Bernie [ORNL; Gallmeier, Franz X [ORNL; Dominik, Laura J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Increasing use of microelectronics of ever diminishing feature size in avionics systems has led to a growing Single Event Effects (SEE) susceptibility arising from the highly ionizing interactions of cosmic rays and solar particles. Single event effects caused by atmospheric radiation have been recognized in recent years as a design issue for avionics equipment and systems. To ensure a system meets all its safety and reliability requirements, SEE induced upsets and potential system failures need to be considered, including testing of the components and systems in a neutron beam. Testing of integrated circuits (ICs) and systems for use in radiation environments requires the utilization of highly advanced laboratory facilities that can run evaluations on microcircuits for the effects of radiation. This paper provides a background of the atmospheric radiation phenomenon and the resulting single event effects, including single event upset (SEU) and latch up conditions. A study investigating requirements for future single event effect irradiation test facilities and developing options at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is summarized. The relatively new SNS with its 1.0 GeV proton beam, typical operation of 5000 h per year, expertise in spallation neutron sources, user program infrastructure, and decades of useful life ahead is well suited for hosting a world-class SEE test facility in North America. Emphasis was put on testing of large avionics systems while still providing tunable high flux irradiation conditions for component tests. Makers of ground-based systems would also be served well by these facilities. Three options are described; the most capable, flexible, and highest-test-capacity option is a new stand-alone target station using about one kW of proton beam power on a gas-cooled tungsten target, with dual test enclosures. Less expensive options are also described.

  7. Effectiveness of Student-Generated Video as a Teaching Tool for an Instrumental Technique in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeremy T.; Box, Melinda C.; Eguren, Kristen E.; Parker, Thomas A.; Saraldi-Gallardo, Victoria M.; Wolfe, Michael I.; Gallardo-Williams, Maria T.

    2016-01-01

    Multimedia instruction has been shown to serve as an effective learning aid for chemistry students. In this study, the viability of student-generated video instruction for organic chemistry laboratory techniques and procedure was examined and its effectiveness compared to instruction provided by a teaching assistant (TA) was evaluated. After…

  8. Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Three Learning Environments: Hyper-Realistic Virtual Simulations, Traditional Schematic Simulations and Traditional Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Guadalupe; Naranjo, Francisco L.; Perez, Angel L.; Suero, Maria Isabel; Pardo, Pedro J.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the educational effects of computer simulations developed in a hyper-realistic virtual environment with the educational effects of either traditional schematic simulations or a traditional optics laboratory. The virtual environment was constructed on the basis of Java applets complemented with a photorealistic visual output.…

  9. Assessing the effectiveness of technology transfer from U.S. government R&D laboratories: impact of market orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry; Coker, Karen

    1992-05-01

    This study, based on a national survey of U.S. government laboratories, assesses the degree of success laboratories have had in transferring technology to industry, taking into account the laboratories' differing receptivity to market influences. Three success criteria are considered here, two based on self-evaluations and a third based on the number of technology licenses issued from the laboratory. The two self-evaluations are rooted in different types of effectiveness, `getting technology out the door,' in one case, and, in the other, having a demonstrable commercial impact. A core hypothesis of the study is that the two types of effectiveness will be responsive to different factors and, in particular, the laboratories with a clearer market orientation will have a higher degree of success on the commercial impact and technology license criteria. Overall, the results seem to suggest that multifaceted, multimission laboratories are likely to enjoy the most success in technology transfer, especially if they have relatively low levels of bureaucratization and either ties to industry (particularly direct financial ties) or a commercial orientation in the selection of projects.

  10. Effects of chemical smokes on flora and fauna under field and laboratory exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, D J; Novak, E W; Lower, W R; Yanders, A; Kapila, S; Wang, R

    1987-06-01

    Various types of obscurant smokes are used routinely in training by the U.S. Army. Because continued routine use of the smokes could be detrimental to the native flora and fauna at training sites, a preliminary biological and chemical field study of fogoil, hexachloroethane, and tank diesel smokes was conducted. Smoke plumes were sampled and chemically analyzed at distances of 15-150 m from the smoke source where Tradescantia clones 4430 and 03 and the native plant Ambrosia dumosa and the native rodent Dipodomys merriami were exposed for 30 min. In addition, Tradescantia clone 4430 was exposed to tank diesel in the laboratory at concentration levels equivalent to exposure at 15 and 50 m. Tradescantia clones were examined for mutagenic effects indicated by micronuclei induction in developing pollen and pink somatic mutations in stamen hairs. Photosynthetic perturbations were measured in Tradescantia and A. dumosa using variable fluorescence induction. Animals were examined for sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations. It was found that all of the smokes tested exerted varying degrees of physiological and mutagenic effects in one or more assay system at one or more exposure distance. The studies reported here indicate that exposed ecological systems, or at least components of these systems, are at a higher risk than are unexposed components (e.g., organisms) for several types of damage attributed to obscurant smoke exposure.

  11. Effects of Suicide Awareness Material on Implicit Suicide Cognition: A Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Florian; Till, Benedikt; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the increasing adoption of suicide awareness campaigns to prevent suicide, little is known about the effective construction of awareness messages used and on their impact on suicidal cognition. We hypothesized that media reporting on an individual overcoming a suicidal crisis increases the automatic association between "life" and self. University students (N = 112) were randomly allocated to one of three groups in a laboratory experiment. Participants allocated to treatment group 1 or group 2 read awareness material about a person coping with suicidal ideation by getting professional help. The only difference between the two groups was the amount of social similarity (low vs. high) between the protagonist and the participants. The control group read an article unrelated to suicide. Awareness material increased implicit cognition in terms of a strengthening of self-life associations. This effect was restricted to participants scoring low on wishful identification with the suicidal protagonist. This finding suggests that only individuals who do not wishfully identify with a protagonist going through difficult life circumstances benefit from the awareness material in terms of suicidal cognition. These findings provide a rich basis for further research and have potentially high relevance to the construction of suicide-awareness messages.

  12. DOE life-span radiation effects studies at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Sanders, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Major life-span radiation effects studies at Pacific Northwest Laboratory fall into three categories: (1) studies with beagle dogs exposed to plutonium compounds via a single inhalation; (2) studies with dogs and rats exposed chronically via inhalation to various combinations and concentrations of radon, radon daughters, and other components of uranium mine atmospheres; and (3) a study in which rats are exposed via single inhalation, in very large numbers, to very low concentrations of 239 PuO 2 . Exposure of beagles currently on study was initiated in 1970 with 239 PuO 2 , in 1973 with 238 PuO 2 , and in 1976 with 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . These experiments involve more than 500 animals, many of them still alive. Experiments seeking to explain the increased incidence of lung cancer in uranium miners have been in progress since 1966. Present emphasis is on studies with rats, in an attempt to define dose-effect relationships at the lowest feasible radon-daughter exposure levels. Our very-low-level experiment with inhaled 239 PuO 2 in rats, with exposures still under way, includes 1000 rats in the control group and 1000 rats in the lowest-exposure group, where life-span lung doses of <5 rads are anticipated

  13. Effects of PCB contamination on the reproduction of the DAB Limanda limanda L. under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonds, Mark; Casal, Elizabeth; Schweizer, Dominik; Boon, Jan P.; Van der Veer, Henk W.

    The effect of PCB contamination on the reproduction of female dab was studied under laboratory conditions. Females were contaminated during gonad maturation by multiple oral administration of capsules containing the technical PCB mixture Clophen A40. PCB contamination resulted in increased levels in the eggs, with concentrations of selected PCB congeners of 35 to 86 μg·g -1 lipid for PCB-exposed fish, 10 μg·g -1 lipid for eggs from fish fed with mussel meat and fish fed with shrimp. A statistically significant dose-effect relationship was found between the PCB content of the eggs and the PCB dose ingested by the fish. For eggs from the PCB-treated fish the mean fertilization rate was 61% and mean hatching 45%, compared to 67% fertilization and 59% hatching for eggs from untreated fish. Rate of development and survival of the eggs and mortality of the larvae after hatching were mainly related to incubation temperature. No statistically significant differences between untreated and PCB-treated fish could be found in egg production, egg quality, fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival of larvae.

  14. Effects of process parameters on solid self-microemulsifying particles in a laboratory scale fluid bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Tusharmouli; Plakogiannis, Fotios M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to select the critical process parameters of the fluid bed processes impacting the quality attribute of a solid self-microemulsifying (SME) system of albendazole (ABZ). A fractional factorial design (2(4-1)) with four parameters (spray rate, inlet air temperature, inlet air flow, and atomization air pressure) was created by MINITAB software. Batches were manufactured in a laboratory top-spray fluid bed at 625-g scale. Loss on drying (LOD) samples were taken throughout each batch to build the entire moisture profiles. All dried granulation were sieved using mesh 20 and analyzed for particle size distribution (PSD), morphology, density, and flow. It was found that as spray rate increased, sauter-mean diameter (D(s)) also increased. The effect of inlet air temperature on the peak moisture which is directly related to the mean particle size was found to be significant. There were two-way interactions between studied process parameters. The main effects of inlet air flow rate and atomization air pressure could not be found as the data were inconclusive. The partial least square (PLS) regression model was found significant (P SME manufacturing process.

  15. Effect of the solenoid in various conditions of the laser ion source at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.; Okamura, M.

    2016-02-01

    In the laser ion source (LIS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a solenoid is used to guide the laser ablation plasma and modulate the extracted beam current. Many types of ion species are guided. In some cases, the plasma plume is injected into the solenoid away from the solenoidal axis. To investigate the effects of the solenoid on the beam extracted from the plasma that has different properties, the beam current was measured in the setup of the LIS at the BNL. The beam current of Li, Al, Si, Fe, and Au increased when the magnetic field was applied. For most of the species the peak current and the total charge within a single beam pulse increased around 10 times with a magnetic field less than 100 G. In addition, for some species the rate of increase of the peak currents became smaller when the magnetic flux densities were larger than certain values depending on the species. In this case, the current waveforms were distorted. At the same magnetic field value, the field was more effective on lighter species than on heavier ones. When plasma was injected offset from the axis of the solenoid, peak current and total charge became half of those without offset. The experimental data are useful for the operation of the LIS at the BNL.

  16. Effect of the solenoid in various conditions of the laser ion source at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.; Okamura, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the laser ion source (LIS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a solenoid is used to guide the laser ablation plasma and modulate the extracted beam current. Many types of ion species are guided. In some cases, the plasma plume is injected into the solenoid away from the solenoidal axis. To investigate the effects of the solenoid on the beam extracted from the plasma that has different properties, the beam current was measured in the setup of the LIS at the BNL. The beam current of Li, Al, Si, Fe, and Au increased when the magnetic field was applied. For most of the species the peak current and the total charge within a single beam pulse increased around 10 times with a magnetic field less than 100 G. In addition, for some species the rate of increase of the peak currents became smaller when the magnetic flux densities were larger than certain values depending on the species. In this case, the current waveforms were distorted. At the same magnetic field value, the field was more effective on lighter species than on heavier ones. When plasma was injected offset from the axis of the solenoid, peak current and total charge became half of those without offset. The experimental data are useful for the operation of the LIS at the BNL

  17. Effect of the solenoid in various conditions of the laser ion source at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, S., E-mail: ikeda.s.ae@m.titech.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 216-8502 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0108 (Japan); Kumaki, M. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0108 (Japan); Kanesue, T.; Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    In the laser ion source (LIS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a solenoid is used to guide the laser ablation plasma and modulate the extracted beam current. Many types of ion species are guided. In some cases, the plasma plume is injected into the solenoid away from the solenoidal axis. To investigate the effects of the solenoid on the beam extracted from the plasma that has different properties, the beam current was measured in the setup of the LIS at the BNL. The beam current of Li, Al, Si, Fe, and Au increased when the magnetic field was applied. For most of the species the peak current and the total charge within a single beam pulse increased around 10 times with a magnetic field less than 100 G. In addition, for some species the rate of increase of the peak currents became smaller when the magnetic flux densities were larger than certain values depending on the species. In this case, the current waveforms were distorted. At the same magnetic field value, the field was more effective on lighter species than on heavier ones. When plasma was injected offset from the axis of the solenoid, peak current and total charge became half of those without offset. The experimental data are useful for the operation of the LIS at the BNL.

  18. Effect of Triflumuron and Pyriproxyfen on Musca domestica L Larval Stages in the Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sulaiman

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:  The residual effect of triflumuron and pyriproxyfen on Musca domestica L larval stages was studied in the laboratory."n"nMethods: Both IGRs at varying concentrations ranging between 0.5 to 2.5 mg/L were placed inside beakers with mice chow and vitamin B complex and water as food for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars M.domestica larvae."n"nResults: Both IGRs inhibit M. domestica adult emergence of 98-98.5% when applied at the lowest concentration of 0.5 mg/L on the 1st instar, 93-97% of adult emergence inhibition on the 2nd instar,and 91-97% of adult emergence inhibi­tion on the 3rd instar larvae respectively. There was no significant difference between triflumuron and pyriproxy­fen on house­fly adult emergence inhibition when fed to the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars M.domestica larvae (P> 0.05. However, there was a significant difference between the IGRs and the control (P< 0.05."n"nConclusion: Both triflumuron and pyriproxyfen are effective in inhibiting adult emergence of housefly M  domes­tica and therefore should be recommended for fly control particularly in chicken farms and dumping grounds in Malaysia for housefly control activities.

  19. Laboratory quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvin, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    The elements (principles) of quality assurance can be applied to the operation of the analytical chemistry laboratory to provide an effective tool for indicating the competence of the laboratory and for helping to upgrade competence if necessary. When used, those elements establish the planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence in each analytical result reported by the laboratory (the definition of laboratory quality assurance). The elements, as used at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), are discussed and they are qualification of analysts, written methods, sample receiving and storage, quality control, audit, and documentation. To establish a laboratory quality assurance program, a laboratory QA program plan is prepared to specify how the elements are to be implemented into laboratory operation. Benefits that can be obtained from using laboratory quality assurance are given. Experience at HEDL has shown that laboratory quality assurance is not a burden, but it is a useful and valuable tool for the analytical chemistry laboratory

  20. Effective Laboratory Work in Biochemistry Subject: Students' and Lecturers' Perspective in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Yunita Arian Sani; Senam; Laksono F. X., Endang Widjajanti

    2017-01-01

    Biochemistry subject had problem in learning and teaching, especially in laboratory work. We explored laboratory learning implementation in Biochemistry subject. Participants of this research were 195 students who took biochemistry subject and 4 lecturers of biochemistry in three universities in Indonesia. We obtained data using questionnaires and…

  1. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System FY 2016 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Farren J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) effectiveness review of fiscal year (FY) 2016 shows that INL has integrated management programs and safety elements throughout the oversight and operational activities performed at INL. The significant maturity of Contractor Assurance System (CAS) processes, as demonstrated across INL’s management systems and periodic reporting through the Management Review Meeting process, over the past two years has provided INL with current real-time understanding and knowledge pertaining to the health of the institution. INL’s sustained excellence of the Integrated Safety and effective implementation of the Worker Safety and Health Program is also evidenced by other external validations and key indicators. In particular, external validations include VPP, ISO 14001, DOELAP accreditation, and key Laboratory level indicators such as ORPS (number, event frequency and severity); injury/illness indicators such as Days Away, Restricted and Transfer (DART) case rate, back & shoulder metric and open reporting indicators, demonstrate a continuous positive trend and therefore improved operational performance over the last few years. These indicators are also reflective of the Laboratory’s overall organizational and safety culture improvement. Notably, there has also been a step change in ESH&Q Leadership actions that have been recognized both locally and complex-wide. Notwithstanding, Laboratory management continues to monitor and take action on lower level negative trends in numerous areas including: Conduct of Operations, Work Control, Work Site Analysis, Risk Assessment, LO/TO, Fire Protection, and Life Safety Systems, to mention a few. While the number of severe injury cases has decreased, as evidenced by the reduction in the DART case rate, the two hand injuries and the fire truck/ambulance accident were of particular concern. Aggressive actions continue in order to understand the causes and

  2. Laboratory evaluation of the effect of Beauveria bassiana on the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Lim, Un Taek

    2017-09-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), a major pest of many agricultural crops, is mainly controlled with chemical acaricides. However, predatory mites and entomopathogens have been proposed as alternative control agents. In this study, the effect of the BotaniGard ® GHA strain of Beauveria bassiana on the survival, longevity, fecundity, and egg hatch rate of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were studied under laboratory conditions. When B. bassiana was applied directly to P. persimilis eggs at a concentration of 1×10 8 conidia/ml, corrected hatchability was less than 5%, and the corrected mortality of nymphs and adults was not significantly different from control 10days after treatment. Phytoseiulus persimilis nymphs that hatched from treated eggs showed no significant change in their development time, adult female longevity, hatch rate, survival rates over time, or offspring sex ratio. However, significant negative effects on fecundity and life table parameters (net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of natural increase, mean generation time, finite rate of increase, and doubling time) were found when B. bassiana was applied to the adult stage. Spraying B. bassiana at 1×10 8 conidia/ml on newly emerged adults of P. persimilis caused 44% reduction in the oviposition period, 26% in adult longevity, and 63% in fecundity. Due to these negative effects, B. bassiana should be used with careful adjustment of application timing (first spray B. bassiana and then release P. persimilis) to supplement biological mite control systems using P. persimilis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Report on the laboratory examination of the effect of fungal invasion on the durability of untreated mine support timbers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, PJ

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info RR 12_67 The laboratory examination of the effect of fungal invasion on the durability of untreated mine support timber COMRO 1967.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 8 Content-Encoding ISO-8859...-1 stream_name RR 12_67 The laboratory examination of the effect of fungal invasion on the durability of untreated mine support timber COMRO 1967.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  4. Effect of personal control over thermal environment in a laboratory setting; Effect van klimaatbeinvloeding in een laboratoriumsetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Te Kulve, M.; ; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Hensen, J.L.M. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Boerstra, A.C. [BBA Binnenmilieu, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Toftum, J. [Technical University of Denmark DTU, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2013-07-15

    A laboratory study was performed to investigate if being in control over the thermal environment influences comfort, symptoms and performance. Two conditions were tested: the first with individual control and the second without, but with identical indoor climate exposure as recorded during the first session. For the investigated case, the availability of control opportunities does not directly influence human perception to the thermal environment, symptoms or performance. However, personal preferences for the air velocity of the fan makes a lot of difference [Dutch] Onderzoeken in kantoorgebouwen hebben aangetoond dat het hebben van persoonlijke controle over het binnenklimaat een positieve invloed heeft op comfort en productiviteit. Is dit effect toe te schrijven aan het verschil in behoefte van werknemers, of is alleen het gevoel van het hebben van controle al voldoende om een positieve invloed te hebben? Dit laboratoriumonderzoek richtte zich op die vraag. Het onderzoek maakt deel uit van het promotieonderzoek 'Persoonlijke Beinvloeding van het Binnenklimaat in kantoorgebouwen'.

  5. Larvicidal effect of disinfectant soap on Anopheles gambiae s.s (Diptera: Culicidae) in laboratory and semifield environs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdoe, France P; Nkwengulila, Gamba; Chobu, Mariam; Lyaruu, Lucile; Gyunda, Israel L; Mbepera, Saada; Xue, Rui-De; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2014-05-03

    Mosquito larval control using chemicals and biological agents is of paramount importance in vector population and disease incidence reduction. A commercial synthetic disinfectant soap was evaluated against larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. in both laboratory and semi field conditions. Five concentrations of commercial synthetic disinfectant soap (0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1%) were prepared and evaluated against third instar larvae in laboratory and semi field environments. Mortality was scored at 12, 24, 48, and 72 hrs. Each dosage had 6 replicates, having twenty 3rd instar larvae of An.gambiae s.s. In the laboratory phase, all dosages had significantly higher larval mortalities than in controls, while in semi field conditions, the dosages of 0.0001, 0.001 and 0.01% had lower mortalities than laboratory trials. In the comparison between semi field and laboratory trials, only 0.1 and 1% dosage had significant difference with more mortality in semifield conditions. Proportions of larvae that died during mortality monitoring intervals in laboratory and semi field had significant differences only at 12 hrs and 72 hrs. The findings of this study have demonstrated that the mortality of larvae caused by commercial synthetic disinfectant soap is worth further studies in open water bodies. More studies are necessary to find out the effect of sunlight on the chemistry of the synthetic disinfectant and other variables in small scale full field trials.

  6. Laboratory studies on the effects of shear on fish: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richmond, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dauble, D. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mueller, R. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moursund, R. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abernethy, C. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guensch, G. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2000-09-01

    The overall objective of these studies was to specify an index describing the hydraulic force that fish experience when subjected to a shear environment. Fluid shear is a phenomenon that is important to fish. However, elevated levels of shear may result in strain rates that injure or kill fish. At hydroelectric generating facilities, concerns have been expressed that strain rates associated with passage through turbines, spillways, and fish bypass systems may adversely affect migrating fish. Development of fish-friendly hydroelectric turbines requires knowledge of the physical forces (injury mechanisms) that impact entrained fish and the fish’s tolerance to these forces. It requires up-front, pre-design specifications for the environmental conditions that occur within the turbine system; in other words, determining or assuming conditions known to injure fish will assist engineers in the design of a fish-friendly turbine system. To address the development of biological specifications, this experiment designed and built a test facility where juvenile fish could be subjected to a range of shear environments and quantified their biological response. The test data reported here provide quantified strain rates and the relationship of these forces to direct and indirect biological effects on fish. The study concludes that juvenile salmonids and American shad should survive shear environments where strain rates do not exceed 500 cm/s/cm at a Dy of 1.8 cm. Additional studies are planned with a sensor fish to better link hydraulic conditions found within the laboratory and field environments.

  7. Spanish participation in the Haw Project: Laboratory investigations on Gamma irradiation effects in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas, C. de las; Miralles, L.; Teixidor, P.; Garcia Veigas, J.; Dies, X.; Ortega, X.; Pueyo, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to prove the safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt rock, a five years test disposal of thirty highly radioactive radiation sources is planned in the Asse salt mine, in the Federal Republic of Germany. The thirty radiation sources consist of steel canisters containing the vitrified radionuclides Caesium 137 and Strontium 90 in quantities sufficient to cover the bandwidth of heat generation and gamma radiation of real HAW. The radiation sources will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two galleries at the 800 m level. Two electrical heater tests were already started in November 1988 and are continuosly surveyed in respect of the rock mass. Also the handling system necessary for the emplacement of the radioactive canisters was developed and succesfully tested. A laboratory investigation programme on radiation effects in salt is being performed in advance to the radioactive canister emplacement. This programme includes the investigation of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Part of this programme has been carried out since 1988 at the University of Barcelona, basically what refers to colloidal sodium determinations by light absorption measurements and microstructural studies on irradiated salt samples. For gamma dose and dose rate measurements in the test field, measuring systems consisting of ionisation chambers as well as solid state dosemeters were developed and tested. Thermomechanical computer code validation is performed by calculational predictions and parallel investigation of the stress and displacement fields in the underground test field

  8. Biodegradation of plastics in soil and effects on nitrification activity. A laboratory approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia eBettas Ardisson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The progressive application of new biodegradable plastics in agriculture calls for improved testing approaches to assure their environmental safety. Full biodegradation (≥ 90% prevents accumulation in soil, which is the first tier of testing. The application of specific ecotoxicity tests is the second tier of testing needed to show safety for the soil ecosystem. Soil microbial nitrification is widely used as a bioindicator for evaluating the impact of chemicals on soil but it is not applied for evaluating the impact of biodegradable plastics. In this work the International Standard test for biodegradation of plastics in soil (ISO 17556, 2012 was applied both to measure biodegradation and to prepare soil samples needed for a subsequent nitrification test based on another International Standard (ISO 14238, 2012. The plastic mulch film tested in this work showed full biodegradability and no inhibition of the nitrification potential of the soil in comparison with the controls. The laboratory approach suggested in this Technology Report enables (i to follow the course of biodegradation, (ii a strict control of variables and environmental conditions, (iii the application of very high concentrations of test material (to maximize the possible effects. This testing approach could be taken into consideration in improved testing schemes aimed at defining the biodegradability of plastics in soil.

  9. Biodegradation of plastics in soil and effects on nitrification activity. A laboratory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettas Ardisson, Giulia; Tosin, Maurizio; Barbale, Marco; Degli-Innocenti, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The progressive application of new biodegradable plastics in agriculture calls for improved testing approaches to assure their environmental safety. Full biodegradation (≥90%) prevents accumulation in soil, which is the first tier of testing. The application of specific ecotoxicity tests is the second tier of testing needed to show safety for the soil ecosystem. Soil microbial nitrification is widely used as a bioindicator for evaluating the impact of chemicals on soil but it is not applied for evaluating the impact of biodegradable plastics. In this work the International Standard test for biodegradation of plastics in soil (ISO 17556, 2012) was applied both to measure biodegradation and to prepare soil samples needed for a subsequent nitrification test based on another International Standard (ISO 14238, 2012). The plastic mulch film tested in this work showed full biodegradability and no inhibition of the nitrification potential of the soil in comparison with the controls. The laboratory approach suggested in this Technology Report enables (i) to follow the course of biodegradation, (ii) a strict control of variables and environmental conditions, (iii) the application of very high concentrations of test material (to maximize the possible effects). This testing approach could be taken into consideration in improved testing schemes aimed at defining the biodegradability of plastics in soil.

  10. [Internal audit in medical laboratory: what means of control for an effective audit process?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hejl, Carine; Chianéa, Denis; Dedome, Emmanuel; Sanmartin, Nancy; Bugier, Sarah; Linard, Cyril; Foissaud, Vincent; Vest, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    To prepare the French Accreditation Committee (COFRAC) visit for initial certification of our medical laboratory, our direction evaluated its quality management system (QMS) and all its technical activities. This evaluation was performed owing an internal audit. This audit was outsourced. Auditors had an expertise in audit, a whole knowledge of biological standards and were independent. Several nonconformities were identified at that time, including a lack of control of several steps of the internal audit process. Hence, necessary corrective actions were taken in order to meet the requirements of standards, in particular, the formalization of all stages, from the audit program, to the implementation, review and follow-up of the corrective actions taken, and also the implementation of the resources needed to carry out audits in a pre-established timing. To ensure an optimum control of each step, the main concepts of risk management were applied: process approach, root cause analysis, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA). After a critical analysis of our practices, this methodology allowed us to define our "internal audit" process, then to formalize it and to follow it up, with a whole documentary system.

  11. Effect of skill laboratory training on academic performance of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Alamgir; Shabbir, Faizania; Qamar, Khadija; Rajput, Tausif Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    To observe the effect of skill lab training on academic performance of final year medical students in terms of marks obtained in long case, short case, objective structured clinical examination and viva. The cross-sectional comparative study was conducted at Army Medical College, Rawalpindi from February to April 2015. Two batches of final year MBBS were recruited for the study. Batch 1 received conventional training, and Batch 2 received skill lab training. The performance of students was assessed by comparing the marks obtained in long case, short case, objective structured clinical examination and viva. Data was analysed using SPSS 23. Of the 335 subjects, 168(50.1%) were male and 167(49.9%) were female students with a mean age of 21.79±1.02 years. Batch 1 had 151(45%) students and Batch 2 had 184(55%). Batch 2 got significantly higher marks in long case, short case and objective structured clinical examination (p0.05). Acquisition of clinical skills significantly improved when medial students were trained in skill laboratories.

  12. Effect of Three Entomopathogenic Fungi on Three Species of Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Hernández, R A; Ruíz-Toledo, J; Toledo, J; Sánchez, D

    2016-05-04

    Development of alternative strategies for pest control with reduced effect on beneficial organisms is a priority given the increasing global loss of biodiversity. Biological control with entomopathogenic fungi arises as a viable option to control insect pests. However, few studies have focused on the consequences of using these organisms on pollinators other than the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) or bumble bees (Bombus spp). We evaluated the pathogenicity of commercial formulations of three widely used entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, Beauveria bassiana Vuillemin, and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize), to three species of stingless bees: Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin-Meneville, and Melipona beecheii Bennett. Bioassays consisted of exposing groups of bees to the recommended field concentration of each fungus using a microspray tower under laboratory conditions. Susceptibility to fungi varied greatly among species. Isaria fumosorosea (strain Ifu-lu 01) and the two formulations of B. bassiana (Bea-TNK and BotanicGard) caused entomopathogenic fungi on stingless bees, further field studies are required to support this finding. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Residues effects of isoproturon in mature earthworm (Aporrectodea caliginosa) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Yahia; Mosleh, Ismaili

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the residues of isoproturon and its metabolites, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl) urea, and 4-isopropylanilin in soil and mature earthworms under laboratory conditions. Mature earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) were exposed for various durations (7, 15, 30, and 60 days) to soils contaminated with isoproturon concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg.kg(-1) soil). The decrease in isoproturon concentration in the soil depended on initial concentration it was slower at higher concentrations. The isoproturon and its metabolites accumulated in earthworms it increased during the first 15 days and decreased thereafter. Acute toxicity of isoproturon was determined together with total soluble protein content and glycogen of worms. These parameters were related to isoproturon concentration in soil and earthworms. No lethal effect of isoproturon was observed even at the concentration 1000 mg.kg(-1) soil after 60 days of exposure. A reduction of total soluble protein was observed in all treated worms (maximum 59.54%). This study is suggesting the use of the total soluble protein content and glycogen of earthworms as biomarker of exposure to isoproturon.

  14. Savannah River Laboratory environmental transport and effects research. Annual report, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.V.

    1975-06-01

    The principal objective of environmental transport research at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is to develop, apply, adapt, use, test, and verify models that predict the directions and magnitude of ecosystem processes. Since an ecosystem is understood to be a complex ecological unit composed of physical, chemical, and biotic components interacting in the cycling and transport of matter and the flow of energy, the understanding of ecosystem processes demands integrated study by scientists of differing disciplines. Data are included from studies on factors that affect the atmospheric transport and dispersion of radionuclides and chemical effluents; surface and groundwater transport of various pollutants following release to the soil surface or a flowing stream; the uptake and retention of tritium oxide by pine trees; calculations of the radiation dose commitment for human populations from 14 C released by the nuclear industry; the effects of thermal effluents on aquatic organisms, including plankton productivity, the population dynamics of freshwater snails, and the growth and respiration rates of the sand-burrowing mayfly (Dolania americana). Data are included from a survey of seismic activity in South Carolina. (CH)

  15. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. II. Isotopic effects and wavelength dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joël [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l’Environnement, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LGGE, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S. [Copenhagen Center for Atmospheric Research (CCAR), Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jost, Rémy [Laboratoire de Interdisciplinaire de Physique (LIPHY) Univ. de Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Bhattacharya, S. K. [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nangang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-28

    Atmospheric nitrate is preserved in Antarctic snow firn and ice. However, at low snow accumulation sites, post-depositional processes induced by sunlight obscure its interpretation. The goal of these studies (see also Paper I by Meusinger et al. [“Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry,” J. Chem. Phys. 140, 244305 (2014)]) is to characterize nitrate photochemistry and improve the interpretation of the nitrate ice core record. Naturally occurring stable isotopes in nitrate ({sup 15}N, {sup 17}O, and {sup 18}O) provide additional information concerning post-depositional processes. Here, we present results from studies of the wavelength-dependent isotope effects from photolysis of nitrate in a matrix of natural snow. Snow from Dome C, Antarctica was irradiated in selected wavelength regions using a Xe UV lamp and filters. The irradiated snow was sampled and analyzed for nitrate concentration and isotopic composition (δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 18}O, and Δ{sup 17}O). From these measurements an average photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}ε = (−15 ± 1.2)‰ was found for broadband Xe lamp photolysis. These results are due in part to excitation of the intense absorption band of nitrate around 200 nm in addition to the weaker band centered at 305 nm followed by photodissociation. An experiment with a filter blocking wavelengths shorter than 320 nm, approximating the actinic flux spectrum at Dome C, yielded a photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}ε = (−47.9 ± 6.8)‰, in good agreement with fractionations determined by previous studies for the East Antarctic Plateau which range from −40 to −74.3‰. We describe a new semi-empirical zero point energy shift model used to derive the absorption cross sections of {sup 14}NO{sub 3}{sup −} and {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} in snow at a chosen temperature. The nitrogen isotopic fractionations obtained by applying

  16. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SOIL CEMENT ELEMENTS WHEN STABILIZING ROADBED MODEL IN LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D Petrenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Experimental studies allow determining th estress-strain state or bearing capacity of the tested soil body. A preliminary study of the results of model testing and experimental research allows us to find the optimal solutions and to justify the parameters of the chosen technology. The purpose of this work is to determine the effect of soil cement elements when stabilizing the roadbed on a weak subgrade using the soil tests in laboratory conditions. Methodology. During the development of measures for the reconstruction and consolidation of soil bodies, their strength is tested using many methods. In all cases, we take into account the physical and mechanical characteristics of soils obtained as a result of research, as well as the existing regulatory documents. We performed the experimental studies by model testing in laboratory conditions. The model testing was based on the corresponding relationships between geometric sizes, mechanical properties of materials, loads and other factors on which the stress-strain state depends. During testing, the model was loaded gradually. We maintained each load level up to conditional stabilization of the soil deformation. We took the readings from measuring devices at each stage of loading after achievement of stabilization of soil mass deformations. We fixed the readings in the test journal. Findings. During stabilization with soil cement piles there is an improvement in mechanical properties, which leads to a decrease in deformations by 2…3.5 times. Each test is accompanied with graphs of relative deformations-stress dependence, as well as deformation curves and compression curves. According to the results of experimental stu-dies, it can be seen that when testing a model with cement piles, compared with a model without soil cement piles, the relative deformations of the samples taken prior to the experiment and after the experiment almost coincide, indicating a decrease in deformability under

  17. Evaluating the effects of compaction of hot mix asphalt on selected laboratory tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, SL

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available of the gyratory prepared samples for standard laboratory design mix and the field prepared samples, while the short-term aged (SA) sample shows similar rut rates to the field compacted samples. Early failure was evident after 2 000 wheel passes for the short.... The laboratory design mixed is represented by short-term aged mixed and design mix (fresh mix in the laboratory). The type of mix discussed in this study is summarised in Tables 1 and 2 and Figure 1. Detailed information about the mix is discussed in Denneman...

  18. Effects of Organic Pesticides on Enchytraeids (Oligochaeta in Agroecosystems: Laboratory and Higher-Tier Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Römbke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta, Annelida are often considered to be typical forestliving organisms, but they are regularly found in agroecosystems of the temperate regions of the world. Although less known than their larger relatives, the earthworms, these saprophagous organisms play similar roles in agricultural soils (but at a smaller scale, e.g., influencing soil structure and organic matter dynamics via microbial communities, and having a central place in soil food webs. Their diversity is rarely studied or often underestimated due to difficulties in distinguishing the species. New genetic techniques reveal that even in anthropogenically highly influenced soils, more than 10 species per site can be found. Because of their close contact with the soil pore water, a high ingestion rate and a thin cuticle, they often react very sensitively to a broad range of pesticides. Firstly we provide a short overview of the diversity and abundance of enchytraeid communities in agroecosystems. Afterwards, we explore the available data on enchytraeid sensitivity toward pesticides at different levels of biological organization, focusing on pesticides used in (mainly European agroecosystems. Starting with non-standardized studies on the effects of pesticides on the sub-individual level, we compile the results of standard laboratory tests performed following OECD and ISO guidelines as well as those of higher-tier studies (i.e., semi-field and field tests. The number of comparable test data is still limited, because tests with enchytraeids are not a regulatory requirement in the European Union. While focusing on the effects of pesticides, attention is also given to their interactions with environmental stressors (e.g., climate change. In conclusion, we recommend to increase the use of enchytraeids in pesticide risk assessment because of their diversity and functional importance as well as their increasingly simplified use in (mostly standardized tests at all levels

  19. The effect of Syphacia muris on nutrient digestibility in laboratory rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plachý, V.; Litvinec, Andrej; Langrová, I.; Horáková, B.; Sloup, V.; Jankovská, I.; Vadlejch, J.; Čadková, Z.; Borkovcová, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2016), s. 39-44 ISSN 0023-6772 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : laboratory rat * Syphacia muris * infection * nutrient * digestibility Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.532, year: 2016

  20. Science teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of technology in the laboratories: Implications for science education leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Niveen K.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify science teachers' perceptions concerning the use of technology in science laboratories and identify teachers' concerns and recommendations for improving students' learning. Survey methodology with electronic delivery was used to gather data from 164 science teachers representing Texas public schools. The data confirmed that weaknesses identified in the 1990s still exist. Lack of equipment, classroom space, and technology access, as well as large numbers of students, were reported as major barriers to the implementation of technology in science laboratories. Significant differences were found based on gender, grade level, certification type, years of experience, and technology proficiency. Females, elementary teachers, traditionally trained teachers, and less experienced teachers revealed a more positive attitude toward the use of technology in science laboratories. Participants in this study preferred using science software simulations to support rather than replace traditional science laboratories. Teachers in this study recommended professional development programs that focused on strategies for a technology integrated classroom.

  1. The testing effect for mediator final test cues and related final test cues in online and laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Leonora C; Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Rikers, Remy M J P

    2016-05-31

    The testing effect is the finding that information that is retrieved during learning is more often correctly retrieved on a final test than information that is restudied. According to the semantic mediator hypothesis the testing effect arises because retrieval practice of cue-target pairs (mother-child) activates semantically related mediators (father) more than restudying. Hence, the mediator-target (father-child) association should be stronger for retrieved than restudied pairs. Indeed, Carpenter (2011) found a larger testing effect when participants received mediators (father) than when they received target-related words (birth) as final test cues. The present study started as an attempt to test an alternative account of Carpenter's results. However, it turned into a series of conceptual (Experiment 1) and direct (Experiment 2 and 3) replications conducted with online samples. The results of these online replications were compared with those of similar existing laboratory experiments through small-scale meta-analyses. The results showed that (1) the magnitude of the raw mediator testing effect advantage is comparable for online and laboratory experiments, (2) in both online and laboratory experiments the magnitude of the raw mediator testing effect advantage is smaller than in Carpenter's original experiment, and (3) the testing effect for related cues varies considerably between online experiments. The variability in the testing effect for related cues in online experiments could point toward moderators of the related cue short-term testing effect. The raw mediator testing effect advantage is smaller than in Carpenter's original experiment.

  2. Decision-making in general practice: the effect of financial incentives on the use of laboratory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkerud, Siri Fauli

    2012-04-01

    This paper examines the reaction of general practitioners (GPs) to a reform in 2004 in the remuneration system for using laboratory services in general practice. The purpose of this paper is to study whether income motivation exists regarding the use of laboratory services in general practice, and if so, the degree of income motivation among general practitioners (GPs) in Norway. We argue that the degree of income motivation is stronger when the physicians are uncertain about the utility of the laboratory service in question. We have panel data from actual physician-patient encounters in general practices in the years 2001-2004 and use discrete choice analysis and random effects models. Estimation results show that an increase in the fees will lead to a small but significant increase in use. The reform led to minor changes in the use of laboratory analyses in GPs' offices, and we argue that financial incentives were diluted because they were in conflict with medical recommendations and existing medical practice. The patient's age has the most influence and the results support the hypothesis that the impact of income increases with increasing uncertainty about diagnosis and treatment. The policy implication of our results is that financial incentives alone are not an effective tool for influencing the use of laboratory services in GPs' offices.

  3. Early Effects of a Hypocaloric, Mediterranean Diet on Laboratory Parameters in Obese Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Marta; Chiefari, Eusebio; Montalcini, Tiziana; Accattato, Francesca; Costanzo, Francesco S.; Pujia, Arturo; Foti, Daniela; Brunetti, Antonio; Gulletta, Elio

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction is a common strategy for weight loss in obese individuals. However, little is known about the impact of moderate hypocaloric diets on obesity-related laboratory parameters in a short-term period. Aim of this study was to evaluate the variation of laboratory biomarkers in obese individuals following a Mediterranean, hypocaloric (1400–1600 Kcal/die) diet. 23 obese, pharmacologically untreated patients were enrolled and subjected to the determination of anthropometric variabl...

  4. No effect of a parasite on reproduction in stickleback males: a laboratory artefact?

    OpenAIRE

    Candolin, U.; Voigt, H.-R.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments are often carried out in the laboratory under arti®cial conditions. Although this can control for confounding factors, it may eliminate important factors that under natural conditions mediate the interaction under investigation. Here, we show that different results can be gained in the ®eld and in the laboratory regarding host±parasite interaction. In the ®eld, courting three-spined stickleback males, Gasterosteus aculeatus, were less often infected with plerocercoids of ...

  5. Laboratory activity to effectively teach introductory geomicrobiology concepts to non-geology majors

    OpenAIRE

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Davila-Vazquez, Y. C.; Martinez, L. C.

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a three-week experiment that can complement any microbiology course, to teach main geomicrobiology concepts for non-geology majors. One of the most difficult concepts for non-geology majors to comprehend is how bacteria serve as a platform for different mineralization reactions. In our three-week laboratory practice, students learn the main principles and conditions required for an induced bacterial mineralization. Upon completion of the laboratory experience, students will: ...

  6. Toxic effects exerted on methanogenic, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria by chemicals used in a milk analysis laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Fiuza, J.; Buys, B.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; Omil, F.; Mendez, R.

    2002-01-01

    The toxic effects caused by the chemicals contained in wastewaters generated by laboratories involved in raw milk analyses were assessed using batch assays. These assays were carried out separately with methanogenic, ammonium-oxidizing, nitrite-oxidizing and denitrifying bacteria. Since sodium azide

  7. Biological effects of high-strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. Interim report, March 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Anderson, L.E.; Kaune, W.T.

    1979-12-01

    Progress is described on a project assessing the biological effects of 60-Hz electric fields on small laboratory animals (rats and mice). The report includes sections on hematology and seram chemistry, immunology, pathology, metabolism, bone growth, endocrinology, cardiovascular function, neurophysiology, growth and development, and animal behavior. (ACR)

  8. Using Beads and Divided Containers to Study Kinetic and Equilibrium Isotope Effects in the Laboratory and in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Brewer, Emily R.; Martinez, Keri A.; Fitzjarrald, Tamara J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this laboratory experiment is to study fundamental concepts of kinetics and equilibria and the isotope effects associated with both of these concepts. The concepts of isotopes in introductory and general chemistry courses are typically used within the contexts of atomic weights and radioactivity. Kinetic and equilibrium isotope…

  9. The Effect of Simulation-Assisted Laboratory Applications on Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes towards Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukök, Seyma; Sari, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of computer-assisted laboratory applications on pre-service science teachers' attitudes towards science teaching were investigated and the opinions of the pre-service teachers about the application were also determined. The study sample consisted of 46 students studying science teaching Faculty of Education. The study…

  10. The effect of impeller type on silica sol formation in laboratory scale agitated tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurtono, Tantular; Suprana, Yayang Ade; Latif, Abdul; Dewa, Restu Mulya; Machmudah, Siti; Widiyastuti, Winardi, Sugeng

    2016-02-01

    The multiphase polymerization reaction of the silica sol formation produced from silicic acid and potassium hydroxide solutions in laboratory scale agitated tank was studied. The reactor is equipped with four segmental baffle and top entering impeller. The inside diameter of reactor is 9 cm, the baffle width is 0.9 cm, and the impeller position is 3 cm from tank bottom. The diameter of standard six blades Rushton and three blades marine propeller impellers are 5 cm. The silicic acid solution was made from 0.2 volume fraction of water glass (sodium silicate) solution in which the sodium ion was exchanged by hydrogen ion from cation resin. The reactor initially filled with 286 ml silicic acid solution was operated in semi batch mode and the temperature was kept constant in 60 °C. The 3 ml/minute of 1 M potassium hydroxide solution was added into stirred tank and the solution was stirred. The impeller rotational speed was varied from 100 until 700 rpm. This titration was stopped if the solution in stirred tank had reached the pH of 10-The morphology of the silica particles in the silica sol product was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The size of silica particles in silica sol was measured based on the SEM image. The silica particle obtained in this research was amorphous particle and the shape was roughly cylinder. The flow field generated by different impeller gave significant effect on particle size and shape. The smallest geometric mean of length and diameter of particle (4.92 µm and 2.42 µm, respectively) was generated in reactor with marine propeller at 600 rpm. The reactor with Rushton impeller produced particle which the geometric mean of length and diameter of particle was 4.85 µm and 2.36 µm, respectively, at 150 rpm.

  11. Effects of Soil Moisture on the Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Heterotrophic Respiration: A Laboratory Incubation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiping; Hui, Dafeng; Shen, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    The temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) is an important ecological model parameter and may vary with temperature and moisture. While Q10 generally decreases with increasing temperature, the moisture effects on Q10 have been controversial. To address this, we conducted a 90-day laboratory incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil with a full factorial combination of five moisture levels (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% water holding capacity - WHC) and five temperature levels (10, 17, 24, 31, and 38°C). Under each moisture treatment, Rh was measured several times for each temperature treatment to derive Q10 based on the exponential relationships between Rh and temperature. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial community structure and soil nutrients were also measured several times to detect their potential contributions to the moisture-induced Q10 variation. We found that Q10 was significantly lower at lower moisture levels (60%, 40% and 20% WHC) than at higher moisture level (80% WHC) during the early stage of the incubation, but became significantly higher at 20%WHC than at 60% WHC and not significantly different from the other three moisture levels during the late stage of incubation. In contrast, soil Rh had the highest value at 60% WHC and the lowest at 20% WHC throughout the whole incubation period. Variations of Q10 were significantly associated with MBC during the early stages of incubation, but with the fungi-to-bacteria ratio during the later stages, suggesting that changes in microbial biomass and community structure are related to the moisture-induced Q10 changes. This study implies that global warming’s impacts on soil CO2 emission may depend upon soil moisture conditions. With the same temperature rise, wetter soils may emit more CO2 into the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration. PMID:24647610

  12. Effects of seven diets on the population dynamics of laboratory cultured Tisbe holothuriae Humes (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliou, H.; Moraïtou-Apostolopoulou, M.

    1991-09-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae was collected from Saronicos Gulf (Greece) and reared under constant laboratory conditions. In order to study the effects of food on the population dynamics, seven diets were tested: the seaweed Ulva; five artificial compound feeds: the liquid Fryfood® (Waterlife), a powder of Mytilus, yeast, soya and Spirulina, respectively; and a mixed diet consisting of Ulva and Fryfood. The life cycle parameters (mortality, sex ratio, generation time, offspring production) were measured, and the demographic variables [mean generation time (T), net reproductive rate (Ro), and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm)] were determined. As to their efficiency regarding population dynamics, the diets ranked as follows: (1) Ulva+Fryfood, (2), Ulva, (3) Fryfood, (4) Mytilus, (5) soya, (6) yeast, and (7) Spirulina. In this order they cause a progressive increase of both larval mortality and generation time, a progressive decrease of sex ratio, number of offspring per egg sac, number of egg sacs per female and, consequently, of Ro and rm. The observed differences between diets were most pronounced with respect to offspring production. Of the compound diets, those containing animal extracts were more efficient than those containing vegetable materials. Ulva plays an important role in the nutrition of T. holothuriae, favouring offspring production as well as larval survival, development and pigmentation. Ulva in combination with Fryfood led to a greater copepodid survival and offspring production. This mixed diet proved to be the most favourable for rearing the Greek population of t. holothuriae, resulting in an efficient intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm=0.304) of the population.

  13. Cooperative learning effects on teamwork attitudes in clinical laboratory science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatsch, Linda; Britton, Lynda; Keating, Susan; Kirchner, Phyllis; Lehman, Don; Madsen-Myers, Karen; Milson, Linda; Otto, Catherine; Spence, Libby

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate clinical laboratory science (CLS) student attitudes toward teamwork when using cooperative learning (CL) as compared to individual learning (IL) in a course and to determine if learning method affects student attitudes toward the course itself. This was a multi-institutional study involving eight classrooms in seven states. The effects of CL and IL on student attitudes were compared for 216 student participants. One group of students learned the course material through a CL approach while a second group of students learned via a traditional IL approach. For each course, the instructor, class material, and examination content was identical for the CL and IL students; the only variable was learning method. Student attitudes toward teamwork and toward the course were evaluated with a 35-item Attitude Questionnaire administered as a posttest. Mean scores for the CL and IL groups were compared using the Student t-test for independent samples. No significant difference was seen between the CL and IL students when assessing the first 30 questions on student attitudes toward teamwork (means = 98.42 and 98.22, respectively) when all institutions were combined. Comparable results were seen for each of the eight institutions. For the five questions comparing attitudes toward the course itself, there usually was no significant difference in attitude between CL and IL students. The only classrooms where CL students had more positive attitudes were those with instructors who had more than 10 years experience with CL. Results suggest that CL produces similar student attitudes toward teamwork and toward a CLS course as does IL.

  14. Laboratory investigation on effects of flood intermittency on river delta dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K. L.; Kim, W.

    2015-12-01

    In order to simplify the complex hydrological variability of flow conditions, experiments modeling delta evolution are often conducted using a representative "channel-forming" flood flow and then relate results to field settings using an intermittency factor, defined as the fraction of total time at flood conditions. Although this intermittency factor makes it easier to investigate how variables, such as relative base level and/or sediment supply, affect delta dynamics, little is known about how this generalization to a single flow condition affects delta processes. We conducted a set of laboratory experiments with periodic flow conditions to determine the effects of intermittent discharges on delta evolution. During the experiment, flood with a set water discharge and sediment supply, cycles between periods of normal flow where the water flux is halved and the sediment discharge is turned off. For each run, the magnitude of the flood is held constant, but the duration is assigned differently, thus varying the intermittency between 1 and 0.2. We find that as the intermittency factor decreases (duration of each flood period decreases), the delta topset has a larger, more elongated area with a shallower slope as a result of reworking on the delta topset during normal flow conditions. During periods of normal flow, the system adjusts towards a new equilibrium state that then in turn acts as the initial condition for the subsequent flood period. Furthermore, the natural delta avulsion cycle becomes obscured by the flood cycles as the flood duration becomes shorter than the autogenic behavior. These results suggest that the adjustment timescale for differing flow conditions is a factor in determining the overall shape of the delta and behavior of the fluviodeltaic channels. We conclude, periods of normal flow when topset sediment is reworked, may be just as important to delta dynamics as periods of flood when sediment is supplied to the system.

  15. Photometrics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  16. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  17. Environmental Effects of Hydrokinetic Turbines on Fish: Desktop and Laboratory Flume Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Paul T. [Electric Power Research Institute; Amaral, Stephen V. [Alden Research Laboratory; Castro-Santos, Theodore [U.S. Geological Survey; Giza, Dan [Alden Research Laboratory; Haro, Alexander J. [U.S. Geological Survey; Hecker, George [Alden Research Laboratory; McMahon, Brian [Alden Research Laboratory; Perkins, Norman [Alden Research Laboratory; Pioppi, Nick [Alden Research Laboratory

    2012-12-31

    90%) for fish less than 200 mm in length. Strike mortality was not predicted to occur during passage through a Welka UPG turbine at ambient current velocities less than about 2.5 m/s. Survival and Behavior of Juvenile Atlantic Salmon and Adult American Shad on Exposure to a Hydrokinetic Turbine This report describes a series of experiments designed to measure the effect of exposure to a full-scale, vertical axis hydrokinetic turbine on downstream migrating juvenile Atlantic salmon and upstream migrating adult American shad. Studies were performed in a large-scale, open-channel flume, and all individuals approached the turbine under volitional control. No injuries were observed, and there was no measurable increase in mortality associated with turbine passage. Exposure to the turbine elicited behavioral responses from both species, however, with salmon passing primarily over the downrunning blades. Shad movement was impeded in the presence of the device, as indicated by fewer attempts of shorter duration and reduced distance of ascent up the flume. More work should be performed in both laboratory and field conditions to determine the extent to which observed effects are likely to influence fish in riverine environments. Analysis is needed to assess the potential for multiple units to lead to greater mortality rates or impacts on fish movements and migrations. Additionally, future research should focus on expanding the existing data by developing better estimates of encounter and avoidance probabilities.

  18. Evaluation of the health effects of occupational exposure of analytic laboratory workers processing illicit drug investigation files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentur, Y; Bentur, L; Rotenberg, M; Tepperberg, M; Leiba, R; Wolf, E Udi

    2013-05-01

    The Analytic Laboratory of Israel Police processes illicit drug files. In recent years, workers of this laboratory have complained of health problems. Limited information exists on the effect of occupational exposure to illicit drugs; biomonitoring was never done. To assess health effects and systemic absorption of illicit drugs in workers of the Analytic Laboratory occupationally exposed to illicit drugs. A prospective cohort study using health and occupational questionnaires, clinical assessments, and monitoring of urinary excretion of illicit drugs was conducted. The study included three blocks of one week each. At each week workers were assessed at the beginning (baseline), and the assessments were repeated at the end of the three working days. Urine specimens were analyzed for illicit drugs in an independent laboratory. Demographic, clinical, occupational, and laboratory data were subjected to descriptive analysis, and paired Student's t-test, chi-square analysis, and repeated measures model. Twenty-seven workers (age, 39.2 ± 8.3 years; 77.8% females) were included, yielding 122 paired samples. The following parameters were reduced at the end of shift compared with baseline: diastolic blood pressure (71.2 ± 11.2 and 77.2 ± 13.6 mmHg, respectively, p health complaints included headache, fatigue, and dry eyes. No illicit drug was detected in the urine specimens. It is suggested that the health concerns of the laboratory workers were not related to the absorption of illicit drugs; environmental conditions (e.g. inadequate ventilation and respirable dust) can contribute to these concerns.

  19. Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Static and Variable Magnetic Fields on Freshwater Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Riemer, Kristina P [ORNL; Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    benthic invertebrates (Gill et al. 2005, 2009). It is known that numerous marine and freshwater organisms are sensitive to electrical and magnetic fields, often depending on them for such diverse activities as prey location and navigation (DOE 2009; Normandeau et al. 2011). Despite the wide range of aquatic organisms that are sensitive to EMF and the increasing numbers of underwater electrical transmitting cables being installed in rivers and coastal waters, little information is available to assess whether animals will be attracted, repelled, or unaffected by these new sources of EMF. This knowledge gap is especially significant for freshwater systems, where electrosensitive organisms such as paddlefish and sturgeon may interact with electrical transmission cables. We carried out a series of laboratory experiments to test the sensitivity of freshwater fish and invertebrates to the levels of EMF that are expected to be produced by HK projects in rivers. In this context, EM fields are likely to be emitted primarily by generators in the water column and by transmission cables on or buried in the substrate. The HK units will be located in areas of high-velocity waters that are used as only temporary habitats for most riverine species, so long-term exposure of fish and benthic invertebrates to EMF is unlikely. Rather, most aquatic organisms will be briefly exposed to the fields as they drift downstream or migrate upstream. Because the exposure of most aquatic organisms to EMF in a river would be relatively brief and non-lethal, we focused our investigations on detecting behavioral effects. For example, attraction to the EM fields could result in prolonged exposures to the fields or the HK rotor. On the other hand, avoidance reactions might hinder upstream migrations of fish. The experiments reported here are a continuation of studies begun in FY 2010, which focused on the potential effects of static magnetic fields on snails, clams, and fathead minnows (Cada et al. 2011

  20. NDE Acoustic Microscopy Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to develop advanced, more effective high-resolution micro-NDE materials characterization methods using scanning acoustic microscopy. The laboratory's...

  1. Comparative study of the effectiveness of three learning environments: Hyper-realistic virtual simulations, traditional schematic simulations and traditional laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Suero

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the educational effects of computer simulations developed in a hyper-realistic virtual environment with the educational effects of either traditional schematic simulations or a traditional optics laboratory. The virtual environment was constructed on the basis of Java applets complemented with a photorealistic visual output. This new virtual environment concept, which we call hyper-realistic, transcends basic schematic simulation; it provides the user with a more realistic perception of a physical phenomenon being simulated. We compared the learning achievements of three equivalent, homogeneous groups of undergraduates—an experimental group who used only the hyper-realistic virtual laboratory, a first control group who used a schematic simulation, and a second control group who used the traditional laboratory. The three groups received the same theoretical preparation and carried out equivalent practicals in their respective learning environments. The topic chosen for the experiment was optical aberrations. An analysis of variance applied to the data of the study demonstrated a statistically significant difference (p value <0.05 between the three groups. The learning achievements attained by the group using the hyper-realistic virtual environment were 6.1 percentage points higher than those for the group using the traditional schematic simulations and 9.5 percentage points higher than those for the group using the traditional laboratory.

  2. [Onsite microbiology services and outsourcing microbiology and offsite laboratories--advantage and disadvantage, thinking of effective utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Naoto

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, budget restrictions have prompted hospital managers to consider outsourcing microbiology service. But there are many advantages onsite microbiology services. Onsite microbiology services have some advantages. 1) High recovery rate of microorganism. 2) Shorter turn around time. 3) Easy to communicate between physician and laboratory technician. 4) Effective utilization of blood culture. 5) Getting early information about microorganism. 6) Making antibiogram (microbiological local factor). 7) Getting information for infection control. The disadvantages are operating costs and labor cost. The important point of maximal utilization of onsite microbiology service is close communication between physicians to microbiology laboratory. It will be able to provide prompt and efficient report to physicians through discussion about Gram stain findings, agar plate media findings and epidemiological information. The rapid and accurate identification of pathogen affords directed therapy, thereby decreasing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and shortening the length of hospital stay and unnecessary ancillary procedures. When the physician use outsourcing microbiology services, should discuss with offsite laboratories about provided services. Infection control person has to arrange data of susceptibility about every isolate and monitoring multi-drug resistant organism. Not only onsite microbiology services but also outsourcing microbiology services, to communicate bedside and laboratory is most important point of effective utilization.

  3. Effectiveness of formaldehyde in Caligus infection of laboratory reared grey mullet, Mugil cephalus (L)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Mortality due to infection by a copepod ectoparasite, Caligus bombayensis (R) was recorded in laboratory reared grey mullet. Spread of infection was rapid and most of infected fish died within 4 days and the entire batch died in 6-10 days. Treatment...

  4. Discovering Inexpensive, Effective Catalysts for Solar Energy Conversion: An Authentic Research Laboratory Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Sarah E.; Hooker, Paul D.; Nickel, Anne-Marie; Leichtfuss, Amanda R.; Adams, Carissa S.; de la Cerda, Dionisia; She, Yuqi; Gerken, James B.; Pokhrel, Ravi; Ambrose, Nicholas J.; Khaliqi, David; Stahl, Shannon S.; Schuttlefield Christus, Jennifer D.

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical water oxidation is a major focus of solar energy conversion efforts. A new laboratory experiment has been developed that utilizes real-time, hands-on research to discover catalysts for solar energy conversion. The HARPOON, or Heterogeneous Anodes Rapidly Perused for Oxygen Overpotential Neutralization, experiment allows an array of…

  5. The effect of noise in a performance measure on work motivation: A real effort laboratory experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; van Praag, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an individual real effort laboratory experiment where subjects are paid for measured performance. Measured performance equals actual performance plus noise. We compare a stable environment where the noise is small with a volatile environment where the noise is

  6. The effect of noise in a performance measure on work motivation: A real effort laboratory experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; van Praag, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an individual real effort laboratory experiment where subjects are paid for measured performance. Measured performance equals actual performance plus noise. We compare a stable environment where the noise is small with a volatile environment where the noise is

  7. Podcast Effectiveness as Scaffolding Support for Students Enrolled in First-Semester General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mary Cynthia Barton

    2010-01-01

    Podcasts covering essential first-semester general chemistry laboratory techniques and central concepts that aid in experimental design or data processing were prepared and made available for students to access on an as-needed basis on iPhones [arrow right] or iPod touches [arrow right]. Research focused in three areas: the extent of podcast…

  8. The Irritating Effects Of Exposure To Formaldehyde In User Students Of The Human Anatomy Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalles Dantas de Lucena

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (FA is commonly used in cadaver fixation for years. FA vapors are released during the dissection process and macroscopic study of preserved anatomical pieces, raising their concentration in the Anatomy laboratory, causing greater exposure for students and teachers. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate toxic reactions in 37 students, through a questionnaire, produced by exposure to FA used for preservation of cadaveric material used in Anatomy, Morphofunctional Department, Faculdades Integradas de Patos (FIP, Brazil. Of the 37 interviewees, 26 (70.3% were affected by the unpleasant and irritating smell of FA, 10 (27% had no problems, and 1 (2.7% did not tolerate an irritation produced by FA, ​​not participating in the laboratory practical classes. Exposure to FA was followed by several symptoms: excessive lacrimation (54%, itchy eyes (48.5%, redness of the eyes (40.6%, coryza or congested nose (35.2% and respiratory distress (29.7%, with persistent symptoms during the permanence in the laboratory for 32.5% of the students. All students wear a lab coat for individual protection. However, only 8% used mascara and did not wear glasses, increasing the risk of contamination. Medical schools should encourage the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE for the manipulation of FA, ensuring the protection of students and teachers in the Anatomy laboratory. Besides finding alternatives for the replacement of FA in the conservation of corpses.

  9. The effect of impeller type on silica sol formation in laboratory scale agitated tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurtono, Tantular; Suprana, Yayang Ade; Latif, Abdul; Dewa, Restu Mulya; Machmudah, Siti; Widiyastuti,, E-mail: widi@chem-eng.its.ac.id; Winardi, Sugeng [Chemical Engineering Department, Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    The multiphase polymerization reaction of the silica sol formation produced from silicic acid and potassium hydroxide solutions in laboratory scale agitated tank was studied. The reactor is equipped with four segmental baffle and top entering impeller. The inside diameter of reactor is 9 cm, the baffle width is 0.9 cm, and the impeller position is 3 cm from tank bottom. The diameter of standard six blades Rushton and three blades marine propeller impellers are 5 cm. The silicic acid solution was made from 0.2 volume fraction of water glass (sodium silicate) solution in which the sodium ion was exchanged by hydrogen ion from cation resin. The reactor initially filled with 286 ml silicic acid solution was operated in semi batch mode and the temperature was kept constant in 60 °C. The 3 ml/minute of 1 M potassium hydroxide solution was added into stirred tank and the solution was stirred. The impeller rotational speed was varied from 100 until 700 rpm. This titration was stopped if the solution in stirred tank had reached the pH of 10-The morphology of the silica particles in the silica sol product was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The size of silica particles in silica sol was measured based on the SEM image. The silica particle obtained in this research was amorphous particle and the shape was roughly cylinder. The flow field generated by different impeller gave significant effect on particle size and shape. The smallest geometric mean of length and diameter of particle (4.92 µm and 2.42 µm, respectively) was generated in reactor with marine propeller at 600 rpm. The reactor with Rushton impeller produced particle which the geometric mean of length and diameter of particle was 4.85 µm and 2.36 µm, respectively, at 150 rpm.

  10. The Effect of Using 3E, 5E Learning Cycle in General Chemistry Laboratory to Prospective Science Teachers Attitude and Perceptions to the Science, Chemistry and Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Toprak, Fatih; Çelikler, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the emerging changes in prospective science teachers" attitudes and perceptions towards science, chemistry and laboratory resulting from the implementation of 3E. 5E learning cycles and traditional instruction in laboratory environment in which learning is achieved by doing and experiencing. The study included 74 first grade prospective science teachers from Ondokuz Mayıs University at the Department of Science Education. In the study, quasi-experimental pre-tes...

  11. The Effect of Using 3E, 5E Learning Cycle in General Chemistry Laboratory to Prospective Scinence Teachers’ Attitude and Perceptions to the Science, Chemistry and Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Toprak, Fatih; Çelikler, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the emerging changes in prospective science teachers" attitudes and perceptions towards science, chemistry and laboratory resulting from the implementation of 3E. 5E learning cycles and traditional instruction in laboratory environment in which learning is achieved by doing and experiencing. The study included 74 first grade prospective science teachers from Ondokuz Mayıs University at the Department of Science Education. In the study, quasi-experimental pr...

  12. Comparative effectiveness and safety of a catheterization laboratory-only eptifibatide dosing strategy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurm, Hitinder S; Hosman, Carrie; Bates, Eric R; Share, David; Hansen, Ben B

    2015-02-01

    Eptifibatide, a small-molecule glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, is conventionally administered as a bolus plus infusion. A growing number of clinicians are using a strategy of catheterization laboratory-only eptifibatide (an off-label use) as procedural pharmacotherapy for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention although the comparative effectiveness of this approach is unknown. We compared the in-hospital outcome of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention across 47 hospitals and treated with eptifibatide bolus plus infusion with those treated with a catheterization laboratory-only regimen. We used optimal matching to link the use of catheterization laboratory-only eptifibatide with clinical outcomes, including mortality, myocardial infarction, bleeding, and need for transfusion. Of the 84 678 percutaneous coronary interventions performed during 2010 to 2011, and meeting our inclusion criteria, eptifibatide was administered to 21 296 patients. Of these, a catheterization laboratory-only regimen was used in 4511 patients, whereas 16 785 patients were treated with bolus plus infusion. In the optimally matched analysis, compared with bolus plus infusion, a catheterization laboratory-only regimen was associated with a reduction in bleeding (optimally matched adjusted odds ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.93; P=0.014) and need for transfusion (optimally matched adjusted odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.92; P=0.012), with no difference in mortality or myocardial infarction. A catheterization laboratory-only eptifibatide regimen is commonly used in clinical practice and is associated with a significant reduction in bleeding complications in patients undergoing contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Part I: Virtual laboratory versus traditional laboratory: Which is more effective for teaching electrochemistry? Part II: The green synthesis of aurones using a deep eutectic solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Ian C.

    The role of the teaching laboratory in science education has been debated over the last century. The goals and purposes of the laboratory are still debated and while most science educators consider laboratory a vital part of the education process, they differ widely on the purposes for laboratory and what methods should be used to teach laboratory. One method of instruction, virtual labs, has become popular among some as a possible way of capitalizing on the benefits of lab in a less costly and more time flexible format. The research regarding the use of virtual labs is limited and the few studies that have been done on General Chemistry labs do not use the virtual labs as a substitute for hands-on experiences, but rather as a supplement to a traditional laboratory program. This research seeks to determine the possible viability of a virtual simulation to replace a traditional hands-on electrochemistry lab in the General Chemistry II course sequence. The data indicate that for both content knowledge and the development of hands-on skills the virtual lab showed no significant difference in overall scores on the assessments, but that an individual item related to the physical set-up of a battery showed better scores for the hands-on labs over the virtual labs. Further research should be done to determine if these results are similar in other settings with the use of different virtual labs and how the virtual labs compare to other laboratories using different learning styles and learning goals. One often cited purpose of laboratory experiences in the context of preparing chemists is to simulate the experiences common in chemical research so graduate experience in a research laboratory was a necessary part of my education in the field of laboratory instruction. This research experience provided me the opportunity, to complete an organic synthesis of aurones using a deep eutectic solvent. These solvents show unique properties that make them a viable alternative to ionic

  14. Host species and environmental effects on bacterial communities associated with Drosophila in the laboratory and in the natural environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Staubach

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila is a classic model organism to study adaptation as well as the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypes. Although associated bacterial communities might be important for many aspects of Drosophila biology, knowledge about their diversity, composition, and factors shaping them is limited. We used 454-based sequencing of a variable region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene to characterize the bacterial communities associated with wild and laboratory Drosophila isolates. In order to specifically investigate effects of food source and host species on bacterial communities, we analyzed samples from wild Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans collected from a variety of natural substrates, as well as from adults and larvae of nine laboratory-reared Drosophila species. We find no evidence for host species effects in lab-reared flies; instead, lab of origin and stochastic effects, which could influence studies of Drosophila phenotypes, are pronounced. In contrast, the natural Drosophila-associated microbiota appears to be predominantly shaped by food substrate with an additional but smaller effect of host species identity. We identify a core member of this natural microbiota that belongs to the genus Gluconobacter and is common to all wild-caught flies in this study, but absent from the laboratory. This makes it a strong candidate for being part of what could be a natural D. melanogaster and D. simulans core microbiome. Furthermore, we were able to identify candidate pathogens in natural fly isolates.

  15. Laboratory tests to determine the effect of Olkiluoto bounding brine water on buffer performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martikainen, J.; Schatz, T.

    2011-10-01

    This report presents a set of results from laboratory studies on the effect of bounding brine water exposure on buffer performance. In order to evaluate the effect of bounding brine water exposure on compacted bentonite buffer performance a series of experiments were conducted using swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity measurements as follows: Direct exposure measurements were performed on MX-80 bentonite samples encompassing a range of dry density values from 1334 to 1585 kg/m 3 . These samples were saturated directly with a 70 g/L solution composed of calcium and sodium chloride at a Ca 2+ /Na + mass ratio of 3:2. Direct exposure measurements were performed on IBECO RWC samples encompassing a range of dry density values from 1314 to 1564 kg/m 3 . These samples were saturated directly with a 68.45 g/L solution composed of calcium and sodium chloride at a Ca 2+ /Na + mass ratio of 3.2:2. A set of MX-80 and IBECO RWC samples encompassing a range of dry density values from 1018 to 1607 kg/m 3 were initially saturated with tap water followed by (indirect) exposure to a 68.45 g/L solution composed of calcium and sodium chloride at a Ca 2+ /Na + mass ratio of 3.2:2. Sample swelling pressures were continuously monitored and hydraulic conductivity measurements were performed at each constant swelling pressure condition. In some cases, exchangeable cation analyses were performed. The specific test results are summarized as follows: All of the measured swelling pressure values upon exposure to bounding brine water were lower than the corresponding values after saturation with tap water. The relative swelling pressure decrease for the IBECO RWC samples was approximately half of the corresponding decrease for the MX-80 samples. On exposure to bounding brine water, hydraulic conductivity values were increased at the lowest densities, for both the MX-80 and IBECO samples, while at higher densities hydraulic conductivity values were essentially equivalent, for both the

  16. Early Effects of a Hypocaloric, Mediterranean Diet on Laboratory Parameters in Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Greco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction is a common strategy for weight loss in obese individuals. However, little is known about the impact of moderate hypocaloric diets on obesity-related laboratory parameters in a short-term period. Aim of this study was to evaluate the variation of laboratory biomarkers in obese individuals following a Mediterranean, hypocaloric (1400–1600 Kcal/die diet. 23 obese, pharmacologically untreated patients were enrolled and subjected to the determination of anthropometric variables and blood collection at baseline, 1 and 4 months after diet initiation. After 4 months of calorie restriction, we observed a significant decrease in body weight and BMI (both P5% weight loss. Collectively, our data support a precocious improvement of insulin and leptin sensitivity after a modest calorie restriction and weight reduction. Moreover, EGF and LDH may represent novel markers of obesity, which deserve further investigations.

  17. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2017-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water stored in plastic bottles used in research settings with that in glass bottles. The amount of BPA that leached into water was measured across several time points ranging from 24 to 96 h by using a BPA ELISA assay. The results showed that considerable amounts of BPA (approximately 0.15 μg/L) leached from polycarbonate bottles within the first 24 h of storage. In the second study, BPA levels were measured directly from water taken from filtered compared with unfiltered taps. We observed significantly higher BPA levels in water from unfiltered taps (approximately 0.40 μg/L) compared with taps with filtration systems (approximately 0.04 μg/L). Taken together, our findings indicate that the use of different types of water bottles and water sources, combined with the use of different laboratory products (food, caging systems) between laboratories, likely contribute to decreased rigor and reproducibility in research. We suggest that researchers consider reporting the types of water bottles used and that animal care facilities educate staff regarding the importance of flushing nonfiltered water taps when filling animal water bottles.

  18. Savannah River Laboratory environmental transport and effects research. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, T.V. (comp.)

    1979-11-01

    Research in the environmental sciences by the Savannah River Laboratory during 1978 is described in 43 articles. These articles are in the fields of terrestrial ecology, geologic studies, aquatic transport, aquatic ecology, atmospheric transport, emergency response, computer methods development, ocean program, and fuel cycle program. Thirty-seven of the articles were abstracted individually for ERA/EDB; those in scope were also included in INIS.

  19. The effectiveness of computer-generated 3D animations in inquiry chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theall, Rachel Morgan

    It has been shown that students need a molecular-level understanding of substances in order to comprehend chemistry. For solid structures, atomic-level understanding requires students to learn additional and different concepts than for other states of matter. To aid understanding, animations were created to model unit cell structures and depict the properties of unit cells. In order to determine if these animations are helpful to students, they were tested during a laboratory exercise in which students had previously been using model kits and images from textbooks to learn about solid structures. Students evaluated in this study were from two lecture sections of general chemistry, one that routinely used animations during lecture and one that used a more traditional lecture format that did not include animations or models. Twelve laboratory sections of these lectures, taught by six different instructors each teaching two sections, were chosen for participation. One section for each instructor was given the animations as an optional tool for completing the laboratory assignment, which consisted of questions about unit cells and crystal structures. The results of the study indicate that students who looked at the animations performed significantly better on the assignment. For the control group, students who routinely viewed multiple representations of chemistry in lecture performed significantly better on the lab assignment than students in the lecture section where chemistry concepts were only presented on the chalkboard and overhead projector. Students in the traditional lecture section also had significantly less appreciation for the model kits used in the laboratory than students in the other lecture section. Observations of students in the lab combined with statistical results led to the revision of the solid structures investigation. Additional animations were created and inserted into the module that covered areas where students indicated more help was needed

  20. The effects of laboratory housing and spatial enrichment on brain size and metabolic rate in the eastern mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mischa P. Turschwell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It has long been hypothesised that there is a functional correlation between brain size and metabolic rate in vertebrates. The present study tested this hypothesis in wild-caught adult mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki by testing for an intra-specific association between resting metabolic rate (RMR and brain size while controlling for variation in body size, and through the examination of the effects of spatial enrichment and laboratory housing on body mass-independent measures of brain size and RMR. Controlling for body mass, there was no relationship between brain size and RMR in wild-caught fish. Contrary to predictions, spatial enrichment caused a decrease in mass-independent brain size, highlighting phenotypic plasticity in the adult brain. As expected, after controlling for differences in body size, wild-caught fish had relatively larger brains than fish that had been maintained in the laboratory for a minimum of six weeks, but wild-caught fish also had significantly lower mass-independent RMR. This study demonstrates that an organisms' housing environment can cause significant plastic changes to fitness related traits including brain size and RMR. We therefore conclude that current standard laboratory housing conditions may cause captive animals to be non-representative of their wild counterparts, potentially undermining the transferability of previous laboratory-based studies of aquatic ectothermic vertebrates to wild populations.

  1. Effects of a chelating resin on metal bioavailability and toxicity to estuarine invertebrates: Divergent results of field and laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkie, Emma M.; Roach, Anthony C.; Micevska, Tina; Kelaher, Brendan P.; Bishop, Melanie J.

    2010-01-01

    Benthic invertebrates can uptake metals through diffusion of free ion solutes, or ingestion of sediment-bound forms. This study investigated the efficacy of the metal chelating resin SIR 300 TM in adsorbing porewater metals and isolating pathways of metal exposure. A field experiment (Botany Bay, Sydney, Australia) and a laboratory toxicity test each manipulated the availability of porewater metals within contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. It was predicted that within contaminated sediments, the resin would adsorb porewater metals and reduce toxicity to invertebrates, but in uncontaminated sediments, the resin would not significantly affect these variables. Whereas in the laboratory, the resin produced the predicted results, in the field the resin increased porewater metal concentrations of contaminated sediments for at least 34 days and decreased abundances of four macroinvertebrate groups, and richness in all sediments. These contrasting findings highlight the limits of extrapolating the results of laboratory experiments to the field environment. - Laboratory experiments do not predict the effects on porewater metals or macroinvertebrates of adding a chelating resin to metal-contaminated field sediments.

  2. Effects of a chelating resin on metal bioavailability and toxicity to estuarine invertebrates: Divergent results of field and laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkie, Emma M., E-mail: ewilkie@bio.mq.edu.a [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contaminants Section, Department of Environment and Climate Change, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Roach, Anthony C. [Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contaminants Section, Department of Environment and Climate Change, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Micevska, Tina [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Kelaher, Brendan P.; Bishop, Melanie J. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2010-05-15

    Benthic invertebrates can uptake metals through diffusion of free ion solutes, or ingestion of sediment-bound forms. This study investigated the efficacy of the metal chelating resin SIR 300{sup TM} in adsorbing porewater metals and isolating pathways of metal exposure. A field experiment (Botany Bay, Sydney, Australia) and a laboratory toxicity test each manipulated the availability of porewater metals within contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. It was predicted that within contaminated sediments, the resin would adsorb porewater metals and reduce toxicity to invertebrates, but in uncontaminated sediments, the resin would not significantly affect these variables. Whereas in the laboratory, the resin produced the predicted results, in the field the resin increased porewater metal concentrations of contaminated sediments for at least 34 days and decreased abundances of four macroinvertebrate groups, and richness in all sediments. These contrasting findings highlight the limits of extrapolating the results of laboratory experiments to the field environment. - Laboratory experiments do not predict the effects on porewater metals or macroinvertebrates of adding a chelating resin to metal-contaminated field sediments.

  3. The effect of restructuring student writing in the general chemistry laboratory on student understanding of chemistry and on students' approach to the laboratory course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, James Andrew, II

    Many students encounter difficulties engaging with laboratory-based instruction, and reviews of research have indicated that the value of such instruction is not clearly evident. Traditional forms of writing associated with laboratory activities are commonly in a style used by professional scientists to communicate developed explanations. Students probably lack the interpretative skills of a professional, and writing in this style may not support students in learning how to develop scientific explanations. The Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) is an inquiry-based approach to laboratory instruction designed in part to promote student ability in developing such explanations. However, there is not a convincing body of evidence for the superiority of inquiry-based laboratory instruction in chemistry. In a series of studies, the performance of students using the SWH student template in place of the standard laboratory report format was compared to the performance of students using the standard format. The standard reports had Title, Purpose, Procedure, Data & Observations, Calculations & Graphs, and Discussion sections. The SWH reports had Beginning Questions & Ideas, Tests & Procedures, Observations, Claims, Evidence, and Reflection sections. The pilot study produced evidence that using the SWH improved the quality of laboratory reports, improved student performance on a laboratory exam, and improved student approach to laboratory work. A main study found that SWH students statistically exhibited a better understanding of physical equilibrium when written explanations and equations were analyzed on a lecture exam and performed descriptively better on a physical equilibrium practical exam task. In another main study, the activities covering the general equilibrium concept were restructured as an additional change, and it was found that SWH students exhibited a better understanding of chemical equilibrium as shown by statistically greater success in overcoming the common

  4. Effectiveness of oxytetracycline in reducing the bacterial load in rohu fish (Labeo rohita, Hamilton) under laboratory culture condition

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Ariful Haque; Md. Shaheed Reza; Md. Rajib Sharker; Md. Mokhlasur Rahman; Md. Ariful Islam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effectiveness of most widely used antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC) in reducing the bacterial load in rohu fish under artificial culture condition in the laboratory. Methods: The experiment was conducted in the Faculty Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. The fish were reared in 8 aquaria where fish in 5 aquaria were used for replication of the treatment (experimental group) and fish in remaining 3 aquaria were considered...

  5. The centrality of laboratory services in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade: The need for effective linkages and referrals in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George; Fonjungo, Peter; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Peter, Trevor; Kantor, Rami; Nkengasong, John

    2014-05-01

    Strong laboratory services and systems are critical for delivering timely and quality health services that are vital to reduce patient attrition in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade. However, challenges exist in ensuring effective laboratory health systems strengthening and linkages. In particular, linkages and referrals between laboratory testing and other services need to be considered in the context of an integrated health system that includes prevention, treatment, and strategic information. Key components of laboratory health systems that are essential for effective linkages include an adequate workforce, appropriate point-of-care (POC) technology, available financing, supply chain management systems, and quality systems improvement, including accreditation. In this review, we highlight weaknesses of and gaps between laboratory testing and other program services. We propose a model for strengthening these systems to ensure effective linkages of laboratory services for improved access and retention in care of HIV/AIDS patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.

  6. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  7. Wet-dry cycles effect on ash water repellency. A laboratory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi; Oliva, Marc; Mataix, Jorge; Jordán, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    In the immediate period after the fire, the ash layer has a strong influence on soil hydrological processes, as runoff, infiltration and erosion. Ash is very dynamic in the space and time. Until the first rainfall periods, ash is (re)distributed by the wind. After it can cover the soil surface, infiltrate or transported to other areas by water transport (Pereira et al., 2013a, b). This will have strong implications on nutrient redistribution and vegetation recovery. Ash layer may affect soil water repellency in different ways, depending on fire severity, soil properties and vegetation. Ash produced at low temperatures after low-severity burning is usually hydrophobic (Bodi et al., 2011, 2012). Wet-dry cycles have implications on ash physical and chemical properties, changing their effects in space and time. The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of fire temperature and severity on ash water repellency. Pinus sylvestris needles were collected in a Lithuania forest in Dzukija National Park (53º 54' N and 24º 22' E), transported to laboratory and washed with deionized water to remove soil particles and other residues. Needle samples were dried during 24 hours and exposed to different temperatures: 200, 300, 400 and 500 ºC, during 2 hours. Ash colour was analysed according to the Munsell Soil Color charts. Ash was black (10 YR 2/1) at 200 ºC, very dark grey (10YR 3/1) at 300 ºC, gray (10YR 5/1) at 400 ºC and light gray (10YR 7/1) at 500 ºC. Ten samples of ash released after each treatment were placed in plastic dishes (50 mm in diameter) in an amount enough to form a 5 mm thick layer, and ash water repellency was measured according to the Water Drop Penetration Test. Later, ash was carefully wetted with 15 ml of deionized water and placed in an oven during 4 days (96 hours), as in Bodí et al. (2012). This procedure was repeated 5 times in order to observe the effects of wet-dry cycles in ash water repellency. The results showed significant differences

  8. Computational Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...

  9. National laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscati, G.

    1983-01-01

    The foundation of a 'National Laboratory' which would support a Research center in synchrotron radiation applications is proposed. The essential features of such a laboratory differing of others centers in Brazil are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Geomechanics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geomechanics Laboratory allows its users to measure rock properties under a wide range of simulated service conditions up to very high pressures and complex load...

  11. Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.

    2009-09-14

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including changes in pressure as they pass through turbines and dissolved gas supersaturation (resulting from the release of water from the spillway). To examine pressure changes as a source of turbine-passage injury and mortality, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted specific tests using a hyperbaric chamber. Tests were designed to simulate Kaplan turbine passage conditions and to quantify the response of fish to rapid pressure changes, with and without the complication of fish being acclimated to gas-supersaturated water.

  12. Laboratory Deposition Apparatus to Study the Effects of Wax Deposition on Pipe Magnetic Field Leakage Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mohd Fauzi Abd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate technique for wax deposition detection and severity measurement on cold pipe wall is important for pipeline cleaning program. Usually these techniques are validated by conventional techniques on laboratory scale wax deposition flow loop. However conventional techniques inherent limitations and it is difficult to reproduce a predetermine wax deposit profile and hardness at designated location in flow loop. An alternative wax deposition system which integrates modified pour casting method and cold finger method is presented. This system is suitable to reproduce high volume of medium hard wax deposit in pipe with better control of wax deposit profile and hardness.

  13. Field and laboratory investigations on the effects of road salt (NaCl) on stream macroinvertebrate communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasius, B.J.; Merritt, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Short-term exposure to road salt did not significantly affect stream macro-invertebrate communities. - Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the effects of road salt (NaCl) on stream macroinvertebrates. Field studies investigated leaf litter processing rates and functional feeding group composition at locations upstream and downstream from point source salt inputs in two Michigan, USA streams. Laboratory studies determined the effects of increasing NaCl concentrations on aquatic invertebrate drift, behavior, and survival. Field studies revealed that leaves were processed faster at upstream reference sites than at locations downstream from road salt point source inputs. However, it was sediment loading that resulted in partial or complete burial of leaf packs, that affected invertebrate activity and confounded normal leaf pack colonization. There were no significant differences that could be attributed to road salt between upstream and downstream locations in the diversity and composition of invertebrate functional feeding groups. Laboratory drift and acute exposure studies demonstrated that drift of Gammarus (Amphipoda) may be affected by NaCl at concentrations greater than 5000 mg/l for a 24-h period. This amphipod and two species of limnephilid caddisflies exhibited a dose response to salt treatments with 96-h LC 50 values of 7700 and 3526 mg NaCl/l, respectively. Most other invertebrate species and individuals were unaffected by NaCl concentrations up to 10,000 mg/l for 24 and 96 h, respectively

  14. Side effects of some pesticides on the silverleaf whitefly’s parasitoid, Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa PORTAKALDALI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is one of major pests in greenhouses vegetable cultivation. Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae has an important role among effective parasitoids used in biological control of the silverleaf whitefly. Nondestructive or less destructive pesticides against this parasitoid should be preferred in the scope of biological control. For this goal, side effects of 8 plant protection products, including spinosad, pyriproxyfen, abamectin, emamectin benzoate, copper oxychloride, kresoxim-methyl+boscalid, dimethoate and propineb+cymoxanil on pupae and adults of E. mundus were tested in this laboratory study conducted according to IOBC standards. As a result, pesticides containing spinosad, abamectin and dimethoate were determined as highly destructive to pupae and adults of E. mundus, and pesticide containing emamectin benzoate was found as moderately harmful. As for propineb+cymoxanil, pyriproxyfen, kresoxim-methyl+boscalid and copper oxychloride, they were determined as ineffective on the parasitoid under laboratory conditions. These results obtained from experiments that were conducted under laboratory conditions also have to be supported by field or semi-field experiment’s results.

  15. Effects of acute gamma-irradiation on reproduction of the collembolan (Folsomia candida) in a standard laboratory test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Taizo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Ban-nai, Tadaaki

    2006-01-01

    The abstract of this study was to provide data for radiological protection of the environment, the dose-effect relationship of acute gamma irradiation on the reproduction of the soil invertebrate Folsomia candida (Collembola) was studied according to a standard laboratory test. Juvenile collembolans were exposed to 137 Cs gamma-radiation at a dose range of 4-110 Gy. After four weeks' rearing, the number of neonate juveniles was compared with that of the non-irradiated control. The value of the 10% effective dose for reproduction was estimated to be 7.1 Gy. (author)

  16. Temperature effects on ash physical and chemical properties. A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Úbeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah

    2010-05-01

    Fire temperatures have different impacts on ash physical and chemical properties that depend mainly of the specie affected and time of exposition. In a real prescribed or wildland fire, the temperatures produce ash with different characteristics. Know the impacts of a specific temperature or a gradient on a certain element and specie is very difficult in real fires, especially in wildland fires, where temperatures achieve higher values and the burning conditions are not controlled. Hence, laboratory studies revealed to be an excellent methodology to understand the effects of fire temperatures in ash physical and chemical. The aim of this study is study the effects of a temperature gradient (150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500 and 550°C) on ash physical and chemical properties. For this study we collected litter of Quercus suber, Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster in a plot located in Portugal. The selected species are the most common in the ecosystem. We submitted samples to the mentioned temperatures throughout a time of two hours and we analysed several parameters, namely, Loss on Ignition (LOI%), ash colour - through the Croma Value (CV) observed in Munsell color chart - CaCO3, Total Nitrogen (TN), Total Carbon (TC), C/N ratio, ash pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), extractable Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Aluminium (Al3+), Manganese (Mn2+), Iron (Fe2+), Zinc (Zn2+), Total Phosphorous (TP), Sulphur (S) and Silica (SiO2). Since we considered many elements, in order to obtain a better explanation of all dataset, we applied a Factorial Analysis (FA), based on the correlation matrix and the Factors were extracted according to the Principle Components method. To obtain a better relation between the variables with a specific Factor we rotated the matrix according to the VARIMAX NORMALIZED method. FA identified 5 Factors that explained a total of 95% of the variance. We retained in each Factor the variables that presented an eigenvalue

  17. Early effects of a hypocaloric, Mediterranean diet on laboratory parameters in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Marta; Chiefari, Eusebio; Montalcini, Tiziana; Accattato, Francesca; Costanzo, Francesco S; Pujia, Arturo; Foti, Daniela; Brunetti, Antonio; Gulletta, Elio

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction is a common strategy for weight loss in obese individuals. However, little is known about the impact of moderate hypocaloric diets on obesity-related laboratory parameters in a short-term period. Aim of this study was to evaluate the variation of laboratory biomarkers in obese individuals following a Mediterranean, hypocaloric (1400-1600 Kcal/die) diet. 23 obese, pharmacologically untreated patients were enrolled and subjected to the determination of anthropometric variables and blood collection at baseline, 1 and 4 months after diet initiation. After 4 months of calorie restriction, we observed a significant decrease in body weight and BMI (both P diet initiation. Also, lower levels of insulin (P = 0.025), leptin (P = 0.023), and EGF (P = 0.035) were associated with a greater (>5%) weight loss. Collectively, our data support a precocious improvement of insulin and leptin sensitivity after a modest calorie restriction and weight reduction. Moreover, EGF and LDH may represent novel markers of obesity, which deserve further investigations.

  18. Evaluating effectiveness of infection control efforts in hospitals using information in microbiological laboratory databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Norihiro; Itoga, Masamichi; Kimura, Masahiko; Inoue, Fumio; Minakawa, Satoko; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Ozaki, Hiromi; Saito, Yumiko; Takahashi, Mikiko; Fujishima, Tetsuhiro; Mizuno, Sumie; Ogawa, Shin; Kitayama, Yuko; Kudo, Kazumi; Minami, Kazushi; Abo, Fumiko; Takano, Yasuyuki; Ohdaira, Naotake; Hamada, Satoshi; Ueki, Shigeharu; Hirokawa, Makoto; Kayaba, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-01

    To analyze the quality of infection control activities, bacteriological data relevant to infection control was evaluated through the microbiological data warehouse networking hospitals in two medical regions. Data regarding bacterial test results of 19 hospitals were extracted from two microbiological laboratory information data bases. The rate of MRSA among total S. aureus was used as a general indicator of infection control activities. The occupancy rate of nasal or pharyngeal swabs among MRSA-positive bacteriological samples was used as an indicator of attention paid for infection control in intensive care wards. The number of blood culture sets per examined patient was utilized as an indicator for life-long vocational education on updated medical practice relevant to infectious diseases. The rate of MRSA was significantly higher in secondary private hospitals. The occupancy rate of nasal or pharyngeal swabs was significantly higher in tertiary hospitals. The average number of blood culture set per examined patient were 1.55, 1.54 and 1.39 in tertiary, secondary public and secondary private hospitals, respectively; however, there were no statistical differences between groups. Data bases of microbiological test results shared by hospital laboratories are useful for evaluating regional infection control activities.

  19. Remote Laboratory NetLab for Effective Teaching of 1st Year Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Nedic

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Practical skills are important attributes of every engineering graduate. The Internet has provided tertiary education with the opportunity to develop innovative learning environments. The teaching and learning of practical skills has gained a new dimension with the emergence of remote laboratories. The rapidly growing number of remote laboratories (RL worldwide is the evidence that the educational community has recognized their potential to develop into a creative, flexible, engaging, and student-cantered learning environment. Even a brief review of the existing RLs shows a large diversity in their structure, design and implementation. However, not many researchers disclose how their RLs are integrated within their curricula. Therefore, an important question still remains to be answered: how to optimize the design of RLs and their integration in a course curriculum for the best learning outcomes? This problem is particularly important when RLs are used in teaching 1st year students who have limited technical knowledge and practical experience in using real equipment. In this paper we would like to share our experiences with NetLab, an RL developed at the University of South Australia (UniSA for teaching 1st year engineering students and make recommendations for improvements in teaching practices based on it.

  20. The effects of student self-assessment on learning in removable prosthodontics laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W; LaBarre, Eugene E

    2014-05-01

    It has been consistently shown that there is a weak association between student self-assessment and faculty member assessment of student projects in preclinical technique laboratory settings and that students overestimate their performance. Greater overestimation is observed among students judged by faculty to be the weakest, and these students also use a wider range of scores. This study hypothesized that student self-assessment is a function of capacity to perform, accuracy of understanding grading standards, and psychological factors. Further it hypothesized that learning, defined as change in performance, is a function of ability and self-assessment. Dental students at one U.S. dental school self-assessed their performance on two projects in a removable prosthodontics laboratory course separated by a six-month period. Faculty evaluations of these projects were used to determine students' understanding of the criteria for the projects, and a standardized psychological test was used to assess the learning orientation of the students. A statistical correction was made for the artifact of regression toward the mean. The study found that self-assessment was a better predictor of future learning under these circumstances than was evaluation by faculty members.

  1. Procedure and technique critique for tritium enrichment by electrolysis at the IAEA Laboratory (effective November 1976)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-11-05

    This publication gives a detailed description of the experimental and calculation procedures for tritium enrichment. Most descriptive sections are divided into 2 parts: Section A describes the procedure in the IAEA laboratory; section B discusses the reasons behind the various procedures, and may indicate alternative acceptable, or in some cases even better, procedures. The description of the equipment focuses on electrolysis cells, cooling system and power supply. Routine procedures are discussed including handling and checking of samples after receipt, 'spike' and blank water, initial sample distillation, preparation of cells and samples for electrolysis, electrolysis and completion of electrolysis (weighing of cells, neutralisation and distillation) and precautions against contaminations (prevention, detection and cure). A list of equipment required for electrolytic enrichment of tritium is provided.

  2. Positive and negative affect dimensions in chronic knee osteoarthritis: effects on clinical and laboratory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, Patrick H; Quartana, Phillip J; Smith, Michael T

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated whether daily and laboratory assessed pain differs as a function of the temporal stability and valence of affect in individuals with chronic knee osteoarthritis (KOA). One hundred fifty-one men and women with KOA completed 14 days of electronic diaries assessing positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and clinical pain. A subset of participants (n =79) engaged in quantitative sensory testing (QST). State PA and NA were assessed prior to administration of stimuli that induced suprathreshold pain and temporal summation. Multilevel modeling and multiple regression evaluated associations of affect and pain as a function of valence (i.e., positive versus negative) and stability (i.e., stable versus state). In the diary, stable NA (B = -.63, standard error [SE] = .13, p affect-pain processes in the field may reflect individual differences in central pain facilitation.

  3. Effect of individually tailored biopsychosocial workplace interventions on chronic musculoskeletal pain and stress among laboratory technicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Jay; Brandt, Mikkel; Hansen, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    pain using individually tailored physical and cognitive elements. STUDY DESIGN: This trial uses a single-blind randomized controlled design with allocation concealment in a 2-armed parallel group format among laboratory technicians. The trial "Implementation of physical exercise at the Workplace (IRMA...... 2014 (follow-up). METHODS: Participants (n = 112) were allocated to receive either physical, cognitive, and mindfulness group-based training (PCMT group) or a reference group (REF) for 10 weeks at the worksite. PCMT consisted of 4 major elements: 1) resistance training individually tailored to the pain...... affected area, 2) motor control training, 3) mindfulness, and 4) cognitive and behavioral therapy/education. Participants of the REF group were encouraged to follow ongoing company health initiatives. The predefined primary outcome measure was pain intensity (VAS scale 0 - 10) in average of the regions...

  4. Effects of cell culture and laboratory conditions on type 2 dengue virus infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, J S; Collins, J K

    1979-01-01

    The stability of type 2 dengue virus to exposure to a variety of laboratory conditions was determined. Suckling mouse brain passage virus was adapted for growth in BHK-21 cells, and plaque assays were performed using a tragacanth gum overlay. A three- to fourfold increase in plaque size could be obtained if monolayers were subconfluent at time of inoculation. Incubation of virus for 24 h at 37 degrees C, pH 6.5, or in buffer containing 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetate considerably reduced virus infectivity as compared with virus incubated for the same period at 4 degrees C, pH 8.0, or in buffer with or without 1 mM CaCl2 and 1 mM MgCl2. Multiple freezing and thawing of virus tissue culture medium containing 10% fetal calf serum did not reduce virus infectivity. Images PMID:41848

  5. Procedure and technique critique for tritium enrichment by electrolysis at the IAEA Laboratory (effective November 1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This publication gives a detailed description of the experimental and calculation procedures for tritium enrichment. Most descriptive sections are divided into 2 parts: Section A describes the procedure in the IAEA laboratory; section B discusses the reasons behind the various procedures, and may indicate alternative acceptable, or in some cases even better, procedures. The description of the equipment focuses on electrolysis cells, cooling system and power supply. Routine procedures are discussed including handling and checking of samples after receipt, 'spike' and blank water, initial sample distillation, preparation of cells and samples for electrolysis, electrolysis and completion of electrolysis (weighing of cells, neutralisation and distillation) and precautions against contaminations (prevention, detection and cure). A list of equipment required for electrolytic enrichment of tritium is provided

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF MRSA DETECTION METHODS IN THE LABORATORY PRACTICE – A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli M. Ermenlieva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are bacteria, responsible for severe and hard-to-manage infections in human. They are resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics – penicillins (methicillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, and oxacillin, cephalosporins and carbapenems, but can also be resistant to the new-generation MRSA-active cephalosporins (such as ceftaroline or other groups of antibiotics, including aminoglycosides, macrolides, clindamycin, amphenicols, quinolones and tetracyclines. MRSA bacteria are pandemic and are often isolated in medical practice and nosocomial infections. The MRSA detection is a challenge to any clinical microbiology laboratory and demands implementation of strict protocols for active screening. While more expensive molecular techniques have the potential of offering highly sensitive and rapid results, the cultural methods require longer time but can achieve a comparable sensitivity for lower price.

  7. Two Asymmetric and Conflicting Learning Effects of Calorie Posting on Overeating: Laboratory Snack Choice Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Shimokawa, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    We develop a new framework to analyze the effect of calorie posting on overconsumption of calories in a fixed-price context (e.g., fixed-price buffets). The framework demonstrates that a desire to get `a good deal’ (transaction utility) and loss aversion can induce asymmetry between two conflicting learning effects of calorie posing: a calorie-decreasing effect of learning that one was underestimating calorie contents (LUE effect) and a calorie-increasing effect of learning that one was overe...

  8. Simulation and laboratory validation of magnetic nozzle effects for the high power helicon thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winglee, R.; Ziemba, T.; Giersch, L.; Prager, J.; Carscadden, J.; Roberson, B. R.

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of a plasma thruster can be improved if the plasma stream can be highly focused, so that there is maximum conversion of thermal energy to the directed energy. Such focusing can be potentially achieved through the use of magnetic nozzles, but this introduces the potential problem of detachment of plasma from the magnetic field lines tied to the nozzles. Simulations and laboratory testing are used to investigate these processes for the high power helicon (HPH) thruster, which has the capacity of producing a dense (10 18 -10 20 m -3 ) energetic (tens of eV) plasma stream which can be both supersonic and super-Alfvenic within a few antenna wavelengths. In its standard configuration, the plasma plume generated by this device has a large opening angle, due to relatively high thermal velocity and rapid divergence of the magnetic field. With the addition of a magnetic nozzle system, the plasma can be directed/collimated close to the pole of the nozzle system causing an increase in the axial velocity of the plasma, as well as an increase in the Alfven Mach number. As such the magnetic field of the nozzle is insufficient to pull the plasma back to the spacecraft, i.e., plasma attachment is not a problem for the system. Laboratory results show that the specific impulse (Isp) of the system can be increased by ∼30% by the addition of the nozzle due to the conversion of thermal energy into directed energy in association with a highly collimated profile. An interesting feature of the system is that self-collimation of the beam is expected to occur during continuous operation through plasma currents induced downstream from the magnetic nozzle. These currents lead to magnetic fields that have a smaller divergence than the original vacuum magnetic field so that the following plasma will be more collimated than the proceeding plasma. This self-focusing can lead to beam propagation over extended distances

  9. [Modal failure analysis and effects in the detection of errors in the transport of samples to the clinical laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parés-Pollán, L; Gonzalez-Quintana, A; Docampo-Cordeiro, J; Vargas-Gallego, C; García-Álvarez, G; Ramos-Rodríguez, V; Diaz Rubio-García, M P

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the decrease in values of biochemical glucose parameter in some samples from external extraction centres, and the risk this implies to patient safety; it was decided to apply an adaptation of the «Health Services Failure Mode and Effects Analysis» (HFMEA) to manage risk during the pre-analytical phase of sample transportation from external centres to clinical laboratories. A retrospective study of glucose parameter was conducted during two consecutive months. The analysis was performed in its different phases: to define the HFMEA topic, assemble the team, graphically describe the process, conduct a hazard analysis, design the intervention and indicators, and identify a person to be responsible for ensuring completion of each action. The results of glucose parameter in one of the transport routes, were significantly lower (P=.006). The errors and potential causes of this problem were analysed, and criteria of criticality and detectability were applied (score≥8) in the decision tree. It was decided to: develop a document management system; reorganise extractions and transport routes in some centres; quality control of the sample container ice-packs, and the time and temperature during transportation. This work proposes quality indicators for controlling time and temperature of transported samples in the pre-analytical phase. Periodic review of certain laboratory parameters can help to detect problems in transporting samples. The HFMEA technique is useful for the clinical laboratory. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of laboratory single species and field population-level effects of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on freshwater invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroer, A.F.W.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Brock, T.C.M.; Matser, A.M.; Maund, S.J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin to freshwater invertebrates has been investigated using data from short-term laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays and population-level effects in field microcosms. In laboratory tests, patterns of toxicity were consistent with

  11. The Effect of a Laboratory Approach Based on Predict-Observation-Explain (POE Strategy on the Development of Students’ Science Process Skills and Views about Nature of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Bilen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a laboratory instruction prepared based on “Predict-Observation-Explain” (POE strategy compared to a verification laboratory approach on the development of pre-service science teachers’ science skill processes and their views of nature of sceince in a general biology laboratory course. The participants of this study consisted of 122 pre-service teachers who took the General Biology Laboratory at the department of science education at Pamukkale University during the fall semester of 2007-2008 academic year. Data was collected through Science Process Skills Test (SPST and Nature of Science Questionnaire. Results indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the verification laboratory approach and the laboratory approach based on the POE strategy on the development of students’ science process skills [F=10.41, p

  12. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  13. The photoelectric effect and study of the diffraction of light: Two new experiments in UNILabs virtual and remote laboratories network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Juan Pedro; Carreras, Carmen; Yuste, Manuel; Dormido, Sebastián; Sáenz, Jacobo; De la Torre, Luis; Rubén, Heradio

    2015-01-01

    This work describes two experiments: 'study of the diffraction of light: Fraunhofer approximation' and 'the photoelectric effect'. Both of them count with a virtual, simulated, version of the experiment as well as with a real one which can be operated remotely. The two previous virtual and remote labs (built using Easy Java(script) Simulations) are integrated in UNILabs, a network of online interactive laboratories based on the free Learning Management System Moodle. In this web environment, students can find not only the virtual and remote labs but also manuals with related theory, the user interface description for each application, and so on.

  14. Laboratory investigations of the effects of predator sex and size on prey selection by the Asian crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousseau, D J.; Filipowicz, A; Baglivo, J A.

    2001-07-30

    Laboratory studies have shown that the nonindigenous Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, readily consumes three species of commercial bivalves: blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, soft-shell clams, Mya arenaria, and oysters, Crassostrea virginica. Although crabs can eat bivalves of a wide size range, they preferred the smaller prey (Hemigrapsus that occur in the wild, their effectiveness as predators of juvenile bivalves and their large appetites suggest an important role for these predators in restructuring the prey communities in habitats into which they have been introduced.

  15. The effect of aluminium added filter on mean glandular dose using mammography machine in MINT Medical Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmaliza Hashim; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli

    2005-01-01

    The effect of various thickness of aluminium added filter on mean glandular dose in mammography is investigated for a standard breast phantom, 4.2 cm Perspex. A mammography machine in Medical Physics Laboratory MINT, Bennett Model DMF-150 is used to provide radiation in various kV range under clinical condition. The mean glandular dose on the phantom were measured based on technique recommended by AAPM protocol (1990) report no 29. The mean glandular dose was found reducing with increasing thickness of added filter. A more detail results of this study is presented in this paper. (Author)

  16. Study on the Effects of Sample Density on Gamma Spectrometry System Measurement Efficiency at Radiochemistry and Environment Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wo, Y.M.; Dainee Nor Fardzila Ahmad Tugi; Khairul Nizam Razali

    2015-01-01

    The effects of sample density on the measurement efficiency of the gamma spectrometry system were studied by using four sets multi nuclide standard sources of various densities between 0.3 - 1.4 g/ ml. The study was conducted on seven unit 25 % coaxial HPGe detector gamma spectrometry systems in Radiochemistry and Environment Laboratory (RAS). Difference on efficiency against gamma emitting radionuclides energy and measurement systems were compared and discussed. Correction factor for self absorption caused by difference in sample matrix density of the gamma systems were estimated. The correction factors are to be used in quantification of radionuclides concentration in various densities of service and research samples in RAS. (author)

  17. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  18. Montlake Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NWFSC conducts critical fisheries science research at its headquarters in Seattle, WA and at five research stations throughout Washington and Oregon. The unique...

  19. Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  20. Psychology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides testing stations for computer-based assessment of cognitive and behavioral Warfighter performance. This 500 square foot configurable space can...

  1. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  2. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  3. Effectiveness of the compound chlorpyrifos+ cypermethrin+citronellal against Alphitobius diaperinus: laboratory analysis and residue determination in carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness, biological security and the absence of residues in meat and/or eggs must be considered when recommending options for the control Alphitobius diaperinus in poultry production environments. This research study evaluated the effectiveness of cypermethrin+ chlorpyrifos+citronellal in the control of A. diaperinus, including analysis for the presence of residues of this compound in poultry carcasses (experimental farm. Two studies were carried out under laboratory conditions. One used paper filters a four dilutions of the compound, and the other used a container including with pulverized broiler litter and the compound. The analysis of carcasses for residues was conducted in broilers that raised in a broiler house treated (floor and/or litter with the compound at a dilution of 1:800. Birds were regularly sacrificed, submitted to necropsy, and liver, muscle and fat fragments were collected. Gas chromatography was used to identify the possible presence of any chemical residue in these samples. High effectiveness rates against A.diaperinus were observed in the two laboratory studies, as well as the absence of residues in the carcasses. This compound, used in the studied concentrations, can be recommended as a valuable alternative for the control and treatment of A. diaperinus.

  4. Effect of Higher Order Thinking Laboratory on the Improvement of Critical and Creative Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, A.; Malik, A.; Suhandi, A.; Permanasari, A.

    2018-02-01

    This research was based on the need for improving critical and creative thinking skills of student in the 21 -st century. In this research, we have implemented HOT-Lab model for topic of force. The model was characterized by problem solving and higher order thinking development through real laboratory activities. This research used a quasy experiment method with pre-test post-test control group design. Samples of this research were 60 students of Physics Education Program of Teacher Educatuon Institution in Bandung. The samples were divided into 2 classes, experiment class (HOT-lab model) and control class (verification lab model). Research instruments were essay tests for creative and critical thinking skills measurements. The results revealed that both the models have improved student’s creative and critical thinking skills. However, the improvement of the experiment class was significantly higher than that of the control class, as indicated by the average of normalized gains (N-gain) for critical thinking skills of 60.18 and 29.30 and for creative thinking skills of 70.71 and 29.40, respectively for the experimental class and the control class. In addition, there is no significant correlation between the improvement of critical thinking skills and creative thinking skills in both the classes.

  5. Transient groundwater chemistry near a river: Effects on U(VI) transport in laboratory column experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Haggerty, Roy; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Kent, Douglas B.; Istok, Jonathan D.; Greskowiak, Janek; Zachara, John M.

    2011-01-01

    In the 300 Area of a U(VI)-contaminated aquifer at Hanford, Washington, USA, inorganic carbon and major cations, which have large impacts on U(VI) transport, change on an hourly and seasonal basis near the Columbia River. Batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the factors controlling U(VI) adsorption/desorption by changing chemical conditions over time. Low alkalinity and low Ca concentrations (Columbia River water) enhanced adsorption and reduced aqueous concentrations. Conversely, high alkalinity and high Ca concentrations (Hanford groundwater) reduced adsorption and increased aqueous concentrations of U(VI). An equilibrium surface complexation model calibrated using laboratory batch experiments accounted for the decrease in U(VI) adsorption observed with increasing (bi)carbonate concentrations and other aqueous chemical conditions. In the column experiment, alternating pulses of river and groundwater caused swings in aqueous U(VI) concentration. A multispecies multirate surface complexation reactive transport model simulated most of the major U(VI) changes in two column experiments. The modeling results also indicated that U(VI) transport in the studied sediment could be simulated by using a single kinetic rate without loss of accuracy in the simulations. Moreover, the capability of the model to predict U(VI) transport in Hanford groundwater under transient chemical conditions depends significantly on the knowledge of real-time change of local groundwater chemistry.

  6. Sampling of BTX in Hat Yai city using cost effective laboratory-built PCB passive sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba, Jas Raj; Thammakhet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2016-08-23

    A laboratory-built printed circuit board (PCB) passive sampler used for the monitoring of xylene and styrene in copy print shops was re-validated for detecting benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) and applied for the sampling of ambient air from Hat Yai city, Songkhla, Thailand, in the month of November 2014. For monitoring, the PCB passive samplers were exposed to target analytes in 16 locations covering high to low exposure areas. After sampling, the samplers were thermally desorbed and the analytes were trapped by multi-walled carbon nanotubes packed into a micro-preconcentrator coupled to a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a flame ionization detector. At the optimum GC operating conditions, the linear dynamic ranges for BTX were 0.06-5.6 µg for benzene, 0.07-2.2 µg for toluene and 0.23-2.5 µg for xylene with R(2) > 0.99 with the limits of detection being 6.6, 6.8 and 19 ng for benzene, toluene and xylene, respectively. The concentrations of BTX in the 16 sampling sites were in the range of N.D.-1.3 ± 1.6, 4.50 ± 0.76-49.6 ± 3.7 and 1.00 ± 0.21-39.6 ± 3.1 µg m(-3), respectively. When compared to past studies, there had been an increase in the benzene concentration.

  7. Effect of natural and laboratory diet on O : N ratio in juvenile lobsters (Homarus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anne Christine

    2006-05-01

    Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates of juvenile lobsters spanning the size range from shelter-restricted to vagile (7-60 mm CL, carapace length) were measured. There are no significant size-dependent break points in the slope of oxygen consumption or nitrogen excretion rates versus weight in freshly caught wild or laboratory fed lobsters. This suggests that there are no inherent changes in energy metabolism in juvenile lobster in the 7-60 mm CL range (stage V to adolescent lobsters), despite major behavioral shifts related to foraging and shelter use. In addition, the O : N ratio of freshly caught wild lobsters (15.7+/-7.4, mean+/-S.D.) is not significantly different from that of lobsters fed brown algae (13.4+/-4.9) or a mixed carbohydrate/protein diet (13.7+/-6.8) in lab. The O : N ratio of wild lobsters is significantly higher than lobsters fed a high protein diet (7.5+/-2.5) in the lab. This suggests that carbohydrates, particularly algal-derived carbohydrates, make up a significant portion of the metabolic fuel of wild juvenile lobsters from settlement through adolescence.

  8. Effect of soil invertebrates on the formation of humic substances under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouz, J.; Li, X.; Brune, A.; Pizl, V.; Abakumov, E. V.

    2011-08-01

    The complete polymerization of phenols and proteins (one of the processes involved in the formation of humic substances) was explained. It was shown that fly ( Bibio marci) larvae and earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa) participate in the complete polymerization of phenols and proteins. In a laboratory experiment, invertebrates participated in the degradation of organic matter and the synthesis of humic substances, which was proved in experiments with 14C-labeled phenols and proteins. The same organic substances (phenols and proteins) without the impact of invertebrates were used as the control substances. The distributions of the 14C isotope in alkaline extracts separated by solubility in acids (humic and fulvic acids) was compared to those of the control substances. The portion of the 14C isotope in the humic acids in the excrements of Bibio marci was higher than that in the control substances. The content of 14C-labeled humic substances in the excrements of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa exceeded the control values only in the experiment with proteins. When clay material was added to the organic substances, the portion of the 14C isotope in the humic acids increased in both experiments with phenols and proteins. When these substrates passed through the digestive tracts of the invertebrates, the polymerization of organic substances and the inclusion of proteins and phenols into humic acids occurred.

  9. A laboratory exposure system to study the effects of aging on super-micron aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarpia, Joshua; Sanchez, Andres L.; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony; Servantes, Brandon Lee; Hubbard, Joshua Allen

    2014-02-01

    A laboratory system was constructed that allows the super-micron particles to be aged for long periods of time under conditions that can simulate a range of natural environments and conditions, including relative humidity, oxidizing chemicals, organics and simulated solar radiation. Two proof-of-concept experiments using a non-biological simulant for biological particles and a biological simulant demonstrate the utility of these types of aging experiments. Green Visolite®, which is often used as a tracer material for model validation experiments, does not degrade with exposure to simulated solar radiation, the actual biological material does. This would indicate that Visolite® should be a good tracer compound for mapping the extent of a biological release using fluorescence as an indicator, but that it should not be used to simulate the decay of a biological particle when exposed to sunlight. The decay in the fluorescence measured for B. thurengiensis is similar to what has been previously observed in outdoor environments.

  10. Dustfall Effect on Hyperspectral Inversion of Chlorophyll Content - a Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuteng; Ma, Baodong; Li, Xuexin; Zhang, Song; Wu, Lixin

    2018-04-01

    Dust pollution is serious in many areas of China. It is of great significance to estimate chlorophyll content of vegetation accurately by hyperspectral remote sensing for assessing the vegetation growth status and monitoring the ecological environment in dusty areas. By using selected vegetation indices including Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI) Double Difference Index (DD) and Red Edge Position Index (REP), chlorophyll inversion models were built to study the accuracy of hyperspectral inversion of chlorophyll content based on a laboratory experiment. The results show that: (1) REP exponential model has the most stable accuracy for inversion of chlorophyll content in dusty environment. When dustfall amount is less than 80 g/m2, the inversion accuracy based on REP is stable with the variation of dustfall amount. When dustfall amount is greater than 80 g/m2, the inversion accuracy is slightly fluctuation. (2) Inversion accuracy of DD is worst among three models. (3) MTCI logarithm model has high inversion accuracy when dustfall amount is less than 80 g/m2; When dustfall amount is greater than 80 g/m2, inversion accuracy decreases regularly and inversion accuracy of modified MTCI (mMTCI) increases significantly. The results provide experimental basis and theoretical reference for hyperspectral remote sensing inversion of chlorophyll content.

  11. A laboratory experiment assessing the effect of sea ice on wave dumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Claudio; Alberello, Alberto; Bennetts, Luke; Meylan, Mike; Babanin, Alexander; Malavasi, Stefano; Toffoli, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    Wave-ice interaction is a critical factor in the dynamics of the marginal ice zone (MIZ), the region between open ocean and an expanse of ice floes of varying size and shape. This interaction works both ways: while waves cause the fractures of ice floes, the presence of ice floes affects waves through scattering and various dissipative processes. In order to assess the latter, a laboratory experiment has been carried out in the coastal directional basin at Plymouth University. Sea ice has been simulated with two deformable plates: 1mX1m plastic sheet with variable thickness of polypropylene, which holds the same density (~0.9 g/cm3) of ice, and PVC Forex, which hold the same mechanical property of ice. Experiments have been conducted using monochromatic as well as random wave fields with different steepness and wavelengths (both shorter and larger than the floe). The wave field has been monitored before and after the simulated ice floe with a number of wave probes deployed along the basin, including a 6-probe array to track directional properties. On the whole, results show a substantial scattering and dissipation of the wave field, which appears to be dependent on the amount of overwash on the ice floe.

  12. Effects of physical randomness training on virtual and laboratory golf putting performance in novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, T C; Lamb, P F

    2018-06-01

    External randomness exists in all sports but is perhaps most obvious in golf putting where robotic putters sink only 80% of 5 m putts due to unpredictable ball-green dynamics. The purpose of this study was to test whether physical randomness training can improve putting performance in novices. A virtual random-physics golf-putting game was developed based on controlled ball-roll data. Thirty-two subjects were assigned a unique randomness gain (RG) ranging from 0.1 to 2.0-times real-world randomness. Putter face kinematics were measured in 5 m laboratory putts before and after five days of virtual training. Performance was quantified using putt success rate and "miss-adjustment correlation" (MAC), the correlation between left-right miss magnitude and subsequent right-left kinematic adjustments. Results showed no RG-success correlation (r = -0.066, p = 0.719) but mildly stronger correlations with MAC for face angle (r = -0.168, p = 0.358) and clubhead path (r = -0.302, p = 0.093). The strongest RG-MAC correlation was observed during virtual training (r = -0.692, p golf putting kinematics. Adaptation to external physical randomness during virtual training may therefore help golfers adapt to external randomness in real-world environments.

  13. Optimism as a predictor of the effects of laboratory-induced stress on fears and hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimhi, Shaul; Eshel, Yohanan; Shahar, Eldad

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the current study is to explore optimism as a predictor of personal and collective fear, as well as hope, following laboratory-induced stress. Students (N = 107; 74 female, 33 male) were assigned randomly to either the experimental (stress--political violence video clip) or the control group (no-stress--nature video clip). Questionnaires of fear and hope were administered immediately after the experiment (Time 1) and 3 weeks later (Time 2). Structural equation modeling indicated the following: (a) Optimism significantly predicted both fear and hope in the stress group at Time 1, but not in the no-stress group. (b) Optimism predicted hope but not fear at Time 2 in the stress group. (c) Hope at Time 1 significantly predicted hope at Time 2, in both the stress and the no-stress groups. (d) Gender did not predict significantly fear at Time 1 in the stress group, despite a significant difference between genders. This study supports previous studies indicating that optimism plays an important role in people's coping with stress. However, based on our research the data raise the question of whether optimism, by itself, or environmental stress, by itself, may accurately predict stress response.

  14. Residual strain, scale effects, and time-dependent behaviour at the 240-m level of the underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Two subhorizontal, orthogonal boreholes were monitored continuously during concentric overcoring at the 240-m level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The magnitude and orientation of principal residual strain components in the near-field stress regime were determined assuming linear elastic behaviour of the rock mass and isotropic conditions. In terms of magnitude, results compared favourably with those from previous tests at the 240-m level. However, orientation results were inconclusive. The effects of scale and borehole orientation relative to the principal stress direction on the results from a modified CSIR triaxial cell overcore test were also investigated; no scale effects were apparent in the experiment, but borehole orientation did affect results. Finally, time-dependent behaviour was detected in the Lac du Bonnet granite, and was monitored between successive overcore tests in one of the boreholes. Results on residual strain, scale effects, and time-dependent behaviour are presented, along with limitations and possible modifications to the testing procedure

  15. Vertical axis wind turbine turbulent response model. Part 2: Response of Sandia National laboratories' 34-meter VAWT with aeroelastic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic response of Sandia National Laboratories' 34-m Darrieus rotor wind turbine at Bushland, Texas, is presented. The formulation used a double-multiple streamtube aerodynamic model with a turbulent airflow and included the effects of linear aeroelastic forces. The structural analysis used established procedures with the program MSC/NASTRAN. The effects of aeroelastic forces on the damping of natural modes agree well with previous results at operating rotor speeds, but show some discrepancies at very high rotor speeds. A number of alternative expressions for the spectrum of turbulent wind were investigated. The model loading represented by each does not differ significantly; a more significant difference is caused by imposing a full lateral coherence of the turbulent flow. Spectra of the predicted stresses at various locations show that without aeroelastic forces, very severe resonance is likely to occur at certain natural frequencies. Inclusion of aeroelastic effects greatly attenuates this stochastic response, especially in modes involving in-plane blade bending.

  16. The effect of X-radiation on a laboratory population of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushzhenko, O.V.; Evdokimov, E.V.; Plekhanov, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of X radiation in doses of 13 to 416 mC/kg on a Dr. melanogaster population heterogenous in fertility. In the case of weak effects (13 and 26 mC/kg) the responses were diverse which was attributed to genetic differences between individuals of a population. With strong effects, the response of the population was identical

  17. Laboratory Waste Management. A Guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    A primary goal of the American Chemical Society Task Force on Laboratory Waste Management is to provide laboratories with the information necessary to develop effective strategies and training programs for managing laboratory wastes. This book is intended to present a fresh look at waste management from the laboratory perspective, considering both…

  18. Antibacterial effects of Arctium lappa and Artemesia absinthium extracts in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibipour Reza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arctium lappa (Great burduck and Artemesia absinthium are medicinal plants that some of their antibacterial and antivirus properties have been suggested in nutritional industries. The objective of this research was to study the effects of A. lappa and A. absinthium on some microorganisms including Pseudomonads aeraginosa, Haemophilus influenza, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: Extracts were prepared by maceration method and tested on Mueller Hinton agar medium based on disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined by micro-dilution method. Antibiotic disks used for controlling and standardizing the examination. Results: The extracts of A. lappa and A. absinthium had significant effect on S. aureus. The MIC and MBC concentrations of the extract of A. lappa on B. subtilis were respectively 600 and 750 mg/ml. Also, these values were 230 and 540 mg/ml for H. influenza. Extract of A. absinthium showed more inhibitory effect on B. subtilis. All extracts showed inhibitory effect on B. cereus. The extracts of A. lappa and A. absinthium had inhibitory effects on H. influenza and P. aeraginosa. Among antibiotics, only Ofloxacin and Ciprofloxacin had effects on H. influenza. Extract of A. lappa showed flimsy effect on K. pneumonia, while extract of A. absinthium had no effect on this bacterium. Conclusion: Due to the effects of A. lappa and A. absinthium on some bacteria, they might be good substitutes for synthetic substances.

  19. Comparison of the effects of drilling fluid on macrobenthic invertebrates associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, in the laboratory and field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.E.; Flemer, D.A.; Bundick, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The structure of a macrobenthic invertebrate community associated with the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. The research focused on: (1) the effects of pollution stress from a representative drilling fluid used in offshore oil and gas operations, and (2) a comparison of responses of the seagrass-invertebrate community in the laboratory and field. The numbers of macrobenthic invertebrates were suppressed by drilling fluid at both exposure periods in the laboratory, but inhibitory effects were absent in the field. Invertebrate densities in the field were similar among control and treated plots, and were much lower than densities occurring in the laboratory control. In most instances, species richness values were similar in the field and laboratory at the end of each 6 and 12 week period

  20. Effect of Temperature on Acoustic Evaluation of Standing trees and logs: Part 1-Laboratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan Gao; Xiping Wang; Lihai Wang; R. Bruce. Allison

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate the effect of environment temperature on acoustic velocity of standing trees and green logs and to develop workable models for compensating temperature differences as acoustic measurements are performed in different climates and seasons. The objective of Part 1 was to investigate interactive effects of temperature and...

  1. Effect of salinity induced pH/alkalinity changes on benthic foraminifera: A laboratory culture experiment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Kouthanker, M.; Kurtarkar, S.R.; Nigam, R.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Linshy, V.N.

    of adverse effect of such seasonal salinity changes on calcite secreting organisms is, however not clear. The seasonal fresh water influx from the estuaries also affects the pH and alkalinity of the coastal seawater. Therefore, to understand the effect...

  2. Experimental Verification of the Hall Effect during Magnetic Reconnection in a Laboratory Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ren; Masaaki Yamada; Stefan Gerhardt; Hantao Ji; Russell Kulsrud; Aleksey Kuritsyn

    2005-01-01

    In this letter we report a clear and unambiguous observation of the out-of-plane quadrupole magnetic field suggested by numerical simulations in the reconnecting current sheet in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX). Measurements show that the Hall effect is large in collisionless regime and becomes small as the collisionality increases, indicating that the Hall effect plays an important role in collisionless reconnection

  3. Mixture effects in samples of multiple contaminants - An inter-laboratory study with manifold bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburger, Rolf; Scholze, Martin; Busch, Wibke; Escher, Beate I; Jakobs, Gianina; Krauss, Martin; Krüger, Janet; Neale, Peta A; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Almeida, Ana Catarina; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Brion, François; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollert, Henner; Novák, Jiří; Schlichting, Rita; Serra, Hélène; Shao, Ying; Tindall, Andrew; Tolefsen, Knut-Erik; Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Williams, Tim D; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    Chemicals in the environment occur in mixtures rather than as individual entities. Environmental quality monitoring thus faces the challenge to comprehensively assess a multitude of contaminants and potential adverse effects. Effect-based methods have been suggested as complements to chemical analytical characterisation of complex pollution patterns. The regularly observed discrepancy between chemical and biological assessments of adverse effects due to contaminants in the field may be either due to unidentified contaminants or result from interactions of compounds in mixtures. Here, we present an interlaboratory study where individual compounds and their mixtures were investigated by extensive concentration-effect analysis using 19 different bioassays. The assay panel consisted of 5 whole organism assays measuring apical effects and 14 cell- and organism-based bioassays with more specific effect observations. Twelve organic water pollutants of diverse structure and unique known modes of action were studied individually and as mixtures mirroring exposure scenarios in freshwaters. We compared the observed mixture effects against component-based mixture effect predictions derived from additivity expectations (assumption of non-interaction). Most of the assays detected the mixture response of the active components as predicted even against a background of other inactive contaminants. When none of the mixture components showed any activity by themselves then the mixture also was without effects. The mixture effects observed using apical endpoints fell in the middle of a prediction window defined by the additivity predictions for concentration addition and independent action, reflecting well the diversity of the anticipated modes of action. In one case, an unexpectedly reduced solubility of one of the mixture components led to mixture responses that fell short of the predictions of both additivity mixture models. The majority of the specific cell- and organism

  4. Effect of repeated compaction of tablets on tablet properties and work of compaction using an instrumented laboratory tablet press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamlen, Michael John Desmond; Martini, Luigi G; Al Obaidy, Kais G

    2015-01-01

    The repeated compaction of Avicel PH101, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP) powder, 50:50 DCP/Avicel PH101 and Starch 1500 was studied using an instrumented laboratory tablet press which measures upper punch force, punch displacement and ejection force and operates using a V-shaped compression profile. The measurement of work compaction was demonstrated, and the test materials were ranked in order of compaction behaviour Avicel PH101 > DCP/Avicel PH101 > Starch > DCP. The behaviour of the DCP/Avicel PH101 mixture was distinctly non-linear compared with the pure components. Repeated compaction and precompression had no effect on the tensile fracture strength of Avicel PH101 tablets, although small effects on friability and disintegration time were seen. Repeated compaction and precompression reduced the tensile strength and the increased disintegration time of the DCP tablets, but improved the strength and friability of Starch 1500 tablets. Based on the data reported, routine laboratory measurement of tablet work of compaction may have potential as a critical quality attribute of a powder blend for compression. The instrumented press was suitable for student use with minimal supervisor input.

  5. Extending laboratory automation to the wards: effect of an innovative pneumatic tube system on diagnostic samples and transport time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchsland, Juliane; Winter, Theresa; Greiser, Anne; Streichert, Thomas; Otto, Benjamin; Mayerle, Julia; Runge, Sören; Kallner, Anders; Nauck, Matthias; Petersmann, Astrid

    2017-02-01

    The innovative pneumatic tube system (iPTS) transports one sample at a time without the use of cartridges and allows rapid sending of samples directly into the bulk loader of a laboratory automation system (LAS). We investigated effects of the iPTS on samples and turn-around time (TAT). During transport, a mini data logger recorded the accelerations in three dimensions and reported them in arbitrary area under the curve (AUC) units. In addition representative quantities of clinical chemistry, hematology and coagulation were measured and compared in 20 blood sample pairs transported by iPTS and courier. Samples transported by iPTS were brought to the laboratory (300 m) within 30 s without adverse effects on the samples. The information retrieved from the data logger showed a median AUC of 7 and 310 arbitrary units for courier and iPTS transport, respectively. This is considerably below the reported limit for noticeable hemolysis of 500 arbitrary units. iPTS reduces TAT by reducing the hands-on time and a fast transport. No differences in the measurement results were found for any of the investigated 36 analytes between courier and iPTS transport. Based on these findings the iPTS was cleared for clinical use in our hospital.

  6. The effect of heightened awareness of observation on consumption of a multi-item laboratory test meal in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Proctor, Michael; Oldham, Melissa; Masic, Una

    2016-09-01

    Human eating behaviour is often studied in the laboratory, but whether the extent to which a participant believes that their food intake is being measured influences consumption of different meal items is unclear. Our main objective was to examine whether heightened awareness of observation of food intake affects consumption of different food items during a lunchtime meal. One hundred and fourteen female participants were randomly assigned to an experimental condition designed to heighten participant awareness of observation or a condition in which awareness of observation was lower, before consuming an ad libitum multi-item lunchtime meal in a single session study. Under conditions of heightened awareness, participants tended to eat less of an energy dense snack food (cookies) in comparison to the less aware condition. Consumption of other meal items and total energy intake were similar in the heightened awareness vs. less aware condition. Exploratory secondary analyses suggested that the effect heightened awareness had on reduced cookie consumption was dependent on weight status, as well as trait measures of dietary restraint and disinhibition, whereby only participants with overweight/obesity, high disinhibition or low restraint reduced their cookie consumption. Heightened awareness of observation may cause females to reduce their consumption of an energy dense snack food during a test meal in the laboratory and this effect may be moderated by participant individual differences. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Copeman: Effect of temperature and tissue type on fatty acid signatures of two species of North Pacific juvenile gadids: A laboratory feeding study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a laboratory study that investigated the effect of temperature and tissue type on fatty acid signatures of Pacific cod and walleye pollock.

  8. The Environmental Science & Health Effects Program at the at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, Douglas R.

    2000-08-20

    To conduct policy-relevant research that will help us understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources.

  9. Effectiveness of the implementation of a simple radiation reduction protocol in the catheterization laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado-Román, Alfonso, E-mail: alfonsojuradoroman@gmail.com [Unidad de Hemodinámica, Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real (Spain); Sánchez-Pérez, Ignacio; Lozano Ruíz-Poveda, Fernando; López-Lluva, María T.; Pinilla-Echeverri, Natalia; Moreno Arciniegas, Andrea [Unidad de Hemodinámica, Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real (Spain); Agudo-Quilez, Pilar [Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Madrid (Spain); Gil Agudo, Antonio [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2016-07-15

    Background and purpose: A reduction in radiation doses at the catheterization laboratory, maintaining the quality of procedures is essential. Our objective was to analyze the results of a simple radiation reduction protocol at a high-volume interventional cardiology unit. Methods: We analyzed 1160 consecutive procedures: 580 performed before the implementation of the protocol and 580 after it. The protocol consisted in: the reduction of the number of ventriculographies and aortographies, the optimization of the collimation and the geometry of the X ray tube-patient-receptor, the use of low dose-rate fluoroscopy and the reduction of the number of cine sequences using the software “last fluoroscopy hold”. Results: There were no significant differences in clinical baseline features or in the procedural characteristics with the exception of a higher percentage of radial approach (30.7% vs 69.6%; p < 0.001) and of percutaneous coronary interventions of chronic total occlusions after the implementation of the protocol (2.1% vs 6.7%; p = 0,001). Angiographic success was similar during both periods (98.3% vs 99.2%; p = 0.2). There were no significant differences between both periods regarding the overall duration of the procedures (26.9 vs 29.6 min; p = 0.14), or the fluoroscopy time (13.3 vs 13.2 min; p = 0.8). We observed a reduction in the percentage of procedures with ventriculography (80.9% vs 7.1%; p < 0.0001) or aortography (15.4% vs 4.4%; p < 0.0001), the cine runs (21.8 vs 6.9; p < 0.0001) and the dose–area product (165 vs 71 Gyxcm{sup 2}; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: With the implementation of a simple radiation reduction protocol, a 57% reduction of dose–area product was observed without a reduction in the quality or the complexity of procedures. - Highlights: • This simple protocol can achieve a reduction in dose–area product of 57%. • It does not interfere with the quality or complexity of the procedures. • Full advantage of “Last Fluoroscopy

  10. Laboratory study on the cooling effect of flash water evaporative cooling technology for ventilation and air-conditioning of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Yuan, Shu; Yang, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    in warm/hot and dry environment where dehumidification of outdoor air is not needed. A laboratory experiment was designed and conducted to evaluate the cooling effectiveness of this technology. The experiment was conducted in a twin-climate chamber. One chamber simulated warm/hot and dry outdoor...... evaporation. Two outdoor summer climates were simulated in the study, i.e. the design summer climate of Las Vegas and the extreme summer climate of Copenhagen represented hot/dry and warm/dry climates. The results showed that the flash evaporative cooling technology, a simple and green cooling technology......, is effective for ventilation and air-conditioning in warm/hot and dry climate zones. The technology can provide fresh outdoor air with a temperature of 4 to 7 °C lower than room air temperature....

  11. Implementation of Scientific Community Laboratories and Their Effect on Student Conceptual Learning, Attitudes, and Understanding of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Adam

    Scientific Community Laboratories, developed by The University of Maryland, have shown initial promise as laboratories meant to emulate the practice of doing physics. These laboratories have been re-created by incorporating their design elements with the University of Toledo course structure and resources. The laboratories have been titled the Scientific Learning Community (SLC) Laboratories. A comparative study between these SLC laboratories and the University of Toledo physics department's traditional laboratories was executed during the fall 2012 semester on first semester calculus-based physics students. Three tests were executed as pre-test and post-tests to capture the change in students' concept knowledge, attitudes, and understanding of uncertainty. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was used to evaluate students' conceptual changes through the semester and average normalized gains were compared between both traditional and SLC laboratories. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS) was conducted to elucidate students' change in attitudes through the course of each laboratory. Finally, interviews regarding data analysis and uncertainty were transcribed and coded to track changes in the way students understand uncertainty and data analysis in experimental physics after their participation in both laboratory type. Students in the SLC laboratories showed a notable an increase conceptual knowledge and attitudes when compared to traditional laboratories. SLC students' understanding of uncertainty showed most improvement, diverging completely from students in the traditional laboratories, who declined throughout the semester.

  12. Pseudohyperkalaemia in leukaemic patients: the effect of test tube type and form of transport to the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastych, Milan; Cermáková, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effect of the tube type used for primary sample collection and the manner of transport prior to assessment (either manual or by pneumatic tube) on the degree of pseudohyperkalaemia in leukaemic patients. Blood from six leukaemic patients was collected into seven primary sample tubes (Monovette®, Sarstedt): sample A, heparinized blood gas syringe (potassium reference value); sample B, plasma Li-heparin without separator gel; sample C, plasma Li-heparin with separator gel; and sample D, serum with separator gel. The primary sample tubes designated B, C and D were transported to the laboratory manually. Duplicates of the same sample tubes, B(PT), C(PT) and D(PT), were sent to the laboratory by pneumatic tube. In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), there was no increase in the concentration of potassium in samples B, C and D when compared to the reference value. Transport of the samples by pneumatic tube led to a pronounced increase in potassium concentration in samples B(PT) and C(PT), whereas there was no increase in sample D(PT) when compared to the reference value. In the patient with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), an increase in potassium concentration occurred in sample D and in samples B(PT), C(PT) and D(PT). A similar finding was observed in the patient with acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL), furthermore with an extremely high concentration of potassium in samples C and C(PT). Manual transport of non-coagulable blood (plasma Li-heparin without separator gel) to the laboratory results in the least possible artificial increase in potassium concentration in the sample.

  13. A Laboratory Study of the Effect of Stress State on the Elastic Moduli of Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    frequency. Drnevich (1967) investigated the effect of strain history on the dynamic properties of a dry Ottawa sand. One finding of his work was that the...2.2) in which jo = effective octahedral normal stress, e = void ratio, H = ambient stress and vibration history , S - de9,ee of saturation, To...zt) = ik[Cei(kz-wt) - De-i(kz+Wt) (3.20) dz I Substituting Eqs. 3.19 and 3.20 into the second boundary condition at z - L yields ikEA [Cei(kL-cot

  14. Modeling of combined effect of alcohol, tobacco smokes and internal irradiation of laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukal'skaya, S.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    Concentration of 90 Sr and 20 Po in kidneys and bone tissues was measured both separately and in combination with ethanol introduction. Carbon oxide (CO), which content was measured by a gas analyser, served as an index of tobacco smokes in a chamber with test animals. It is shown that ethanol had no noticeable effect either on the character or the levels of radionuclide accumulation in kidneys and bone tissues. Under experimental conditions quantitative characteristics of studied factors (intensity, the effect time and levels) remained stable within the specified limits independent on their combination

  15. Greenhouse Effect in the Classroom: A Project- and Laboratory-Based Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueddecke, Susann B.; Pinter, Nicholas; McManus, Scott A.

    2001-01-01

    Tests a multifaceted curriculum for use in introductory earth science classes from the secondary school to the introductory undergraduate level. Simulates the greenhouse effect with two fish tanks, heat lamps, and thermometers. Uses a hands-on science approach to develop a deeper understanding of the climate system among students. (Contains 28…

  16. An Effective and Economical Photometer for Classroom Demonstrations and Laboratory Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Anthony E.; Young, Colin C.

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple, effective, and inexpensive spectrophotometer design that may be used in a stand-alone teaching module, and to enhance various unit operations experiments. The spectrophotometers described performed as well as a commercial option at estimating cell concentration in a bioreactor and tracking a first-order reaction. Such devices…

  17. A laboratory approach for determining the effect of oils and dispersants on mangroves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca, B.J.

    1982-10-01

    An experimental approach was developed and applied to testing the effects of oil and dispersant combinations on the growth of mangrove seedlings (trees of the intertidal tropics). A controlled growth chamber was employed to test the effects of different oils and dispersed oils in an array of dosages applied to different parts of the plants. Preliminary test results are reported for two species of mangroves collected from five localities, including both oiled and unoiled estuaries. Differences occurred between species, substances, dosages, the part of the plant dosed, and the presence of chronic oil pollution at localities from which the stocks were collected. Avicennia germinans (L.) L. (black mangrove) was more sensitive than Rhizophora mangle L. (red mangrove) when exposed to almost all substances tested. Light Arabian crude oil (LA) and light Arabian crude oil dispersed (LAD) were the most toxic substances tested. No. 2 fuel oil (N2) and No. 2 fuel oil dispersed (N2D) were as toxic as LA and LAD, except for an increase (an enhancement effect) in foliage and stem growth in Avicennia at lower dosages. Bunker C oil (BC) was the least toxic of the oils tested, resulting in the reduction of foliage and stem growth only at the highest dosage tested in Avicennia. Bunker C oil dispersed (BCD) failed to show effects in either species at any dosage tested. The leaves of Rhizophora were the most sensitive part of the plant tested.

  18. Quantitative effects of diet on fecal corticosterone metabolites in two strains of laboratory mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Teilmann, Anne Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    /6 mice. Furthermore, throughout the experiment, the C57bl/6 mice excreted significantly higher levels of FCM compared to the BALB/c mice. The mice were also challenged with synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and dexamethasone (DEX). The effect of the challenges could readily be detected...

  19. A Cost-Effective Atomic Force Microscope for Undergraduate Control Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. N.; Goncalves, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a simple, cost-effective and robust atomic force microscope (AFM), which has been purposely designed and built for use as a teaching aid in undergraduate controls labs. The guiding design principle is to have all components be open and visible to the students, so the inner functioning of the microscope has been made clear to…

  20. Nontarget effects of orchard pesticides on natural enemies: lessons from the field and laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nontarget effects of insecticide programs used to control codling moth, Cydia pomonella were studied in large-plot field trials in apples, pears, and walnuts in the western United States. We sampled the abundance of natural enemies and outbreaks of secondary pests. The insecticides used in the f...

  1. Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Filson, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls.

  2. School Effectiveness or the Horizon of the World as a Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Romuald

    2008-01-01

    The present paper aims to provide an account of the genesis and development of a collection of scientific work that has received strong international recognition--the paradigm of school effectiveness. It shows how this theory, based on the design of measurement tools, has gradually influenced educational management and policies in promoting the…

  3. Laboratory research on tailings stabilization methods and their effectiveness in radiation containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, P.J.; Jensen, C.M.; Rogers, V.C.; Overmyer, R.F.

    1978-04-01

    This report describes a study of various methods, techniques, and materials for stabilizing uranium mill tailings to reduce radon exhalation. Radon emanation from tailings particles, radon exhalation from tailings, and methods that could be used to reduce radon exhalation from tailings piles are discussed. Surface radon flux and soil gas concentrations were measured in experiment chambers or columns consisting of uranium tailings and various types and thicknesses of cover materials. The applicability of diffusion theory was examined and effective diffusion coefficients were determined for clay, soil, and sand. The variation of radon flux with atmospheric effects and moisture also was investigated. The effectiveness of several types of chemical stabilizers for both volumetric and surface application in reducing radon exhalation is reported. Some volumetric stabilizers reduced radon flux by 90 percent or more. Radon flux was determined through the use of charcoal gas mask canisters, and flux accumulation chambers sampled by Lucas cells. Both of these techniques are described. Soil gas concentration was sampled with Lucas cells and counted with a sodium iodide scintillation spectrometer system. Emanating power of uranium tailings was measured for several particle sizes and found to be relatively constant at about 20 percent. Two types of grasses were found that would grow in tailings if sufficient water and fertilizer were provided. The effect of vegetation on radon exhalation was not determined

  4. Effects of 2 fungicide formulations on microbial and macroinvertebrate leaf decomposition under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria; Smalling, Kelly L.; Hladik, Michelle; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic fungi contribute significantly to the decomposition of leaves in streams, a key ecosystem service. However, little is known about the effects of fungicides on aquatic fungi and macroinvertebrates involved with leaf decomposition. Red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves were conditioned in a stream to acquire microbes (bacteria and fungi), or leached in tap water (unconditioned) to simulate potential reduction of microbial biomass by fungicides. Conditioned leaves were exposed to fungicide formulations QUILT (azoxystrobin + propiconazole) or PRISTINE (boscalid + pyraclostrobin), in the presence and absence of the leaf shredder, Hyalella azteca (amphipods; 7-d old at start of exposures) for 14 d at 23 °C. QUILT formulation (~ 0.3 μg/L, 1.8 μg/L, 8 μg/L) tended to increase leaf decomposition by amphipods (not significant) without a concomitant increase in amphipod biomass, indicating potential increased consumption of leaves with reduced nutritional value. PRISTINE formulation (~ 33 μg/L) significantly reduced amphipod growth and biomass (p<0.05), effects similar to those observed with unconditioned controls. The significant suppressive effects of PRISTINE on amphipod growth, and the trend towards increased leaf decomposition with increasing QUILT concentration, indicate the potential for altered leaf decay in streams exposed to fungicides. Further work is needed to evaluate fungicide effects on leaf decomposition under conditions relevant to stream ecosystems, including temperature shifts and pulsed exposures to pesticide mixtures.

  5. Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinzman, R.L.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Filson, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls

  6. Prepackaged polymer - modified mortar proves effective construction material - field and laboratory observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, M.U.K.; Khan, A.A.; Rizwan, S.A.; Khaskhali, G.B.

    2005-01-01

    Hi-Bond - prepackaged polymer - modified mortar described in this paper is a revolutionary, multifunctional, high-tech, high performance, sustainable, durability improving group of construction materials with a high cost - benefit ratio. Hi-Bond has been developed by Dadabhoy Construction Technologies (Pvt) Ltd., (DCTL), Karachi, after extensive studies and research both locally and abroad. It can be used in floorings and pavings, integral waterproofing, adhesive applications, protective and decorative coatings, repairs, renovation, rehabilitation, anti corrosive linings, deck coverings, durability and efficiency improvement of canal linings and other hydraulic structures. Hi-Bond has been applied in various projects of national importance with great success for their repairs, renovation and rehabilitation and has also been tested and evaluated at various laboratories with highly encouraging results. Some examples include: (i) earthquake damaged bridge at Lora Nallah on Brewery Road, Quetta, (ii) fire damaged building of the daily Business Recorder House, Karachi, (iii) 200 - year old main dome of the tomb of Hazrat Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Bhitshah, Hyderabad, (iv) RCC shell roofs of Mehtab Biscuit and Wafers Factory, Sahiwal, (v) repair of newly built concrete floor on structural slab in a factory building at Karachi, (vi) Mohatta Palace, Clifton, Karachi, (vii) swimming pool at Okara Cantt, and (viii) numerous leaking basements, underground and overhead water reservoirs at and around Karachi including those of new vegetable market on super highway. Building Research Station, Government of the Punjab, Lahore also recommended the use of Hi-Bond in the applications mentioned above after testing and evaluation. The product was found easy in application and offered numerous technical and economical advantages, over conventional products, in variety of applications. It is important to note that shortly after the repairs and renovation of the building of the daily

  7. Radiation tolerance in the fruit fly, Drosophila Melanogaster - effects of laboratory culturing and stages in life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vas, Iril Prima; Naik, Pramila; Kumar, Vineeth; Naik, Prathima; Patil, Rajashekar K.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation induced damages are due to direct effect of radiation energy or through free radical generation. Recent studies suggest Drosophila to be a good animal model to study radiation tolerance. The present study on female Drosophila melanogaster was conducted to observe 1. Variations in larval and adult radiation tolerance 2. Variations in laboratory culture and field populations of Drosophila. Third instar larvae were exposed to gamma radiation of 6, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy in gamma chamber GC 5000 (BRT, India). Larvae of flies collected from the field were reared for two generations in the lab before irradiation. The laboratory cultured files were from stocks that were maintained for more than 1000 generations. The larvae of field populations had higher survival rate at 51% as compared to 43% in case of cultured flies and thus more resistant. The III instar larval stage (lab culture) had a LD50 of 26 Gy as compared to LD 50 of 928 Gy in case of adult flies have ∼ 160 times higher tolerance compared to humans. Prolonged rearing comparable to 'domestication' might have induced reduction in tolerance. Larval stages have a lower tolerance than adults possibly due to higher metabolic rate. Adults are post-mitotic in nature with very low rate of cell division. This may contribute to higher tolerance. This however is in contradiction to studies of midge (Chironomous) where larvae also have higher tolerance. (author)

  8. Effect of Metformin and Flutamide on Anthropometric Indices and Laboratory Tests in Obese/Overweight PCOS Women under Hypocaloric Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mania; Golsorkhtabaramiri, Masoumeh; Esmaeilzadeh, Sedigheh; Ghofrani, Faeze; Bijani, Ali; Ghorbani, Leila; Delavar, Moloud Agajani

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of metformin and flutamide alone or in combination with anthropometric indices and laboratory tests of obese/overweight PCOS women under hypocaloric diet. This single blind clinical trial was performed on 120 PCOS women. At the beginning, hypocaloric diet was recommended for the patients. After one month while they were on the diet, the patients were randomly divided in 4 groups; metformin (500 mg, 3/day), flutamide (250 mg, 2/day), combined, metformin (500 mg, 3/day) with flutamide (250 mg, 2/day) and finally placebo group. The patients were treated for 6 months. Anthropometric indices and laboratory tests (fasting and glucose-stimulated insulin levels, lipid profile and androgens) were measured. A one-way ANOVA (Post Hoc) and paired t-test were performed to analyze data. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. After treatment, reduction in weight, BMI, hip circumference was significantly greater in the metformin group in comparison to other groups (phypocaloric diet.

  9. Effect of Metformin and Flutamide on Anthropometric Indices and Laboratory Tests in Obese/Overweight PCOS Women under Hypocaloric Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mania; Golsorkhtabaramiri, Masoumeh; Esmaeilzadeh, Sedigheh; Ghofrani, Faeze; Bijani, Ali; Ghorbani, Leila; Delavar, Moloud Agajani

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to investigate the effect of metformin and flutamide alone or in combination with anthropometric indices and laboratory tests of obese/overweight PCOS women under hypocaloric diet. Methods This single blind clinical trial was performed on 120 PCOS women. At the beginning, hypocaloric diet was recommended for the patients. After one month while they were on the diet, the patients were randomly divided in 4 groups; metformin (500 mg, 3/day), flutamide (250 mg, 2/day), combined, metformin (500 mg, 3/day) with flutamide (250 mg, 2/day) and finally placebo group. The patients were treated for 6 months. Anthropometric indices and laboratory tests (fasting and glucose-stimulated insulin levels, lipid profile and androgens) were measured. A one-way ANOVA (Post Hoc) and paired t-test were performed to analyze data. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results After treatment, reduction in weight, BMI, hip circumference was significantly greater in the metformin group in comparison to other groups (pobese/overweight PCOS women under hypocaloric diet. PMID:25473629

  10. Effectiveness of Podcasts Delivered on Mobile Devices as a Support for Student Learning during General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Cynthia B.; Mason, Diana S.

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry instructors in teaching laboratories provide expert modeling of techniques and cognitive processes and provide assistance to enrolled students that may be described as scaffolding interaction. Such student support is particularly essential in laboratories taught with an inquiry-based curriculum. In a teaching laboratory with a high…

  11. Effects of Cohesive Sediment on Estuarine Morphology in Laboratory Scale Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braat, L.; Leuven, J.; Lokhorst, I.; Kleinhans, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Mud plays a major role in forming and filling of river estuaries. River estuaries are typically build of sand and flanked by mudflats, which affect channel-shoal dynamics on time scales of centuries to millennia. In our research we aim to study the effects of mud on the shape and evolution of estuaries and where the largest effects occur. Recently a 20 m by 3 m flume (the Metronome) was developed at Utrecht University for tidal experiments. Complete estuaries are simulated in the Metronome by driving tidal flow by periodically tilting of the flume to counteract scaling problems. To simulate the effects of cohesive mud we supply nutshell grains to the system together with the river discharge. Three scenarios were tested, one with only sand, one with a low supply concentration of nutshell and one with a high concentration (left to right in figure).Estuaries that developed from an initial convergent shape are self-formed through bank erosion, continuous channel-shoal migration and bar and mud flat sedimentation (figure shows development over 15000 tilting cycles). The cohesive sediment deposits occur mainly on bars, but also on the flanks of the estuary and in abandoned channels. Due to its different erosional and depositional characteristics, the nutshell increases the elevation of the bars, which reduces storage and ebb-dominance and causes reduction of bar mobility and short cuts. These results agree with numerical model results. The large-scale effect is less widening of the estuary in the presence of mud and a decrease in channel-shoal migration, suggesting that mud confines estuary width in a similar manner as river floodplains.

  12. Radiation Effects and Component Hardening testing program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Weil, B.S.; Chesser, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes Phase II of the Radiation Effects and Component Hardening (REACH) testing program, performed as part of the joint collaborative agreement between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan, Components and materials were submitted to 10 5 R/hr gamma radiation fields for 10,000 hr, producing accumulated doses of 10 9 R; most performed as expected

  13. Effects of combined dredging-related stressors on sponges: a laboratory approach using realistic scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Mari-Carmen; Strehlow, Brian; Kamp, Jasmine; Duckworth, Alan; Jones, Ross; Webster, Nicole S

    2017-07-12

    Dredging can cause increased suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs), light attenuation and sedimentation in marine communities. In order to determine the combined effects of dredging-related pressures on adult sponges, three species spanning different nutritional modes and morphologies were exposed to 5 treatment levels representing realistic dredging scenarios. Most sponges survived under low to moderate turbidity scenarios (SSCs of ≤ 33 mg L -1 , and a daily light integral of ≥0.5 mol photons m -2 d -1 ) for up to 28 d. However, under the highest turbidity scenario (76 mg L -1 , 0.1 mol photons m -2 d -1 ) there was 20% and 90% mortality of the phototrophic sponges Cliona orientalis and Carteriospongia foliascens respectively, and tissue regression in the heterotrophic Ianthella basta. All three sponge species exhibited mechanisms to effectively tolerate dredging-related pressures in the short term (e.g. oscula closure, mucus production and tissue regression), although reduced lipids and deterioration of sponge health suggest that longer term exposure to similar conditions is likely to result in higher mortality. These results suggest that the combination of high SSCs and low light availability can accelerate mortality, increasing the probability of biological effects, although there is considerable interspecies variability in how adult sponges respond to dredging pressures.

  14. The effect of organics on the sorption of cobalt by glacial sand in laboratory batch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigh, D.G.; Williams, G.M.; Hooker, P.J.; Ross, C.A.M.; Allen, M.R.; Warwick, P.

    1989-01-01

    Acetate, EDTA and organic compounds naturally present in groundwater at the Drigg in situ radionuclide migration experimental site, have been studied to assess their effect on the sorption of cobalt by glacial sand in a series of batch experiments. Removing 56% of the natural organic material from the grounwater with DEAE cellulose increased the distribution ratio (R d ) of cobalt by a factor of about two. EDTA had a dramatic effect on the sorption of Co even at low concentrations, reducing the R d by up to two orders of magnitude. At EDTA concentrations greater than 5 mg/l, there was no further reduction in sorption. EDTA was not itself sorbed, but formed a mobile complex with Co. Differences in distribution ratios were observed depending on whether the cobalt was added before or after EDTA. Within the same period of equilibrium, the R d values were higher when cobalt was allowed to equilibrate with the sand before adding EDTA. The desorption of cobalt from the mineral surface may be a rate-limiting step such that equilibrium was not achieved within the 14-day period of these experiments. Acetate had no effect on cobalt sorption in any of the experiments undertaken. This work is part of the Commission Mirage project, Phase 2, research area Geochemistry of actinides and fission products in natural aquifer systems

  15. Attenuated effects of chitosan-capped gold nanoparticles on LPS-induced toxicity in laboratory rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefan, Marius; Melnig, Viorel; Pricop, Daniela; Neagu, Anca; Mihasan, Marius; Tartau, Liliana; Hritcu, Lucian

    2013-01-01

    The impact of nanoparticles in medicine and biology has increased rapidly in recent years. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have advantageous properties such as chemical stability, high electron density and affinity to biomolecules. However, the effects of AuNP on human body after repeated administration are still unclear. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of gold-11.68 nm (AuNP1, 9.8 μg) and gold-22.22 nm (AuNP2, 19.7 μg) nanoparticles capped with chitosan on brain and liver tissue reactivity in male Wistar rats exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS from Escherichia coli serotype 0111:B4, 250 μg) upon 8 daily sessions of intraperitoneal administration. Our results suggest that the smaller size of chitosan-capped AuNP shows the protective effects against LPS-induced toxicity, suggesting a very high potential for biomedical applications. - Highlights: ► Smaller size of chitosan-capped gold nanoparticles acts against LPS-induced toxicity. ► Larger size of chitosan-capped gold nanoparticles agglomerated inside neurons and induced toxicity in combination with LPS. ► Chitosan has excellent biocompatible proprieties. ► Smaller size of chitosan-capped gold nanoparticles demonstrates great potential in biomedical applications.

  16. The effect of organics on the sorption of cobalt by glacial sand in laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigh, G.; Williams, G.M.; Hooker, P.J.; Ross, C.A.M.; Allen, M.R.

    1989-02-01

    The effect of acetate, EDTA and natural organic compounds in groundwater at Drigg test site, on the sorption of cobalt by glacial sand has been studied in a series of batch experiments. Removing 50% of the organic material from the groundwater with DEAE cellulose increased the distribution ratio (R d ) of cobalt by a factor of about two. The addition of both EDTA and acetate to the sand/water system led to the removal of Ca, Mg, Sr and Ba from solution. Both organic compounds had the effect of reducing the pH and bicarbonated concentrations. EDTA also removed iron from the solution. EDTA reduced the R d for Co by up to 2 orders of magnitude. At EDTA concentrations greater than 5mg/1, there was no further reduction in sorption. EDTA was not itself sorbed, but formed a mobile complex with Co. Within the same period of equilibrium, the R d values were lower when EDTA was allowed to equilibrate with the sand before adding cobalt. The desorption of cobalt from the minerals surface may be a rate limiting step such that equilibrium was not achieved within the 14 day period of these experiments. Acetate had no effect of cobalt sorption. (author)

  17. Adverse effect of diesel engine produced particulate matter on various stone types and concrete: a laboratory exposure experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Orsolya; Szabados, György; Antal, Ákos; Török, Ákos

    2015-04-01

    The effect of particulate matter on construction materials have been studied under laboratory conditions. For testing the adverse effects of diesel soot and particulate matter on stone and concrete a small scale laboratory exposure chamber was constructed. Blocks of 9 different stone types and concrete was placed in the chamber and an exhaust pipe of diesel engine was diverted into the system. Tested stones included: porous limestone, cemented non-porous limestone, travertine, marble, rhyolite tuff, andesite and granite. The engine was operated for 10 hours and the produced particulate matter was diverted directly to the surface of the material specimens of 3 cm in diameter each. Working parameters of the engine were controlled; the composition of the exhaust gas, smoke value and temperature were continuously measured during the test. Test specimens were documented and analysed prior to exposure and after the exposure test. Parameters such colorimetric values, weight, surface properties, mineralogical compositions of the test specimens were recorded. The working temperature was in the order of 300°C-320°C. The gas concentration was in ppm as follows: 157 CO; 5.98 CO2, 34.3 THC; 463 NOx; 408 NO; 12.88 O2. Our tests have demonstrated that significant amount of particulate matter was deposited on construction materials even at a short period of time; however the exposure was very intense. It also indicates that that the interaction of particulate matter and aerosol compounds with construction materials in urban areas causes rapid decay and has an adverse effect not only on human health but also on built structures.

  18. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... What are lab tests? Laboratory tests are medical devices that are intended for use on samples of blood, urine, or other tissues ...

  19. Audio Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment and facilities for auditory display research. A primary focus is the performance use of binaurally rendered 3D sound in conjunction...

  20. R W Wood's Experiment Done Right - A Laboratory Demonstration of the Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    It would not be exaggerating to say that R. W. Wood was the most respected experimental optical physicist of his time. Thus the null result of his attempt to demonstrate the greenhouse effect by comparing temperature rise in illuminated cylinders with glass or rock salt windows has echoed down through the years in climate science discussions both on the professional and public levels1. Today the web is full of videos purporting to demonstrate the greenhouse effect, but careful examination shows that they simply demonstrate heating via absorption of IR or NIR light by CO2. These experiments miss that the greenhouse effect is a result of the temperature difference between the surface and the upper troposphere as a result of which radiation from greenhouse molecules slows as the level rises. The average distance a photon emitted from a vibrationally excited CO2 molecule is about 10 m at the surface, increasing with altitude until at about 8 km the mean free path allows for radiation to space. Increasing CO2 concentrations raises this level to a higher one, which is colder, and at which the rate of radiation to space decreases. Emitting the same amount of radiation to space as before requires heating the entire system including the surface. To model the greenhouse effect we have used a 22 L bulb with a capsule heater in the center. The temperature near the heater (the surface) or above it can be monitored using a thermocouple and the CO2 mixing ratio determined using a NDIR sensor. By controlling the CO2 concentration in the bulb, the mean free path of re-radiated photons from CO2 can be controlled so that it much smaller than the bulb's diameter. We have measure rises in temperature both near the heater and at a distance from it as CO2is introduced, demonstrating the greenhouse effect. 1. R.W. Wood, London, Edinborough and Dublin Philosophical Magazine , 1909, 17, p319-320 also http://www.wmconnolley.org.uk/sci/wood_rw.1909.html

  1. The effect of slightly warm temperature on work performance and comfort in open-plan offices - a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maula, H; Hongisto, V; Östman, L; Haapakangas, A; Koskela, H; Hyönä, J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a temperature of 29°C on performance in tasks involving different cognitive demands and to assess the effect on perceived performance, subjective workload, thermal comfort, perceived working conditions, cognitive fatigue, and somatic symptoms in a laboratory with realistic office environment. A comparison was made with a temperature of 23°C. Performance was measured on the basis of six different tasks that reflect different stages of cognitive performance. Thirty-three students participated in the experiment. The exposure time was 3.5 h in both thermal conditions. Performance was negatively affected by slightly warm temperature in the N-back working memory task. Temperature had no effect on performance in other tasks focusing on psychomotor, working memory, attention, or long-term memory capabilities. Temperature had no effect on perceived performance. However, slightly warm temperature caused concentration difficulties. Throat symptoms were found to increase over time at 29°C, but no temporal change was seen at 23°C. No effect of temperature on other symptoms was found. As expected, the differences in thermal comfort were significant. Women perceived a temperature of 23°C colder than men. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Target laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, D.C.; Pednekar, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    A target laboratory to make stripper foils for the accelerator and various targets for use in the experiments is set up in the pelletron accelerator facility. The facilities available in the laboratory are: (1) D.C. glow discharge setup, (2) carbon arc set up, and (3) vacuum evaporation set up (resistance heating), electron beam source, rolling mill - all for target preparation. They are described. Centrifugal deposition technique is used for target preparation. (author). 3 figs

  3. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  4. Early effects of water inflow into a deposition hole. Laboratory tests results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanden, Torbjoern; Boergesson, Lennart

    2010-12-01

    material continuously measured. The results from all tests were well within the limits of the erosion model. The erosion rate was in all tests in the lower range of the model which probably depends on the fact that the tests were performed in vertical direction with upwards flow. An interesting result from the tests (Test type 1) was that the buffer blocks moved upwards when water was filled into the surrounding pellets, but the movements did not seem to depend on swelling of the blocks. Instead the heave seemed to depend on a high relative humidity in the pellets filling which made the blocks crack and by that cause an upwards movement. The long term test verified that the decrease of the erosion rate with time that have been measured in earlier tests and is predicted in the model seemed to continue for long time and for large water volumes. With the performed laboratory tests as basis, analysis of the processes related to water inflow into a deposition hole have been made. The processes may lead to unacceptable reduction in buffer density during the installation and water saturation phases. There are mainly two processes that may be detrimental to the buffer. One of them occurs during installation before the backfill has been placed on top of the deposition hole. The inflowing water will cause a heave of the buffer blocks, which may cause unacceptably decrease in density of the buffer material around the canister. The other process is erosion that will take place when water flows out from the deposition hole into the tunnel in channels formed in the pellets filling. The criterion for acceptable heave of the buffer blocks before installation of backfill on top of the deposition hole is suggested to be one cm and the maximum allowable water inflow rate that causes such a heave within four days was found to be 0.1 l/min. The criterion for acceptable loss of bentonite in one spot in a deposition hole is suggested to be 100 kg. The allowable inflow rate that limits the amount

  5. Early effects of water inflow into a deposition hole. Laboratory tests results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanden, Torbjoern; Boergesson, Lennart (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    material continuously measured. The results from all tests were well within the limits of the erosion model. The erosion rate was in all tests in the lower range of the model which probably depends on the fact that the tests were performed in vertical direction with upwards flow. An interesting result from the tests (Test type 1) was that the buffer blocks moved upwards when water was filled into the surrounding pellets, but the movements did not seem to depend on swelling of the blocks. Instead the heave seemed to depend on a high relative humidity in the pellets filling which made the blocks crack and by that cause an upwards movement. The long term test verified that the decrease of the erosion rate with time that have been measured in earlier tests and is predicted in the model seemed to continue for long time and for large water volumes. With the performed laboratory tests as basis, analysis of the processes related to water inflow into a deposition hole have been made. The processes may lead to unacceptable reduction in buffer density during the installation and water saturation phases. There are mainly two processes that may be detrimental to the buffer. One of them occurs during installation before the backfill has been placed on top of the deposition hole. The inflowing water will cause a heave of the buffer blocks, which may cause unacceptably decrease in density of the buffer material around the canister. The other process is erosion that will take place when water flows out from the deposition hole into the tunnel in channels formed in the pellets filling. The criterion for acceptable heave of the buffer blocks before installation of backfill on top of the deposition hole is suggested to be one cm and the maximum allowable water inflow rate that causes such a heave within four days was found to be 0.1 l/min. The criterion for acceptable loss of bentonite in one spot in a deposition hole is suggested to be 100 kg. The allowable inflow rate that limits the amount

  6. Effects of natural phenomena on the Westinghouse Electric Corporation Plutonium Fuels Development Laboratory at Cheswick, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    One aim of the analysis is to examine the plant with the objective of improving its ability to withstand adverse natural phenomena without loss of capability to protect the public. The relatively small risk to the public from the unlikely events discussed (earthquake, flood, tornado) would indicate that the public is not seriously threatened by the presence of the Westinghouse PFDL. Thus, it is the judgment of the staff that the benefits to be gained by substantial plant improvements to further mitigate against adverse natural phenomena are not cost effective

  7. Effects of Accelerated Aging on Soybean Seed Germination Indexes at Laboratory Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra RASTEGAR; Mohammad SEDGHI; Saeid KHOMARI

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of seedling growth is a consequence of seed deterioration. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of duration of seed aging on soybean seed germination characteristics. Experiment conducted as completely randomized design with 4 replications. The seeds of �DPX� line of soybean with 15-16% moisture were incubated for 3, 7, 10, 14, 17 day at 40�C in sealed containers for ageing treatment and non aged seeds were considered as control. Results showed that rapid aging treatm...

  8. The e-Learning Effectiveness Versus Traditional Learning on a Health Informatics Laboratory Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogas, Spyros; Kolokathi, Aikaterini; Birbas, Konstantinos; Chondrocoukis, Gregory; Mantas, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between e-Learning and traditional learning methods of a University course on Health Informatics domain. A pilot research took place among University students who divided on two learning groups, the e-learners and the traditional learners. A comparison of the examinations' marks for the two groups of students was conducted in order to find differences on students' performance. The study results reveal that the students scored almost the same marks independently of the learning procedure. Based on that, it can be assumed that the e-learning courses have the same effectiveness as the in-classroom learning sessions.

  9. Effect of pupil size on visual acuity in a laboratory model of pseudophakic monovision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamorita, Takushi; Uozato, Hiroshi; Handa, Tomoya; Ito, Misae; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the effect of pupil size on visual acuity in pseudophakic monovision. For the simulation, a modified Liou-Brennan model eye was used. The model eye was designed to include a centered optical system, corneal asphericity, an iris pupil, a Stiles-Crawford effect, an intraocular lens, and chromatic aberration. Calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) was performed with ZEMAX software. Visual acuity was estimated from the MTF and the retinal threshold curve. The sizes of the entrance pupil were 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 4.0 mm. Decreasing pupil diameter and increasing myopia progressively improved near visual acuity. For an entrance pupil size of 2.5 mm and a refractive error of -1.50 diopters, the logMAR value (Snellen; metric) in the non-dominant eye at 40 cm was 0.06 (20/23; 6/6.9). Knowledge of the patient's pupil diameter at near fixation can assist surgeons in determining the optimum degree of myopia for successful monovision.

  10. The development of laboratory and semi-field methods to test the effects of pesticides on predatory beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiverton, P.; Wallin, H.

    1997-01-01

    Following the sequential testing procedure adopted by the IOBC/WPRS Working Group Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms, two simple, robust methods are presented which were designed for testing the effects of pesticides on predatory beetles. In a laboratory initial toxicity test both DDT and lindane were found harmful to the carabid Pterostichus cupreus, whereas α-endosulfan was 'harmless'. DDT was found harmless to P. melanarius. Sub-lethal doses of both DDT and lindane incorporated in prey caused P. cupreus females to produce smaller eggs. In a semi-field test it was demonstrated that Lindane reduced the beneficial capacity of P. cupreus. Climatic conditions at the time of the test however were such that the majority of test animals in control treatments escaped. Caution was therefore advised in the choice of test animal and test design for the semi-field test. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Evaluation of Pyrethrin Formulations on Dengue/Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Vectors in the Laboratory and Sublethal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sulaiman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In Southeast Asia, Aedes aegypti (L. has been incriminated as principal vector of dengue viruses and Ae. albopictus as the secondary vector of dengue fever. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of three for-mula¬tions of pyrethrin derived from Tanacetum cinerariaefolium against the dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the laboratory. The testings employed 2 methodologies: the WHO Larval Bioassay and WHO Adult Bioassay. The results showed that all the three pyrethrin formulations had larvicidal and adulticidal activi-ties. The impact of the sublethal doses of pyrethrin formulations on Aedes spp. larvae resulted in 4-6% of alive adult emergence compared to 90% of Ae. aegypti emerging adults and 96% Ae. albopictus alive adult emergence in the control. The impact of sublethal doses of the pyrethrin formulations caused very low fecundity on both Aedes spp. compared to the control (P< 0.05.

  12. Evaluation of Pyrethrin Formulations on Dengue/Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever Vectors in the Laboratory and Sublethal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sulaiman

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In Southeast Asia, Aedes aegypti (L. has been incriminated as principal vector of dengue viruses and Ae. albopictus as the secondary vector of dengue fever. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of three for-mula¬tions of pyrethrin derived from Tanacetum cinerariaefolium against the dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the laboratory. The testings employed 2 methodologies: the WHO Larval Bioassay and WHO Adult Bioassay. The results showed that all the three pyrethrin formulations had larvicidal and adulticidal activi-ties. The impact of the sublethal doses of pyrethrin formulations on Aedes spp. larvae resulted in 4-6% of alive adult emergence compared to 90% of Ae. aegypti emerging adults and 96% Ae. albopictus alive adult emergence in the control. The impact of sublethal doses of the pyrethrin formulations caused very low fecundity on both Aedes spp. compared to the control (P< 0.05.

  13. Laboratory Study of The Effect of Lemongrass Leaves Cymbopogon citratus on An Onion Thrips Insect Thrips tabaci (Thripidae: Thysanoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ather A. Mohsin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory study was carried out to test the effect of the extracts of ethanol, chloroform, volatile oil and emulsifier of Cymbopogon citratus in killing the adults of the thrips tabaci. The concentrations 250, 500 and 1000 ppm. The results showed that the highest percentage of killed in Volatile oil with a concentration of 1000 ppm at 60.00, 63.33, 66.66, 70 and 76.66% for the first, second, third, fifth and seventh days of control and the lowest percentage was for the emulsifier at 30.00, 36.66, 46.66, 53.33 and 63.33% for the first and second, third, fifth and seventh days of the control, respectively, and we noticed that the higher the concentrations, the higher the percentage of killings and the increase in the percentage of killings cumulatively, as it was the highest percentage of killing on the seventh day.

  14. Anomalous piezoelectric effects, found in the laboratory and reconstructed by numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Teisseyre

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Various rocks and minerals, which are not piezoelectric in the common sense, exhibit transient electric polarization in response to sudden changes in stress load. This anomalous piezoelectric effect differs from the regular, static piezoelectric response, in which electric charges appear as a result of crystal lattice deformation. The anomalous piezoelectricity is dynamic decaying in a few seconds or a few tens of seconds. However, in some materials different polarization properties are discovered. To explain certain aspects of the polarization signal increase and decay, some complicated mechanisms of electric charge generation and relaxation need to be assumed in their number ? concurrence of two or three relaxation processes. The hypothetical mechanisms are only mentioned, as the purpose of this work is to construct numerical models, behaving like the rocks investigated. Examples of experimental plots are shown together with the results of the numerical simulation of these experiments.

  15. Lack of effect of laboratory-provoked anxiety on plasma homovanillic acid concentration in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemishlany, Z; Davidson, M

    1996-08-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate if acute anxiety can affect plasma concentrations of homovanillic acid (pHVA). Since elevated pHVA levels have been associated with severity of schizophrenic symptoms, the results of this study will help determine if the pHVA elevations are directly related to psychosis or if anxiety is also a contributory factor. Anxiety was provoked in 10 young normal subjects by a combined paradigm of mental arithmetic task and threat of electrical shock. A significant increase in self-ratings of anxiety, blood pressure, and plasma levels of norepinephrine, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol and growth hormone indicated that the paradigm used was effective in provoking anxiety; however, anxiety did not affect pHVA concentrations. The results may support the notion that increased pHVA levels in severely ill schizophrenic patients are related to the schizophrenic pathophysiology rather than to anxiety.

  16. Laboratory Study of Topographic Effects on the Near-surface Tornado Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Alireza; Sarkar, Partha P.

    2018-03-01

    To study topographic effects on the near-surface tornado flow field, the Iowa State University tornado simulator was used to simulate a translating tornado passing over three different two-dimensional topographies: a ridge, an escarpment and a valley. The effect of the translation speed on maximum horizontal wind speeds is observed for translation speeds of 0.15 and 0.50 m s^{-1} , with the lower value resulting in a larger maximum horizontal wind speed. The tornado translation over the three topographies with respect to flat terrain is assessed for changes in: (a) the maximum horizontal wind speeds in terms of the flow-amplification factor; (b) the maximum aerodynamic drag in terms of the tornado speed-up ratio; (c) the maximum duration of exposure at any location to high wind speeds of a specific range in terms of the exposure amplification factor. Results show that both the maximum wind amplification factor of 14%, as well as the maximum speed-up ratio of 14%, occur on the ridge. For all topographies, the increase in aerodynamic drag is observed to be maximized for low-rise buildings, which illustrates the importance of the vertical profiles of the horizontal wind speed near the ground. The maximum exposure amplification factors, estimated for the range of wind speeds corresponding to the EF2 (50-60 m s^{-1} ) and EF3 (61-75 m s^{-1}) scales, are 86 and 110% for the ridge, 4 and 60% for the escarpment and - 6 and 47% for the valley, respectively.

  17. Effect of Non Submerged Vanes on Separation Zone at Strongly-curved Channel Bends, a Laboratory Scale Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Akhtari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Bends along open channels always pose difficulties for water transfer systems. One undesirable effect of bends in such channels, i.e. separation of water from inner banks, was studied. For the purposes of this study, the literature on the subject was first reviewed, and a strongly-curved open channel was designed and constructed on the laboratory scale. Several tests were performed to evaluate the accuracy of the lab model, data homogeneity, and systematic errors. The model was then calibrated and the influence of curvature on flow pattern past the curve was investigated. Also, for the first time, the influence of separation walls on flow pattern was investigated. Experimental results on three strongly-curved open channels with a curvature radius to channel width ratio of 1.5 and curvature angles of 30°, 60°, and 90° showed that, in all the cases studied, the effect of flow separation could be observed immediately after the curve. In addition, the greatest effect of flow separation was seen at a distance equal to channel width from the bend end. In the presence of middle walls and flow separation, the effect of water separation reduced at the bend, especially for a curvature of 90°.

  18. Sugar and Multivitamin Diet Effects on The Longevity and Mating Capacity of Laboratory-Reared Male Anopheline Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Pantuwatana, Kanchana; Tawong, Jaruwan; Khongtak, Weeraphan; Kertmanee, Yossasin; Monkanna, Nantaporn; Khaosanorh, Sakon; Wanja, Elizabeth W; Davidson, Silas A

    2017-09-01

    Successful mating by male mosquitoes is dependent on several factors, with sugar feeding being particularly important. The effect of ingested vitamins on adult male mosquitoes is poorly understood. This laboratory study used 3 anopheline species, Anopheles campestris, An. dirus, and An. sawadwongporni, to study the effect of sugar and vitamins on male longevity, copulation, and fecundity. Males were fed 1 of 5 diets containing different combinations of sugar and vitamins: 10% glucose, 10% sucrose, 10% multivitamin syrup, 10% multivitamin syrup + 10% glucose, and 10% multivitamin syrup + 10% sucrose. The longevity of males was measured for a period of 15 days. Forced mating was used to simulate copulation, and fecundity was measured by counting the number of eggs oviposited and the hatch rate of larvae. The longevity of An. campestris and An. dirus was greatest when fed a diet of 10% multivitamin syrup + 10% glucose, and the longevity of An. sawadwongporni was greatest when fed a diet of 10% multivitamin syrup + 10% sucrose. The 1st mating routinely produced the most viable eggs when males were mated with several females. The diet of 10% multivitamin syrup + 10% sucrose produced numerically greater egg production and larval emergence for all 3 species, although this was not always statistically significant due to variability and small sample size. These results indicate that the addition of multivitamin syrup to sucrose may produce healthier and more fit male anophelines. This has potential implications for increasing insectary operations and improving the fitness of laboratory-reared male mosquitoes that will be released for mosquito and disease-pathogen control studies.

  19. Circadian phase-shifting effects of a laboratory environment: a clinical trial with bright and dim light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Jeffrey A

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aims were to examine the influence of different bright light schedules on mood, sleep, and circadian organization in older adults (n = 60, ages 60–79 years with insomnia and/or depression, contrasting with responses of young, healthy controls (n = 30, ages 20–40 years. Methods Volunteers were assessed for one week in their home environments. Urine was collected over two 24-hour periods to establish baseline acrophase of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s excretion. Immediately following home recording, volunteers spent five nights and four days in the laboratory. Sleep periods were fixed at eight hours in darkness, consistent with the volunteers' usual sleep periods. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three light treatments (four hours per day within the wake period: (A two hours of 3,000 lux at 1–3 hours and 13–15 hours after arising; (B four hours of 3,000 lux at 6–10 hours after arising; (C four hours of dim placebo light at 6–10 hours after arising. Lighting was 50 lux during the remainder of wakefulness. The resulting aMT6s acrophase was determined during the final 30 hours in the laboratory. Results Neither mood nor total melatonin excretion differed significantly by treatment. For the three light treatments, significant and similar phase-response plots were found, indicating that the shift in aMT6s acrophase was dependent upon the circadian time of treatment. The changes in circadian timing were not significantly correlated to changes in sleep or mood. Conclusion The trial failed to demonstrate photoperiodic effects. The results suggest that even low levels of illumination and/or fixed timing of behavior had significant phase-shifting effects.

  20. Laboratory methods used for testing the effect of radiation sterilization and preservation procedures on bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziedzic-Goclawska, A.

    1999-01-01

    Sterilization of tissue allografts with ionizing radiation introduced in the mid of 1950s is more and more frequently used in tissue banking practice. The dose of 25 kGy is currently recommended and commonly used by many tissue banks in the world with the exception of the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw where the dose of 33 kGy + 10 % has been routinely used since 1963, and from 1997 the dose of 35 kGy + 10 % has been introduced. To study the effect of radiation-sterilization on bone allografts the interdisciplinary investigations have been undertaken and several techniques have been implemented in our tissue bank. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the amount, origin and stability of free radicals and other paramagnetic entities induced in radiation-sterilized bone allografts. This technique has been also utilized for quantitative evaluation of remodeling process of radiation-sterilized bone allografts and for estimation of the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation using bone tissue as a dosimeter. A model of heterotopically induced osteogenesis after transplantation of devitalized bone matrix into the muscle (described by Urist in 1965) is very useful in tissue banking practice. It allows one to determine the contribution the graft itself makes to osteogenesis. This model is routinely used in our tissue bank to evaluate the effect of various sterilization and preservation procedures on osteoinductive properties of bone allografts. The solubility in vitro of collagen - a carrier for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPS) and a major constituent of bone and the other connective tissue grafts, has been studied by measuring the amount of extracted neutral, acid and total soluble collagen from bone grafts preserved by different methods at irradiated at vanous experimental conditions. A positive correlation between collagen solubility in vitro and the rate of graft resorption in vivo has been observed. The high doses of

  1. The effective dose and pattern of soybean extract administration to regulate body weight of laboratory rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilinah Hidayat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar Belakang: Protein dalam kedelai, β conglycinin mempunyai efek menekan nafsu makan melalui stimulasi Kolesistokinin. Kolesistokinin adalah hormon yang dilepaskan di saluran pencernaan dipicu oleh asupan protein dan berefek menekan nafsu makan untuk jangka pendek. Detam 1 adalah jenis kedelai berkualitas tinggi berdasarkan dengan Menteri Pertanian Indonesia. Ekstrak protein kedelai Detam 1 oleh Deak metode mengandung kadar β conglycinin yang tinggi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak protein kedelai Detam 1 metode Deak dalam menurunkan asupan makanan, berat badan, dan kadar CCK plasma selama 14 dan 28 hari pada berbagai dosis dan pola pemberian pada tikus Wistar jantan. Metode: Terdapat sebelas kelompok perlakuan (n=3, kelompok dosis (5mg/1x//hari, 10mg/1x/hari, 20mg/1x/hari, (2,5mg/2x/hari, 5mg/2x/hari, 10mg/2x/hari dan (1,7mg/3x/hari, 3,4mg/3x/ hari, 6,7mg/3x/ hari, kelompok kontrol negatif (akuades dan kelompok positif kontrol (Sibutramine. asupan makanan (g, berat badan (g dan pengukuran tingkat Cholecystokinin plasma dengan metode ELISA (ng / ml. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persentase penurunan asupan makanan yang terbaik adalah: kelompok 3,4mg/3x/hari (p <0,05, penghambatan berat badan selama 14 hari: kelompok 10 mg/1x/hari, selama 28 hari: kelompok 1,7mg/3x/hari (p <0,05, peningkatan kadar Kolesistokinin plasma: kelompok 20 mg / 1 x / hari (p <0,05. Simpulan: Dosis dan pola pemberian terbaik untuk menghambat berat badan selama 14 hari adalah ekstrak 10 mg sekali sehari di pagi hari, selama 28 hari adalah 1,7 mg tiga kali sehari. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7:17-26 Kata kunci: Kedelai Detam 1 -dosis efektif - berat badan - kolesistokinin Abstract Background: Protein in soybean, β conglycinin is responsible for anti-obesity effects by suppressing appetite via stimulation of Cholecystokinin. Cholecystokinin is a hormone released in the digestive tract in response to

  2. A Laboratory Study of the Effects of Interbeds on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation in Shale Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiheng Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate how the characteristics of interbeds affect hydraulic fracture propagation in the continental shale formation, a series of 300 mm × 300 mm × 300 mm concrete blocks with varying interbeds, based on outcrop observation and core measurement of Chang 7-2 shale formation, were prepared to conduct the hydraulic fracturing experiments. The results reveal that the breakdown pressure increases with the rise of thickness and strength of interbeds under the same in-situ field stress and injection rate. In addition, for the model blocks with thick and high strength interbeds, the hydraulic fracture has difficulty crossing the interbeds and is prone to divert along the bedding faces, and the fracturing effectiveness is not good. However, for the model blocks with thin and low strength interbeds, more long branches are generated along the main fracture, which is beneficial to the formation of the fracture network. What is more, combining the macroscopic descriptions with microscopic observations, the blocks with thinner and lower strength interbeds tend to generate more micro-fractures, and the width of the fractures is relatively larger on the main fracture planes. Based on the experiments, it is indicated that the propagation of hydraulic fractures is strongly influenced by the characteristics of interbeds, and the results are instructive to the understanding and evaluation of the fracability in the continental shale formation.

  3. Laboratory studies on the effect of ozonation on THM formation in swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Cheema, Waqas Akram

    2015-01-01

    Water samples from indoor swimming pool were ozonated at different pH values to evaluate the effect of pH on decomposition of ozone in swimming pool water. Furthermore, drinking and pool water were repeatedly ozonated followed by chlorination to evaluate THM formation. Decomposition of ozone...... was not affected by pH in the range relevant to swimming pools (pH 6.8 – 7.8) and a half-life time at 10-12 min was obtained. Repeating the ozonation, the decomposition of ozone increased at the second dose of ozone added (t½,2=8 min) and then decreased again at the third and fourth dose of ozone (t½,3=17 min; t...... chlorine for drinking water as lower TTHM formation occurred than in non-ozonated samples. For pool water, a higher TTHM formation was observed in ozonated than non-ozonated pool water. Thus, it was observed that ozone reacts markedly different in swimming pool water from the known pattern in drinking...

  4. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Thomas; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects’ self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes. PMID:20395264

  5. Testing the effectiveness of 3D film for laboratory-based studies of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bride, Daniel L; Crowell, Sheila E; Baucom, Brian R; Kaufman, Erin A; O'Connor, Caitlin G; Skidmore, Chloe R; Yaptangco, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Research in psychology and affective neuroscience often relies on film as a standardized and reliable method for evoking emotion. However, clip validation is not undertaken regularly. This presents a challenge for research with adolescent and young adult samples who are exposed routinely to high-definition (HD) three-dimensional (3D) stimuli and may not respond to older, validated film clips. Studies with young people inform understanding of emotional development, dysregulated affect, and psychopathology, making it critical to assess whether technological advances improve the study of emotion. In the present study, we examine whether 3D film is more evocative than 2D using a tightly controlled within-subjects design. Participants (n  =  408) viewed clips during a concurrent psychophysiological assessment. Results indicate that both 2D and 3D technology are highly effective tools for emotion elicitation. However, 3D does not add incremental benefit over 2D, even when individual differences in anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and novelty seeking are considered.

  6. Testing the effectiveness of 3D film for laboratory-based studies of emotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Bride

    Full Text Available Research in psychology and affective neuroscience often relies on film as a standardized and reliable method for evoking emotion. However, clip validation is not undertaken regularly. This presents a challenge for research with adolescent and young adult samples who are exposed routinely to high-definition (HD three-dimensional (3D stimuli and may not respond to older, validated film clips. Studies with young people inform understanding of emotional development, dysregulated affect, and psychopathology, making it critical to assess whether technological advances improve the study of emotion. In the present study, we examine whether 3D film is more evocative than 2D using a tightly controlled within-subjects design. Participants (n  =  408 viewed clips during a concurrent psychophysiological assessment. Results indicate that both 2D and 3D technology are highly effective tools for emotion elicitation. However, 3D does not add incremental benefit over 2D, even when individual differences in anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and novelty seeking are considered.

  7. The effects of dissociation on information processing for analogue trauma and neutral stimuli: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Shira A; Beck, J Gayle

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of high and low levels of dissociation on information processing for analogue trauma and neutral stimuli. Fifty-four undergraduate females who reported high and low levels of trait dissociation were presented with two films, one depicting traumatic events, the other containing neutral material. Participants completed a divided attention task (yielding a proxy measure of attention), as well as explicit memory (free-recall) and implicit memory (word-stem completion) tasks for both films. Results indicated that the high DES group showed less attention and had poorer recall for the analogue trauma stimuli, relative to the neutral stimuli and the low DES group. These findings suggest that high levels of trait dissociation are associated with reductions in attention and memory for analogue trauma stimuli, relative to neutral stimuli and relative to low trait dissociation. Implications for the role of cognitive factors in the etiology of negative post-trauma responses are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Perinatal Lead Exposure on the Social Behaviour of Laboratory Mice Offspring at Adolescent Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbuTaweel Qasim M; Ajarem Jamaan S

    2008-01-01

    Lead ( Pb ) was given to Swiss-Webster female mice at the concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2% ( w/v ) , containing 550 and 1100 ppm of lead respectively, in their drinking water. Treatment started from day 1 of pregnancy until day 15 postnatally . Thereafter, the dams were switched to plain tap water. After the weaning period ( 21 days ), all male offspring were isolated (one animal per cage) for 14 days, and the isolated male offspring were subjected to 'Standard Opponenttest' at the age of 36 days . the results of this test showed a significant and dose-dependent increase in the non-social behaviour , whereas such results showed a significant decline in the social behaviour including naso-genital and naso-nasal contact, number of fights, rear, wall rear and displacement activities of the Pb exposed young adult male offspring. The present perinatal Pb effects in the male offspring are possibly via in utero exposure and/or via mother's milk. (author)

  9. Investigating the combined effects of heat and lighting on students reaction time in laboratory condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Mohebian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In many workplaces there is exposure to heat and light simultaneously. This study investigated the combined effect of heat and lighting on some cognitive performance, i.e. reaction time. Methodology: the present semi-experimental study was conducted 2015 on 33 healthy students (16 girls and 17 boys with a mean age of 22.1 in the thermal stress chamber. The reaction time parameter by the reaction time measurement device, after exposure to different heat surfaces (dry temperatures 22 °C and 37 °C and lighting surfaces (200, 500 and 1500 lux. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test in SPSS-20. Results: The results showed that the average simple, diagnostic, two-color selective, two-sound selective reaction times and reaction time error increased after combined exposure to heat and lighting and showed a significant difference (P<0.05. The maximum score of reaction time belong to temperature of 37 c° and lighting of 1500 lux, the minimum score of reaction time belong to temperature of 22 °c and lighting of 1500 lux.

  10. The neuroprotective effect of treatment with curcumin in acute spinal cord injury: laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Cho, Dae-Chul; Park, Seong-Hyun; Hwang, Jeong-Hyun; Sung, Joo-Kyung; Cho, Hee-Jung; Jeon, Younghoon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was investigating the effects of curcumin on the histological changes and functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) in a rat model. Following either sham operation or SCI, 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into three groups: sham group, curcumin-treated group, and vehicle-injected group. Locomotor function was assessed according to the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scale in rats who had received daily intraperitoneal injections of 200 mg/kg curcumin or an equivalent volume of vehicle for 7 days following SCI. The injured spinal cord was then examined histologically, including quantification of cavitation. BBB scores were significantly higher in rats receiving curcumin than receiving vehicle (P curcumin group as compared to the control group (P = 0.039). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly elevated in the curcumin group as compared to the vehicle group but was not significantly different from the sham group (P 0.05, respectively) at one and two weeks after SCI. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly elevated in the vehicle group as compared to the sham group (P curcumin group at 2 weeks after SCI when compared to the vehicle group (P = 0.004). The numbers of macrophage were significantly decreased in the curcumin group (P = 0.001). This study demonstrated that curcumin enhances early functional recovery after SCI by diminishing cavitation volume, anti-inflammatory reactions, and antioxidant activity.

  11. Assessing the photoprotective effects of red ochre on human skin by in vitro laboratory experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan F. Rifkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological indicators of cognitive complexity become increasingly prevalent during the African Middle Stone Age, with the habitual exploitation of red ochre widely viewed as a key feature of the emergence of modern human behaviour. Given that some of the uses of ochre remain ambiguous, we present the preliminary results of an ongoing study in which we explore the efficacy of red ochre as a photoprotective device or sunscreen. The capacity of ochre to inhibit the susceptibility of humans to the detrimental effects of ultraviolet radiation was confirmed through the in vitro calculation of the sun protection factor values of samples derived from the Kunene Region in Namibia and the Bokkeveld Group deposits, Western Cape Province, South Africa. Visible spectroscopy was employed to determine colourimetric parameters of samples and assess the correlation between ochre colour and sun protection factor. The possible role of ochre as a sunscreen agent for hominin populations, including modern humans, during the Middle Stone Age in Africa is explored. We conclude that the habitual use of red ochre as a photoprotective agent likely played a role in the ability of prehistoric humans to adapt to novel environmental circumstances.

  12. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, S.J.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-04-15

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes.

  13. The effectiveness and user perception of 3-dimensional digital human anatomy in an online undergraduate anatomy laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbelink, Amy Joanne

    2007-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of implementing desktop 3-dimensional (3D) stereo images of human anatomy into an undergraduate human anatomy distance laboratory. User perceptions of 2D and 3D images were gathered via questionnaire in order to determine ease of use and level of satisfaction associated with the 3D software in the online learning environment. Mayer's (2001, p. 184) principles of design were used to develop the study materials that consisted of PowerPoint presentations and AVI files accessed via Blackboard. The research design employed a mixed-methods approach. Volunteers each were administered a demographic survey and were then stratified into groups based upon pre-test scores. A total sample size of 62 pairs was available for combined data analysis. Quantitative research questions regarding the effectiveness of 2D versus the 3D treatment were analyzed using a doubly-multivariate repeated measures (Doubly-MANOVA) design. Paired test scores achieved by undergraduates on a laboratory practical of identification and spatial relationships of the bones and features of a human skull were used in the analysis. The questionnaire designed to gather user perceptions consisted of quantitative and qualitative questions. Response frequencies were analyzed for the two groups and common themes were noted. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in group means for the main effect of the treatment groups 2D and 3D and for the variables of identification and relationship with the 3D group outperforming the 2D group on both dependent variables. Effect sizes were determined to be small, 0.215 for the identification variable and 0.359 for the relationship variable. Overall, all students liked the convenience of using PowerPoint and AVI files online. The 3D group felt their PowerPoint was more realistic than did the 2D group and both groups appreciated the detailed labeling of the online images. One third of the

  14. The role of peer assisted learning to improve the effectivity of clinical skill laboratory learning in dental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Ardinansyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the clinical skill learning in dental education has begun in pre-clinic, known as Clinical Skill Laboratory (CSL which needs human resources, many and expensive tools and manikins, and enough times for practise. One of the method used in CSL in dental education is PeerAssisted Learning (PAL defined as “the development of knowledge and skill through active help and support among status equals or match companions”. This paper aims is to explain the role of PAL method to improve the effectivity of CSL learning in dental education in preclinical stage. Reviewing on the relevant literatures regarding peer assisted learning on the implementation of the clinical skill laboratory in dental education. The effectivity of CSL learning needs close supervision and individual feedback, so enough tutors is important through the process. This PAL method considered to be helpfull with the increasing numbers of dental students and the limitation of staff faculty. This method is found feasible, well accepted by peer-tutors and students, and can be as effective as conventional learning method. This is also useful for peer-teacher because they more intrinsically motivated, have higher conceptual learning scores, and perceive themselves to be more actively engaged with the environment than students who learn in order to be tested.  However, there are several limitation of this method. The contact time between students and medical doctors may decrease significantlyand it does not seem to be generally qualified to transfer such complex procedures.It also needs peer-teachers training and a detailed manual. Questions concerning the cost-effectiveness and profitability of student tutor-guided technical skills training may thus arise. But one institution that implemented this method states that the majority of their tutors decided to continue their teaching activity in the skills lab and that these experienced tutors, in addition to established faculty staff

  15. Effects of medical ozone upon healthy equine joints: Clinical and laboratorial aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia do Prado Vendruscolo

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify whether transient inflammatory reactions induced by intra-articular medicinal ozone administration affect joint components, by in vivo evaluation of inflammatory (prostaglandin E2, Substance P, Interleukin-6, Interleukine-1, Tumor Necrosis Factor, anti-inflammatory (Interleukin-10 and oxidative (superoxide dismutase activity and oxidative burst biomarkers and extracellular matrix degradation products (chondroitin sulphate and hyaluronic acid in synovial fluid.The effects of medicinal ozone were analyzed at two ozone concentrations (groups A and B, 20 and 40 μg/ml, respectively, using oxygen-injected joints as controls (group C; each group received ten treatments (15 ml gas per treatment. Physical evaluation, evaluation of lameness, ultrasonography, and synovial fluid analysis were performed.All joints presented mild and transient effusion throughout the study. Group B exhibited the highest lameness score on day 14 (P<0.05, detected by the lameness measurement system, probably because of the higher ozone concentration. All groups exhibited increased ultrasonography scores on day 14 (P < 0.05. Groups A and B exhibited increased proteins concentrations on day 21 (P<0.05. There was no change in hyaluronic acid concentration or the percentage of high-molecular weight hyaluronic acid throughout the experiment. Chondroitin sulfate concentrations decreased in group B, and did not change in group A and C, indicating that neither treatment provoked extracellular matrix catabolism. Cytokine and eicosanoid concentrations were not significantly changed.The ozonetherapy did not cause significant inflammation process or cartilage degradation, therefore, ozonetherapy is safe at both evaluated doses.

  16. Metabolic Effects of Prolonged Melatonin Administration and Short-Term Fasting in Laboratory Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bojková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of prolonged administration of the pineal hormone melatonin and short-term fasting on metabolic variables in male and female Wistar:Han rats. Melatonin (MEL, 4 μg/ml of tap water was administered daily since the 5th week of age. The control group drank tap water. Rats were fed a standard type of diet ad libitum and were kept in the light regimen L:D - 12:12 h. The experiment was terminated after 11 (variant B or 12 (variant A weeks of MEL administration. The animals were sacrificed by quick decapitation following overnight fasting (variant A or 48-h fasting (variant B. Selected organs and tissues were removed and weighed and selected metabolic variables in the serum and tissues were determined. MEL decreased body mass independent of food and water intake in both sexes. In males (variant A MEL increased the weight of the heart muscle, spleen and adrenals; it decreased the absolute weight of epididymal fat and increased serum corticosterone and phospholipids concentration in comparison with controls. In females, serum glucose decrease and liver triacylglycerols increase were found. After 48-h fasting (variant B liver, spleen and adrenal weight increase in MELdrinking females was found. In males MEL increased the thymus weight and decreased the epididymal fat weight. In both sexes MEL increased serum corticosterone and liver glycogen concentration; MEL increased serum glucose in males and serum cholesterol concentration in females. Changes in the evaluated variables were also related to fasting duration prior to decapitation. A 48-h fasting at the end of the prolonged MEL intake (variant B vs. A decreased the absolute liver weight in both sexes and the epididymal/periovarial fat weight, and increased thymus weight in males. In females it decreased the absolute heart muscle weight and increased the spleen weight. In males, 48-h fasting increased serum corticosterone and phospholipids concentration; it

  17. Reprioritization of failures in a system failure mode and effects analysis by decision making trial and evaluation laboratory technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyed-Hosseini, S.M.; Safaei, N.; Asgharpour, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper an effective methodology related to decision making field has been developed for reprioritization of failure modes in a system Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for corrective actions. The proposed methodology can cover some of inherently shortcomings of conventional Risk Priority Number (RPN) method and like. The current prioritization methods have two main deficiencies as: they have not considered indirect relations between components and are deficient for systems with many subsystems or components. The proposed method called Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) is an effective approach for analyzing relation between components of a system in respect to its type (direct/indirect) and severity. The main advantages of DEMATEL are involving indirect relations in analyze, allocating as possible as unique ranks to alternatives and clustering alternatives in large systems. The demonstrated results have shown that DEMATEL method can be an efficient, complementary and confident approach for reprioritization of failure modes in a FMEA. For verification of proposed methodology, two illustrative practical examples are solved and obtained outcomes are reported

  18. The effects of Vitamin C on sperm quality parameters in laboratory rats following long-term exposure to cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanian, Sheida; Farahbod, Farnoosh; Rafieian, Mahmoud; Ganji, Forouzan; Adib, Afshin

    2017-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide is a widely used medication and can cause oxidative stress. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Vitamin C on reproductive organs' weight and the quality of sperm parameters in laboratory rats. In this experimental study, 40 rats were randomly assigned into five groups of eight each. Distilled water (DW) group received only food and water, Group 2 was administered with drug solvent (DW) by gavage, Group 3 intraperitoneally administered with 1.6 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, Group 4 gavaged Vitamin C at 0.88 mg/kg, and Group 5 administered with effective doses of Vitamin C and cyclophosphamide by gavage with 1-h intervals. Sperm parameters of the samples were taken from distal epididymis and tissues were studied, and the data were analyzed by SPSS version 22. The lowest weight of testicles and epididymis was seen in cyclophosphamide-exposed rats and the highest weight of testicles and epididymis in Vitamin C-exposed rats ( P < 0.05). The highest motility, progression, viability, and count of sperm were seen in the Vitamin C-treated group and the lowest in the cyclophosphamide-exposed group. The highest proportion of sperm anomalies was seen in the cyclophosphamide-exposed group. Vitamin C, as an antioxidant, can be effective on some of the sperm parameters and can reduce cyclophosphamide-induced complications in animal model.

  19. The effects of Vitamin C on sperm quality parameters in laboratory rats following long-term exposure to cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Shabanian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide is a widely used medication and can cause oxidative stress. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Vitamin C on reproductive organs' weight and the quality of sperm parameters in laboratory rats. In this experimental study, 40 rats were randomly assigned into five groups of eight each. Distilled water (DW group received only food and water, Group 2 was administered with drug solvent (DW by gavage, Group 3 intraperitoneally administered with 1.6 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, Group 4 gavaged Vitamin C at 0.88 mg/kg, and Group 5 administered with effective doses of Vitamin C and cyclophosphamide by gavage with 1-h intervals. Sperm parameters of the samples were taken from distal epididymis and tissues were studied, and the data were analyzed by SPSS version 22. The lowest weight of testicles and epididymis was seen in cyclophosphamide-exposed rats and the highest weight of testicles and epididymis in Vitamin C-exposed rats (P < 0.05. The highest motility, progression, viability, and count of sperm were seen in the Vitamin C-treated group and the lowest in the cyclophosphamide-exposed group. The highest proportion of sperm anomalies was seen in the cyclophosphamide-exposed group. Vitamin C, as an antioxidant, can be effective on some of the sperm parameters and can reduce cyclophosphamide-induced complications in animal model.

  20. Laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry: effects of test conditions on the determination of herbicide and field sample toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Sascha B; van Beusekom, Sebastiaan A M; van der Geest, Harm G; Booij, Petra; de Zwart, Dick; Vethaak, A Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-05-01

    Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry, based on chlorophyll a fluorescence, is a frequently used technique in algal bioassays to assess toxicity of single compounds or complex field samples. Several test conditions can influence the test results, and because a standardized test protocol is currently lacking, linking the results of different studies is difficult. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to gain insight into the effects of test conditions of laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry on the outcome of toxicity tests. To this purpose, we described the results from several pilot studies on test development in which information is provided on the effects of the main test factors during the pretest phase, the test preparation, the exposure period, and the actual measurement. The experiments were focused on individual herbicides and complex field samples and included the effects of culturing conditions, cell density, solvent concentration, exposure time, and the presence of actinic light. Several of these test conditions were found to influence the outcome of the toxicity test, and the presented information provides important background information for the interpretation of toxicity results and describes which test conditions should be taken into account when using an algal bioassay with PAM fluorometry. Finally, the application of PAM fluorometry in algal toxicity testing is discussed. © 2014 SETAC.

  1. Isotope laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report from the Dutch Ministry of Health is an advisory document concerned with isotope laboratories in hospitals, in connection with the Dutch laws for hospitals. It discusses which hospitals should have isotope laboratories and concludes that as many hospitals as possible should have small laboratories so that emergency cases can be dealt with. It divides the Netherlands into regions and suggests which hospitals should have these facilities. The questions of how big each lab. is to be, what equipment each has, how each lab. is organised, what therapeutic and diagnostic work should be carried out by each, etc. are discussed. The answers are provided by reports from working groups for in vivo diagnostics, in vitro diagnostics, therapy, and safety and their results form the criteria for the licences of isotope labs. The results of a questionnaire for isotope labs. already in the Netherlands are presented, and their activities outlined. (C.F.)

  2. Cost effectiveness analysis of clinically driven versus routine laboratory monitoring of antiretroviral therapy in Uganda and Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonieta Medina Lara

    Full Text Available Despite funding constraints for treatment programmes in Africa, the costs and economic consequences of routine laboratory monitoring for efficacy and toxicity of antiretroviral therapy (ART have rarely been evaluated.Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted in the DART trial (ISRCTN13968779. Adults in Uganda/Zimbabwe starting ART were randomised to clinically-driven monitoring (CDM or laboratory and clinical monitoring (LCM; individual patient data on healthcare resource utilisation and outcomes were valued with primary economic costs and utilities. Total costs of first/second-line ART, routine 12-weekly CD4 and biochemistry/haematology tests, additional diagnostic investigations, clinic visits, concomitant medications and hospitalisations were considered from the public healthcare sector perspective. A Markov model was used to extrapolate costs and benefits 20 years beyond the trial.3316 (1660LCM;1656CDM symptomatic, immunosuppressed ART-naive adults (median (IQR age 37 (32,42; CD4 86 (31,139 cells/mm(3 were followed for median 4.9 years. LCM had a mean 0.112 year (41 days survival benefit at an additional mean cost of $765 [95%CI:685,845], translating into an adjusted incremental cost of $7386 [3277,dominated] per life-year gained and $7793 [4442,39179] per quality-adjusted life year gained. Routine toxicity tests were prominent cost-drivers and had no benefit. With 12-weekly CD4 monitoring from year 2 on ART, low-cost second-line ART, but without toxicity monitoring, CD4 test costs need to fall below $3.78 to become cost-effective (<3xper-capita GDP, following WHO benchmarks. CD4 monitoring at current costs as undertaken in DART was not cost-effective in the long-term.There is no rationale for routine toxicity monitoring, which did not affect outcomes and was costly. Even though beneficial, there is little justification for routine 12-weekly CD4 monitoring of ART at current test costs in low-income African countries. CD4 monitoring

  3. Kingsbury Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the work of the Kingsbury Laboratories of Fairey Engineering Company, for the nuclear industry. The services provided include: monitoring of nuclear graphite machining, specialist welding, non-destructive testing, and metallurgy testing; and all are briefly described. (U.K.)

  4. The effect of the herbicide glyphosate on non-target spiders: Part I. Direct effects on Lepthyphantes tenuis under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, A J; Bell, J R; Wilcox, A; Boatman, N D

    2001-11-01

    We examined the toxic effects of glyphosate to adult female Lepthyphantes tenuis (Araneae, Linyphiidae), a common spider of agricultural habitats. The overspray technique was used to investigate the effect of the herbicide on forty individuals in each of six glyphosate treatments (2160, 1440, 1080, 720, 360 and 180 g ha-1) and a distilled water control. Spiders collected from the wild were individually placed in exposure chambers and checked every 24 h over a 72-h experimental period. Mortality of L tenuis remained at less than 10% in all treatments at 24 and 48 h after spray application, and only increased marginally (to 13%) after 72 h. These results support other limited data which suggest that glyphosate is 'harmless' to non-target arthropods. More extended laboratory testing to investigate any side-effects of glyphosate on the life history of L tenuis and other non-beneficial invertebrates is required.

  5. The Effect of Laboratory Training Model of Teaching and Traditional Method on Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Skills-Components of Achievement, Total Achievement and Retention Level in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badeleh, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at finding the effectiveness of the Laboratory Training Model of Teaching (LTM) and comparing it with the traditional methods of teaching chemistry to seventh standard students. It strived to determine whether the (LTM) method in chemistry would be significantly more effective than the Traditional method in respect to the…

  6. The effect of aeration on the removal of wastewater-derived pharmaceutical residues from groundwater - a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Victoria; Duennbier, Uwe; Massmann, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    Several studies on waste- or drinking water treatment processes as well as on groundwater have recently shown that some pharmaceutical residues (PRs) are redox-sensitive. Hence, their (bio)degradation depends on the redox conditions prevalent in the aquifer. Groundwater, providing raw water for drinking water production, is often anoxic and aeration is a widespread treatment method applied mainly to eliminate unwanted iron and manganese from the water. As a side-effect, aeration may trigger the elimination of PRs. Within the present study the influence of aeration on the fate of a number of wastewater derived analgesics and their residues as well as several antimicrobial compounds was investigated. For this purpose, anoxic groundwater was transferred into stainless steel tanks, some of which were aerated while others were continuously kept anoxic. Results prove that the degradation of six phenazone type compounds is dependent on oxygen availability and compounds are efficiently removed under oxic conditions only. Concerning the antimicrobials, doxycycline and trimethoprim were better removed during aeration, whereas a slightly improved removal under anoxic conditions was observed for clindamycin, roxithromycin and clarithromycin. The study provides first laboratory proof of the redox-sensitivity of several organic trace pollutants. In addition, results demonstrate that aeration is an effective treatment for the elimination of a number of wastewater derived PRs.

  7. Effects of divided attention and operating room noise on perception of pulse oximeter pitch changes: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Schlesinger, Joseph J; Wallace, Mark T

    2013-02-01

    Anesthesiology requires performing visually oriented procedures while monitoring auditory information about a patient's vital signs. A concern in operating room environments is the amount of competing information and the effects that divided attention has on patient monitoring, such as detecting auditory changes in arterial oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry. The authors measured the impact of visual attentional load and auditory background noise on the ability of anesthesia residents to monitor the pulse oximeter auditory display in a laboratory setting. Accuracies and response times were recorded reflecting anesthesiologists' abilities to detect changes in oxygen saturation across three levels of visual attention in quiet and with noise. Results show that visual attentional load substantially affects the ability to detect changes in oxygen saturation concentrations conveyed by auditory cues signaling 99 and 98% saturation. These effects are compounded by auditory noise, up to a 17% decline in performance. These deficits are seen in the ability to accurately detect a change in oxygen saturation and in speed of response. Most anesthesia accidents are initiated by small errors that cascade into serious events. Lack of monitor vigilance and inattention are two of the more commonly cited factors. Reducing such errors is thus a priority for improving patient safety. Specifically, efforts to reduce distractors and decrease background noise should be considered during induction and emergence, periods of especially high risk, when anesthesiologists has to attend to many tasks and are thus susceptible to error.

  8. Tributyltin bioaccumulation and toxic effects in freshwater gastropods Pomacea canaliculata after a chronic exposure: field and laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María L; Piol, María N; Sbarbati Nudelman, Norma; Verrengia Guerrero, Noemí R

    2017-07-01

    Freshwater samples and gastropod mollusks (Pomacea canaliculata) were collected at 5 sampling stations located along the lower Río de la Plata basin, Argentina, to assess the extent of tributyltin (TBT) contamination. Determined data revealed the presence of TBT and some of its breakdown products (dibutyltin: DBT, and monobutyltin: MBT) in all freshwater samples and also in soft tissues of P. canaliculata gastropods. Chronic bioassays (6 months) were performed using female gastropods that had been reared under laboratory conditions and exposed to a similar TBT concentration than the value determined in freshwater samples (1 µg L -1 ). The aims of this study were to evaluate the extent of TBT accumulation, the tissue distribution, and the effects on selected biomarkers (activity of superoxide dismutasa: SOD, activity of catalase: CAT, levels of total glutathione: t-GSH, lipid peroxidation, and activity of acetylcholinesterase: AChE). Gonads presented the highest accumulation, followed by the cephalopedal region, albumin gland, and finally hepatopancreas. Both metabolites, DBT and MBT, were also found. All exposed female animals presented development of a penis reflecting the potential of TBT as an endocrine disrupting chemical for this gastropod species. Results on the selected biomarkers confirmed additional adverse effects induced by TBT. An increase in CAT activity and changes in t-GSH levels are indicative of alterations on the cellular redox status. The inhibition of AChE could reflect signs of neurotoxicity. Altogether, these results reveal a negative impact on the health of this gastropod population.

  9. Effect of extracts of plants with insecticidal activity on the control of Microtheca ochroloma Stal (Col: Chrysomelidae in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Grendene Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of plants with insecticidal activity were tested on the control of Microtheca ochroloma (Col.: Chrysomelidae, an important insect-pest of Brassicaceae, in the larval and adult phases. Two 3-day-old larvae, kept under laboratory conditions (25ºC temperature, 70% relative humidity and 14 hours of photophase, were placed in a glass tube with a leaf of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis previously treated with aqueous extracts (10% p/v of chinaberry leaf (Melia azedarach, chinaberry branch, and tobacco powder (Nicotiana tabacum. The same procedure was repeated in two assays with adult insects. In the first assay, all the previously-mentioned extracts were used, in addition to DalNeem (commercial product of Azadirachta indica. In the second, the insects were exposed to extracts of tabasco pepper fruits (Capsicum frutescens, Surinam cherry (Eugenia unifl ora, jambolan (Syzygium cuminii and eucalyptus leaves (Eucalyptus sp.. All the tests consisted of 10 insects per treatment, with five repetitions in the first test using adult insects and six repetitions in the others. Observations were made daily up to the fifth day, aiming to evaluate the mortality of the insects. All the tested extracts resulted in an effective control of the larvae of M. ochroloma. In relation to the adult insects, only the extracts of tobacco powder and DalNeem showed effective control.

  10. The Effects of Inhaled Pimpinella peregrina Essential Oil on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment, Anxiety, and Depression in Laboratory Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Emel; Hritcu, Lucian; Dogan, Gulden; Hayta, Sukru; Bagci, Eyup

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, we identified the effects of inhaled Pimpinella peregrina essential oil (1 and 3 %, for 21 continuous days) on scopolamine-induced memory impairment, anxiety, and depression in laboratory rats. Y-maze and radial arm-maze tests were used for assessing memory processes. Also, the anxiety and depressive responses were studied by means of the elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests. The scopolamine alone-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease of the spontaneous alternation percentage in Y-maze test, increase of the number of working and reference memory errors in radial arm-maze test, along with decrease of the exploratory activity, the percentage of the time spent and the number of entries in the open arm within elevated plus-maze test and decrease of swimming time and increase of immobility time within forced swimming test. Inhalation of the P. peregrina essential oil significantly improved memory formation and exhibited anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in scopolamine-treated rats. Our results suggest that the P. peregrina essential oil inhalation ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment, anxiety, and depression. Moreover, studies on the P. peregrina essential oil may open a new therapeutic window for the prevention of neurological abnormalities closely related to Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Separation of the long-term thermal effects from the strain measurements in the Geodynamics Laboratory of Lanzarote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venedikov, A. P.; Arnoso, J.; Cai, W.; Vieira, R.; Tan, S.; Velez, E. J.

    2006-01-01

    A 12-year series (1992-2004) of strain measurements recorded in the Geodynamics Laboratory of Lanzarote is investigated. Through a tidal analysis the non-tidal component of the data is separated in order to use it for studying signals, useful for monitoring of the volcanic activity on the island. This component contains various perturbations of meteorological and oceanic origin, which should be eliminated in order to make the useful signals discernible. The paper is devoted to the estimation and elimination of the effect of the air temperature inside the station, which strongly dominates the strainmeter data. For solving this task, a regression model is applied, which includes a linear relation with the temperature and time-dependant polynomials. The regression includes nonlinearly a set of parameters, which are estimated by a properly applied Bayesian approach. The results obtained are: the regression coefficient of the strain data on temperature is equal to (-367.4 ± 0.8) × 10 -9 °C -1, the curve of the non-tidal component reduced by the effect of the temperature and a polynomial approximation of the reduced curve. The technique used here can be helpful to investigators in the domain of the earthquake and volcano monitoring. However, the fundamental and extremely difficult problem of what kind of signals in the reduced curves might be useful in this field is not considered here.

  12. Effects of divided attention and operating room noise on perception of pulse oximeter pitch changes: A laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Fellow, Postdoctoral; Schlesinger, Joseph J.; Physician, Resident; Wallace, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Anesthesiology requires performing visually-oriented procedures while monitoring auditory information about a patient’s vital signs. A concern in operating rooms environments is the amount of competing information and the effects that divided attention have on patient monitoring, such as detecting auditory changes in arterial oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry. Methods We measured the impact of visual attentional load and auditory background noise on the ability of anesthesia residents to monitor the pulse oximeter auditory display in a laboratory setting. Accuracies and response times were recorded reflecting anesthesiologists’ abilities to detect changes in oxygen saturation across three levels of visual attention in quiet and with noise. Results Results show that visual attentional load substantially impacts the ability to detect changes in oxygen saturation levels conveyed by auditory cues signaling 99 and 98% saturation. These effects are compounded by auditory noise, with up to a 17% decline in performance. These deficits are seen in the ability to accurately detect a change in oxygen saturation and in speed of response. Conclusions Most anesthesia accidents are initiated by small errors that cascade into serious events. Lack of monitor vigilance and inattention are two of the more commonly cited factors. Reducing such errors is thus a priority for improving patient safety. Specifically, efforts to reduce distractors and lower background noise should be considered during induction and emergence, periods of especially high risk, when anesthesiologists must attend to many tasks and are thus susceptible to error. PMID:23263015

  13. Missile Electro-Optical Countermeasures Simulation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory comprises several hardware-in-the-loop missile flight simulations designed specifically to evaluate the effectiveness of electro-optical air defense...

  14. Laboratory toxicity and benthic invertebrate field colonization of Upper Columbia River sediments: finding adverse effects using multiple lines of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J F; Kemble, N E; Allert, A L; Brumbaugh, W G; Ingersoll, C G; Dowling, B; Gruenenfelder, C; Roland, J L

    2012-07-01

    From 1930 to 1995, the Upper Columbia River (UCR) of northeast Washington State received approximately 12 million metric tons of smelter slag and associated effluents from a large smelter facility located in Trail, British Columbia, approximately 10 km north of the United States-Canadian border. Studies conducted during the past two decades have demonstrated the presence of toxic concentrations of heavy metals in slag-based sandy sediments, including cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead in the UCR area as well as the downstream reservoir portion of Lake Roosevelt. We conducted standardized whole-sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-day) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-day) on 11 samples, including both UCR and study-specific reference sediments. Metal concentrations in sediments were modeled for potential toxicity using three approaches: (1) probable effects quotients (PEQs) based on total recoverable metals (TRMs) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEMs); (2) SEMs corrected for acid-volatile sulfides (AVS; i.e., ∑SEM - AVS); and (3) ∑SEM - AVS normalized to the fractional organic carbon (f(oc)) (i.e., ∑SEM - AVS/f(oc)). The most highly metal-contaminated sample (∑PEQ(TRM) = 132; ∑PEQ(SEM) = 54; ∑SEM - AVS = 323; and ∑SEM - AVS/(foc) = 64,600 umol/g) from the UCR was dominated by weathered slag sediment particles and resulted in 80% mortality and 94% decrease in biomass of amphipods; in addition, this sample significantly decreased growth of midge by 10%. The traditional ∑AVS - SEM, uncorrected for organic carbon, was the most accurate approach for estimating the effects of metals in the UCR. Treatment of the toxic slag sediment with 20% Resinex SIR-300 metal-chelating resin significantly decreased the toxicity of the sample. Samples ∑SEM - AVS > 244 was not toxic to amphipods or midge in laboratory testing, indicating that this value may be an approximate threshold for effects in the UCR. In situ benthic invertebrate

  15. Effect of temperature and salinity on stable isotopic composition of shallow water benthic foraminifera: A laboratory culture study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kurtarkar, S.R.; Linshy, V.N.; Saraswat, R.; Nigam, R.

    in the laboratory. In the present work, shallow water benthic foraminiferal species, Rosalina sp. and Pararotalia nipponica were subjected to different combinations of seawater temperature (25�C to 35�C) and salinity (25 psu to 37 psu) in the laboratory to assess...

  16. [Experience of the development special medical technical laboratory for studies of effects caused by potent electromagnetic radiation in biologic objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodetsky, B N; Kalyada, T V; Petrov, S V

    2015-01-01

    This article covers topics of creating special medical technical laboratory for medial and biologic studies concerning influence of potent high-frequency elecromagnetic radiation on various biologic objects. The authors gave example of such laboratory, described its construction features, purpose and main characteristics of the included devices.

  17. Effects of the pyrethroid insecticide gamma-cyhalothrin on aquatic invertebrates in laboratory and outdoor microcosm tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Barber, I.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The sensitivity of a range of freshwater lentic invertebrates to gamma-cyhalothrin (GCH), a single enantiomer of the synthetic pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin, was assessed in single species laboratory tests and an outdoor multi-species ecosystem test. The most sensitive species in the laboratory

  18. The Effects of Using Jigsaw Method Based on Cooperative Learning Model in the Undergraduate Science Laboratory Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacop, Ataman

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to determine the influence of a Jigsaw method based on cooperative learning and a confirmatory laboratory method on prospective science teachers' achievements of physics in science teaching laboratory practice courses. The sample of this study consisted of 33 female and 15 male third-grade prospective science…

  19. Teaching communication skills to hospice teams: comparing the effectiveness of a communication skills laboratory with in-person, second life, and phone role-playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Gillian; Ortega, Rosio; Hochstetler, Vicki; Pierson, Kristen; Lin, Peiyi; Lowes, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Communication skills are critical in hospice care but challenging to teach. Therefore, a hospice agency developed a communication skills laboratory for nurses and social workers. Learners role-played 3 common hospice scenarios. The role-play modalities were in-person, Second Life, and telephone. Learners were scored on 4 communication aspects. Learners in all modalities rated the laboratory as very effective. However, learners in the Second Life and phone modality showed greater improvements from scene 1 to 3 than those in the in-person modality. There were no significant differences in improvement between the Second Life and phone modalities. Results support the effectiveness of this communication skills laboratory while using different teaching modalities and show phone and Second Life role-plays were more effective than an in-person role-play. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Effects of abamectin and deltamethrin to the foragers honeybee workers of Apis mellifera jemenatica (Hymenoptera: Apidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal Musleh Aljedani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of some insecticides (abamectin and deltamethrin on the lethal time (LT50 and midgut of foragers honeybee workers of Apis mellifera jemenatica were studied under laboratory conditions. The bees were provided with water, food, natural protein and sugar solution with insecticide (concentration: 2.50 ppm deltamethrin and 0.1 ppm abamectin. The control group was not treated with any kind of insecticides. The mortality was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hour (h after insecticides treatment and period to calculate the value of lethal time (LT50. But the samples the histology study of midgut collected after 24 h were conducted by Scanning Electron Microscope. The results showed the effects of insecticides on the current results show that abamectin has an adverse effect on honeybees, there is a clear impact on the lethal time (LT50 was the abamectin faster in the death of honeybee workers compared to deltamethrin. Where have reached to abamectin (LT50 = 21.026 h, deltamethrin (LT50 = 72.011 h. However, abamectin also effects on cytotoxic midgut cells that may cause digestive disorders in the midgut, epithelial tissue is formed during morphological alterations when digestive cells die. The extends into the internal cavity, and at the top, there is epithelial cell striated border that has many holes and curves, abamectin seems to have crushed the layers of muscle. Through the current results can say abamectin most toxicity on honeybees colony health and vitality, especially foragers honeybee workers.

  1. VALIDATION OF NUCLEAR MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTABILITY (MC and A) SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS TOOL (MSET) AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY (INL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meppen, Bruce; Haga, Roger; Moedl, Kelley; Bean, Tom; Sanders, Jeff; Thom, Mary Alice

    2008-01-01

    A Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) Functional Model has been developed to describe MC and A systems at facilities possessing Category I or II Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Emphasis is on achieving the objectives of 144 'Fundamental Elements' in key areas ranging from categorization of nuclear material to establishment of Material Balance Areas (MBAs), controlling access, performing quality measurements of inventories and transfers, timely reporting all activities, and detecting and investigating anomalies. An MC and A System Effectiveness Tool (MSET), including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technology for evaluating MC and A effectiveness and relative risk, has been developed to accompany the Functional Model. The functional model and MSET were introduced at the 48th annual International Nuclear Material Management (INMM) annual meeting in July, 20071,2. A survey/questionnaire is used to accumulate comprehensive data regarding the MC and A elements at a facility. Data is converted from the questionnaire to numerical values using the DELPHI method and exercises are conducted to evaluate the overall effectiveness of an MC and A system. In 2007 a peer review was conducted and a questionnaire was completed for a hypothetical facility and exercises were conducted. In the first quarter of 2008, a questionnaire was completed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and MSET exercises were conducted. The experience gained from conducting the MSET exercises at INL helped evaluate the completeness and consistency of the MC and A Functional Model, descriptions of fundamental elements of the MC and A Functional Model, relationship between the MC and A Functional Model and the MC and A PRA tool and usefulness of the MSET questionnaire data collection process

  2. Quantifying the VNIR Effects of Nanophase Iron Generated through the Space Weathering of Silicates: Reconciling Modeled Data with Laboratory Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legett, C., IV; Glotch, T. D.; Lucey, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    Space weathering is a diverse set of processes that occur on the surfaces of airless bodies due to exposure to the space environment. One of the effects of space weathering is the generation of nanophase iron particles in glassy rims on mineral grains due to sputtering of iron-bearing minerals. These particles have a size-dependent effect on visible and near infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with smaller diameter particles (behavior), while larger particles (> 300 nm) darken without reddening. Between these two sizes, a gradual shift between these two behaviors occurs. In this work, we present results from the Multiple Sphere T-Matrix (MSTM) scattering model in combination with Hapke theory to explore the particle size and iron content parameter spaces with respect to VNIR (700-1700 nm) spectral slope. Previous work has shown that the MSTM-Hapke hybrid model offers improvements over Mie-Hapke models. Virtual particles are constructed out of an arbitrary number of spheres, and each sphere is assigned a refractive index and extinction coefficient for each wavelength of interest. The model then directly solves Maxwell's Equations at every wave-particle interface to predict the scattering, extinction and absorption efficiencies. These are then put into a simplified Hapke bidirectional reflectance model that yields a predicted reflectance. Preliminary results show an area of maximum slopes for iron particle diameters planned to better refine the extent of this region. Companion laboratory work using mixtures of powdered aerogel and nanophase iron particles provides a point of comparison to modeling efforts. The effects on reflectance and emissivity values due to particle size in a nearly ideal scatterer (aerogel) are also observed with comparisons to model data.

  3. The effectiveness of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory confirmed influenza hospitalisations in Auckland, New Zealand in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nikki; Pierse, Nevil; Bissielo, Ange; Huang, Q Sue; Baker, Michael; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kelly, Heath

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies report the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in preventing hospitalisation for influenza-confirmed respiratory infections. Using a prospective surveillance platform, this study reports the first such estimate from a well-defined ethnically diverse population in New Zealand (NZ). Methods A case test-negative study was used to estimate propensity adjusted vaccine effectiveness. Patients with a severe acute respiratory infection (SARI), defined as a patient of any age requiring hospitalization with a history of a fever or a measured temperature ≥38°C and cough and onset within the past 7 days, admitted to public hospitals in Central, South and East Auckland were eligible for inclusion in the study. Cases were SARI patients who tested positive for influenza, while non-cases (controls) were SARI patients who tested negative. Results were adjusted for the propensity to be vaccinated and the timing of the influenza season Results The propensity and season adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated as 37% (95% CI 18;51). The VE point estimate against influenza A (H1N1) was higher than for influenza B or influenza A (H3N2) but confidence intervals were wide and overlapping. Estimated VE was 51% (95% CI 28;67) in patients aged 18-64 years but only 6% (95% CI -51;42) in those aged 65 years and above. Conclusion Prospective surveillance for SARI has been successfully established in NZ . This study for the first year, the 2012 influenza season, has shown low to moderate protection by TIV against hospitalisation for laboratory-confirmed influenza. PMID:24768730

  4. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  5. Laboratory investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handin, J.

    1980-01-01

    Our task is to design mined-repository systems that will adequately secure high-level nuclear waste for at least 10,000 yr and that will be mechanically stable for 50 to 100-yr periods of retrievability during which mistakes could be corrected and a valuable source of energy could be reclaimed, should national policy on the reprocessing of spent fuel ever change. The only credible path for the escape of radionuclides from the repository to the biosphere is through ground-water, and in hard rock, bulk permeability is largely governed by natural and artificial fracture systems. Catastrophic failure of an excavation in hard rock is likely to occur at the weakest links - the discontinuities in the rock mass that is perturbed first by mining and then by radiogenic heating. The laboratory can contribute precise measurements of the pertinent thermomechanical, hydrological and chemical properties and improve our understanding of the fundamental processes through careful experiments under well controlled conditions that simulate the prototype environment. Thus laboratory investigations are necessary, but they are not sufficient, for conventional sample sizes are small relative to natural defects like joints - i.e., the rock mass is not a continuum - and test durations are short compared to those that predictive modeling must take into account. Laboratory investigators can contribute substantially more useful data if they are provided facilities for testing large specimens(say one cubic meter) and for creep testing of all candidate host rocks. Even so, extrapolations of laboratory data to the field in neither space nor time are valid without the firm theoretical foundations yet to be built. Meanwhile in-situ measurements of structure-sensitive physical properties and access to direct observations of rock-mass character will be absolutely necessary

  6. Culham Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The report contains summaries of work carried out under the following headings: fusion research experiments; U.K. contribution to the JET project; supporting studies; theoretical plasma physics, computational physics and computing; fusion reactor studies; engineering and technology; contract research; external relations; staff, finance and services. Appendices cover main characteristics of Culham fusion experiments, staff, extra-mural projects supported by Culham Laboratory, and a list of papers written by Culham staff. (U.K.)

  7. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  8. Underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettini, A., E-mail: Bettini@pd.infn.i [Padua University and INFN Section, Dipartimento di Fisca G. Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Plaza Ayuntamiento n1 2piso, Canfranc (Huesca) (Spain)

    2011-01-21

    Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to frontier experiments in particle and nuclear astrophysics and other disciplines, geology and biology, that can profit of their unique characteristics. The cosmic silence allows to explore the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators by searching for extremely rare phenomena. I will briefly review the facilities that are operational or in an advanced status of approval around the world.

  9. Effects of endocrine disruptors on prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the laboratory. Part III: Cyproterone acetate and vinclozolin as antiandrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, M; Schulte-Oehlmann, U; Duft, M; Markert, B; Oehlmann, J

    2001-12-01

    The effects of suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals on freshwater and marine prosobranch species were analysed in laboratory experiments. In this last of three publications, the responses of the fresh water snail Marisa cornuarietis and of two marine prosobranchs (Nucella lapillus, Nassarius (Hinia) reticulatus) to the antiandrogenic model compounds cyproterone acetate (CPA) and vinclozolin (VZ) are presented. The snails were exposed to nominal CPA concentrations of 1.25 mg/L alone and simultaneously to a potent synthetic estrogen (ethinylestradiol), androgen (methyltestosterone) or an indirectly acting xeno-androgen (tributyltin) in experiments with adult specimens and in a life cycle test for 12 months. Marisa and Nucella were furthermore exposed to nominal concentrations of 0.03-1.0 microgram VZ/L for up to 5 months. The antiandrogens induced a number of biological responses in all three species. The length of the penis and of accessory male sex organs (e.g., penis sheath, prostate) were significantly reduced. For Marisa, this effect occurred only in sexually immature specimens and was reversible as the males attained puberty. Typical androgen-mediated responses (imposex development, delayed spermatogenesis, tubulus necrosis of the testis with orchitis and Leydig cell hyperplasia) were partially or totally suppressed by a simultaneous administration of CPA. In the two marine species even adult, sexually mature males responded to antiandrogens with a reduction of the male sex organs and an advancement of the sexual repose phase. The results for CPA and VZ are compared with the effects of an exposure to xeno-estrogens (bisphenol A, octylphenol) and xeno-androgens (triphenyltin, tributyltin) in the same species. Each group of endocrine disruptors induces a characteristic set of toxicological effects in prosobranch snails which can be used as endpoints in an organismic invertebrate test for the identification of endocrine mimetic test compounds. Estrogens cause

  10. The Microscale Inorganic Laboratory: Safety, Economy and Versatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafran, Zvi; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are four major advantages to the use of microscale laboratories for teaching chemistry. Included are effects on waste generation, laboratory safety, reagent variety, and laboratory efficiency. (CW)

  11. Experimental study of the Hall effect and electron diffusion region during magnetic reconnection in a laboratory plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yang; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji Hantao; Dorfman, Seth; Gerhardt, Stefan P.; Kulsrud, Russel

    2008-01-01

    The Hall effect during magnetic reconnection without an external guide field has been extensively studied in the laboratory plasma of the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment [M. Yamada et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)] by measuring its key signature, an out-of-plane quadrupole magnetic field, with magnetic probe arrays whose spatial resolution is on the order of the electron skin depth. The in-plane electron flow is deduced from out-of-plane magnetic field measurements. The measured in-plane electron flow and numerical results are in good agreement. The electron diffusion region is identified by measuring the electron outflow channel. The width of the electron diffusion region scales with the electron skin depth (∼5.5-7.5c/ω pe ) and the peak electron outflow velocity scales with the electron Alfven velocity (∼0.12-0.16V eA ), independent of ion mass. The measured width of the electron diffusion region is much wider and the observed electron outflow is much slower than those obtained in 2D numerical simulations. It is found that the classical and anomalous dissipation present in the experiment can broaden the electron diffusion region and slow the electron outflow. As a consequence, the electron outflow flux remains consistent with numerical simulations. The ions, as measured by a Mach probe, have a much wider outflow channel than the electrons, and their outflow is much slower than the electron outflow everywhere in the electron diffusion region

  12. Effect of genotype of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) on attractiveness to the mirid Sahlbergella singularis (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibog, Luc; Babin, Régis; Mbang, Joseph Amang A; Decazy, Bernard; Nyassé, Salomon; Cilas, Christian; Eskes, Albertus B

    2008-09-01

    Mirids are a major constraint to cocoa growing in Africa. Cocoa breeding for tolerance/resistance could be effective in an integrated pest management system. Attractiveness is one aspect of tolerance/resistance, and decreasing the attractiveness of cocoa trees should be a good way of reducing damage. Small-scale laboratory tests were carried out in Cameroon to assess differences in the attractiveness to mirids of eleven cocoa genotypes. The genotypes were ranked according to their attractiveness score and a distance from a mean value. An analysis of variance was performed and revealed significant differences between cocoa genotypes (F=3.15, Pcocoa genotype groupings revealed three major categories, with BE10 and SNK413 proving to be the most attractive. In contrast, five genotypes, IMC60, the Catongo Trinitario genotypes, Playa Alta2 (from Venezuela), SIC5 and SNK614, proved to be less attractive than the mean. Four genotypes (PA107, SNK619, UPA134 and T60/887) displayed similar attractiveness to the mean. The circular microtest offered the advantage of not needing a reference cocoa genotype. The least attractive clones, such as IMC60, were also the most tolerant in the field. Comparisons with the results of other studies are proposed.

  13. Effectiveness of oxytetracycline in reducing the bacterial load in rohu fish (Labeo rohita, Hamilton under laboratory culture condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ariful Haque

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effectiveness of most widely used antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC in reducing the bacterial load in rohu fish under artificial culture condition in the laboratory. Methods: The experiment was conducted in the Faculty Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. The fish were reared in 8 aquaria where fish in 5 aquaria were used for replication of the treatment (experimental group and fish in remaining 3 aquaria were considered as a control (Control group. OTC was fed to the fish in the experimental aquarium at the rate of 2 g/kg through diet twice daily whereas fish reared under control condition was given feed without antibiotic for 20 d and bacterial content in the aquarium water, gills, skin and intestine of fish were estimated at every alternative day after onset of the experiment. Results: Rearing the fish with OTC treated feed resulted in gradual decrease of bacterial load in the aquarium water, gills, intestine and skin of the fish whereas the content remain unchanged or little increased in the control group. Water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH and total hardness were within the suitable range in the experimental aquarium but not in control aquaria throughout the experimental period. Conclusions: These results suggest that OTC could be a potential antibiotic to reduce the bacterial load in fish and can be used commercially for maintaining the fish health in aquarium conditions.

  14. Magnetospheric Effects as a New Aspect of the Asteroid Impact Problem: Necessity and Possibilities of Laboratory Simulation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Yuri P.; Nikitin, Sergei A.; Ponomarenko, Arnold G.; Minami, Shigeyuki

    1997-05-01

    This paper discusses the possible consequences to the Earth's magnetosphere, when due to too short an advanced warning, attempts at mitigation of a near-Earth object (NEO) must be made in close proximity to the Earth. The energy Eo, and explosive plasma release during impact may be compared with the kinetic energy Ek of the NEO and with the energy, Ee (Ee approximately Ek), needed for NEO deflection by a strong (protective force) explosive, at distances close to the scale of the magnetosphere. If the energy, Em, of the Earth's dipole field latter is relatively small (Em is less than Eo for a NEO size approximately 1 km), global or even catastrophic disturbances could occur. These ecologically important magnetospheric aspects of the NEO impact problem have been discussed recently; particularly in the context of the comet SL-9/Jupiter impact. In the latter case, the effect on Jupiter's magnetosphere of the 'NEO' explosions was very small (x equals Eo/Em approximately 0.001, where Em is the 'outer' magnetic energy of the planetary dipole field) and the corresponding model of its 'fireball' development could be simulated numerically in 'zero' approximation, with the assumption of an undisturbed magnetospheric media as a whole. However, in general, and, in the rather probable case of NEO impacts with values x approximately 1, the development of such 3D, nonstationary MHD or PIC-models at this time. Such information can be obtained from new kinds of simulation experiments with the laboratory magnetosphere, the so-called 'terrella'.

  15. Current sheets in the Earth’s magnetosphere and in laboratory experiments: The magnetic field structure and the Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A. G.; Artemyev, A. V.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    The main characteristics of current sheets (CSs) formed in laboratory experiments are compared with the results of satellite observations of CSs in the Earth’s magnetotail. We show that many significant features of the magnetic field structure and the distributions of plasma parameters in laboratory and magnetospheric CSs exhibit a qualitative similarity, despite the enormous differences of scales, absolute values of plasma parameters, magnetic fields, and currents. In addition to a qualitative comparison, we give a number of dimensionless parameters that demonstrate the possibility of laboratory modeling of the processes occurring in the magnetosphere.

  16. Applying decision trial and evaluation laboratory as a decision tool for effective safety management system in aviation transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeanyichukwu Ebubechukwu Onyegiri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in the aviation industry, the weak engineering controls and lapses associated with safety management systems (SMSs are responsible for the seemingly unprecedented disasters. A previous study has confirmed the difficulties experienced by safety managers with SMSs and the need to direct research to this area of investigation for more insights and progress in the evaluation and maintenance of SMSs in the aviation industry. The purpose of this work is to examine the application of Decision Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL to the aviation industry in developing countries with illustration using the Nigerian aviation survey data for the validation of the method. The advantage of the procedure over other decision making methods is in its ability to apply feedback in its decision making. It also affords us the opportunity of breaking down the complex aviation SMS components and elements which are multi-variate in nature through the analysis of the contributions of the diverse system criteria from the perspective of cause and effects, which in turn yields easier and yet more effective aviation transportation accident pre-corrective actions. In this work, six revised components of an SMS were identified and DEMATEL was applied to obtain their direct and indirect impacts and influences on the overall SMS performance. Data collection was by the survey questionnaire, which served as the initial direct-relation matrix, coded in Matlab software for establishing the impact relation map (IRM. The IRM was then plotted in MS Excel spread-sheet software. From our results, safety structure and regulation has the highest impact level on an SMS with a corresponding positive relation level value. In conclusion, the results agree with those of previous researchers that used grey relational analysis. Thus, DEMATEL serves as a great tool and resource for the safety manager.

  17. Effect of genetic strain and gender on age-related changes in body composition of the laboratory rat.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Body composition data for common laboratory strains of rat as a function of age. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Gordon , C., K. Jarema ,...

  18. The effect of metals on condition and pathologies of European eel (Anguilla anguilla): in situ and laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Consuelo; Alcaide, Elena; Ureña, Rocio

    2012-03-01

    Forty-nine wild eels (Anguilla anguilla) caught in the Albufera Lake (Spain), measuring 24.0-75.0 cm in length and 25.0-637.7 g in weight, were examined for metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn), condition (CI and HSI indices), as well as for diseases (Anguillicola infestation; bacterial infections). Total metal load significantly increased in eel liver tissue parallel to total length and body weight (log), while silvering females (W(B) > 200 g; L ≥ 500 mm) exhibited the highest amounts of Co, Cu, Hg, Se and Zn. Diverse effects may be expected in these big eels due to long-term metal exposure. In fact, IMBI (individual mean (multi-metal) bioaccumulation index) and copper load (Ln) in particular, were significantly related with a decrease in the HSI, reflecting lower eel fitness. In addition, most silvering females (75%) showed a CI below 0.2, and this size group presented the highest prevalence of chronic diseases, at significant levels, that are non-lethal in the short term, but degenerative in the long term. Amounts of hepatic iron were not correlated with eel size; however, a significant, strong negative correlation between this metal (Ln) and HSI and CI was found for wild eels suffering from diseases of any aetiology. This also included small eels (W(B) <67 g; L < 350 mm), as this size group presented a significant prevalence of acute diseases caused by single virulent bacterial pathogens (i.e. Edwardsiella tarda and Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2). To assess the effect of metals on susceptibility to disease, yellow eels were maintained and exposed to iron, copper, and pathogens, in captivity under laboratory conditions. Co-exposure of eels to iron (9 μg of Fe/g of fish) and bacterial pathogens by intraperitoneal injection (IP), yielded a hundred-fold reduction in the LD50 of all bacteria assayed (i.e. E. tarda, V. vulnificus, and motile Aeromonas), and also the time taken to cause eel death. Short-term aqueous exposure of eels to 0.4, 0.7, 1.7 and

  19. Radiation carcinogenesis, laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shellabarger, C.J.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory studies on radioinduced carcinogenesis are reviewed. Some topics discussed are: radioinduced neoplasia in relation to life shortening; dose-response relationships; induction of skin tumors in rats by alpha particles and electrons; effects of hormones on tumor response; effects of low LET radiations delivered at low dose-rates; effects of fractionated neutron radiation; interaction of RBE and dose rate effects; and estimates of risks for humans from animal data. (U.S.)

  20. Cross-Course Collaboration in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum: Primary Kinetic Isotope Effect in the Hypochlorite Oxidation of 1-Phenylethanol in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Robert J.; Fitch, Richard W.; Kjonaas, Richard A.; Wyatt, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    A kinetic isotope effect (KIE) experiment is described for the physical chemistry laboratory. Students conduct a hypochlorite (household bleach) oxidation of an equimolar mixture of 1-phenylethanol and 1-deuterio-1-phenylethanol to acetophenone. The reaction occurs in a biphasic reaction mixture and follows first-order kinetics with respect to…

  1. The Effect of Combining Analogy-Based Simulation and Laboratory Activities on Turkish Elementary School Students' Understanding of Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Zeynep Koyunlu; Dokme, Ibilge

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the combination of both analogy-based simulation and laboratory activities as a teaching tool was more effective than utilizing them separately in teaching the concepts of simple electricity. The quasi-experimental design that involved 66 seventh grade students from urban Turkish elementary…

  2. The Effect of Motion Analysis Activities in a Video-Based Laboratory in Students' Understanding of Position, Velocity and Frames of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleza, Eugenia; Pappas, John

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we present the results of a qualitative research project on the effect of motion analysis activities in a Video-Based Laboratory (VBL) on students' understanding of position, velocity and frames of reference. The participants in our research were 48 pre-service teachers enrolled in Education Departments with no previous strong…

  3. What Is the True Color of Fresh Meat? A Biophysical Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Effects of Ligand Binding on Myoglobin Using Optical, EPR, and NMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberger, Kimberly; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Crowder, Michael W.; McCarrick, Robert; Lorigan, Gary A.; Tierney, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With an increased focus on integrated upper-level laboratories, we present an experiment integrating concepts from inorganic, biological, and physical chemistry content areas. Students investigate the effects of ligand strength on the spectroscopic properties of the heme center in myoglobin using UV-vis, [superscript 1]H NMR, and EPR…

  4. Effect of harvest time on fermentation profiles of maize ensiled in laboratory silos and determination of drying losses at 60°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2007-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effect of premature ensiling of maize on alcohol fermentation in laboratory silos and the loss of fermentation products and glucose in silage following drying at 60°C for 48 h. During four consecutive weeks maize was harvested and ensiled for 60 days in vacuum-sealed...

  5. THE EFFECTS OF CRACKING ON THE SURFACE POTENTIAL OF ICY GRAINS IN SATURN’S E-RING: LABORATORY STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Caixia; Bahr, David A.; Dukes, Catherine A.; Baragiola, Raúl A., E-mail: cb8nw@virginia.edu [Laboratory for Astrophysics and Surface Physics, Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2016-07-10

    Within Saturn's E-ring, dust grains are coated by water vapor co-released with ice grains from the geyser-like eruptions of Enceladus. These ice-coated grains have intrinsic surface potential and interact synergistically with the ions and electrons of Saturn's magnetospheric plasmas. We perform laboratory experiments to investigate the effects of water-ice growth on the surface potential, using amorphous solid water (ASW) films. We estimate the growth of the surface potential to be ∼ 2.5 mV (Earth) yr{sup 1} and 112 mV yr{sup 1} for E-ring grains at ∼4.5 R {sub s} and 3.95 R {sub s} outside Enceladus’s plume, respectively. In addition, our measurements show that the linear relationship between the surface potential and the film thickness, as described in previous studies, has an upper limit, where the film spontaneously cracks above a porosity-dependent critical thickness. Heating of the cracked films with (and without) deposited charge shows that significant positive (and negative) surface potentials are retained at temperatures above 110 K, contrary to the minimal values (roughly zero) for thin, transparent ASW films. The significant surface potentials observed on micron-scale cracked ice films after thermal cycling, (5–20) V, are consistent with Cassini measurements, which indicate a negative charge of up to 5 V for E-ring dust particles at ∼5 R {sub s}. Therefore, the native grain surface potential resulting from water-vapor coating must be included in modeling studies of interactions between E-ring icy surfaces and Saturn's magnetospheric plasma.

  6. Laboratory bioassays to estimate the lethal and sublethal effects of various insecticides and fungicides on Deraeocoris brevis (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, K G; Shearer, P W

    2013-04-01

    This laboratory bioassay focused on lethal and sublethal effects of five insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, spinetoram, novaluron, and lambda-cyhalothrin) and two fungicide treatments (sulfur and a mixture of copper hydroxide and mancozeb) on the predatory mired bug, Deraeocoris brevis (Uhler) (Hemiptera: Miridae) using second instars and adult males and females. Formulated pesticides were tested using concentrations that were equivalent to the high label rate (1x) (high rate) and 1/10th of that amount (0.1x) (low rate) dissolved in 378.5 liters of water. Lambda-cyhalothrin was highly toxic to D. brevis nymphs and adults at both rates, whereas both rates of novaluron were highly toxic to nymphs. Cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, and novaluron were less toxic to adults, and chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram were less toxic to nymphs. Both rates of spinetoram caused significant mortality to adults. Fecundity of adult females was affected negatively by the high rates of either novaluron or spinetoram, whereas the fertility was affected only by the high rate of novaluron. The high rate of spinetoram reduced survival of nymphs. Adults treated with spinetoram had reduced longevity. Cyantraniliprole caused some mortality to nymphs and affected their survival. Both rates of sulfur were toxic to nymphs and affected emergence to adults. The mixture of copper hydroxide and mancozeb was less toxic to D. brevis. Neither adult longevity nor sex ratio was affected by the fungicides. The r values for D. brecis treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, novaluron, spinetoram, and sulfur were low, indicating that these products may have negative impact on population growth.

  7. Effects of endocrine disruptors on prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the laboratory. Part II: Triphenyltin as a xeno-androgen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Oehlmann, U; Tillmann, M; Markert, B; Oehlmann, J; Watermann, B; Scherf, S

    2000-12-01

    In laboratory experiments the effects of suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals on freshwater and marine prosobranch species were analysed. In this second of three publications the responses of the freshwater ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis and of two marine prosobranchs (the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus and the netted whelk Hinia reticulata) to the xeno-androgenic model compound triphenyltin (TPT) are presented. Marisa and Nucella were exposed via water (nominal concentrations 5-500 ng TPT-Sn/L) and Hinia via sediments (nominal concentrations 50-500 micrograms TPT-Sn/kg dry wt.) for up to 4 months. Female ramshorn snails but not the two marine species developed imposex in a time and concentration dependent manner (EC10 4 months: 12.3 ng TPT-Sn/L) with a comparable intensity as described for tributyltin. TPT reduced furthermore the fecundity of Marisa at lower concentrations (EC10 4 months: 5.59 ng TPT-Sn/L) with a complete inhibition of spawning at nominal concentrations > or = 250 ng TPT-Sn/L (mean measured +/- SD: > or = 163 +/- 97.0 ng TPT-Sn/L). The extension of the pallial sex organs (penis with accessory structures and prostate gland) of male ramshorn snails and dogwhelks were reduced by up to 25% compared to the control but not in netted whelks. Histopathological analyses for M. cornuarietis and H. reticulata provide evidence for a marked impairment of spermatogenesis (both species) and oogenesis (only netted whelks). The test compound induced a highly significant and concentration independent increase in the incidence of hyperplasia on gills, osphradia and other organs in the mantle cavity of N. lapillus indicating a carcinogenic potential of TPT. The results show that prosobranchs are sensitive to endocrine disruption at environmentally relevant concentrations of TPT. Also, M. cornuarietis is a promising candidate for a future organismic invertebrate system to identify endocrine-mimetic test compounds.

  8. Comparison of laboratory single species and field population-level effects of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on freshwater invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, A F W; Belgers, J D M; Brock, T C M; Matser, A M; Maund, S J; Van den Brink, P J

    2004-04-01

    The toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin to freshwater invertebrates has been investigated using data from short-term laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays and population-level effects in field microcosms. In laboratory tests, patterns of toxicity were consistent with previous data on pyrethroids. The midge Chaoborus obscuripes was most sensitive (48- and 96-h EC50 = 2.8 ng/L). Other insect larvae (Hemiptera, Ephemeroptera) and macrocrustacea (Amphipoda, Isopoda) were also relatively sensitive, with 48- and 96-h EC50 values between 10 and 100 ng/L. Generally, microcrustacea (Cladocera, Copepoda) and larvae of certain insect groups (Odonata and Chironomidae) were less sensitive, with 48-h EC50 values higher than 100 ng/L. Mollusca and Plathelminthes were insensitive and were unaffected at concentrations at and above the water solubility (5 microg/L). Generally, the EC50 values based on initial population responses in field enclosures were similar to values derived from laboratory tests with the same taxa. Also, the corresponding fifth and tenth percentile hazard concentrations (HC5 and HC10) were similar (laboratory HC5 = 2.7 ng/L and field HC5 = 4.1 ng/L; laboratory and field HC10 = 5.1 ng/L), at least when based on the same sensitive taxonomic groups (insects and crustaceans) and when a similar concentration range was taken into account. In the three field enclosure experiments and at a treatment level of 10 ng/L, consistent effects were observed for only one population (Chaoborus obscuripes), with recovery taking place within 3 to 6 weeks. The laboratory HC5 (2.7 ng/L) and HC10 (5.1 ng/L) based on acute EC50 values of all aquatic arthropod taxa were both lower than this 10 ng/L, a concentration that might represent the "regulatory acceptable concentration." The HC5 and HC10 values in this study in The Netherlands (based on static laboratory tests with freshwater arthropods) were very similar to those derived from a previous study in

  9. Effectiveness of the Flipped Classroom Model in Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Courses at a Hispanic Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Gerardo

    A flipped laboratory model involves significant preparation by the students on lab material prior to entry to the laboratory. This allows laboratory time to be focused on active learning through experiments. The aim of this study was to observe changes in student performance through the transition from a traditional laboratory format, to a flipped format. The data showed that for both Anatomy and Physiology (I and II) laboratories a more normal distribution of grades was observed once labs were flipped and lecture grade averages increased. Chi square and analysis of variance tests showed grade changes to a statistically significant degree, with a p value of less than 0.05 on both analyses. Regression analyses gave decreasing numbers after the flipped labs were introduced with an r. 2 value of .485 for A&P I, and .564 for A&P II. Results indicate improved scores for the lecture part of the A&P course, decreased outlying scores above 100, and all score distributions approached a more normal distribution.

  10. PIG's Speed Estimated with Pressure Transducers and Hall Effect Sensor: An Industrial Application of Sensors to Validate a Testing Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Gustavo F; Freitas, Victor C G; Araújo, Renan P; Maitelli, André L; Salazar, Andrés O

    2017-09-15

    The pipeline inspection using a device called Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG) is safe and reliable when the PIG is at low speeds during inspection. We built a Testing Laboratory, containing a testing loop and supervisory system to study speed control techniques for PIGs. The objective of this work is to present and validate the Testing Laboratory, which will allow development of a speed controller for PIGs and solve an existing problem in the oil industry. The experimental methodology used throughout the project is also presented. We installed pressure transducers on pipeline outer walls to detect the PIG's movement and, with data from supervisory, calculated an average speed of 0.43 m/s. At the same time, the electronic board inside the PIG received data from odometer and calculated an average speed of 0.45 m/s. We found an error of 4.44%, which is experimentally acceptable. The results showed that it is possible to successfully build a Testing Laboratory to detect the PIG's passage and estimate its speed. The validation of the Testing Laboratory using data from the odometer and its auxiliary electronic was very successful. Lastly, we hope to develop more research in the oil industry area using this Testing Laboratory.

  11. Oil water laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P Junior, Oswaldo A.; Verli, Fernando; Lopes, Humberto E.

    2000-01-01

    Usually, the oily water effluent from petroleum processes needs to be treated prior to its environment discard and/or reuse. The synthesis of such water effluent residues in an Oily Water Laboratory - equipped with Water Treatment Pilot Scale Units - is fundamental to the study and effectiveness comparison among the typical industrial water treatment processes. The Oily Water Laboratory will allow the reproduction - in a small scale - of any oily water effluent produced in the industrial PETROBRAS units - such reproduction can be obtained by using the same fluids, oily concentration, salinity, process temperature, particle size distribution etc. Such Laboratory also allows the performance analysis of typical industrial equipment used throughout the water treatment schemes (e.g., hydro-cyclones), resulting in design and/or operational guidelines for these industrial scale schemes. In the particular niche of very small diameter oil droplet removal, more efficient and non-conventional schemes - such as centrifuges and/or membrane filtration - will be also studied in the Laboratory. In addition, the Laboratory shall be used in the certification of in-line oily water analyzers (e.g., TOC - Total Organic Carbon and OWC - Oil Wax Content). This paper describes the characteristics of such Laboratory and its main operational philosophy. (author)

  12. Restructuring the CS 1 classroom: Examining the effect of open laboratory-based classes vs. closed laboratory-based classes on Computer Science 1 students' achievement and attitudes toward computers and computer courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jean Foster

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of classroom restructuring involving computer laboratories on student achievement and student attitudes toward computers and computer courses. The effects of the targeted student attributes of gender, previous programming experience, math background, and learning style were also examined. The open lab-based class structure consisted of a traditional lecture class with a separate, unscheduled lab component in which lab assignments were completed outside of class; the closed lab-based class structure integrated a lab component within the lecture class so that half the class was reserved for lecture and half the class was reserved for students to complete lab assignments by working cooperatively with each other and under the supervision and guidance of the instructor. The sample consisted of 71 students enrolled in four intact classes of Computer Science I during the fall and spring semesters of the 2006--2007 school year at two southern universities: two classes were held in the fall (one at each university) and two classes were held in the spring (one at each university). A counterbalanced repeated measures design was used in which all students experienced both class structures for half of each semester. The order of control and treatment was rotated among the four classes. All students received the same amount of class and instructor time. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) via a multiple regression strategy was used to test the study's hypotheses. Although the overall MANOVA model was statistically significant, independent follow-up univariate analyses relative to each dependent measure found that the only significant research factor was math background: Students whose mathematics background was at the level of Calculus I or higher had significantly higher student achievement than students whose mathematics background was less than Calculus I. The results suggest that classroom structures that

  13. Effect of Availability and Utilization of Physics Laboratory Equipment on Students' Academic Achievement in Senior Secondary School Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufunke, Bello Theodora

    2012-01-01

    The study determined the available Physics Laboratory Equipment (PLE) for the teaching and learning of physics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria as well as the extent of utilizing the available equipment. The research design adopted for the study was descriptive survey. The sample consisted of nine hundred students who were randomly chosen…

  14. Anatomy and Humanity: Examining the Effects of a Short Documentary Film and First Anatomy Laboratory Experience on Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosani, Farah; Neuberger, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Medical students begin their education inside a laboratory dissecting cadavers to learn human gross anatomy. Many schools use the course experience as a way to instill empathy and some have begun integrating video and recorded interviews with body donors to humanize the experience, but their impact has yet to be measured. This study examines the…

  15. Watershed memory at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory: the effect of past precipitation and storage on hydrologic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian Nippgen; Brian L. McGlynn; Ryan E. Emanuel; James M. Vose

    2016-01-01

    The rainfall-runoff response of watersheds is affected by the legacy of past hydroclimatic conditions. We examined how variability in precipitation affected streamflow using 21 years of daily streamflow and precipitation data from five watersheds at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in southwestern North Carolina, USA. The gauged watersheds contained both...

  16. Effect of residual H2O2 from advanced oxidation processes on subsequent biological water treatment: A laboratory batch study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; van Halem, Doris; Liu, Gang; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, Karin; van der Hoek, Jan Peter

    2017-10-01

    H 2 O 2 residuals from advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may have critical impacts on the microbial ecology and performance of subsequent biological treatment processes, but little is known. The objective of this study was to evaluate how H 2 O 2 residuals influence sand systems with an emphasis on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, microbial activity change and bacterial community evolution. The results from laboratory batch studies showed that 0.25 mg/L H 2 O 2 lowered DOC removal by 10% while higher H 2 O 2 concentrations at 3 and 5 mg/L promoted DOC removal by 8% and 28%. A H 2 O 2 dosage of 0.25 mg/L did not impact microbial activity (as measured by ATP) while high H 2 O 2 dosages, 1, 3 and 5 mg/L, resulted in reduced microbial activity of 23%, 37% and 37% respectively. Therefore, DOC removal was promoted by the increase of H 2 O 2 dosage while microbial activity was reduced. The pyrosequencing results illustrated that bacterial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria. The presence of H 2 O 2 showed clear influence on the diversity and composition of bacterial communities, which became more diverse under 0.25 mg/L H 2 O 2 but conversely less diverse when the dosage increased to 5 mg/L H 2 O 2 . Anaerobic bacteria were found to be most sensitive to H 2 O 2 as their growth in batch reactors was limited by both 0.25 and 5 mg/L H 2 O 2 (17-88% reduction). In conclusion, special attention should be given to effects of AOPs residuals on microbial ecology before introducing AOPs as a pre-treatment to biological (sand) processes. Additionally, the guideline on the maximum allowable H 2 O 2 concentration should be properly evaluated. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of High-Definition Audiovisual Technology in a Gross Anatomy Laboratory: Effect on Dental Students' Learning Outcomes and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maha; Sleiman, Naama H; Thomas, Maureen; Kashani, Nahid; Ditmyer, Marcia M

    2016-02-01

    Laboratory cadaver dissection is essential for three-dimensional understanding of anatomical structures and variability, but there are many challenges to teaching gross anatomy in medical and dental schools, including a lack of available space and qualified anatomy faculty. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of high-definition audiovisual educational technology in the gross anatomy laboratory in improving dental students' learning outcomes and satisfaction. Exam scores were compared for two classes of first-year students at one U.S. dental school: 2012-13 (no audiovisual technology) and 2013-14 (audiovisual technology), and section exams were used to compare differences between semesters. Additionally, an online survey was used to assess the satisfaction of students who used the technology. All 284 first-year students in the two years (2012-13 N=144; 2013-14 N=140) participated in the exams. Of the 140 students in the 2013-14 class, 63 completed the survey (45% response rate). The results showed that those students who used the technology had higher scores on the laboratory exams than those who did not use it, and students in the winter semester scored higher (90.17±0.56) than in the fall semester (82.10±0.68). More than 87% of those surveyed strongly agreed or agreed that the audiovisual devices represented anatomical structures clearly in the gross anatomy laboratory. These students reported an improved experience in learning and understanding anatomical structures, found the laboratory to be less overwhelming, and said they were better able to follow dissection instructions and understand details of anatomical structures with the new technology. Based on these results, the study concluded that the ability to provide the students a clear view of anatomical structures and high-quality imaging had improved their learning experience.

  18. Soil examination for a forensic trace evidence laboratory-Part 3: A proposed protocol for the effective triage and management of soil examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Brenda; Lennard, Chris; Kirkbride, K Paul; Robertson, James

    2016-05-01

    In the past, forensic soil examination was a routine aspect of forensic trace evidence examinations. The apparent need for soil examinations then went through a period of decline and with it the capability of many forensic laboratories to carry out soil examinations. In more recent years, interest in soil examinations has been renewed due-at least in part-to soil examinations contributing to some high profile investigations. However, much of this renewed interest has been in organisations with a primary interest in soil and geology rather than forensic science. We argue the need to reinstate soil examinations as a trace evidence sub-discipline within forensic science laboratories and present a pathway to support this aim. An examination procedure is proposed that includes: (i) appropriate sample collection and storage by qualified crime scene examiners; (ii) exclusionary soil examinations by trace evidence scientists within a forensic science laboratory; (iii) inclusionary soil examinations by trace evidence scientists within a forensic science laboratory; and (iv) higher-level examination of soils by specialist soil scientists and palynologists. Soil examinations conducted by trace evidence scientists will be facilitated if the examinations are conducted using the instrumentation routinely used by these examiners. Hence, the proposed examination protocol incorporates instrumentation in routine use in a forensic trace evidence laboratory. Finally, we report on an Australian soil scene variability study and a blind trial that demonstrate the utility of the proposed protocol for the effective triage and management of soil samples by forensic laboratories. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effectiveness of Hands-on Health Informatics Skills Exercises in the Multidisciplinary Smart Home Healthcare and Health Informatics Training Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapci, A H; Sapci, H A

    2017-10-01

    This article aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of newly established innovative smart home healthcare and health informatics laboratories, and a novel laboratory course that focuses on experiential health informatics training, and determine students' self-confidence to operate wireless home health monitoring devices before and after the hands-on laboratory course. Two web-based pretraining and posttraining questionnaires were sent to 64 students who received hands-on training with wireless remote patient monitoring devices in smart home healthcare and health informatics laboratories. All 64 students completed the pretraining survey (100% response rate), and 49 students completed the posttraining survey (76% response rate). The quantitative data analysis showed that 95% of students had an interest in taking more hands-on laboratory courses. Sixty-seven percent of students had no prior experience with medical image, physiological data acquisition, storage, and transmission protocols. After the hands-on training session, 75.51% of students expressed improved confidence about training patients to measure blood pressure monitor using wireless devices. Ninety percent of students preferred to use a similar experiential approach in their future learning experience. Additionally, the qualitative data analysis demonstrated that students were expecting to have more courses with hands-on exercises and integration of technology-enabled delivery and patient monitoring concepts into the curriculum. This study demonstrated that the multidisciplinary smart home healthcare and health informatics training laboratories and the hands-on exercises improved students' technology adoption rates and their self-confidence in using wireless patient monitoring devices. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  20. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  1. FOOTWEAR PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory provides biomechanical and physical analyses for both military and commercial footwear. The laboratory contains equipment that is integral to the us...

  2. Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research performs preclinical characterization of nanomaterials...

  3. Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL's Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) houses 22 research laboratories for conducting a wide-range of research including catalyst formulation, chemical analysis,...

  4. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  5. Process innovation laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2007-01-01

    to create a new methodology for developing and exploring process models and applications. The paper outlines the process innovation laboratory as a new approach to BPI. The process innovation laboratory is a comprehensive framework and a collaborative workspace for experimenting with process models....... The process innovation laboratory facilitates innovation by using an integrated action learning approach to process modelling in a controlled environment. The study is based on design science and the paper also discusses the implications to EIS research and practice......Most organizations today are required not only to operate effective business processes but also to allow for changing business conditions at an increasing rate. Today nearly every business relies on their enterprise information systems (EIS) for process integration and future generations of EIS...

  6. Laboratory studies on the effect of freezing and thawing exposure on bentonite buffer performance: Closed-system tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, T.; Martikainen, J. [B and Tech Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-12-15

    This report presents a set of results from laboratory studies on the effect of freezing and thawing on compacted bentonite buffer material. In order to evaluate the effect of freezing and thawing on compacted bentonite buffer performance a series of experiments were conducted using closed, constant-volume cells as follows: Pre- and post-freezing swelling pressure measurements were performed on fully saturated MX-80 and Deponit CA-N bentonite samples, at dry density values of approximately 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}, over five freeze/thaw cycles from room temperature to -18 deg C with rapid (instantaneous) temperature exposure. Pressure measurements were performed on fully saturated MX-80 bentonite samples, at dry density values of 1.470 and 1.501 g/cm{sup 3}, during a temperature run from room temperature to -10 deg C with step-change temperature exposure and back from -10 deg C to room temperature under continuous temperature change exposure at 0.1 deg C/h. Pressure measurements were performed on fully saturated MX-80 bentonite samples, encompassing a range of dry density values from 0.940 to 1.534 g/cm{sup 3}, during repeated temperature runs from room temperature to -10 deg C and back with continuous temperature change exposure at 0.1 deg C/h. Pressure measurements were performed on a fully saturated Deponit CA-N bentonite sample, at a dry density of 1.484 g/cm{sup 3}, during a temperature run from room temperature to -10 deg C and back with continuous temperature change exposure at 0.1 deg C/h. In some cases, hydraulic conductivity measurements were performed before and after freeze/thaw exposure. In general, exposure to freezing temperatures, down to an average temperature of -10 deg C, results in the development of significant internal pressures in compacted bentonite samples, which is attributed to the formation of ice. The specific test results are summarised as follows: Increases in pressure by factors of 1.5 to 2.2 were observed for MX-80 samples at dry densities

  7. Radioisotope laboratory in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The Turkish Government formally requested that the Agency provide for one year the services of an expert in the agricultural applications of radioisotopes. Specifically, they wanted this expert first of all to assist in setting up and equipping a pioneer laboratory for the utilization of radioisotopes in agricultural research. Once the laboratory was in operation, the expert was to initiate various research projects using isotope techniques, and to train personnel to carry on this work. The Agency was also asked to supply various specialized equipment for the laboratory, including some radioisotopes. On 10 December 1960 the first phase was complete - the new laboratory was formally opened. It is foreseen that the research projects which will be initiated at the laboratory will include the following: determination of the effect of fertilizers upon yield and quality of field crops and fruit trees, soil fertility studies, studies of mineral element uptake and localization of nutrients in plant body, studies of the folar application of mineral nutrients, especially in fruit trees, investigation of microelements in field crops and fruit trees, investigation of pollination problems, study of the distribution of mineral elements in different fruit seedlings, study of the uptake of nutrients by fruit trees during the rest period, dispersal studies on insects, insecticide studies

  8. Radioisotope laboratory in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-04-15

    The Turkish Government formally requested that the Agency provide for one year the services of an expert in the agricultural applications of radioisotopes. Specifically, they wanted this expert first of all to assist in setting up and equipping a pioneer laboratory for the utilization of radioisotopes in agricultural research. Once the laboratory was in operation, the expert was to initiate various research projects using isotope techniques, and to train personnel to carry on this work. The Agency was also asked to supply various specialized equipment for the laboratory, including some radioisotopes. On 10 December 1960 the first phase was complete - the new laboratory was formally opened. It is foreseen that the research projects which will be initiated at the laboratory will include the following: determination of the effect of fertilizers upon yield and quality of field crops and fruit trees, soil fertility studies, studies of mineral element uptake and localization of nutrients in plant body, studies of the folar application of mineral nutrients, especially in fruit trees, investigation of microelements in field crops and fruit trees, investigation of pollination problems, study of the distribution of mineral elements in different fruit seedlings, study of the uptake of nutrients by fruit trees during the rest period, dispersal studies on insects, insecticide studies.

  9. Physics laboratory 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The report covers the research activities of the Physics laboratory of H.C. Oersted Institute, University of Copenhagen in the period January 1, 1976 - January 1, 1979. It gives also an idea about the teaching carried out by yhe laboratory. The research - broadly speaking - deals mainly with the interaction of particles (ions, electrons and neutrons) and electromagnetic radiation (X-rays) with matter. Use is made in studies of: atomic physics, radiation effects, surface physics, the electronic and crystallographic structure of matter and some biological problems. The research is carried out partly in the laboratory itself and partly at and in collaboration with other institutes in this country (H.C. Oersted Institute, Chemical Laboratories, Denmark's Technical University, Aarhus University, Institute of Physics and Risoe National Laboratory) and abroad (Federal Republic of Germany, France, India, Sweden, U.K., U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.). All these institutes are listed in the abstract titles. Bibliography comprehends 94 publications. A substantial part of the research is supported by the Danish Natural Sciences Research Council. (author)

  10. Analytical quality, performance indices and laboratory service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilden, Jørgen; Magid, Erik

    1999-01-01

    analytical error, bias, cost effectiveness, decision-making, laboratory techniques and procedures, mass screening, models, statistical, quality control......analytical error, bias, cost effectiveness, decision-making, laboratory techniques and procedures, mass screening, models, statistical, quality control...

  11. Integrated field and laboratory tests to evaluate effects of metals-impacted wetlands on amphibians: A case study from Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, G.; ,

    2003-01-01

    Mining activities frequently impact wildlife habitats, and a wide range of habitats may require evaluations of the linkages between wildlife and environmental stressors common to mining activities (e.g., physical alteration of habitat, releases of chemicals such as metals and other inorganic constituents as part of the mining operation). Wetlands, for example, are frequently impacted by mining activities. Within an ecological assessment for a wetland, toxicity evaluations for representative species may be advantageous to the site evaluation, since these species could be exposed to complex chemical mixtures potentially released from the site. Amphibian species common to these transition zones between terrestrial and aquatic habitats are one key biological indicator of exposure, and integrated approaches which involve both field and laboratory methods focused on amphibians are critical to the assessment process. The laboratory and field evaluations of a wetland in western Montana illustrates the integrated approach to risk assessment and causal analysis. Here, amphibians were used to evaluate the potential toxicity associated with heavy metal-laden sediments deposited in a reservoir. Field and laboratory methods were applied to a toxicity assessment for metals characteristic of mine tailings to reduce potential "lab to field" extrapolation errors and provide adaptive management programs with critical site-specific information targeted on remediation.

  12. Effects of feeding frequency on growth, survival rate and body composition in sea bass (Lates calcarifer) juveniles fed a commercial diet under laboratory condition

    OpenAIRE

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-01-01

    A 60 day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of different feeding frequencies on the growth, survival rate and body composition of sea bass (Lates calcarifer) juveniles fed commercial diet, reared under laboratory condition. The average initial weight of fish was 4.59 g and its initial total length of 7.11 cm was determined for the conditions factors. Ten fish were stocked in each 12 - 100 L conical fiberglass tanks filled with 90 L seawater at three replicates ...

  13. Design, fabrication, and calibration of curved integral coils for measuring transfer function, uniformity, and effective length of LBL ALS [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Advanced Light Source] Booster Dipole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.I.; Nelson, D.; Marks, S.; Gee, B.; Wong, W.; Meneghetti, J.

    1989-03-01

    A matched pair of curved integral coils has been designed, fabricated and calibrated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for measuring Advanced Light Source (ALS) Booster Dipole Magnets. Distinctive fabrication and calibration techniques are described. The use of multifilar magnet wire in fabrication integral search coils is described. Procedures used and results of AC and DC measurements of transfer function, effective length and uniformity of the prototype booster dipole magnet are presented in companion papers. 8 refs

  14. The effect of adsorbed liquid and material density on saltation threshold: Insight from laboratory and wind tunnel experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinting; Hörst, Sarah M.; He, Chao; Bridges, Nathan T.; Burr, Devon M.; Sebree, Joshua A.; Smith, James K.

    2017-11-01

    Saltation threshold, the minimum wind speed for sediment transport, is a fundamental parameter in aeolian processes. Measuring this threshold using boundary layer wind tunnels, in which particles are mobilized by flowing air, for a subset of different planetary conditions can inform our understanding of physical processes of sediment transport. The presence of liquid, such as water on Earth or methane on Titan, may affect the threshold values to a great extent. Sediment density is also crucial for determining threshold values. Here we provide quantitative data on density and water content of common wind tunnel materials (including chromite, basalt, quartz sand, beach sand, glass beads, gas chromatograph packing materials, walnut shells, iced tea powder, activated charcoal, instant coffee, and glass bubbles) that have been used to study conditions on Earth, Titan, Mars, and Venus. The measured density values for low density materials are higher compared to literature values (e.g., ∼30% for walnut shells), whereas for the high density materials, there is no such discrepancy. We also find that low density materials have much higher water content and longer atmospheric equilibration timescales compared to high density sediments. We used thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to quantify surface and internal water and found that over 80% of the total water content is surface water for low density materials. In the Titan Wind Tunnel (TWT), where Reynolds number conditions similar to those on Titan can be achieved, we performed threshold experiments with the standard walnut shells (125-150 μm, 7.2% water by mass) and dried walnut shells, in which the water content was reduced to 1.7%. The threshold results for the two scenarios are almost the same, which indicates that humidity had a negligible effect on threshold for walnut shells in this experimental regime. When the water content is lower than 11.0%, the interparticle forces are dominated by adsorption forces, whereas at

  15. When Gender Identity Doesn't Equal Sex Recorded at Birth: The Role of the Laboratory in Providing Effective Healthcare to the Transgender Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Zil; Corneil, Trevor A; Greene, Dina N

    2017-08-01

    Transgender is an umbrella term used to describe individuals who identify with a gender incongruent to or variant from their sex recorded at birth. Affirming gender identity through a variety of social, medical, and surgical interventions is critical to the mental health of transgender individuals. In recent years, awareness surrounding transgender identities has increased, which has highlighted the health disparities that parallel this demographic. These disparities are reflected in the experience of transgender patients and their providers when seeking clinical laboratory services. Little is known about the effect of gender-affirming hormone therapy and surgery on optimal laboratory test interpretation. Efforts to diminish health disparities encountered by transgender individuals and their providers can be accomplished by increasing social and clinical awareness regarding sex/gender incongruence and gaining insight into the physiological manifestations and laboratory interpretations of gender-affirming strategies. This review summarizes knowledge required to understand transgender healthcare including current clinical interventions for gender dysphoria. Particular attention is paid to the subsequent impact of these interventions on laboratory test utilization and interpretation. Common nomenclature and system barriers are also discussed. Understanding gender incongruence, the clinical changes associated with gender transition, and systemic barriers that maintain a gender/sex binary are key to providing adequate healthcare to transgender community. Transgender appropriate reference interval studies are virtually absent within the medical literature and should be explored. The laboratory has an important role in improving the physiological understanding, electronic medical system recognition, and overall social awareness of the transgender community. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  16. Effects of insemination and blood-feeding on locomotor activity of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) females under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio

    2014-07-02

    Dengue is an arbovirus disease transmitted by two Aedes mosquitoes: Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Virgin females of these two species generally show a bimodal and diurnal pattern of activity, with early morning and late afternoon peaks. Although some studies on the flight activity of virgin, inseminated and blood-fed Ae. aegypti females have been carried out under laboratory conditions, little is known about the effects of such physiological states on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. The aim of this study was to analyze, under laboratory conditions, the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under LD 12:12, at 25°C. Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females were obtained from established laboratory colonies. Control groups were represented by virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions, using an activity monitor that registers individual activity every thirty minutes. Virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females showed a diurnal and bimodal pattern of locomotor activity, with peaks at early morning and late afternoon. Insemination and blood-feeding significantly decreased the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti females, but inseminated/blood-fed Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females showed a similar significant decrease on the locomotor activity compared to virgin/unfed females. This study is the first demonstration of the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under artificial conditions. Data suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females respond in different ways to physiological status changes and such divergence between these two dengue vectors, associated with several ecological differences, could be related to the greater dengue vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti in Americas in comparison to Ae. albopictus.

  17. Consolidated clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, Robert L; Thomson, Richard B

    2015-05-01

    The manner in which medical care is reimbursed in the United States has resulted in significant consolidation in the U.S. health care system. One of the consequences of this has been the development of centralized clinical microbiology laboratories that provide services to patients receiving care in multiple off-site, often remote, locations. Microbiology specimens are unique among clinical specimens in that optimal analysis may require the maintenance of viable organisms. Centralized laboratories may be located hours from patient care settings, and transport conditions need to be such that organism viability can be maintained under a variety of transport conditions. Further, since the provision of rapid results has been shown to enhance patient care, effective and timely means for generating and then reporting the results of clinical microbiology analyses must be in place. In addition, today, increasing numbers of patients are found to have infection caused by pathogens that were either very uncommon in the past or even completely unrecognized. As a result, infectious disease specialists, in particular, are more dependent than ever on access to high-quality diagnostic information from clinical microbiology laboratories. In this point-counterpoint discussion, Robert Sautter, who directs a Charlotte, NC, clinical microbiology laboratory that provides services for a 40-hospital system spread over 3 states in the southeastern United States explains how an integrated clinical microbiology laboratory service has been established in a multihospital system. Richard (Tom) Thomson of the NorthShore University HealthSystem in Evanston, IL, discusses some of the problems and pitfalls associated with large-scale laboratory consolidation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Optimizing the effectiveness of a mechanical suture-based anulus fibrosus repair construct in an acute failure laboratory simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Ashley; Wales, Larry; Houfburg, Rodney; Durfee, William K; Griffith, Steven L; Bentley, Ishmael

    2013-10-01

    In vitro comparative, laboratory experiments. This study developed a laboratory apparatus that measured resistance to failure using pressures similar to intradiscal pressure of a lumbar spinal disk. Various combinations of an anular repair device were compared. Herniated material of the intervertebral disk is removed during a lumbar discectomy; however, the defect in the anulus fibrosus remains and can provide a pathway for future herniation. Repairing the anulus fibrosus could mitigate this reherniation and improve patient outcomes. A pneumatic cylinder was used to increase the pressure of a sealed chamber until artificial nucleus pulposus material was expulsed through either a 3-mm circular (diameter) or a 6-mm slit anular defect created in a surrogate anulus fibrosus. Each unrepaired condition was compared with 3 repaired conditions using a commercially available soft tissue repair system. The repaired conditions included: (1) a single tension band; (2) 2 tension bands in a cruciate pattern; or (3) 2 tension bands in a parallel pattern. Maximum pressure at the point of extrusion of the internal chamber material and failure or nonfailure of the repair was measured. Significant differences were detected (P<0.05) in maximum failure pressures for the nonrepaired (control) versus repaired conditions. With 1 or 2 tension bands repairing the circular defect, the maximum failure pressure increased by approximately 76% and 131%, respectively. In addition, the failure pressure for 2 tension bands in either a cruciate or parallel configuration was not different, and was approximately 32% higher (P<0.05) than a single tension band in the case of the circular defect. Similar results were seen for the slit defect, with the exception that no difference between the repaired conditions (ie, single vs. 2 tension bands) was detected. This laboratory simulation demonstrated that repairing the anulus fibrosus after a discectomy procedure can be beneficial for retaining intradiscal

  19. Department of Energy Multiprogram Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The Panel assessed DOE policies and procedures with respect to the laboratories as well as the effectiveness of the use DOE made of the laboratory capabilities in energy related areas. Recommendations are given for the appropriate roles and missions as opposed to the private sector; the scientific and technology transfer; organizational efficiencies; and contingency plans for coping with declining budgets

  20. In situ and laboratory measurements of very low permeability in the Tournemine argilites (Aveyron). Comparison of methodologies and scale effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, J.Y.; Cabrera, J.

    1998-01-01

    At the request of the Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN - Institute of Nuclear Safety and Protection), ANTEA visited the Tournemire site (Aveyron) to carry out an hydraulic characterization of the 200 m-thick Toarcian and Domerian formations accessible by tunnel. Permeability measurements were made using the borehole pulse-test method either in the global hole or perpendicular to more permeable fractured zones. The tests yielded an approximate value for the hydraulic head and an order of magnitude for the permeability at 1 to 10 metre scale (10 -11 to 10 -13 m/s). A borehole was then equipped for a long-duration (6 months) measurement of the hydraulic head in the rock body. Laboratory measurements were made on 4 cm-diameter core samples taken from different boreholes. The tests, carried out under triaxial stress, required preliminary saturation-consolidation of the test samples. Through applying steady-state flow or hydraulic pulse, it was possible to measure a permeability in order of 10 -14 m/s for the matrix of the clayey material. The difference between laboratory and in situ values is explained by the presence of fractures in the rock body. Moreover, it seems that the hydraulic conditions of measurement in the field around the hole could have an influence on the final result. (authors)

  1. ICP measurement accuracy: the effect of temperature drift. Design of a laboratory test for assessment of ICP transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgalla, M H; Mettenleiter, H; Katzenberger, T

    1999-01-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has become the mainstay of multimodal neuromonitoring of comatous patients after head injury. In the presence of rising ICP and faced with pressures, difficult to control, aggressive measures, such as hypothermia may be used. The ICP readings should not be influenced by temperature changes. A laboratory test was designed to simulate temperature variations between 20 degrees C and 45 degrees C at different pressure levels under physiological conditions. Five types of transducers were examined: Epidyn Braun Melsungen, ICT/B-Titan Gaeltec, Camino-OLM-110-4B, Codman MicroSensor ICP-Transducer, Neurovent ICP transducer Rehau Ag+Co. Tests were performed at 6 different pressure levels between 0 mmHg and 50 mmHg. The results show very low drifts of less than 0.15 mmHg degree C-1 for Codman, Epidyn and Neurovent. Gaeltec and Camino exhibited higher drifts of 0.18 mmHg and 0.2 mmHg degree C-1 respectively. Within the temperature range from 35 degrees C to 42 degrees C all probes tested show insignificant temperature drift. Whether these results also apply to other types of transducers needs further evaluation. Problems and requirements related to the design of a laboratory test for the in vitro assessment of ICP transducers are discussed in detail.

  2. Laboratory Experiments on the Effects of Blade Strike from Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies on Larval and Juvenile Freshwater Fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    There is considerable interest in the development of marine and hydrokinetic energy projects in rivers, estuaries, and coastal ocean waters of the United States. Hydrokinetic (HK) technologies convert the energy of moving water in river or tidal currents into electricity, without the impacts of dams and impoundments associated with conventional hydropower or the extraction and combustion of fossil fuels. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) maintains a database that displays the geographical distribution of proposed HK projects in inland and tidal waters (FERC 2012). As of March 2012, 77 preliminary permits had been issued to private developers to study HK projects in inland waters, the development of which would total over 8,000 MW. Most of these projects are proposed for the lower Mississippi River. In addition, the issuance of another 27 preliminary permits for HK projects in inland waters, and 3 preliminary permits for HK tidal projects (totaling over 3,100 MW) were under consideration by FERC. Although numerous HK designs are under development (see DOE 2009 for a description of the technologies and their potential environmental effects), the most commonly proposed current-based projects entail arrays of rotating devices, much like submerged wind turbines, that are positioned in the high-velocity (high energy) river channels. The many diverse HK designs imply a diversity of environmental impacts, but a potential impact common to most is the risk for blade strike to aquatic organisms. In conventional hydropower generation, research on fish passage through reaction turbines at low-head dams suggested that strike and mortality for small fish could be low. As a consequence of the large surface area to mass ratio of small fish, the drag forces in the boundary layer flow at the surface of a rotor blade may pull small fish around the leading edge of a rotor blade without making physical contact (Turnpenny 1998, Turnpenny et al. 2000). Although there is

  3. Comparative effect of angiotensin II type I receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers on laboratory parameters in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Yayoi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both angiotensin II type I receptor blockers (ARBs and calcium channel blockers (CCBs are widely used antihypertensive drugs. Many clinical studies have demonstrated and compared the organ-protection effects and adverse events of these drugs. However, few large-scale studies have focused on the effect of these drugs as monotherapy on laboratory parameters. We evaluated and compared the effects of ARB and CCB monotherapy on clinical laboratory parameters in patients with concomitant hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods We used data from the Clinical Data Warehouse of Nihon University School of Medicine obtained between Nov 1, 2004 and July 31, 2011, to identify cohorts of new ARB users (n = 601 and propensity-score matched new CCB users (n = 601, with concomitant mild to moderate hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We used a multivariate-adjusted regression model to adjust for differences between ARB and CCB users, and compared laboratory parameters including serum levels of triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, non-fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, sodium, potassium, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, hemoglobin and hematocrit, and white blood cell (WBC, red blood cell (RBC and platelet (PLT counts up to 12 months after the start of ARB or CCB monotherapy. Results We found a significant reduction of serum TC, HbA1c, hemoglobin and hematocrit and RBC count and a significant increase of serum potassium in ARB users, and a reduction of serum TC and hemoglobin in CCB users, from the baseline period to the exposure period. The reductions of RBC count, hemoglobin and hematocrit in ARB users were significantly greater than those in CCB users. The increase of serum potassium in ARB users was significantly greater than that in CCB users. Conclusions Our study suggested that hematological adverse effects and

  4. Effectiveness of influenza vaccine against laboratory-confirmed influenza, in the late 2011–2012 season in Spain, among population targeted for vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Spain, the influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated in the last three seasons using the observational study cycEVA conducted in the frame of the existing Spanish Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System. The objective of the study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza-like illness (ILI) among the target groups for vaccination in Spain in the 2011–2012 season. We also studied influenza VE in the early (weeks 52/2011-7/2012) and late (weeks 8-14/2012) phases of the epidemic and according to time since vaccination. Methods Medically attended patients with ILI were systematically swabbed to collect information on exposure, laboratory outcome and confounding factors. Patients belonging to target groups for vaccination and who were swabbed 4 months, respectively, since vaccination. A decrease in VE with time since vaccination was only observed in individuals aged ≥ 65 years. Regarding the phase of the season, decreasing point estimates were only observed in the early phase, whereas very low or null estimates were obtained in the late phase for the shortest time interval. Conclusions The 2011–2012 influenza vaccine showed a low-to-moderate protective effect against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza in the target groups for vaccination, in a late season and with a limited match between the vaccine and circulating strains. The suggested decrease in influenza VE with time since vaccination was mostly observed in the elderly population. The decreasing protective effect of the vaccine in the late part of the season could be related to waning vaccine protection because no viral changes were identified throughout the season. PMID:24053661

  5. Establishment of effective maintenance method based on the superior inspection technique for the deteriorating hot laboratory exhaust stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizukoshi, Yasutaka; Yasu, Tetsunori

    2012-06-01

    The Materials Monitoring Facility is equipped with an exhaust stack to emit air from a controlled area (the hot laboratory) into the atmosphere. Cracks and exfoliation have been observed for the surface of the exhaust stack, which is made of reinforced concrete and was constructed on the seacoast about 25 years ago, so exposed to a salt-corrosive condition. In order to get details of the present condition of the exhaust stack, an inspection was carried out using an electromagnetic wave radar method and chloride content method. Cracks and exfoliation were observed for the whole stack surface, especially for high positions. Moreover, salt damage was observed for the outer surface of the exhaust stack, and it was estimated that the infiltration of the chloride content was about 17 mm. Based on this detailed inspection of the exhaust stack, maintenance and repair work were carried out. (author)

  6. Centrifugal dewatering of acid casein curd: effect of casein manufacturing and centrifugation variables on curd compression in a laboratory centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, P A; Van Til, H J

    1988-10-20

    Data relevant to curd compression in a horizontal, solid bowl decanter centrifuge have been obtained by studying the dewatering of acid casein curd in a batch laboratory centrifuge. Analysis of curd compression under centrifugal force predicts a moisture content gradient in the dewatered curd from a maximum at the curd-liquid interface to a minimum at the centrifuge bowl wall. This moisture content gradient was also measured experimentally, and its practical implications are discussed. Increases in centrifugal force, centrifugation time, and centrifugation temperature all caused a marked de crease in dewatered curd moisture content, whereas in creases in precipitation pH and maximum washing temperature caused a smaller decrease in dewatered curd moisture content.

  7. A brief review comparing the effects of sex steroids on two forms of aggression in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, M; Brain, P F; Kamis, A B

    1986-01-01

    This brief review examines the roles of sex steroids in two forms of "aggression" in laboratory mice. The social conflict induced in male mice by individual housing or reproductive experience was contrasted with the attack shown by small groups of female mice on lactating intruders. Gonadectomy of males largely abolishes the former response but actually augments the latter activity in male subjects. Testosterone, estradiol and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone all restore social conflict in gonadectomized male mice but these sex steroids inhibit attack on lactating female intruders by gonadectomized males. The data clearly confirm that there is no simple relationship between a particular hormone and "aggression." These forms of attack may serve very different functions even though they involve similar action patterns and distributions of bites on the attacked animal. A tentative discussion is included about the roles of these activities.

  8. Effect of individually tailored biopsychosocial workplace interventions on chronic musculoskeletal pain, stress and work ability among laboratory technicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Petersen, Mikkel Brandt; Sundstrup, Emil

    2014-01-01

    control and may result in extended periods of time spent in static positions.In populations characterized by intense chronic musculoskeletal pain and diagnosed conditions in conjunction with psycho-physiological symptoms such as stress-related pain and soreness and other disabling conditions...... biopsychosocial intervention strategy on musculoskeletal pain, stress and work disability in lab technicians with a history of musculoskeletal pain at a single worksite in Denmark. METHODS/DESIGN: In this single-blind two-armed parallel-group randomized controlled trial with allocation concealment, participants......BACKGROUND: Among laboratory technicians, the prevalence of neck and shoulder pain is widespread possibly due to typical daily work tasks such as pipetting, preparing vial samples for analysis, and data processing on a computer including mouse work - all tasks that require precision in motor...

  9. History of the 185-/189-D thermal hydraulics laboratory and its effects on reactor operations at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    The 185-D deaeration building and the 189-D refrigeration building were constructed at Hanford during 1943 and 1944. Both buildings were constructed as part of the influent water cooling system for D reactor. The CMS studies eliminated the need for 185-D function. Early gains in knowledge ended the original function of the 189-D building mission. In 1951, 185-D and 189-D were converted to a thermal-hydraulic laboratory. The experiments held in the thermal-hydraulic lab lead to historic changes in Hanford reactor operations. In late 1951, the exponential physics experiments were moved to the 189-D building. In 1958, new production reactor experiments were begun in 185/189-D. In 1959, Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor experiments were added to the 185/189-D facility. By 1960, the 185/189-D thermal hydraulics laboratory was one of the few full service facilities of its type in the nation. During the years 1961--1963 tests continued in the facility in support of existing reactors, new production reactors, and the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor. In 1969, Fast Flux Test Facility developmental testings began in the facility. Simulations in 185/189-D building aided in the N Reactor repairs in the 1980's. In 1994 the facility was nominated to the National Register of Historic Places, because of its pioneering role over many years in thermal hydraulics, flow studies, heat transfer, and other reactor coolant support work. During 1994 and 1995 it was demolished in the largest decontamination and decommissioning project thus far in Hanford Site history

  10. In situ and laboratory bioassays with Chironomus riparius larvae to assess toxicity of metal contamination in rivers: the relative toxic effect of sediment versus water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Mafalda S; Lopes, Ricardo J; Nogueira, António J A; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2007-09-01

    We used bioassays employing head capsule width and body length increase of Chironomus riparius larvae as end points to evaluate metal contamination in streams. Bioassays were performed in situ near an abandoned Portuguese goldmine in the spring of 2003 and 2004. Bioassays also were performed under laboratory conditions with water and sediment collected from each stream to verify if laboratory bioassays could detect in situ toxicity and to evaluate the relative contribution of sediment and water to overall toxicity. We used field sediments with control water and control sediments with field water to discriminate between metal contamination in water and sediment. Field water with dry and sieved, organic matter-free, and nontreated sediments was used to determine the toxicity of heavy metals that enter the organism through ingested material. In both in situ and laboratory bioassays, body length increase was significantly inhibited by metal contamination, whereas head capsule width was not affected. Body length increase was more affected by contaminated sediment compared to contaminated water. The lowest-effect level of heavy metals was observed in the dry and sieved sediment that prevented ingestion of sediment particles by larvae. These results suggest that body length increase of C. riparius larvae can be used to indicate the impact of metal contamination in rivers. Chironomus riparius larvae are more affected by heavy metals that enter the organism through ingested sediment than by heavy metals dissolved in the water column. Nevertheless, several factors, such as the particle size and organic matter of sediment, must be taken into account.

  11. Health Physics Laboratory - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olko, P.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The activities of the Health Physics Laboratory at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow are principally research in the general area of radiation physics, and radiation protection of the employees of the Institute of Nuclear Physics. Theoretical research concerns modelling of radiation effects in radiation detectors and studies of concepts in radiation protection. Experimental research, in the general area of solid state dosimetry, is primarily concerned with thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry, and more specifically: development of LiF:Mg, Ti and CVD diamond detectors for medical applications in conventional and hadron radiotherapy and of LiF:Mg, Cu, P for low-level natural external ionising radiation. Environmental radiation measurements (cosmic-rays on aircraft and radon in dwellings and soil) are also performed using track CR-39 and TLD detectors. The Laboratory provides expert advice on radiation protection regulations at national and international levels. Routine work of the Health Physics Laboratory involves design and maintenance of an in-house developed TL-based personnel dosimetry system for over 200 radiation workers at the INP, supervision of radiation safety on INP premises, and advising other INP laboratories on all matters pertaining to radiation safety. We provide personal and environmental TLD dosimetry service for several customers outside the INP, mainly in hospitals and nuclear research institutes in Poland. We also calibrate radiation protection instruments for customers in southern Poland. The year 2000 was another eventful year for the Health Physics Laboratory. We started three new research projects granted by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research. Mr P. Bilski co-ordinates the project on the measurements of radiation doses on board of commercial aircraft of Polish LOT Airlines. Dr B. Marczewska and I worked on the application of artificial diamonds for dosimetry of ionising radiation. We also participate in a

  12. An effective medium inversion algorithm for gas hydrate quantification and its application to laboratory and borehole measurements of gas hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, S.; Minshull, T.A.; Priest, J.A.; Best, A.I.; Clayton, C.R.I.; Waite, W.F.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of gas hydrate in marine sediments alters their physical properties. In some circumstances, gas hydrate may cement sediment grains together and dramatically increase the seismic P- and S-wave velocities of the composite medium. Hydrate may also form a load-bearing structure within the sediment microstructure, but with different seismic wave attenuation characteristics, changing the attenuation behaviour of the composite. Here we introduce an inversion algorithm based on effective medium modelling to infer hydrate saturations from velocity and attenuation measurements on hydrate-bearing sediments. The velocity increase is modelled as extra binding developed by gas hydrate that strengthens the sediment microstructure. The attenuation increase is modelled through a difference in fluid flow properties caused by different permeabilities in the sediment and hydrate microstructures. We relate velocity and attenuation increases in hydrate-bearing sediments to their hydrate content, using an effective medium inversion algorithm based on the self-consistent approximation (SCA), differential effective medium (DEM) theory, and Biot and squirt flow mechanisms of fluid flow. The inversion algorithm is able to convert observations in compressional and shear wave velocities and attenuations to hydrate saturation in the sediment pore space. We applied our algorithm to a data set from the Mallik 2L–38 well, Mackenzie delta, Canada, and to data from laboratory measurements on gas-rich and water-saturated sand samples. Predictions using our algorithm match the borehole data and water-saturated laboratory data if the proportion of hydrate contributing to the load-bearing structure increases with hydrate saturation. The predictions match the gas-rich laboratory data if that proportion decreases with hydrate saturation. We attribute this difference to differences in hydrate formation mechanisms between the two environments.

  13. Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range.

  14. Analyzing the Effect of Technology-Based Intervention in Language Laboratory to Improve Listening Skills of First Year Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupathi Madhumathi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available First year students pursuing engineering education face problems with their listening skills. Most of the Indian schools use a bilingual method for teaching subjects from primary school through high school. Nonetheless, students entering university education develop anxiety in listening to classroomlectures in English. This article reports an exploratory study that aimed to find out whether the listening competences of students improved when technology was deployed in language laboratory. It also investigated the opinions of the students about using teacher-suggested websites for acquiring listening skills. The results of the study indicated that the use of technology in a language laboratory for training students in listening competences had reduced the anxiety of the students when listening to English. Further, there was a significant improvement on the part of students in acquiring listening skills through technology-based intervention.Muchos estudiantes de ingeniería de primer año en India tienen problemas con sus habilidades de escucha en inglés; experimentan ansiedad al momento de escuchar conferencias en inglés, pese a que provienen de colegios donde se sigue un modelo bilingüe para enseñar materias desde la primariahasta la secundaria. Con el objetivo de averiguar si las competencias de escucha de los estudiantes mejoran cuando se introduce la tecnología en el laboratorio de idiomas, se realizó un estudio exploratorio en el que se tuvieron en cuenta las opiniones de los estudiantes acerca del uso de sitios web sugeridos por el docente para adquirir habilidades de escucha. Los resultados indican que el uso de la tecnología en el laboratorio de idiomas reduce la ansiedad de los estudiantes al momento de escuchar conferencias en inglés y que progresan significativamente en sus habilidades de escucha.

  15. Health Physics Laboratory - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olko, P.

    1999-01-01

    The activities of the Health Physics Laboratory at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow are principally research in the general area of radiation physics, and radiation protection of the employees of the Institute of Nuclear Physics. Theoretical research concerns modelling of radiation effects in radiation detectors and studies of concepts in radiation protection. Experimental research, in the general area of solid state dosimetry, is primarily concerned with thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry, and more specifically: development of LiF:Mg, Ti for medical applications in conventional and hadron radiotherapy, and of LiF:Mg, Cu, P for low-level natural external ionising radiation. Environmental radiation measurements (radon in dwellings and in soil air) are also performed using track detectors. The Laboratory provides expert advice on radiation protection regulations at national and international levels. Routine work of the Health Physics Laboratory involves design and maintenance of an in-house developed TL-based personnel dosimetry system for over 200 radiation workers at the INP, monitoring and supervision of radiation safety on INP premises, and advising other INP laboratories on all matters pertaining to radiation safety. The year 1998 was another eventful year for the Health Physics Laboratory. In retrospective, the main effort in 1998 has been directed towards preparation and participation in the 12th International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry in Burgos, Spain. One of the research projects is aimed at developing novel miniature TLD detectors with improved LET and dose characteristics for precise phantom measurements in eye cancer radiotherapy with proton beams. The second project concerns the application of ultra-sensitive LiF:Mg, Cu, P (MCP-N) TLD detectors in environmental monitoring of gamma ionising radiation. The main objective of this last project is to develop and to test a system for rapid, short-term monitoring of environmental radiation

  16. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxell, Wade [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3

  17. Examination of the Effects of Dimensionality on Cognitive Processing in Science: A Computational Modeling Experiment Comparing Online Laboratory Simulations and Serious Educational Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Richard L.

    2016-02-01

    Within the last 10 years, new tools for assisting in the teaching and learning of academic skills and content within the context of science have arisen. These new tools include multiple types of computer software and hardware to include (video) games. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the effect of computer learning games in the form of three-dimensional serious educational games, two-dimensional online laboratories, and traditional lecture-based instruction in the context of student content learning in science. In particular, this study examines the impact of dimensionality, or the ability to move along the X-, Y-, and Z-axis in the games. Study subjects ( N = 551) were randomly selected using a stratified sampling technique. Independent strata subsamples were developed based upon the conditions of serious educational games, online laboratories, and lecture. The study also computationally models a potential mechanism of action and compares two- and three-dimensional learning environments. F test results suggest a significant difference for the main effect of condition across the factor of content gain score with large effect. Overall, comparisons using computational models suggest that three-dimensional serious educational games increase the level of success in learning as measured with content examinations through greater recruitment and attributional retraining of cognitive systems. The study supports assertions in the literature that the use of games in higher dimensions (i.e., three-dimensional versus two-dimensional) helps to increase student understanding of science concepts.

  18. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  19. Lincoln Laboratory Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lincoln Laboratory Grid (LLGrid) is an interactive, on-demand parallel computing system that uses a large computing cluster to enable Laboratory researchers to...

  20. Gun Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Gun Dynamics Laboratory is a research multi-task facility, which includes two firing bays, a high bay area and a second floor laboratory space. The high bay area...

  1. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...

  2. Denver District Laboratory (DEN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesDEN-DO Laboratory is a multi-functional laboratory capable of analyzing most chemical analytes and pathogenic/non-pathogenic microorganisms found...

  3. Effects of chlorine and sulphur on particle formation in wood combustion performed in a laboratory scale reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olli Sippula; Terttaliisa Lind; Jorma Jokiniemi [University of Kuopio, Kuopio (Finland). Fine Particle and Aerosol Technology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences

    2008-09-15

    Fine particle formation in wood combustion was studied in a laboratory scale laminar flow reactor at various flue gas chlorine and sulphur concentrations. Aerosol samples were quenched at around 850{sup o}C using a porous tube diluter. Fine particle number concentrations, mass concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions were measured. In addition, flue gas composition, including SO{sub 2} and HCl, was monitored. Experimental results were interpreted by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Addition of HCl clearly raised fine particle mass concentration (PM1.0) which was because of increased release of ash-forming material to fine particles. Especially the release of K, Na, Zn and Cd to fine particles increased. These species form chlorides which apparently increases their volatilization from the fuel. When a sufficient amount of SO{sub 2} was supplied in a chlorine rich combustion (S/Cl molar ratio from 4.7 to 7.5), most of the HCl stayed in the gas phase, release of ash-forming elements decreased and also fine particle concentrations dropped significantly. The sulphation of alkali metals is suggested to play a key role in the observed decrease in the fine particle concentration. It seems that the formation of sulphates leads to alkali metal retention in the coarse particle fraction. 27 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Effect of drug precursors and chemicals relevant to clandestine laboratory investigation on plastic bags used for collection and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, Harmonie; Fu, Shanlin; Stuart, Barbara; Shimmon, Ronald; Raymond, Tony; Crandell, Tony; Roux, Claude

    2017-04-01

    In the area of clandestine laboratory investigations, plastic bags are used to collect and store evidence, such as solvents, precursors, and other compounds usually employed for the manufacturing of drugs (although liquids may be stored in glass containers within the bags first). In this study, three different types of plastic bags were provided by the NSW Police Force and investigated for their suitability for evidence collection: two different types of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and one type of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bag. Three different experiments were carried out: (1) storing relevant chemicals in the bags for up to three months; (2) exposing the bags including their content to accelerated conditions using a weatherometer, and (3) simulating an expected real case scenario. This study indicates that drugs and related chemicals stored in plastic bags may lead to a change in the composition of the chemical and an alteration or degradation of the plastic bag. All experiments led to the same conclusion: the polyvinyl chloride bags appeared to be the most affected. LDPE bags seem to be more appropriate for routine use, although it has been established they are not suitable for the collection of liquids (unless pre-packaged in, for instance, a glass container). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Innovative strategy for effective critical laboratory result management: end-to-end process using automation and manual call centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Lian Kah; Ang, Sophia Bee Leng; Saw, Sharon; Sethi, Sunil Kumar; Yip, James W L

    2012-08-01

    Timely reporting and acknowledgement are crucial steps in critical laboratory results (CLR) management. The authors previously showed that an automated pathway incorporating short messaging system (SMS) texts, auto-escalation, and manual telephone back-up improved the rate and speed of physician acknowledgement compared with manual telephone calling alone. This study investigated if it also improved the rate and speed of physician intervention to CLR and whether utilising the manual back-up affected intervention rates. Data from seven audits between November 2007 and January 2011 were analysed. These audits were carried out to assess the robustness of CLR reporting process in the authors' institution. Comparisons were made in the rate and speed of acknowledgement and intervention between the audits performed before and after automation. Using the automation audits, the authors compared intervention data between communication with SMS only and when manual intervention was required. 1680 CLR were reported during the audit periods. Automation improved the rate (100% vs 84.2%; pautomation audits, the use of SMS only did not improve physician intervention rates. The automated communication pathway improved physician intervention rate and time in tandem with improved acknowledgement rate and time when compared with manual telephone calling. The use of manual intervention to augment automation did not adversely affect physician intervention rate, implying that an end-to-end pathway was more important than automation alone.

  6. Cost-effective instrumentation and control upgrades for commercial nuclear power plants surety principles developed at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.E.; Dalton, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    Many nuclear power plants use instrument and control systems based on analog electronics. The state of the art in process control and instrumentation has advanced to use digital electronics and incorporate advanced technology. This technology includes: distributed microprocessors, fiber optics, intelligent systems (neutral networks), and advanced displays. The technology is used to optimize processes and enhance the man-machine interface while maintaining control and safety of the processes. Nuclear power plant operators have been hesitant to install this technology because of the cost and uncertainty in the regulatory process. This technology can be directly applied in an operating nuclear power plant provided a surety principle-based 'administrator' hardware system is included in parallel with the upgrade. Sandia National Laboratories has developed a rigorous approach to High Consequence System Surety (HCSS). This approach addresses the key issues of safety, security, and control while satisfying requirements for reliability and quality. We believe that HCSS principles can be applied to nuclear power plants in a manner that allows the off-the-shelf use of process control instrumentation while maintaining a high level of safety and enhancing the plant performance. We propose that an HCSS Administrator be constructed as a standardized approach to address regulatory issues. Such an administrator would allow a plant control system to be constructed with commercially available, state-to-the-art equipment and be customized to the needs of the individual plant operator. (author)

  7. The effect of temperature and body size on filtration rates of Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Pestana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei, Mollusca: Bivalvia is an invasive species that has been causing considerable environmental and economic problems in South America. In the present study, filtration rates of L. fortunei were determined in the laboratory under different temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 28, and 30 ºC and two types of food (Algamac-2000® and the chlorophycean alga Scenedesmus sp.. There was a statistically significant relationship between time and filtration rates in the experiment using Scenedesmus sp., regardless of temperature. However, this pattern was absent in the experiment using Algamac, suggesting that the relationship between filtration rates and temperature might depend on the size of the filtered particles. In addition, there was no correlation between filtration rates and either shell size or condition index (the relationship between the weight and the length of a mussel. The filtration rate measured in the present study (724.94 ml/h was one of the highest rates recorded among invasive bivalves to date. Given that the colonies of the golden mussel could reach hundreds of thousands of individuals per square meter, such filtration levels could severely impact the freshwater environments in its introduced range.

  8. Cost-effective instrumentation and control upgrades for commercial nuclear power plants using surety principles developed at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.E.; Dalton, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Many nuclear power plants use instrument and control systems based on analog electronics. The state of the art in process control and instrumentation has advanced to use digital electronics and incorporate advanced technology. This technology includes distributed microprocessors, fiber optics, intelligent systems (neural networks), and advanced displays. The technology is used to optimize processes and enhance the man-machine interface while maintaining control and safety of the processes. Nuclear power plant operators have been hesitant to install this technology because of the cost and uncertainty in the regulatory process. This technology can be directly applied in an operating nuclear power plant provided a surety principle-based open-quotes administratorclose quotes hardware system is included in parallel with the upgrade Sandia National Laboratories has developed a rigorous approach to High Consequence System Surety (HCSS). This approach addresses the key issues of safety, security, and control while satisfying requirements for reliability and quality. HCSS principles can be applied to nuclear power plants in a manner that allows the off-the-shelf use of process control instrumentation while maintaining a high level of safety and enhancing the plant performance. We propose that an HCSS administrator be constructed as a standardized approach to address regulatory issues. Such an administrator would allow a plant control system to be constructed with commercially available, state-of-the-art equipment and be customized to the needs of the individual plant operator

  9. Group dynamic and its effect on classroom climate, achievement, and time in lab in the organic chemistry laboratory classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Rachael S.

    Despite the many studies on the benefits of cooperative learning, there is surprising little research into how the classroom as a whole changes when these cooperative groups are reassigned. In one section of CHEM 3011 in Fall 2013, students were allowed to pick their partner and kept the same partner all semester. In another section during the same semester, students were assigned a different partner for every wet lab and were allowed to pick their partners during the computer simulation labs. The students in both sections were given the "preferred" version of the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI) at the beginning of the semester to elicit student preferences for the class environment, and the "actual" version of the SLEI and the Class Life Instrument at the end of the semester to determine what actually occurred during the semester. The students' interactions were recorded using an observational instrument developed specifically for this project. The students' responses to surveys, interactions, grades, and time in lab were analyzed for differences between the two sections. The results of this study will be discussed.

  10. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  11. Genetically uniform strains of fish as laboratory models for experimental studies of the effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Hart, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The advantages are discussed of using a genetically uniform test animal such as the amazon molly, Poecilia formosa, to reduce the biotic variability in experimental determination of the effects of ionizing radiation on aquatic ecosystems. Besides a cost reduction from using less organisms for these radiation-effect studies, another significant advantage of the higher precision responses due to homozygous genetic material is the assessment of radiation effects at the molecular and cellular levels. (author)

  12. Photovoltaic Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's PV characterization laboratory is used to measure the electrical performance and opto-electronic properties of solar cells and modules. This facility consists...

  13. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  14. Central Laboratories Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  15. Sandia National Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 60 years, Sandia has delivered essential science and technology to resolve the nation's most challenging security issues.Sandia National Laboratories...

  16. Wireless Emulation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Wireless Emulation Laboratory (WEL) is a researchtest bed used to investigate fundamental issues in networkscience. It is a research infrastructure that emulates...

  17. FOOD SAFETY TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory develops screening assays, tests and modifies biosensor equipment, and optimizes food safety testing protocols for the military and civilian sector...

  18. Embedded Processor Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Embedded Processor Laboratory provides the means to design, develop, fabricate, and test embedded computers for missile guidance electronics systems in support...

  19. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  20. Acoustic Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains an electro-magnetic worldwide data collection and field measurement capability in the area of acoustic technology. Outfitted by NASA Langley...

  1. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...

  2. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  3. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  4. Composites Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose of the Composites Characterization Laboratory is to investigate new and/or modified matrix materials and fibers for advanced composite applications both...

  5. Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL) utilizes a low-frequency acceleration measurement system for the characterization of rigid body inertial forces generated...

  6. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  7. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  8. Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Maryland provides the state of the art facilities for realizing next generation products and educating the...

  9. Virtual Training Devices Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Training Devices (VTD) Laboratory at the Life Cycle Software Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, provides a software testing and support environment...

  10. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  11. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  12. [Theme: Using Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Jack; Braker, Clifton

    1982-01-01

    Pritchard discusses the opportunities for applied learning afforded by laboratories. Braker describes the evaluation of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. (SK)

  13. Wind Structural Testing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides office space for industry researchers, experimental laboratories, computer facilities for analytical work, and space for assembling components...

  14. Geospatial Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: To process, store, and disseminate geospatial data to the Department of Defense and other Federal agencies.DESCRIPTION: The Geospatial Services Laboratory...

  15. Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, researchers study how chemical looping combustion (CLC) can be applied to fossil energy systems....

  16. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  17. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  18. Laboratory of Chemical Physics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Current research in the Laboratory of Chemical Physics is primarily concerned with experimental, theoretical, and computational problems in the structure, dynamics,...

  19. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  20. Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory is used to design and integrate computer hardware and software and related electronic subsystems for tactical vehicles....