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Sample records for plastic soda bottles

  1. Novel spectrophotometric method for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Barbara Bruna A.; Caldas, Luiz Fernando S.; Brum, Daniel M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil); Cassella, Ricardo J., E-mail: cassella@vm.uff.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    In the present work, a new spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in different materials. Reaction among Al(III), phenylfluorone (PF) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in slightly alkaline medium was explored for this purpose. The method was optimized regarding to its chemical parameters in order to establish better conditions in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. The results obtained showed that the concentration of CPC presented remarkable influence on the sensitivity and acted as a sensitizer for the studied system. The possible interferences of some metallic cations were evaluated and the cations Cu(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) presented noticed interference on the Al(III) signal. So, their interference was eliminated by using EDTA with minimum loss of sensitivity. The results obtained in the determination of total aluminum in soda drinks by the developed methodology were not statistically different from those obtained by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. In the optimized conditions the method presented a linear range of 5-100 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.81 and 2.7 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The methodology was successfully applied in the determination of aluminum in 10 samples of soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles.

  2. A Plastic Bottle in Rectosigmoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Derakhshanfar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation and treatment of foreign bodies in rectum involves careful history and physical examination. The cases of forced introduction of the objects most commonly are , sexual assault , self – introduced for anal eroticism and accidental insertion.Case Report: We describe a case of a patient with rectal impaction following self administration of a plastic bottle for anal sexual gratification. A 49 years old man was admitted in the emergency department with the history of self introduced a bottle into his rectum physical examination and abdominal X-Ray diagnosed the case as impacted foreign body in rectosigmoid. An attempt was made to deliver the bottle through the rectum but because of high lying big bottle in the sigmoid laporotomy was performed and the bottle was removed though a longitudinal incision on sigmoid colon.Conclusion: Retained rectosigmoid foreign bodies have been encountered more frequently and present a dilemma for management and rarely laporotomy for extraction of foreign bodies was performed.

  3. Recycling plastic bottles in a creative way

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlin, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Beside other plastic products, plastic bottles represent a true environmental disaster in the last few years. We assume that hardly anyone asks what happens after they drink that last drop of water out of it. Just like most municipal waste, a plastic bottle can be reused, recycled, burned or deposited into landfill. When the Environment Protection Act is not respected, plastic bottle ends up in the nature, very often in the sea, where it decomposes very slowly and has negative influence on th...

  4. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  5. Suicide by plastic bag suffocation combined with the mixture of citric acid and baking soda in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keishu; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Hashizume, Yumiko; Kitamura, Kengo; Okada, Misato; Okumoto, Kohei; Sakamoto, Shoich; Ishida, Yuko; Nosaka, Mizuho; Kimura, Akihiko; Takatsu, Akihiro; Kondo, Toshikazu

    2018-05-22

    We describe a case of suicidal asphyxiation using a plastic bag combined with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gas. A 20-year-old male, whose head was covered with a plastic bag, was found dead in his room. In the plastic bag, there were two glass-made cups containing liquid-like substance. Through crime scene investigation by police staffs, a bottle of citric acid and a box of baking soda were also discovered in his room. The forensic autopsy revealed that there were neither lesions nor injuries in all of the organs. Moreover, any drugs and poisons could not be detected in blood samples. Based on autopsy findings and crime scene investigation, the cause of death was diagnosed as acute asphyxia due to CO 2 intoxication by the mixture of citric acid with baking soda in the plastic bag. To the best of our knowledge, there are no medical literatures describing plastic bag suffocation combined with CO 2 gas generated from citric acid and baking soda, which has been widely distributed as suicidal means through websites. This case report promotes forensic pathologists and medical coroners to emphasize that the Internet has a crucial role on a source of suicidal information or a promoter of suicide all over the world.

  6. Severe pediatric ocular injury due to explosion of a firecracker inside a soda bottle

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    Tarek A Shazly

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tarek A ShazlyDepartment of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: This case report describes a penetrating ocular injury, followed by endophthalmitis, in a four-year-old girl, resulting from explosion of a small K0201 match-cracker inside a soda bottle. The patient presented with two corneal lacerations, ruptured crystalline lens, multiple intraocular foreign bodies, and hyphema of the right eye, for which immediate surgical exploration and repair was performed. The patient developed aggressive endophthalmitis that led to atrophy of the eye within a few weeks. Severe ocular injuries can result from small, relatively “safe” firecrackers. Therefore, this type of firework should not be used, especially by minors.Keywords: pediatric trauma, endophthalmitis, firecracker

  7. Innovative Design of Plastic Bottle Recycling Box Based on ARM

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    Yuedong Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of on-site plastic bottles recycling and the reuse of waste, the automatic recycling system was developed on the basis of ARM. As the main controller, ARM not only controls the mechanical system of the collector to recover and break plastic bottles, but also communicates with and rewards the user by the automatic reward system through the wireless network. The experimental prototype test results show: post treated fragments of plastic bottles are small, which are convenient to transport and take advantage of; the operation of recovery is easy, and the interface of man-machine interaction is friendly which is easy to expand functions.

  8. Are consumers concerned about plastic water bottles environmental impact?

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Orset; Nicolas Barret; Aurélien Lemaire

    2015-01-01

    Although plastic induces environmental damages, almost all water bottles are made from plastic. However, these damages are more or less significant according to the plastic used. This study evaluates the consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for different plastics used for water packaging. Successive messages emphasizing the characteristics of plastic are delivered to participants allowing explaining information influence on the consumers' WTP. We find that information has a significant effect ...

  9. Thermophysical characteristics of plastic bottles as an element of water heat accumulators in solar greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalimov, A. G.; Khairiddinov, B. Eh.; Kim, V. D.; Khalimov, G. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the thermophysical and granulometric characteristics of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottles filled with water. The given figures allow one to conduct calculations of thermal plastic bottles as heat storage elements for solar greenhouses. (author)

  10. Management of PET plastic bottles waste through recycling Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlalla, N. B. I.

    2010-10-01

    This study been carried out to assess the general waste management in Khartoum State and effectively manage the PET plastic bottles by identifying practical means and introducing recycling as cleaner production tool to achieve sustainable development goals. The information data were gathered during the period June-July 2010 through questionnaires, interview, meeting and visits to various sites, in addition to the official information and documents collected from reliable sources, mainly Sudan Central Bank, customs authorities, Ministry of Industry, soft drink and water bottling factories. The data were presented in tables, graphs and charts by applying windows excel program and also applying e view package for the future forecast. Analysis of data shows a rising consumption in PET bottles and the forecasted PET consumption in year 2015 estimated to be 60000 Tons, twice the estimate in the year 2010. This situation will create serious environmental problems that require much more effort to be exerted by all stake holders to book for scientific and practical solutions for the disposal of plastic waste through recycling. Based on the analysis and findings recommendations have been made that ensure on recycling of PET plastic bottles by mechanical method that depends mainly on collection, segregation, cleaning and processing. Further studies and researches on other recycling methods have been recommended in the future. (Author)

  11. Endocrine disruptors in bottled mineral water: total estrogenic burden and migration from plastic bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2009-05-01

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. So far, this has been demonstrated by exposure modeling or analytical identification of single substances in foodstuff (e.g., phthalates) and human body fluids (e.g., urine and blood). Since the research in this field is focused on few chemicals (and thus missing mixture effects), the overall contamination of edibles with xenohormones is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the integrated estrogenic burden of bottled mineral water as model foodstuff and to characterize the potential sources of the estrogenic contamination. In the present study, we analyzed commercially available mineral water in an in vitro system with the human estrogen receptor alpha and detected estrogenic contamination in 60% of all samples with a maximum activity equivalent to 75.2 ng/l of the natural sex hormone 17beta-estradiol. Furthermore, breeding of the molluskan model Potamopyrgus antipodarum in water bottles made of glass and plastic [polyethylene terephthalate (PET)] resulted in an increased reproductive output of snails cultured in PET bottles. This provides first evidence that substances leaching from plastic food packaging materials act as functional estrogens in vivo. Our results demonstrate a widespread contamination of mineral water with xenoestrogens that partly originates from compounds leaching from the plastic packaging material. These substances possess potent estrogenic activity in vivo in a molluskan sentinel. Overall, the results indicate that a broader range of foodstuff may be contaminated with endocrine disruptors when packed in plastics.

  12. Consumer exposure to Bisphenol A from plastic bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its' primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking containers, eyeglass lenses, sports safety equipment as well as consumer electronics. Studies have shown that BPA is leached from lacquer coated cans and baby feeding bottles due to hydrolysis of the Polymer during thermal treatment. Studies have also shown that even under normal use BPA may leach from food and beverage containers. For many years Bisphenol A was treated as neutral to human health. The detection of BPA in drinking water and food products has raised the interest of many researches since 1990. Thousands of studies have examined the impact of BPA to determine its effects in laboratory animals. Numerous toxicological and biochemical studies have supported that BPA has estrogenic properties. The effects of exposure to BPA can be harmful to fetus, infants and young children. BPA is used in products where traces of it can be found in every human at higher levels of concentration than that which causes problems in animals. The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has defined "low dose" of endocrine disrupting chemicals as doses below no observable adverse effect (NOAE) for specific chemicals. In BPA, this dose is 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Today there are more than 150 published results describing how low doses of BPA effects animals. A recent study reported that adult female mice, monkeys, and humans metabolized BPA at almost identical rates. Since the level of BPA and other endocrine chemicals appears to be increasing throughout the World, especially where plastics are prevalent, it is extremely important to study the effects of this chemical on man and wildlife. This research effort

  13. A study on the plasticity of soda-lime silica glass via molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Shingo; Sato, Yosuke

    2017-11-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were applied to construct a plasticity model, which enables one to simulate deformations of soda-lime silica glass (SLSG) by using continuum methods. To model the plasticity, stress induced by uniaxial and a variety of biaxial deformations was measured by MD simulations. We found that the surfaces of yield and maximum stresses, which are evaluated from the equivalent stress-strain curves, are reasonably represented by the Mohr-Coulomb ellipsoid. Comparing a finite element model using the constructed plasticity model to a large scale atomistic model on a nanoindentation simulation of SLSG reveals that the empirical method is accurate enough to evaluate the SLSG mechanical responses. Furthermore, the effect of ion-exchange on the SLSG plasticity was examined by using MD simulations. As a result, it was demonstrated that the effects of the initial compressive stress on the yield and maximum stresses are anisotropic contrary to our expectations.

  14. Plutonium solution storage in plastic bottles: Operational experience and safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.

    1995-01-01

    Computer spread sheet models were developed to gain a better understanding of the factors that lead to pressurization and failure of plastic bottles containing plutonium solutions. These models were developed using data obtained from the literature on gas generation rates for plutonium solutions. Leak rates from sealed plastic bottles were obtained from bottle leak tests conducted at Rocky Flats. Results from these bottle leak tests showed that narrow mouth four liter bottles will seal much better than wide mouth four liter bottles. The gas generation rate and leak rate data were used to develop models for predicting the rate of pressurization and maximum pressures expected in sealed bottles of plutonium solution containing various plutonium and acid concentrations. The computer models were used to develop proposed time limits for storing or transporting plutonium solutions in sealed plastic bottles. For plutonium solutions containing 1.5 g/l plutonium, storage in sealed bottles should not be allowed. However, transportation of higher concentration plutonium solution in sealed bottles is required, and safe transportation times of 1 shift to 6 days are proposed

  15. Using waste plastic bottles as additive for stone mastic asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadinia, Esmaeil; Zargar, Majid; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez; Shafigh, Payam

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The PET increased the stiffness level of the mixture improving its resistance level against permanent deformation. → The effects of waste PET on Marshall Stability, air void and bulk specific gravity of the mixture are significant. → The appropriate amount of PET was found to be 6% by weight of bitumen. -- Abstract: Currently, polymer modified asphalt mixture is a relatively costly mixture for paving roads. One way to reduce the cost of such constructions and rendering them more convenient is by using inexpensive polymers, i.e. waste polymers. The main purpose of this research is to determine the effect of incorporating waste plastic bottles (Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)) on the engineering properties of stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixture. The volumetric and mechanical properties of asphalt mixes that include various percentages of PET (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) were calculated and assessed with laboratory tests. The appropriate amount of PET was found to be 6% by weight of bitumen. The outcomes were statistically analysed and the determination of the significance at certain confidence limits was performed with the two factor variance analysis (ANOVA). Moreover, some studies conducted on polyethylene modified asphalt mixture have also been taken into consideration in this paper. The results show that the addition of PET has a significant positive effect on the properties of SMA and it can promote the re-use of waste material in industry in an environmentally friendly and economical way.

  16. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  17. Plastic Bottles Waste Utilization as Modifier for Asphalt Mixture Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic Bottles was used as the polymeric waste to investigate performance of asphalt mixture Aggregates obtained from Margalla, Burhan and Karak quarries. 12 samples were prepared for conventional asphalt mixtures and 48 samples were prepared for PB modified asphalt mixture of each quarries at various proportions of PB waste. The PB used for modification according to wet process are 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% by weight of Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC. OBC of 4.2 % was concluded for conventional asphalt mixtures. The stability and flow values of the conventional and modified Asphalt Mixture were compared. The average Stability of the modified Margalla asphalt mixtures when 15% PB was used was much higher as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures. But when PB was used beyond 15%, the Marshall stability showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates, increasing trend for Karak aggregates and decreasing trend for Burhan aggregates. This decline in stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking of aggregates due to lubricating effect. The corresponding flow for the Modified asphalt mixtures first showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates at 15% PB modification but beyond 15%, an increasing trend in flow as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures The decrease in flow or increase in Marshall Stability is attributed to improvement in interlocking and decline in flow or stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking offered by binder and PB coated aggregate particles in modified asphalt.

  18. Bottles to trees: Plastic beverage bottles as an alternative nursery growing container for reforestation in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurram, Safiullah; Burney, Owen T.; Morrissey, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Reforestation is needed globally to help restore degraded sites, combat desertification, protect watersheds, and provide forest products. This involves planting forest tree seedlings grown in local nurseries, but technologies to produce quality seedlings are lacking in developing countries. Modern nursery containers used to propagate seedlings have internal-surface barriers (ribs or ridges) or side-slits to prevent root spiraling. These are cost prohibitive or unavailable in developing countries and so polybags (plastic bags) are more commonly used, despite their tendency to produce seedlings with deformed root systems that have less potential to establish on field sites. Discarded plastic bottles, which are readily available worldwide, may be a feasible alternative for seedling propagation. We conducted two experiments to assess the potential of repurposed plastic beverage bottles to grow quality trees: 1) Container Comparison–to evaluate Arizona walnut (Juglans major [Toor.] Heller) and Afghan pine (Pinus eldarica Medw.) seedling root and shoot development in two plastic bottle types compared to modern nursery containers and polybags, and 2) Bottle Modification–to examine the effects of root spiraling prevention techniques (side-slits, internal-ridges, and control) and container opacity (green, black, and clear) on Afghan pine seedling morphological attributes. Nursery growth and first-year seedling field performance were evaluated for both experiments. In experiment one, seedlings of both species had fewer spiraled roots in bottle containers compared to polybags. Arizona walnut had more fibrous root systems in polybags, while Afghan pine root system fibrosity was greatest in bottle containers. First-year field performance of both species was not affected by container type. In experiment two, less spiraled roots occurred in containers with air-slits and interior-ridges compared to the control. The effects of container opacity on seedling morphology were

  19. Assessment of metal contaminations leaching out from recycling plastic bottles upon treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoliang; Shi, Honglan; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa

    2010-08-01

    Heavy metal contaminants in environment, especially in drinking water, are always of great concern due to their health impact. Due to the use of heavy metals as catalysts during plastic syntheses, particularly antimony, human exposure to metal release from plastic bottles has been a serious concern in recent years. The aim and scope of this study were to assess metal contaminations leaching out from a series of recycling plastic bottles upon treatments. In this study, leaching concentrations of 16 metal elements were determined in 21 different types of plastic bottles from five commercial brands, which were made of recycling materials ranging from no. 1 to no. 7. Several sets of experiments were conducted to study the factors that could potentially affect the metal elements leaching from plastic bottles, which include cooling with frozen water, heating with boiling water, microwave, incubating with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage. Heating and microwave can lead to a noticeable increase of antimony leaching relative to the controls in bottle samples A to G, and some even reached to a higher level than the maximum contamination level (MCL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Incubation with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage had no significant effect on antimony leaching relative to controls in bottle samples A to G, and the levels of antimony leaching detected were below 6 ppb which is the MCL of USEPA regulations. Cooling had almost no effect on antimony leaching based on our results. For the other interested 15 metal elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb), no significant leaching was detected or the level was far below the MCL of USEPA regulations in all bottle samples in this study. In addition, washing procedure did contribute to the antimony leaching concentration for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. The difference of antimony leaching

  20. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  1. Accessories modifying based on plastic waste of shampoo bottle as home economic product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Erna; Sukesi, Siti

    2018-03-01

    Plastic is a waste that can not decompose by the soil and if its left without a good handling can pollute the environment. Plastic waste needs processing by the recycle bottles principle. Shampoo bottle is one of plastic waste with high density polyethylene type (HDPE). One of the innovation to recycling shampoo bottles waste into the new products whichbeneficially and aestheticallyform by engineered the buns accesories. Accessories are one of the tools used by most women, in the form of trinkets or ornaments which ajusted to the trend to beautify the look. Accessories from shampoo bottle waste can be obtained from household waste, beauty salon and the beauty program study by inculcating human beings' behavior by transforming waste into blessing while also increasing family income. Technique of making its by compiling through improvement of panelist team. The goal of this research is to engineering theaccessories based on shampoo bottle waste as home economics. The method are using experiment, observation and documentation, analysis using descriptive. The results obtained from the overall sensory test averaged at 93%, while the favored test averaged at 85.5%. The product can be ordered according to the desired design, but it takes a long time. Therefore accessories engineering from shampoo bottles waste-based can be used as home economics. The production of shampoo bottles waste-based accessories should improved its quality and quantity, to be marketed through the community, by the cooperation with accessories and bun craftsmen.

  2. COST EVALUATION OF AUTOMATED AND MANUAL POST- CONSUMER PLASTIC BOTTLE SORTING SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluates, on the basis of performance and cost, two Automated BottleSort® sorting systems for post-consumer commingled plastic containers developed by Magnetic Separation Systems. This study compares the costs to sort mixed bales of post-consumer plastic at these t...

  3. Demonstration of Hydrostatic Paradox with Plastic Bottles and LabQuest Vernier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodejška, Cenek

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the experimental demonstration of the hydrostatic paradox using simple tools in the form of plastic bottles and plastic syringes with a thread. For the evaluation of the results obtained the data logger Lab Quest Vernier was used. The construction of the device is presented in the first part of this paper. The second part…

  4. Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, Paul; Prapaipong, Panjai; Shock, Everett; Hillaireau, Alice

    2008-02-01

    Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water. Previous reports suggest that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics used for water bottles in Europe and Canada leach antimony, but no studies on bottled water in the United States have previously been conducted. Nine commercially available bottled waters in the southwestern US (Arizona) were purchased and tested for antimony concentrations as well as for potential antimony release by the plastics that compose the bottles. The southwestern US was chosen for the study because of its high consumption of bottled water and elevated temperatures, which could increase antimony leaching from PET plastics. Antimony concentrations in the bottled waters ranged from 0.095 to 0.521 ppb, well below the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 6 ppb. The average concentration was 0.195+/-0.116 ppb at the beginning of the study and 0.226+/-0.160 ppb 3 months later, with no statistical differences; samples were stored at 22 degrees C. However, storage at higher temperatures had a significant effect on the time-dependent release of antimony. The rate of antimony (Sb) release could be fit by a power function model (Sb(t)=Sb 0 x[Time, h]k; k=8.7 x 10(-6)x[Temperature ( degrees C)](2.55); Sb 0 is the initial antimony concentration). For exposure temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85 degrees C, the exposure durations necessary to exceed the 6 ppb MCL are 176, 38, 12, 4.7, 2.3, and 1.3 days, respectively. Summertime temperatures inside of cars, garages, and enclosed storage areas can exceed 65 degrees C in Arizona, and thus could promote antimony leaching from PET bottled waters. Microwave digestion revealed that the PET plastic used by one brand contained 213+/-35 mgSb/kg plastic; leaching of all the antimony from this plastic into 0.5L of water in a bottle could result in an antimony concentration of 376 ppb. Clearly, only a small

  5. Consumer Exposure to Bisphenol A from Plastic Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking…

  6. Estrogenic activity, selected plasticizers and potential health risks associated with bottled water in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneck-Hahn, Natalie H; Van Zijl, Magdalena C; Swart, Pieter; Truebody, Barry; Genthe, Bettina; Charmier, Jessica; Jager, Christiaan De

    2018-04-01

    Potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are present in bottled water from various countries. In South Africa (SA), increased bottled water consumption and concomitant increases in plastic packaging create important consequences for public health. This study aimed to screen SA bottled water for estrogenic activity, selected target chemicals and assessing potential health risks. Ten bottled water brands were exposed to 20 °C and 40 °C over 10 days. Estrogenic activity was assessed using the recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the T47D-KBluc reporter gene assay. Solid phase extracts of samples were analyzed for bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), selected phthalates, bisphenol-A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), estrone (E 1 ), and ethynylestradiol (EE 2 ) using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry. Using a scenario-based health risk assessment, human health risks associated with bottled water consumption were evaluated. Estrogenic activity was detected at 20 °C (n = 2) and at 40 °C (n = 8). Estradiol equivalent (EEq) values ranged from 0.001 to 0.003 ng/L. BPA concentrations ranged from 0.9 ng/L to 10.06 ng/L. Although EEqs and BPA concentrations were higher in bottled water stored at 40 °C compared to 20 °C, samples posed an acceptable risk for a lifetime of exposure. Irrespective of temperature, bottled water from SA contained chemicals with acceptable health risks.

  7. PROFILE OF PLASTIC WATER BOTTLES WASTES PROCESSING BUSINESS UNIT FOR WASTE PICKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herijanto P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Used plastic water bottles waste pickers can be categorized as one of the informal sector’s component. They work for themselves by picking up used water bottles and selling them to the waste collectors. The problem to be solved in this research is How the Most Appropriate Used Plastic Water Bottles Business Model for Waste Pickers Is that enables them to be categorized as formal sector. From the result of the interview with 120 waste pickers, 96 results were qualified to be analyzed. The interview was located in several waste collectors, which were visited by waste pickers at certain hours. The data were analyzed descriptively based on six business aspects. Specifically for production facilities, Quality Function Deployment (QFD and Value Engineering (VE analysis were performed. The results of the analysis indicate that the business is practicable for waste pickers and has the potential to enable them run a formal business sector.

  8. Spark Ignition of Combustible Vapor in a Plastic Bottle as a Demonstration of Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    I report an innovation that provides a compelling demonstration of rocket propulsion, appropriate for students of physics and other physical sciences. An electrical spark is initiated from a distance to cause the deflagration of a combustible vapor mixed with air in a lightweight plastic bottle that is consequently propelled as a rocket by the…

  9. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal growth in plastic bottled beverages under a consuming condition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Araki, Emiko; Kanda, Takashi; Tomita, Atsuko; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these beverages several microorganism types were used: nine bacteria including three toxin producers, three yeasts, and five moulds. Following inoculation, the bottles were incubated at 35°C for 48 h for bacteria, 25°C for 48 h for yeasts, and 25°C for 28 days for moulds. During the incubation period, the number of bacteria and yeasts and visible changes in mould-growth were determined over time. Our results indicated that combinations of the beverage types and microorganism species correlated with the degree of growth. Regarding factors that affect the growth and toxin-productivity of microorganisms in beverages, it is speculated that the pH, static/shaking culture, temperature, additives, or ingredients, such as carbon dioxide or organic matter (especially of plant origin), may be important for microorganism growth in beverages. Our results suggest that various types of unfinished beverages have microorganism growth and can include food borne pathogens and bacterial toxins. Therefore, our results indicate that in terms of food hygiene it is necessary to consume beverages immediately after opening

  10. Platelets in blood stored in untreated and siliconed glass bottles and plastic bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F.; Madsen, C. B.; Nedergaard, Jytte

    1961-01-01

    Platelet survival was determined using untreated and siliconed glass bottles and plastic bags (Fenwal) for collecting and storing blood. The platelets were tagged in vivo with P32 in six polycythaemic patients undergoing treatment with P32. The results showed that fresh ACD blood collected in untreated glass, siliconed glass, and plastic gave the same recovery of platelets in the recipients. The use of EDTA (Fenwal formula) as anticoagulant gave results inferior to those obtained with blood using ACD as anticoagulant. Even after storage up to 24 hours in untreated glass bottles (ordinary bank blood) a satisfactory recovery of platelets was observed. After storage for 72 hours the recovery was less but not negligible. PMID:14456481

  11. New absorbent acoustic materials from plastic bottle remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Rey, R.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the building acoustics field usually fibrous materials are used as sound absorbing materials. Nowadays polyester fiber is one of the most used but the pure chip of polyester has a problem. Polyester is obtained of petroleum and its price was increasing last years. This paper, presents an alternative polyester wool which obtained by PET treatment (recycle of plastic bottle’s. Absorption coefficient values at normal incidence measured in reverberation chamber were compared (new wool obtained by PET method and materials obtained from pure chip of polyester.Furthermore, this paper propound a empiric model that describe the acoustic performance of this new wool. The results have been good. The pure fiber has been replaced by recycle fiber in its manufacture process.

    En el ámbito de acústica de la edificación es común el uso de materiales fibrosos como materiales absorbentes acústicos. Uno de estos materiales cada vez más utilizado es la lana de poliéster. Un problema que presenta el chip virgen de poliéster es que se obtiene del petróleo, cuyo precio no hace más que incrementarse en los últimos años. En este trabajo se presenta una lana de poliéster alternativa, obtenida mediante el tratamiento del PET, a través del conveniente ciclo de reciclado de botellas de plástico. Se comparan valores del coeficiente de absorción; en incidencia normal y en cámara reverberante de los materiales elaborados a partir de chip virgen y de las nuevas lanas obtenidas del PET. Además, se propone un modelo empírico de comportamiento acústico de estas nuevas lanas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido favorables, la fibra virgen ya ha sido sustituida por fibra reciclada en su proceso de fabricación.

  12. A complete life cycle assessment of high density polyethylene plastic bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treenate, P.; Limphitakphong, N.; Chavalparit, O.

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed to determine environmental performances of a lubricant oil bottle made from high density polyethylene and to develop potential measures for reducing its impacts. A complete life cycle assessment was carried out to understand a whole effect on the environment from acquiring, processing, using, and disposing the product. Two scenarios of disposal phase; recycle and incineration: were examined to quantify a lesser degree on environmental impact. The results illustrated that major impacts of the two scenarios were at the same categories with the highest contributor of raw material acquisition and pre-processing. However, all impacts in case of recycling provided a lower point than that in case of incineration, except mineral extraction. Finally, feasible measures for reducing the environmental impact of high density polyethylene plastic bottle were proposed in accordance with 3Rs concept.

  13. Economic Impact of Imposing Excise Tax on Plastic Bottles of Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Mardanugraha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research simulates the effect of imposing excise tax on plastic container of drinks towards economic performance of beverage industry in Indonesia and governmentâ˘A ´Zs tax revenue. The results showed that by imposing excise tax on plastic cups and plastic bottles the government would lose tax revenue from value added tax (PPN and corporate income tax (PPh badan more than they gain additional revenue from excise tax. Hence, imposing excise tax on drink containers should serve a clear purpose and an undeniable reason. This paper recommends the government to develop proper excise infrastructure to extend the goods or services to be taxed. This paper also recommends the required stages for extending the excise tax.

  14. Community challenges when using large plastic bottles for Solar Energy Disinfection of Water (SODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Borde

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communities living in developing countries as well as populations affected by natural or man-made disasters can be left at great risk from water related diseases, especially those spread through the faecal-oral route. Conventional water treatments such as boiling and chlorination can be effective but may prove costly for impoverished communities. Solar water disinfection (SODIS has been shown to be a cheap and effective way for communities to treat their water. The exposure to sunlight is typically carried out in small volume plastic beverage bottles (up to 2 l. Given the water requirements of consumption and basic personal hygiene, this may not always meet the needs of communities. Recent work has shown 19-L plastic water dispenser containers to be effective SODIS reactors, comparable in efficacy to PET bottles. In this paper we outline the need for studying SODIS in large volumes and discuss 4 main associated challenges. Discussion Apart from clean water needed for consumption, access to adequate water is essential for sanitation and hygiene. Contamination of treated water through unwashed hands or vessels contributes heavily to the spread of water borne pathogens in communities. Traditional water treatments such as boiling and chlorination can be effective but may prove financially burdensome for low income communities. SODIS in large vessels could be used as a simple method to meet water requirements in low income and disaster affected populations. However, there have been some concerns associated with the conventional SODIS method; we identify the main ones to be: (1 cold or cloudy weather; (2 the fear of leaching in plastic bottles; (3 water turbidity, and; (4 community acceptance. Summary The application of SODIS in large bottles like WDCs has the potential to be an efficient and cost effective method of disinfecting water, either for consumption until more rigorous water treatments can be put in place, or for

  15. Property of filler-loaded magnetic ferrite from plastic waste bottle used to treat municipal domestic sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ru-Jin; Gong, Li-Ying; Zhu, Hai-Dong; Liu, Qiao; Xu, Li-Xia; Lu, Lu; Yang, Qi-Zhi

    2018-06-01

    The present work investigates the properties of self-made magnetic filler from plastic waste bottle and explores a new technology approach of waste plastic resource utilization. The magnetic filler was prepared by air plasma modification and loading magnetic ferrite on the plastic strip from waste plastic bottle. The surface properties of magnetic filler were characterized by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), contact angle system and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). AFM images of original and modified plastic strip showed that low-temperature plasma treatment markedly increased the surface roughness of plastic strip. The mean roughness (Ra) of plastic strip rose from 1.116 to 5.024 nm. FTIR spectra indicated that a lot of polar oxygenic groups were introduced onto the surface of plastic by plasma modification. Modification by low-temperature plasma increased the hydrophilicity of plastic strip surface. When treatment time is 40 s, water contact angle of plastic strip surface reduced from 78.2° of original plastic strip to 25.3°. When used in bioreactor, magnetic filler had very favorable microenvironment for microorganism growth. Magnetic filler was more efficient for removing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and [Formula: see text] in sewage than nonmagnetic filler. The resource utilization of plastic wastes will become reality if the magnetic filler is applied widely.

  16. Recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic bottle wastes in bituminous asphaltic concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Olatunbosun Sojobi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sheds light on the concept of eco-friendly road construction which comprises eco-design, eco-extraction, eco-manufacturing, eco-construction, eco-rehabilitation, eco-maintenance, eco-demolition, and socioeconomic empowerment. It also revealed the challenges being faced in its adoption and the benefits derivable from its application. Furthermore, the effects of recycling PET plastic bottle wastes produced in North Central Nigeria in bituminous asphaltic concrete (BAC used in flexible pavement construction were also evaluated. The mix design consists of 60/70 penetration-grade asphaltic concrete (5%, 68% coarse aggregate, 6% fine aggregate, and 21% filler using the dry process at 170°C. The optimum bitumen content (OBC for conventional BAC was obtained as 4% by weight of total aggregates and filler. Polymer-coated aggregate (PCA-modified BAC seems preferable because it has the potential to utilize more plastic wastes with a higher optimum plastic content (OPC of 16.7% by weight of total aggregates and filler compared to that of 9% by weight of OBC achieved by PMB-BAC. For both PMB- and PCA-modified BAC, an increase in air void, void in mineral aggregate, and Marshall stability were observed. Eco-friendly road construction which recycles PET wastes should be encouraged by government considering its potential environmental and economic benefits.

  17. An unusual case of organophosphate intoxication of a worker in a plastic bottle recycling plant: an important reminder.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, C L; Chuang, H Y; Chang, C Y; Liu, S T; Wu, M T; Ho, C K

    2000-01-01

    A young man was sent to our emergency unit because he had suffered from vomiting and cold sweating for 2 days. At the time he was admitted, he had no acute abdominal pains or gastrointestinal symptoms, and a physical examination revealed nothing but a faster heart rate and moist, flushing skin. The patient had worked for 6 years at a plastic bottle-recycling factory, but none of his co-workers had the same symptoms. Nevertheless, because the plant also recycled pesticide bottles, we suspected...

  18. Identification and quantification of the migration of chemicals from plastic baby bottles used as substitutes for polycarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, C; Van den Eede, L; Valzacchi, S

    2012-01-01

    The results of a study on the analytical identification and quantification of migration of chemicals from plastics baby bottles found in the European Union market made of materials that are now present as substitutes for polycarbonate (PC) are reported. A total of 449 baby bottles with a focus on first age or sets of bottles were purchased from 26 European Union countries, Canada, Switzerland and the USA. From this collection, which contained several duplicates, a total of 277 baby bottles were analysed. The materials included different types of plastic such as PC, polyamide (PA), polyethersulphone (PES), polypropylene (PP), but also silicone, and from the United States a co-polyester marketed under the trade name Tritan™. The bottles were subjected to the conventional migration test for hot fill conditions, i.e. 2 h at 70°C. The simulant used was that specified in European Union legislation (2007/19/EC) for milk, i.e. 50% ethanol. In a first phase 1, migration was conducted since the scope of this investigation was a screening rather than a true compliance testing check. Second and third migrations were performed on selected articles when migrated substances exceeded limits specified in the legislation. In order to verify some materials, a portion of the bottle was cut to run an FT-IR fingerprint to confirm the nature of the polymer. The migration solutions in general showed a low release of substances. Results showed that bottles made of PP and silicones showed a greater number of substances in the migration solutions and in greater quantity. Chemicals from PP included alkanes, which could be found in >65% of the bottles at levels up to 3500 µg kg⁻¹; and benzene derivatives in 17% of the baby bottles and found at levels up to 113 µg kg⁻¹. Some substances were found on a regular basis such as plasticisers, esters and antioxidants (e.g. tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate, known as Irgafos 168. Some substances found were not included in the

  19. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the PET

  20. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, A. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5–6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae—all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the

  1. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Oberbeckmann

    Full Text Available Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina. The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact

  2. Glass vs. Plastic: Life Cycle Assessment of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Bottles across Global Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Accorsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of global food supply chains are growing with the need for their measurement and management. This paper explores the operations of a global supply chain for extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO according to a life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. The LCA assessment methodology is applied to determine the environmental impact categories associated with the bottled EVOO life cycle, focusing on packaging decisions. The proposed analysis identifies the greatest environmental stressors of the EVOO supply chain, thereby supporting strategic and operative decisions toward more efficient and environmentally-friendly operations management and packaging choices. This paper quantifies the environmental categories of the impacts of global warming potential, ozone layer depletion, non-renewable energy use, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, for the observed EVOO supply chain, given alternative packaging configurations, i.e., a glass bottle vs. a plastic bottle. The observed system includes the supply of EVOO, the EVOO processing and bottling, the supply of packaging, the distribution of final products to customers, the end-of-life (EOL treatments regarding the management, recycling and the disposal of waste across a global supply chain. The findings from the LCA highlight the potential of PET bottles in reducing the environmental impact of EVOO supply chains and identifies hotspots of discussion for policy-makers, EVOO producers and consumers.

  3. Constructing a Plastic Bottle Wind Turbine as a Practical Aid for Learning about Using Wind Energy to Generate Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    A simple horizontal axis wind turbine can be easily constructed using a 1.5 l PET plastic bottle, a compact disc and a small dynamo. The turbine operates effectively at low wind speeds and has a rotational speed of 500 rpm at a wind speed of about 14 km h[superscript -1]. The wind turbine can be used to demonstrate the relationship between open…

  4. The Tensile Strenght Properties Effect Of Rice-Husk Ash As On The Composite Of Plastic Drinking Bottle Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rice-husk ash has a potential to be filler in composite. The study on rice-husk ash utilitation as afiller in polyethylene terephthalate PET matrix of plastic drinking bottle waste was conducted in order to find the ratio of rice-husk ask and PET matrix that would result the best tensile strength which was characterized by using scenning electron microscopy SEM. In this study the PET of plastic drinking bottle waste firstly was cut into smaller pieces and was extruded with the temperature of 265 o C. Then it was mixed with rice-husk ash on ratio of PET plastic drinking bottle waste and rice-husk ash of 955 9010 and 8515. After that it was extruded at temperature of 265 o C before it was pressed by hot press at temperature of 265 o C for five minutes. The highest tensile strength was achieved at 3462 MPa with elongation at break a round 14375 and youngs modulus of 34882 MPa for the ratio of 8515.

  5. Effect of waste plastic bottles on the stiffness and fatigue properties of modified asphalt mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarres, Amir; Hamedi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PET reduced the mix stiffness at both temperatures of 5 and 25 °C. • PET improved the fatigue behavior at both testing temperatures. • At more than 210 microstrain, adding temperature resulted in higher fatigue life. • SBS modified mixes showed better fatigue behavior than PET modified ones. • Overall PET had comparable effects to SBS on the stiffness and fatigue behavior. - Abstract: Nowadays, the use of recycled waste materials as modifier additives in asphalt mixes could have several economic and environmental benefits. The main purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of waste plastic bottles (Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)) on the stiffness and specially fatigue properties of asphalt mixes at two different temperatures of 5 and 20 °C. Likewise, the effect of PET was compared to styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) which is a conventional polymer additive which has been vastly used to modify asphalt mixes. Different PET contents (2–10% by weight of bitumen) were added directly to mixture as the method of dry process. Then the resilient modulus and fatigue tests were performed on cylindrical specimens with indirect tensile loading procedure. Overall, the mix stiffness reduced by increasing the PET content. Although stiffness of asphalt mix initially increased by adding lower amount of PET. Based on the results of resilient modulus test, the stiffness of PET modified mix was acceptable and warranted the proper deformation characteristics of these mixes at heavy loading conditions. At both temperatures, PET improved the fatigue behavior of studied mixes. PET modified mixes revealed comparable stiffness and fatigue behavior to SBS at 20 °C. However, at 5 °C the fatigue life of SBS modified mixes was to some extent higher than that of PET modified ones especially at higher strain levels of 200 microstrain

  6. Evaluation of a sticky trap (AedesTraP, made from disposable plastic bottles, as a monitoring tool for Aedes aegypti populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Santos Eloína Maria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus, which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is the most important emerging viral disease, infecting more than 50 million people annually. Currently used sticky traps are useful tools for monitoring and control of A. aegypti, despite differences in efficiency, labor requirements and cost. In the present work, a field assay was carried out to evaluate the performance of a sticky trap (AedesTrap, produced using disposable material, in capturing gravid Aedes spp. females. Additionally, conditions necessary for the improved performance of the device, such as number of traps per site and location (indoors or outdoors were evaluated. Methods During a one year period, traps were placed in a dengue endemic area in 28 day cycles. The trap, named AedesTrap, consisted of a disposable plastic soda bottle coated inside with colophony resin, which served as a sticky substrate. Disposable bottles were donated by restaurants, and traps were made by laboratory staff, reducing the cost of the sticky trap (less than U$3. Mosquito capture in indoor and outdoor areas was compared by placing the traps in laundry room, kitchen or bedroom (indoors and front or back yard (outdoors. The relationship between the number of AedesTraps and quantity of captured mosquitoes was investigated by utilizing one or three traps/site. Results During a 28 day cycle, a single AedesTrap was capable of capturing up to 15 A. aegypti in a house, with a mean capture of 0.5 to 2.63 females per premise. The AedesTrap collected three times more outdoors versus indoors. Similarly, the capability of detecting Aedes spp. infestation, and of capturing females, was three times higher when using three AedesTraps per house, compared with one trap per house. Conclusions AedesTrap was shown to be capable of capturing A. aegypti and other culicidae, providing information on the adult mosquito population, and allowing the identification of areas critically

  7. Evaluation of a sticky trap (AedesTraP), made from disposable plastic bottles, as a monitoring tool for Aedes aegypti populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santos, Eloína Maria Mendonça; de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; de Oliveira, Claudia Maria Fontes; Correia, Juliana Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Cleide Maria Ribeiro

    2012-09-07

    Dengue virus, which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is the most important emerging viral disease, infecting more than 50 million people annually. Currently used sticky traps are useful tools for monitoring and control of A. aegypti, despite differences in efficiency, labor requirements and cost. In the present work, a field assay was carried out to evaluate the performance of a sticky trap (AedesTrap), produced using disposable material, in capturing gravid Aedes spp. females. Additionally, conditions necessary for the improved performance of the device, such as number of traps per site and location (indoors or outdoors) were evaluated. During a one year period, traps were placed in a dengue endemic area in 28 day cycles. The trap, named AedesTrap, consisted of a disposable plastic soda bottle coated inside with colophony resin, which served as a sticky substrate. Disposable bottles were donated by restaurants, and traps were made by laboratory staff, reducing the cost of the sticky trap (less than U$3). Mosquito capture in indoor and outdoor areas was compared by placing the traps in laundry room, kitchen or bedroom (indoors) and front or back yard (outdoors). The relationship between the number of AedesTraps and quantity of captured mosquitoes was investigated by utilizing one or three traps/site. During a 28 day cycle, a single AedesTrap was capable of capturing up to 15 A. aegypti in a house, with a mean capture of 0.5 to 2.63 females per premise. The AedesTrap collected three times more outdoors versus indoors. Similarly, the capability of detecting Aedes spp. infestation, and of capturing females, was three times higher when using three AedesTraps per house, compared with one trap per house. AedesTrap was shown to be capable of capturing A. aegypti and other culicidae, providing information on the adult mosquito population, and allowing the identification of areas critically infested by mosquitoes. Low requirements for skilled labor

  8. Field comparison of solar water disinfection (SODIS) efficacy between glass and polyethylene terephalate (PET) plastic bottles under sub-Saharan weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, J K; Quilty, B; Muyanja, C K; McGuigan, K G

    2013-12-01

    Concerns about photodegradation products leaching from plastic bottle material into water during solar water disinfection (SODIS) are a major psychological barrier to increased uptake of SODIS. In this study, a comparison of SODIS efficacy using glass and plastic polyethylene terephalate (PET) bottles was carried out under strong real sunlight and overcast weather conditions at Makerere University in central Uganda. Both clear and turbid natural water samples from shallow wells and open dug wells, respectively, were used. Efficacy was determined from the inactivation of a wild strain of Escherichia coli in solar-exposed contaminated water in both glass and PET bottles. The studies reveal no significant difference in SODIS inactivation between glass and PET bottles (95% CI, p > 0.05), for all water samples under the different weather conditions except for clear water under overcast conditions where there was a small but significant difference (95% CI, p = 0.047) with less viable bacterial counts in PET bottles at two intermediate time points but not at the end of the exposure. The results demonstrate that SODIS efficacy in glass under tropical field conditions is comparable to PET plastic. SODIS users in these regions can choose either of reactors depending on availability and preference of the user.

  9. Energy Globe 2004 - Plastic bottles for a human life; Plastikflaschen fuer ein Menschenleben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This short article takes a look at how the Swiss Aquatic Research Centre EAWAG won a special prize for its simple method of providing people suffering from lack of clean drinking water in the aftermath of the tsunami catastrophe in south-east Asia. The method involves filling PET-bottles with water and placing them for a period of six hours in the sun, preferably on hot corrugated iron. In this way, contaminated water can be made potable.

  10. An unusual case of organophosphate intoxication of a worker in a plastic bottle recycling plant: an important reminder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C L; Chuang, H Y; Chang, C Y; Liu, S T; Wu, M T; Ho, C K

    2000-11-01

    A young man was sent to our emergency unit because he had suffered from vomiting and cold sweating for 2 days. At the time he was admitted, he had no acute abdominal pains or gastrointestinal symptoms, and a physical examination revealed nothing but a faster heart rate and moist, flushing skin. The patient had worked for 6 years at a plastic bottle-recycling factory, but none of his co-workers had the same symptoms. Nevertheless, because the plant also recycled pesticide bottles, we suspected organophosphate pesticide intoxication. The patient's plasma acetylcholinesterase level was checked, revealing 1498.6 microU/L (normal range: 2,000-5, 000) on the first day and 1,379 microU/L on the second day. Upon questioning, the patient recalled that one of his shoe soles had been damaged and that his foot had been wet from walking all day in rain collected on the factory floor on the day that his symptoms first occurred. We conducted a study in the change of preshift and postshift acetylcholinesterase levels among six of his co-workers on a rainy day. We used the Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the preshift and postshift plasma acetylcholinesterase levels; no significant difference was revealed (p = 0.600), leaving contamination via the damaged shoe sole suspect. We reviewed the literature on organophosphate intoxication; pesticide bottle-recycling factories were reported to be at a low risk of organophosphate toxicity in the working environment. However, because the potential risk of intoxication is still present, protective equipment such as clothing, gloves, and water-proof shoes should be worn, and employees should be educated on the potential risks.

  11. Stability of Hydromorphone-Ketamine Solutions in Glass Bottles, Plastic Syringes, and IV Bags for Pediatric Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensom, Mary H H; Decarie, Diane; Leung, Karen; Montgomery, Carolyne

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the stability of mixtures of hydromorphone and ketamine in 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]) after storage for up to 7 days at room temperature (25°C). The stability of 3 standard mixtures of hydromorphone and ketamine (hydromorphone 0.2 mg/mL + ketamine 0.2 mg/mL, hydromorphone 0.2 mg/mL + ketamine 0.6 mg/mL, and hydromorphone 0.2 mg/mL + ketamine 1.0 mg/mL) in NS was studied. Portions of each mixture were transferred to 3 brown glass bottles (100 mL), 3 plastic syringes (50 mL), and 3 IV bags (50 mL), which were then stored at room temperature (25°C). Physical characteristics, including pH, colour, and precipitation, were evaluated daily. Three 1.5-mL samples were collected from each bottle, syringe, and IV bag at baseline, at 24, 48, and 72 hours, and on day 7. Samples were analyzed in triplicate by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Solutions were considered stable if they maintained 90% of the initial concentration of each drug. Samples from syringes and IV bags were subjected to standard sterility testing by incubation for 5 days in an enriched culture media. No notable changes in pH or colour were observed, and no precipitation occurred in any of the solutions. All formulations maintained more than 90% of the initial concentration of each drug on day 7. No bacterial growth was observed in any of the samples tested. Mixtures of hydromorphone and ketamine were stable for up 7 days at 25°C, and the sterility of the preparations was maintained. Because stability alone does not guarantee efficacy, it is recommended that clinical studies be conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these formulations.

  12. Composite material making from empty fruit bunches of palm oil (EFB) and Ijuk (Arengapinnata) using plastic bottle waste as adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihayat, T.; Salim, S.; Audina, N.; Khan, N. S. P.; Zaimahwati; Sami, M.; Yunus, M.; Salisah, Z.; Alam, P. N.; Saifuddin; Yusuf, I.

    2018-03-01

    Reviewed from the current technological required a new methods to capable offering a high profit value without overriding the quality. The development of composite technology is now beginning to shift from traditional composite materials based petroleum to natural fibers composite. In the present study, aim to made specimens using natural fibers in form of EFB as a composite reinforcedment with Polyethylene Terephtalate (PET) derived from Plastic bottles waste as matrix with mixed composition parameters and time-tolerance in the mixing process to build a biocomposite material. The characterization of mechanical properties includes tensile test (ASTM D638-01) and bending test (ASTM D790-02) followed by thermal analysis using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and morphological analysis using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The analysis effect of EFB, Ijuk and PET mixtures on the composite matrix is very influential with mechanical properties characterization, including tensile test and bending strength. The results demonstrated that from the sample named : 50 : 25: 25, hybrid composites showed improved properties such as tensile strength of 167 MPa while the 90:05:05 based composites exhibited tensile strength values of 30 MPa, respectively. In term the flexural test the best result of composition on the properties with 10 minutes duration time its load value 7,5 Mpa for 80:10:10.

  13. Analysis of polyethylene terephthalate PET plastic bottle jointing system using finite element method (FEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, N. A.; Rosli, Muhamad Farizuan; Effendi, M. S. M.; Abdullah, Mohamad Hariri

    2017-09-01

    For almost all injection molding applications of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) plastic was analyzed the strength, durability and stiffness of properties by using Finite Element Method (FEM) for jointing system of wood furniture. The FEM was utilized for analyzing the PET jointing system for Oak and Pine as wood based material of furniture. The difference pattern design of PET as wood jointing furniture gives the difference value of strength furniture itself. The results show the wood specimen with grooves and eclipse pattern design PET jointing give lower global estimated error is 28.90%, compare to the rectangular and non-grooves wood specimen of global estimated error is 63.21%.

  14. Microbes on a bottle: substrate, season and geography influence community composition of microbes colonizing marine plastic debris

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Dee A.; Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A. Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial com...

  15. Energy implications of bottled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleick, P H; Cooley, H S

    2009-01-01

    As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs-for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration-are far smaller than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

  16. MEASUREMENT OF PHTHALATE LEVELS IN HUMAN MILK: CONTRIBUTION FROM PLASTICS IN BREAST PUMPS, STORAGE BOTTLES AND BAGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalates are plasticizers used to impart flexibility in products widely used by the general population, including polyvinyl chloride, plastic toys, and medical devices. Some phthalates act as anti-androgens, and prenatal or perinatal exposure to phthalates in laboratory animals...

  17. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L., E-mail: jorge.guzmanmr@uanl.edu.mx

    2016-09-15

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2{sup 3} factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  18. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2 3 factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  19. Baking Soda Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

  20. Can soda fountains be recommended in hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaberny, Iris F; Kaiser, Peter; Sonntag, Hans-Günther

    2006-09-01

    Mineral water (soda water) is very popular in Germany. Therefore, soda fountains were developed as alternatives to the traditional deposit bottle system. Nowadays, different systems of these devices are commercially available. For several years, soda fountains produced by different companies have been examined at the University Hospital of Heidelberg. In 1998, it was possible for the first time to observe and evaluate one of these systems over a period of 320 days in a series of microbiological examinations. The evaluation was implemented on the basis of the German drinking water regulation (Anonymous, 1990. Gesetz über Trinkwasser und Wasser für Lebensmittelbetriebe (Trinkwasserverordnung - TrinkwV) vom 12. Dezember 1990. Bundesgesetzblatt 66, 2613ff). Initially, the bacteria counts exceeded the reference values imposed by the German drinking water regulation in almost 50% of the analyses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also detected in almost 38% of the samples. After a re-arrangement of the disinfection procedure and the removal of the charcoal filter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not detectable any more. However, the bacteria counts still frequently exceeded the reference values of the German drinking water regulation. Following our long-term analysis, we would not recommend soda fountains in high-risk areas of hospitals. If these devices are to be used in hospitals, the disinfection procedures should be executed in weekly or fortnightly intervals and the water quality should be examined periodically.

  1. Comparison of solidification of floating drop and homogenous liquid-liquid microextractions for the extraction of two plasticizers from the water kept in PET-bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamini, Yadollah; Ghambarian, Mahnaz; Khalili-Zanjani, Mohammad Reza; Faraji, Mohammad; Shariati, Shahab

    2009-09-01

    Two approaches based on solidification of floating drop microextraction (SFDME) and homogenous liquid-liquid microextraction (HLLE) were compared for the extraction and preconcentration of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) from the mineral water samples. In SFDME, a floated drop of the mixture of acetophenone/1-undecanol (1:8) was exposed on the surface of the aqueous solution and extraction was permitted to occur. In HLLE, a homogenous ternary solvent system was used by water/methanol/chloroform and the phase separation phenomenon occurred by salt addition. Under the optimal conditions, the LODs for the two target plasticizers (DEHA and DEHP), obtained by SFDME-GC-FID and HLLE-GC-FID, were ranged from 0.03 to 0.01 microg/L and 0.02 to 0.01 microg/L, respectively. HLLE provided higher preconcentration factors (472.5- and 551.2-fold) within the shorter extraction time as well as better RSDs (4.5-6.9%). While, in SFDME, high preconcentration factors in the range of 162-198 and good RSDs in the range of 5.2-9.6% were obtained. Both methods were applied for the analysis of two plasticizers in different water samples and two target plasticizers were found in the bottled mineral water after the expiring time and the boiling water was exposed to a polyethylene vial.

  2. Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples

  3. USE OF SINGLE-MINUTE EXCHANGE OF DIE – SMED – AS A STRATEGY TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY IN A PLASTIC BOTTLE LABELER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teonas Bartz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the production and sale of food products stored in plastic containers, which serve different markets, caused the company researched departed in search of new concepts to increase the productivity of production equipment. With the increase of productivity, there is greater flexibility in planning and scheduling of production and exchange of tools. The implementation of the methodology of Single-Minute Exchange of Die – SMED reduces the setup time of equipment, maximizing the period of machine operation. With this the company more flexible production process and can reduce production batches, increasing operating rates, productivity and competitiveness of organizations. In this paper, we present the steps necessary for the implementation of the SMED in a labeling machine for plastic bottles. To this end, there were activities analysis, suggestions for improvements in machinery and procedures, timing of the steps before and after the improvements implemented and analyzes of the times obtained. After that, we obtained a significant reduction in setup time machine studied.

  4. Evaluating localism in the management of post-consumer plastic bottles in Honolulu, Hawai'i: perspectives from industrial ecology and political ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Young; Gupta, Clare

    2015-05-01

    Localism or regionalization has become a popular topic in urban design, but recent critics raise the question of whether the local or regional scale is most desirable for industrial ecosystems. As a way to explore the claim that localized metabolism is more sustainable, this study examines the costs and benefits of two differentially scaled strategies for the management of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles originating in the city of Honolulu, Hawai'i: local incineration and trans-continental recycling. We first estimate total environmental impacts of two options using life cycle assessment, and then disaggregate them into local versus non-local impacts to examine the spatial distribution of costs and benefits. We further assess the environmental justification for localized waste management in relation to the broader socio-economic motivations that underlie the way that plastics are managed in Honolulu. In doing so we assess the scale at which waste management is optimized from an environmental standpoint as well as the non-environmental considerations such as security and safety that influence the politics of scale involved in urban metabolic design. By illustrating the trade-offs between a local versus global metabolic pathway for plastic waste, the results from our Honolulu case study are globally relevant for communities interested in sustainable urban design and in particular urban waste management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional microbiology of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.L.; Muyzer, G.

    2015-01-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and

  6. Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong Gi Hyeon

    1987-04-01

    This book deals with plastic, which includes introduction for plastic, chemistry of high polymers, polymerization, speciality and structure of a high molecule property of plastic, molding, thermosetting plastic, such as polyethylene, polyether, polyamide and polyvinyl acetyl, thermal plastic like phenolic resins, xylene resins, melamine resin, epoxy resin, alkyd resin and poly urethan resin, new plastic like ionomer and PPS resin, synthetic laminated tape and synthetic wood, mixed materials in plastic, reprocessing of waste plastic, polymer blend, test method for plastic materials and auxiliary materials of plastic.

  7. Influence of storage temperature and time on the physicochemical and bioactive properties of roselle-fruit juice blends in plastic bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-01-01

    Roselle-fruit juice blends were made from roselle extract and mango, papaya, and guava juices at the ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, % roselle: fruit juice, respectively. The blends were pasteurized at 82.5°C for 20 min and stored in 100 mL plastic bottles at 28 and 4°C for 6 months. The effects of storage time and temperature on physicochemical and bioactive properties were evaluated. Total soluble solids, pH, and reducing sugars increased significantly (P roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased significantly (P roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased from 58–55% to 43–42% when stored at 28 and 4°C, respectively. TMA losses were 86–65% at 28°C and 75–53% at 4°C while TPC losses were 66–58% at 28°C and 51–22% at 4°C. Loss of antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was 18–46% at 28°C and 17–35% at 4°C. A principal component analysis (PCA) differentiated roselle-juice fruit blends into two clusters with two principle components PC1 and PC2, which explained 97 and 3% (blends stored at ambient temperature) and 96 and 4% (blends stored at refrigerated temperature) of the variation, respectively. PC1 differentiated roselle-guava juice blends which were characterized by vitamin C, TPC, FRAP, and pH, while PC2 from another cluster of roselle-mango and roselle-papaya juice blends and was characterized by TSS, RS, and color parameters (L* a* b*). However, TMA was the main variable with the highest effect on all roselle-fruit juice blends regardless of the storage time and temperature. PMID:24804077

  8. Antibacterial activity of baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, D

    1997-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque.

  9. Regular-soda intake independent of weight status is associated with asthma among US high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou; Jones, Sherry Everett; Pan, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Limited research shows an inconclusive association between soda intake and asthma, potentially attributable to certain preservatives in sodas. This cross-sectional study examined the association between regular (nondiet)-soda intake and current asthma among a nationally representative sample of high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 15,960 students (grades 9 through 12) with data for both regular-soda intake and current asthma status. The outcome measure was current asthma (ie, told by doctor/nurse that they had asthma and still have asthma). The main exposure variable was regular-soda intake (ie, drank a can/bottle/glass of soda during the 7 days before the survey). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios for regular-soda intake with current asthma after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, and current cigarette use. Overall, 10.8% of students had current asthma. In addition, 9.7% of students who did not drink regular soda had current asthma, and 14.7% of students who drank regular soda three or more times per day had current asthma. Compared with those who did not drink regular soda, odds of having current asthma were higher among students who drank regular soda two times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.28; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.62) and three or more times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.64; 95% CI 1.25 to 2.16). The association between high regular-soda intake and current asthma suggests efforts to reduce regular-soda intake among youth might have benefits beyond improving diet quality. However, this association needs additional research, such as a longitudinal examination. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Comparison studies on soda lignin and soda-anthraquinone lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.N.M; Yusof, N.N.M.; Hashim, A.

    2007-01-01

    Soda lignin and soda anthraquinone lignin were compared in this study. The physico-chemical properties and structural features of the isolated lignin were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet (UV), ash test, Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analyzer, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 13 C-NMR) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Nitrobenzene oxidation was performed on these two types of lignin especially for the HPLC analysis. Based on the CHN, 13 C-NMR and UV results there were no significant differences between soda lignin and soda anthraquinone lignin. The FTIR results also showed that there were no significant differences in terms of functional groups that exist in both lignins. (author)

  11. SODA: Smart Objects, Dumb Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.

  12. A comparison of soda and soda-AQ pulps from cotton stalks | Akgül ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, cotton stalks (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were cooked using soda and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) process. Nine soda cooks were conducted by changing cooking conditions including active alkali charge and pulping time. Soda-AQ cooks were obtained by adding 0.075, 0.10, 0.15, 0.2% AQ (based on o.d stalks) to ...

  13. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used asa home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to causea variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagicencephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers ofbaking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects. [West J Emerg Med. 2016;17(5)619...

  14. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  15. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  16. Stopping the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficult it can be to break the bottle habit. Longer bottle use may lead to cavities or ... Drinks for Kids Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles View more About Us Contact Us Partners ...

  17. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  18. Interactive baby feeding bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An interactive baby bottle with an electronic unit is disclosed. The electronic unit comprises a sensor unit configured to sense the heart beat of a person bottle feeding a baby and an actuator unit configured to transmit the sensed heart beat to the baby. The disclosed interactive baby bottle can

  19. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  20. Microbial Flocculant for Nature Soda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Peiyong; Zhang, Tong; Chen, Cuixian

    2004-03-31

    Microbial flocculant for nature soda has been studied. Lactobacillus TRJ21, which was able to produce an excellent biopolymer flocculant for nature soda, was obtained in our lab. The microbial flocculant was mainly produced when the bacteria laid in stationary growth phase. Fructose or glucose, as carbon sources, were more favorable for the bacterial growth and flocculant production. The bacteria was able to use ammonium sulfate or Urea as nitrogen to produce flocculant, but was not able to use peptone effectively. High C/N ratio was more favorable to Lactobacillus TRJ21 growth and flocculant production than low C/N ratio. The biopolymer flocculant was mainly composed of polysaccharide and protein with a molecular weight 1.38x106 by gel permeation chromatography. It was able to be easily purified from the culture medium by acetone. Protein in the flocculant was tested for the flocculating activity ingredient by heating the flocculant.

  1. Life cycle assessment of bottled water: A case study of Green2O products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Naomi; Frago, Jessica; Mu, Dongyan

    2018-03-01

    This study conducted a full life cycle analysis of bottled water on four types of bottles: ENSO, PLA (corn based), recycled PET, and regular (petroleum based) PET, to discern which bottle material is more beneficial to use in terms of environmental impacts. PET bottles are the conventional bottles used that are not biodegradable and accumulate in landfills. PLA corn based bottles are derived from an organic substance and are degradable under certain environmental conditions. Recycled PET bottles are purified PET bottles that were disposed of and are used in a closed loop system. An ENSO bottle contains a special additive which is designed to help the plastic bottle degrade after disposed of in a landfill. The results showed that of all fourteen impact categories examined, the recycled PET and ENSO bottles were generally better than the PLA and regular PET bottles; however, the ENSO had the highest impacts in the categories of global warming and respiratory organics, and the recycled PET had the highest impact in the eutrophication category. The life cycle stages that were found to have the highest environmental impacts were the bottle manufacturing stage and the bottled water distribution to storage stage. Analysis of the mixed bottle material based on recycled PET resin and regular PET resin was discussed as well, in which key impact categories were identified. The PLA bottle contained extremely low impacts in the carcinogens, respiratory organics and global warming categories, yet it still contained the highest impacts in seven of the fourteen categories. Overall, the results demonstrate that the usage of more sustainable bottles, such as biodegradable ENSO bottles and recycled PET bottles, appears to be a viable option for decreasing impacts of the bottled water industry on the environment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  3. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  4. Processamento e avaliação de estabilidade de bebida isotônica em garrafa plástica Processing and stability evaluation of isotonic drink in plastic bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rodrigues Petrus

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Processou-se uma mistura isotônica com pH 3,4; objetivando-se a produção de uma bebida microbiologicamente estável, prescindindo de refrigeração. A bebida isotônica foi pasteurizada a 85°C/5s em trocador de calor a placas e acondicionada em garrafas de polietileno tereftalato (PET sanificadas por aspersão com solução de ácido peracético 0,3% durante 5s, a 30°C. Foram processados 1 lote com 50mg/L de sorbato de potássio, 1 lote com 100mg/L e 1 lote sem sorbato. Os 3 lotes foram mantidos a 25°C durante 26 semanas, sendo realizadas determinações de pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez total titulável, ácido ascórbico, testes de aceitação sensorial e contagens de microrganismos mesófilos aeróbios totais, bolores e leveduras durante a estocagem. Verificou-se diferença significativa (pThe objective of this work was to obtain an isotonic drink by using pasteurization and packing into aseptic bottles, stable at room temperature, without the addition of chemical preservatives. For the sanitation of the plastic bottles some sanitizers were tested, based on their efficiency to destroy microorganism, maintaining minimum residual hydrogen peroxide, and keeping the drink sensory quality. The isotonic drink (pH 3,40 was thermaly processed in a plate pasteurizer at 85ºC/5s and packed into PET bottles sanitized by spraying peracetic acid at 0.3%/5s at 30ºC. The processed drink contained three different concentrations of potassium sorbate (control, 50 and 100mg/L. The stability of the products were evaluated at 25ºC for 26 weeks by measuring the pH, soluble solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, microbial count, and sensory tests. The sensory evaluation and the count of the total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, moulds and yeast were measured during storage. There was no difference (p<0,05 for the pH, soluble solids and acidity of the processed drinks during the storage period except for the ascorbic acid which reduced to about 30% of the

  5. Bottled Water Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Bottled water basics ....................................... pg.2 Advice for people with severely compromised immune systems (Sidebar) ............................. pg2 Know what you’re buying .............................. pg.3 Taste considerations ........................................ pg.4 Bottled water terms (Sidebar) ..................... pg.4 Begin by reading the ...

  6. Corrosion effects on soda lime glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although soda lime glass is the most common used transparent material in architecture, little is known about the corrosion effects on long term strength and the interaction between corrosion and defects. Extensive testing on soda lime bars under different environmental conditions and different

  7. Structural adaptation of Salsola soda L. (Chenopodiaceae from inland and maritime saline area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dubravka M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic analysis of leaf and stem in two populations of Salsola soda was carried out in order to examine mechanism of anatomical adaptations to environmental condition on saline habitats and to determine if there exists a morpho-anatomical differentiation between populations from maritime and inland saline area. Analysis included 26 quantitative characters of leaf and stem. The results showed that both populations exhibited halomorphic and xeromorphic adaptations, which refered to ecological plasticity and adaptations of plants to their habitats. Our research also showed that S. soda had quite a stable morphoanatomical structure, since only quantitative changes were recorded. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173002

  8. Baking soda: a potentially fatal home remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M H; Wason, S; Gonzalez del Rey, J; Benfield, M

    1995-04-01

    We present a case of a six-week-old infant who developed life-threatening complications after unintentional sodium bicarbonate intoxication. Baking soda was being used by the mother as a home remedy to "help the baby burp." A review of the literature regarding the use (or misuse) of baking soda follows. Our patient, along with the other noted case reports, emphasizes the need for warnings on baking soda products whose labels recommend its use as an antacid. Poisonings must be high in the differential diagnosis of any patient, regardless of age, who presents with altered mental status or status epilepticus.

  9. Papermaking Properties of Carpinus betulus with kraft, Soda and Soda-Urea Pulping Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Darstan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in order to comparatively investigate the hornbeam kraft, soda and soda-urea papermaking properties. The selected treatment in kraft process had an average yield of 44.43% and kappa number of 23.75. In soda process the selected treatment had an average yield of 38.75% and kappa number of 19.28. In soda-urea process, the selected treatments had an average yield of 39.85, 40.1, 40.5, 39.8 and 40.61 and kappa number of 21.21, 22.33, 22.66, 25.28 and 26.85. After refining the selected pulp to reach the freeness of 400±25 ml CSF, 60 g/m2 handsheets were made and physical, mechanical and optical properties were measured. Results showed that kraft pulps had higher yield and better refinability than soda and soda-urea pulps. Papers made from kraft process had higher strength properties than those made of soda and soda-urea process. With addition of urea, yield and kappa number of pulps increased. The highest improvement in tensile index, breaking length and tear index was achieved with addition of 3% urea and the highest improvement in burst index was achieved with adding 4% urea. Results of brightness measurements showed that papers from kraft and soda processes had the lowest and highest brightness degree respectively. With the addition of urea, brightness of papers decreased.

  10. 76 FR 64810 - Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard; Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2-ethylhexyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    .... FDA 1993-N-0259 (Formerly Docket No. 1993N-0085)] Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard... evidence from two studies puts previous concerns to rest concerning the effects of DEHP consumption in... increase costs for consumers for beverages packaged in plastic bottles. However, this rule does not...

  11. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jenik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO2 and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake. Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1,163±479.1 g were studied at 35.4±1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO2 was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  12. Demonstrating Fluorescence with Neon Paper and Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birriel, Jennifer J.; Roe, Clarissa

    2015-01-01

    Several papers in this journal have dealt with the fluorescence in orange neon plastic, olive oil, and soda. In each case, the fluorescent emission was excited by either green or violet-blue laser light. In this paper, we examine the fluorescent emission spectra of so-called neon colored papers and plastic clipboards available in department and…

  13. Large-sized soda ban as an alternative to soda tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hery Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This Note examines New York City's Sugary Drinks Portion Cap Rule (Soda Ban), which was originally set to become effective March 12, 2013. The New York County Supreme Court's decision in New York Statewide Coalition of Hispanic Chambers of Commerce v. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene suspended the Soda Ban on March 11, 2013. The First Department of the Appellate Division of New York State Supreme Court affirmed the suspension on July 30, 2013. However, the complex economic policy and constitutional issues arising from the proposed Soda Ban deserve as much attention as the ultimate result of the legal challenge to the ban. Both courts struck down the Soda Ban on the grounds that it violated the separation of powers doctrine. The lower court further held that the Soda Ban was arbitrary and capricious. This Note does not focus solely on the holdings of the two courts, but takes a broader approach in analyzing the issues involved in the Soda Ban. By comparing and contrasting tobacco products with sugary beverages, this Note explains why the public seems to find the Soda Ban less appealing than tobacco regulations. Specifically, this Note addresses how the failed attempts of numerous states and cities to implement soda taxes demonstrate the complexity of policies geared toward curbing obesity; how fundamental values, such as health, fairness, efficiency, and autonomy factor into obesity policies; and the fact that legislatures and courts are struggling to determine the scope of public health law intervention. The Note explores how the Soda Ban, despite its judicial suspension, could represent a stepping-stone in combating the obesity epidemic.

  14. Plastics and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenas, P.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic organic polymers, such as plastics, PVC, polyamides etc are considered less ecological than natural materials such as wood. Other artificial materials such as metals, glass or biodegradable plastics have also a better image than petroleum products. This short paper demonstrates that the manufacturing or the transport of every material uses energy and that the complete energy balance sheet of a plastic bottle, for instance, is more favourable than the one of a glass bottle. Plastic materials are also easily valorized and recycled and part of the energy spent during manufacturing can be recovered during incineration for district heating. During the life-cycle of such a synthetic material, the same petroleum quantity can be used twice which leads to less negative effects on the environment. Finally, the paper focusses on the problem of biodegradable materials which are not degradable when buried under several meters of wastes and which are a nuisance to recycling. (J.S.)

  15. Surface morphology study in high speed milling of soda lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konneh, Mohamed; Bagum, Mst. Nasima; Ali, Mohammad Yeakub; Amin, A. K. M. Nurul

    2018-05-01

    Soda lime glass has a wide range of applications in optical, bio-medical and semi-conductor industries. It is undeniably a challenging task to produce micro finish surface on an amorphous brittle solid like soda lime glass due to its low fracture toughness. In order to obtain such a finish surface, ductile machining has been exploited, as this usually cause's plastic flow which control crack propagation. At sub-micro scale cutting parameters, researchers achieved nano finish surface in micro milling operation using coated tool. However it is possible to enhance the rate of material removal (RMR) of soda lime glass at flexible cutting condition. High speed cutting at micro meter level, extend of thermal softening might be prominent than the strain gradient strengthening. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high cutting speed end milling parameters on the surface texture of soda lime glass using uncoated carbide tool. The spindle speed, depth of cut and feed rate were varied from 20,000 to 40,000 rpm, 10 to 30 mm/min and 30 to 50 µm respectively. Mathematical model of roughness has been developed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Experimental verification confirmed that surface roughness (Ra) 0.38 µm is possible to achieve at increased RMR, 4.71 mm3/min.

  16. Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    has to have an inner coating barrier. The most reliable solution proposed is to coat the inner walls with silicon dioxide, which is not biodegradable but rather environmentally inert. To enhance the environmental footprint and sustainability of the bottle, and to be competitive with the existing...... technologies, the manufacturing technology for the production of the bottle has to offer the possibility of significant energy savings. Molded pulp products are made from wood fibers dispersed in water, and then they are formed, drained and dried. A relatively large quantity of resources (i.e. energy and time......) is consumed during the drying process. It is in this process stage that an innovative way of drying the products can be exploited by using the concept of impulse drying. Impulse drying is an advance drying technique in which water is removed from a wet paper pulp by the combination of mechanical pressure...

  17. Properties Of Soda/Yttria/Silica Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Paul W.; Hann, Raiford E.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental study of glass-formation compositional region of soda/ yttria/silicate system and of selected physical properties of glasses within compositional region part of continuing effort to identify glasses with high coefficients of thermal expansion and high softening temperatures, for use as coatings on superalloys and as glass-to-metal seals.

  18. Flexural Toughness of Ring-Shaped Waste Bottle Fiber Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles are plastic containers that are typically discarded, and thus, cause environmental pollution. To solve this problem, PET bottles are recycled incorporating with concrete. A ring-shaped PET (RPET fiber are introduced in this study and designed with a special shape to mobilize fiber yielding rather than fiber pullout. Therefore, aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of RPET bottles fibre in terms of toughness strength. The width of RPET fibers is fixed at 5 and 10 mm and the loads were applied to the third points of the specimen. The experiment indicates that RPET-5 and RPET-10 FC presented an increase in the toughness index of I20 on averages of 23.1% and 39.9% respectively, compared to normal specimens. It can conclude that incorporating RPET fiber in concrete presents significant improved of concrete properties.

  19. Microgrooved plasmonic bottle microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, M. N.; Ding, M.; Murugan, G. S.; Zervas, M. N.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate an enhancement to SPW cavity through the incorporation of high-Q WGM bottle microresonator (BMR) with surface microgrooves. A standard BMR fabricated through the “soften-and-compress” technique with initial length of 280 μm, bottle diameter of 187 μm and stem diameter of 125 μm was utilized in the experiment for supporting WGMs. Thin gold film was deposited on top of the BMR for generating SPWs. 21 microgrooves was then inscribed on the metal surface of the BMR along the azimuthal direction with 10 μm length, 485 nm width, 6 μm depth and pitch of 1.5 μm. Due to surface curvature, the gold film only covered half of the BMR with a characteristic meniscus shape and maximum thickness of 30 nm. The meniscus provides appropriately tapered metal edges that facilitate the adiabatic transformation of BMR WGMs to SPWs and vice-versa. Lorentzian shape-line fit performed on the TM excited resonances show that plasmonic Q values in excess of 4000 could be achieved from such structure with ∼ 25% coupling efficiency.

  20. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro-Egbe CN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinyere Nnenne Pedro-Egbe, Chibuike Sydney Ejimadu, Henrietta NwachukwuDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon.Aim: To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future.Setting: Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Materials and methods: The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010 were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted.Results: A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6% males and 91 (21.4% females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA were light perception (2 cases, counting fingers (2 cases, and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7% cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema.Conclusion: Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.Keywords: ocular injuries, exploding glass-bottled drink

  1. Bottle & Can Recycling in Denmark: addressing issues and optimizing the recycling rate

    OpenAIRE

    Carnevale, Alessandro; Larsen, Lucas; Tetens, Simon W.

    2015-01-01

    The research is conducted in the landscape of environmental care and consumer behaviour. This paper explores the different dynamics revolving around the recycling of plastic bottles and aluminium cans in Denmark. The aim is to shed light on the possible impediments people might encounter when attempting to hand back their deposit marked bottle to the allocated facilities as well as illuminating what the main forces involved in encouraging or inhibiting people from recycling are. The ultimate ...

  2. Recovery of Pu from PVC vials and bottles used for sample storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Paru; Bhide, M.K.; Kulkarni, M.J.; Kumar, Mithlesh; Adya, V.C.; Hon, N.S.; Kadam, R.M.; Nathaniel, Newton; Natarajan, V.

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium in the form of oxide is stored in plastic vials and bottles during its analysis for trace metal as say. Due to radiation damage and moisture, small amount of oxide samples were found to be adhering to surface of vials/ bottles. This required methods for safe disposal. Methods involving wet chemical and dry cleaning procedures were evaluated for effective removal of sticking α active plutonium oxide powder from these vials for their safe disposal. Dry cleaning method for removal of plutonium activity was found to be effective method for disposal of storage vial, while wet chemical method was found to be more suitable for removal of plutonium from damaged PVC bottles. (author)

  3. 27 CFR 4.26 - Estate bottled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled. (a) Conditions for use. The term Estate bottled may be used by a bottling winery on a wine label only if the wine is labeled with a viticultural area appellation of origin and the bottling winery: (1... owned or controlled by the winery within the boundaries of the labeled viticultural area; (3) crushed...

  4. Insulated Containers for Bottled Water (ICB)-Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-21

    Plastic   Wrapped  Cordura  Rubberized traction pad  PE  Plastic   Liner  No  Yes  Yes  No  Safe Tie‐Down  Capability  Yes  Yes  Yes  No  Easy Access...mounted Soldiers. The ICBs are lighter, require less storage space, and have more effective tie-down characteristics than coolers often used to carry...bottled water in vehicles. The performance of the ICBs and a commonly used cooler was assessed to determine whether the easier-to-stow ICBs would be as

  5. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on development of technology related to new recycled products. Research and development of simultaneous recovery of chlorine contained in waste plastics and alkali contained in waste glass bottles; 2000 nendo shinki recycle seihin nado kanren gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hai plastic gan'yu enso to hai glass bin gan'yu alkali no doji kaishu ni kakawaru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Researches have been made on a technology to have alkali contained in waste glass bottles reacted with chlorine contained in waste plastics to separate and remove salt, and reuse the residues as a resource for cement raw material. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In the research, glass powder pulverized to 5 to 10 {mu} m, calcium carbonate, iron oxide, and alumina were used to prepare raw material for the ordinary Portland cement. Vinyl chloride pulverized to 3 mm was added into this cement raw material so that chlorine-alkali equivalent ration will be 1.0, and the material was sintered in a rotary kiln at 800 to 1,400 degrees C. As a result, it was discovered that salt is produced from the alkali in glass and the chlorine in vinyl chloride, whereas the produced salt volatilizes when heated to 1,200 degrees C or higher, and clinker containing low chlorine and alkali can be produced. The test result reveals that the control range of the chlorine and alkali ratio is from 1.0 to 1.1. The remaining problems are measures against carbon monoxide and dioxin contained in the exhaust gas, and treatment of dust containing salt. (NEDO)

  6. Sponsorship of National Health Organizations by Two Major Soda Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Daniel G; Siegel, Michael B

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S. Reducing soda consumption is important for stemming the obesity epidemic. However, several articles and one book suggest that soda companies are using their resources to impede public health interventions that might reduce soda consumption. Although corporate sponsorship by tobacco and alcohol companies has been studied extensively, there has been no systematic attempt to catalog sponsorship activities of soda companies. This study investigates the nature, extent, and implications of soda company sponsorship of U.S. health and medical organizations, as well as corporate lobbying expenditures on soda- or nutrition-related public health legislation from 2011 to 2015. Records of corporate philanthropy and lobbying expenditures on public health legislation by soda companies in the U.S. during 2011-2015 were found through Internet and database searches. From 2011 to 2015, the Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo were found to sponsor a total of 95 national health organizations, including many medical and public health institutions whose specific missions include fighting the obesity epidemic. During the study period, these two soda companies lobbied against 29 public health bills intended to reduce soda consumption or improve nutrition. There is surprisingly pervasive sponsorship of national health and medical organizations by the nation's two largest soda companies. These companies lobbied against public health intervention in 97% of cases, calling into question a sincere commitment to improving the public's health. By accepting funding from these companies, health organizations are inadvertently participating in their marketing plans. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Egbe, Chinyere Nnenne; Ejimadu, Chibuike Sydney; Nwachukwu, Henrietta

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon. To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future. Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010) were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted. A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6%) males and 91 (21.4%) females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA) were light perception (2 cases), counting fingers (2 cases), and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7%) cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema. Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.

  8. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  9. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young woman: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; van Baaren, R.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  10. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Modified Soda Lignin with Polyethylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangda Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soda lignin does not have thermal flowing characteristics and it is impossible for it to be further thermally molded. To achieve the fusibility of soda lignin for fiber preparation by melt-spinning, an effective method for soda lignin modification was conducted by cooking it with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400 at various ratios. The higher the ratio of PEG that was used, the more PEG molecular chains were grafted at the alpha carbon of the soda lignin through ether bonds, resulting in lower thermal transition temperatures and more excellent fusibility. The modified soda lignin with a weight ratio of lignin to PEG of 1:4 exhibited a relative thermal stability of molten viscosity at selected temperatures. Thereafter, the resultant fusible soda lignin was successfully melt-spun into filaments with an average diameter of 33 ± 5 μm, which is smaller than that of some industrial lignins. Accordingly, it is possible to utilize soda lignin to produce fibrous carbonaceous materials.

  12. DETERMINATION OF PHTHALATES FROM BOTTLED WATER BY GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA DUMITRAȘCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of phthalates from bottled water by GC-MS. Phthalates are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, due to their widespread use in the last years. These compounds are used principally as plasticizers, to impact flexibility, workability and durability to polymers but they can also be found in products such as paints, adhesives, inks and cosmetics. Phthalates are not chemically bounded to polymers; hence they are easily released and migrate into foods, beverages and drinking water from the packaging or bottling materials or manufacturing processes. This process accelerates as plastic products age and break down. With respect to their endocrine disrupting potential, phthalates such as benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP, di-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP have been found to elicit estrogenic responses in in vitro assays. It is possible that phthalates are a contributory factor to endocrine-mediated adverse effects observed in wildlife and humans over the past few decades. In this experiment we have analyzed the phthalates from different bottled waters purchased from the market. Determination by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC–MS in electronic ionization mode (EI with selected-ion monitoring (SIM acquisition method (GC–MS (EI–SIM has been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of phthalates. The base peak (m/z = 149 of all the phthalates was selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions of each compound were chosen for quantitative studies.

  13. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  14. Effect of textured eye drop bottles on the photostability of pranoprofen 0.1% ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuka, Kinya; Inada, Katsuhiro; Ueoka, Hiroki; Otsuka, Tadashi; Maeda, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Masazumi; Yasueda, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Ophthalmic solutions are usually filled in a plastic bottle due to its durability and disposability. In Japan, photostability is one of the concerns for the quality control because an eye drop bottle must be a transparent container. The present work studied the effect of textured eye drop bottles on its light blocking to improve the photostability of ophthalmic solutions. We investigated the photostability of Pranoprofen ophthalmic solution filled in a variety of textured eye drop bottles. Pranoprofen content was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and surface structure of textured eye drop bottles was evaluated by transmittance, calculated average roughness (Ra) and haze intensity. We observed that eye drop bottle which had greater than Ra value of 1.0 µm and haze intensity 62% clearly showed photostability improvement. This report is the first one which shows that photostability of ophthalmic solution is improved by using textured eye drop bottle. Moreover, this approach is a simple and effective method to improve the photostability. This method is available for not only various ophthalmic applications but also other liquid pharmaceuticals or food products.

  15. Green fiber bottle: Towards a sustainable package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido; Howard, Thomas J.

    The Green Fiber Bottle is a fully biodegradable bottle made from molded paper pulp.Its development depends on the establishment of the manufacturing technology. Impulse drying, an innovative way of drying, has the potential to improve significantly the manufacturing process of the Green Fiber Bot...... Bottle, towards a sustainable packaging...

  16. 21 CFR 165.110 - Bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled water. 165.110 Section 165.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION BEVERAGES Requirements for Specific Standardized Beverages § 165.110 Bottled water. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Bottled water is water that is intended for human consumption and that is sealed in...

  17. Evaluating radon loss from water during storage in standard PET, bio-based PET, and PLA bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchetti, Carlo; De Simone, Gabriele; Galli, Gianfranco; Tuccimei, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA) bottles were tested to evaluate radon loss from water during 15 days of storage. PET bottles (lower surface/volume-ratio vials) lost 0.4–7.1% of initial radon, whereas PLA bottles lost 3.7% of it. PET bottles with volume of 0.5 L, lower surface/weight ratio, and hence higher thickness display proportionally reduced radon loss. Corrections for dissolved radium are needed during analyses. Formulas for calculating degassing efficiency and water interference on electrostatic collections are developed. - Highlights: • Radon loss from water during storage in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA) bottles was evaluated. • Surface/volume ratio and thickness of plastic materials were studied. • A correction for dissolved radium concentration was applied to estimate gas loss. • Proper corrections for degassing efficiency of aerators were developed. • The interference of H 2 O on radon daughter electrostatic collection was quantified.

  18. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Fengxia Yue; Ke-Li Chen; Fachuang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum coo...

  19. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  20. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Antony, Chakkiath; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-01-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence. PMID:23178675

  1. Experimental characterisation of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle Eco-bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taaffe, Jonathan; O’Sullivan, Seán; Rahman, Muhammad Ekhlasur; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterisation of a novel “Eco-brick” by recycling PET bottles and plastic waste. • Eco-bricks have properties for possible uses in construction. • Consistent manufacturing of Eco-bricks demonstrated to be possible. • Weight of Eco-bricks has a nearly linear relationship with mechanical strength. • Light passage and sound reduction potential of Eco-bricks shown to be good. - Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of recycling waste plastic by considering the feasibility of use of Eco-bricks for constructional purposes. The Eco-bricks are formed by packing plastic within Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles. Guidelines were provided for the construction of Eco-bricks. Experiments were carried out to characterise some of the properties of these bricks. Compression test, sound insulation assessment and light transmission were considered in this regard and compared with traditional construction materials and conditions. Possible applications of Eco-bricks were discussed. The paper presents the first attempt to characterise these bricks and the results encourage future use of them to a significantly wider extent and for various purposes

  2. Social perceptions of single-use plastic consumption of the Balinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Murcia Martin, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The island of Bali has suffered from an increasing amount of single-use plastics being littered into the environment during the past few years. This research aims to determine the social perceptions of plastic bags and bottles in particular, through consumption habits, the degree of awareness of environmental impacts and the willingness to reduce their consumption. The methodology is based on a survey approach and literature review contrasting the characteristics of plastic bottles and bags, ...

  3. Evidence for biofilm acid neutralization by baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, Domenick T

    2017-11-01

    The generating of acids from the microbial metabolism of dietary sugars and the subsequent decrease in biofilm pH below the pH at which tooth mineral begins to demineralize (critical pH) are the key elements of the dental caries process. Caries preventive strategies that rapidly neutralize biofilm acids can prevent demineralization and favor remineralization and may help prevent the development of sugar-induced dysbiosis that shifts the biofilm toward increased cariogenic potential. Although the neutralizing ability of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) has been known for many years, its anticaries potential as an additive to fluoride dentifrice has received only limited investigation. There is evidence that baking soda rapidly can reverse the biofilm pH decrease after a sugar challenge; however, the timing of when it is used in relation to a dietary sugar exposure is critical in that the sooner its used the greater the benefit in preventing a sustained biofilm pH decrease and subsequent demineralization. Furthermore, the effectiveness of baking soda in elevating biofilm pH appears to depend on concentration. Thus, the concentration of baking soda in marketed dentifrice products, which ranges from 10% to 65%, may affect their biofilm pH neutralizing performance. People with hyposalivation particularly may benefit from using fluoride dentifrice containing baking soda because of their diminished ability to clear dietary sugars and buffer biofilm acids. Although promising, there is the need for more evidence that strategies that modify the oral ecology, such as baking soda, can alter the cariogenic (acidogenic and aciduric) properties of biofilm microorganisms. The acid neutralization of dental biofilm by using fluoride dentifrice that contains baking soda has potential for helping counteract modern high-sugar diets by rapidly neutralizing biofilm-generated acid, especially in people with hyposalivation. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by

  4. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2017-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water stored in plastic bottles used in research settings with that in glass bottles. The amount of BPA that leached into water was measured across several time points ranging from 24 to 96 h by using a BPA ELISA assay. The results showed that considerable amounts of BPA (approximately 0.15 μg/L) leached from polycarbonate bottles within the first 24 h of storage. In the second study, BPA levels were measured directly from water taken from filtered compared with unfiltered taps. We observed significantly higher BPA levels in water from unfiltered taps (approximately 0.40 μg/L) compared with taps with filtration systems (approximately 0.04 μg/L). Taken together, our findings indicate that the use of different types of water bottles and water sources, combined with the use of different laboratory products (food, caging systems) between laboratories, likely contribute to decreased rigor and reproducibility in research. We suggest that researchers consider reporting the types of water bottles used and that animal care facilities educate staff regarding the importance of flushing nonfiltered water taps when filling animal water bottles.

  5. SODA: The reduced database for the TdeV tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote, A.; Michaud, D.; Caumartin, J.; de Villers, P.; Gauthier, Y.; Gauvreau, J.; Larsen, J.

    1997-01-01

    SODA which stands for Systgrave eme d close-quote Organisation des Donnacute ees et d close-quote Analyse, is a general database for TdeV. SODA has the following goals: to produce a database of a reduced set of physical data; to ensure that these data are validated; to record all the parameters relevant to tokamak operation and experiments; to facilitate the retrieval of data using given selection criteria; and to improve data accessibility and analysis. The relational database ORACLE trademark has been chosen to provide flexibility and to accommodate the increasing expectations of the TdeV researchers. In-house expertise allows custom-made tables and centralized data management. In the process of creating SODA several new interfaces for the scientific coordinator, machine operator, and diagnosticians have been added to provide a better definition of the experiment for the archiving system. The database includes the more relevant machine and diagnostic parameters, plasma perturbations (rf, biasing, gas hor-ellipsis), mean and standard deviation of physical signals, plasma profiles, and code results (equilibrium hor-ellipsis) for selected time windows in a discharge. Users of the X-window interface of SODA are not required to know the database structure or the SQL language. SODA has been operating successfully for over a year and its capabilities are continuously expanding. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Effect of baking soda in dentifrices on plaque removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Srinivas R

    2017-11-01

    The prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases targets control of dental plaque biofilm. In this context, chemical agents could represent a valuable complement to mechanical plaque control by reducing and controlling biofilm formation. The literature on the effectiveness of different dentifrices has not, however, been carefully categorized. A lack of consensus exists among dental professionals on a recommendation for a universal dentifrice for plaque control. The authors reviewed the scientific data on the different properties of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)-containing dentifrices and their effectiveness in plaque removal. The results of the literature search show that baking soda-containing dentifrices are ideal candidates to be considered as a universal dentifrice because baking soda is inexpensive, abundant in supply, highly biocompatible, exhibits specific antibacterial properties to oral microorganisms, has low abrasivity, and is effective in plaque biofilm removal. Although some patients may benefit from desensitizing or high fluoride-containing dentifrices, those with routine needs may find using dentifrices containing baking soda and fluoride effective. Baking soda and fluoride dentifrices, therefore, may perhaps be considered as a criterion standard for patients with routine oral hygiene needs. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Panel Board From Coconut Fibre And Pet Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, Norhayati; Kaamin, Masiri; Abd. Kadir, Aslila; Sahat, Suhaila; Zaini, Aziza; Raihana Nor Zentan, Siti; Ain Ahmad, Nur; Amran, Wan Haizatul Aisyhah Wan

    2018-03-01

    The rate of global deforestation and its impact on the environment has led particle board manufacture to search for alternative feedstock, especially in countries where wood is less available compared to other cellulosic natural product. Based on the properties of coconut fibre and PET bottle, these two materials can be recycle as raw material for manufacture of panel board. As for this study, the coconut fibre were used as the filler and PET bottle as outer lining of the panel board. Two types of coconut fibre were used which are grinding and un-grinding coconut fibre. At first, the coconut fibre are undergoes softening, grinding, drying and sieving process, while PET bottle was cleaning, shredding, sieving before compacted using hydraulic hot press machine. There are four types of testing that been carried out which are swelling, water absorption, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR). The result show the conventional board has the highest value for MOE test, so it's indicate that the conventional board is less strength from the coconut fibre board. As for water absorption test, the average water absorption of coconut fibre based panel board is less than conventional board. Overall, the coconut fibre board is better than conventional panel board because coconut fibre board are less swelling, has low water absorption, high modulus of rupture and low modulus of elasticity. Based on the finding, this coconut fibre panel board has potential as a stronger and long-lasting panel board than the conventional board in the market. Other than that, the panel also have their own aesthetic value since the recycled plastic bottle used as outer lining is colourful and giving aesthetic value.

  8. Panel Board From Coconut Fibre And Pet Bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngadiman Norhayati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of global deforestation and its impact on the environment has led particle board manufacture to search for alternative feedstock, especially in countries where wood is less available compared to other cellulosic natural product. Based on the properties of coconut fibre and PET bottle, these two materials can be recycle as raw material for manufacture of panel board. As for this study, the coconut fibre were used as the filler and PET bottle as outer lining of the panel board. Two types of coconut fibre were used which are grinding and un-grinding coconut fibre. At first, the coconut fibre are undergoes softening, grinding, drying and sieving process, while PET bottle was cleaning, shredding, sieving before compacted using hydraulic hot press machine. There are four types of testing that been carried out which are swelling, water absorption, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE and Modulus of Rupture (MOR. The result show the conventional board has the highest value for MOE test, so it’s indicate that the conventional board is less strength from the coconut fibre board. As for water absorption test, the average water absorption of coconut fibre based panel board is less than conventional board. Overall, the coconut fibre board is better than conventional panel board because coconut fibre board are less swelling, has low water absorption, high modulus of rupture and low modulus of elasticity. Based on the finding, this coconut fibre panel board has potential as a stronger and long-lasting panel board than the conventional board in the market. Other than that, the panel also have their own aesthetic value since the recycled plastic bottle used as outer lining is colourful and giving aesthetic value.

  9. Oscillations in a half-empty bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourges, Andréane; Chardac, Amélie; Caussarieu, Aude; Plihon, Nicolas; Taberlet, Nicolas

    2018-02-01

    When a half-empty bottle of water is pushed to roll on a flat surface, the oscillations of the fluid inside the bottle induce an overall jerky motion. These velocity fluctuations of the bottle are studied through simple laboratory experiments accessible to undergraduate students and can help them to grasp fundamental concepts in mechanics and hydrodynamics. We first demonstrate through an astute experiment that the rotation of the fluid and the bottle is decoupled. The equations of motion are then derived using a mechanical approach, while the hydrodynamics of the fluid motion is explained. Finally, the theory is tested against two benchmark experiments.

  10. Evaluation of Using Waste of Bottles in Concrete as Sustainable Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Hasan Abdulabbas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current study attention was focused on effects of using wastes of plastic and glass of juices and soft drink bottles in concrete, and the optimum percent's of the wastes were detected giving the best properties of concrete. Total number of concrete mixes was (12, which have different wastes additions details. These mixes included: three mixes have plastic fibers (1, 2, 3% by cement weight, three mixes have glass with ratios of (10, 15, 20% as a replacement of sand volume, three mixes have pieces of plastic bottle caps with ratios of (15, 20, 25% as a replacement of gravel volume. The mix that has the optimum properties in these three groups, was selected to merge these types of wastes in one mix. Therefore, two additional mixes were prepared; one mix contains addition of 2% plastic fibers and 15% glass; and the other mix contains 20% plastic bottle caps and 15% glass, in addition to the reference mix without any waste additions. The achieved tests comprise; compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, density, absorption and fire resistance. Tests results give good indications about using these waste in concrete; when two types of wastes are added to the mixes (plastic fiber with glass C11 or pieces of bottle caps and glass C12 the compressive strength is improved noticeably, the residual compressive strength is about (75% and 83% with total ratio of wastes about 35% at age of 7 and 28 days, respectively, in mix C12, and (76 .7% and 70.5% with total ratio of wastes about 17% at age of 7 and28 days, respectively, in mix C11.

  11. Glass-Forming Ability of Soda Lime Borate Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, J.C.; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the composition dependence of glass-forming ability (GFA) of a series of iron-containing soda lime borate liquids by substituting Na2O for B2O3. We have characterized GFA by measuring the glass stability against crystallization using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC......). The results show that the GFA decreases when substituting Na2O for B2O3. Moreover, we find that there is no direct link between the kinetic fragility and GFA for the soda lime borate series studied herein. We have also discovered and clarified a striking thermal history dependence of the glass stability...

  12. A comparative study of the effect of diet and soda carbonated drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the effect of diet and soda carbonated drinks on the histology of the cerebellum of adult female albino Wistar rats. ... African Health Sciences ... Group B was administered 50 ml of regular soda (RS), and group C was administered 50 ml of diet soda (DS) each per day for 21 days, and the rats were ...

  13. Chemistry with Inexpensive Materials: Spray Bottles and Plastic Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltewicz, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Presents eight chemistry activities that are interesting and involve simple, easily available materials. Topics include mystery writing, valentine hearts, flame tests, evaporation race, buoyancy versus mass, determination of relative masses of gases, mole sample container, and cold and hot packs. (DDR)

  14. Will bottle-grade PET demand lure fiber-grade capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeyman, M.

    1993-01-01

    As demand for bottle-grade polyethylene terephthalate (PET) continues strong and new capacity hastens to meet it, some industry observers wonder if conversions to bottle-grade from fiber-grade capacity will become an industry trend. Taiwan's Nan Ya Plastics was recently said to be considering such a switch, but company sources say it has no such plans. Peter Driscoll, senior partner at PCI Fibres ampersand Raw Materials (Crawley, UK), says that while it is true that demand for the bottle-grade material remains unsatisfied, he doubts that many conversions will take place. You must remember, says Driscoll, that it is not always possible to switch, and that even where it is possible there are limitations

  15. Enhancement of plaque removal by baking soda toothpastes from less accessible areas in the dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, S; Hooper, W; Xu, Y; Ghassemi, A; Winston, A

    2011-01-01

    To determine if baking soda toothpastes are relatively more effective than non-baking soda toothpastes in promoting plaque removal from less accessible sites in the dentition. Several single-brushing comparisons of baking soda and non-baking soda toothpastes for their overall ability to remove plaque have been published. In this study, individual comparisons of these published data, comparing the plaque removal performance of baking soda and non-baking soda toothpastes at various sites in the dentition, were examined to see if there were any site-dependant performance trends. The site-specific single-brushing data were then combined and analyzed in two ways. Meta-analyses of the clinical studies were performed to compare baking soda's relative plaque removal advantage at various sites in the mouth using paired t-testing at p baking soda toothpastes were graphically compared with plaque index reductions due to brushing with non-baking soda dentifrices. The percent relative plaque removal advantage for baking soda toothpastes at various sites were plotted against the reduction in plaque index due to brushing with non-baking soda toothpastes. Individual comparisons showed that brushing with the toothpastes containing baking soda generally removed significantly more plaque from each site than brushing with toothpastes without baking soda. The relative efficacy advantage for baking soda toothpastes was consistently higher at sites where the non-baking soda toothpastes removed less plaque. Meta-analytical comparisons confirmed baking soda toothpastes to be relatively more effective in enhancing plaque removal from sites where less plaque was removed compared to brushing with non-baking soda toothpastes (p baking soda toothpastes' relative plaque removal advantage could be seen to increase hyperbolically with decreasing plaque removal by the non-baking soda toothpastes with which they were compared. We presuppose that the reason less plaque is removed by non-baking soda

  16. Cream Soda. The rhythm of everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work I will focus my attention on a specific manga, Cream Soda by Adachi Mitsuru (1996. As suggested by Eco (1999, I will analyze this single work keeping in mind that it belongs to a medium and some genre practiced through this medium, but focusing my attention on the specific syntax of the speech of Adachi. This means that in this work I won’t talk about manga in general or in itself, at least, not in the foreground and in the first instance, but I will consider Adachi’s specific execution of the art of manga. This work will start from the analysis of single panels, and their relationship with each other inside the page layout, following the critical path indicated by Thierry Groensteen (1999, and will be then accompanied by the analysis of images and texts contained inside those panels, with special regard to their relationship with each other and with images and texts contained in other panels, following the lead of Barbieri (1995 and Pellitteri (1998.

    The analysis of the elements that this text brings together to create a coherent narrative, and those elements it will not, will show that to properly understand Adachi’s manga the reader must recognize the fictional nature of what he is reading and his function as co-author of the story. Obviously this reflection is based on a first level or narrative interpretation of the text because it is starting from this basic layer that all the other layers can be explored. This is also the reason why this work provides a punctual examination of the single panels.

    The analysis here proposed will also demonstrate that, despite many panels open up to different levels of readings, the activation of the second or third level of reading is not a given. It will also become evident, though, that if one stops at a first level reading, the most obvious one, the text in question isn’t really fulfilled according to its author’s expectations: the reader’s high engagement

  17. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... The decanting of wine by caterers or other retail dealers for table or room service, banquets, and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person...

  18. Stream capture to form Red Pass, northern Soda Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Mahan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Red Pass, a narrow cut through the Soda Mountains important for prehistoric and early historic travelers, is quite young geologically. Its history of downcutting to capture streams west of the Soda Mountains, thereby draining much of eastern Fort Irwin, is told by the contrast in alluvial fan sediments on either side of the pass. Old alluvial fan deposits (>500 ka) were shed westward off an intact ridge of the Soda Mountains but by middle Pleistocene time, intermediate-age alluvial fan deposits (~100 ka) were laid down by streams flowing east through the pass into Silurian Valley. The pass was probably formed by stream capture driven by high levels of groundwater on the west side. This is evidenced by widespread wetland deposits west of the Soda Mountains. Sapping and spring discharge into Silurian Valley over millennia formed a low divide in the mountains that eventually was overtopped and incised by a stream. Lessons include the importance of groundwater levels for stream capture and the relatively youthful appearance of this ~100-200 ka feature in the slowly changing Mojave Desert landscape.

  19. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-13

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  20. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Yue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm3/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115–125 °C, this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  1. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening of hormone-like activities in bottled waters available in Southern Spain using receptor-specific bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Macarena; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Jiménez-Díaz, Inmaculada; Arrebola, Juan Pedro; Sáenz, José-María; Fernández, Mariana F; Olea, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Bottled water consumption is a putative source of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Research has been conducted on the presence of chemicals with estrogen-like activity in bottled waters and on their estrogenicity, but few data are available on the presence of hormonal activities associated with other nuclear receptors (NRs). The aim of this study was to determine the presence of endocrine activities dependent on the activation of human estrogen receptor alpha (hERa) and/or androgen receptor (hAR) in water in glass or plastic bottles sold to consumers in Southern Spain. Hormone-like activities were evaluated in 29 bottled waters using receptor-specific bioassays based on reporter gene expression in PALM cells [(anti-)androgenicity] and cell proliferation assessment in MCF-7 cells [(anti-)estrogenicity] after optimized solid phase extraction (SPE). All of the water samples analyzed showed hormonal activity. This was estrogenic in 79.3% and anti-estrogenic in 37.9% of samples and was androgenic in 27.5% and anti-androgenic in 41.3%, with mean concentrations per liter of 0.113pM 17β-estradiol (E2) equivalent units (E2Eq), 11.01pM anti-estrogen (ICI 182780) equivalent units (ICI 182780Eq), 0.33pM methyltrienolone (R1881) equivalent units (R1881Eq), and 0.18nM procymidone equivalent units (ProcEq). Bottled water consumption contributes to EDC exposure. Hormone-like activities observed in waters from both plastic and glass bottles suggest that plastic packaging is not the sole source of contamination and that the source of the water and bottling process may play a role, among other factors. Further research is warranted on the cumulative effects of long-term exposure to low doses of EDCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. FE-Analysis of Stretch-Blow Moulded Bottles Using an Integrative Process Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, C.; Michaeli, W.; Rasche, S.

    2011-05-01

    The two-stage stretch-blow moulding process has been established for the large scale production of high quality PET containers with excellent mechanical and optical properties. The total production costs of a bottle are significantly caused by the material costs. Due to this dominant share of the bottle material, the PET industry is interested in reducing the total production costs by an optimised material efficiency. However, a reduced material inventory means decreasing wall thicknesses and therewith a reduction of the bottle properties (e.g. mechanical properties, barrier properties). Therefore, there is often a trade-off between a minimal bottle weight and adequate properties of the bottle. In order to achieve the objectives Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) techniques can assist the designer of new stretch-blow moulded containers. Hence, tools such as the process simulation and the structural analysis have become important in the blow moulding sector. The Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University, Germany, has developed an integrative three-dimensional process simulation which models the complete path of a preform through a stretch-blow moulding machine. At first, the reheating of the preform is calculated by a thermal simulation. Afterwards, the inflation of the preform to a bottle is calculated by finite element analysis (FEA). The results of this step are e.g. the local wall thickness distribution and the local biaxial stretch ratios. Not only the material distribution but also the material properties that result from the deformation history of the polymer have significant influence on the bottle properties. Therefore, a correlation between the material properties and stretch ratios is considered in an integrative simulation approach developed at IKV. The results of the process simulation (wall thickness, stretch ratios) are transferred to a further simulation program and mapped on the bottles FE mesh. This approach allows a local

  4. The effect of soda immersion on nano hybrid composite resin discoloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chair Effendi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composite resin is the tooth-colored restorative material which most of the people are fond of due to their aesthetic value. The composite resin discoloration may happen because of the intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Soda water is one of the beverages which can cause the composite resin discoloration. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the effect of soda immersion on nano hybrid composite resin discoloration. Methods: The study was an experimental laboratory study using 100 shade A3 nano hybrid composite resin specimens with the diameter of 5 mm and density of 2mm. The samples were divided into 5 groups, each group was immersed in different beverages. The beverages were mineral water; lemon-flavored soda; strawberry-flavored soda; fruit punch-flavored soda; and orange-flavored soda for 3, 7, 14 and 21 days respectively, in the temperature of 37o C. The discoloration measurement utilizes Spectrophotometer, Vita Easy Shade, and uses CIEL*a*b* method. Results: The result showed that the duration of immersion in soda had an effect on the Nano hybrid composite resin discoloration. Strawberry and fruit punch- flavored soda were the most influential components toward the discoloration. Nevertheless, the generally-occurred discoloration was clinically acceptable (∆E ≤ 3,3. Conclusion: The study suggested that the soda immersion duration has effect on Nano hybrid composite resin discoloration.Latar belakang: Resin komposit adalah material sewarna gigi yang diminati masyarakat karena memiliki nilai estetik yang baik. Perubahan warna resin komposit dapat terjadi karena faktor intrinsik dan ekstrinsik. Minuman soda merupakan salah satu minuman yang dapat menyebabkan perubahan warna pada resin komposit. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk meneliti perubahan warna resin komposit nanohibrida akibat perendaman dalam minuman soda. Metode: Metode yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah eksperimental laboratorik dengan menggunakan

  5. Speciation of inorganic antimony in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwo, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a regulated drinking water contaminant that has been found to leach from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic containers into the waters stored in them. The common inorganic species of antimony in water are Sb(III) and Sb(V), with the former being more toxic and the latter being more soluble. In order to assess the extent to which waters stored in PET bottles are contaminated with inorganic Sb and to further examine the effect of typical storage conditions on migration rates, speciation analysis of inorganic Sb using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS) was undertaken on selected PET plastic bottled waters marketed in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Six brands of PET plastic bottled waters were obtained at source on the day of packaging, and analyses undertaken on samples of the waters stored in the plastic containers at intervals of four weeks for twelve weeks, under three carefully chosen storage conditions distinctive of bottled water usage. Selected physicochemical properties of samples of the waters stored in the plastic containers and total Sb of samples of the plastic containers were also determined to discover the effect of some physical properties and certain major ions, and the influence of the different quality PET plastic types on Sb migration respectively. The study revealed amounts of total Sb in the PET plastic containers of the 6 brands ranging from 123.46 mg/kg to 146.45 mg/kg. The selected physicochemical properties of the waters stored in the PET plastic containers considered were pH (6.78 – 7.43), Ca2+ (1.61 – 12.39 mg/L), Mg2+ (1.00 – 4.96 mg/L), HCO3− (6.18 – 55.41 mg/L) and TDS (8.70 – 70.40 mg/L)). PET bottled waters of 5 out of the 6 brands contained Sb (initial total Sb ranging from 1.11 – 14.65 μg/L) before storage. Total Sb concentrations of the waters stored in the plastic containers were observed to increase with storage time under all the three storage conditions for

  6. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  7. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging need...

  8. Baking soda pica associated with rhabdomyolysis and cardiomyopathy in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolari Childress, Katherine M; Myles, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Pica is a commonly underappreciated disorder in pregnancy that can lead to several complications, including severe metabolic derangements and other adverse outcomes. We report a case of baking soda pica in pregnancy associated with both rhabdomyolysis and cardiomyopathy. A multigravid woman at 37 weeks of gestation presented with weakness and severe hypokalemia. She subsequently had development of rhabdomyolysis and presumed peripartum cardiomyopathy. After delivery, it was discovered that the patient had a long history of consumption of large quantities of baking soda. Her condition improved with cessation of the pica. Clinicians must have a high index of suspicion for pica in pregnancy because it can lead to complex diagnostic challenges and pregnancy complications. The diagnosis should be considered in a patient with unexplained metabolic abnormalities.

  9. Are energy Drinks Scapegoats? Decomposing Teenagers' Caffeine intake from Energy Drinks and Soda Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir

    2018-02-22

    Energy drinks have been repeatedly blamed for contributing to caffeine intake among teenagers. This study aimed to estimate and compare the caffeine intake of US teenagers from soda drinks versus energy drinks and shots. Data were taken from a 2015 nationally representative survey (Monitoring the Future) of 8th and 10th graders in the US (47.2% 8th grade; 51.1% female). Participants reported their numbers of consumed sodas, diet sodas, energy drinks, and energy shots per day. These were converted into mg caffeine/day and were contrasted with common guidelines for healthy caffeine intake, stratified by age group and sex. Error-bar charts, ANOVA and ROC curves were used for contrasting caffeine intake from soda drinks and energy drinks, as well as their contribution to exceeding recommended caffeine intake cutoffs. First, in both sexes and grades the intake from soda drinks was significantly higher than the intake from energy drinks. The soda and energy drink intake for males was higher than the intake for females; intake for 8th graders was higher than this of 10th graders. Second, caffeine intake from soda drinks was significantly higher even in those who exceeded the recommended maximum caffeine intake. Third, caffeine intakes from soda and energy drinks were efficacious in explaining the exceeding of the recommended threshold for daily caffeine intake, but the explanatory power of soda drinks was larger. From a caffeine consumption standpoint, health professionals should emphasize reduction in both soda and energy drinks.

  10. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Alison K.; Golen, Rebecca Pollack

    2014-01-01

    Compared to breast-fed infants, bottle-fed infants consume greater volumes and gain more weight during infancy. It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers’ sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants’ intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cu...

  11. Homespun remedy, homespun toxicity: baking soda ingestion for dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajbani, Keyur; Chansky, Michael E; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2011-04-01

    A 68-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a severe metabolic alkalosis after ingesting large quantities of baking soda to treat his dyspepsia. His underlying pulmonary disease and a progressively worsening mental status necessitated intubation for respiratory failure. Laboratory studies revealed a hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The patient was successfully treated after cessation of the oral bicarbonate, initiation of intravenous hydration, and correction of electrolyte abnormalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bottled Water Everywhere: Keeping it Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taps an aquifer—layers of porous rock, sand, and earth that contain water—which is under ... it to be labeled as “purified water.” Ensuring Quality and Safety Federal quality standards for bottled water ...

  13. GLOBEC NEP Rosette Bottle Data (2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) Rosette Bottle Data from New Horizon Cruise (NH0207: 1-19 August 2002). Notes: Physical data...

  14. Bottle appeal drifts across the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesmeyer, Curtis; Ingraham, W. James, Jr.; McKinnon, Richard; Okubo, Akira; Wang, Dong-Ping; Strickland, Richard; Willing, Peter

    Pacific drift currents were used by a group of oceanographers to estimate the path of a drift bottle that was found on a beach of Barkley Sound in Vancouver Island by Richard Strickland on June 10, 1990. The Chinese rice wine bottle, which remained unopened until December 18, 1991, contained six leaflets, one appealing for the release of China's well-known dissident, Wei Jingsheng. The bottle was one of thousands set adrift as part of a propaganda effort from the islands of Quemoy and Matsu off mainland China shortly after Wei was sentenced in 1979 to 15 years in prison (see Figure 1 for locations). Wei was in poor health and still in prison when the bottle made its way across the Pacific Ocean.

  15. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Plastic Surgery KidsHealth / For Teens / Plastic Surgery What's in ... her forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word " ...

  16. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of four disposal scenarios for used polyethylene terephthalate bottles in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-09-01

    The annual rise in population growth coupled with the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius has lead to a considerable increase in the amount of solid waste generated. In parallel, the disposal of non-biodegradable wastes, especially plastic packaging and plastic bottles, has also shown a steady rise. Improper disposal of used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles constitutes an eyesore to the environmental landscape and is a threat to the flourishing tourism industry. It is of utmost importance, therefore, to determine a suitable disposal method for used PET bottles which is not only environmentally efficient but is also cost effective. This study investigated the environmental impacts and the cost effectiveness of four selected disposal alternatives for used PET bottles in Mauritius. The four disposal routes investigated were: 100% landfilling; 75% incineration with energy recovery and 25% landfilling; 40% flake production (partial recycling) and 60% landfilling; and 75% flake production and 25% landfilling. Environmental impacts of the disposal alternatives were determined using ISO standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) and with the support of SimaPro 7.1 software. Cost effectiveness was determined using life cycle costing (LCC). Collected data were entered into a constructed Excel-based model to calculate the different cost categories, Net present values, damage costs and payback periods. LCA and LCC results indicated that 75% flake production and 25% landfilling was the most environmentally efficient and cost-effective disposal route for used PET bottles in Mauritius.

  17. Structure change of soda-silicate glass by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwao, M; Okuno, M

    2010-01-01

    Structure change of ground soda-silicate glass (SiO 2 -Na 2 O binary systems) was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy. The measurement results were discussed comparison to that of SiO 2 glass. With increasing Na 2 O concentrations, the XRD intensity around 2θ = 22 0 decreased and the intensity around 32 0 increased. The intensity around 22 0 and 32 0 maybe attributed to SiO 2 glass structure unit and soda-silicate glass unit, respectively. The peaks of Na 2 CO 3 crystal for 2SiO 2 -Na 2 O glass were observed with increasing milling time. This crystallization was suggested that Na + ion on 2SiO 2 -Na 2 O glass surface connected CO 2 in air. The intensity around 22 0 and 32 0 decreased and the intensity around 30 0 increased with increasing milling time. These may indicate that SiO 2 glass structure unit and soda-silicate glass structure unit were mixed by milling. In addition, IR absorption band near v = 1100 cm -1 was separated to two bands near 940 cm -1 and 1070 cm -1 with increasing Na 2 O concentrations. The band near 940 cm -1 decreased and the band near 1070 cm -1 increased with increasing milling time. These spectra changes were suggested due to decrease of Na 2 O concentrations in 2SiO 2 -Na 2 O glass with Na 2 CO 3 crystallization.

  18. Speciation of antimony in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.R.; Ablett, J.; Shotyk, W.S.; Naftel, S.; Northrup, P.

    2010-01-01

    Antimony contamination has been reported in drinking water from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has been used to identify the distribution and chemical form of residual antimony used as a catalyst in the manufacture of PET bottles. The results are consistent with clusters of Sb(III) having dimensions of the order of tens of micrometers, clearly showing the ability of synchrotron radiation analyses to both map elemental distribution and determine oxidation state.

  19. Preconcentration and Determination of Antimony in Drinking Water Bottled by Modified Nano-Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammad Zakizade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 has been utilized as a catalyst in polyethylene terephtalate (PET production, and the studies conducted on the bottled water has demonstrated that antimony can be leached from PET bottles into drinking water. Methods: In this study, a simple method was applied in order to determine the trace amount of antimony in bottled drinking water based on preconcentration /solid phase extraction. The nano alumina modified with Schiff base ligand was used in regard with Sb preconcentration. The experiments were performed in a continuous system and HCI was used as eluent of Sb ion. Several chemical and flow variables were optimized for a quantitative preconcentration and determination of Sb ion. The atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine Sb ion concentration. In order to study the keeping conditions on the leaching of Sb ion from PET plastic, drinking water bottles were kept in different conditions(room temperature, sunny light and -18˚C. Results: The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.5 to 15.0 ppm Sb with detection limit of 0.055 ppm. The flow rate of sample was optimized in range of 1.0-9.0 mLmin-1 and Sb ion can be quantitatively eluted at 90 Vsample: Veluent retio. Conclusion: The study results revealed that the modified nano alumina is an effective sorbent in regard with absorbing Sb ion from water and HCI 1M can be used as an appropriate eluent. Maximum leaching of Sb ion is observed when the bottled drinking water was exposed to the sun light. Keywords: Antimony; Bottled drinking water; Modified alumina; Preconcentration

  20. Bottled vs. Canned Beer: Do They Really Taste Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Barnett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available People often say that beer tastes better from a bottle than from a can. However, one can ask how reliable this perceived difference is across consumers. And, if reliable, one can further ask whether it is a purely psychological phenomenon (associated with the influence of packaging on taste perception, or whether instead it reflects some more mundane physico-chemical interaction between the packaging material (or packing procedure/process and the contents. Two experiments were conducted in order to address these questions. In the main experiment, 151 participants at the 2016 Edinburgh Science Festival were served a special ‘craft beer’ in a plastic cup. The beer was either poured from a bottle or can (a between-participants experimental design was used. The participants were encouraged to pick up the packaging in order to inspect the label before tasting the beer. The participants rated the perceived taste, quality, and freshness of the beer, as well as their likelihood of purchase, and estimated the price. All of the beer came from the same batch (specifically a Session IPA from Barney’s Brewery in Edinburgh. None of the participants were familiar with this particular craft brew. Nevertheless, those who evaluated the beer from the bottle rated it as tasting better than those who rated the beer served from the can. Having demonstrated such a perceptual difference (in terms of taste, we then went on to investigate whether people would prefer one packaging format over the other when the beer from bottle and can was served blind to a new group of participants (i.e., when the participants did not know the packaging material. The participants in this control study (n = 29 were asked which beer they preferred. Alternatively, they could state that the two samples tasted the same. No sign of a consistent preference was obtained under such blind tasting conditions. Explanations for the psychological impact of the packaging format, in terms of

  1. College Cafeteria Signage Increases Water Intake but Water Position on the Soda Dispenser Encourages More Soda Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuclard, Astrid Linn; Park-Mroch, Jennifer; O'Shea, Amy M J; Wansink, Brian; Irvin, Jill; Laroche, Helena H

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of improved water location visibility and water dispenser position on the soda dispenser on undergraduate students' beverage choices. Two focus groups with pilot intervention surveys before and after, adding a small sign above the soda dispensers' water button for 6 weeks in a large US university's all-you-can-eat, prepaid dining hall (measured with chi-square tests and logistic and ordinal logistic regression). Focus groups included 15 students. Survey participants included 357 students before and 301 after the intervention. After the intervention, more students reported ever having drunk water with the meal (66.4% to 77.0%; P = .003) and water consumption frequency increased (P = .005). Postintervention, the odds of drinking water increased by 1.57. Preference for other drinks was the main reason for not drinking water. A total of 59% of students had ever changed their preference from water to soda. The clear indication of the water's location increased students' reported water consumption. Further investigation is needed into how a non-independent water dispenser influences students' beverage choice. Clearly labeled, independent water dispensers are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of cutting soda-lime glass sludge for the formulation of red ceramic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filogonio, P.H.C.; Reis, A.S.; Louzada, D.M.; Della, V.P.

    2014-01-01

    Considering previous works that have demonstrated the feasibility of soda-lime glass incorporation into red ceramics, this paper aims to determine the potential for incorporation of cutting soda-lime glass sludge in red ceramic manufacturing. Therefore, the waste was characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and thermal behavior. The results confirm the chemical and mineralogical similarity between waste and soda-lime glass. Because of this similarity, it is concluded that the soda-lime glass waste has the capability to be used in the manufacturing of red ceramics. (author)

  3. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  4. Plastic solid waste utilization technologies: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Arun Kumar; Shivashankar, Murugesh; Majumder, Suman

    2017-11-01

    Plastics are used in more number of applications in worldwide and it becomes essential part of our daily life. In Indian cities and villages people use the plastics in buying vegetable as a carry bag, drinking water bottle, use of plastic furniture in home, plastics objects uses in kitchen, plastic drums in packing and storage of the different chemicals for industrial use, use plastic utensils in home and many more uses. After usage of plastics it will become part of waste garbage and create pollution due to presence of toxic chemicals and it will be spread diseases and give birth to uncontrolled issues in social society. In current scenario consumption of plastic waste increasing day by day and it is very difficult to manage the plastic waste. There are limited methodologies available for reutilization of plastic waste again. Such examples are recycling, landfill, incineration, gasification and hydrogenation. In this paper we will review the existing methodologies of utilization of plastic waste in current scenario

  5. Quality Assurance for Iraqi Bottled Water Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May George Kassir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research the specifications of Iraqi drinking bottled water brands are investigated throughout the comparison between local brands, Saudi Arabia and the World Health Organization (WHO for bottled water standard specifications. These specifications were also compared to that of Iraqi Tap Water standards. To reveal variations in the specifications for Iraqi bottled water, and above mentioned standards some quality control tools are conducted for more than 33% of different bottled water brands (of different origins such as spring, purified,..etc in Iraq by investigating the selected quality parameters registered on their marketing labels. Results employing Minitab software (ver. 16 to generate X bar, and Pareto chart. It was found from X bar charts that the quality parameters of some drinking bottled water brands are not within Iraqi standards set by the “Central Agency for Standardization and Quality Control” such as pH values, Fe, Na, and Mg concentrations. While the comparison of previously mentioned standard specifications through radar chart many important issues are detected such as the absence of lower limits the whole bottled water quality parameters such as for Na and Mg also the radar chart shows that Iraqi bottled and tap water specifications are almost equal in their quality values. Also the same chart pictured the limited range of Iraqi specifications compared to that of Saudi Arabia, and WHO and the need to introduce other water specifications such as K, Na, etc. This confirms the need to improve Iraqi bottled water specifications since it was introduced on 2000. These results also highlighted the weakness of quality assurance activities since only 33 % of the investigated companies registered the whole water quality specifications as shown in Pareto chart. Other companies do not register any quality characteristics. Also certain companies should be stopped due to non-conforming specifications, yet these companies are

  6. Beer bottle whistling: a stochastic Hopf bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujo, Edouard; Bourquard, Claire; Xiong, Yuan; Noiray, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    Blowing in a bottle to produce sound is a popular and yet intriguing entertainment. We reproduce experimentally the common observation that the bottle ``whistles'', i.e. produces a distinct tone, for large enough blowing velocity and over a finite interval of blowing angle. For a given set of parameters, the whistling frequency stays constant over time while the acoustic pressure amplitude fluctuates. Transverse oscillations of the shear layer in the bottle's neck are clearly identified with time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). To account for these observations, we develop an analytical model of linear acoustic oscillator (the air in the bottle) subject to nonlinear stochastic forcing (the turbulent jet impacting the bottle's neck). We derive a stochastic differential equation and, from the associated Fokker-Planck equation and the measured acoustic pressure signals, we identify the model's parameters with an adjoint optimization technique. Results are further validated experimentally, and allow us to explain (i) the occurrence of whistling in terms of linear instability, and (ii) the amplitude of the limit cycle as a competition between linear growth rate, noise intensity, and nonlinear saturation. E. B. and N. N. acknowledge support by Repower and the ETH Zurich Foundation.

  7. Energy recycling of plastic and rubber wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.

    2003-01-01

    Major areas for applications of plastics and rubbers are building and construction, packaging, transportation, automobiles, furniture, house wares, appliances, electrical and electronics. Approximately 20% of all the plastics produced are utilized by the building and construction industry/sup (1-3)/. Categories of polymers mostly used in the above industries include poly (vinyl chloride), polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene phenolics, acrylics and urethanes. Tyres and tubes are almost exclusively made up of rubbers. One third of total consumption of plastics finds applications, like films, bottles and packaging, in food-products that have a maximum life-span of two years, after which these find way to waste dumps. As the polymer industry in Pakistan is set to grow very rapidly in the near future the increase in utilization of plastic products in synchronous with the advent of computers and information technology. About 0.60 Kg per capita of waste generated daily in Lahore /(7.14)/ contains considerable quantity of plastics. (AB)

  8. Assessment of soda ash calcination treatment of Turkish trona ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezer Sibel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trona is relatively rare, non-metallic mineral, Na2CO3 · NaHCO3 · 2H2O. The pure material contains 70.3% sodium carbonate and by calcination the excess CO2 and water can be driven off, yielding natural soda ash. The terms soda ash and sodium carbonate are used interchangeably. Trona calcining is a key process step in production of soda ash (sodium carbonate anhydrate from the relatively cheap trona ore. The calcination reaction may proceeds in a sequence of steps. Depending on the conditions, it may result in formation of either sodium carbonate monohydrate (Na2CO3 · H2O, sodium sesquicarbonate or weigschederite (Na2CO3 · 3NaHCO3. The Beypazarı Turkish trona deposit is the second largest deposit in the world with the content of 84% trona. The decomposition of trona appeared to be a single stage process across the temperature range studied (150-200 °C with the representative samples of different size fractions in the draught up metallurgical furnace. The optimum particle size and calcination time were −6.35 mm and 30 minutes, respectively, at calcination temperature of 175 °C in a metallurgical furnace. Microwave-induced dry calcination of trona was possible and 5 minutes of calcination time at a power level of 900 was sufficient for complete calcination of −6.35 mm feed. This includes short time calcinations with the goal of improving economics and simplifying the thermal process.

  9. Bubbling over: soda consumption and its link to obesity in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Susan H; Jones, Malia; Yu, Hongjian; Goldstein, Harold

    2009-09-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased dramatically in both adults and children in the last three decades in the n California, 62% of adolescents ages 12-17 and 41% of children ages 2-11 drink at least one soda or other sweetened beverage every day. In addition, 24% of adults drink at least one soda or other sweetened beverage on an average day. Adults who drink soda occasionally (not every day) are 15% more likely to be overweight or obese, and adults who drink one or more sodas per day are 27% more likely to be overweight or obese than adults who do not drink soda, even when adjusting for poverty status and race/ethnicity. This policy brief, produced collaboratively by the California Center for Public Health Advocacy and the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, examines soda consumption in California by cities and counties using data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2005). In addition, the brief investigates whether there is an association between soda consumption and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. There are major differences in soda consumption rates by geographic area in California, suggesting that social and environmental factors affect the consumption of soda. Also, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher among those who drink one or more sodas or other sweetened beverages every day than among those who do not consume these soft drinks. Establishing public policies that focus on reducing soda consumption could contribute to reversing California's increasing overweight and obesity problem.

  10. THE ANALYSIS OF THE THREAT OF REUSING PET BOTTLES FOR THE STORAGE OF DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuilov A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to a sociological survey of about 86% of Kharkiv (Ukraine residents reuse PET bottles for a drinking water storing. This type of reuse of PET bottles isn't safe and the results of numerous research unequivocally confirm this assertion. The largest hazard of plastic bottles reuse for drinking water storage is biological film on the internally surface of bottle. This biofilm may contain pathogenic microorganisms which can migrate from biofilm to fresh water. Human, who drinking contaminated water, may drink microorganisms in common with this water. It's very dangerous, because the numerous strains of pathogens may migration in water and infect from gastric-bowel tract to the humans. Scientists from National technical university "Kharkiv polytechnic institute" in common with experts from Mechnikov institute of microbiology and immunology explored this problem and devised the apparatus, which can destroy a biofilm on polymer or another surface. Materials & Methods. The tested apparatus was the electrical device consisting of a block with electrodes, an electronic control, a water pump and a sprinkler for spraying the disinfectant. The electrode was made of 925˚ silver (sterling silver. Water for the preparation of a disinfectant was tap water and wasn't treated additionally. The sprinkler for spraying the disinfectant was placed in the neck of the infected bottle. Disinfectant solution was sprayed inside the bottle for 4 seconds. The water pressure was about 1.5 atmospheres. After that, the sprinkler was removed and the disinfectant was drained. A smear for microbiological composition was taken from three parts of the bottle - the neck, the middle part and the bottom. Growth of microorganisms and their detections was fixed by classic microbiological methods. Results & Discussion. In the article the scheme of the most probable and widespread way of infection of PET-bottles by pathogens and the way of minimization of this

  11. Baking soda induced severe metabolic alkalosis in a haemodialysis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Yalcin; Turkmen, Kultigin; Atalay, Huseyin; Turk, Suleyman

    2009-08-01

    Metabolic alkalosis is a rare occurence in hemodialysis population compared to metabolic acidosis unless some precipitating factors such as nasogastric suction, vomiting and alkali ingestion or infusion are present. When metabolic alkalosis develops, it may cause serious clinical consequences among them are sleep apnea, resistent hypertension, dysrhythmia and seizures. Here, we present a 54-year-old female hemodialysis patient who developed a severe metabolic alkalosis due to baking soda ingestion to relieve dyspepsia. She had sleep apnea, volume overload and uncontrolled hypertension due to metabolic alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis was corrected and the patient's clinical condition was relieved with negative-bicarbonate hemodialysis.

  12. Detection of bottled explosives by near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Bottled liquids are not allowed through the security gate in the airport, because liquid explosives have been used by the terrorists. However, passengers have a lot of trouble if they cannot bring their own bottles. For example, a mother would like to carry her own milk in the airplane for her baby. Therefore the detection technology of liquid explosives should be developed as soon as possible. This paper shows that near infrared spectroscopy can detect bottled explosives quickly. The transmission method cannot deal with milk in the sense of liquid inspection. Here we examined the reflection method to the test of milk. The inspection method with light cannot make test for the metal can. We also use ultrasonic method to check metal can simultaneously in order to expand test targets.

  13. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela dos Santos Buccini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding. Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. RESULTS The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as “baby friendly”, required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91, and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. CONCLUSIONS This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  14. Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market. ... Consumption of bottled water is increasing rapidly in developing countries especially among ... limits set by WHO guidelines and therefore safe for human consumption.

  15. Investigations of Archaeological Glass Bracelets and Perfume Bottles Excavated in Ancient Ainos (Enez) by Multiple Analytical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, S.; Akyuz, T.; Akyuz, S.; Ozel, A. E.; Kecel-Gunduz, S.; Basaran, S.

    2018-03-01

    Fragments of two perfume bottles belonging to the Hellenistic and Roman periods, and five bracelets belonging to the Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman periods, excavated in the archaeological site of Enez during the excavations in 2000, have been investigated. The samples were analyzed using micro-Raman, FTIR, and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques, in order to study the ancient technology of glass production and to determine chemical compositions of the basic components and coloring elements of the glassware. All the investigated glasses can be characterized as low-magnesia-soda-lime silicate glasses, whose colors are induced by metal ions. The melting points of the investigated glasses are estimated to be quite close to each other and around 1000°C.

  16. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar F. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production.PET plastic waste conversion to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect ...

  17. The association of soda sales tax and school nutrition laws: a concordance of policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greathouse, K Leigh; Chriqui, Jamie; Moser, Richard P; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Perna, Frank M

    2014-10-01

    The current research examined the association between state disfavoured tax on soda (i.e. the difference between soda sales tax and the tax on food products generally) and a summary score representing the strength of state laws governing competitive beverages (beverages that compete with the beverages in the federally funded school lunch programme) in US schools. The Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) summary score reflected the strength of a state's laws restricting competitive beverages sold in school stores, vending machines, school fundraisers and à la carte cafeteria items. Bridging the Gap (BTG) is a nationally recognized research initiative that provided state-level soda tax data. The main study outcome was the states' competitive beverage summary scores for elementary, middle and high school grade levels, as predicted by the states' disfavoured soda tax. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted, adjusting for year and state. Data from BTG and CLASS were used. BTG and CLASS data from all fifty states and the District of Columbia from 2003 to 2010 were used. A higher disfavoured soda sales tax was generally associated with an increased likelihood of having strong school beverage laws across grade levels, and especially when disfavoured soda sales tax was >5 %. These data suggest a concordance between states' soda taxes and laws governing beverages sold in schools. States with high disfavoured sales tax on soda had stronger competitive beverage laws, indicating that the state sales tax environment may be associated with laws governing beverage policy in schools.

  18. Hypernatremia and metabolic alkalosis as a consequence of the therapeutic misuse of baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, S; Listernick, R

    1987-12-01

    When used appropriately, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, USP) is a nontoxic, readily available, multipurpose product found in many households. We report an infant who presented with hypernatremia and metabolic alkalosis due to the addition of baking soda to her water. This case represents the possible dangerous use of a common household product in infants owing to the lack of proper warning labels.

  19. Hydrogen peroxide and caustic soda: Dancing with a dragon while bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Hart; Carl Houtman; Kolby Hirth

    2013-01-01

    When hydrogen peroxide is mixed with caustic soda, an auto-accelerating reaction can lead to generation of significant amounts of heat and oxygen. On the basis of experiments using typical pulp mill process concentration and temperatures, a relatively simple kinetic model has been developed. Evaluation of these model results reveals that hydrogen peroxide-caustic soda...

  20. Natronobacillus azotifigens gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic diazotrophic haloalkaliphile from soda-rich habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, I.D.; Zadorina, E.V.; Kravchenko, I.K.; Boulygina, E.S.; Tourova, T.P.; Sorokin, D.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria capable of nitrogen fixation were obtained in microoxic enrichments from soda soils in south-western Siberia, north-eastern Mongolia, and the Lybian desert (Egypt). The same organisms were obtained in anoxic enrichments with glucose from soda lake sediments in the Kulunda

  1. Metagenomic insights into the uncultured diversity and physiology of microbes in four hypersaline soda lake brines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavourakis, Charlotte D.; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Muyzer, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still

  2. Metagenomic Insights into the Uncultured Diversity and Physiology of Microbes in Four Hypersaline Soda Lake Brines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavourakis, C.D.; Ghai, R.; Rodriguez-valera, F.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Tringe, S.G.; Hugenholtz, P.; Muyzer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still

  3. Quantitative bacterial examination and chemical evaluation of Diet, Club, and Ice-cream Sodas, Soft Drinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watoo, M.K.S.; Watoo, F.S.; Kazi, T.G.; Tirmizi, S.A.; Iqbal, J.

    2005-01-01

    Diet, club, and ice cream sodas are flavored soft drinks consumed throughout the world, especially in summer seasons. This study has been undertaken to monitor the bacterial and chemical contamination of these national and international branded drinks procured from local markets. The isolated coliforms and microbes were E. coli Salmonella spp, Klebsiella spp, Enterobacter spp, Shigella spp, and Bacillus cereus. Diet and club sodas were less contaminated with microorganisms than were ice-cream sodas. Fifteen trace and toxic elements were identified with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer following the improved ash digestion method. The values of Nickel (Ni), (0.15 mg/L), (Pb) (0.28mg/L), Cadmium (Cd) (0.13mg/L) and Aluminum (Al) (0.76 mg/L) were higher than the (WHO) recommended limits. The concentrations of (Na, Fe, Pb) and Chromium (Cr) were higher in club sodas than diet and ice-cream sodas and the concentrations of Calcium (Ca), (Mn) in ice-cream sodas were also higher than diet and club sodas. Overall, the ice-cream sodas did not conform to the (WHO) standards allowed for safe ingestion of micro- and macro-metals in various drinks. (author)

  4. The relationship between amount of soda consumed and intention to reduce soda consumption among adults exposed to the Choose Health LA 'Sugar Pack' health marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Lieberman, Alicea J; Barragan, Noel C; Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony

    2015-10-01

    To examine behavioural intention to reduce soda consumption after exposure to the Choose Health LA 'Sugar Pack' campaign in Los Angeles County, California, USA. A cross-sectional street-intercept survey was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes, health behaviours and behavioural intentions after exposure to the 'Sugar Pack' campaign. A multivariable regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships between the amount of soda consumed and self-reported intention to reduce consumption of non-diet soda among adults who saw the campaign. Three pre-selected Los Angeles County Metro bus shelters and/or rail stops with the highest number of 'Sugar Pack' campaign advertisement placements. Riders of the region's Metro buses and railways who were the intended audience of the campaign advertisements. The overall survey response rate was 56 % (resulting n 1041). Almost 60 % of respondents were exposed to the advertisements (619/1041). The multivariable logistic regression analysis suggested that the odds of reporting intention to reduce soda consumption among moderate consumers (1-6 sodas/week) were 1·95 times greater than among heavy consumers (≥1 soda/d), after controlling for clustering and covariates. Respondents with less than a high-school education and who perceived sugary beverage consumption as harmful also had higher odds; in contrast, respondents aged ≥65 years had lower odds. Results suggest that future campaigns should be tailored differently for moderate v. heavy consumers of soda. Similar tailoring strategies are likely needed for younger groups, for those with less educational attainment and for those who do not perceive consumption of soda as harmful.

  5. Obesity prevention strategies: could food or soda taxes improve health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnação, R; Lloyd-Williams, F; Bromley, H; Capewell, S

    2016-03-01

    Evidence shows that one of the main causes for rising obesity rates is excessive consumption of sugar, which is due in large part to the high sugar content of most soda and juice drinks and junk foods. Worryingly, UK and global populations are consuming increasing amounts of sugary drinks and junk foods (high in salt, sugar and saturated fats). However, there is raised public awareness, and parents in particular want something to be done to curb the alarming rise in childhood obesity. Population-wide policies (i.e. taxation, regulation, legislation, reformulation) consistently achieve greater public health gains than interventions and strategies targeted at individuals. Junk food and soda taxes are supported by increasing evidence from empirical and modelling studies. The strongest evidence base is for a tax on sugar sweetened beverages, but in order to effectively reduce consumption, that taxation needs to be at least 20%. Empirical data from a number of countries which have implemented a duty on sugar or sugary drinks shows rapid, substantial benefits. In the UK, increasing evidence from recent scientific reports consistently support substantial reductions in sugar consumption through comprehensive strategies which include a tax. Furthermore, there is increasing public support for such measures. A sugar sweetened beverages tax will happen in the UK so the question is not 'If?' but 'When?' this tax will be implemented. And, crucially, which nation will get there first? England, Ireland, Scotland or Wales?

  6. 27 CFR 19.749 - Bottling and packaging record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling and packaging record. 19.749 Section 19.749 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Account § 19.749 Bottling and packaging record. The bottling and packaging record shall be prepared and...

  7. Electrochemical Characterisation of Bio-Bottle-Voltaic (BBV) Systems Operated with Algae and Built with Recycled Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Peter; Fleet, Jack E H; Riseley, Anthony S; Janeva, Elena; Marcella, Anastasia S; Farinea, Chiara; Kuptsova, Maria; Conde Pueyo, Núria; Howe, Christopher J; Bombelli, Paolo; Parker, Brenda M

    2018-04-17

    Photobioelectrochemical systems are an emerging possibility for renewable energy. By exploiting photosynthesis, they transform the energy of light into electricity. This study evaluates a simple, scalable bioelectrochemical system built from recycled plastic bottles, equipped with an anode made from recycled aluminum, and operated with the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana . We tested whether such a system, referred to as a bio-bottle-voltaic (BBV) device, could operate outdoors for a prolonged time period of 35 days. Electrochemical characterisation was conducted by measuring the drop in potential between the anode and the cathode, and this value was used to calculate the rate of charge accumulation. The BBV systems were initially able to deliver ~500 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 , which increased throughout the experimental run to a maximum of ~2000 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 . The electrical output was consistently and significantly higher than that of the abiotic BBV system operated without algal cells (~100 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 ). The analysis of the rate of algal biomass accumulation supported the hypothesis that harvesting a proportion of electrons from the algal cells does not significantly perturb the rate of algal growth. Our finding demonstrates that bioelectrochemical systems can be built using recycled components. Prototypes of these systems have been displayed in public events; they could serve as educational toolkits in schools and could also offer a solution for powering low-energy devices off-grid.

  8. THE APPLICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    MR. YASHODHAN ARVIND JAGTAP; DIGVIJAY PRAMOD BHOSALE

    2017-01-01

    Disposal of plastic waste in the environment is considered to be a big problem because it is very low in biodegradability and its presence is large. Chocolate, chocolate, chips, handbags, cold drink bottles and other plastic packaging can cause major environmental and economic problems. They consume a lot of energy and other natural resources and exhaust the environment in various ways. In recent years, the use of industrial waste to replace a part of conventional concrete aggregate is being ...

  9. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of this... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  10. Calcite precipitates in Slovenian bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanič, Tamara Ferjan; Miler, Miloš; Brenčič, Mihael; Gosar, Mateja

    2017-06-01

    Storage of bottled waters in varying ambient conditions affects its characteristics. Different storage conditions cause changes in the initial chemical composition of bottled water which lead to the occurrence of precipitates with various morphologies. In order to assess the relationship between water composition, storage conditions and precipitate morphology, a study of four brands of Slovenian bottled water stored in PET bottles was carried out. Chemical analyses of the main ions and measurements of the physical properties of water samples were performed before and after storage of water samples at different ambient conditions. SEM/EDS analysis of precipitates was performed after elapsed storage time. The results show that the presence of Mg 2+ , SO 4 2- , SiO 2 , Al, Mn and other impurities such as K + , Na + , Ba and Sr in the water controlled precipitate morphology by inhibiting crystal growth and leading to elongated rhombohedral calcite crystal forms which exhibit furrowed surfaces and calcite rosettes. Different storage conditions, however, affected the number of crystallization nuclei and size of calcite crystals. Hollow calcite spheres composed of cleavage rhombohedrons formed in the water with variable storage conditions by a combination of evaporation and precipitation of water droplets during high temperatures or by the bubble templating method.

  11. Shipping container for a bottle of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldan, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    A shipping container for a bottle of radioactive material comprises a can having a cavity therein for receiving the bottle, a screw cap for the can and the cavity, and an annular bottle retainer extending downwardly in the cavity from its upper end having an outwardly extending flange at its upper end clamped between the cap and the upper end of the cavity and an inwardly extending flange at its lower end receiving the neck of the bottle. The cap carries a sponge to absorb spillage from the bottle. (U.S.)

  12. Barriers and benefits to desired behaviors for single use plastic items in northeast Ohio's Lake Erie basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Jill F; Hardy, Scott D

    2018-02-01

    Given the growing saliency of plastic marine debris, and the impact of plastics on beaches and aquatic environments in the Laurentian Great Lakes, applied research is needed to support municipal and nongovernmental campaigns to prevent debris from reaching the water's edge. This study addresses this need by examining the barriers and benefits to positive behavior for two plastic debris items in northeast Ohio's Lake Erie basin: plastic bags and plastic water bottles. An online survey is employed to gather data on the use and disposal of these plastic items and to solicit recommendations on how to positively change behavior to reduce improper disposal. Results support a ban on plastic bags and plastic water bottles, with more enthusiasm for a bag ban. Financial incentives are also seen as an effective way to influence behavior change, as are location-specific solutions focused on education and outreach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Soda Creek springs - metamorphic waters in the eastern Alaska Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D.H.; Donaldson, D.E.; Lamarre, R.A.

    1973-01-01

    The Soda Creek springs are a group of small, cold mineral springs on the southern flank of the eastern Alaska Range. The spring waters contain anomalous concentrations of carbon dioxide, sodium, chlorine, sulfate, boron, and ammonia and are actively precipitating deposits of calcite and aragonite. Sparingly present in these deposits are mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite clays and zeolite minerals. Low-temperaturemetamorphic reactions in subjacent marine sedimentary rocks of Jurassic and Cretaceous age may have produced the fluids and silicate minerals. With only a few exceptions, cool bicarbonate-rich springs in Alaska are concentrated south of the Denali fault system in south-central Alaska, southeastern Alaska, and along the Kaltag-Tintina fault system. These areas are characterized by active or recently activetectonism, major faults and folds, and an abundance of marine sedimentary rocks.

  14. The Untapped Power of Soda Taxes: Incentivizing Consumers, Generating Revenue, and Altering Corporate Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roache, Sarah A; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2017-06-14

    Globally, soda taxes are gaining momentum as powerful interventions to discourage sugar consumption and thereby reduce the growing burden of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Evidence from early adopters including Mexico and Berkeley, California, confirms that soda taxes can disincentivize consumption through price increases and raise revenue to support government programs. The United Kingdom's new graduated levy on sweetened beverages is yielding yet another powerful impact: soda manufacturers are reformulating their beverages to significantly reduce the sugar content. Product reformulation - whether incentivized or mandatory - helps reduce overconsumption of sugars at the societal level, moving away from the long-standing notion of individual responsibility in favor of collective strategies to promote health. But as a matter of health equity, soda product reformulation should occur globally, especially in low- and middleincome countries (LMICs), which are increasingly targeted as emerging markets for soda and junk food and are disproportionately impacted by NCDs. As global momentum for sugar reduction increases, governments and public health advocates should harness the power of soda taxes to tackle the economic, social, and informational drivers of soda consumption, driving improvements in food environments and the public's health. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  15. Prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, in most bakeries in order to accelerate bread production process and reduce work pressure on bakers, harmful chemicals like baking soda are in use. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 234 bakeries in Qom, Iran, during 2017. The proportional stratified sampling method was used to select bakeries and bakers in different districts of Qom. Age, bakery experience, education of bakers and bread's pH were collected by a questionnaire and an electrical pH meter. Results: The results showed that seventy bakeries (29.9% of Qom were using baking soda in bread. The highest frequent use of baking soda was observed in Taftoon (38.7% and Lavash bread (31.5%. There was a significant difference between the use of baking soda and demographic variables such as age and literacy level. The attitude and knowledge of bakery employees about the complications of the baking soda were not appropriate. Conclusions: To reduce the use of baking soda and improve their knowledge and attitude, there is a need of strict supervision and monitoring by responsible organisations, especially the Ministry of Health.

  16. Soda intake and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal American-Indian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supplee, Joy D; Duncan, Glen E; Bruemmer, Barbara; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low bone mass often leads to osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fractures. Soda consumption may contribute to imbalances that lead to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and general bone health. We examined the relationship between soda consumption and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal American-Indian women, an at-risk population because of nutritional and other lifestyle-related factors. Design Cross-sectional analysis using logistic regression to examine associations between soda consumption and osteoporosis, and linear regression to examine the association between soda consumption and BMD, with and without adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors. Quantitative ultrasound of the heel was performed to estimate BMD (g/cm2). Setting American-Indian communities in the Northern Plains and Southwestern USA. Subjects A total of 438 postmenopausal American-Indian women. Results Women with osteoporosis were significantly older and had lower BMI, average daily soda intakes, BMD levels and use of hormones than women without osteoporosis (P 0·05), although age (increased), BMI (decreased) and past hormone use (decreased) were all significantly associated with osteoporosis risk (PIndian women, analyses did confirm confounding between soda consumption and age and BMI. This suggests that any potential effects of soda consumption on bone health are largely mediated through these factors. PMID:21208477

  17. The Untapped Power of Soda Taxes: Incentivizing Consumers, Generating Revenue, and Altering Corporate Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Roache

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, soda taxes are gaining momentum as powerful interventions to discourage sugar consumption and thereby reduce the growing burden of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Evidence from early adopters including Mexico and Berkeley, California, confirms that soda taxes can disincentivize consumption through price increases and raise revenue to support government programs. The United Kingdom’s new graduated levy on sweetened beverages is yielding yet another powerful impact: soda manufacturers are reformulating their beverages to significantly reduce the sugar content. Product reformulation – whether incentivized or mandatory – helps reduce overconsumption of sugars at the societal level, moving away from the long-standing notion of individual responsibility in favor of collective strategies to promote health. But as a matter of health equity, soda product reformulation should occur globally, especially in low- and middleincome countries (LMICs, which are increasingly targeted as emerging markets for soda and junk food and are disproportionately impacted by NCDs. As global momentum for sugar reduction increases, governments and public health advocates should harness the power of soda taxes to tackle the economic, social, and informational drivers of soda consumption, driving improvements in food environments and the public’s health.

  18. Development of soda-lime glasses from ornamental rock wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babisk, Michelle Pereira

    2009-01-01

    During the ornamental rocks production, among other steps, one saw the rock blocks in order to transform them into semi-finished plates. In this step, expressive amounts of residues are generated, which are not properly discharged in nature, without any programmed utilization. The residues of silicide rocks present, in their compositions, oxides which are raw materials employed to fabricate soda-lime type glasses (containing SiO_2, Al_2O_3, CaO, Na_2O and K_2O). On the other hand the residues of carbonatic rocks are constituted of glass net modifier oxides, like CaO and MgO. In this work it was developed four types of soda-lime glasses using ornamental rock residues, where the glasses compositions were adjusted by adding sand, as silica source, as well as sodium and calcium carbonates as sources of Na_2O and CaO, respectively. The obtained glasses were characterized by means of Archimed's method for densities measurements, microstructure by using optical and electronic microscopy, phases by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), hardness by Vickers indentation, spectroscopy (UV/VIS), and hydrolytic resistance according to ISO 719. The XRD analyses confirmed the compositions total vitrification, where the greened aspect of the samples was due to the presence of the iron oxides. The produced glasses properties were compared with those of commercial glasses aiming their industrial employment. The main difference between the produced glasses and those commercials varied primarily regarding the amount of carbonates incorporated. The results showed that the ornamental rocks residues may be used as raw materials for glasses fabrication, and they found a useful economic destination rather than discharge which promotes undesirable environmental impact. (author)

  19. [Modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after regular soda and diet soda intake in the State of Querétaro, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalde-Mendoza, Liliana; Moreno-González, Yazmín Esmeralda

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after intake of regular soda and diet soda. We conducted a randomized clinical trial in clinics of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Querétaro, México. We included 80 patients with diabetes (mean weight 74.2 +/- 13.66, BMI 30.5 +/- 4.305, waist 98.2 +/- 12.9 and time evolution of diabetes 3.8 +/- 3.009) who were asked to come with fasting for 8 hours and without taking any medicine before testing. They were divided into two groups of 40 subjects, to whom was measured fasting blood glucose after the ingestion of 200 ml of diet soda (with aspartame and acesulfame potassium) or regular soda (without sweetener) we measure glucose at 10, 15 and 30 minutes. For statistical analysis performed we used Student's t-test for dependent and independent samples, and paired t-test, and chi square test (chi2). Capillary glucose levels at 10 minutes were -34.52 and -25.41%, at 15 minutes -48.8 and -36.2% and at 30 minutes 57.75 and 43.6% of absolute and relative differences, with p = 0.000. In conclusion, according to the observations, diet soda doesn't increased blood glucose levels, with a significant difference in fasting decreased at 30 minutes.

  20. Impact of temperature and storage time on the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers into bottled water in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otoum, Fatima; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Costa, Ozeas S; Khraisheh, Majeda

    2017-11-12

    Prosperity in Qatar and the consequent stresses on water resources resulted in a sustainable increase in the bottled drinking water market. Reports on health concerns and possible migration of chemicals from the plastic material into the water have driven the current investigation. This study aims to address the extent of antimony (Sb) leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) water bottles subject to temperature variations (24-50 °C) due to Qatar's hot climate and improper storage conditions. A representative basket including 66 different imported and locally produced water bottles was considered. The concentrations of Sb in bottled water ranged from 0.168 to 2.263 μg/L at 24 °C and from 0.240 to 6.110 μg/L at 50 °C. Antimony concentrations in PET bottles at 24 °C was significantly lower than those at 50 °C (p = 0.0142), indicating that the temperature was a principal factor affecting the release of Sb from the plastic into the water. Although the detected Sb amounts were below the guidelines endorsed by WHO and Qatar (standard 5 μg/L) at 24 °C, the concentration measured at 50 °C was higher than the recommended WHO values (6.11 μg/L).

  1. Study of the influence of the protective covering from contamination on the radiopharmaceutical bottle in measurement of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuahara, L.T.; Correa, E.L.; Potiens, M.P.A

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the influence of the use of a plastic covering on the bottle used to supply radiopharmaceuticals to analyze the feasibility of its use at the time of manufacture, in order to avoid contamination in the activity meter well chamber. For that were held several measured with liquid 137 Cs source with and without this envelope and the activity meters of the calibration laboratory. Tests showed a small variation in the percentage of measures with the plastic covering, value considerably low, which will not cause injury in providing radiopharmaceuticals for the Service Nuclear Medicine

  2. Effect of temperature on the release of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Severin, Isabelle; Munoz, Jean-François; Etienne, Serge; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of temperature on the release of PET-bottle constituents into water and to assess the potential health hazard using in vitro bioassays with bacteria and human cell lines. Aldehydes, trace metals and other compounds found in plastic packaging were analysed in PET-bottled water stored at different temperatures: 40, 50, and 60°C. In this study, temperature and the presence of CO2 increased the release of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony (Sb). In parallel, genotoxicity assays (Ames and micronucleus assays) and transcriptional-reporter gene assays for estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity were performed on bottled water extracts at relevant consumer exposure levels. As expected, and in accordance with the chemical formulations specified for PET bottles, neither phthalates nor UV stabilisers were present in the water extracts. However, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, a degradation compound of phenolic antioxidants, was detected. In addition, an intermediary monomer, bis(2-hydroxyethyl)terephthalate, was found but only in PET-bottled waters. None of the compounds are on the positive list of EU Regulation No. 10/2011. However, the PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or endocrine-disruption activity in the bioassays after exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of Antimony Leaching from Bottles (PET into the Bottled Waters in Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Noshadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most common material used in manufacturing mineral water bottles. Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 used to form the PET containers may pollute water with their ingredients. In this research, graphite furnance atomic absorption spectrometry was used to investigate the effects of storage time (1 to 8 weeks, storage temperature (-20 to 80 °C, pH (6.3 to 8.3, exposure to sunlight, and UV radiation on leaching antimony from PET bottles into the mineral water of 15 bottled water brands available in Fars Province. Concentrations of antimony in the first and second weeks were lower than the maximum standard limit (5 ppb recommended by Iranian regulations. Antimony concentration in one sample (brand A rose above the standard limit after four weeks and in 3 samples (brands A, F, and J with antimony concentrations of 5.48, 5.08, and 5.06 µg/L, respectively exceeded the standard limit after 8 weeks. Sunlight, UV radiation, changes in pH, and storage at temperatures of -20 ℃, 60 ℃, and 80℃ were also found to increase antimony concentrations to levels above the maximum standard limit. Clearly, storing bottled mineral water in ambient conditions may lead to the release of antimony into bottled water, which is a serious threat to public health.

  4. Running Mechanics and Metabolic Responses with Water Bottles and Bottle Belt Holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Heather K; Zdziarski, Laura A; Fallgatter, Kyle; Negron, Giorgio; Chen, Cong; Leavitt, Trevor; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Wasser, Joseph G; Vincent, Kevin R

    2018-01-18

    This study determined whether differential kinematics, kinetics, rates of energy use and cardiopulmonary responses occurred during running with water bottles and bottle belt holders compared to running only. Trained runners (N=42; 27.2±6.4 yr) ran on an instrumented treadmill for four conditions in a randomized order: 1) control run (CON); 2) hand-held full water bottle (FULL, 16.9 fluid oz; 454 g); 3) hand-held half-full water bottle (HALF, 8.4 fluid oz.; 227 g); and 4) waist-worn bottle belt holder (BELT; hydration belt; 676 g). Gas exchange was measured using a portable gas analyzer. Kinetic and kinematic responses were determined via standard 3D videographic techniques. Interactions of limb side (right, left) by study condition (CON, FULL, HALF, BELT) were tested for rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure, and kinematic and kinetic parameters. No significant limb side × condition interactions existed for rates of oxygen use or energy expenditure. A significant interaction occurred with sagittal elbow flexion (pwater by hand or on the waist does not significantly change kinematics of running motion, rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure or cardiopulmonary measures over short durations. Runners are likely making adjustments to joint moments and powers that preserve balance and protect the lower extremity joints while maintaining the rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure.

  5. Feeding bottles usage and the prevalence of childhood allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Su, Huey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children's ages ranging from 2 to 7 years) in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children's wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09), allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08), and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.2) were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children's ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  6. Feeding Bottles Usage and the Prevalence of Childhood Allergy and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Yun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children’s ages ranging from 2 to 7 years in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children’s wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.09, allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00–1.08, and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.2 were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children’s ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  7. Recall campaign for gas bottles and banks

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The previous contract with gas supplier Carbagas ended on 31 March 2015. Gas bottles and banks are not a property of CERN. According to the contract terms, they can remain on CERN sites without any extra costs until 30 September 2015.    If you are using Carbagas containers (bottles and/or banks) for gas purchased between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015, multiple options exist: Return them to the closest gas point. Purchase them on the following basis:     Rent them on the following basis: 12 CHF/month for bottles, 144 CHF/month for banks. The recall campaign has been going on for several months already: we would like to thank everyone who has already replied to it. If you haven’t answered yet, there is still time. If you know of unused or abandoned Carbagas containers, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Thank you i...

  8. The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Vuillaume, Renee; Kelder, Steven H; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Across the United States, many states have actively banned the sale of soda in high schools, and evidence suggests that students’ in-school access to soda has declined as a result. However, schools may be substituting soda with other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and national trends indicate that adolescents are consuming more sports drinks and energy drinks. This study examined whether students consumed more non-soda SSBs in states that banned the sale of soda in school. Meth...

  9. Baking soda dentifrice and periodontal health: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Amarpreet; Scannapieco, Frank A

    2017-11-01

    Mechanical disruption of dental biofilm is critical to maintain periodontal health. Baking soda-containing dentifrices have shown to be potential aids for improving gingival health and maintaining dental biofilm control. Evidence from classic and contemporary literature is reviewed and summarized in this review. In vitro and in vivo (animal and human, respectively) studies and clinical trials have been analyzed. Some clinical studies demonstrated the benefits of baking soda dentifrices in plaque and gingivitis reduction. Clinical trials with longer follow-up would be useful to confirm the impact of baking soda on gingival health. Regular dental biofilm control and adjunctive use of baking soda dentifrices in an otherwise healthy and compliant patient may provide success in maintenance of gingival health. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparative study of the effect of diet and soda carbonated drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Objectives: A comparative effect of the diet and regular soda carbonated drinks on the histology of the cerebellum of ... contains caffeine, depending on the quantities .... and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

  11. Field demonstration of in situ treatment of buried low-level radioactive solid waste with caustic soda and soda ash to immobilize 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1984-02-01

    A low-level radioactive solid waste disposal trench was injected on four occasions with solutions of caustic soda, soda ash, caustic soda, and lime/soda ash, respectively. Because investigations had indicated that 90 Sr could be coprecipitated with soil calcium carbonate by treatment with soda ash, this demonstration was undertaken as a test of its technical feasibility. After concentrations of 90 Sr and water hardness decreased within the intratrench monitoring wells; one well at the foot of the trench decreased from over 100 to a persistent level of less than 10 kBq of 90 Sr per liter. Recharge of 90 Sr from the trench to a sump immediately below was reduced by about 90%. Water hardness and 90 Sr concentrations were strongly correlated through time within each monitoring well, indicating that 90 Sr behaved as a tracer for soil calcium and magnesium. The disappearance of 90 Sr from the trench water, therefore, was an in situ water softening. Soil samples retrieved from the trench indicated that as much as 98% of the total 90 Sr was present as a coprecipitate with calcium carbonate. The hydrologic characterization of this trench indicated an average void space of 41% and an average trench-wall hydraulic conductivity of 3.4 x 10 -7 m/s. Sampling of the trench's discharge contamination plume indicated that it had resulted from a combination of subsurface seepage and bathtub overflow during infrequent periods of intense precipitation. A generic assessment of soda ash treatment indicated that treatment would be most effective for soils of high cation exchange capacity with either low ( 80%) basic cation saturation of that cation exchange capacity

  12. Prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi; Ali Salehi; Hassan Izanloo; Zahra Ghorbani; Vahid Vanaki; Reza Ramazani; Mahdi Asadi-Ghalhari

    2018-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, in most bakeries in order to accelerate bread production process and reduce work pressure on bakers, harmful chemicals like baking soda are in use. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 234 bakeries in Qom, Iran, during 2017. The proportional stratified sampling met...

  13. Metabolic alkalosis secondary to baking soda treatment of a diaper rash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J; Hogg, R J

    1981-06-01

    A 4-month-old infant was seen with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis that was associated with prior application of liberal amounts of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) to a diaper rash. After exclusion of other etiologies of the infant's acid-base disturbance, a complete resolution occurred following discontinuation of the baking soda applications. This case report provides a reminder of the significant side effects that may result from the excessive use of a seemingly harmless household substance.

  14. Stain removal and whitening by baking soda dentifrice: A review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming

    2017-11-01

    Tooth discoloration may be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic stains or a combination of both. There are 2 major approaches to removing the stains, including the chemical mechanism using peroxides for tooth bleaching and the mechanical mechanism using abrasives in prophylactic pastes and dentifrices to remove stains, resulting in a whitening effect. Attempts have also been made to add a low concentration of peroxides to dentifrices to enhance their abrasive cleaning to remove tooth stains. This article provides a review of both in vitro and clinical studies on stain removal and whitening effect of dentifrices containing sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). In recent years, whitening dentifrices have become popular because of little additional effort for use, ease of availability, low cost, and accumulated evidence of clinical efficacy and safety in the literature. Advances in research and technology have led to innovative formulations of dentifrices using baking soda as the sole abrasive or a component of an abrasive system. Baking soda is biologically compatible with acid-buffering capacities, antibacterial at high concentrations, and has a relatively lower abrasivity. The evidence available in the literature indicates that baking soda-based dentifrices are effective and safe for tooth stain removal and consequently whitening. A number of clinical studies have also shown that baking soda-based dentifrices are more effective in stain removal and whitening than some non-baking soda-containing dentifrices with a higher abrasivity. So far, research efforts have mainly focused on stain removal and tooth-whitening efficacy and clinical safety of baking soda dentifrices used with manual toothbrushes, with only a few studies investigating their effects using powered toothbrushes, for which further research is encouraged. As part of a daily oral hygiene practice, baking soda-based dentifrice is a desirable, alternative or additional measure for tooth stain removal and whitening

  15. Contrasting the genetic patterns of microbial communities in Soda lakes with and without cyanobacterial bloom

    OpenAIRE

    Andreote, A. P. D.; Dini-Andreote, F.; Rigonato, J.; Machineski, G. S.; Souza, B. C. E.; Barbiéro, Laurent; Rezende, A. T.; Fiore, M. F.

    2018-01-01

    Soda lakes have high levels of sodium carbonates and are characterized by salinity and elevated pH. These ecosystems are found across Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, North, Central, and South America. Particularly in Brazil, the Pantanal region has a series of hundreds of shallow soda lakes (ca. 600) potentially colonized by a diverse haloalkaliphilic microbial community. Biological information of these systems is still elusive, in particular data on the description of the main taxa involved...

  16. Calcium carbonate synthesis with prescribed properties based on liquid waste of soda production

    OpenAIRE

    E.O. Mikhailova; V.O. Panasenko; N.B. Markova

    2016-01-01

    A promising direction in solving of environmental problems of soda industry is the development of low-waste resource-saving technologies, which consist in recycling of valuable waste components with obtaining the commercial products. Aim: The aim is to establish the optimal conditions for obtaining calcium carbonate with prescribed properties from liquid waste of soda production. Materials and Methods: Chemically deposited calcium carbonate is used as filler and should have certain physical a...

  17. EVALUATION OF LINERBOARD PROPERTIES FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPS VERSUS COMMERCIAL PULPS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello; Jalaluddin Harun; Rushdan Ibrahim; Hossien Resalati; Seyed Rashid Fallah Shamsi; Paridah Md Tahir; Mohd Nor Mohad Yusoff

    2010-01-01

    Malaysian cultivated kenaf has been identified as a suitable raw material for linerboard production. This study examines the soda-antraquinone (soda-AQ) pulp of kenaf fibers versus old corrugated container (OCC) and unbleached softwood kraft pulps as the main sources for linerboard production. The results showed significant differences among the pulp properties. The unbleached kraft pulp with very high freeness required high beating to reach an optimized freeness and produced paper with the h...

  18. Ocular injuries from carbonated soft drink bottle explosions.

    OpenAIRE

    Al Salem, M; Sheriff, S M

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen cases of ocular injuries serious enough to require admission to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Kuwait, Arabian Gulf, due to explosion of glass bottles of carbonated soft drinks are reported over a period of 14 months from the beginning of July 1981 to the end of August 1982. Prevalence was much greater in the summer months and among children. Explosions of bottles without prior agitation occurred in 11 cases (68.7%). High environmental temperature and defective bottles were the most important pre...

  19. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold water...

  20. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lund, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water......-BEA was found from eight of 12 bottles. However, migration above the target value of 0.33 mg kg(-1) was not observed in the third decisive test from any of the 12 different brands of polycarbonate feeding bottles. A migration of between 0.05 and 0.26 mg kg(-1) from seven of 12 bottles was measured...

  1. Plastic dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Shiro; Matsuda, Kohji.

    1988-01-01

    The report outlines major features and applications of plastic dosimeters. Some plastic dosimeters, including the CTA and PVC types, detect the response of the plastic material itself to radiations while others, such as pigment-added plastic dosimeters, contain additives as radiation detecting material. Most of these dosimeters make use of color centers produced in the dosimeter by radiations. The PMMA dosimeter is widely used in the field of radiation sterilization of food, feed and medical apparatus. The blue cellophane dosimeter is easy to handle if calibrated appropriately. The rad-color dosimeter serves to determine whether products have been irradiated appropriately. The CTA dosimeter has better damp proofing properties than the blue cellophane type. The pigment-added plastic dosimeter consists of a resin such as nylon, CTA or PVC that contains a dye. Some other plastic dosimeters are also described briefly. Though having many advantages, these plastic dosimeter have disadvantages as well. Some of their major disadvantages, including fading as well as large dependence on dose, temperature, humidity and anviroment, are discussed. (Nogami, K.)

  2. Internal friction of hydrated soda-lime-silicate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, S; Müller, R; Deubener, J; Behrens, H

    2013-11-07

    The internal friction of hydrated soda-lime-silica glasses with total water content (C(W)) up to 1.9 wt. % was studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) using temperature-frequency sweeps from 723 K to 273 K and from 1 s(-1) to 50 s(-1). Total water content and concentrations of H2O molecules (C(H2O)) and OH groups (C(OH)) in the DMA specimens were determined by infrared spectroscopy. For low water contents (C(W) ≈ C(OH) friction peaks below the glass transition (α relaxation) were assigned to the low-temperature motion of alkali ions (γ relaxation) and cooperative movements of dissimilar mobile species under participation of OH at higher temperature (β(OH) relaxation). For large water contents (C(W) > 1 wt. %), where significant amounts of molecular water are evident (C(H2O) > 0.15 wt. %), however, internal friction spectra change unexpectedly: the β(OH) peak heights saturate and a low temperature shoulder appears on the β-relaxation peak. This emerging relaxation mode (β(H2O) relaxation) was assigned to the motions of H2O molecules. β(H2O) relaxation was found to be faster than β(OH) but slower than γ relaxation. Activation energy of the different relaxation modes increased in the order γ < β(H2O) < β(OH) < α.

  3. Disproportionation of elemental sulfur by haloalkaliphilic bacteria from soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, Alexander; Lohmayer, Regina; Vogt, Carsten; Knoeller, Kay; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Sorokin, Dimitry; Richnow, Hans-H; Finster, Kai

    2013-11-01

    Microbial disproportionation of elemental sulfur to sulfide and sulfate is a poorly characterized part of the anoxic sulfur cycle. So far, only a few bacterial strains have been described that can couple this reaction to cell growth. Continuous removal of the produced sulfide, for instance by oxidation and/or precipitation with metal ions such as iron, is essential to keep the reaction exergonic. Hitherto, the process has exclusively been reported for neutrophilic anaerobic bacteria. Here, we report for the first time disproportionation of elemental sulfur by three pure cultures of haloalkaliphilic bacteria isolated from soda lakes: the Deltaproteobacteria Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus and Desulfurivibrio sp. AMeS2, and a member of the Clostridia, Dethiobacter alkaliphilus. All cultures grew in saline media at pH 10 by sulfur disproportionation in the absence of metals as sulfide scavengers. Our data indicate that polysulfides are the dominant sulfur species under highly alkaline conditions and that they might be disproportionated. Furthermore, we report the first organism (Dt. alkaliphilus) from the class Clostridia that is able to grow by sulfur disproportionation.

  4. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioakeimidis, C.; Fotopoulou, K. N.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Geraga, M.; Zeri, C.; Papathanassiou, E.; Galgani, F.; Papatheodorou, G.

    2016-03-01

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea-E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment.

  5. Towards a sensory congruent beer bottle: Consumer associations between beer brands, flavours, and bottle designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Heiltjes, Sanne; van den Berg-Weitzel, Lianne; Lloyd, Peter; Bohemia, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Sensory packaging design congruent with product and brand characteristics may be used as an innovative tool to communicate product and brand values to consumers and to enhance taste experience. This study investigated whether consumers associate sensory properties of beer bottles with certain brand

  6. PLASTIC SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Sefako Makgatho Health Science University, ... We report on a pilot study on the use of a circumareolar excision and the use of .... and 1 gynecomastia patient) requested reduction in NAC size.

  7. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  8. PERBEDAAN PH SALIVA ANTARA PENGGUNA PASTA GIGI YANG MENGANDUNG BAKING SODA DAN PENGGUNA PASTA GIGI YANG MENGANDUNG FLUOR

    OpenAIRE

    LINARDI, ALICIA NADIA

    2014-01-01

    2014 Latar belakang : Baking soda dan fluor merupakan bahan yang biasa ditambahkan dalam pasta gigi. Baking soda dan fluor mempunyai kemampuan untuk meningkatkan sekresi saliva dan pH saliva. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan pH saliva antara pengguna pasta gigi yang mengandung baking soda dan pengguna pasta gigi yang mengandun fluor. Bahan dan metode : Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimental dengan desai...

  9. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özkan, Kemal, E-mail: kozkan@ogu.edu.tr [Computer Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Ergin, Semih, E-mail: sergin@ogu.edu.tr [Electrical Electronics Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Işık, Şahin, E-mail: sahini@ogu.edu.tr [Computer Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Işıklı, İdil, E-mail: idil.isikli@bilecik.edu.tr [Electrical Electronics Engineering Dept., Bilecik University, 11210 Bilecik (Turkey)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • PET, HPDE or PP types of plastics are considered. • An automated classification of plastic bottles based on the feature extraction and classification methods is performed. • The decision mechanism consists of PCA, Kernel PCA, FLDA, SVD and Laplacian Eigenmaps methods. • SVM is selected to achieve the classification task and majority voting technique is used. - Abstract: Since recycling of materials is widely assumed to be environmentally and economically beneficial, reliable sorting and processing of waste packaging materials such as plastics is very important for recycling with high efficiency. An automated system that can quickly categorize these materials is certainly needed for obtaining maximum classification while maintaining high throughput. In this paper, first of all, the photographs of the plastic bottles have been taken and several preprocessing steps were carried out. The first preprocessing step is to extract the plastic area of a bottle from the background. Then, the morphological image operations are implemented. These operations are edge detection, noise removal, hole removing, image enhancement, and image segmentation. These morphological operations can be generally defined in terms of the combinations of erosion and dilation. The effect of bottle color as well as label are eliminated using these operations. Secondly, the pixel-wise intensity values of the plastic bottle images have been used together with the most popular subspace and statistical feature extraction methods to construct the feature vectors in this study. Only three types of plastics are considered due to higher existence ratio of them than the other plastic types in the world. The decision mechanism consists of five different feature extraction methods including as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA), Fisher’s Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Laplacian Eigenmaps (LEMAP) and uses a simple

  10. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özkan, Kemal; Ergin, Semih; Işık, Şahin; Işıklı, İdil

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PET, HPDE or PP types of plastics are considered. • An automated classification of plastic bottles based on the feature extraction and classification methods is performed. • The decision mechanism consists of PCA, Kernel PCA, FLDA, SVD and Laplacian Eigenmaps methods. • SVM is selected to achieve the classification task and majority voting technique is used. - Abstract: Since recycling of materials is widely assumed to be environmentally and economically beneficial, reliable sorting and processing of waste packaging materials such as plastics is very important for recycling with high efficiency. An automated system that can quickly categorize these materials is certainly needed for obtaining maximum classification while maintaining high throughput. In this paper, first of all, the photographs of the plastic bottles have been taken and several preprocessing steps were carried out. The first preprocessing step is to extract the plastic area of a bottle from the background. Then, the morphological image operations are implemented. These operations are edge detection, noise removal, hole removing, image enhancement, and image segmentation. These morphological operations can be generally defined in terms of the combinations of erosion and dilation. The effect of bottle color as well as label are eliminated using these operations. Secondly, the pixel-wise intensity values of the plastic bottle images have been used together with the most popular subspace and statistical feature extraction methods to construct the feature vectors in this study. Only three types of plastics are considered due to higher existence ratio of them than the other plastic types in the world. The decision mechanism consists of five different feature extraction methods including as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA), Fisher’s Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Laplacian Eigenmaps (LEMAP) and uses a simple

  11. Sugar-sweetened beverage, diet soda, and fatty liver disease in the Framingham Heart Study cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiantao; Fox, Caroline S; Jacques, Paul F; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E; Saltzman, Edward; McKeown, Nicola M

    2015-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease affects ∼30% of US adults, yet the role of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet soda on these diseases remains unknown. We examined the cross-sectional association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda and fatty liver disease in participants of the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. Fatty liver disease was defined using liver attenuation measurements generated from computed tomography in 2634 participants. Alanine transaminase concentration, a crude marker of fatty liver disease, was measured in 5908 participants. Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda intake were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Participants were categorized as either non-consumers or consumers (3 categories: 1 serving/month to sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, Framingham cohort, energy intake, alcohol, dietary fiber, fat (% energy), protein (% energy), diet soda intake, and body mass index, the odds ratios of fatty liver disease were 1, 1.16 (0.88, 1.54), 1.32 (0.93, 1.86), and 1.61 (1.04, 2.49) across sugar-sweetened beverage consumption categories (p trend=0.04). Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was also positively associated with alanine transaminase levels (p trend=0.007). We observed no significant association between diet soda intake and measures of fatty liver disease. In conclusion, we observed that regular sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with greater risk of fatty liver disease, particularly in overweight and obese individuals, whereas diet soda intake was not associated with measures of fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhancement of plaque removal efficacy by tooth brushing with baking soda dentifrices: results of five clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putt, Mark S; Milleman, Kimberly R; Ghassemi, Annahita; Vorwerk, Linda M; Hooper, William J; Soparkar, Pramod M; Winston, Anthony E; Proskin, Howard M

    2008-01-01

    An earlier clinical study demonstrated that brushing with a commercial Arm & Hammer dentifrice containing baking soda physically removed significantly more plaque than brushing with either of two commercial dentifrices which did not contain baking soda. However, little has been done to confirm these results and to compare baking soda-containing dentifrices with more recently commercialized non-baking soda dentifrice formulations. The objective of this study was to compare commercial dentifrices containing 20% to 65% baking soda and commercial dentifrices without baking soda in enhancing plaque removal efficacy of tooth brushing. Five randomized, controlled, blinded, crossover clinical studies were performed among healthy adult volunteers who provided informed consent. After approximately 24 hours without oral hygiene, subjects with sufficient plaque were enrolled in the study phase. Plaque was scored before and after supervised brushing for one minute using the Turesky, et al. modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index at six sites per tooth according to Soparkar's modification as described by Lobene, et al. In each study, wash-out periods with a regular dentifrice not evaluated in the study separated each product treatment. In all studies, every dentifrice exhibited a significant (p baking soda dentifrices resulted in statistically greater (p baking soda. Results on other tooth surfaces, such as facial, lingual, proximal, and gingival surfaces also demonstrated statistically greater (p baking soda-containing dentifrices as compared to the baking soda-free dentifrices. In three of the studies comparing different levels of baking soda, brushing with dentifrices with higher concentrations of baking soda consistently removed numerically more plaque than those containing lower levels. In one of these three studies, the difference in plaque removal between the baking soda dentifrices reached statistical significance. The results suggest a positive relationship

  13. Rework and postponement: a comparison of bottling strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Teunter (Ruud); S.D.P. Flapper

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents the results of a case study in a batch production facility for biological vaccines. The problem considered is that of finding the best bottling strategy for produced batches. A batch can be bottled directly after production, after positive intermediate test results,

  14. Techno-economic packaging of palm wine preservation and bottling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to investigate the economic viability of setting up a small scale palm wine bottling factory with a view to providing investment data to guide entrepreneurs in making investment decisions. The economic evaluation was based on a factory capacity of 750,000 bottles (60cl) per annum with production ...

  15. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S. measure...

  16. Aschroft Pressure Switch - Monitor for Low SCHe Supply Bottle Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-01-01

    These pressure switches are located in the SCHe helium supply lines at the pressure bottles and upstream of the PRV. The switches monitor the SCHe supply bottle pressure and are set to alarm at 2200 psig. There is one switch for each SCHe supply (4). Electronic output signal is NON-SAFETY (GS)

  17. Improvements to the Whoosh Bottle Rocket Car Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Staiger, Felicia A.; Jujjavarapu, Chaitanya N.

    2015-01-01

    The whoosh bottle rocket car has been redesigned to be more reusable and more robust, making it even easier to use as a demonstration. Enhancements of this demonstration, including the use of heat sensitive ink and electronic temperature probes, enable users to find warmer and cooler regions on the surface of the whoosh bottle.

  18. Filling or Draining a Water Bottle with Two Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2016-01-01

    Three simple experiments are described using a small water bottle with two holes in the side of the bottle. The main challenge is to predict and then explain the observations, but the arrangements can also be used for quantitative measurements concerning hydrostatic pressure, Bernoulli's equation, surface tension and bubble formation.

  19. Quality assessment of sachet and bottled water sold in Gboko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of selected sachet and bottled water produced and sold within Gboko town, Benue State was investigated to determine their Shelf life. Eight brands of sachet water and four brands of bottled water samples were collected from different manufacturers within 24 hours and stored at ambient temperature.

  20. Labeling practices of water bottling firms and its public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bottled water labels enable the consumers to choose brands that can best fit to their needs and preferences. Anything inaccurate, however, may pose serious public health risks, especially to vulnerable individuals. In Ethiopia, regular monitoring of bottled water quality and labelling practices is still lacking.

  1. Computed Tomography characterization of the Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    The work carried out in this research aims at identifying suitable ways for thorough characterization of the quality of paper bottles. Industrial X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) is particularly advantageous in determining the quality of paper bottles and thus correlating it with the production...

  2. Quality characteristics of commercial bottled water sold in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality characteristics of commercial bottled water sold in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria were investigated to determine their physical, chemical and bacteriological content. The four brands of bottled water investigated were Mevok ®, Ozonized April ®, Lacrystal ® and Eva ®. The mean turbidity value of all the samples were ...

  3. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the same tax class when that wine is removed from bond, without benefit of tolerance, when the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and...

  4. Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to bottle caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Anderson; William C. Miller

    1973-01-01

    Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to aluminum resealable caps during distribution. A study at bottling plants and distribution warehouses showed that an average of 1 bottle out of 4,000 has cap damage. Most of the damage was attributed to handling at the warehouse and in transit. Some recommendations are given for improvement of wooden beverage cases to prevent...

  5. Determination of di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate in plastic medical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Ivana S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of DEHP in dialysis and infusion sets for peritoneal dialysis and parenteral nutrition, which are made of PVC and other plastic polymeric materials, were investigated. Phthalate determination was carried out by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry method (GC-MS. The results showed that the peritoneal dialysis set (bag and tubing made of PVC contains DEHP in significant amount, about 31 - 34%. Solution for peritoneal dialysis which was stored in the investigated PVC bag, contains low amount of DEHP, about 3.72 μg dm-3. Infusion bottles which are made of LDPE, also contain DEHP but in lower amount than PVC bags. LDPE bottle for packaging physiological saline solution (0.9% NaCl showed higher amount of DEHP than LDPE bottle for packaging Ringer’s solution. In contrast, solution stored in bottle with lower DEHP level, i.e. Ringer’s solution contained about three times higher concentration of DEHP than physiological saline solution stored in bottle with higher DEHP level. Concentrations of DEHP in Ringer’s solution and physiological saline solution are 17.30 and 5.83 μg dm-3, respectively. The obtained values are under estimated upper-bound dose of DEHP received by adult patients undergoing procedures of peritoneal dialysis and parenteral nutrition. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, III 41018

  6. Screening sealed bottles for liquid explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sankaran; McMichael, W. Casey; Kim, Y.-W.; Sheldon, Alan G.; Magnuson, Erik E.; Ficke, L.; Chhoa, T. K.; Moeller, C. R.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.; Burnett, Lowell J.; Czipott, Peter V.; Pence, J. S.; Skvoretz, David C.

    1997-01-01

    A particularly disturbing development affecting transportation safety and security is the increasing use of terrorist devices which avoid detection by conventional means through the use of liquid explosives and flammables. The hazardous materials are generally hidden in wine or liquor bottles that cannot be opened routinely for inspection. This problem was highlighted by the liquid explosives threat which disrupted air traffic between the US an the Far East for an extended period in 1995. Quantum Magnetics has developed a Liquid Explosives Screening systems capable of scanning unopened bottles for liquid explosives. The system can be operated to detect specific explosives directly or to verify the labeled or bar-coded contents of the container. In this system, magnetic resonance (MR) is used to interrogate the liquid. MR produces an extremely rich data set and many characteristics of the MR response can be determined simultaneously. As a result, multiple MR signatures can be defined for any given set of liquids, and the signature complexity then selected according to the level of threat. The Quantum Magnetics Liquid Explosives Screening System is currently operational. Following extensive laboratory testing, a field trial of the system was carried out at the Los Angeles International Airport.

  7. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  8. Security of bottle to fill in a high pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todic, M.; Latinovic, T.; Golubovic-Bugarski, V.; Majstorovic, A.

    2018-01-01

    Charging the bottle of high pressure air isolation devices is performed by a high-pressure compressor. The charging time is in function of the compressor capacity and the intensity of the nominal pressure of the air in the bottle. However, in accident situations this time is long and therefore high-pressure accumulators are used where the filling time of the bottle of isolation apparatus has been drastically reduced. Due to the short filling time of the bottle through the air flow, there is a thermodynamic load of bottle material that could endanger the safety of users and other participants in the area. It is therefore necessary to determine the critical parameters of the rapid charge and their intensity.

  9. Ocular injuries from carbonated soft drink bottle explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salem, M; Sheriff, S M

    1984-04-01

    Sixteen cases of ocular injuries serious enough to require admission to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Kuwait, Arabian Gulf, due to explosion of glass bottles of carbonated soft drinks are reported over a period of 14 months from the beginning of July 1981 to the end of August 1982. Prevalence was much greater in the summer months and among children. Explosions of bottles without prior agitation occurred in 11 cases (68.7%). High environmental temperature and defective bottles were the most important predisposing factors. Preventive measures we suggest are better standards for manufacturers, more careful inspection of returnable bottles to detect defective ones, a separate detailed warning label on all bottles, and health education especially of school children about this and other risks of serious injury to the eyes and other parts of the body.

  10. Where there's a will: can highlighting future youth-targeted marketing increase support for soda taxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sungjong; Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2014-12-01

    Amid concern about high rates of obesity and related diseases, the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to young people by the food industry has come under heavy criticism by public health advocates, who cite decades of youth-targeted marketing in arguing for reforms. In light of recent evidence that the same event evokes stronger emotional reactions when it occurs in the future versus the past, highlighting youth-targeted marketing that has yet to occur may evoke stronger reactions to such practices, and perhaps, greater support for related health policy initiatives. In a between-subjects experiment, Web participants (N = 285) read that a major soda company had already launched (past condition) or was planning to launch (future condition) an advertising campaign targeting children. Measures included support for a soda tax and affective responses to the company's actions. Greater support for the soda tax was observed in the future condition than in the past condition. Moreover, participants in the future condition reported heightened negative emotions about the company's actions, which mediated the observed effect on soda tax support. The same action undertaken by the food industry (here, marketing soda to children) may evoke stronger negative emotions and greater support for a health policy initiative when it is framed prospectively rather than retrospectively.

  11. Analysis of caustic soda of different manufacturers in pakistan for mercerization of cotton textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, B.; Faisal, S.; Siddique, S.H.

    2017-01-01

    Pakistan has sufficient production capacity of caustic soda to cater the needs of the local industry. Presently, Pakistan has four major plants with production capacity around 435,000 mega ton per year of caustic soda of various grades. Textile industry of Pakistan is the major consumer of produced high grade caustic soda; as the presence of any impurities especially dissolved salts and metals is unfavorable for wet processing of cotton. This study investigates the performance of three different local brands of caustic soda intended for use in textile wet processing of cotton fabric specifically for mercerization process. The brands were selected based on their purity grades. The selected caustic soda samples were chemically analyzed for the presence of impurities. Twenty seven cotton fabric samples (nine samples of each brand) were prepared by mercerization in slack state. The cotton fabric samples were tested for changes in surface morphology, tensile strength (warp and weft), tear strength, air permeability and K/S (Colour Strength). The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to ascertain the statistical equivalence within and between the tested brands. The results showed no significant differences across the tested brands at a 95% confidence level except for air permeability and K/S in blue shade. (author)

  12. GPU-powered model analysis with PySB/cupSODA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Leonard A; Nobile, Marco S; Pino, James C; Lubbock, Alexander L R; Besozzi, Daniela; Mauri, Giancarlo; Cazzaniga, Paolo; Lopez, Carlos F

    2017-11-01

    A major barrier to the practical utilization of large, complex models of biochemical systems is the lack of open-source computational tools to evaluate model behaviors over high-dimensional parameter spaces. This is due to the high computational expense of performing thousands to millions of model simulations required for statistical analysis. To address this need, we have implemented a user-friendly interface between cupSODA, a GPU-powered kinetic simulator, and PySB, a Python-based modeling and simulation framework. For three example models of varying size, we show that for large numbers of simulations PySB/cupSODA achieves order-of-magnitude speedups relative to a CPU-based ordinary differential equation integrator. The PySB/cupSODA interface has been integrated into the PySB modeling framework (version 1.4.0), which can be installed from the Python Package Index (PyPI) using a Python package manager such as pip. cupSODA source code and precompiled binaries (Linux, Mac OS/X, Windows) are available at github.com/aresio/cupSODA (requires an Nvidia GPU; developer.nvidia.com/cuda-gpus). Additional information about PySB is available at pysb.org. paolo.cazzaniga@unibg.it or c.lopez@vanderbilt.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  14. Filling a Plastic Bag with Carbon Dioxide: A Student-Designed Guided-Inquiry Lab for Advanced Placement and College Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanni, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab, suitable for first-year general chemistry or high school advanced placement chemistry, is presented that uses only inexpensive, store-bought materials. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) with aqueous acetic acid (vinegar), under the constraint of the challenge to completely fill a sealable plastic bag with the…

  15. Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

    2001-07-01

    A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth.

  16. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Arun; Srinivas, C R; Mathew, Anil C

    2008-01-01

    Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall's Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  17. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Arun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. Aims: To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. Methods: In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Results: Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall′s Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. Conclusion: We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  18. Cleaner production in the ammonia-soda industry: an ecological and economic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasikowski, T; Buczkowski, R; Lemanowska, E

    2004-12-01

    Five methods to reduce the negative influence of soda ash factories on the natural environment are presented: 1. obtaining calcium-magnesium phosphates by treating the suspension from raw brine purification with orthophosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)), 2. production of precipitated chalk from soda processing waste, 3. production of gypsum and semi-brine, 4. desulphurisation of fume gases from the factory power plant, 5. utilization of distiller waste. The tests, accomplished on a laboratory scale, showed the high efficiency of these methods. Economic analysis has proved that only four out of the five presented processes can have a positive financial effect on soda ash factories, as well as being well justified economically. The value of two of the innovations presented is confirmed by their implementation in factories.

  19. Effect of organosolv and soda pulping processes on the metals content of non-woody pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M; Cantón, L; Rodríguez, A; Labidi, J

    2008-09-01

    In this work the effect of different pulping processes (ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and soda) of tow abounded raw materials (empty fruit bunches - EFB and rice straw) on the ash, silicates and metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Cd) content of the obtained pulps have been studied. Results showed that pulps obtained by diethyleneglycol pulping process presented lower metals content (756 microg/g and 501 microg/g for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively) than soda pulps (984 microg/g and 889 microg/g). Ethanolamine pulps presented values of holocellulose (74% and 77% for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively), alpha-cellulose (74% and 69%), kappa number (18.7 and 18.5) and viscosity (612 and 90 6ml/g) similar to those of soda pulp, and lower lignin contents (11% and 12%).

  20. Ion-beam analysis of a medieval glass bottle excavated in Gyoer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzonyi, I.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Kertesz, Zs.; Simon, A.; Kiss, A.Z.

    2008-01-01

    ) techniques: the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and the particle induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) were used. Measurements were carried out on a small glass piece from the present archaeological find which was not used for the restoration. PIXE analysis was carried out at the Scanning Nuclear Microprobe facility. The sample was irradiated at five different spots by 2 MeV H + beam focused to 2x2 μm 2 spot size and applying scan size of 2x2 mm 2 . The accumulated charge at the sample was ∼0.2 μC. Characteristic X-rays were detected by an ultra thin windowed and a Be windowed Si(Li) detectors, thus elements could be analyzed for the Z≥6 atomic number region with high sensitivity. Characteristic X-ray spectra were evaluated with the PIXEKLM-TPI software package. Efficiency calibration of detectors was based on the NIST 610 glass standard reference material. In the case of the PIGE analysis the samples were irradiated in an isolated vacuum chamber with a 3.8 MeV proton beam of about 5 nA. The accumulated charge at the sample was ∼3 μC. The gamma-rays were detected with a 40 % HPGe detector situated at 90 deg with respect to the beam direction and 20 cm distance from the sample. To calculate the concentrations of Na, Al and Si the same NIST 610 glass standard was used. The analysis revealed that the bottle was made from soda-lime glass. Comparing Na, Mg and Ca values with available literature data, 'similarity' with Venice glass can be stated. However, considering the high Ti, Fe (and Al) concentrations it can be supposed that a relatively low quality vitrifying agent (siliceous material) was used excluding late medieval (15-16th c.) fine Venetian glass. The greenish tint attributable to the high Fe content indicates incomplete decolourization (by MnO) which is also characteristic for lower quality glass products. Therefore, the analytical results does not falsify the hypotheses that the artefact can be a 13th century (supposedly Venice) glass

  1. Magical Engineering Plastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-15

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  2. Magical Engineering Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-01

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  3. Uranium Geochemistry in Hypersaline Soda Lakes in Eastern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhoff, B. S.; Bennett, P.; Puntsag, T.

    2007-12-01

    Extremely high concentrations of uranium were discovered in water samples from hypersaline soda lakes in eastern Mongolia. The origin and fate of uranium in these lakes was examined using geochemical analyses and modeling, using samples collected from five lakes, six wells and one stream. Samples were analyzed for strontium and uranium isotopes, cations and trace metals, anions, alkalinity, and unstable field parameters. The lakes are small, shallow (chlorine to bromine ratios implying groundwater discharges to lake water and is subsequently evaporated. Evaporation is intense with lake waters having average chlorine concentrations 300 times that of well waters. Uranium in well samples is higher than typical for shallow groundwaters (7-101ppb) suggesting discharging groundwater as a probable source of uranium in lake water. Concentrations of uranium in lake water ranges from 57-14,900ppb making these lakes possibly the highest naturally occurring uranium concentration reported. Lake water alkalinity is strongly correlated to uranium abundance suggesting uranium is complexed with carbonate as the aqueous species UO2CO3. Consequently, the extremely high alkalinity of the most alkaline lake (pH = 9.8, 1288.8 meq alk/L) also has the highest uranium concentrations. Stable strontium isotopes were used to assess the degree of water rock interactions and the presence of 90Sr was checked for to test the possibility of input of nuclear fallout. 90Sr was not detected in lake water samples suggesting the high uranium is of natural origins. A large difference in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio was found between groundwater and lake water samples. Groundwater samples displayed large variation in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio (0.70612-0.709776) whereas lake water samples averaged a high radiogenic ratio (0.709432). The large variation in the strontium isotopes in groundwater samples suggests varying degrees of water rock interactions, however the least radiogenic samples likely are derived from

  4. Radioactivity in bottled waters sold in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila Rangel, J.I.; Lopez del Rio, H.; Mireles Garcia, F.; Quirino Torres, L.L.; Villalba, M.L.; Colmenero Sujo, L.; Montero Cabrera, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of gross alpha and beta activities were made on 21 domestic and international brands of bottled (purified and mineral) water sold in the Mexican market to assess its radiological quality. Alpha and beta activities were determined using a liquid-scintillation detector with pulse-shape analysis feature. All the purified water had values of beta activity lower than the limit for potable drinking water (1.0 Bq/l), while three brands surpassed the limit of alpha activity (0.1 Bq/l). The limit for alpha radioactivity content was exceed by three mineral waters; the results show a correlation between radioactivity content and mineral salts, which are related with the origin and treatment of the waters

  5. Ship-in-a-bottle catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, James F.; Song, Weiguo

    2006-07-18

    In accordance with the present invention there is provided a novel catalyst system in which the catalytic structure is tailormade at the nanometer scale using the invention's novel ship-in-a-bottle synthesis techniques. The invention describes modified forms of solid catalysts for use in heterogeneous catalysis that have a microporous structure defined by nanocages. Examples include zeolites, SAPOs, and analogous materials that have the controlled pore dimensions and hydrothermal stability required for many industrial processes. The invention provides for modification of these catalysts using reagents that are small enough to pass through the windows used to access the cages. The small reagents are then reacted to form larger molecules in the cages.

  6. Beverages obtained from soda fountain machines in the U.S. contain microorganisms, including coliform bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amy S; Godard, Renee D; Belling, Carolyn; Kasza, Victoria; Beach, Rebecca L

    2010-01-31

    Ninety beverages of three types (sugar sodas, diet sodas and water) were obtained from 20 self-service and 10 personnel-dispensed soda fountains, analyzed for microbial contamination, and evaluated with respect to U.S. drinking water regulations. A follow-up study compared the concentration and composition of microbial populations in 27 beverages collected from 9 soda fountain machines in the morning as well as in the afternoon. Ice dispensed from these machines was also examined for microbial contamination. While none of the ice samples exceeded U.S. drinking water standards, coliform bacteria was detected in 48% of the beverages and 20% had a heterotrophic plate count greater than 500cfu/ml. Statistical analyses revealed no difference in levels of microbial contamination between beverage types or between those dispensed from self-service and personnel-dispensed soda fountains. More than 11% of the beverages analyzed contained Escherichia coli and over 17% contained Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Other opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms isolated from the beverages included species of Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas, Candida, and Serratia. Most of the identified bacteria showed resistance to one or more of the 11 antibiotics tested. These findings suggest that soda fountain machines may harbor persistent communities of potentially pathogenic microorganisms which may contribute to episodic gastric distress in the general population and could pose a more significant health risk to immunocompromised individuals. These findings have important public health implications and signal the need for regulations enforcing hygienic practices associated with these beverage dispensers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Saliva secretion difference before and after rinsing with baking soda on menopause women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Anggraeni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Menopause women can experience a decrease in saliva secretion (decrease. To understand the clear picture about saliva secretion, the volume, flow rate, pH and viscosity were then measured. The aim of this research was to obtain a picture about the difference of saliva secretion before and after rinsing with baking soda on menopause women. The type of the research used was a laboratory quasi-experiment with comparative descriptive form. The technique used in this research is the survey method, and samples were taken using the multistage cluster random sampling method, and t-student statistical analysis. This research was conducted with the saliva collected with spitting method on 45 menopause women. The results show that the average volume, flow rate, pH and viscosity before rinsing with baking soda was 1.79 ml, 0.18 ml/minute, 7.40 and 0.81 mm2/second. The average volume, flow rate, pH and viscosity after rinsing with baking soda were 2.66 ml; 0.27 ml/minute; 8.67 and 0.78 mm2/second. Statistical analysis t-student on α = 0.05 shows volume changes, flow rate, pH and saliva viscosity before and after rinsing with baking soda was 0.873; 0.086; 1.273 and 0.037 respectively. The conclusion shows a significant difference between saliva secretion before and after rinsing with baking soda, and saliva secretion after rinsing with baking soda on menopause women.

  8. Baking soda misuse as a home remedy: case experience of the California Poison Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abri, S A; Kearney, T

    2014-02-01

    Baking soda is a common household product promoted by the manufacturer as an antacid. It contains sodium bicarbonate and has the potential for significant toxicity when ingested in excessive amounts. Characterizing the patterns and outcomes from the misuse of baking soda as a home remedy can guide the clinical assessment and preventative counselling of patients at risk for use of this product. We conducted a retrospective review of all symptomatic cases involving ingestion and misuse of a baking soda powder product that were reported to the California Poison Control System between the years 2000 and 2012. Of the 192 cases we identified, 55·8% were female, ages ranged 2 months to 79 years, and the most common reasons for misuse included antacid (60·4%), 'beat a urine drug test' (11·5%) and treat a UTI (4·7%). Most cases (55·2%) had significant symptoms warranting a medical evaluation, whereas 12 patients required hospital admission developed either electrolyte imbalances, metabolic alkalosis or respiratory depression. Misuse of baking soda can result in serious electrolyte and acid/base imbalances. Patients at highest risk of toxicity may include those who chronically use an antacid, those who use the method to 'beat' urine drug screens, pregnant women and young children. Self-treatment with baking soda as a home remedy may also mask or delay medical care thereby complicating or exacerbating an existing medical problem. We suggest that healthcare providers counsel high-risk patients about the potential complications of misuse of baking soda as a home remedy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  10. Pervasive plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Human manipulation of hydrocarbons — as fuel and raw materials for modern society — has changed our world and the indelible imprint we will leave in the rock record. Plastics alone have permeated our lives and every corner of our planet.

  11. Plastic deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.

    1937-01-01

    § 1. Plastic deformation of solid matter under high confining pressures has been insufficiently studied. Jeffreys 1) devotes a few paragraphs to deformation of solid matter as a preface to his chapter on the isostasy problem. He distinguishes two properties of solid matter with regard to its

  12. Kinetics of dissolution of a biocide soda-lime glass powder containing silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban-Tejeda, L.; Silva, A. C. da; Mello-Castanho, S. R.; Pacharroman, C.; Moya, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we have studied the lixiviation kinetics of silver nanoparticles, as well as the solubility of a particulate system ( 2 lixiviation followed a Jander model (α 2 /4 ≈ Kt). It has been proven that nanostructured soda-lime glass/nAg composed by particles <30 μm with a 20 wt% of silver are a strong biocide versus Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. This soda-lime glass/nAg acts as a perfect dispenser of silver nanoparticles to the liquid media, avoiding the fast increasing of its concentration over the toxicity limit for human cells and for the environment.

  13. Microbial communities associated with the anthropogenic, highly alkaline environment of a saline soda lime, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kalwasi?ska, Agnieszka; Felf?ldi, Tam?s; Szab?, Attila; Deja-Sikora, Edyta; Kosobucki, Przemys?aw; Walczak, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Soda lime is a by-product of the Solvay soda process for the production of sodium carbonate from limestone and sodium chloride. Due to a high salt concentration and alkaline pH, the lime is considered as a potential habitat of haloalkaliphilic and haloalkalitolerant microbial communities. This artificial and unique environment is nutrient-poor and devoid of vegetation, due in part to semi-arid, saline and alkaline conditions. Samples taken from the surface layer of the lime and from the depth...

  14. Effects of Diet Soda on Gut Hormones in Youths With Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Rebecca J.; Walter, Mary; Rother, Kristina I.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In patients with type 2 diabetes, but not type 1 diabetes, abnormal secretion of incretins in response to oral nutrients has been described. In healthy youths, we recently reported accentuated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion in response to a diet soda sweetened with sucralose and acesulfame-K. In this study, we examined the effect of diet soda on gut hormones in youths with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects aged 12?25 years with type 1 diabetes (n = 9) or type...

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Bisphenol A Leached from Household Plastics by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bettie Obi; Burke, Fernanda M.; Harrison, Rebecca; Burdette, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of trace levels of bisphenol A (BPA) leached out of household plastics using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is reported here. BPA is an endocrine-disrupting compound used in the industrial manufacture of polycarbonate plastic bottles and epoxy resin can liners. This experiment…

  16. Dynamically tunable optical bottles from an optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuhao; Yan, Lu; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard

    2012-01-01

    Optical fibers have long been used to impose spatial coherence to shape free-space optical beams. Recent work has shown that one can use higher order fiber modes to create more exotic beam profiles. We experimentally generate optical bottles from Talbot imaging in the coherent superposition of two...... fiber modes excited with long period gratings, and obtain a 28 μm × 6 μm bottle with controlled contrast up to 10.13 dB. Our geometry allows for phase tuning of one mode with respect to the other, which enables us to dynamically move the bottle in free space....

  17. An axisymmetric PFEM formulation for bottle forming simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhakov, Pavel B.

    2017-01-01

    A numerical model for bottle forming simulation is proposed. It is based upon the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM) and is developed for the simulation of bottles characterized by rotational symmetry. The PFEM strategy is adapted to suit the problem of interest. Axisymmetric version of the formulation is developed and a modified contact algorithm is applied. This results in a method characterized by excellent computational efficiency and volume conservation characteristics. The model is validated. An example modelling the final blow process is solved. Bottle wall thickness is estimated and the mass conservation of the method is analysed.

  18. Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soparkar, P; Newman, M B

    2001-07-01

    An evaluation of the effects of ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) on extrinsic dental stain was made in 48 subjects presenting with measurable extrinsic stain. The subjects were randomized to use either the baking soda gum or a non-baking soda placebo gum for 20 minutes twice daily after lunch and dinner while brushing once daily. The procedure of limited brushing was chosen to simulate the level of hygiene normally practiced by participants entering a clinical study. After 4 weeks, the reduction in measurable extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was statistically significant (P = .0044) relative to baseline. Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks.

  19. The frequency of bottle feeding as the main factor of baby bottle tooth decay syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Fahlevi Rizal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries remains as main problem in Indonesia and its prevalence is high (90.05%. However, there is no appropriate data that can be used to analyze dental caries in toddlers, especially baby bottle tooth decay syndrome (BBTD, though the number of BBTD cases is high in some pediatric dental clinics (90% of patients visiting the clinics. Even though some factors have already been considered to be the risk factor of BBTD, the main risk factor of BBTD is still unknown, especially BBTD in Indonesia. Purpose: This research was aimed to obtain data relating with bottle-feeding habit in 3-5 year old children in Indonesia and its caries risk. Method: The study was an observational research conducted with clinical examination through caries status (deft of each child deserved by pediatric dentists and through questionnaire distributed to parents to examine the risk factor of BBTD. Observation was conducted on 62 children in the range of age 3 to 5 years old with bottle-feeding habit. Result: The results revealed that status of caries was various. The data showed that the frequency of bottle feeding more than twice could trigger BBTD 2.27 times higher than other factors such as the use of bottle feeding as a pacifier prior sleeping, the period of bottle-feeding, and the breast-feeding experience. Conclusion: though milk as subtract can possibly become a factor triggering caries, the frequency of bottle-feeding is highly considered as main factor. Since it could modulated the bacterial colonization on dental surface, which affects its virulence.Latar belakang: Karies masih menjadi masalah utama di Indonesia. Dalam praktek sehari-hari prevalensi karies masih sangat tinggi (90.05%. Belum ada data yang memadai dalam penelaahan karies yang spesifik pada anak balita selama ini khususnya kasus sindroma karies botol (SKB sementara itu kasus SKB ditemukan sangat tinggi di beberapa klinik gigi anak (90% dari jumlah pasien yang datang ke klinik

  20. Indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A Edaigbini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tube thoracostomy is a lifesaving and frequently performed procedure in hospitals where the expertise and necessary tools are available. Where the ideal drainage receptacle is unavailable, the underwater seal device can be improvised with bottled water plastic can especially in emergency situations. Aims and Objectives: To determine the frequencies of the various indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a structured proforma was used for assessment over a 3-year period (May 2010-April 2013. The proforma was filled at the time of the procedure by the performing surgeon and patients were followed up with serial chest X-rays until certified cured. A 1.5 L bottled water container was used as the underwater seal receptacle. The data was analysed with SPSS 15 software program. Results: A total of 167 patients were managed. There were 106 (63.5% males and 61 (36.5% females. The mean age was 34.85 ± 16.72 with a range of 1-80 years. The most frequent indication was for malignant/paramalignant effusion, 46 (27.5%. Others were trauma, 44 (26.3%, Parapneumonic effusion, 20 (12%, postthoracotomy 14 (8.4%, empyema thoracis 12 (7.2%, heart disease and tuberculous effusion 11 (6.6% each, pneumothorax 8 (4.8% and misdiagnosis 1 (0.6%. A hundred and one (60.5% of the procedures were performed by registrars, 41 (24.6% by consultants, house officers 15 (9% and senior registrars 10 (6%. The overall complication rate was 16.8% with the more frequent complications been empyema (5.6% and pneumothorax (3.6%. The average duration of tube placement was 13.02 ± 12.362 days and range of 1-110 days. Conclusion : Tube thoracostomy can be a relatively safe procedure with acceptable complication rates even with improvised underwater seal drainage bottles.

  1. Valorization of post-consumer waste plastic in cementitious concrete composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzouk, O. Yazoghli; Dheilly, R.M.; Queneudec, M.

    2007-01-01

    The sheer amount of disposable bottles being produced nowadays makes it imperative to identify alternative procedures for recycling them since they are non-biodegradable. This paper describes an innovative use of consumed plastic bottle waste as sand-substitution aggregate within composite materials for building application. Particularly, bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) have been used as partial and complete substitutes for sand in concrete composites. Various volume fractions of sand varying from 2% to 100% were substituted by the same volume of granulated plastic, and various sizes of PET aggregates were used. The bulk density and mechanical characteristics of the composites produced were evaluated. To study the relationship between mechanical properties and composite microstructure, scanning electron microscopy technique was employed. The results presented show that substituting sand at a level below 50% by volume with granulated PET, whose upper granular limit equals 5 mm, affects neither the compressive strength nor the flexural strength of composites. This study demonstrates that plastic bottles shredded into small PET particles may be used successfully as sand-substitution aggregates in cementitious concrete composites. These new composites would appear to offer an attractive low-cost material with consistent properties; moreover, they would help in resolving some of the solid waste problems created by plastics production and in saving energy

  2. Effects of Number and Location of Bins on Plastic Recycling at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Ryan T.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Fritz, Jennifer N.; Hodde, Henry B.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of plastic bottles that consumers placed in appropriate recycling receptacles rather than trash bins was examined across 3 buildings on a university campus. We extended previous research on interventions to increase recycling by controlling the number of recycling receptacles across conditions and by examining receptacle location…

  3. Nanosecond (ns) laser transfer of silver nanoparticles from silver-exchanged soda-lime glass to transparent soda-lime glass and shock waves formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sow, Mohamed Chérif; Blondeau, Jean-Philippe; Sagot, Nadine; Ollier, Nadège; Tite, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles growth by nanosecond laser irradiation of silver exchanged soda-lime glasses. • Silver nanoparticles transfer. • Nanosecond laser induced shock waves formation on glass. - Abstract: In this contribution, we showed for the first time in our knowledge a single-step process for silver clusters and nanoparticles growth and transfer from silver-exchanged soda-lime glass to un-exchanged soda-lime glass (transparent glass in visible and NIR domain) by nanosecond (ns) laser irradiation. The transferred silver nanoparticles in transparent glass are strongly linked to the glass surface. In addition, we point out the formation of shock waves, with selective silver clustering on the top wave. This technique provides an alternative and simple way to obtain metallic nanoparticles in different media which can be traversed by laser wavelength used. Moreover, this experiment is made at room temperature and air environment. It is worth noting that our technique requires a glass previously doped with the corresponding silver ions

  4. plastic waste recycling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    incinerators is increasing around the world. Discarded plastic products ... Agency (EPA) estimated that the amount of plastics throw away is. 50 % greater in the ... The waste plastics were identified using the Society of the Plastic. Industry (SPI) ...

  5. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report...

  6. Prevalence of work-related injuries among workers of bottling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of work-related injuries among workers of bottling industries in Benin city, ... job descriptions and activities which constitute health hazards for the individual. ... with the major work-related injuries and illness being physical injuries.

  7. Effects of Sunlight Exposure on the Quality Parameters of Bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    microbial population (total coliform) of the bottled water with increasing exposure to sunlight was observed. ... safe drinking water which has led to the tremendous ... degradation under high temperature (Bach et al., ..... Solar and photocatalytic.

  8. Conical Refraction Bottle Beams for Entrapment of Absorbing Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseling, Michael; Alpmann, Christina; Schnelle, Jens; Meissner, Robert; Denz, Cornelia

    2018-03-22

    Conical refraction (CR) optical bottle beams for photophoretic trapping of airborne absorbing droplets are introduced and experimentally demonstrated. CR describes the circular split-up of unpolarised light propagating along an optical axis in a biaxial crystal. The diverging and converging cones lend themselves to the construction of optical bottle beams with flexible entry points. The interaction of single inkjet droplets with an open or partly open bottle beam is shown implementing high-speed video microscopy in a dual-view configuration. Perpendicular image planes are visualized on a single camera chip to characterize the integral three-dimensional movement dynamics of droplets. We demonstrate how a partly opened optical bottle transversely confines liquid objects. Furthermore we observe and analyse transverse oscillations of absorbing droplets as they hit the inner walls and simultaneously measure both transverse and axial velocity components.

  9. Physical, chemical and microbial analysis of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikaran, S; Sritharan, K; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2012-09-01

    People rely on the quality of the bottled drinking water, expecting it to be free of microbial contamination and health hazards. To evaluate the quality of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula by analysing the physical, chemical and microbial contents and comparing with the recommended Sri Lankan Standard (SLS) values. All bottled water samples sold in Jaffna peninsula were collected. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, pH, calcium, nitrate, total aerobic and anaerobic count, coliform bacterial count and faecal contamination were checked. These are 22 brands of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula. The sample had very low electrical conductivity when compared with SLS (750 μS/ cm) and varied from 19 to 253 μS/cm with the mean of 80.53 (±60.92) μS/cm. The pH values of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 4.11 to 7.58 with a mean of 6.2 (±0.75). The total dissolved solid content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 9 to 123.67 mg/l with a mean of 39.5 (±30.23) mg/l. The calcium content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 6.48 to 83.77 mg/l with a mean of 49.9 (±25.09) mg/l. The nitrate content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 0.21 to 4.19 mg/l with the mean of 1.26 (±1.08) mg/l. Aerobic bacterial count varied from 0 to 800 colony forming unit per ml (cfu/ml) with a mean of 262.6 (±327.50) cfu/ml. Among the 22 drinking bottled water brands 14 and 9% of bottled drinking water brands showed fungal and coliform bacterial contaminants respectively. The water brands which contained faecal contamination had either Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. The bottled drinking water available for sale do not meet the standards stipulated by SLS.

  10. An ultracold neutron storage bottle for UCN density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bison, G.; Burri, F.; Daum, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kirch, K. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Krempel, J. [Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Lauss, B., E-mail: bernhard.lauss@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Meier, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ries, D., E-mail: dieter.ries@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Zsigmond, G. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-09-11

    We have developed a storage bottle for ultracold neutrons (UCNs) in order to measure the UCN density at the beamports of the Paul Scherrer Institute's (PSI) UCN source. This paper describes the design, construction and commissioning of the robust and mobile storage bottle with a volume comparable to typical storage experiments (32 L) e.g. searching for an electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  11. Flue gas desulphurization in a spray tower with de-coupled recycling of soda ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebgott, H.

    1983-05-01

    RD project to develop a ''dry'' process for the desulphurization of flue gases. The process is based on a desulphurization step with a solution of soda ash which is sprayed into the flue gas. The gas is cooled by evaporation but its temperature is still higher than the dew point; reheating is not necessary. The product of the desulphurization is a dry mixture of sodium sulphite and -carbonate. It is intended to reprocess this powder to soda in a central plant - serving several power stations. First sulphite is oxidized to sulphate, which in turn is reacted with calcium chloride to form calcium sulphate and sodium chloride. The latter is introduced into the Solvay-soda ash process which yields calcium chloride as a by-product. Tests were carried out for the desulphurization step and the oxidation of sulphite. The desulphurization tests resulted in poor degrees of SO/sub 2/-removal even with high stoichiometric ratios of soda ash to sulphur dioxide. The preliminary estimates of process economics made before start of experimental work could not be verified. Furthermore, during work on the project, new processes were revealed whereby flue gas is desulphurized in a spray-drying apparatus with a slurry of calcium hydroxide. In an extension of the project, tests were carried out which confirmed these findings. The project was abandoned.

  12. Biological treatment of sulfidic spent caustics under haloalkaline conditions using soda lake bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of a newbiotechnological process for the treatment of undiluted sulfidic spent caustics (SSC’s) using soda lake bacteria is described. SSC’s are waste solutions that are formed in the oil and gas industry due to the caustic (NaOH) scrubbing of hydrocarbon streams

  13. Fractal Loop Heat Pipe Performance Comparisons of a Soda Lime Glass and Compressed Carbon Foam Wick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, David; Silk, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares heat flux performance of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) wick structure fabricated from compressed carbon foam with that of a wick structure fabricated from sintered soda lime glass. Each wick was used in an LHP containing a fractal based evaporator. The Fractal Loop Heat Pipe (FLHP) was designed and manufactured by Mikros Manufacturing Inc. The compressed carbon foam wick structure was manufactured by ERG Aerospace Inc., and machined to specifications comparable to that of the initial soda lime glass wick structure. Machining of the compressed foam as well as performance testing was conducted at the United States Naval Academy. Performance testing with the sintered soda lime glass wick structures was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Heat input for both wick structures was supplied via cartridge heaters mounted in a copper block. The copper heater block was placed in contact with the FLHP evaporator which had a circular cross-sectional area of 0.88 cm(sup 2). Twice distilled, deionized water was used as the working fluid in both sets of experiments. Thermal performance data was obtained for three different Condenser/Subcooler temperatures under degassed conditions. Both wicks demonstrated comparable heat flux performance with a maximum of 75 W/cm observed for the soda lime glass wick and 70 W /cm(sup 2) for the compressed carbon foam wick.

  14. Baking soda as an abrasive in toothpastes: Mechanism of action and safety and effectiveness considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Anderson T; Turssi, Cecilia P

    2017-11-01

    Toothpastes can be formulated with different abrasive systems, depending on their intended clinical application. This formulation potentially affects their effectiveness and safety and, therefore, requires proper understanding. In this article, the authors focused on abrasive aspects of toothpastes containing sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), which have gained considerable attention because of their low abrasivity and good compatibility, while providing clinical effectiveness (further detailed in the other articles of this special issue). The authors first appraised the role of toothpaste abrasivity on tooth wear, exploring some underlying processes and the existing methods to determine toothpaste abrasivity. The authors reviewed the available data on the abrasivity of toothpastes containing baking soda and reported a summary of findings highlighting the clinical implications. On the basis of the collected evidence, baking soda has an intrinsic low-abrasive nature because of its comparatively lower hardness in relation to enamel and dentin. Baking soda toothpastes also may contain other ingredients, which can increase their stain removal effectiveness and, consequently, abrasivity. Even those formulations have abrasivity well within the safety limit regulatory agencies have established and, therefore, can be considered safe. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lewis acid-catalyzed depolymerization of soda lignin in supercritical ethanol/water mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güvenatam, Burcu; Heeres, Erik H.J.; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2016-01-01

    The depolymerization of lignin model compounds and soda lignin by super Lewis acidic metal triflates has been investigated in a mixture of ethanol and water at 400 °C. The strong Lewis acids convert representative model compounds for the structure-forming linkages in lignin, namely α-O-4, 5-O-4

  16. The Soda Can Optimization Problem: Getting Close to the Real Thing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premadasa, Kirthi; Martin, Paul; Sprecher, Bryce; Yang, Lai; Dodge, Noah-Helen

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing the dimensions of a soda can is a classic problem that is frequently posed to freshman calculus students. However, if we only minimize the surface area subject to a fixed volume, the result is a can with a square edge-on profile, and this differs significantly from actual cans. By considering a more realistic model for the can that…

  17. Waste vitrification: prediction of acceptable compositions in a lime-soda-silica glass-forming system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    A model is presented based upon calculated bridging oxygens which allows the prediction of the region of acceptable glass compositions for a lime-soda-silica glass-forming system containing mixed waste. The model can be used to guide glass formulation studies (e.g., treatability studies) or assess the applicability of vitrification to candidate waste streams

  18. A comparative study of the effect of diet and soda carbonated drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Objectives: A comparative effect of the diet and regular soda carbonated drinks on the histology of the cerebellum of female albino Wistar rats was ... contains caffeine, depending on the quantities consumed5. Caffeine is linked ... consumption might result in seizures, memory loss, dizziness, headache and ...

  19. Metagenomic insights into the uncultured diversity and physiology of microbes in four hypersaline soda lake brines.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavourakis, C. D.; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, F.; Sorokin, D. Y.; Tringe, S. G.; Hugenholtz, P.; Muyzer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, February (2016), č. článku 211. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00243S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soda lake brines * Nanohaloarchaea * Halobacteria * Bacteroidetes * hydrolytics * cellulase * chitinase * rhodopsin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  20. Stress-strain response of plastic waste mixed soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G L Sivakumar; Chouksey, Sandeep Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become one of the major challenges worldwide. The present study provides an approach for the use plastic waste as reinforcement material in soil. The experimental results in the form of stress-strain-pore water pressure response are presented. Based on experimental test results, it is observed that the strength of soil is improved and compressibility reduced significantly with addition of a small percentage of plastic waste to the soil. The use of the improvement in strength and compressibility response due to inclusion of plastic waste can be advantageously used in bearing capacity improvement and settlement reduction in the design of shallow foundations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatial distribution of soda straws growth rates of the Coufin Cave (Vercors, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrette Yves

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Choranche Cave system (Vercors, France is an excellent locality for measuring the growth rates of large numbers soda straws. This is especially the case for the Coufin Cave, as enlargement of the cave entrance in 1875 led to a change in stalactite color from brown to white, thus providing a reliable chronomarker. The date of this brown-to-white calcite transition has been confirmed by lamina counting. We measured and georeferenced the growth-lengths of 306 soda straws in a 1m2 area of the roof of the Coufin Cave entrance chamber. Because of the very slow and sometimes inexistent water feeding of those stalactites, hydrochemistry analysis were not achieved and drop rate effect on growth were neglected; this study is based on a geomorphological and geostatistical work. By measuring a large number of soda straws in a very small area for which most of the parameters affecting stalactite growth could be considered uniform, and because flow rates are very slow (frequencies are always superior to 1 drop per half hour, we could ascribe differences in growth rates to variations in the global increase of water flow through the unsaturated matrix. Statistical and geostatistical analyses of the measurements showed that this set of similarly shaped stalactites actually consisted of three Gaussian populations with different mean growth rates: fast growth rate (FGR- mean of 0.92 mm.y-1, medium growth rate (MGR- mean of 0.47 mm.y-1 and low growth rate (LGR- 0.09 mm.y-1. Plotting the lengths and spatial distribution of the 20 longest FGR soda straws revealed that there is a rough pattern to the water flow through the cave roof. Even if no direction is statisticaly different from others, the observed directional pattern is consistent with local and regional tectonic observations. Plots of the spatial distribution of the soda straws show that FGR soda straws follow lines of regional geological stress, whereas MGR and LGR soda straws are more dispersed.

  2. Simulation on the Effect of Bottle Wall Thickness Distribution using Blow Moulding Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraya, S; Azman, M D; Fatchurrohman, N; Jaafar, A A; Yusoff, A R

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the deformation behavior of a polymeric material during a blow moulding process. Transient computations of two dimensional model of a PP bottle were performed using ANSYS Polyflow computer code to predict the wall thickness distribution at four different parison's diameter; 8mm, 10mm, 18mm, and 20mm. Effects on the final wall thickness diameter and time step are studied. The simulated data shows that the inflation performance degrades with increasing parison diameter. It is concluded that the blow moulding process using 10mm parison successfully meet the product processing requirements. Factors that contribute to the variation in deformation behaviour of the plastic during the manufacturing process are discussed. (paper)

  3. The influence of the structures and compounds of DLC coatings on the barrier properties of PET bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yang; Zhen-Duo, Wang; Shou-Ye, Zhang; Li-Zhen, Yang; Qiang, Chen

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the oxygen transmission rate through a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle (an organic plastic) diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on the inner surface of the PET bottle were deposited by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (RF-PECVD) technology with C 2 H 2 as the source of carbon and Ar as the diluted gas. As the barrier layer to humidity and gas permeation, this paper analyses the DLC film structure, composition, morphology and barrier properties by Fourier transform infrared, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and oxygen transmission rate in detail. From the spectrum, it is found that the DLC film mainly consists of sp 3 bonds. The barrier property of the films is significantly relevant to the sp 3 bond concentration in the coating, the film thickness and morphology. Additionally, it is found that DLC film deposited in an inductively coupled plasma enhanced capacitively coupled plasma source shows a compact, homogeneous and crack-free surface, which is beneficial for a good gas barrier property in PET bottles. (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)

  4. Post-consumer contamination in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) milk bottles and the design of a bottle-to-bottle recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, F

    2005-10-01

    Six hundred conventional recycled HDPE flake samples, which were recollected and sorted in the UK, were screened for post-consumer contamination levels. Each analysed sample consisted of 40-50 individual flakes so that the amount of analysed individual containers was in the range 24,000-30,000 post-consumer milk bottles. Predominant contaminants in hot-washed flake samples were unsaturated oligomers, which can be also be found in virgin high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pellet samples used for milk bottle production. In addition, the flavour compound limonene, the degradation product of antioxidant additives di-tert-butylphenol and low amounts of saturated oligomers were found in higher concentrations in the post-consumer samples in comparison with virgin HDPE. However, the overall concentrations in post-consumer recycled samples were similar to or lower than concentration ranges in comparison with virgin HDPE. Contamination with other HDPE untypical compounds was rare and was in most cases related to non-milk bottles, which are HDPE and on the high cleaning efficiency of the super-clean recycling process especially for highly volatile compounds, the recycling process investigated is suitable for recycled post-consumer HDPE bottles for direct food-contact applications. However, hand-picking after automatically sorting is recommended to decrease the amount of non-milk bottles. The conclusions for suitability are valid, provided that the migration testing of recyclate contains milk bottles up to 100% and that both shelf-life testing and sensorial testing of the products are successful, which are topics of further investigations.

  5. Molecular identification of Nocardia species using the sodA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sánchez-Herrera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently for bacterial identification and classification the rrs gene encoding 16S rRNA is used as a reference method for the analysis of strains of the genus Nocardia. However, it does not have enough polymorphism to differentiate them at the species level. This fact makes it necessary to search for molecular targets that can provide better identification. The sodA gene (encoding the enzyme superoxide dismutase has had good results in identifying species of other Actinomycetes. In this study the sodA gene is proposed for the identification and differentiation at the species level of the genus Nocardia. We used 41 type species of various collections; a 386 bp fragment of the sodA gene was amplified and sequenced, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed comparing the genes rrs (1171 bp, hsp65 (401 bp, secA1 (494 bp, gyrB (1195 bp and rpoB (401 bp. The sequences were aligned using the Clustal X program. Evolutionary trees according to the neighbour-joining method were created with the programs Phylo_win and MEGA 6. The specific variability of the sodA genus of the genus Nocardia was analysed. A high phylogenetic resolution, significant genetic variability, and specificity and reliability were observed for the differentiation of the isolates at the species level. The polymorphism observed in the sodA gene sequence contains variable regions that allow the discrimination of closely related Nocardia species. The clear specificity, despite its small size, proves to be of great advantage for use in taxonomic studies and clinical diagnosis of the genus Nocardia.

  6. Hydrogenolysis and Activation of Soda Lignin Using [BMIM]Cl as a Catalyst and Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengming Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To improve the reactivity of the soda lignin, an acid ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-mthylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl was used as the catalyst and solvent to degrade the soda lignin through hydrogenolysis. Structural elucidation of the lignin samples was conducted by using a combination of analytical methods including chemical analysis, ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR spectra, two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-HSQC NMR techniques, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The antioxidant activities of the lignin samples were evaluated using the diammonium 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS+ radical scavenging and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging methods. The degradation mechanism was proposed based on the characterization results. The optimal reaction condition was as follows: the concentration of [BMIM]Cl in the solution was 10 wt %, the hydrogen initial pressure was 3 MPa, and the solution was heated for 4 h at 90 °C. After the reaction, the total hydroxyl content of the soda lignin increased by 81.3%, while the phenolic hydroxyl content increased by 23.1%. At the same time, the weight-average molar mass of the soda lignin sample decreased from 8220 to 6450 g/mol with an improved antioxidant activity. In addition, approximately 56.7% of the β-O-4 linkages were degraded in the lreaction. The main effect of the acid ionic liquid [BMIM]C1 was related to the cleavage of β-O-4 linkages. This study has shown the potential of using the catalyzed soda lignin as a natural polymer antioxidant.

  7. Plasticizer contamination in edible vegetable oil in a U.S. retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaolong; Pan, Xiaojun; Yuan, Shoujun; Wang, Qiquan

    2013-10-02

    With the wide application of plastics, the contamination of plasticizers migrating from plastic materials in the environment is becoming ubiquitous. The presence of phthalates, the major group of plasticizers, in edible items has gained increasingly more concern due to their endocrine disrupting property. In this study, 15 plasticizers in 21 edible vegetable oils purchased from a U.S. retail market were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were detected in all oil samples. Benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were detected at a rate of 95.2, 90.5, and 90.5%, respectively. The detection rates for all other plasticizers ranged from 0 to 57.1%. The content of total plasticizers in oil samples was determined to be 210-7558 μg/kg, which was comparable to the content range in oil marketed in Italy. Although no significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizer was observed among oil species (soybean, canola, corn, and olive), the wider range and higher average of total content of plasticizers in olive oil than other oil species indicated the inconsistence of plasticizer contamination in olive oil and a possible priority for quality monitoring. No significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizers was found among glass-bottle (n = 4), plastic-bottle (n = 14), and metal-can (n = 3) packaging, implying that oil packaging is not the major cause of plasticizer contamination. The daily intake amount of plasticizers contained in edible oil on this U.S. retail market constituted only a minimum percentage of reference dose established by US EPA, thus no obvious toxicological effect might be caused. However, the fact that DEHP content in two olive oils exceeded relevant special migration limits (SMLs) of Europe and China might need attention.

  8. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő; Czégény, Zsuzsanna; Záray, Gyula; Mihucz, Victor G.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: −1 –0.2 μg L −1 , −1 –0.8 μg L −1 , −1 –0.1 μg L −1 and −1 –1.7 μg L −1 , respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters

  9. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Czégény, Zsuzsanna [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 17 (Hungary); Záray, Gyula [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Mihucz, Victor G., E-mail: vigami72@yahoo.es [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: < 3.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.2 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.6 ng L{sup −1}–0.8 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.1 μg L{sup −1} and < 16.0 ng L{sup −1}–1.7 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters.

  10. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HDPE PLASTIC FILM FOR HERBICIDE CONTAINER USING FLY ASH CLASS F AS FILLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatim Lailun Ni’mah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available High Density Polyethylene (HDPE plastic plays an important role in various applications, for example, it can be used as a container (bottle. Petrokimia Kayaku Company, a branch of Petrokimia Company of Gresik, produces herbicides using HDPE plastic bottles as their container. Those plastic bottles undergo degradation (kempot for certain period of time. The aim of this research is to characterize and to synthesize the HDPE plastic film with class F fly ash as filler. The results expected from this research are producing the plastic with a better properties and durability. This research was initiated by taking the sample of HDPE plastic bottle and herbicides (containing Gramakuat, on active material parakuat dichloride at Petrokimia Kayaku Company. Both the initial HDPE and the degraded bottles was analyzed their tensile strength and Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FTIR spectral. The next step was to synthesize the HDPE plastic film using class F fly ash as filler and a coupling agent. The filler concentrations were 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20wt %. The best result was 5% filler concentration with tensile strength of 27.7 lbs. This HDPE film was then subjected to degradation test using pyridine solution with various concentrations (1%, 3% and 5% for two weeks, thermal degradation at 100 °C for two weeks and chemical resistance by xylene with soak time variation of 24 h, 98 h and 168 h. The result of degradations test show that the value of tensile strength was decreased with the increase of filler consentration. The chemical resistance, however, was increased.   Keywords: degradation, filler, fly ash, HDPE, Herbicide

  11. An Investigation into the Effects of Temperature and Storage Time on Military Packaged Water in Afghanistan - The Liberation and Migration of Potential Contaminants from Expeditionary Water Packaging System Polyethylene Terephthalate Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    soil ,  with  inhalation  being  the  predominant  route  of  entry  into  the   body.    Drinking  water...DEHP   concentrations   vanish   when   bottles   were   placed   outdoors   in   direct   sunlight   and   at   higher...Recycling  Plastic  Bottles  upon  Treatments."  Environmental  Science   Pollution  Research  17:  

  12. Pet Bottle Design, Correlation Analysis Of Pet Bottle Characteristics Subjective Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Avramović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ability to predict consumer’s reaction to particular design solution of the product is very important. Gathering andanalysis of subjective judgments of particular characteristics, based on which the aesthetic of the product is judged,is one of predicting the consumer’s reaction in the future. Knowledge gathered this manner can serve as a referencefor further studies of determining factors for aesthetic results and design quality. There are two opposed opinionsregarding prediction of aesthetic impression. One opinion is that taste of individual cannot be discussed because itis extremely variable and the possibility of meaningful analysis of aesthetic impression is rejected. Other opinionstates that there is a consistent preference of certain aesthetic characteristics despite individual and group differences.Main goal of this paper is to examine the correlation between subjective judgments of certain PET bottlecharacteristics. Analysis showed meaningful correlation between some of the PET bottle characteristics while othercharacteristics showed less correlation. It can be concluded that not all of the characteristics have the same influenceon the aesthetics and design quality of the PET bottle form. Emphasizing the characteristics relative to aesthetics ofthe product can produce better market results, taking in to account that consumer’s buy the product they consider tobe more attractive if other parameters of the product are similar.

  13. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Kemal; Ergin, Semih; Işık, Şahin; Işıklı, Idil

    2015-01-01

    Since recycling of materials is widely assumed to be environmentally and economically beneficial, reliable sorting and processing of waste packaging materials such as plastics is very important for recycling with high efficiency. An automated system that can quickly categorize these materials is certainly needed for obtaining maximum classification while maintaining high throughput. In this paper, first of all, the photographs of the plastic bottles have been taken and several preprocessing steps were carried out. The first preprocessing step is to extract the plastic area of a bottle from the background. Then, the morphological image operations are implemented. These operations are edge detection, noise removal, hole removing, image enhancement, and image segmentation. These morphological operations can be generally defined in terms of the combinations of erosion and dilation. The effect of bottle color as well as label are eliminated using these operations. Secondly, the pixel-wise intensity values of the plastic bottle images have been used together with the most popular subspace and statistical feature extraction methods to construct the feature vectors in this study. Only three types of plastics are considered due to higher existence ratio of them than the other plastic types in the world. The decision mechanism consists of five different feature extraction methods including as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA), Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Laplacian Eigenmaps (LEMAP) and uses a simple experimental setup with a camera and homogenous backlighting. Due to the giving global solution for a classification problem, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is selected to achieve the classification task and majority voting technique is used as the decision mechanism. This technique equally weights each classification result and assigns the given plastic object to the class that the most classification

  14. Plastic debris retention and exportation by a mangrove forest patch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A.; Costa, Monica F.; Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline S.; Araújo, Maria Christina B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Estuaries and mangrove forests are rarely studied for marine plastic debris loads. • Types of plastic items and mangrove forest habitats determine the potential of debris retention. • Mangrove habitats are temporary sinks of plastic debris from river and marine origins. • Plastics rapidly accumulate in mangrove forest, but are exported slowly. • Fauna and fishers using mangrove forest habitats are at risk of interaction with plastic debris. -- Abstract: An experiment observed the behavior of selected tagged plastic items deliberately released in different habitats of a tropical mangrove forest in NE Brazil in late rainy (September) and late dry (March) seasons. Significant differences were not reported among seasons. However, marine debris retention varied among habitats, according to characteristics such as hydrodynamic (i.e., flow rates and volume transported) and relative vegetation (Rhizophora mangle) height and density. The highest grounds retained significantly more items when compared to the borders of the river and the tidal creek. Among the used tagged items, PET bottles were more observed and margarine tubs were less observed, being easily transported to adjacent habitats. Plastic bags were the items most retained near the releasing site. The balance between items retained and items lost was positive, demonstrating that mangrove forests tend to retain plastic marine debris for long periods (months-years)

  15. High-Q plasmonic bottle microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, M. Narizee; Ding, Ming; Murugan, G. Senthil; Zervas, Michalis N.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid plasmonic bottle microresonator (PBMR) which supports whispering gallery modes (WGMs) along with surface plasmon waves (SPWs) for high performance optical sensor applications. The BMR was fabricated through "soften-and-compress" technique with a thin gold layer deposited on top of the resonator. A polarization-resolved measurement was set-up in order to fully characterize the fabricated PBMR. Initially, the uncoated BMR with waist diameter of 181 μm, stem diameter of 125 μm and length of 400 μm was fabricated and then gold film was deposited on the surface. Due to surface curvature, the gold film covering half of the BMR had a characteristic meniscus shape and maximum thickness of 30 nm. The meniscus provides appropriately tapered edges which facilitate the adiabatic transformation of BMR WGMs to SPWs and vice versa. This results in low transition losses, which combined with partially-metal-coated resonator, can result in high hybrid-PBMR Q's. The transmission spectra of the hybrid PBMR are dramatically different to the original uncoated BMR. Under TE(TM) excitation, the PBMR showed composite resonances with Q of ~2100(850) and almost identical ~ 3 nm FSR. We have accurately fitted the observed transmission resonances with Lorentzian-shaped curves and showed that the TE and TM excitations are actually composite resonances comprise of two and three partially overlapping resonances with Q's in excess of 2900 and 2500, respectively. To the best of our knowledge these are the highest Qs observed in plasmonic microcavities.

  16. Radium activity measurements in bottled mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Denyak, Valeriy; Reque, Marilson; Rocha, Paschuk; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of 226 Ra activity measurements of fifteen samples of bottled mineral water acquired at markets of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). The experimental setup was based on the electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.). The measurements were carried out with a special kit of accessory vessels (vials) RAD7 H 2 O, which allows one to identify the 222 Rn activity concentration in small water samples of 40 mL and 250 mL in the range going from less than 30 pCi/L to greater than 10 5 pCi/L. During each measurement a vial from RAD H 2 O was poured with a sample of water. The air pump, included in the close loop aeration circuit and connected to the vial and RAD7 detector, operated for five minutes to snatch the sample of air maintained above the level of water sample and transporting it from the vial through the system. Evaluation of the concentration of soluble radium ( 226 Ra) salts in water and their activity was performed after 30 days when 222 Rn in the water samples reached secular equilibrium. The background measurements were performed using the samples of the distilled water. Considering the importance of background measurements, it was found that the value suggested by user Manual protocol (RAD7) for the case of low activity radon measurements, has to be slightly modified. (author)

  17. Criticality safety requirements for transporting EBR-II fuel bottles stored at INTEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lell, R. M.; Pope, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    Two carrier/shipping cask options are being developed to transport bottles of EBR-II fuel elements stored at INTEC. Some fuel bottles are intact, but some have developed leaks. Reactivity control requirements to maintain subcriticality during the hypothetical transport accident have been examined for both transport options for intact and leaking bottles. Poison rods, poison sleeves, and dummy filler bottles were considered; several possible poison materials and several possible dummy filler materials were studied. The minimum number of poison rods or dummy filler bottles has been determined for each carrier for transport of intact and leaking bottles

  18. Bottled drinking water: Water contamination from bottle materials (glass, hard PET, soft PET), the influence of colour and acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, Clemens; Birke, Manfred; Filzmoser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A test comparing concentrations of 57 chemical elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Rb, Sb, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Te, Th, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, Zn and Zr) determined by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) in 294 samples of the same bottled water (predominantly mineral water) sold in the European Union in glass and PET bottles demonstrates significant (Wilcoxon rank sum test, α = 0.05) differences in median concentrations for Sb, Ce, Pb, Al, Zr, Ti, Th, La, Pr, Fe, Zn, Nd, Sn, Cr, Tb, Er, Gd, Bi, Sm, Y, Lu, Dy, Yb, Tm, Nb and Cu. Antimony has a 21x higher median value in bottled water when sold in PET bottles (0.33 vs. 0.016 μg/L). Glass contaminates the water with Ce (19x higher than in PET bottles), Pb (14x), Al (7x), Zr (7x), Ti, Th (5x), La (5x), Pr, Fe, Zn, Nd, Sn, Cr, Tb (2x), Er, Gd, Bi, Sm, Y, Lu, Yb, Tm, Nb and Cu (1.4x). Testing an additional 136 bottles of the same water sold in green and clear glass bottles demonstrates an important influence of colour, the water sold in green glass shows significantly higher concentrations in Cr (7.3x, 1.0 vs. 0.14 μg/L), Th (1.9x), La, Zr, Nd, Ce (1.6x), Pr, Nb, Ti, Fe (1.3x), Co (1.3x) and Er (1.1x). One hundred and twenty-six bottles of three different materials (glass, hard PET and soft PET) in 5 principal colours (clear, light and dark green and blue, brown) were subsequently washed and then filled with high purity water (18.2 MΩ cm). A portion of the bottles where left at the original average pH of the water (pH 6.5) while the remaining bottles were acidified to pH 3.5 with HNO 3 . Concentrations of the same 57 elements as above were determined after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 15, 30, 56, 80 and 150 days of leaching. Results substantiate the observations from the direct comparison of the same water sold in different bottle types (colour). For most elements leaching is

  19. Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S release in milk under household conditions from baby bottles marketed in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giacomo; Barbato, Francesco; Cardone, Eleonora; Fattore, Margherita; Albrizio, Stefania; Grumetto, Lucia

    2018-02-01

    A simple and sensitive validated analytical method based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem fluorescence (FD) and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry was applied to monitor the presence of bisphenol A and bisphenol S in plastic baby bottles marketed in Italy. The limits of detection (LOD) were 3.75 ng mL -1 and 80.00 ng mL -1 , and those of quantification (LOQ) were 12.51 ng mL -1 and 260.00 ng mL -1 for BPA (FD detection) and for BPS (UV detection), respectively. BPA was found in only four samples, two samples undergone to microwave heating and two samples undergone to bottle warmer heating either at 40°C or at 80°C. Although the quantities of leached BPA were well below the reference dose for daily intake established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (4.0 µg kg -1 bw/day), the release of BPA and BPS from these plastic materials should be carefully considered by the government authorities to increase people's awareness on this issue and to protect the most vulnerable population group.

  20. Plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeshchev, E.A.; Kilin, S.F.; Kavyrzina, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    A plastic scintillator for ionizing radiation detectors with high time resolution is suggested. To decrease the scintillation pulse width and to maintain a high light yield, the 4 1 , 4 5 -dibromo-2 1 , 2 5 , 5 1 , 5 5 -tetramethyl-n-quinquiphenyl (Br 2 Me 4 Ph) in combination with n-terphenyl (Ph 3 ) or 2, 5-diphenyloxadiazol-1, 3, 4 (PPD) is used as a luminescent addition. Taking into consideration the results of a special study, it is shown, that the following ratio of ingradients is the optimum one: 3-4 mass% Ph 3 or 4-7 mas% PPD + 2-5 mass% Br 2 Me 4 Ph + + polymeric base. The suggested scintillator on the basis of polystyrene has the light yield of 0.23-0.26 arbitrary units and the scintillation pulse duration at half-height is 0.74-0.84 ns

  1. Natural radioactivity in bottled mineral water available in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Ralph, B.J.; Wilks, M.J.

    1981-08-01

    The levels of naturally-occurring radioactive elements in bottled mineral water, commercially available in Australia, have been assessed. The survey concentrated upon 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb, radionuclides which have a high toxicity in drinking water. Detectable levels of 226 Ra were found to range from 0.02Bq/1 to 0.32Bq/1 in locally-bottled water and from 0.02Bq/1 to 0.44Bq/1 in imported brands. 210 Pb levels were found to be generally very low ( 228 Ra content of bottled water will have a similar distribution to that of 226 Ra. Concentrations of 228 Ra in excess of 0.7Bq/1 were measured in a number of samples. The radiological health implications of the consumption of bottled mineral water are discussed with reference to existing drinking water standards and also in terms of radiation exposure and the increased risk to health. It was concluded that, although some brands of water contain radioactivity in excess of the drinking-water limits recommended by Australian and overseas authorities, the annual radiation dose to an individual will be below the dose-equivalent limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for life-long exposure. The increased risk of radiation-induced fatal disease due to the consumption of bottled mineral water is estimated to be less than 10 -5 and is therefore negligible

  2. Ergonomics Designs of Aluminum Beverage Cans and Bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Shinguryo, Takuro; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Nishiyama, Sadao

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans and bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling

  3. Fluid dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thete, Sumeet; Appathurai, Santosh; Gao, Haijing; Basaran, Osman

    2012-11-01

    Bottle filling is ubiquitous in industry. Examples include filling of bottles with shampoos and cleaners, engine oil and pharmaceuticals. In these examples, fluid flows out of a nozzle to fill bottles in an assembly line. Once the required volume of fluid has flowed out of the nozzle, the flow is shut off. However, an evolving fluid thread or string may remain suspended from the nozzle following flow shut-off and persist. This stringing phenomenon can be detrimental to a bottle filling operation because it can adversely affect line speed and filling accuracy by causing uncertainty in fill volume, product loss and undesirable marring of the bottles' exterior surfaces. The dynamics of stringing are studied numerically primarily by using the 1D, slender-jet approximation of the flow equations. A novel feature entails development and use of a new boundary condition downstream of the nozzle exit to expedite the computations. While the emphasis is on stringing of Newtonian fluids and use of 1D approximations, results will also be presented for situations where (a) the fluids are non-Newtonian and (b) the full set of equations are solved without invoking the 1D approximation. Phase diagrams will be presented that identify conditions for which stringing can be problematic.

  4. Studies on impact of release of liquid industrial waste from soda ash industry in the nearshore water of north Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.

    The nearshore waters of Mithapur, Porbandar and Sutrapada received 18-100 mid (million litres per day) of wastewater from soda ash manufacturing industries either through point discharges (Mithapur, Porbandar) or through submarine outfall (Sutrapada...

  5. Evaluation of microbial contamination of canine plasma eyedropper bottles following clinical use in canine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Rachel A; Genschel, Ulrike; Allbaugh, Rachel A; Sebbag, Lionel; Ben-Shlomo, Gil

    2018-05-24

    To investigate microbial contamination of canine plasma eye drops when used clinically and to compare the effect of two different eyedropper bottles on contamination rate. Forty-six bottles containing plasma were randomly dispensed for use on 42 dogs with ulcerative keratitis. Of these, 23 were standard eyedropper bottles and 23 were Novelia ® bottles designed to prevent contamination. After use for up to 2 weeks, samples for bacterial culture were obtained from a drop of plasma, the bottle tip, the plasma inside the bottle, and the corneal surface. Fungal culture was performed from a drop of plasma. The overall microbial contamination rate was 17.4% (8/46 bottles); however, only one bottle had growth from the plasma inside the bottle. There was a lower contamination rate of Novelia ® bottles (3/23 = 13.0%) compared to standard bottles (5/23 = 21.7%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P = .57). There were also no significant differences in contamination rate of bottles used greater than 7 days compared to less than or equal to 7 days, or in bottles used greater than 4 times daily compared to 4 times daily or less. Three corneal samples (6.5%) had bacterial growth, but none matched contamination from the bottles. Novelia ® bottles may decrease contamination of plasma eye drops used clinically. However, while microbial contamination of plasma bottles was documented, no clinically relevant complications were observed. This study supports safe use of plasma eye drops for up to 2 weeks when refrigerated and dispensed from either Novelia ® or standard eyedropper bottles. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. Chemical durability of soda-lime-aluminosilicate glass for radioactive waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppler, F.H.; Yim, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Vitrification has been identified as one of the most viable waste treatment alternatives for nuclear waste disposal. Currently, the most popular glass compositions being selected for vitrification are the borosilicate family of glasses. Another popular type that has been around in glass industry is the soda-lime-silicate variety, which has often been characterized as the least durable and a poor candidate for radioactive waste vitrification. By replacing the boron constituent with a cheaper substitute, such as silica, the cost of vitrification processing can be reduced. At the same time, addition of network intermediates such as Al 2 O 3 to the glass composition increases the environmental durability of the glass. The objective of this study is to examine the ability of the soda-lime-aluminosilicate glass as an alternative vitrification tool for the disposal of radioactive waste and to investigate the sensitivity of product chemical durability to variations in composition

  7. Grocery store baking soda. A source of sodium bicarbonate in the management of chronic metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, B E; Gates, J; Morris, R C

    1984-02-01

    Oral sodium bicarbonate is used to treat metabolic acidosis in patients with renal tubular acidosis. Since infants and young children are unable to swallow tablets, those affected must ingest sodium bicarbonate in a powder or liquid form. Pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate is expensive and inconvenient to obtain; some pharmacists are reluctant to provide it. We determined that the sodium bicarbonate contained in 8-oz boxes of Arm and Hammer Baking Soda was sufficiently constant in weight that, dissolved in water to a given volume, it yielded a quantitatively acceptable therapeutic solution of sodium bicarbonate at a cost of approximately 3 percent of that of pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate. Grocery store baking soda can be a safe, economical, and convenient source of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of chronic metabolic acidosis in infants and young children.

  8. Baking soda pica: a case of hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and rhabdomyolysis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotegut, Chad A; Dandolu, Vani; Katari, Sunita; Whiteman, Valerie E; Geifman-Holtzman, Ossie; Teitelman, Melissa

    2006-02-01

    We report a case of baking soda pica in a woman at 31 weeks of pregnancy causing severe hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and rhabdomyolysis. A multigravida at 31 weeks of gestation presented with weakness and muscle pain. She was found to have severe hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and rhabdomyolysis, with elevation in serum transaminases and hypertension. We initially thought the patient had an atypical presentation of preeclampsia until it was realized that she was ingesting 1 full box of baking soda (454 g sodium bicarbonate) per day. Symptoms and abnormal laboratory findings resolved with discontinuation of the patient's pica practices. Pica is a common but often overlooked practice that can potentially lead to life-threatening disorders. A thorough evaluation of a patient's dietary intake is extremely important, especially in the setting of atypical presentations of disease in pregnancy.

  9. Nano Transition Metal Sulfide Catalyst for Solvolysis Liquefaction of Soda Lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei-Ling, P.; Chin-Hua, C.; Sarani Zakaria; Soon-Keong, N.; Tze-Khong, L.

    2011-01-01

    Solvolysis liquefaction of soda lignin in the presence of various transition metal sulfide catalysts was studied to investigate the catalyst effects on the oil and gas yields, conversion rate and higher heating value (HHV) of oil. Nano sized copper sulfide, iron sulfide and molybdenum sulfide were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method under reaction temperature 200 degree Celsius for 90 min. The addition of transition metal sulfide based catalysts (CuS, MoS 2 and FeS 2 ) enhanced both production of the oils and gas and the higher heating value (HHV) of oil products. A high oil and gas yields of 82.1 % and 2890 cm 3 was obtained with MoS 2 at 250 degree Celsius for 60 min. Elemental analyses for the oils revealed that the liquid products have much higher heating values than the crude soda lignin powder. (author)

  10. Positive and negative aspects of soda/anthraquinone pulping of hardwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, R C; Bolton, T S; Abdoulmoumine, N; Lavrykova, N; Bose, S K

    2008-11-01

    The positive aspects of the non-sulfur soda/anthraquinone (SAQ) process are mostly tied to improved energy efficiency while lower pulp brightness after bleaching is its most significant drawback. A credible method that quantifies bleachability as well as an approach that solves the problem for SAQ pulps from hardwoods will be described. A straight line correlation (R2=0.904) was obtained between O2 kappa number and final light absorption coefficient (LAC) value after standardized OD0EpD1 bleaching of nine hardwood kraft pulps from three laboratories and one pulp mill. The bleachability of pulps from four different soda processes catalyzed by anthraquinone (AQ) and 2-methylanthraquinone (MAQ) was compared to that of conventional kraft pulps by comparing O2 kappa number decrease and final LAC values. It was observed that a mild hot water pre-hydrolysis improved the bleachability of SAQ pulps to a level equal to that of kraft.

  11. Toxicological Threats of Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastics pose both physical (e.g., entanglement, gastrointestinal blockage, reef destruction) and chemical threats (e.g., bioaccumulation of the chemical ingredients of plastic or toxic chemicals sorbed to plastics) to wildlife and the marine ecosystem.

  12. Emptying device for expendable bottles, especially small counter bottles for radioactive liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltermann, W.

    1975-01-01

    The device cuts up and empties, respectively, counting bottles and vials, respectively, for radioactive liquids. The vials are taken from a magazine and put on transport disks which move them past a circular saw blade cutting the vials into two cups. The liquid pouring out flows through a collection groove into a collection vessel. The two cups are pushed on the arms of a double turnstile by means of guide systems. Gas fed through lines running inside the arms of the turnstiles is used to flush the cups with nitrogen gas. In the downward movement of the double turnstile a catching surface removes the cups or they automatically fall into a collection bag, respectively. Baffle plates hold the vials on the transport disks. (DG/RF) [de

  13. Quality status of bottled water brands in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M. A.; Tahir, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The (PCRWR) has carried out a study to evaluate the quality of mineral water brands available in the market owing to demand of general public and consumer associations. Twenty one brands of bottled water were collected from Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Each water sample was analyzed for 24 aesthetic, physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality parameters by adopting standard analytical methods. It was observed that only 10 out of 21 brands (47.62%) were fit for drinking purpose. The remaining eleven brands (52.38%), including one imported brand, were found unsafe for human consumption. It was also concluded that present situation of water quality of bottled water is due to lack of legislation for water quality control. Hence there is a dire need for a legal organization to monitor and regulate the quality issues of bottled water industry. (author)

  14. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health.

  15. The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar

    2013-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 ± 1°C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice.

  16. Contrasting the Genetic Patterns of Microbial Communities in Soda Lakes with and without Cyanobacterial Bloom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreote, Ana P D; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Rigonato, Janaina; Machineski, Gabriela Silva; Souza, Bruno C E; Barbiero, Laurent; Rezende-Filho, Ary T; Fiore, Marli F

    2018-01-01

    Soda lakes have high levels of sodium carbonates and are characterized by salinity and elevated pH. These ecosystems are found across Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, North, Central, and South America. Particularly in Brazil, the Pantanal region has a series of hundreds of shallow soda lakes (ca. 600) potentially colonized by a diverse haloalkaliphilic microbial community. Biological information of these systems is still elusive, in particular data on the description of the main taxa involved in the biogeochemical cycling of life-important elements. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing to contrast the composition and functional patterns of the microbial communities of two distinct soda lakes from the sub-region Nhecolândia, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. These two lakes differ by permanent cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Verde, green-water lake) and by no record of cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Preta, black-water lake). The dominant bacterial species in the Salina Verde bloom was Anabaenopsis elenkinii . This cyanobacterium altered local abiotic parameters such as pH, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen and consequently the overall structure of the microbial community. In Salina Preta, the microbial community had a more structured taxonomic profile. Therefore, the distribution of metabolic functions in Salina Preta community encompassed a large number of taxa, whereas, in Salina Verde, the functional potential was restrained across a specific set of taxa. Distinct signatures in the abundance of genes associated with the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were found. Interestingly, genes linked to arsenic resistance metabolism were present at higher abundance in Salina Verde and they were associated with the cyanobacterial bloom. Collectively, this study advances fundamental knowledge on the composition and genetic potential of microbial communities inhabiting tropical soda lakes.

  17. Late Byzantine mineral soda high alumina glasses from Asia Minor: a new primary glass production group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schibille

    Full Text Available The chemical characterisation of archaeological glass allows the discrimination between different glass groups and the identification of raw materials and technological traditions of their production. Several lines of evidence point towards the large-scale production of first millennium CE glass in a limited number of glass making factories from a mixture of Egyptian mineral soda and a locally available silica source. Fundamental changes in the manufacturing processes occurred from the eight/ninth century CE onwards, when Egyptian mineral soda was gradually replaced by soda-rich plant ash in Egypt as well as the Islamic Middle East. In order to elucidate the supply and consumption of glass during this transitional period, 31 glass samples from the assemblage found at Pergamon (Turkey that date to the fourth to fourteenth centuries CE were analysed by electron microprobe analysis (EPMA and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. The statistical evaluation of the data revealed that the Byzantine glasses from Pergamon represent at least three different glass production technologies, one of which had not previously been recognised in the glass making traditions of the Mediterranean. While the chemical characteristics of the late antique and early medieval fragments confirm the current model of glass production and distribution at the time, the elemental make-up of the majority of the eighth- to fourteenth-century glasses from Pergamon indicate the existence of a late Byzantine glass type that is characterised by high alumina levels. Judging from the trace element patterns and elevated boron and lithium concentrations, these glasses were produced with a mineral soda different to the Egyptian natron from the Wadi Natrun, suggesting a possible regional Byzantine primary glass production in Asia Minor.

  18. ALKALI EXTRACTION OF HEMICELLULOSE FROM DEPITHED CORN STOVER AND EFFECTS ON SODA-AQ PULPING

    OpenAIRE

    Heli Cheng; Huaiyu Zhan; Shiyu Fu; Lucian A. Lucia

    2011-01-01

    A biorefinery using the process of hemicellulose pre-extraction and subsequent pulping provides a promising way for the utilization of straw biomass and resolution of problems related to silicon. In this work, hemicellulose was extracted from depithed corn stover with sodium hydroxide solution before soda-AQ pulping. Components of the extracts were quantified by ion chromatography. The parameters (alkali concentration and temperature) affecting hemicellulose pre-extraction were optimized. The...

  19. Pulp and paper from oil palm fronds: Wavelet neural networks modeling of soda-ethanol pulping

    OpenAIRE

    Zarita Zainuddin; Wan Rosli Wan Daud; Pauline Ong; Amran Shafie

    2012-01-01

    Wavelet neural networks (WNNs) were used to investigate the influence of operational variables in the soda-ethanol pulping of oil palm fronds (viz. NaOH concentration (10-30%), ethanol concentration (15-75%), cooking temperature (150-190 ºC), and time (60-180 min)) on the resulting pulp and paper properties (viz. screened yield, kappa number, tensile index, and tear index). Performance assessments demonstrated the predictive capability of WNNs, in that the experimental results of the dependen...

  20. Contrasting the Genetic Patterns of Microbial Communities in Soda Lakes with and without Cyanobacterial Bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreote, Ana P. D.; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Rigonato, Janaina; Machineski, Gabriela Silva; Souza, Bruno C. E.; Barbiero, Laurent; Rezende-Filho, Ary T.; Fiore, Marli F.

    2018-01-01

    Soda lakes have high levels of sodium carbonates and are characterized by salinity and elevated pH. These ecosystems are found across Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, North, Central, and South America. Particularly in Brazil, the Pantanal region has a series of hundreds of shallow soda lakes (ca. 600) potentially colonized by a diverse haloalkaliphilic microbial community. Biological information of these systems is still elusive, in particular data on the description of the main taxa involved in the biogeochemical cycling of life-important elements. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing to contrast the composition and functional patterns of the microbial communities of two distinct soda lakes from the sub-region Nhecolândia, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. These two lakes differ by permanent cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Verde, green-water lake) and by no record of cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Preta, black-water lake). The dominant bacterial species in the Salina Verde bloom was Anabaenopsis elenkinii. This cyanobacterium altered local abiotic parameters such as pH, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen and consequently the overall structure of the microbial community. In Salina Preta, the microbial community had a more structured taxonomic profile. Therefore, the distribution of metabolic functions in Salina Preta community encompassed a large number of taxa, whereas, in Salina Verde, the functional potential was restrained across a specific set of taxa. Distinct signatures in the abundance of genes associated with the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were found. Interestingly, genes linked to arsenic resistance metabolism were present at higher abundance in Salina Verde and they were associated with the cyanobacterial bloom. Collectively, this study advances fundamental knowledge on the composition and genetic potential of microbial communities inhabiting tropical soda lakes. PMID:29520256

  1. Contrasting the Genetic Patterns of Microbial Communities in Soda Lakes with and without Cyanobacterial Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. D. Andreote

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Soda lakes have high levels of sodium carbonates and are characterized by salinity and elevated pH. These ecosystems are found across Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, North, Central, and South America. Particularly in Brazil, the Pantanal region has a series of hundreds of shallow soda lakes (ca. 600 potentially colonized by a diverse haloalkaliphilic microbial community. Biological information of these systems is still elusive, in particular data on the description of the main taxa involved in the biogeochemical cycling of life-important elements. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing to contrast the composition and functional patterns of the microbial communities of two distinct soda lakes from the sub-region Nhecolândia, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. These two lakes differ by permanent cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Verde, green-water lake and by no record of cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Preta, black-water lake. The dominant bacterial species in the Salina Verde bloom was Anabaenopsis elenkinii. This cyanobacterium altered local abiotic parameters such as pH, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen and consequently the overall structure of the microbial community. In Salina Preta, the microbial community had a more structured taxonomic profile. Therefore, the distribution of metabolic functions in Salina Preta community encompassed a large number of taxa, whereas, in Salina Verde, the functional potential was restrained across a specific set of taxa. Distinct signatures in the abundance of genes associated with the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were found. Interestingly, genes linked to arsenic resistance metabolism were present at higher abundance in Salina Verde and they were associated with the cyanobacterial bloom. Collectively, this study advances fundamental knowledge on the composition and genetic potential of microbial communities inhabiting tropical soda lakes.

  2. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Waters in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almulla, Hessa Ibrahim; King, Nigel M; Alnsour, Hamza Mohammad; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-12-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride (F). A vast majority of people in Qatar use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. The aim of this study was to determine the F concentration of bottled water available in Qatar. A total of 32 brands of bottled water were evaluated. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were recorded. The F ion-selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in water samples, and three measurements were taken for every sample to ensure reproducibility. The p value was set at 0.05. The F concentration ranged from 0.06 to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm (±0.88). The F levels were provided by the manufacturers on the labels of 60 % of the samples, but this was significantly lower than the measured F levels (p < 0.0001). Moreover, bottled water that was produced in Saudi Arabia had significantly higher levels of F when compared to those produced in other countries (p < 0.05). There was a wide variation in the F levels in the different brands of bottled water. Furthermore, there was a significant disparity between the F levels which were measured and those that were provided on the labels.

  3. CCD camera eases the control of a soda recovery boiler; CCD-kamera helpottaa soodakattilan valvontaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnunen, L.

    2001-07-01

    Fortum Technology has developed a CCD firebox camera, based on semiconductor technology, enduring hard conditions of soda recovery boiler longer than traditional cameras. The firebox camera air- cooled and the same air is pressed over the main lens so it remains clean despite of the alkaline liquor splashing around in the boiler. The image of the boiler is transferred through the main lens, image transfer lens and a special filter, mounted inside the camera tube, into the CCD camera. The first CCD camera system has been in use since 1999 in Sunila pulp mill in Kotka, owned by Myllykoski Oy and Enso Oyj. The mill has two medium-sized soda recovery boilers. The amount of black liquor, formed daily, is about 2000 tons DS, which is more than enough for the heat generation. Even electric power generation exceeds sometimes the demand, so the surplus power can be sold out. Black liquor is sprayed inside the soda recovery boiler with high pressure. The liquor form droplets in the boiler, the temperature of which is over 1000 deg C. A full-hot pile is formed at the bottom of the boiler after burning. The size and shape of the pile effect on the efficiency and the emissions of the boiler. The camera has operated well.

  4. Revisiting tropical instability wave variability in the Atlantic ocean using SODA reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Decco, Hatsue Takanaca; Torres Junior, Audalio Rebelo; Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi; Landau, Luiz

    2018-03-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of energy exchange in Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs) in the Atlantic Ocean were investigated. A spectral analysis was used to filter the 5-day mean results from Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) reanalysis spanning from 1958 to 2008. TIWs were filtered over periods of 15 to 60 days and between wavelengths of 4 and 20 longitude degrees. The main approach of this study was the use of bidirectionally filtered TIW time series as the perturbation fields, and the difference in these time series from the SODA total results was considered to be the basic state for energetics analysis. The main result was that the annual cycle (period of 360 days) was the main source of variability of the waves, and the semi-annual cycle (period of 180 days) was a secondary variation, which indicated that TIWs occurred throughout the year but with intensity that varies seasonally. In SODA, barotropic instability acts as the mechanism that feeds and extracts energy to/from TIWs at equatorial Atlantic. Baroclinic instability is the main mechanism that extracts energy from TIWs to the equatorial circulation north of the Equator. All TIW patterns of variability were observed western of 10° W. The present study reveals new evidences regarding TIW variability and suggests that future investigations should include a detailed description of TIW dynamics as part of Atlantic Ocean equatorial circulation.

  5. The motivational benefits of a dentifrice containing baking soda and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, S L; Kugel, G; Truelove, R B; Nelson, B J; Cancro, L P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two family practice dentists, in a large metropolitan area, were recruited to act as independent examiners in a study to evaluate the compliance of their patients to accept a good oral hygiene regimen with the use of a fluoride dentifrice, containing hydrogen peroxide and baking soda, dispensed from a dual dispensing package. To evaluate compliance, the dentists attended an orientation seminar and were trained to assess gingival health using the CPITN periodontal probe. Each dentist evaluated the gingival health status of five to seven of his own patients, initially and after one and three months of product use following hygiene instruction and product assignment. One-hundred and thirty-one patients successfully completed the study. After one month of using the hydrogen peroxide/baking soda toothpaste, the mean reduction in bleeding sites was 53%; at three months the reduction was 62%. The hydrogen peroxide/baking soda dentifrice was well accepted by dentist and patient, and a discernible improvement in oral health of the patients was achieved when the product was used in a conscientious oral hygiene program.

  6. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N., E-mail: cenastaein@usm.my; Kun, Y.; Rosli, R.-N.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Approximately 50 g baking soda reduced odour concentration by 70%. • Reducing volatile acid concentration reduces odour concentration. • Ammonia has less effect on odour concentration. - Abstract: Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100 g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8 l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100 g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue.

  7. Briquetting soda weed (Salsola tragus) to be used as a rural fuel source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumak, Hasan [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yuzuncu Yil University, 65080 Van (Turkey); Ucar, Tamer [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Bozok University, 66200 Yozgat (Turkey); Seyidbekiroglu, Nesim [Agricultural Machinery Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Yuzuncu Yil University, 65080 Van (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    Amount of traditional fuel sources in the world has been decreasing and there is a definite need to produce and utilize alternative fuels such as biomass materials. In this study, briquetting conditions of Russian tumbleweed, Salsola tragus, (commonly named soda weed in Turkey) which grows in salty soils were investigated. Soda weeds were first chopped coarsely in a local tresher, then chopped finely in a hammer mill. Weed materials at three moisture levels (7%, 10%, and 13%) were prepared in the lab. Chopped weed materials were filled in cylindrical and square dies and compressed using a hydraulic press at three pressure levels of 15.7, 19.6 and 31.4 MPa. Optimum temperature, moisture rate, and pressure values were determined to produce stable briquettes. Further experiments were conducted to produce briquettes using sawdust and walnut shells as additives in conical dies of two different sizes. Results of a statistical analysis of parameters to produce briquettes in different dies indicated that moisture rates of 7-10%, pressure of 31.4 MPa, and temperatures of 85-105 C were suitable for briquetting soda weed. Furthermore, sawdust and walnut shells additives increased briquette density without any negative effects on production process and product stability. (author)

  8. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N.; Kun, Y.; Rosli, R.-N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Approximately 50 g baking soda reduced odour concentration by 70%. • Reducing volatile acid concentration reduces odour concentration. • Ammonia has less effect on odour concentration. - Abstract: Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100 g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8 l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100 g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue

  9. Formation of superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface using femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahsan, Md. Shamim, E-mail: shamim@kaist.ac.kr [Photonics Application Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro (373-1 Guseong-dong), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Electronics and Communication Engineering Discipline, School of Science, Engineering and Technology, Khulna University, Khulna-9208 (Bangladesh); Dewanda, Fadia, E-mail: fdewanda@kaist.ac.kr [Photonics Application Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro (373-1 Guseong-dong), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Man Seop, E-mail: leems1502@kaist.ac.kr [Photonics Application Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro (373-1 Guseong-dong), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sekita, Hitoshi, E-mail: sekita@cyber-laser.com [Cyber Laser Inc., 7-7 Sinkawasaki, KBIC 101 205, Saiwai-ku, Kawasaki 212-0032 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, Tetsumi, E-mail: sumiy@cyber-laser.com [Cyber Laser Inc., 7-7 Sinkawasaki, KBIC 101 205, Saiwai-ku, Kawasaki 212-0032 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We formed superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface by femtosecond laser pulses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Periodic microstructures are printed on the glass surface for superhydrophobicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contact angle of water droplet on the microstructured glass surface is 155 Degree-Sign . Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transparency of superhydrophobic glass is higher than 77% in visible spectrum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explain the formation mechanism of superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface. - Abstract: This paper demonstrates the fabrication of superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface by engineering periodic microgratings with self-formed periodic micro-ripples inside the microgratings using a single beam femtosecond laser. The wetting property of the microstructured surface is improved from hydrophobic to superhydrophobic, presenting a water droplet contact angle ranges from 152 Degree-Sign to 155 Degree-Sign . The microstructured glass surface shows excellent transparency, which is higher than 77% in the visible spectrum. We strongly believe that our proposed technology can achieve superhydrophobic glass surfaces over a large area for applications in diverse fields.

  10. Formation of superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface using femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, Md. Shamim; Dewanda, Fadia; Lee, Man Seop; Sekita, Hitoshi; Sumiyoshi, Tetsumi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We formed superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface by femtosecond laser pulses. ► Periodic microstructures are printed on the glass surface for superhydrophobicity. ► The contact angle of water droplet on the microstructured glass surface is 155°. ► The transparency of superhydrophobic glass is higher than 77% in visible spectrum. ► We explain the formation mechanism of superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface. - Abstract: This paper demonstrates the fabrication of superhydrophobic soda-lime glass surface by engineering periodic microgratings with self-formed periodic micro-ripples inside the microgratings using a single beam femtosecond laser. The wetting property of the microstructured surface is improved from hydrophobic to superhydrophobic, presenting a water droplet contact angle ranges from 152° to 155°. The microstructured glass surface shows excellent transparency, which is higher than 77% in the visible spectrum. We strongly believe that our proposed technology can achieve superhydrophobic glass surfaces over a large area for applications in diverse fields.

  11. Soda-anthraquinone, kraft and organosolv pulping of holm oak trimmings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaejos, J; López, F; Eugenio, M E; Tapias, R

    2006-11-01

    The operating conditions for an organosolv (ethyleneglycol) and two alkaline (soda-anthraquinone and kraft) processes for obtaining cellulose pulp and paper from holm oak (Quercus ilex) wood trimmings were optimized. A range of variation for each process variable (viz. temperature, cooking time and soda or ethyleneglycol concentration) was established and a central composite experimental design involving three independent variables at three different variation levels was applied. The results obtained with the three cooking processes used were compared and those provided by the kraft process were found to be the best. Thus, the tensile index values it provided (5.9-16.3 N m/g) were 23.7% and 41.5% better than those obtained with the soda-AQ and ethyleneglycol processes, respectively. Also, the kraft process provided the best burst index, brightness and kappa number values. Based on the optimum working ranges, the temperature and cooking time were the variables resulting in the most and least marked changes, respectively, in pulp properties.

  12. Establishing Relationship between Process Parameters and Temperature during High Speed End Milling of Soda Lime Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasima Bagum, Mst.; Konneh, Mohamed; Yeakub Ali, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    In glass machining crack free surface is required in biomedical and optical industry. Ductile mode machining allows materials removal from brittle materials in a ductile manner rather than by brittle fracture. Although end milling is a versatile process, it has not been applied frequently for machining soda lime glass. Soda lime glass is a strain rate and temperature sensitive material; especially around glass transition temperature Tg, ductility increased and strength decreased. Hence, it is envisaged that the generated temperature by high-speed end milling (HSEM) could be brought close to the glass transition temperature, which promote ductile machining. In this research, the objective is to investigate the effect of high speed machining parameters on generated temperature. The cutting parameters were optimized to generate temperature around glass transition temperature of soda lime using response surface methodology (RSM). Result showed that the most influencing process parameter is feed rate followed by spindle speed and depth of cut to generate temperature. Confirmation test showed that combination of spindle speed 30,173 rpm, feed rate 13.2 mm/min and depth of cut 37.68 µm generate 635°C, hence ductile chip removal with machined surface Ra 0.358 µm was possible to achieve.

  13. 10 CFR 431.292 - Definitions concerning refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Basic model means, with respect to refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines, all units... beverages and dispenses the bottled or canned beverages on payment. V means the refrigerated volume (ft3) of...

  14. Insulated Containers For Bottled Water (ICB)- Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-21

    WATER STOWAGE PROTOTYPES BOTTLED WATER HIGH TEMPERATURE WEIGHT EJECTION CONTAINERS ...Soldiers are ineffectively mounting commercially  available  coolers and they,  as well as the bottles they  contain , are becoming projectile hazards... container  (shown in Figure 15). The tie‐down procedures were determined by a professional  rigger; a video of the procedures is  available  from NSRDEC

  15. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  16. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lindsay; Soulliere, Katie; Sawyer-Beaulieu, Susan; Tseng, Simon; Tam, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products. PMID:28788167

  17. Plastic debris retention and exportation by a mangrove forest patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Costa, Monica F; Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline S; Araújo, Maria Christina B

    2014-01-15

    An experiment observed the behavior of selected tagged plastic items deliberately released in different habitats of a tropical mangrove forest in NE Brazil in late rainy (September) and late dry (March) seasons. Significant differences were not reported among seasons. However, marine debris retention varied among habitats, according to characteristics such as hydrodynamic (i.e., flow rates and volume transported) and relative vegetation (Rhizophora mangle) height and density. The highest grounds retained significantly more items when compared to the borders of the river and the tidal creek. Among the used tagged items, PET bottles were more observed and margarine tubs were less observed, being easily transported to adjacent habitats. Plastic bags were the items most retained near the releasing site. The balance between items retained and items lost was positive, demonstrating that mangrove forests tend to retain plastic marine debris for long periods (months-years). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Observational Study Unveils the Extensive Presence of Hazardous Elements in Beached Plastics from Lake Geneva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Filella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Over 3,000 samples of plastic litter have been retrieved from 12 pebble beaches around the shores of Lake Geneva. The plastic stock consisted of identifiable objects of various size and color, including bottles, bottle tops, cotton buds, pens, toys, and straws, an heterogeneous assortment of fragments whose origin was either discernible or unknown, and pieces or blocks of expanded polymer (polystyrene or polyurethane foam. Analysis of 670 samples by portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF spectrometry revealed high concentrations of hazardous elements or compounds among many plastics. These included Cd, Hg, and Pb (with maximum concentrations of 6,760, 810, and 23,500 ppm, respectively as stabilizers in PVC-based materials and/or brightly-colored sulfide or chromate pigments in primary and secondary plastics, and Br (with a maximum concentration of 27,400 ppm as a proxy for brominated flame retardants (BFRs in both plastics and foams. The abundance of hazardous elements in beached plastics that have been restricted or banned reflect the age and residence time of the plastic stock in the lake, coupled with a relatively high length of shoreline to surface area of the system. The migratability of hazardous elements from the polymeric matrix is likely to determine their environmental impacts and is recommended as a future area of research.

  19. Citrate, malate and alkali content in commonly consumed diet sodas: implications for nephrolithiasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Brian H; Asplin, John R; Goldfarb, David S; Ahmad, Ardalanejaz; Stoller, Marshall L

    2010-06-01

    Citrate is a known inhibitor of calcium stone formation. Dietary citrate and alkali intake may have an effect on citraturia. Increasing alkali intake also increases urine pH, which can help prevent uric acid stones. We determined citrate, malate and total alkali concentrations in commonly consumed diet sodas to help direct dietary recommendations in patients with hypocitraturic calcium or uric acid nephrolithiasis. Citrate and malate were measured in a lemonade beverage commonly used to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis and in 15 diet sodas. Anions were measured by ion chromatography. The pH of each beverage was measured to allow calculation of the unprotonated anion concentration using the known pK of citric and malic acid. Total alkali equivalents were calculated for each beverage. Statistical analysis was done using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Several sodas contained an amount of citrate equal to or greater than that of alkali and total alkali as a lemonade beverage commonly used to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis (6.30 mEq/l citrate as alkali and 6.30 as total alkali). These sodas were Diet Sunkist Orange, Diet 7Up, Sprite Zero, Diet Canada Dry Ginger Ale, Sierra Mist Free, Diet Orange Crush, Fresca and Diet Mountain Dew. Colas, including Caffeine Free Diet Coke, Coke Zero, Caffeine Free Diet Pepsi and Diet Coke with Lime, had the lowest total alkali (less than 1.0 mEq/l). There was no significant correlation between beverage pH and total alkali content. Several commonly consumed diet sodas contain moderate amounts of citrate as alkali and total alkali. This information is helpful for dietary recommendations in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis, specifically those with hypocitraturia. It may also be useful in patients with low urine pH and uric acid stones. Beverage malate content is also important since malate ingestion increases the total alkali delivered, which in turn augments citraturia and increases urine pH. Copyright

  20. Absence of sodA Increases the Levels of Oxidation of Key Metabolic Determinants of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D Esteve-Gassent

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, alters its gene expression in response to environmental signals unique to its tick vector or vertebrate hosts. B. burgdorferi carries one superoxide dismutase gene (sodA capable of controlling intracellular superoxide levels. Previously, sodA was shown to be essential for infection of B. burgdorferi in the C3H/HeN model of Lyme disease. We employed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and immunoblot analysis with antibodies specific to carbonylated proteins to identify targets that were differentially oxidized in the soluble fractions of the sodA mutant compared to its isogenic parental control strain following treatment with an endogenous superoxide generator, methyl viologen (MV, paraquat. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized proteins revealed that several proteins of the glycolytic pathway (BB0057, BB0020, BB0348 exhibited increased carbonylation in the sodA mutant treated with MV. Levels of ATP and NAD/NADH were reduced in the sodA mutant compared with the parental strain following treatment with MV and could be attributed to increased levels of oxidation of proteins of the glycolytic pathway. In addition, a chaperone, HtpG (BB0560, and outer surface protein A (OspA, BBA15 were also observed to be oxidized in the sodA mutant. Immunoblot analysis revealed reduced levels of Outer surface protein C (OspC, Decorin binding protein A (DbpA, fibronectin binding protein (BBK32, RpoS and BosR in the sodA mutant compared to the control strains. Viable sodA mutant spirochetes could not be recovered from both gp91/phox-⁄- and iNOS deficient mice while borrelial DNA was detected in multiple tissues samples from infected mice at significantly lower levels compared to the parental strain. Taken together, these observations indicate that the increased oxidation of select borrelial determinants and reduced levels of critical pathogenesis-associated lipoproteins contribute to the in vivo deficit of

  1. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed to...

  2. Acetaldehyde in mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: Odour threshold and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, B.; Kamperman, T.; Jetten, J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of PET bottles for packaging soft drinks and mineral waters is still growing world wide. The production process for these bottles is improving constantly. These improvements are focussed on bottles with better barrier properties, higher inertness and higher heat stability. One of the factors

  3. Detection algorithm for glass bottle mouth defect by continuous wavelet transform based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jinfang; Zhang, Changjiang

    2014-11-01

    An efficient algorithm based on continuous wavelet transform combining with pre-knowledge, which can be used to detect the defect of glass bottle mouth, is proposed. Firstly, under the condition of ball integral light source, a perfect glass bottle mouth image is obtained by Japanese Computar camera through the interface of IEEE-1394b. A single threshold method based on gray level histogram is used to obtain the binary image of the glass bottle mouth. In order to efficiently suppress noise, moving average filter is employed to smooth the histogram of original glass bottle mouth image. And then continuous wavelet transform is done to accurately determine the segmentation threshold. Mathematical morphology operations are used to get normal binary bottle mouth mask. A glass bottle to be detected is moving to the detection zone by conveyor belt. Both bottle mouth image and binary image are obtained by above method. The binary image is multiplied with normal bottle mask and a region of interest is got. Four parameters (number of connected regions, coordinate of centroid position, diameter of inner cycle, and area of annular region) can be computed based on the region of interest. Glass bottle mouth detection rules are designed by above four parameters so as to accurately detect and identify the defect conditions of glass bottle. Finally, the glass bottles of Coca-Cola Company are used to verify the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately detect the defect conditions of the glass bottles and have 98% detecting accuracy.

  4. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of each...

  5. Community Responses to the Removal of Bottled Water on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailovich, Katja; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aimed to examine the impact of the removal of bottled water on the campus community. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted at the first Australian university to remove single-use bottled water from sale on a small regional university campus. The removal of bottled water from sale at the university formed part…

  6. Effect of PVP on the characteristic of modified membranes made from waste PET bottles for humic acid removal [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Arahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of using recycled polymer (waste polyethylene terephthalate [PET] bottles as a membrane material. Furthermore, the effect of the addition of a pore-forming agent and preparation conditions was also observed. Methods: Porous polymeric membranes were prepared via thermally induced phase separation by dissolving recycled PET in phenol. PET polymer was obtained from waste plastic bottles as a new source of polymeric material. For original PET membrane, the casting solution was prepared by dissolving of 20wt% PET in phenol solution. For PET modified membrane, a 5 wt% of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP was added into polymer solution. The solution was cast onto a glass plate at room temperature followed by evaporation before the solidification process. The membranes formed were characterized in terms of morphology, chemical group, and filtration performance. A humic acid solution was used to identify the permeability and the solute rejection of the membranes. Results: The results showed that the recycled PET from waste plastic bottles was applicable to use as a membrane material for a water treatment process. The maximum flux of 97.0 l/m2.hr was obtained from filtration test using PET membrane. The highest rejection of humic acid in a water sample, which reached up to 75.92%, was obtained using the PET/PVP membrane. Conclusions: The recycled PET from waste bottles was successfully used to prepare porous membrane. The membrane was modified by the addition of PVP as a membrane modifying agent. SEM analysis confirmed that the original PET membrane has a rough and large pore structure. The addition of PVP improved the pore density with a narrow pore structure. The PET/PVP membrane conditioned with evaporation was the best in humic acid rejection.

  7. How state taxes and policies targeting soda consumption modify the association between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Vuillaume, Renee; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors. Data on school vending machine access and student diet were obtained as part of the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS) and linked to state-level data on soda taxes, restaurant taxes, and state laws governing the sale of soda in schools. Regression models were used to: 1) estimate associations between vending machine access and soda consumption, fast food consumption, and lunch source, and 2) determine if associations were modified by state soda taxes, restaurant taxes, laws banning in-school soda sales, or student characteristics (race/ethnicity, sex, home food access, weight loss behaviors.). Contrary to the hypothesis, students tended to consume 0.53 fewer servings of soda/week (95% CI: -1.17, 0.11) and consume fast food on 0.24 fewer days/week (95% CI: -0.44, -0.05) if they had in-school access to vending machines. They were also less likely to consume soda daily (23.9% vs. 27.9%, average difference  =  -4.02, 95% CI: -7.28, -0.76). However, these inverse associations were observed primarily among states with lower soda and restaurant tax rates (relative to general food tax rates) and states that did not ban in-school soda sales. Associations did not vary by any student characteristics except for weight loss behaviors. Isolated changes to the school food environment may have unintended consequences unless policymakers incorporate other initiatives designed to discourage overall soda consumption.

  8. How state taxes and policies targeting soda consumption modify the association between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Taber

    Full Text Available Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors.Data on school vending machine access and student diet were obtained as part of the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS and linked to state-level data on soda taxes, restaurant taxes, and state laws governing the sale of soda in schools. Regression models were used to: 1 estimate associations between vending machine access and soda consumption, fast food consumption, and lunch source, and 2 determine if associations were modified by state soda taxes, restaurant taxes, laws banning in-school soda sales, or student characteristics (race/ethnicity, sex, home food access, weight loss behaviors..Contrary to the hypothesis, students tended to consume 0.53 fewer servings of soda/week (95% CI: -1.17, 0.11 and consume fast food on 0.24 fewer days/week (95% CI: -0.44, -0.05 if they had in-school access to vending machines. They were also less likely to consume soda daily (23.9% vs. 27.9%, average difference  =  -4.02, 95% CI: -7.28, -0.76. However, these inverse associations were observed primarily among states with lower soda and restaurant tax rates (relative to general food tax rates and states that did not ban in-school soda sales. Associations did not vary by any student characteristics except for weight loss behaviors.Isolated changes to the school food environment may have unintended consequences unless policymakers incorporate other initiatives designed to discourage overall soda consumption.

  9. How State Taxes and Policies Targeting Soda Consumption Modify the Association between School Vending Machines and Student Dietary Behaviors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Vuillaume, Renee; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors. Methods Data on school vending machine access and student diet were obtained as part of the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS) and linked to state-level data on soda taxes, restaurant taxes, and state laws governing the sale of soda in schools. Regression models were used to: 1) estimate associations between vending machine access and soda consumption, fast food consumption, and lunch source, and 2) determine if associations were modified by state soda taxes, restaurant taxes, laws banning in-school soda sales, or student characteristics (race/ethnicity, sex, home food access, weight loss behaviors.) Results Contrary to the hypothesis, students tended to consume 0.53 fewer servings of soda/week (95% CI: -1.17, 0.11) and consume fast food on 0.24 fewer days/week (95% CI: -0.44, -0.05) if they had in-school access to vending machines. They were also less likely to consume soda daily (23.9% vs. 27.9%, average difference = -4.02, 95% CI: -7.28, -0.76). However, these inverse associations were observed primarily among states with lower soda and restaurant tax rates (relative to general food tax rates) and states that did not ban in-school soda sales. Associations did not vary by any student characteristics except for weight loss behaviors. Conclusion Isolated changes to the school food environment may have unintended consequences unless policymakers incorporate other initiatives designed to discourage overall soda consumption. PMID:25083906

  10. A comparison of bottling alternatives in the pharmaceutical industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R.; Flapper, S.D.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case study in a batch production facility for biological vaccines with possibilities for rework. The problem considered is that of finding the best bottling alternative for produced batches when these have to undergo several lengthy quality tests related to the

  11. Nutritional value OF Bottle Gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria ) Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole seeds, dehulled seeds and seed coats of bottle gourd seed (Lagenaria siceraria) were analysed for their proximate, amino acids and mineral compositions. The results of the analysis showed that, whole seed has highest content of moisture (17.5 0.21%) and ash (5.80 0.83%) while dehulled had highest amount ...

  12. Factors influencing the consumption and standards of bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, a number of companies and industries in Kenya and other developed countries have come up with bottled/packaged drinking water for sale to a wide range of consumers particularly those in urban areas. The objectives ... The brand choices were influenced by price, availability and media advertisements. More than ...

  13. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  14. Characterizing Green Fiber Bottle Prototypes Using Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano; Stolfi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Due to ever increasing demand of sustainability and biodegradability, there arises a need to develop environmental friendly packaging products. Green fiber bottle is a packaging product for carbonated beverages, made out of cellulose fibers. The production process accounts for moulding paper pulp...

  15. Evaluation of Microbial Quality of Bottled Water in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Alimohammadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of population growth, limited access to fresh water resources, the need to use bottled water, controlling microbial quality of  bottled water is important. Materials and Methods: Microbiological quality of 24 brands of bottled water available in the town markets of Iran was studied Random. Samples were collected in summer and autumn, 2012. In each season, we collected two samples for each brand. In order to analyze Total coliforms, E-Coli, and HPC, MPN and Plate Count Methods were used. Data analysis was processed by SPSS software. Results: Total coliforms were 2 MPN/100CC in two brands S18 and S20. Increased HPC levels were also observed in all brands. pH level of 6% from bottled waters were higher than the standard. Average of turbidity was 0.232 and 0.228 at the autumn and summer, respectively. Conclusion: the heterotrophic microorganisms were present in 100% of the samples. Total coliforms were also found in 12% of the samples. None of the samples contained E-Coli.

  16. Water Jets from Bottles, Buckets, Barrels, and Vases with Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopac, Vjera

    2015-01-01

    Observation of the water jets flowing from three equidistant holes on the side of a vertical cylindrical bottle is an interesting and widely used didactical experiment illustrating the laws of fluids in motion. In this paper we analyze theoretically and numerically the ranges of the stationary water jets flowing from various rotationally symmetric…

  17. techno-economic packaging of palm wine preservation and bottling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    The study was carried out to investigate the economic viability of setting up a small scale palm wine bottling factory with a view to ... F. S. Adeyemo, Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi (fiiro), P.M.B 21023, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. C. F. Kupoluyi, Federal ... weighing scale, holding tank, refractometer and PH meter. 22.

  18. Whispering gallery mode selection in optical bottle microresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming; Senthil Murugan, Ganapathy; Brambilla, Gilberto; Zervas, Michalis N.

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrated a method to excite selected whispering gallery modes in optical bottle microresonators (BMR) by inscribing microgroove scars on their surface by focused ion beam milling. Substantial spectral clean-up is obtained in appropriately scarred BMRs, providing the potential for high performance sensors and other optical devices.

  19. infant bottle-feeding practice, agaro town, southwest ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    total of 224 mothers who had children between the ages of 0 and 24 months were included in the study. ... extensive advertising and aggressive sale practice of .... Reasons for bottle-feeding practice. No. %. Insufficient Breast Milk. Back to work. Short duration of Maternity leave. Availability of infant formula. Adopted child.

  20. A survey of the radiological quality of Mexican bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del R, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Rosales H, M. A.; Mireles G, F.; Pinedo V, J. L., E-mail: hlopezdelrio@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    More bottled drinking water is consumed per capita in Mexico than in any other country in the world. With the purpose of verifying the compliance with Mexican standards for radioactive content of drinking water, the gross alpha and beta activities were measured in 34 brands of bottled water consisting of purified water (19), natural mineral water (12), and mineralized water (3). Electrical conductivity of water samples ranged from 10 to 1465 μS/cm, and mostly high values were for the mineralized water samples. Gross alpha activities ranged from <12.2 to 709.8 mBq/L, while gross beta activities values varied from <26 to 616 mBq/L. All the bottled water samples had radioactivity content below the maximum permissible levels established in the Official Mexican Norm, except for the gross alpha level of one natural mineral water. Based upon these results it can be concluded that, in general, the analyzed bottled waters have acceptable quality with regard to radioactive content of gross alpha and beta activities. (Author)

  1. Bottle Babies: A Guide to the Baby Foods Issue. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Jane, Comp.

    This guide has been compiled as an aide-memoire and resource book about the increasing incidence of malnutrition in infants caused by bottle feeding in the Third World. It deals with four major interrelated issues: (1) the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition, (2) the importance of breast milk, not only in preventing malnutrition and disease…

  2. Painting Cloud Nine: A Study of Magritte's Bottle Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dianne

    2000-01-01

    Provides background information on Rene Magritte and his work. Offers an activity in which elementary and middle school students can learn about Magritte's sky and silhouette series of painted wine bottles. Explains that the lesson should be used when students are learning about poetry in language arts classes. (CMK)

  3. Influence of bottled water packaging attributes on consumers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of bottled water packaging attributes on consumers' purchase decision. The research focused in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). The study used color, graphic design, size, printed information and shape of packaging as independent variables and consumers' purchase ...

  4. 27 CFR 5.41 - Bottle cartons, booklets and leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling...), or any written, printed, graphic, or other matter accompanying the bottle to the consumer buyer shall not contain any statement, design, device, or graphic, pictorial, or emblematic representation that is...

  5. Exploring Klein Bottles through Pottery: A STEAM Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher E.; Paré, Jana N.

    2016-01-01

    While one author was reading "The Simpsons and Their Mathematical Secrets by Simon Singh" (2013) in preparation for a presentation, the second author asked what in the book would be interesting to discuss. The topic of Klein bottles was on the first author's mind at that moment, so he tried to describe and explain the form to her--a real…

  6. factors influencing the consumption and standards of bottled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    concern about the safety and quality of tap water in many cities and ... for the upper class markets. Most of the ... copying what is happening in the western world (Bullers,. 2002). ... bottled water and is the manufacturing of the water regulated?

  7. Inoculation of peritoneal dialysate fluid into blood culture bottles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine if direct inoculation of peritoneal fluid into Bactec blood culture bottles would improve the positive bacteriological yield compared with conventional techniques in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients with peritonitis. All patients presenting with suspected peritonitis ...

  8. 40 CFR 141.101 - Use of bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of bottled water. 141.101 Section 141.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices § 141.101...

  9. A survey of the radiological quality of Mexican bottled waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez del R, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Rosales H, M. A.; Mireles G, F.; Pinedo V, J. L.

    2013-10-01

    More bottled drinking water is consumed per capita in Mexico than in any other country in the world. With the purpose of verifying the compliance with Mexican standards for radioactive content of drinking water, the gross alpha and beta activities were measured in 34 brands of bottled water consisting of purified water (19), natural mineral water (12), and mineralized water (3). Electrical conductivity of water samples ranged from 10 to 1465 μS/cm, and mostly high values were for the mineralized water samples. Gross alpha activities ranged from <12.2 to 709.8 mBq/L, while gross beta activities values varied from <26 to 616 mBq/L. All the bottled water samples had radioactivity content below the maximum permissible levels established in the Official Mexican Norm, except for the gross alpha level of one natural mineral water. Based upon these results it can be concluded that, in general, the analyzed bottled waters have acceptable quality with regard to radioactive content of gross alpha and beta activities. (Author)

  10. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like...

  11. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar F. Abbas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production.PET plastic waste conversion to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect of ethylene glycol amount, reaction time (up to 90 minutes and reaction temperature (from 70 to 170° C on the polyethylene terephthalate conversion was obtained.The kinetic study shows that the ordination of the depolymerization reaction of PET is first order irreversible reaction with 31103.5 J/mole activation energy.A 97.9 % terephthalic acid purity has been obtained by purification with N, N-dimethylformamide.

  12. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar S. Abbas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production. PET plastic waste converting to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect of ethylene glycol amount, reaction time (up to 90 minutes and reaction temperature (from 70 to 170° C on the polyethylene terephthalate conversion was obtained. The kinetic study shows that the ordination of the depolymerization reaction of PET is first order irreversible reaction with 31103.5 J/mole activation energy. A 97.9 % terephthalic acid purity has been obtained by purification with N, N-dimethylformamide. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  13. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5-15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Volcanic Experimentation: Using Mentos and Soda to Teach Causal Research in a Marketing Research Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Edwin; Stelling, Pete

    2012-01-01

    The reaction that occurs when Mentos are added to bottled soft drinks has become a staple demonstration in earth science courses to explain how volcanoes erupt. This paper presents how this engaging exercise can be used in a marketing research course to provide hands-on experience with problem formation, hypothesis testing, and causal research. A…

  15. The conversion of waste plastics/petroleum residue mixtures to transportation fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.F.; Siddiqui, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Plastics have become the material of choice in the modern world and its applications in the industrial field are continually increasing. Presently the plastics are manufactured for various uses such as: consumer packaging, wires, pipes, containers, bottles, appliances, electrical/electronic parts, computers and automotive parts. Most of he post consumer, plastic products are discarded and end up as mixed plastic municipal waste. The disposal of his waste has become a major social concern. Mixed plastic waste (MPW) recycling is still very much in its infancy. Approximately 20 million tons of plastic waste is generated in the United States of America, while about 15 million tons is generated throughout the Europe. With existing recycle efforts, only 7% of the MPW are recycled to produce low-grade plastic products such as plastic sacks, pipes, plastic fencing, and garden furniture. The current plastic reclamation technology options are generally grouped into the following four types: (i) Primary: The processing of plastic for use comparable to the original application. (ii) Secondary: The processing of plastics waste into new products with a lower quality level. (iii) Tertiary: The chemical or thermal processing of plastic waste to their basic hydrocarbon feedstock. The resulting raw materials are then reprocessed into plastic material or other products of the oil refining process. (iv) Quaternary: The incineration of plastics waste to recover energy. This paper deals exclusively with tertiary recycling by pyrolysis and catalytic cracking of plastics waste alone and by coprocessing with petroleum residue or heavy oils to fuels and petrochemical feedstock for further processing in existing refinery and petrochemical units. (author)

  16. Sugary soda consumption and albuminuria: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Shoham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease rates rose following widespread introduction of high fructose corn syrup in the American diet, supporting speculation that fructose harms the kidney. Sugar-sweetened soda is a primary source of fructose. We therefore hypothesized that sugary soda consumption was associated with albuminuria, a sensitive marker for kidney disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Design was a cross-sectional analysis. Data were drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1999-2004. The setting was a representative United States population sample. Participants included adults 20 years and older with no history of diabetes mellitus (n = 12,601; after exclusions for missing outcome and covariate information (n = 3,243, the analysis dataset consisted of 9,358 subjects. Exposure was consumption of two or more sugary soft drinks, based on 24-hour dietary recall. The main outcome measure was Albuminuria, defined by albumin to creatinine ratio cutpoints of >17 mg/g (males and >25 mg/g (females. Logistic regression adjusted for confounders (diet soda, age, race-ethnicity, gender, poverty. Interactions between age, race-ethnicity, gender, and overweight-obesity were explored. Further analysis adjusted for potential mediators: energy intake, basal metabolic rate, obesity, hypertension, lipids, serum uric acid, smoking, energy expenditure, and glycohemoglobin. Alternative soda intake definitions and cola consumption were employed. RESULTS: Weighted albuminuria prevalence was 11%, and 17% consumed 2+ sugary soft drinks/day. The confounder-adjusted odds ratio for sugary soda was 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.74. Associations were modified by gender (p = 0.008 and overweight-obesity (p = 0.014. Among women, the OR was 1.86 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.53; the OR among males was not significant. In the group with body mass under 25 kg/m(2, OR = 2.15 (95% confidence interval: 1.42, 3.25. Adjustment for potential

  17. Morphological alteration, lysosomal membrane fragility and apoptosis of the cells of Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Dutta, Manab Kumar; Acharya, Avanti; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Kumar; Ray, Sajal

    2015-12-01

    Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is a component of laundry detergent. Domestic effluent, drain water and various anthropogenic activities have been identified as major routes of sodium carbonate contamination of the freshwater ecosystem. The freshwater sponge, Eunapius carteri, bears ecological and evolutionary significance and is considered as a bioresource in aquatic ecosystems. The present study involves estimation of morphological damage, lysosomal membrane integrity, activity of phosphatases and apoptosis in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Exposure to washing soda resulted in severe morphological alterations and damages in cells of E. carteri. Fragility and destabilization of lysosomal membranes of E. carteri under the sublethal exposure was indicative to toxin induced physiological stress in sponge. Prolonged exposure to sodium carbonate resulted a reduction in the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases in the cells of E. carteri. Experimental concentration of 8 mg/l of washing soda for 192 h yielded an increase in the physiological level of cellular apoptosis among the semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, which was suggestive to possible shift in apoptosis mediated immunoprotection. The results were indicative of an undesirable shift in the immune status of sponge. Contamination of the freshwater aquifers by washing soda thus poses an alarming ecotoxicological threat to sponges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Going flat: examining heterogeneity in the soda-obesity relationship by subgroup and place of birth among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Héctor E; Sharif, Mienah Z

    2017-06-01

    To determine if the association between soda consumption and obesity is uniform among Asian-American population subgroups. We conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses on odds of being obese among seven Asian subgroups and by place of birth using data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey. An omnibus population-based health survey. Non-institutionalized adults, aged 18 years or over, residing in California (n 36 271). Despite low levels of soda consumption in several Asian-American ethnic groups, soda consumption increased the odds of being obese among Chinese, Koreans and Other Asians but not for Whites. Obesity risk varied across Asian subgroups and by place of birth within these subgroups. More public health efforts addressing soda consumption in Asian-American communities are needed as a strategy for not only preventing chronic diseases but also disparities, considering the varying levels of soda intake across subgroups. Results support the growing body of literature critiquing acculturation theory in immigrant health research by documenting inconsistent findings by place of birth. Future research should take into account the heterogeneity among Asian Americans to advance our understanding of health outcomes and disparities.

  19. The Effects of Salt Water on the Slow Crack Growth of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow crack growth parameters of soda-lime silicate were measured in distilled and salt water of various concentrations in order to determine if stress corrosion susceptibility is affected by the presence of salt and the contaminate formation of a weak sodium film. Past research indicates that solvents effect the rate of crack growth, however, the effects of salt have not been studied. The results indicate a small but statistically significant effect on the slow crack growth parameters A and n. However, for typical engineering purposes, the effect can be ignored.

  20. Effect of embedded silver nanoparticles on refractive index of soda lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonal, Sharma, Annu; Aggarwal, Sanjeev

    2018-05-01

    Silver glass nanocomposites were prepared by exposing silver doped soda lime glass slides obtained via ion-exchange reaction to a beam of 200 keV Argon ions (Ar+) at an off normal angle of 400 with doses of 5x1015 ions cm-2 and 1x1016 ions cm-2. These nanocomposites were further characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometer so as to study their transmission and reflection behavior and compute their refractive index and real and imaginary parts of dielectric function.

  1. Effects of Aqueous Solutions on the Slow Crack Growth of Soda-Lime-Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow crack growth (SCG) parameters of soda-lime-silicate were measured in distilled and saltwater of various concentrations in order to determine if the presence of salt and the contaminate formation of a weak sodium film affects stress corrosion susceptibility. Past research indicates that solvents affect the rate of crack growth; however, the effects of salt have not been studied. The results indicate a small but statistically significant effect on the SCG parameters A and n at high concentrations; however, for typical engineering purposes, the effect can be ignored.

  2. [Self-treatment with baking soda can lead to severe metabolic alkalosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sara; Skriver, Signe

    2014-12-15

    This case report describes a 66-year-old man, previously healthy besides mild hypertension. He ingested a self-made folk remedy consisting of baking soda and water against acid reflux in dosages that resulted in severe metabolic alkalosis (pH 7.8). Diagnosing and treating MA is easy and cheap, but if the condition is not treated, consequences can be severe. The challenge is to uncover patients' use of non prescription medications and folk remedies in the diagnostic process. Having this information it is possible to prevent MA in both high- and low-risk patients.

  3. Effect of soda ash industry effluent on agarophytes, alginophytes and carrageenophyte of west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadeja, R N; Tewari, A

    2009-02-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on the impact of the effluent released by the soda ash industry on important red and brown macro algal species Gelidiella acerosa, Gracilaria corticata, Soleria robusta, Sargassum tenerrimum, Padina tetrastromatica in the tidal zone around Veraval, on the west coast of India, in the lowest low water tide of December 2003. The study examined the effect of effluent discharge on availability of biomass and percentage of phyco-colloids extraction such as agar, alginic acid and carrageen of these commercial seaweeds.

  4. CHEMISTRY OF PLANTS AND RECLAIMED GROUNDS ON SODA WASTE SITE AT JANIKOWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the state of soda waste dumping site prior to reclamation, including the initial vegetation and properties of local grounds, the chemistry of plants colonizing the alkaline grounds in 2013 as well as the comparison of mineral element contents in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the soda waste site in the years 2000 and 2013. The paper consists an integral part of a wider work concerning the effectiveness of sewage sludge application for bioremediation of highly saline and alkaline waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant. The spontaneous vegetation on soda waste in 2000 was scarce and patchy, its development conditioned by local microrelief where depressions provided water for plant establishment. The main species entering the site included grasses (Lolium perenne, Calamagrostis epigeios and herbs (Reseda lutea, Tussilago farfara and Picris hieracioides. The physico-chemical properties of waste grounds varied widely both horizontally and spatially. In 2013, the reclaimed dumping site was covered by a well-established meadow-likevegetation and the soil top layer (0–5 cm contained 9.2–13.9% Ca and 15–161 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.6–7.8. The underlying 10–20 cm layer contained 21.1–63.3% Ca and 204–3110 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.93–9.04. In the deeper 40-60 cm layer there was found 30.0-37.5% Ca and 9 920-16 320 mg Cl/kg, at pH 11.5–12.1. The vegetation growing in the vicinity of soil profiles contained: 1.65–3.36% N; 0.25–0.43% P; 1.38–2.95% K; 0.33–1.10 % Ca and 0.13–0.54% Mg. The contents of heavy metals in plants approximated the average amounts found in meadow clippings in Poland. The contents of main nutrients in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the waste site were significantly higher in 2013 (2.70–3.21% N; 0.25–0.34% P and 0.98–1.75% K than in the year 2000 (1.70–2.04% N; 0.11–0.21% P and 0.54–0.80% K. The application of sewage sludge and subsequent fertilization of vegetation on waste

  5. Bottle roll leach test for Temrezli uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çetin, K.; Bayrak, M.; Turan, A. İsbir; Üçgül, E.

    2014-01-01

    The bottle roll leach test is one of the dynamic leaching procedure which can meet in-situ mining needs for determining suitable working conditions and helps to simulate one of the important parameter; injection well design. In this test, the most important parameters are pulp density, acidic or basic concentration of leach solution, time and temperature. In recent years, bottle roll test is used not only for uranium but also gold, silver, copper and nickel metals where in situ leach (ISL) mining is going to be applied. For this purpose for gold and silver metal cyanide bottle roll tests and for uranium metal; acidic and basic bottle roll tests could be applied. The new leach test procedure which is held in General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey is mostly suitable for determining metal extraction conditions and recovery values in uranium containing ore bodies. The tests were conducted with samples taken from Temrezli Uranium Ore located in approximately 200 km east of Turkey’s capital, Ankara. Mining rights of Temrezli Ore is controlled 100% by Anatolia Energy Ltd. The resource estimate includes an indicated mineral resource of 10.827 Mlbs U_3O_8 [~4160 t U] at an average grade of 1426 ppm [~1210 ppm U] and an additional inferred resource of 6.587 Mlbs of U_3O_8 [~2530 t U] at an average grade of 904 ppm [~767 ppm U]. In accordance with the demand from Anatolia Energy bottle roll leach tests have been initiated in MTA laboratories to investigate the recovery values of low-grade uranium ore under in-situ leach conditions. Bottle roll leaching tests are performed on pulverized samples with representative lixiviant solution at ambient pressure and provide an initial evaluation of ore leachability with a rough estimate of recovery value. At the end of the tests by using 2 g/L NaHCO_3 and 0.2 g/L H_2O_2 more than 90% of uranium can pass into leach solution in 12 days. (author)

  6. Effect of dentifrice containing fluoride and/or baking soda on enamel demineralization/remineralization: an in situ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, J A; Hashizume, L N; Del Bel Cury, A A; Tabchoury, C P

    2001-01-01

    The additive effect of baking soda on the anticariogenic effect of fluoride dentifrice is not well established. To evaluate it, a crossover in situ study was done in three phases of 28 days. Volunteers, using acrylic palatal appliances containing four human enamel blocks, two sound (to evaluate demineralization) and two with artificial caries lesions (to evaluate remineralization), took part in this study. During each phase, 10% sucrose solution was dripped (3 times a day) only onto the sound blocks. After 10 min, a slurry of placebo, fluoride (F) or fluoride and baking soda (F+NaHCO(3)) dentifrice was dripped onto all enamel blocks. The results showed a higher F concentration in dental plaque formed during treatment with F+NaHCO(3) than placebo (pbaking soda neither improves nor impairs the effect of F dentifrice on reduction of demineralization and enhancement of remineralization of enamel.

  7. Electrochemical Characterisation of Bio-Bottle-Voltaic (BBV Systems Operated with Algae and Built with Recycled Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bateson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Photobioelectrochemical systems are an emerging possibility for renewable energy. By exploiting photosynthesis, they transform the energy of light into electricity. This study evaluates a simple, scalable bioelectrochemical system built from recycled plastic bottles, equipped with an anode made from recycled aluminum, and operated with the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana. We tested whether such a system, referred to as a bio-bottle-voltaic (BBV device, could operate outdoors for a prolonged time period of 35 days. Electrochemical characterisation was conducted by measuring the drop in potential between the anode and the cathode, and this value was used to calculate the rate of charge accumulation. The BBV systems were initially able to deliver ~500 mC·bottle−1·day−1, which increased throughout the experimental run to a maximum of ~2000 mC·bottle−1·day−1. The electrical output was consistently and significantly higher than that of the abiotic BBV system operated without algal cells (~100 mC·bottle−1·day−1. The analysis of the rate of algal biomass accumulation supported the hypothesis that harvesting a proportion of electrons from the algal cells does not significantly perturb the rate of algal growth. Our finding demonstrates that bioelectrochemical systems can be built using recycled components. Prototypes of these systems have been displayed in public events; they could serve as educational toolkits in schools and could also offer a solution for powering low-energy devices off-grid.

  8. Preparation of the PET/PP/PE/EVA polymeric blend from PET bottles and modification studies induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini, Edvaldo Luis

    2005-01-01

    The environmental pollution is one of the biggest problems nowadays. Amidst the pollutants, plastic and especially the packings type P ET bottles , which comprise of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and poly[ethylene-co-(vinyl acetate)] (EVA) are causing big damage in the environment. In this work, the polymeric blend PET/PP/PE/EVA was obtained by a process of simplified mechanical recycling from 'PET bottles' after consumption, with the objective to find solution to this environmental problem. It was also studied the different ionizing radiation doses effects (25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400 e 500 kGy) on the blend properties using an electron beam accelerator. The mechanical (tensile strength, impact and hardness), thermal (Vicat softening temperature, differential scanning calorimetry and termogravimetric) and microscopic (light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) properties of the blend were studied. The analysis of the results showed to be a not mixing and compatible blend, with mechanical and thermal properties (which appeared to be similar to the properties of the component material used in the blend in separate) satisfactory, resulting in a resistant material and of low cost, being able to be used in the production of parts that do not demand specifications techniques. The use of the ionizing radiation improved some of the mechanical and thermal properties of the blend (these modifications had been random and irregular, depending directly on the dose of applied radiation and the type of property) making possible more specific applications for this material. (author)

  9. Studying the Environmental Health Status and Consumption of Baking Soda in Military and Urban Lavash Bakeries of Tehran in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Rostami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose:Consumption of baking soda, as a primary material for preparation of bread dough, has been banned due to its health complications in Iran. So bread production in our country faced difficulties and one part of them is related to health issues which are bread production. Also, in some cases, baking soda is used in the bread production. This study was done to study the environmental health status and consumption of baking soda in the military and urban Lavash bakeries of Tehran in 2012. Materials and methods:This is a descriptive comparative study done on Lavash bread production of 14 military bakeries and 14 corresponding urban bakeries near them. PH in the samples was tested based on Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran No. 2628. To check the status of environmental health and personal hygiene of bakeries, the check list of Cereal Research Center was used. Results:In terms of environmental health status,28.6% military bakeries and7.1% urban bakeries were at good level. In terms of personal hygiene, all bakeries were in the poor category. Also,42.9% of military Lavash bakeries and 14.3% of urban Lavash bakeries used baking soda in their bread production. Conclusion:Environment health and personal hygiene status in military bakeries are better than the urban bakeries however, hygiene status was not desirable in military bakeries. Also, baking soda consumption in military bakeries was more common than the urban bakeries. According to the results of this study, control of health status and avoiding baking soda consumption in the bakeries are necessary.

  10. Fluoride Content of Bottled Waters in Hong Kong and Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mulla, Hessa I; Anthonappa, Robert P; King, Nigel M

    2016-01-01

    To determine the F concentration of bottled waters that was available in Hong Kong and Qatar. The F concentrations of bottled waters collected from Hong Kong (n=81) and Qatar (n=32) were analysed. The F ion selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in the samples. Three measurements were obtained for every sample to ensure reproducibility and appropriate statistical analyses were employed. Qatar group: F concentrations ranged from 0.06 ppm to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm. The F concentrations displayed on the labels of the samples (60%) were significantly lower than the measured F concentration (p Qatar. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were not consistent with the measured F concentrations.

  11. Natural radioactivity in Brazilian bottled mineral waters and consequent doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J. de; Paci Mazzilli, B.; Costa, P. da; Akiko Tanigava, P.

    2001-01-01

    The natural activity concentration levels of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb were analyzed in 17 brands of bottled mineral waters commercially available in the Southeast region of Brazil. Concentrations up to 647 mBq x l -1 and 741 mBq x l -1 were observed for 226 Ra and 228 Ra, whereas 210 Pb concentrations reached 85 mBq x l -1 . Average committed effective doses of 1.3 x 10 -2 mSv x y -1 for 226 Ra, 3.4 x 10 -2 mSv x y -1 for 228 Ra and 9.4 x 10 -3 mSv x y -1 for 210 Pb were estimated for the ingestion of these waters. A collective dose of 90 manSv was evaluated, considering the annual production of the bottled mineral waters analyzed in this study. (author)

  12. Desulfuribacillus alkaliarsenatis gen. nov., sp. nov., a deep-lineage, obligately anaerobic, dissimilatory sulfur and arsenate-reducing, haloalkaliphilic representative of the order Bacillales from soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Tourova, T.P.; Sukhacheva, M.V.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    An anaerobic enrichment culture inoculated with a sample of sediments from soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe with elemental sulfur as electron acceptor and formate as electron donor at pH 10 and moderate salinity inoculated with sediments from soda lakes in Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) resulted in

  13. Desulfuribacillus alkaliarsenatis gen. nov. sp. nov., a deep-lineage, obligately anaerobic, dissimilatory sulfur and arsenate-reducing, haloalkaliphilic representative of the order Bacillales from soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Tourova, T.P.; Sukhacheva, M.V.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    An anaerobic enrichment culture inoculated with a sample of sediments from soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe with elemental sulfur as electron acceptor and formate as electron donor at pH 10 and moderate salinity inoculated with sediments from soda lakes in Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) resulted in

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF WHEAT (Triticum aestevum L. STRAW SODA-OXYGEN PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Gümüşkaya

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study; pulp was produced with soda-oxygen process by using wheat (Triticum aestevum L. straw as raw material and this pulp bleached with hypocholoride (H and peroxyde (P stages. It was found that crystalline properties of unbleached and bleached pulp samples increased by removing amorphous components. In addition, paper sheets made from unbleached and bleached soda-oxygen pulp and determined their optical properties. Consequently; while crystalline properties of pulp samples was rising with HP bleaching, it was determined that optical properties of paper sheets improved with bleaching.

  15. Polyester Polyols from Waste PET Bottles for Polyurethane Rigid Foams

    OpenAIRE

    Evtimova, Rozeta; Lozeva, Yordanka; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Wotzka, Michael; Wagner, Peter; Behrendt, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a modified process to produce polyester polyols from PET wastes derived from the “bottle fraction residue” of the German Dual System (DSD) [11] employing a waste oligoester condensate of the polyesterification process with the addition of some glycols of longer chain and occasional modification with further dicarboxylic acids to produce polyester polyols of a broad range of properties which are further reacted to form polyurethane or polyisocyanurate rigid foams for insul...

  16. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1978-02-01

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  17. DESIGNERS’ KNOWLEDGE IN PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    The Industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics materials and manufacturing principles of polymer products is very important for the innovative strength of the industry, according to a group of Danish plastics manufacturers, design students and practicing industrial designers. These three groups ...

  18. Microbial communities associated with the anthropogenic, highly alkaline environment of a saline soda lime, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwasińska, Agnieszka; Felföldi, Tamás; Szabó, Attila; Deja-Sikora, Edyta; Kosobucki, Przemysław; Walczak, Maciej

    2017-07-01

    Soda lime is a by-product of the Solvay soda process for the production of sodium carbonate from limestone and sodium chloride. Due to a high salt concentration and alkaline pH, the lime is considered as a potential habitat of haloalkaliphilic and haloalkalitolerant microbial communities. This artificial and unique environment is nutrient-poor and devoid of vegetation, due in part to semi-arid, saline and alkaline conditions. Samples taken from the surface layer of the lime and from the depth of 2 m (both having pH ~11 and EC e up to 423 dS m -1 ) were investigated using culture-based (culturing on alkaline medium) and culture-independent microbiological approaches (microscopic analyses and pyrosequencing). A surprisingly diverse bacterial community was discovered in this highly saline, alkaline and nutrient-poor environment, with the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria (representing 52.8% of the total bacterial community) and Firmicutes (16.6%) showing dominance. Compared to the surface layer, higher bacterial abundance and diversity values were detected in the deep zone, where more stable environmental conditions may occur. The surface layer was dominated by members of the genera Phenylobacterium, Chelativorans and Skermanella, while in the interior layer the genus Fictibacillus was dominant. The culturable aerobic, haloalkaliphilic bacteria strains isolated in this study belonged mostly to the genus Bacillus and were closely related to the species Bacillus pseudofirmus, B. cereus, B. plakortidis, B. thuringensis and B. pumilus.

  19. Effect of a baking soda-peroxide dentifrice on post-surgical wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentino, A R; Ciancio, S G; Bessinger, M; Mather, M A; Cancro, L; Fischman, S

    1995-06-01

    To investigate the effect of a baking soda-hydrogen peroxide (0.75%) dentifrice on wound healing, plaque formation, gingival inflammation, patient comfort, probing depth, and clinical attachment level following gingival flap surgery. A randomized, double-blind crossover study involving 25 patients requiring bilateral maxillary gingival flap surgery was completed. The effects of twice daily brushing with a baking soda-hydrogen peroxide dentifrice (Mentadent) or a placebo dentifrice (Crest) were observed over a 28-day post-surgical period. Gingival Index (GI), plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and gingival bleeding index (BI) were recorded pre-surgically and at day 28 for each surgical sextant. At days 7 and 14, soft tissue appearance/wound healing (STA) was assessed based on color and edema, PIs were determined and patient comfort was ascertained by report. Post-surgical wound healing was statistically significantly improved at day 7 with the trend continuing to day 14 when Mentadent dentifrice was used as compared to Crest dentifrice. However, there was no statistical difference in the PI values between the test and control dentifrice throughout the study. Use of Mentadent may be an effective aid in the early phase of healing following gingival flap surgery.

  20. The laboratory and clinical safety evaluation of a dentifrice containing hydrogen peroxide and baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, S L; Truelove, R B; Hart, R; Cancro, L P

    1992-01-01

    This study reports the laboratory, clinical, and microbiological finding of the safety testing and daily use of a dentifrice delivering 0.75% hydrogen peroxide and 5% baking soda. Laboratory studies using Ca45 labeled teeth and biologically stained teeth confirmed that the dentifrice did not decalcify enamel or bleach teeth. Over the course of a six-month period, 62 subjects using a hydrogen peroxide-baking soda dentifrice and 21 subjects using a control dentifrice were examined for oral soft tissue change and hard tissue alterations. No soft tissue changes attributable to the use of either dentifrice were noted. Experienced clinicians using Trubyte shade guide teeth observed no significant changes to the subjects' anterior teeth following 6 months use of the test dentifrice. Paired discrimination tests revealed that the examiners could distinguish color differences in the shade guide teeth at 0.7%. Microbiological monitoring of the subjects for six months use of their assigned dentifrice and for the following months on the control dentifrice, revealed neither an increased incidence of candida nor increased candida counts.

  1. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N; Kun, Y; Rosli, R-N

    2015-01-01

    Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanical performance of a biocompatible biocide soda-lime glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Esteban, S; Bartolomé, J F; Dí Az, L A; Esteban-Tejeda, L; Prado, C; López-Piriz, R; Torrecillas, R; Moya, J S

    2014-06-01

    A biocompatible soda-lime glass-ceramic in the SiO2-Na2O-Al2O3-CaO-B2O3 system containing combeite and nepheline as crystalline phases, has been obtained at 750°C by two different routes: (i) pressureless sintering and (ii) Spark Plasma Sintering. The SPS glass-ceramic showed a bending strength, Weibull modulus, and toughness similar values to the cortical human bone. This material had a fatigue limit slightly superior to cortical bone and at least two times higher than commercial dental glass-ceramics and dentine. The in vitro studies indicate that soda-lime glass-ceramic is fully biocompatible. The in vivo studies in beagle jaws showed that implanted SPS rods presented no inflammatory changes in soft tissues surrounding implants in any of the 10 different cases after four months implantation. The radiological analysis indicates no signs of osseointegration lack around implants. Moreover, the biocide activity of SPS glass-ceramic versus Escherichia coli, was found to be >4log indicating that it prevents implant infections. Because of this, the SPS new glass-ceramic is particularly promising for dental applications (inlay, crowns, etc). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Areal variability of the mineral soil cover in a reclaimed soda waste dumping site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klatka Sławomir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Areal variability of the mineral soil cover in a reclaimed soda waste dumping site. This paper provides an analysis of the areal variability of the thickness and selected physical and chemical properties of the mineral cover formed in the process of settling ponds reclamation at the former Krakow Soda Plant “Solvay”. The topsoil is intended to provide a substrate for plants, therefore, its quality is the main determinant of the development for herbaceous and woody vegetation. Areal variability of the topsoil parameters was determined by kriging. In the context of the envisaged direction of management of the settling ponds, the analysis showed that electrical conductivity, thickness of the soil cover and the sand fraction content have potentially the highest impact on the diversification of vegetation. Understanding the spatial variability of the soil cover parameters, that are essential for vegetation, may contribute to increasing the efficiency of biological reclamation and also to cost reduction. Precise selection of the areas unsuitable for plant growth makes it possible to improve soil parameters on limited areas similarly as in the precision agriculture.

  4. Soda-Anthraquinone Durian (Durio Zibethinus Murr.) Rind Linerboard and Corrugated Medium Paper: A Preliminary Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal Masrol, Shaiful; Irwan Ibrahim, Mohd Halim; Adnan, Sharmiza; Mubarak Sa'adon, Amir; Ika Sukarno, Khairil; Fadrol Hisham Yusoff, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    A preliminary test was conducted to investigate the characteristics of linerboard and corrugated medium paper made from durian rind waste. Naturally dried durian rinds were pulped according to Soda-Anthraquinone (Soda-AQ) pulping process with a condition of 20% active alkali, 0.1% AQ, 7:1 liquor to material ratio, 120 minutes cooking time and 170°C cooking temperature. The linerboard and corrugated medium paper with a basis weight of 120 gsm were prepared and evaluated according to Malaysian International Organization for Standardization (MS ISO) and Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI). The results indicate that the characteristics of durian rind linerboard are comparable with other wood or non-wood based paper and current commercial paper. However, low CMT value for corrugated medium and water absorptiveness quality for linerboard could be improved in future. Based on the bulk density (0.672 g/cm3), burst index (3.12 kPa.m2/g) and RCT (2.00 N.m2/g), the durian rind has shown a good potential and suitable as an alternative raw material source for linerboard industry.

  5. Formation of silver colloids on ion exchanged soda lime silicate glasses by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, E.M.; Okuno, E.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation (gamma rays, X-rays and electrons) on soda lime silicate glasses, in which part of the Na + was substituted by Ag + by means of an ionic exchange process, was studied. The techniques of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to follow the formation of silver colloids by irradiation. Also the thermoluminescence (TL) of the samples was measured and three peaks between room temperature and 450 C were observed. The TEM and TSDC results agree that, as expected, ionizing radiation promotes the formation of silver colloids on the ion exchanged surface of soda lime glasses. Soft X-rays are much more efficient in the process than gamma rays and electrons. The correlation with thermoluminescence glow curves indicates that the intensity of a TL peak at 230 C can provide a rapid means of evaluating the presence of silver colloids. TL sensitivities, measured as area under the glow curve per unit mass and unit dose, are very similar for ion exchanged and not exchanged samples submitted to X-ray irradiation, although the peak temperatures differ in about 40 C in the two cases. For both electron and gamma irradiated samples, the TL sensitivity drops about an order of magnitude when compared to the X-ray irradiated ones. (orig.)

  6. Calcium carbonate synthesis with prescribed properties based on liquid waste of soda production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Mikhailova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A promising direction in solving of environmental problems of soda industry is the development of low-waste resource-saving technologies, which consist in recycling of valuable waste components with obtaining the commercial products. Aim: The aim is to establish the optimal conditions for obtaining calcium carbonate with prescribed properties from liquid waste of soda production. Materials and Methods: Chemically deposited calcium carbonate is used as filler and should have certain physical and chemical properties. To obtain a product of prescribed quality the process of calcium carbonate deposition was performed of still waste liquid, that is the waste of calcium carbonate production and contain significant amount of calcium ions, and excessive production of the purified stock solution of sodium bicarbonate, which is composed of carbonate and hydrocarbonate ions. Results: The dependence of bulk density and specific surface area of calcium carbonate sediments and degree of deposition from such technological parameters are established: method of mixing the stock solutions, the concentration and molar ratio of reactants, temperature and reaction time. Conclusions: The optimal mode of deposition process is determined and the concept of production of calcium carbonate is developed. The quality of calcium carbonate meets the modern requirements of high dispersion, low bulk density and evolved specific surface of the product.

  7. EVALUATION OF LINERBOARD PROPERTIES FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPS VERSUS COMMERCIAL PULPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian cultivated kenaf has been identified as a suitable raw material for linerboard production. This study examines the soda-antraquinone (soda-AQ pulp of kenaf fibers versus old corrugated container (OCC and unbleached softwood kraft pulps as the main sources for linerboard production. The results showed significant differences among the pulp properties. The unbleached kraft pulp with very high freeness required high beating to reach an optimized freeness and produced paper with the highest strength properties, except for tear resistance. The OCC gave paper with the lowest strength properties. In the case of kenaf fractions, bast pulp with high freeness needed less beating than softwood and produced paper with high tear resistance. Core fiber, which had the lowest freeness and highest drainage time, led to paper with high strength but very low tear resistance. Kenaf whole stem pulp showed intermediate properties between core and bast and close to those of unbleached softwood pulp, but with very lower beating requirement. Finally, kenaf whole stem, due to its strength properties, moderate separation cost, and simple pulping process, was judged to be more suitable for commercialization for linerboard production in Malaysia.

  8. The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Vuillaume, Renee; Kelder, Steven H; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-07-27

    Across the United States, many states have actively banned the sale of soda in high schools, and evidence suggests that students' in-school access to soda has declined as a result. However, schools may be substituting soda with other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and national trends indicate that adolescents are consuming more sports drinks and energy drinks. This study examined whether students consumed more non-soda SSBs in states that banned the sale of soda in school. Student data on consumption of various SSBs and in-school access to vending machines that sold SSBs were obtained from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS), conducted in 2010. Student data were linked to state laws regarding the sale of soda in school in 2010. Students were cross-classified based on their access to vending machines and whether their state banned soda in school, creating 4 comparison groups. Zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to compare these 4 groups with respect to students’ self-reported consumption of diet soda, sports drinks, energy drinks, coffee/tea, or other SSBs. Students who had access to vending machines in a state that did not ban soda were the reference group. Models were adjusted for race/ethnicity, sex, grade, home food access, state median income, and U.S. Census region. Students consumed more servings of sports drinks, energy drinks, coffee/tea, and other SSBs if they resided in a state that banned soda in school but attended a school with vending machines that sold other SSBs. Similar results were observed where schools did not have vending machines but the state allowed soda to be sold in school. Intake was generally not elevated where both states and schools limited SSB availability – i.e., states banned soda and schools did not have SSB vending machines. State laws that ban soda but allow other SSBs may lead students to substitute other non-soda SSBs. Additional longitudinal research is needed to confirm this

  9. Concentration of Nitrate in Bottled Drinking Water in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saberi Bidgoli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: The global consumption of bottled water is growing with substantial growth in sales volumes on every continent. The highest growth rates are occurring in Asia and South America. Biological and chemical monitoring of these waters is necessary. The aim of current study was determination of nitrate concentration in bottled drinking water in Qom, Iran in 2012. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out in Qom, Iran. First of all, 18 most frequent brands of bottled drinking waters were purchased in June 2012 randomly. Then concentration of nitrate was measured according to the spectrophotometric method. In next step, experiment data were analyzed by Excel Software and P value was obtained by statistical calculations. Finally data were comprised with written nitrate concentration on labels and recommended permissible values . Results: The median nitrate concentration was 2.1 mg/L with the minimum 0.8 mg/L and maximum 8.1 mg/L. In 66.7 % of the samples, the measured nitrate concentrations were less than the written nitrate concentrations and in 33.3% of samples, the nitrate concentration was higher. The statistical calculation proved the significant difference between the median of written nitrate concentration on the label and investigated nitrate concentration (P value > 0.05. Conclusions: It be concluded that the measured nitrate concentration in all of the water samples is below the recommended permissible level.

  10. Culture -independent Pathogenic Bacterial Communities in Bottled Mineral Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy A. Hassan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottled mineral water (BMW is an alternative to mains water and consider it to be better and safer. Access to safe BMW from the bacteria involving potential health hazard is essential to health. Cultivation-independent technique PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP for genetic profiling of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes was performed using Com primer set targeting the 16S rRNA genes for detection of pathogenic bacteria in bottled mineral water from the final product of six factories for bottled mineral drinking water in Wadi El-natron region- Egypt. These factories use often ozone technology to treat large quantities of water because of its effectiveness in purifying and conditioning water. A total of 27 single products were isolated from the profiles by PCR re-amplification and cloning. Sequence analysis of 27 SSCP bands revealed that the 16S rRNA sequences were clustered into seven operational taxonomic units (OTUs and the compositions of the communities of the six samples were all common. The results showed that most communities from phyla Alphaproteobacteria and certainly in the Sphingomonas sp. Culture-independent approaches produced complementary information, thus generating a more accurate view for the bacterial community in the BMW, particularly in the disinfection step, as it constitutes the final barrier before BMW distribution to the consumer

  11. Feasibility study for bottled gas and LPG in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    With a total population of ca. 40 million, Poland has an annual consumption of liquefied petroleum gas amounting to 180,000 tons, used by 2.5 million bottled-gas consumers. The consumer pattern is expected to change, with an increasing market for gas for industrial purposes and for heating. Distribution systems will also change to include tank installations in many sizes and transport with large tank lorries. LPG is estimated to be competitive with other forms of energy, and the market is expected to increase to up to ca. 500,000 tons per year. Restricting factors are shortage of supply and lack of approved applications, transport equipment and tank facilities. A list of existing bottle gas companies and evaluation of the technical facilities in the Polish Oil and Gas Company in Gydnia are included. Bottled gas is currently distributed under normal conditions and, market prices for LPG have remained stable in Poland. Detailed studies of the current distribution network in the Suwalki area are given. It should be possible to extend the existing distribution network. A proposal for the establishment of standard tank installations and the gas supply for the town of Augustow is presented. Considerable investments will have to be made in terminals, tank plants and transport equipment, and international oil companies are expected to play an important role in this market. The European Bank for Restructuring and Development could possibly contribute to the financing of the pipe network. (AB)

  12. Northwest Manufacturing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    biodegradable wipes, and bags. The gStyle clothing line consists of various types of stylish clothes for babies. All gDiapers are plastic free...offers recycling services for industrial plastics and non-serviceable containers. Industrial plastics include pails, buckets, pallets, plastic film, and...manufacturer, now recycle used soda bottles, unusable second quality fabrics and worn out garments into polyester fibers to produce many of their clothes

  13. Brucella detection in blood: comparison of the BacT/Alert standard aerobic bottle, BacT/Alert FAN aerobic bottle and BacT/Alert enhanced FAN aerobic bottle in simulated blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sümerkan, B; Gökahmetoglu, S; Esel, D

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the performances of the standard aerobic bottle (StAe), FAN aerobic (FANAe) and enhanced FAN aerobic (E-FANAe) (the charcoal component of the FANAe was revised recently to improve the feasibility of Gram smear interpretation) blood culture bottles for BacT/Alert system for the detection of Brucella melitensis in simulated blood culture. Triplicate strains of eight clinical isolates of B. melitensis were studied. Each bottle was inoculated with 5 mL of freshly collected human blood at three different targeted bacterial inocula (10(1), 10(2) and 10(3) CFU/bottle). All bottles were monitored for up to 21 days or until they became positive. The results of time to detection (TTD) on the eight B. melitensis samples were as follows: at 10(1) CFU/bottle, the E-FANAe had a mean TTD significantly shorter than the StAe (48 h vs. 56.2 h, P StAe (41.2 h and 40 h vs. 45.6 h, P StAe, FANAe and E-FANAe were 96, 83 and 58%, respectively. At 10(3) CFU/bottle, the reproducibilities of StAe, FANAe and E-FANAe were 95, 95 and 91%, respectively. Positive results for the presence of bacteria in Gram smears were confirmed in 68% of StAe, 54% of FANAe and 90% of E-FANAe. In case of suspected brucellosis, the combination of one StAe bottle and one E-FANAe bottle seems to provide the highest and fastest recovery of the organism.

  14. Macro and microelements in bottled and tap waters of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tanja M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis between bottled and tap waters as well as its comparison with current Serbian regulations, European Union Directives and World Health Organization standard are shown in this paper. Thirteen bottled waters and fourteen tap waters from the territory of Serbia were analyzed in the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR laboratory in Berlin, for the purpose of the “Geochemistry of European Bottled Water“ project conducted by EuroGeo Survey Geochemistry (EGS. Macrocomponents (main cations and anions of ground waters usually reflect on lithogeochemistry of the aquifer, while microcomponents indicate the circulation of ground water through the different lithological environment. Analyzed bottled waters could be classified as those with low mineral content (M<500 mg/L if HCO3 anion and Ca and Mg cations were the prevailing ones, or mineral (M>500 mg/L with prevailing HCO3 anion and Na cation. Waters with low mineral content were mainly from limestone and dolomite, while mineral waters mainly originated from magmatic and metamorphic rocks. Higher content of Cs, Li, Ge, Rb and F in bottled waters indicates the importance of the magmatic intrusions influence on their chemical composition. In some waters higher content of B, I, NH4, as well as of Tl and W has been observed which can be attributed to water’s circulation through different lithological complexes. Tap water was mostly obtained from groundwater (from Neogen and alluvial aquifers and karst springs with rest being those of rivers and surface accumulations. Tap waters from Central Serbia were with low mineral content, with prevailing HCO3 anion and Ca and Mg cations, while waters from Vojvodina, the northern province of Serbia, were with higher mineralization, HCO3-Na. Chemical analyses of the sampled tap waters showed good quality, with exception of waters from the cities of Senta and Zrenjanin in Vojvodina. High values of B (1170 and 895 g/L, As

  15. Measuring the significance of pearlescence in real-time bottle forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J.; Menary, G.; Yan, S.

    2018-05-01

    This work examines the optical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles during the stretch-blow-moulding (SBM) process. PET has a relatively large process window with regards to process parameters, however if the boundaries are pushed, the resultant bottle can become insufficient for consumer requirements. One aspect of this process is the onset of pearlescence in the bottle material, where the bottle becomes opaque due to elevated stress whitening. Experimental trials were carried out using a modified free-stretch-blow machine where the deforming bottle was examined in free air. The strain values of the deformation were measured using digital image correlation (DIC) and the optical properties were measured relative to the initial amorphous PET preform. The results reveal that process parameters can significantly affect pearlescence. The detrimental level of pearlescence may be predicted therefore reducing the probability of poorly formed bottles.

  16. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Junaid, E-mail: junaidupm@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Karachi (Pakistan); Ning, Chao; Barford, John [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  17. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy

  18. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  19. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  20. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  1. Infant feeding bottle design, growth and behaviour: results from a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fewtrell MS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether the design of an anti-vacuum infant feeding bottle influences infant milk intake, growth or behavior is unknown, and was the subject of this randomized trial. Methods Subjects 63 (36 male healthy, exclusively formula-fed term infants. Intervention Randomisation to use Bottle A (n = 31, one-way air valve: Philips Avent versus Bottle B (n = 32, internal venting system: Dr Browns. 74 breast-fed reference infants were recruited, with randomisation (n = 24 to bottle A (n = 11 or B (n = 13 if bottle-feeding was subsequently introduced. Randomisation stratified by gender and parity; computer-based telephone randomisation by independent clinical trials unit. Setting Infant home. Primary outcome measure infant weight gain to 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes (i milk intake (ii infant behaviour measured at 2 weeks (validated 3-day diary; (iii risk of infection; (iv continuation of breastfeeding following introduction of mixed feeding. Results Number analysed for primary outcome Bottle A n = 29, Bottle B n = 25. Primary outcome There was no significant difference in weight gain between randomised groups (0-4 weeks Bottle A 0.74 (SD 1.2 SDS versus bottle B 0.51 (0.39, mean difference 0.23 (95% CI -0.31 to 0.77. Secondary outcomes Infants using bottle A had significantly less reported fussing (mean 46 versus 74 minutes/day, p Breast-fed reference group There were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcomes between breast-fed and formula fed infants. The likelyhood of breastfeeding at 3 months was not significantly different in infants subsequently randomised to bottle A or B. Conclusion Bottle design may have short-term effects on infant behaviour which merit further investigation. No significant effects were seen on milk intake or growth; confidence in these findings is limited by the small sample size and this needs confirmation in a larger study. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00325208.

  2. The consumption and recycling collection system of PET bottles: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-06-01

    After studying the recycling collection system of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles worldwide, the authors conducted an intercept survey in Beijing. Two separate questionnaires were issued, one questionnaire to PET bottle consumers and one to PET bottle recyclers. In this study, consumers are defined as people that consume PET-bottled beverages in their daily life. Recyclers were defined as those involved in the collection and recycling of PET bottles. These include scavengers, itinerant waste buyers, small community waste-buying depots, medium/large redemption depots, and recycling companies. In total, 580 surveys were completed, including 461 by consumers and 119 by recyclers. The authors found that consumption of PET bottles in Beijing was nearly 100,000 tonnes in 2012. Age, occupation, gender, and education were identified as significant factors linked to PET-bottled beverage consumption, while income was not a significant factor. 90% Of post-consumed PET bottles were collected by informal collectors (i.e., scavengers and itinerant waste buyers). The survey also found that nearly all PET bottles were reprocessed by small factories that were not designed with pollution control equipment, which allows them to offer higher prices for waste recyclable bottles. As Beijing is trying to build a formal recycling collection system for recyclables, subsidies should be given to the formal recycling sector rather than being charged land use fees, and attention should also be given to informal recyclers that make their living from the collection of recyclables. Informal and formal sectors may work together by employing the scavengers and itinerant waste buyers for the formal sectors. In addition to the recycling of PET bottles, concern should also be allocated to reduce consumption, especially among young people, as they, compared to other groups, have a stronger demand for PET-bottled beverages and will be the main body of society. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  3. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  4. The Association between Family Meals, TV Viewing during Meals, and Fruit, Vegetables, Soda, and Chips Intake among Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaya, Abegail A.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Alcaraz, John E.; Lindsay, Suzanne P.; Elder, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Examine the relationship of family meals to children's consumption of fruit and vegetables as well as soda and chips. Additionally, to assess the relationship between viewing TV during family meals and children's diet. Design: Cross-sectional study that used a questionnaire completed by parents. Setting: Thirteen schools in San Diego,…

  5. Stricter School Soda Limits Offered: Facing Lawsuit Threat, Beverage Industry Vows to Curb High-Calorie Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2006-01-01

    The soft-drink industry vowed to voluntarily curb selling sugary sodas and other high-calorie beverages in schools, a move that was taken under threat of litigation by critics who see the industry as a prime culprit in a national obesity crisis. The promise offered no guarantee that schools would go along with the restrictions, though many…

  6. Anesthetic management of a patient with sustained severe metabolic alkalosis and electrolyte abnormalities caused by ingestion of baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliz, Jose; Lim, Jeffrey; Zheng, Gang

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative medicine is prevalent worldwide. However, its effect on intraoperative anesthetic care is underreported. We report the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent an extensive head and neck cancer surgery and presented with a severe intraoperative metabolic alkalosis from the long term ingestion of baking soda and other herbal remedies.

  7. Anesthetic Management of a Patient with Sustained Severe Metabolic Alkalosis and Electrolyte Abnormalities Caused by Ingestion of Baking Soda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Soliz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative medicine is prevalent worldwide. However, its effect on intraoperative anesthetic care is underreported. We report the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent an extensive head and neck cancer surgery and presented with a severe intraoperative metabolic alkalosis from the long term ingestion of baking soda and other herbal remedies.

  8. Sugar-sweetened beverage but not diet soda consumption is positively associated with progression of insulin resistance and prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Previous studies have shown an inconsistent relationship between habitual beverage consumption and insulin resistance and prediabetes. Objective: The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), rather than diet soda,...

  9. Detsibill : Meie aja kangelane Maryn E. Coote ning ajakirjandus. White label : Soda Effect - Uus kraam. Kuula / DJ Pickney Tiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Pickney Tiger, pseud., 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Poplauljast Marju Kuudist. Ansambli Soda Effect heliplaadist. Heliplaatidest: Sentenced "Buried Alive", Depeche Mode"Best of. Volume 1", Moby "Go: The Very Best", Bill Frisell, Ron CArter, Paul Motian "Nonesuch", My Chemical Romance "The Black Parade", Arabanda "Shams", Barbariz "Auh", Demogustico "Demogustico", Tutty Moreno ft. Jouce "Magica", Akon "Konvicted", Union Of Knives "Violence and Birdsong", Snoop Dogg "The Blue Carpet Treatment"

  10. State policies targeting junk food in schools: racial/ethnic differences in the effect of policy change on soda consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Stevens, June; Evenson, Kelly R; Ward, Dianne S; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Murray, David M; Brownson, Ross C

    2011-09-01

    We estimated the association between state policy changes and adolescent soda consumption and body mass index (BMI) percentile, overall and by race/ethnicity. We obtained data on whether states required or recommended that schools prohibit junk food in vending machines, snack bars, concession stands, and parties from the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between 2000-2006 policy changes and 2007 soda consumption and BMI percentile, as reported by 90 730 students in 33 states and the District of Columbia in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and to test for racial/ethnic differences in the associations. Policy changes targeting concession stands were associated with 0.09 fewer servings of soda per day among students (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.17, -0.01); the association was more pronounced among non-Hispanic Blacks (0.19 fewer servings per day). Policy changes targeting parties were associated with 0.07 fewer servings per day (95% CI = -0.13, 0.00). Policy changes were not associated with BMI percentile in any group. State policies targeting junk food in schools may reduce racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent soda consumption, but their impact appears to be too weak to reduce adolescent BMI percentile.

  11. Determining the minimum conditions for soda-anthraquinone pulping of kenaf bast, core, and whole stalk fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Han; Thomas A. Rymsza

    1999-01-01

    Chemical pulping of kenaf fiber is comparatively new. In this study, bast, core, and whole stalk kenaf fibers were pulped using a soda-AQ pulping process and various pulping conditions. Handsheets were evaluated for density, Canadian standard freeness, brightness, opacity, smoothness, and tensile, burst, and tear indexes and strength. The results indicate that...

  12. Natronoflexus pectinivorans gen. nov. sp. nov., an obligately anaerobic and alkaliphilic fermentative member of Bacteroidetes from soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Panteleeva, A.N.; Tourova, T.P.; Kaparullina, E.N.; Muijzer, G.

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment with pectin at pH 10 and moderate salinity inoculated with sediments from soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) resulted in the isolation of a novel member of the Bacteroidetes, strain AP1T. The cells are long, flexible, Gram-negative rods forming pink carotenoids.

  13. State Policies Targeting Junk Food in Schools: Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Effect of Policy Change on Soda Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, June; Evenson, Kelly R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L.; Murray, David M.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association between state policy changes and adolescent soda consumption and body mass index (BMI) percentile, overall and by race/ethnicity. Methods. We obtained data on whether states required or recommended that schools prohibit junk food in vending machines, snack bars, concession stands, and parties from the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between 2000–2006 policy changes and 2007 soda consumption and BMI percentile, as reported by 90 730 students in 33 states and the District of Columbia in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and to test for racial/ethnic differences in the associations. Results. Policy changes targeting concession stands were associated with 0.09 fewer servings of soda per day among students (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.17, −0.01); the association was more pronounced among non-Hispanic Blacks (0.19 fewer servings per day). Policy changes targeting parties were associated with 0.07 fewer servings per day (95% CI = −0.13, 0.00). Policy changes were not associated with BMI percentile in any group. Conclusions. State policies targeting junk food in schools may reduce racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent soda consumption, but their impact appears to be too weak to reduce adolescent BMI percentile. PMID:21778484

  14. Microbial ecology of soda lakes: investigating sulfur and nitrogen cycling at Mono Lake, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, D.; Phillips, A. A.; Wells, M.; Bao, R.; Fullerton, K. M.; Stamps, B. W.; Speth, D. R.; Johnson, H.; Sessions, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Soda lakes represent unique ecosystems characterized by extremes of pH, salinity and distinct geochemical cycling. Despite these extreme conditions, soda lakes are important repositories of biological adaptation and have a highly functional microbial system. We investigated the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and nitrogen compounds in Mono Lake, California, located east of the Sierra Nevada mountains. Mono lake is characterized by hyperalkaline, hypersaline and high sulfate concentrations and can enter prolonged periods of meromixis due to freshwater inflow. Typically, the microbial sulfur cycle is highly active in soda lakes with both oxidation and reduction of sulfur compounds. However, the biological sulfur cycle is connected to many other main elemental cycles such as carbon, nitrogen and metals. Here we investigated the interaction between sulfur and nitrogen cycling in Mono lake using a combination of molecular, isotopic, and geochemical observations to explore the links between microbial phylogenetic composition and functionality. Metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing were determined at two locations and five depths in May 2017. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing analysis revealed organisms capable of both sulfur and nitrogen cycling. The relative abundance and distribution of functional genes (dsrA, soxAB, nifH, etc) were also determined. These genetic markers indicate the potential in situ relevance of specific carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur pathways in the water column prior to the transition to meromictic stratification. However, genes for sulfide oxidation, denitrification, and ammonification were present. Genome binning guided by the most abundant dsrA sequences, GC content, and abundance with depth identified a Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus bin containing genes capable of sulfur oxidation, denitrification, and nitrate reduction. The presence of a large number of sulfur and nitrogen cycling genes associated with Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus

  15. Metagenomic insights into the uncultured diversity and physiology of microbes in four hypersaline soda lake brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Dafni Vavourakis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still uncultured poly-extremophiles compared to neutral brines of similar salinities. We present the first ‘metagenomic snapshots’ of microbial communities thriving in the brines of four shallow soda lakes from the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia covering a salinity range from 170 to 400 g/L. Both amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA fragments and direct metagenomic sequencing showed that the top-level taxa abundance was linked to the ambient salinity: Bacteroidetes, Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant below a salinity of 250 g/L, Euryarchaeota at higher salinities. Within these taxa, amplicon sequences related to Halorubrum, Natrinema, Gracilimonas, purple non-sulfur bacteria (Rhizobiales, Rhodobacter and Rhodobaca and chemolithotrophic sulfur oxidizers (Thioalkalivibrio were highly abundant. Twenty-four draft population genomes from novel members and ecotypes within the Nanohaloarchaea, Halobacteria and Bacteroidetes were reconstructed to explore their metabolic features, environmental abundance and strategies for osmotic adaptation. The Halobacteria- and Bacteroidetes-related draft genomes belong to putative aerobic heterotrophs, likely with the capacity to ferment sugars in the absence of oxygen. Members from both taxonomic groups are likely involved in primary organic carbon degradation, since some of the reconstructed genomes encode the ability to hydrolyze recalcitrant substrates, such as cellulose and chitin. Putative sodium-pumping rhodopsins were found in both a Flavobacteriaceae- and a Chitinophagaceae-related draft genome. The predicted proteomes of both the latter and a Rhodothermaceae-related draft genome were indicative of a

  16. THE PROPERTIES OF CHARCOAL FROM THE BLACK LIQUOR OF THE SODA PULPING OF RICE STRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Jaya Wistara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present works was to determine chemical changes, thermal decomposition, and the content of moisture, ash, volatile, fixed carbon and calorific value of soda pulping black liquor of the rice straw. Neutralized black liquor was dried to a moisture content of 10% and then pyrolized at 106oC-750oC. It was found that calorific value, fixed carbon, volatile mater, and moisture content were in the range of 2782-4716 cal/g, 49.2-81.6%, 15.5-47.5%, and 0.2-3.5%, respectively. Ash content was not influenced by the temperature of pyrolysis and was thought to depend on its initial silicate content. The weight loss of pulp was higher than that of black liquor. Extreme weight loss has been found in the temperature of 200-400oC. Noticeable functional groups changes were found with the increasing temperature of pyrolysis. Hydroxyl group completely disappeared at 300oC and above. Carbonyl related groups were also disappeared at 300-500oC, but it was reformed at 650 and 750oC. It might be brought about by the deformation of chemical bonding of oxygen ring in lignin structures. SIFAT-SIFAT ARANG LINDI HITAM DARI PEMASAKAN JERAMI DENGAN LARUTAN SODA API. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan perubahan sifat kimia, dekomposisi termal dan kadar air, abu, zat terbang, karbon terikat serta nilai kalor arang lindi hitam pemasakan soda jerami padi. Dalam penelitian ini, lindi hitam netral dikeringkan (kadar air 10%, kemudian dipirolisis pada selang suhu 100-750oC di dalam reaktor berpengatur suhu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kalor, karbon terikat, zat terbang dan kadar air masing-masing berselangdari 2782-4716 cal/g, 49,2-81,6%, 15,5-47,5%, dan 0,2-3,5%. Kadar abu tidak dipengaruhi oleh suhu pirolisis dan diduga bergantung pada kadar silika bahan bakunya. Nilai kalor meningkat dengan meningkatnya kadar karbon terikat. Perilaku kehilangan berat arang dari lindi hitam berbeda dengan perilaku kehilangan berat pulp jerami. Kehilangan

  17. Portable standoff Raman system for fast detection of homemade explosives through glass, plastic, and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anupam K.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Acosta, Tayro E.; Porter, John N.; Lucey, Paul G.; Bates, David E.

    2012-06-01

    The University of Hawaii has been developing portable remote Raman systems capable of detecting chemicals in daylight from a safe standoff distance. We present data on standoff detection of chemicals used in the synthesis of homemade explosives (HME) using a portable standoff Raman system utilizing an 8-inch telescope. Data show that good-quality Raman spectra of various hazardous chemicals such as ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, sulfur, nitrobenzene, benzene, acetone, various organic and inorganic chemicals etc. could be easily obtained from remote distances, tested up to 120 meters, with a single-pulse laser excitation and with detection time less than 1 μs. The system uses a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG pulsed laser source (532 nm, 100 mJ/pulse, 15 Hz, pulse width 10 ns) capable of firing a single or double pulse. The double-pulse configuration also allows the system to perform standoff LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) at 50 m range. In the standoff Raman detection, the doublepulse sequence simply doubles the signal to noise ratio. Significant improvement in the quality of Raman spectra is observed when the standoff detection is made with 1s integration time. The system uses a 50-micron slit and has spectral resolution of 8 cm-1. The HME chemicals could be easily detected through clear and brown glass bottles, PP and HDPE plastic bottles, and also through fluorescent plastic water bottles. Standoff Raman detection of HME chemical from a 10 m distance through non-visible concealed bottles in plastic bubble wrap packaging is demonstrated with 1 s integration time. Possible applications of the standoff Raman system for homeland security and environmental monitoring are discussed.

  18. PREPARATION OF ZEOLITE X COATINGS ON SODA-LIME TYPE GLASS PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tatlier

    Full Text Available Abstract The dissolution of glass in highly alkaline reaction mixtures and the impact of this phenomenon on zeolite coating formation were investigated. Coating samples were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM and thermogravimetry (TG. It was demonstrated that zeolite X coatings might be prepared on soda-lime glass. Glass dissolved to some degree, up to 2% of its original mass, in the reaction mixtures for the conditions investigated. This dissolution affected the zeolite synthesis taking place on the glass surface, resulting in phases different from those obtained on inert metal surfaces in some cases, especially for the use of reaction mixtures with relatively high Si/Al ratios. The percentage of dissolution of glass plates increased with their decreasing thickness, indicating a surface phenomenon for the dissolution. The stabilities of the coatings, which varied with the synthesis conditions, benefited from the addition of extra thin layers of polyacrylic acid.

  19. Taxing Soda: Strategies for Dealing with the Obesity and Diabetes Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maa, John

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the United States has been experiencing a twin epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recently, advocacy efforts to tax sugary drinks, place warning labels on soda, improve nutritional labeling, and reduce sugar overconsumption have swept across the nation to address public health concerns from sugary drinks that strain our nation's health-care resources. In this article, the historical and scientific framework of this public health policy and valuable lessons learned from implementation efforts thus far will be examined to shape the next steps forward for the movement. Additional goals of this article are to share a surgeon's perspective about trends in bariatric surgery and the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes as a result of peripheral insulin resistance.

  20. OD bands in the IR spectra of a deuterated soda-lime-silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuker, C.; Brzezinka, K.W.; Gaber, M.; Kohl, A.; Geissler, H. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    IR spectra of a deuterated glass of the composition (in mol%) 16 Na{sub 2}O . 10 CaO . 74 SiO{sub 2} complete earlier spectroscopic studies on water-poor soda-lime-silica glasses. The approved IR spectroscopic method of the deuterium exchange allows a reliable assignment of the hydroxyl bands also in the case of glasses. By spectra comparison the assignment of the IR bands at 3500 and 2800 cm{sup -1} to hydroxyl groups with different hydrogen bonding is verified. The IR band at about 4500 cm{sup -1} is interpreted as both a combination of the stretching vibrations {nu}O-H and {nu}Si-OH and a combination of the stretching vibration {nu}O-H and the deformation vibration {delta}SiOH. The bands at 1763 and 1602 cm{sup -1} are attributed to combination vibrations of the glass network. (orig.)

  1. Fabrication and characterization of bioactive glass-ceramic using soda-lime-silica waste glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Babak

    2014-04-01

    Soda-lime-silica waste glass was used to synthesize a bioactive glass-ceramic through solid-state reactions. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural and thermal properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). Bioactivity assessment by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was revealed that the samples with smaller amount of crystalline phase had a higher level of bioactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Algo-bacterial communities of the Kulunda steppe (Altai region, Russia) soda lakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samylina, O S; Sapozhnikov, F V; Gaĭnanova, O Iu; Riabova, A V; Nikitin, M A; Sorokin, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    The composition and macroscopic structure of the floating oxygenic phototrophic communities from Kulunda steppe soda lakes (Petukhovskoe sodovoe, Tanatara VI, and Gorchiny 3) was described based on the data of the 2011 and 2012 expeditions (Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology). The algo-bacterial community with a green alga Ctenocladus circinnatus as an edificator was the typical one. Filamentous Geitlerinema sp. and Nodosilinea sp. were the dominant cyanobacteria. Apart from C. circinnatus, the algological component of the community contained unicellular green algae Dunaliella viridis and cf. Chlorella minutissima, as well as diatoms (Anomeoneis sphaerophora, Brchysira brebissonii, Brachysira zellensis, Mastogloia pusilla var. subcapitata, Nitzschia amphibia, Nitzschia communis, and Nitzschia sp.1). The latter have not been previously identified in the lakes under study. In all lakes, a considerable increase in salinity was found to result in changes in the composition and macroscopic structure of algo-bacterial communities.

  3. Glass formation, properties, and structure of soda-yttria-silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Paul W.; Hann, Raiford E.

    1991-01-01

    The glass formation region of the soda yttria silicate system was determined. The glasses within this region were measured to have a density of 2.4 to 3.1 g/cu cm, a refractive index of 1.50 to 1.60, a coefficient of thermal expansion of 7 x 10(exp -6)/C, softening temperatures between 500 and 780 C, and Vickers hardness values of 3.7 to 5.8 GPa. Aqueous chemical durability measurements were made on select glass compositions while infrared transmission spectra were used to study the glass structure and its effect on glass properties. A compositional region was identified which exhibited high thermal expansion, high softening temperatures, and good chemical durability.

  4. Glass formation, properties and structure of soda-yttria-silica glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Paul W.; Hann, Raiford E.

    1992-01-01

    The glass formation region of the soda yttria silicate system was determined. The glasses within this region were measured to have a density of 2.4 to 3.1 g/cu cm, a refractive index of 1.50 to 1.60, a coefficient of thermal expansion of 7 x 10(exp -6)/C, softening temperatures between 500 and 780 C, and Vickers hardness values of 3.7 to 5.8 GPa. Aqueous chemical durability measurements were made on select glass compositions while infrared transmission spectra were used to study the glass structure and its effect on glass properties. A compositional region was identified which exhibited high thermal expansion, high softening temperatures, and good chemical durability.

  5. Intestinal preparation for colon enema with fosfo-soda fleet versus the conventional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchioli Caldazza, A.; Celi, G.; De Franco, A.; Parrella, A.; Minordi, L.M.; Marano, P.

    1999-01-01

    The authors evaluate the possible optimization of a well-tolerated and versatile method of intestinal preparation able to adequately free the lumen and consequently improve diagnostic results with a lower risk of prolonged hospital stay for incorrectly prepared patients. They examined 40 patients, namely 20 men and 20 women referred to the Institute of radiology of the 'Sacro Cuore' Catholic University of Rome (Italy), Gastrointestinal tract unit, to undergo double contrast colonic enema. The statistical analysis of all data was performed with Wilcoxon test. Intestinal preparation with fosfo-soda fleet appeared to be definitely better than the conventional method relative to tolerance, while providing similarly satisfactory data relative to the other parameters [it

  6. Can soda ash dumping grounds provide replacement habitats for digger wasps (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Spheciformes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Twerd

    Full Text Available Published sources document a loss of biodiversity at an extreme rate, mainly because natural and semi-natural ecosystems are becoming fragmented and isolated, thus losing their biological functions. These changes significantly influence biological diversity, which is a complex phenomenon that changes over time. Contemporary ecologists must therefore draw attention to anthropogenic replacement habitats and increase their conservation status. In our studies we show the positive role of soda ash dumping grounds as an alternative habitat for digger wasps, especially the thermophilic species.In the years 2007-2010 we carried out investigations in postindustrial soda ash dumping grounds located in Central Poland. We demonstrated that these areas serve as replacement habitats for thermophilic species of Spheciformes and, indirectly, for their potential prey. The studies were conducted in three microhabitat types, varying in soil moisture, salinity and alkalinity, that were changing in the course of ecological succession. We trapped 2571 specimens belonging to 64 species of digger wasps. Species typical of open sunny spaces comprised 73% of the whole inventory. The obtained results suggest that the stage of succession determines the richness, abundance and diversity of Spheciformes. The most favorable conditions for digger wasps were observed in habitats at late successional stages.Our results clearly showed that these habitats were replacement habitats for thermophilous Spheciformes, including rare taxa that require genetic, species and ecosystem protection, according to the Biodiversity Convention. We showed that some types of industry might play a positive role in the preservation of taxa in the landscape, and that even degraded industrial wasteland can replace habitats under anthropopressure, serving as refugia of biological diversity, especially for disturbance-dependent species.

  7. Effects of hot water pre-extraction on surface properties of bagasse soda pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Nereida; Ashori, Alireza; Hamzeh, Yahya; Faria, Marisa

    2013-03-01

    In this work, the effects of hot water pre-extraction of depithed bagasse on the soda pulping and surface properties were studied. The conditions of hot water pre-extraction were: maximum temperature 170 °C, heat-up time 90 min, time at maximum temperature 10 min, and solid to liquor ratio (S:L) 1:8. Consequently, the pre-extracted and un-extracted bagasse chips were subjected to soda pulping at 160 °C for 1h with 11, 14 and 17% active alkali charge and an S:L of 1:5. The results showed that the hot water pre-extraction increased bagasse surface texture porosity by hemicellulose degradation. Therefore, the delignification was faster for pulping of pre-extracted samples. At a certain charge of alkali, pre-extracted samples showed higher screened yield and lower Kappa number. For instance, at 17% alkali charge, pre-extracted bagasse gave 11.3% higher pulp yield compared with the un-extracted ones. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) results showed that the hot water pre-extraction changed the active sites on the bagasse surface, decreasing the dispersive energy and the basicity character, and affected the particle morphology. The pulping process decreased the hydrophobicity and the basicity of the bagasse surface. The surfaces of un-extracted and pre-extracted bagasse pulps had similar properties but different morphology. The pulps present higher surface area and permeability with more reactive capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Screening for comorbid conditions in patients enrolled in the SODA registry: a 2-year observational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodmansee, Whitney W; Gordon, Murray B; Molitch, Mark E; Ioachimescu, Adriana G; Carver, Don W; Mirakhur, Beloo; Cox, David; Salvatori, Roberto

    2018-05-16

    This 2-year analysis assessed frequency of comorbidities and comorbidity screening in the Somatuline ® (lanreotide, LAN) Depot for Acromegaly (SODA) registry. Patient data collected included pituitary hormone deficiencies, sleep studies, echocardiograms, gallbladder sonographies, colonoscopies, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and growth hormone levels in patients with (DM) and without (non-DM) diabetes mellitus were analyzed. There were 241 patients enrolled. Pituitary hormone deficiencies were reported more frequently at enrollment in male (56.9%) vs female patients (32.0%; p < 0.001). TSH deficiency was the most common endocrine deficiency (69.8%), followed by gonadotropin deficiency (62.3%). Screening tests reported at enrollment: sleep studies in 29.9% (79.2% had sleep apnea), echocardiogram in 46.1% (46.8% abnormal), gallbladder sonography in 18.7% (17.8% had gallstones), and colonoscopy in 48.1% (35.3% had polyps). Follow-up studies were reported less frequently at 1 and 2 years. HbA1c data were reported in 30.8% and 41.2% after 1 and 2 years. HbA1c levels were similar at 1 and 2 years of LAN therapy among DM and non-DM patients with available data. Fewer DM vs non-DM patients achieved IGF-1 below upper limit of normal at Month 24 (58.3% vs 80.6%; p = 0.033). Fewer than half of patients in SODA had screening results reported at enrollment for sleep apnea, cardiomyopathy, and colon polyps. Gallbladder imaging was reported in a minority of patients. Lower IGF-1 control rates were observed in DM vs non-DM patients at Month 24. These data suggest a need for better monitoring of comorbidities in US acromegaly patients.

  9. Perceptions on the use of bottled water in restaurants in Harare's Central Business District (CBD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juba, Olivia Sakhile; Tanyanyiwa, Vincent Itai

    2018-06-01

    Bottled water use continues to expand worldwide and in the last two decades, a significant number of consumers have shifted from tap water to bottled water due to Cryptosporidium outbreaks. Bottled water consumption has increased in Harare due to erratic tap water supplies. Since 2011, forty bottled water brands have been banned because of failure to meet safety and quality standards due to contamination, unsuitable packaging, and wrong labelling. Nevertheless, the bottled water industry continues to thrive as local authorities fail to adequately purify municipal water. The study assessed the perceptions on drinking bottled water in restaurants within Harare's CBD. Demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users were established and the role and influence of stakeholders in bottling and distribution of water documented. A field survey through the administration of questionnaires to fifty restaurant users was carried out to assess the perceptions of people on the use of bottled water in terms of its safety and potential health benefits. Key informant interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview with ten local water bottling companies as well as representatives from the Environmental Management Agency (EMA) and Standards Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Standard descriptive statistics were generated, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Consumers used bottled water as their primary drinking water source when they perceived that tap water was not safe. Perceptions of purity of water, bottled water convenience, and tap water unavailability seemed to determine consumption patterns among users. Females in the 18-48 age groups were more likely to think that bottled water was cleaner, safer, tasted better and was more convenient than tap water. Consumers regularly purchased bottled water for drinking and used bottled water as their primary drinking water

  10. [India: breast feeding is obsolete, the bottle is modern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, M

    1992-09-07

    In July, 1992 Indian health groups met in New Delhi to demand that the government promote a child nutrition code based on the 1981 code of the WHO which stated that mother's milk is quite sufficient and is the best nourishment for infants. Every day approximately 40,000 children are born in India, but thousands of them die in infancy because of infection caused by the unsanitary mixing of milk powder in unsterile bottles. Indian health activists want the government to regulate the production, access, and distribution of mother's milk substitutes, bottles, and child nutriments. A new law based on internationally recognized codes for marketing mother's milk substitutes could put an end to the present irresponsible marketing. Activists are not opposed to the production of milk powder, but they think it should only be used when the mother has no milk. The turnover of India's child nutrition industry is about $280 million per year with an annual increase of 5%. The use of bottle feeding has infiltrated the whole urban scene, and it is spreading in rural areas. Women consider bottle feeding a modern way of child feeding. 60 million kg of milk powder is produced yearly and sold under 25 different product names. Amul and Nestle command 85% of the growing market. Experts have calculated that 1 billion liters of mother's milk is wasted and replaced by substitute milk every year. Many Indian children get their first substitute milk at health posts where free or subsidized milk is distributed despite notices calling on mothers to breast-feed. According to a national survey sponsored by UNICEF, almost 1/2 of India's mothers give their children milk substitutes at the instigation of doctors or health personnel. 63% of children in the state of West Bengal were undernourished because families did not buy enough milk powder. The activists want the government to launch an offensive against the advertisement of breast milk substitutes in state-owned TV and radio and to promote proper

  11. Handbook of Plastic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the information about the laser welding of plastic. Laser welding is a matured process nevertheless laser welding of micro dimensional plastic parts is still a big challenge. This report collects the latest information about the laser welding of plastic...... materials and provides an extensive knowhow on the industrial plastic welding process. The objectives of the report include: - Provide the general knowhow of laser welding for the beginners - Summarize the state-of-the-art information on the laser welding of plastics - Find the technological limits in terms...... of design, materials and process - Find the best technology, process and machines adaptive to Sonion’s components - Provide the skills to Sonion’s Design Engineers for successful design of the of the plastic components suitable for the laser welding The ultimate goal of this report is to serve...

  12. Our plastic age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C; Swan, Shanna H; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S

    2009-07-27

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production. In this Theme Issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, we describe current and future trends in usage, together with the many benefits that plastics bring to society. At the same time, we examine the environmental consequences resulting from the accumulation of waste plastic, the effects of plastic debris on wildlife and concerns for human health that arise from the production, usage and disposal of plastics. Finally, we consider some possible solutions to these problems together with the research and policy priorities necessary for their implementation.

  13. Our plastic age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C.; Swan, Shanna H.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production. In this Theme Issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, we describe current and future trends in usage, together with the many benefits that plastics bring to society. At the same time, we examine the environmental consequences resulting from the accumulation of waste plastic, the effects of plastic debris on wildlife and concerns for human health that arise from the production, usage and disposal of plastics. Finally, we consider some possible solutions to these problems together with the research and policy priorities necessary for their implementation. PMID:19528049

  14. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE-PLASTIC

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Shakle

    2017-01-01

    Polythene is the most common plastic, the annual global production is approximately 60 million tones, and its primary use is in packing. Plastic bags pollute soil and waters and kill thousands of marine generalize plastic bags are not biodegradable they clog water ways, spoil the land scape and end up in landfills. Where they may take 1000 year or more to break down into ever smaller particals that continue to pollution the soil and water.

  16. Our plastic age

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Richard C.; Swan, Shanna H.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production. In this Theme Issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, we describe current and future trends in usage, together with the many benefits that plastics bring to society. At the same time, we examine the environmental consequences resulting from the accumulation of waste pl...

  17. Plasticity: modeling & computation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borja, Ronaldo Israel

    2013-01-01

    .... "Plasticity Modeling & Computation" is a textbook written specifically for students who want to learn the theoretical, mathematical, and computational aspects of inelastic deformation in solids...

  18. Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.

  19. Plastics and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  20. 77 FR 25721 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2... ``Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate--Small... an allowable level for di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). This final rule is effective April 16, 2012...

  1. 27 CFR 19.384 - Preparation of bottling or packaging record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... packaging record. 19.384 Section 19.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.384 Preparation of bottling or packaging record. The proprietor shall prepare a record for each batch of spirits...

  2. 75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli... determine whether any of the coliform organisms are Escherichia coli (E. coli), an indicator of fecal...

  3. Migration of bisphenol A into water from polycarbonate baby bottles during microwave heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, K.A.; Beumer, C.W.E.; Groot, M.C.E.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive migration database was established for bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles into water during exposure to microwave heating. Eighteen different brands of polycarbonate baby bottles sold in Europe were collected. Initial residual content of bisphenol A and migration after

  4. The switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia: a serious health risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komarulzaman, A.; Jong, E. de; Smits, J.P.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the consumption of refillable bottled water has increased considerably in emerging countries. However, the quality of this water is often questionable, as authorities lack the capacity to properly check refilling depots. Given that refillable bottled water not only replaces

  5. Nitrate and nitrite content in bottled beverages by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Deng, Gui-Fang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Chen, Yong-Hong; Chen, Feng; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite levels in six types of beverages--total of 292 individual samples from 73 brands (four bottles each)--from Guangzhou city in China were evaluated by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography. All samples contained nitrate. Nitrate and nitrite ranges were 0.43-46.08 and safety of Chinese bottled beverages.

  6. Effect of chemical preservation on the shelf-life of bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six samples of bottled intermediate moisture tomato paste were stored at ambient conditions (33-38°C). Four of the samples were preserved with chemicals. One of the last two samples which was bottled with no chemical preservatives added had palm oil filled onto its headspace. Shelf-like studies conducted for forty weeks ...

  7. Some mineral profiles of fresh and bottled palm wine – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some mineral profiles of fresh palm wine and those of seven brands of bottled palm wine were analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and the values were compared. Three of the bottled samples contained toxic levels of either Pb or Cd or both. Neither metal was detected in fresh palm wine. Zn, Cr and Ni were 2 to ...

  8. Temporal variation of microbiological and chemical quality of noncarbonated bottled drinking water sold in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, A T; Abayasekara, C L; Chandrajith, Rohana; Adikaram, N K B

    2012-03-01

    Use of bottled water in Sri Lanka has increased over the last decade, while new brands of bottled water are often introduced to the market. However, the manufacturers' adherence to bottled water regulations is questionable, raising concerns regarding the quality of bottled water. The objective of the current study was to investigate the microbiological and chemical quality of bottled water in Sri Lanka. Thirty bottled water brands were sampled and their chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed. Microbiological analysis was carried out within 1 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, and 9 to 12 mo after the date of manufacture. The results indicated that 63% of brands tested exceeded the levels permitted by the Sri Lanka Standards Institution (SLSI) for presumptive total coliforms (TC) (ammonia. The results of this study show the need for the bottling industry to be monitored closely by relevant authorities, in order to provide safe bottled drinking water to consumers in Sri Lanka. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. suitability of broken bottles as fine aggregate for production of concrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The maximum mean compressive strength of 19.0N/mm2 was obtained at 28days when sand and broken bottles were used in equal proportions. Density did not appear to have a discernible trend. For structural concrete, the proportion of broken bottles should be limited to 30% for early strength concrete and 40% when ...

  10. Reotemp Pressure Indicator - Local Pressure Indication to Monitor the SCHe Supply Bottle Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    1999-01-01

    These 0-3000 psig range pressure indicators are located in the SCHe helium supply lines at the pressure bottles and upstream of the PRV. These accident monitoring local pressure indicators monitor the SCHe supply bottle pressure. There is one pressure indicator for each SCHe supply (4)

  11. The switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia: a serious health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarulzaman, Ahmad; de Jong, Eelke; Smits, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the consumption of refillable bottled water has increased considerably in emerging countries. However, the quality of this water is often questionable, as authorities lack the capacity to properly check refilling depots. Given that refillable bottled water not only replaces unimproved water sources, but also better-quality sources, like piped and branded bottled water, its increasing use poses a major health risk. We investigate the motives behind the decision to switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia. Findings indicate that this switch is driven by lifestyle motives, as well as by cost and availability considerations. It is mostly the young affluent households who switch from piped and 'other' sources to refillable bottled water. In rural areas, the tendency to make this switch is negatively affected by availability problems and the higher price of refillable bottled water. Availability and cost also influence the switch from branded bottled to refillable bottled water, but here it is the poorer households who have a higher propensity to switch. Further exploration of the lifestyle motive and affordability issues, as well as better monitoring of the refilling depots, are needed to improve the quality of drinking water in Indonesia and other emerging countries.

  12. Optical vault: a reconfigurable bottle beam based on conical refraction of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, A; Shvedov, V; Hnatovsky, C; Loiko, Yu V; Mompart, J; Krolikowski, W

    2013-11-04

    We employ conical refraction of light in a biaxial crystal to create an optical bottle for photophoretic trapping and manipulation of particles in gaseous media. We show that by only varying the polarization state of the input light beam the optical bottle can be opened and closed in order to load and unload particles in a highly controllable manner.

  13. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for early identification of bacteria grown in blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabbe, Jean-Benoît; Zanardo, Laura; Mégraud, Francis; Bessède, Emilie

    2015-08-01

    This note reports an interesting way to rapidly identify bacteria grown from blood culture bottles. Chocolate agar plates were inoculated with 1 drop of the positive blood bottle medium. After a 3-hour incubation, the growth veil was submitted to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: 77% of the bacteria present have been correctly identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 27 CFR 19.402 - Inventories of bottled and packaged spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of bottled and... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing Operations Other Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Inventories § 19.402 Inventories of bottled and packaged...

  15. Color sorter for waste bottles; Hai garasu bin no iro senbetsu sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, M. [Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-08-12

    The recycling business about glass bottles having extended widely, ratio of recycled materials has come up to 55% out of all raw materials for bottle manufacturing. For the purpose of effective reuse, sorting by color into colorless, brown, green, etc. is indispensable. But, at present, this sorting work relies solely upon manpower. In response to the demand for automation of the above work, automatic color sorting system has been developed. In the first place, a pre-sorter can divide bottles into large ones (larger than 10cm in diameter), small ones and cullets. Bottles from the pre-sorter are arranged horizontally on a conveyer, and then light is shined in the direction from each bottle neck. By a color camera, each light permeated through a bottle bottom is caught. Next, by means of an image processing unit, bottles are gathered by color. Cullets are put on several conveyers and are separated by means of color sensors and air nozzles. Disposing capacity of one unit is 5,000 bottles/hr by each size, and one ton of cullets/hr. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa. Marthie M Ehlers, Walda B Van Zyl, Dobromir N Pavlov, Etienne E Muller. Abstract. Due to the increased demand and consumption of bottled water in South Africa, there has been a growing concern about the microbiological quality of this product.

  17. Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total and faecal coliform bacteria, enterococci, C. perfringens, bacteriophages or enteric viruses were not detected in any of the ten bottled water samples analysed. It can be concluded that the microbial quality of eight of the ten selected bottled water samples analysed was within the acceptable limits set by the SABS ...

  18. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN HUMAN FOOD... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one...

  19. Green synthesis of graphene from recycled PET bottle wastes for use in the adsorption of dyes in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Essawy, Noha A; Ali, Safa M; Farag, Hassan A; Konsowa, Abdelaziz H; Elnouby, Mohamed; Hamad, Hesham A

    2017-11-01

    Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) is an important component of post-consumer plastic waste. This study focuses on the potential of utilizing "waste-treats-waste" by synthesis of graphene using PET bottle waste as a source material. The synthesized graphene is characterized by SEM, TEM, BET, Raman, TGA, and FT-IR. The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) and acid blue 25 (AB25) by graphene is studied and parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dosage were optimized. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is applied to investigate the effect of three variables (dye concentration, time and temperature) and their interaction on the removal efficiency. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm are followed a pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters demonstrated that adsorption of dye is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The plastic waste can be used after transformation into valuable carbon-based nanomaterials for use in the adsorption of organic contaminants from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J-S; Kim, C K; Park, S H; Hirschi, K D; Mok, I- G

    2005-03-01

    We describe a procedure for producing transgenic bottle gourd plants by inoculating cotyledon explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1 that carries the binary vector pCAMBIA3301 containing a glufosinate ammonium-resistance (bar) gene and the beta-D-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The most effective bacterial infection was observed when cotyledon explants of 4-day-old seedlings were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for 6-8 days on co-cultivation medium supplemented with 0.1-0.001 mg/l L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine (AVG). The putatively transformed shoots directly emerged at the proximal end of cotyledon explants after 2-3 weeks of culturing on selection medium containing 2 mg/l DL-phosphinothricin. These shoots were rooted after 3 weeks of culturing on half-strength MS medium containing 0.1 mg/l indole acetic acid and 1 mg/l DL-phosphinothricin. Transgenic plants were obtained at frequencies of 1.9%. Stable integration and transmission of the transgenes in T1 generation plants were confirmed by a histochemical GUS assay, polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analyses. Genetic segregation analysis of T1 progenies showed that transgenes were inherited in a Mendelian fashion. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in bottle gourd.