WorldWideScience

Sample records for plastic products industry

  1. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF RUBBER & PLASTIC PRODUCTS INDUSTRY IN PUNJAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GULSHAN KUMAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study is an endeavour to investigate growth pattern and productivity trends in small scale rubber and plastic products industry of Punjab. The growth of industry has been gauged in terms of variables - number of units, fixed investment, employment and production. Yearly growth rates have been computed to catch year- to- year fluctuations in growth and compound annual growth rates (CAGRs have been worked out to ascertain the impact of the policies of liberalized regime on growth of this industry. Productivity trends have been sketched in terms of partial factor productivities of labour and capital. In order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the industry, SWOT analysis has been conducted. The study revealed that the liberalisation has promoted the use of capital intensive and labour saving techniques of production leading to a dismal growth of employment and sluggish growth of number of units.

  2. China Plastics Industry (2011) China Plastics Processing Industry Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying

    2012-01-01

    General situation of China plastics industry in 2011 was reviewed, including the output and export/import of plastics products, synthetic resins,and plastics processing machinery, as well as major economic data, such as the total industrial values, sales and profits of plastics products, etc. Analysis of the market of plastics products in 2011 was made, and the developing trend of China plastics industry in 2012 was proposed.

  3. Optimization of the Production Mixture of Selected Raw Material for Plastic Production: A Case Study of Louis Carter Plastic Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okolie Paul Chukwulozie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Statistical experiment design and analysis tools for the production have being developed specifically for the purpose of optimizing mixes, such as plastic products, in which the final product properties depend on the relative proportions of the components rather than their absolute amounts. Although mixture methods have been used in industries to develop products such as gasoline, metal alloys, detergents and foods, they have seen little application in the plastic industry. This paper describes an analysis in which a statistical mixture design tool called response surface design optimization tool was used to optimize the six mixture components of 25mm waste pipe, in order to obtain the optimal mixture ratio and their corresponding product yield. The results obtained show an optimal mixture ratio of PVC (45442.820, Stabilizer (1514.760, Calcium carbonate (0.0, Steric acid (151.480, Titanium (12.120, and Pigment (1.4079 for 25mm waste pipe. The optimal yield and composite desirability for 25mm waste pipe are 51990kg and 0.99990. The objective of the study from the result above was to reduce the wastage of raw materials, so as to increase the profitability of the final products. In addition, the model in use is recommended to the case company for effective utilisation of their various raw material mixes so as to obtain various optimal solutions of their raw materials mix and their various production yields.

  4. Globally Oriented Chinese Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Zhengpin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Through continued endeavor and persistent opening to the whole world the Chinese plastics industry has been developed into a comprehensive industrial system that forms the basic material industries side by side with the steel, cement and the timber industry.

  5. Production of biodegradable plastics from activated sludge generated from a food processing industrial wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, M; Mudliar, S N; Reddy, K M K; Chakrabarti, T

    2004-12-01

    Most of the excess sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (60%) is disposed by landfill. As a resource utilization of excess sludge, the production of biodegradable plastics using the sludge has been proposed. Storage polymers in bacterial cells can be extracted and used as biodegradable plastics. However, widespread applications have been limited by high production cost. In the present study, activated sludge bacteria in a conventional wastewater treatment system were induced, by controlling the carbon: nitrogen ratio to accumulate storage polymers. Polymer yield increased to a maximum 33% of biomass (w/w) when the C/N ratio was increased from 24 to 144, where as specific growth yield decreased with increasing C/N ratio. The conditions which are required for the maximum polymer accumulation were optimized and are discussed.

  6. The Story of the Plastics Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Don, Ed.

    This is an illustrated informative booklet, designed to serve members of the Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc., and the plastics industry as a whole. It provides basic information about the industry's history and growth, plastics raw materials, typical uses of plastics, properties, and methods of processing and fabricating. (Author/DS)

  7. Determinants of recycling common types of plastic product waste in environmental horticulture industry: The case of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ting; Klepacka, Anna M; Florkowski, Wojciech J; Braman, Kristine

    2016-02-01

    Environmental horticulture firms provide a variety of commercial/residential landscape products and services encompassing ornamental plant production, design, installation, and maintenance. The companies generate tons of waste including plastic containers, trays, and greenhouse/field covers, creating the need to reduce and utilize plastic waste. Based on survey data collected in Georgia in 2013, this paper investigates determinants of the environmental horticulture firms' recycling decision (plastic containers, flats, and greenhouse poly). Our findings indicate that the decision to discard vs. recycle plastic containers, flats, and greenhouse poly is significantly influenced by firm scope, size, location, and partnership with recycling providers, as well as whether recycling providers offer additional waste pickup services. Insights from this study are of use to local governments and environmental organizations interested in increasing horticultural firm participation in recycling programs and lowering the volume of plastic destined for landfills.

  8. Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

  9. Bacterial production of the biodegradable plastics polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtuvia, Viviana; Villegas, Pamela; González, Myriam; Seeger, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Petroleum-based plastics constitute a major environmental problem due to their low biodegradability and accumulation in various environments. Therefore, searching for novel biodegradable plastics is of increasing interest. Microbial polyesters known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable plastics. Life cycle assessment indicates that PHB is more beneficial than petroleum-based plastics. In this report, bacterial production of PHAs and their industrial applications are reviewed and the synthesis of PHAs in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 is described. PHAs are synthesized by a large number of microorganisms during unbalanced nutritional conditions. These polymers are accumulated as carbon and energy reserve in discrete granules in the bacterial cytoplasm. 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate are two main PHA units among 150 monomers that have been reported. B. xenovorans LB400 is a model bacterium for the degradation of polychlorobiphenyls and a wide range of aromatic compounds. A bioinformatic analysis of LB400 genome indicated the presence of pha genes encoding enzymes of pathways for PHA synthesis. This study showed that B. xenovorans LB400 synthesize PHAs under nutrient limitation. Staining with Sudan Black B indicated the production of PHAs by B. xenovorans LB400 colonies. The PHAs produced were characterized by GC-MS. Diverse substrates for the production of PHAs in strain LB400 were analyzed.

  10. Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Institute of Plastics Processing and processing center sponsored by UNDP. University. Application of Light Industry was Since 1999, it has been attached set up in 1983, based on the plastics to Beijing Technology and Business

  11. Decision aid tool and design approach for plastic recycling chain integration in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Maudet-Charbuillet, Carole; Bertoluci, Gwenola

    2012-01-01

    The many uses of plastics in our society are now compromised because of the social and environmental impacts they generate: exhaustion of petroleum resources, waste management... Plastics recycling appears to be one of the best ways to solve these problems. But Plastics Recycling Chains (PRC) are still emerging system. The automotive industry is directly concerned by plastic recycling through the End of Life Vehicles (ELV) directive which compels it to respect recycling rate for their product...

  12. Conditions for industrial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Brauer, H.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated.......The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated....

  13. Conditions for industrial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Brauer, H.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated.......The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated....

  14. Conditions for industrial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Brauer, H.

    1996-01-01

    The possibilities of making xerogel glazings in an industrial way is discussed and a schematic outline of a production line is presented.......The possibilities of making xerogel glazings in an industrial way is discussed and a schematic outline of a production line is presented....

  15. Conditions for industrial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Brauer, H.

    1996-01-01

    The possibilities of making xerogel glazings in an industrial way is discussed and a schematic outline of a production line is presented.......The possibilities of making xerogel glazings in an industrial way is discussed and a schematic outline of a production line is presented....

  16. Applications of terahertz spectroscopy in the plastics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietzke, S.; Rutz, F.; Jördens, C.; Krumbholz, N.; Vieweg, N.; Jansen, C.; Wilk, R.; Koch, M.

    2008-03-01

    The worldwide production volume of polymers is still rising exponentially and the number of applications for plastic components steadily increases. Yet, many branches within the polymer industry are hardly supported by non-destructive testing techniques. We demonstrate that terahertz (THz) spectroscopy could be the method of choice to ensure high-quality polymer products. Applications range from the in-line monitoring of extrusion processes and the quality control of commodities in a mass production up to a total inspection of high-tech safety relevant products. Furthermore, we present an extension to THz time-domain spectroscopy in the form of a new data extraction algorithm, which derives the absorption coefficient, the refractive index and the thickness of a sample with very high precision in a single pass. Apart from that, we discuss the ability of THz systems for quality control of polymeric compounds. Here, it is essential to monitor the additive content as well as additive inhomogeneities within the mixture. Recently, we built a fiber-coupled THz spectrometer for in-line monitoring of compounding processes. Additionally, we demonstrate the potential of THz systems for the non-destructive and contactless testing of structural components. THz imaging is capable of analyzing material thicknesses, superstructures, the quality of plastic weld joints, and of detecting flaws in components. Plastics and THz form a very fruitful symbiosis. In return, plastics industry can provide THz systems with custom-tailored components, which have very attractive properties and extremely low costs. Examples of this development are photonic crystals or polymeric Bragg filters, which have recently been demonstrated.

  17. The prospects and challenges of plastic industries in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Pintu, MD. Nazmul Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Plastic is one of the most used engineered material in Bangladesh that has come out as im-portant industrial sector during the last few decades. The size of Domestic market is more than thousands of billions euros. The available cheap labor, vast population and fast development of plastics wastes recycling industries have given Bangladesh a huge potential advantages to compete in the global market. Although, plastics sector is one of the most growing markets in Bangladesh, but still it is fac...

  18. A survey of economic indices of plastic wastes recycling industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Hassanpour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous small recycling units of plastic wastes have been currently constructed heedless to study of economic indices in Iran. Pay attention to the prominent performance of the industrial sector for economic development and its priority for fortifying other sectors to implement job opportunities, survey of the economic indices beckon the stakeholders and industries owners. The main objective of this study was a survey of economic indices in small recycling unit of plastic wastes. Therefore, the practice of computing the economic indices was performed using empirical equations, professional experiences and observations in site of the industry in terms of sustainability performance. Current study had shown the indices values such as value-added percent, profit, annual income, breakeven point, value-added, output value, data value, variable cost of good unit and production costs were found 62%, $ 366558, $ 364292.6, $ 100.34, $ 423451.25, $ 255335.75, $ 678787, $ 389.65 and $ 314494.4 respectively. The breakeven point about 15.93%, the time of return on investment about 1.12 (13.7 months were represented that this industry slightly needs long time to afford the employed capital and starts making a profit.

  19. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Martín-Fernández, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large...... recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP...... product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE FOR FORMING SMALL PLASTIC ARTICLES FOR SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    OYETUNJI, A.

    2010-01-01

    Development of small injection moulding machine for forming small plastic articles in small-scale industries was studied. This work which entailed design, construction and test small injection moulding machine that was capable of forming small plastic articles by injecting molten resins into a closed, cooled mould, where it solidifies to give the desired products was developed. The machine was designed and constructed to work as a prototype for producing very small plastic components. Design ...

  1. Society of the plastic industry process emission initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdermott, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    At first view, plastics process emissions research may not seem to have much bearing on outgassing considerations relative to advanced composite materials; however, several parallel issues and cross currents are of mutual interest. The following topics are discussed: relevance of plastics industry research to aerospace composites; impact of clean air act amendment requirements; scope of the Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. activities in thermoplastic process emissions and reinforced plastics/composites process emissions; and utility of SPI research for advanced polymer composites audiences.

  2. Health hazards among workers in plastic industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Sawsan Farouk; Elshafy, Wessam Sabry

    2013-10-01

    Styrene is a basic building block for manufacturing thousands of products throughout the world. The present study aimed to (1) detect the presence of styrene and/or its metabolites in the workers in one of the Egyptian plastic factories; (2) demonstrate some common health effects of styrene exposure among the same group by some laboratory investigations and compare them with the unexposed healthy individuals; and (3) correlate the duration of styrene exposure and its level in the blood with the severity of the demonstrated health effects. This study was conducted in one of Egyptian plastic factories. The exposed group was 40 male workers, ranging in age from 18 to 33 years (23.20 ± 4.09), working 12 h/day with 1 day off, and working without any protective equipment. A control group of 50 unexposed healthy males matched with the exposed group for age (21-35 yrs (23.40 ± 4.05)), sex, socioeconomic status, and smoking habit is selected. Written individual consent is obtained from all participants followed by (a) a full medical and occupational history and full clinical examination; (b) ventilatory function tests: forced vital capacity (FVC), slow vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV₁)%, FEV₁/FVC%, peak expiratory flow, and mid-expiratory flow 25-75%; (c) analyses of β₂ microglobulin; blood styrene level; and urinary mandelic acid; and (d) cytogenetic study. The study results showed a statistically significant difference between the exposed and the control groups as regard the blood styrene level, urinary mandelic acid level, β₂ microgloblin in urine, and chromosomal study. The study also showed a statistically significant correlation between the duration of styrene exposure and ventilatory function parameters, also between the duration of styrene exposure and some detectable chromosomal aberrations. Our study recommends the implementation of preemployment and periodic medical examinations and health education programs using

  3. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Eriksen, M K; Martín-Fernández, J A; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2016-08-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large volumes and are commonly used as plasticisers in plastics manufacturing. Potential impacts on human health require restricted use in selected applications and a need for the closer monitoring of potential sources of human exposure. Although the presence of phthalates in a variety of plastics has been recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP had the highest frequency of detection in the samples analysed, with 360μg/g, 460μg/g and 2700μg/g as the maximum measured concentrations, respectively. Among other, statistical analysis of the analytical results suggested that phthalates were potentially added in the later stages of plastic product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications is recommended if recycled plastics are to be used as raw material in production.

  4. Development trends and market analysis of China's plastics industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zheng-Pin

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's plastics industry has witnessed the leap-forward development with the stable and sound growth of national economy,having increased its economic and technical indicators stably and greatly for consecutive ten years.

  5. PHENOLIC RESINS AND THE PLASTICS INDUSTRY: YESTERDAY, TODAY, AND TOMORROW%PHENOLIC RESINS AND THE PLASTICS INDUSTRY:YESTERDAY,TODAY,AND TOMORROW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Louis Pilato

    2010-01-01

    During 2010,Phenolic Resins celebrate 100years of existence.Dr.Leo Baekeland began commercial production of phenolic resins in May 1910 in Germany and October 1910 in the United States.This activity launched the Plastics Industry as it is recognized today.It is estimated that about 255 million tons of plastics will be produced worldwide in 2010 and consist of thermoplastic,thermosetting and elastomeric materials.Some of these polymeric materials are further transformed into fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) utilizing fibers such as carbon fiber,glass fiber,and organic fibers such as Kevlar,Spectra (ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene) and others.

  6. HEPHAISTOS - energy efficiency and innovation by microwave technology for the industrial production of polymers and reinforced plastics; HEPHAISTOS - Energieeffizienz und Innovation durch Mikrowellentechnik fuer die industrielle Produktion von polymeren Verbundwerkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, L.; Stanculovic, S.; Akhtar, J.; Nuss, V.; Seitz, T.; Zoeller, C.; Layer, S.; Dittrich, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochleistungsimpuls- und Mikrowellentechnik

    2007-07-01

    High mobility and resources consumption today characterize a global, export-oriented economy. Increasing scarcity of resources and energy, however, will influence the cost structure of products, services, locations, and mobility. Provident, innovative developments give rise to new, resources-efficient production processes, systems, and materials. For some years now, innovative approaches have been pursued by to opening up energy-efficient applications with microwaves by technology transfer to industry. By this work, an innovative modular microwave system line HEPHAISTOS with very homogeneous field distributions has been developed. Several industrial installations have been realized and taken into service at the new HEPHAISTOS-Experimental Centre (HEC) to develop highly efficient sophisticated processes actually targeted at avionic CFRP (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics) structures. (orig.)

  7. Melt rheology and its applications in the plastics industry

    CERN Document Server

    Dealy, John M

    2013-01-01

    This is the second edition of Melt Rheology and its Role in Plastics Processing, although the title has changed to reflect its broadened scope. Advances in the recent years in rheometer technology and polymer science have greatly enhanced the usefulness of rheology in the plastics industry. It is now possible to design polymers having specific molecular structures and to predict the flow properties of melts having those structures. In addition, rheological properties now provide more precise information about molecular structure. This book provides all the information that is needed for the intelligent application of rheology in the development of new polymers, the determination of molecular structure and the correlation of processability with laboratory test data. Theory and equations are limited to what is essential for the use of rheology in the characterization of polymers, the development of new plastics materials and the prediction of plastics processing behavior. The emphasis is on information that wil...

  8. From waste plastics to industrial raw materials: A life cycle assessment of mechanical plastic recycling practice based on a real-world case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fu; Guo, Jianfeng; Zhang, Wujie; Summers, Peter A; Hall, Philip

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical recycling of waste plastics is an environmental solution to the problem of waste plastic disposal, and has already become a common practice in industry. However, limited information can be found on either the industralised plastic recycling or the recycled materials, despite the use of recycled plastics has already extended to automobile production. This study investigates the life cycle environmental impacts of mechanical plastic recycling practice of a plastic recycling company in China. Waste plastics from various sources, such as agricultural wastes, plastic product manufacturers, collected solid plastic wastes and parts dismantled from waste electric and electronic equipments, are processed in three routes with products end up in different markets. The results of life cycle assessments show that the extrusion process has the largest environmental impacts, followed by the use of fillers and additives. Compared to production of virgin plastics and composites, the mechanical recycling is proved to be a superior alternative in most environmental aspects. Substituting virgin plastic composites with recycled plastic composites has achieved the highest environmental benefits, as virgin composite production has an impact almost 4 times higher that of the recycled composite production in each ReCiPe endpoint damage factor. Sensitivity analysis shows that the coverage of collecting network contribute affect little to overall environmental impact, and centralisation plays an important role in reducing overall environmental impacts. Among the fillers and additives, impact modifiers account for the most significant contributions to the environmental impacts of recycled composites. This study provides necessary information about the existing industrialised plastic recycling practice, and recommendations are given. Research implications are presented with the purpose to achieve higher substitution rate and lower environmental impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  9. Forest Products Industry Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This document describes the forest products industry's research and development priorities. The original technology roadmap published by the industry in 1999 and was most recently updated in April 2010.

  10. PRIME - Plastics Research and Innovation for Museums and Industry; extreme user innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cone, Louise

    A research project by artists industrial plastics develpers, polymer scientists and art conservators, 2011-13......A research project by artists industrial plastics develpers, polymer scientists and art conservators, 2011-13...

  11. PRIME: Plastics Research and Innovation for Museums and Industry; extreme user innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye, Lars; Cone, Louise

    A research project by artists industrial plastics develpers, polymer scientists and art conservators, 2011-13......A research project by artists industrial plastics develpers, polymer scientists and art conservators, 2011-13...

  12. Oregon's forest products industry: 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James O. Howard; Bruce A. Hiserote

    1976-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a 100-percent canvas of the primary forest products industry in Oregon for 1976. Tabular presentation includes characteristics of the industry log consumption and disposition of mill residues. Accompanying the tables is a descriptive analysis of conditions and trends in the industry.

  13. Sustainable Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattebö, Helge; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Lorentzen, Børge

    The book discusses the concepts of waste minimization, cleaner technology and industrial ecology, including the experiences with employee participation in preventive environmental activities in companies.......The book discusses the concepts of waste minimization, cleaner technology and industrial ecology, including the experiences with employee participation in preventive environmental activities in companies....

  14. Sustainable Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case is to create awareness about a somewhat unfamiliar industry that accounts for over €3 billion in Scandinavia and £5,6 billion in the UK, the Metals recycling industry. The case features a Scandinavian Company and includes several perspectives from managerial disciplines...

  15. Sustainable Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattebö, Helge; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Lorentzen, Børge

    The book discusses the concepts of waste minimization, cleaner technology and industrial ecology, including the experiences with employee participation in preventive environmental activities in companies.......The book discusses the concepts of waste minimization, cleaner technology and industrial ecology, including the experiences with employee participation in preventive environmental activities in companies....

  16. Transformer Industry Productivity Slows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Phyllis Flohr

    1981-01-01

    Annual productivity increases averaged 2.4 percent during 1963-79, slowing since 1972 to 1.5 percent; computer-assisted design and product standardization aided growth in output per employee-hour. (Author)

  17. Plastic optical fibre sensor for quality control in food industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, C.; Bilro, L.; Ferreira, R.; Alberto, N.; Antunes, P.; Leitão, C.; Nogueira, R.; Pinto, J. L.

    2013-05-01

    The present work addresses the need for new devices felt in the context of quality control, especially in the food industry. Due to the spectral dependence of the attenuation coefficient, a novel dual-parameter sensor for colour and refractive index was developed and tested. The sensor employs plastic optical fibres to measure the transmitted optical power in three measurement cells each with a different incident wavelength. The performance of the sensor was tested using several dyes at different concentrations and aqueous solutions of glycerine and ethanol. Results show that this technique allows the monitoring of refractive index and colour without cross-sensitivity.

  18. Bio-based and biodegradable plastics for use in crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggi, Ezio; Santagata, Gabriella; Malinconico, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The production and management of crops uses plastics for many applications (e.g., low tunnels, high tunnels, greenhouses, mulching, silage bags, hay bales, pheromone traps, coatings of fertilizers or pesticides or hormones or seeds, and nursery pots and containers for growing transplants). All these applications have led some authors to adopt the term "plasticulture" when discussing the use of plastic materials in agriculture and related industries. Unfortunately, the sustainability of this use of plastics is low, and renewability and degradability have become key words in the debate over sustainable production and utilization of plastic. Recently, researchers and the plastics industry have made strong efforts (i) to identify new biopolymers and natural additives from renewable sources that can be used in plastics production and (ii) to enhance the degradability (biological or physical) of the new ecologically sustainable materials. In the present review, we describe the main research results, current applications, patents that have been applied for in the last two decades, and future perspectives on sustainable use of plastics to support crop production. The article presents some promising patents on bio-based and biodegradable plastics for use in crop production.

  19. Plasmonic Structural Colors for Plastic Consumer Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Today colorants, such as pigments or dyes, are used to color plastic-based consumer products, either as base for solid colored bulk polymer or in inks for surface decoration. After usage, the products must be mechanically sorted by color before recycling, limiting any large-scale efficient...... recycling effort. As an alternative to chemistry-based coloring, nano-scale structural coloring has been proposed to reduce the number of materials needed and to increase pattern resolution. Here colors are created by structural based light-matter interactions in the surface. Thereby, the sorting by color...... can be avoided in the recycling state. Plasmon color technology based on aluminum has recently been firmly established as a route towards structural coloring of polymeric materials. We report on the fabrication of colors by localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) using roll-to-roll printing...

  20. Use of polycarbonate plastic products and human health

    OpenAIRE

    R. K. Srivastava; Sushila Godara

    2013-01-01

    As plastic and plastic products are being used in day to day at the cost of environment pollution, the human and wild life health and has become a global concern. Researchers found link between abnormal liver enzymes in the people and Bisphenol-A (BPA). Changes in insulin resistance, reproduction system, cardiovascular and brain function are also reported. BPA is used in the production of epoxy resins, polycarbonate resins, and polyester resins. BPA can leach out of certain plastic products i...

  1. Replacing fossil based plastic performance products by bio-based plastic products-Technical feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Oever, Martien; Molenveld, Karin

    2017-07-25

    Larger scale market introduction of new bio-based products requires a clear advantage regarding sustainability, as well as an adequate techno-economic positioning relative to fossil based products. In a previous paper [Broeren et al., 2016], LCA results per kg and per functionality equivalent of bio-based plastics were presented, together with economic considerations. The present paper discusses the mechanical and thermal properties of a range of commercially available bio-based plastics based on polylactic acid (PLA), cellulose esters, starch and polyamides, and the feasibility of replacing fossil-based counterparts based on performance. The evaluation is approached from an end user perspective. First, potentially suitable bio-based plastics are selected based on manufacturers' specifications in technical data sheets, then a first experimental evaluation is performed on injection moulded ISO specimens, and finally a further selection of plastics is tested on large 50×70cm panels. This technical feasibility study indicates that so far bio-based plastics do not completely match the properties of high performance materials like flame retardant V-0 PC/ABS blends used in electronic devices. The performance gap is being decreased by the development of stereocomplex PLA and hybrid PLA blends with polycarbonate, which offer clearly improved properties with respect to maximum usage temperature and toughness. In addition, several materials meet the V-0 flammability requirements needed in specific durable applications. On the other hand, improving these properties so far has negative consequences for the bio-based content. This study also shows that replacement of bulk polymers like PS is feasible using PLA compounds with a bio-based content as high as 85%.

  2. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  3. Managing plastic waste in East Africa: Niche innovations in plastic production and solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ombis, L.O.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the uptake of environmental innovation practices to cope with plastic waste in Kenyan urban centres at the interface of solid waste management and plastic production systems. The Multi Level Perspective on Technological Transitions is used to evaluate 7 innovation pathways of pla

  4. Managing plastic waste in East Africa: Niche innovations in plastic production and solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ombis, L.O.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the uptake of environmental innovation practices to cope with plastic waste in Kenyan urban centres at the interface of solid waste management and plastic production systems. The Multi Level Perspective on Technological Transitions is used to evaluate 7 innovation pathways of

  5. APPLICATION OF PROFITABILITY CONCEPT: A CASE IN THE PLASTIC RECYCLING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Oke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:In this article the principles of industrial engineering are applied to maximize the profitability of the recycling industry. A case in the plastic recycling industry is presented to demonstrate the practical application of the financial calculation functions developed in the paper. In particular, the profitability maximization concept for the plastic recycling industry was examined, based on the theory of demand and supply. By estimating the profit realizable on regular as well as high product demand, part of the objective of the paper was achieved. Inventory principles were further applied to determine optimum inventory levels.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die beginsels van bedryfsingenieurswese word in die artikel toegepas om die maksimisering van winsgewendheid by herwinbaarheidsvraagstukke te bewerkstellig. 'n Voorbeeld wat voorkom by die herwinbaarheid van plastiek word voorgehou om te toon hoedat finansiële modellering aangewend kan word. Voorraadhouding onder toestande van stabiele en toenemende vraag word behandel en in besonderheid ondersoek.

  6. Production of Methane and Water from Crew Plastic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captain, Janine; Santiago, Eddie; Parrish, Clyde; Strayer, Richard F.; Garland, Jay L.

    2008-01-01

    Recycling is a technology that will be key to creating a self sustaining lunar outpost. The plastics used for food packaging provide a source of material that could be recycled to produce water and methane. The recycling of these plastics will require some additional resources that will affect the initial estimate of starting materials that will have to be transported from earth, mainly oxygen, energy and mass. These requirements will vary depending on the recycling conditions. The degredation products of these plastics will vary under different atmospheric conditions. An estimate of the the production rate of methane and water using typical ISRU processes along with the plastic recycling will be presented.

  7. Information Requirements for Selection of Plastics for Use in Building. Proceedings of Conference of the Building Research Institute, Division of Engineering and Industrial Research (Spring 1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    Several aspects of plastics used in the building industry are discussed, and a general information format for specifying plastics in building construction is given. This format includes--(1) description of product, (2) physical properties, (3) design criteria, (4) installation, (5) maintenance, (6) economics, and (7) case histories. Several uses…

  8. Greenhouse gas mitigation for U.S. plastics production: energy first, feedstocks later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posen, I. Daniel; Jaramillo, Paulina; Landis, Amy E.; Griffin, W. Michael

    2017-03-01

    Plastics production is responsible for 1% and 3% of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and primary energy use, respectively. Replacing conventional plastics with bio-based plastics (made from renewable feedstocks) is frequently proposed as a way to mitigate these impacts. Comparatively little research has considered the potential for green energy to reduce emissions in this industry. This paper compares two strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. plastics production: using renewable energy or switching to renewable feedstocks. Renewable energy pathways assume all process energy comes from wind power and renewable natural gas derived from landfill gas. Renewable feedstock pathways assume that all commodity thermoplastics will be replaced with polylactic acid (PLA) and bioethylene-based plastics, made using either corn or switchgrass, and powered using either conventional or renewable energy. Corn-based biopolymers produced with conventional energy are the dominant near-term biopolymer option, and can reduce industry-wide GHG emissions by 25%, or 16 million tonnes CO2e/year (mean value). In contrast, switching to renewable energy cuts GHG emissions by 50%–75% (a mean industry-wide reduction of 38 million tonnes CO2e/year). Both strategies increase industry costs—by up to 85/tonne plastic (mean result) for renewable energy, and up to 3000 tonne‑1 plastic for renewable feedstocks. Overall, switching to renewable energy achieves greater emission reductions, with less uncertainty and lower costs than switching to corn-based biopolymers. In the long run, producing bio-based plastics from advanced feedstocks (e.g. switchgrass) and/or with renewable energy can further reduce emissions, to approximately 0 CO2e/year (mean value).

  9. Thermal comfort study of plastics manufacturing industry in converting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiono Sugiono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is one of ergonomics factors that can create a significant impact to workers performance. For a better thermal comfort, several environment factors (air temperature, wind speed and relative humidity should be considered in this research. The object of the study is a building for converting process of plastics manufacturing industry located in Malang, Indonesia. The maximum air temperature inside the building can reach as high as 36°C. The result of this study shows that heat stress is dominantly caused by heat source from machine and wall building. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation is used to show the air characteristic through inside the building. By using the CFD simulation, some scenarios of solution are successfully presented. Employees thermal comfort was investigated based on predicted mean vote model (PMV and predicted percentage of dissatisfied model (PPD. Existing condition gives PMV in range from 1.83 to 2.82 and PPD in range from 68.9 to 98%. Meanwhile, modification of ventilation and replacing ceiling material from clear glass into reflective clear glass gave significant impact to reduce PMV into range from 1.63 to 2.18 and PPD into range from 58.2 to 84.2%. In sort, new design converting building process has more comfortable for workers.

  10. Biotechnological conversion of agro-industrial wastewaters into biodegradable plastic, poly beta-hydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Suresh Kumar, M; Mudliar, Sandeep N; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2007-12-01

    Waste activated sludge generated from a combined dairy and food processing industry wastewater treatment plant was evaluated for its potential to produce biodegradable plastic, poly beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB). Deproteinized jowar grain-based distillery spentwash yielded 42.3% PHB production (w/w), followed by filtered rice grain-based distillery spentwash (40% PHB) when used as substrates. Addition of di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP) resulted in an increase in PHB production to 67% when raw rice grain-based spentwash was used. Same wastewater, after removal of suspended solids by filtration and with DAHP supplementation resulted in lower PHB production (57.9%). However, supplementing other wastes with DAHP led to a substantial decrease in PHB content in comparison to what was observed in the absence of DAHP.

  11. Study of mortars with industrial residual plastic scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magariños, O. E.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the utilization of industrial residues of PET (Polyethylene Terephtalate as a partial substitute of arids (sand in mortar making for construction components. Therefore, the environmental impact of large volumes of plastic of urban residues could be decreased. When PET scales were added to mortars in partial replacement of sand, lower unitary weight, acceptable absorption and resistances according to international specifications were achieved. Mortars with 66% of sand replacement by scales and without any additive, showed optimal characteristics to be used in concret block manufacturing.

    Este trabajo de investigación se desarrolla a partir de la hipótesis de utilizar los desechos post-industriales de PET (Tereftalato de Polietileno como sustituto de áridos (arena, ingrediente de morteros, en la fabricación de componentes constructivos. En dicho trabajo se estudian las propiedades físico-químicas de distintos morteros en los que se reemplazó el contenido de árido por escamas de plástico en distintas proporciones. Se compararon y evaluaron las propiedades físico-mecánicas de los morteros en estudio con los convencionales mediante ensayos de resistencia a la flexión, compresión, absorción, durabilidad y microfotografías por barrido electrónico. Estos estudios determinaron que el agregado de PET en morteros puede ser usado como un posible sustituto de áridos, ya que se obtuvieron morteros con 66% de reemplazo de arena por escamas que presentaron menor peso unitario, absorción aceptable y resistencias acordes a las exigidas por normas.

  12. Production, use, and fate of all plastics ever made

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Roland; Jambeck, Jenna R.; Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-01

    Plastics have outgrown most man-made materials and have long been under environmental scrutiny. However, robust global information, particularly about their end-of-life fate, is lacking. By identifying and synthesizing dispersed data on production, use, and end-of-life management of polymer resins, synthetic fibers, and additives, we present the first global analysis of all mass-produced plastics ever manufactured. We estimate that 8300 million metric tons (Mt) as of virgin plastics have been produced to date. As of 2015, approximately 6300 Mt of plastic waste had been generated, around 9% of which had been recycled, 12% was incinerated, and 79% was accumulated in landfills or the natural environment. If current production and waste management trends continue, roughly 12,000 Mt of plastic waste will be in landfills or in the natural environment by 2050. PMID:28776036

  13. [Influence of impurities on waste plastics pyrolysis: products and emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zhong-Hui; Chen, De-Zhen; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Luan, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the impact of impurities like food waste, paper, textile and especially soil on the pyrolysis of waste plastics. For this purpose, emissions, gas and liquid products from pyrolysis of waste plastics and impurities were studied, as well as the transfer of element N, Cl, S from the substrates to the pyrolysis products. It was found that the presence of food waste would reduce the heat value of pyrolysis oil to 27 MJ/kg and increase the moisture in the liquid products, therefore the food residue should be removed from waste plastics; and the soil, enhance the waste plastics' pyrolysis by improving the quality of gas and oil products. The presence of food residue, textile and paper leaded to higher gas emissions.

  14. Process industries - graphic arts, paint, plastics, and textiles: all cousins under the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Frederick T.

    2002-06-01

    The origin and selection of colors in the process industries is different depending upon how the creative process is applied and what are the capabilities of the manufacturing process. The fashion industry (clothing) with its supplier of textiles is the leader of color innovation. Color may be introduced into textile products at several stages in the manufacturing process from fiber through yarn and finally into fabric. The paint industry is divided into two major applications: automotive and trades sales. Automotive colors are selected by stylists who are in the employ of the automobile manufacturers. Trade sales paint on the other hand can be decided by paint manufactureres or by invididuals who patronize custom mixing facilities. Plastics colors are for the most part decided by the industrial designers who include color as part of the design. Graphic Arts (painting) is a burgeoning industry that uses color in image reproduction and package design. Except for text, printed material in color today has become the norm rather than an exception.

  15. Production of grids in plastic detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Birabeau, J P; Brun, R; Cordaillat, A; Mendola, Onofrio

    1972-01-01

    In order to facilitate the locating of tracks of charged particles in cellulose nitrate and polycarbonate (makrofol, lexan) foils, a method has been developed for the photo-deposition of translucent coordinate grids on this materials. The grids are resistant to the strongly caustic solutions used in developing tracks in plastic foils. (9 refs) .

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE FOR FORMING SMALL PLASTIC ARTICLES FOR SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OYETUNJI, A.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of small injection moulding machine for forming small plastic articles in small-scale industries was studied. This work which entailed design, construction and test small injection moulding machine that was capable of forming small plastic articles by injecting molten resins into a closed, cooled mould, where it solidifies to give the desired products was developed. The machine was designed and constructed to work as a prototype for producing very small plastic components. Design concept, operation, and assembly of components parts were made. Also, working drawings and materials selection were made based on calculations of the diameter of injection plunger, number of teeth required for the plunger rack and spur gear, the angular velocity, number of revolution, torque and power obtained from the electric motor selected and the leverage on the handle of the machine. The machine parts/components were then assembled in line with the designed made, thereafter the constructed machine was tested using high density polyethylene and master batch. The results obtained from the test were satisfactory.

  17. Foliar nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in trees in environmentally toxic plastic industry area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, Rupnarayan; Soni, Bhawna

    2013-04-01

    In plants, nitrogen deficiency causes stunted growth and chlorosis or yellowing of the leaves due to decreased levels of chlorophyll, while excess nitrogen uptake may cause dark green overly vigorous foliage which may have increased susceptibility to disease and insect attacks. Phosphorus is an important nutrient in crop production, since many soils in their native state do not have sufficient available phosphorus to maximize crop yield. Potassium deficiency may cause necrosis or interveinal chlorosis. Plastics are synthetic or semi-synthetic moldable organic solids that are organic polymers of high molecular mass, most commonly derived from petrochemicals; these polymers are based on chains of carbon atoms alone or with oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen. Plastic is a non- biodegradable major toxic pollutant. It pollutes earth and leads to air pollution and water pollution. Merely there is any safe way to dispose the hazardous plastic wastes. The study was targeted to estimate foliar level of NPK content of three plant species, viz. Cassia tora (Herb), Ailanthus excelsa (Tree) and Dalbergia sissoo (Tree) from polluted areas associated to polythene-industries as well as control areas having least pollution, where all the parameters were found to be higher than the control experiments.

  18. Industrialization of Technology on Bio-degradable Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On August 14, 2004, aresearch project titled "Preparation of Aliphatic Ester Polycarbonate and Degradable Foam Plastics by Using Carbon Dioxide" passed its technical appraisal by experts under the sponsorship of the National Bureau of Environmental Protection.

  19. Phenotypic plasticity in sex pheromone production in Bicyclus anynana butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Emilie; Monteiro, Antónia; Yew, Joanne Y

    2016-12-14

    Phenotypic plasticity refers to the environmental control of phenotypes. Cues experienced during development (developmental plasticity) or during adulthood (acclimatization) can both affect adult phenotypes. Phenotypic plasticity has been described in many traits but examples of developmental plasticity in physiological traits, in particular, remain scarce. We examined developmental plasticity and acclimatization in pheromone production in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana in response to rearing temperature. B. anynana lives in the African tropics where warm rearing temperatures of the wet season produce active males that court and females that choose, whereas cooler temperatures of the dry season lead to choosy less active males and courting females. We hypothesized that if male pheromone production is costly, it should be reduced in the dry season form. After describing the ultrastructure of pheromone producing cells, we showed that dry season males produced significantly less sex pheromones than wet season males, partly due to acclimatization and partly due to developmental plasticity. Variation in levels of one of the compounds is associated with differential regulation of a pheromone biosynthetic enzyme gene. This plasticity might be an adaptation to minimize pheromone production costs during the stressful dry season.

  20. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  1. TRANSPORT PLANNING MODEL FOR WIDE AREA RECYCLING SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE PLASTIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Hisashi; Koizumi, Akira; Mogi, Satoshi

    To date, the majority of industrial waste plastic generated in an urban city has been processed into landfill. However, it is now necessary to actively utilize that plastic as a useful resource to create a recycling society with a low environment influence. In order to construct a reasonable recycling system, it is necessary to address the "transportation problem," which means determining how much industrial waste plastic is to be transported to what location. With the goal of eliminating landfill processing, this study considers a transport planning model for industrial waste plastic applying linear programming. The results of running optimized calculations under given scenarios clarified not only the possibilities for recycle processing in the Metropolitan area, but also the validity of wide area recycling system.

  2. Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Jeppe S; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Christiansen, Alexander B; Yazdi, Sadegh; Grajower, Meir; Taha, Hesham; Levy, Uriel; Kristensen, Anders; Mortensen, N Asger

    2014-08-13

    We present reflective plasmonic colors based on the concept of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) for plastic consumer products. In particular, we bridge the widely existing technological gap between clean-room fabricated plasmonic metasurfaces and the practical call for large-area structurally colored plastic surfaces robust to daily life handling. We utilize the hybridization between LSPR modes in aluminum nanodisks and nanoholes to design and fabricate bright angle-insensitive colors that may be tuned across the entire visible spectrum.

  3. Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Coloration of Plastic Consumer Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Christiansen, Alexander Bruun;

    2014-01-01

    We present reflective plasmonic colors based on the concept of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) for plastic consumer products. In particular, we bridge the widely existing technological gap between clean-room fabricated plasmonic metasurfaces and the practical call for large......-area structurally colored plastic surfaces robust to daily life handling. We utilize the hybridization between LSPR modes in aluminum nanodisks and nanoholes to design and fabricate bright angle-insensitive colors that may be tuned across the entire visible spectrum....

  4. Prediction of the nonlinear creep deformation of plastic products

    OpenAIRE

    Spoormaker, Jan; Skrypnyk, Ihor; Heidweiller, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Based on an example of the non-linear creep deformations of an air inlet, thispaper demonstrates modern capabilities in the FEA modeling of complex 3D visco-elastic deformations in relation to the design of plastic products. The importance of such capabilities for designing complex plastic components is discussed. Because commercial FEA packages do not yet render these capabilities "off the shelf", the non-linear visco-elasticity model is incorporated through a user subroutine. The specifics ...

  5. 21 CFR 310.509 - Parenteral drug products in plastic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parenteral drug products in plastic containers... Parenteral drug products in plastic containers. (a) Any parenteral drug product packaged in a plastic... parenteral drug product for intravenous use in humans that is packaged in a plastic immediate container on...

  6. Hydrocarbon composition products of the catalytic recycling plastics waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the IR spectroscopy results of the hydrocarbon composition of products, which is obtained from catalytic processing of plastic wastes. The optimal conditions for the hydrogenation with to producny liquid of products are identified.  These liquid products are enriched with aromatics, paraffinic- naphthenic and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main characteristics of the distillates received by hydrogenation of plastics (as density, refractive index, iodine number, pour point, cloud point, filtering, sulfur content,  fractional and composition of the hydrocarbon group.

  7. Product Platform Development in Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer; Skold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the strategic issues involved in the deployment of product platform development in an industrial network. The move entails identifying the types and characteristics of generically different product platform strategies and clarifying strategic motives and differences. Number...

  8. Product Platform Development in Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer; Skold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the strategic issues involved in the deployment of product platform development in an industrial network. The move entails identifying the types and characteristics of generically different product platform strategies and clarifying strategic motives and differences. Number...

  9. Curriculums in Industrial Technology. Plastics Technology. Industrial Maintenance. Computer Numerical Control. Teacher's Manuals and Student Learning Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Paso Community Coll., TX.

    Curriculum guides are provided for plastics technology, industrial maintenance, and computer numerical control. Each curriculum is divided into a number of courses. For each course these instructor materials are presented in the official course outline: course description, course objectives, unit titles, texts and materials, instructor resources,…

  10. INDUSTRIAL SAFETY IN THE PRODUCTION OF RUBBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Danilova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian industry of synthetic rubber, is one of the most competitive and occupies a prominent place in the global petrochemical industry. However, the company production of synthetic rubber are among the most hazardous industrial facilities. The main operational risks are to fire and explosion hazards of raw materials used. Accidents in such establishments can damage not only the equipment, materials or buildings, but also cause serious environmental and economic consequences for the region. For the prevention of accidents, mitigation and elimination of losses, it is necessary to apply a set of measures aimed at the management and control of industrial safety. The legal basis of industrial safety in the Russian Federation is the Federal Law № 116-FZ dated 21.07.97 "On industrial safety of hazardous production facilities." Industrial Safety at work an important part of its normal functioning. The most important condition of industrial safety of hazardous production facilities is the examination of industrial safety. Federal rules and regulations in the field of industrial safety "rules of examination of industrial safety", approved by Order of RTN on November 14, 2013 N 538 established: the procedure of examination of industrial safety requirements for the design of expert opinions and requirements for experts.

  11. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  12. Plastic raw materials in Neolithic pottery production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Bobrinsky

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the investigation of various natural silts as the most ancient type of raw material used in pottery production. The authors describe the specific features of the composition of plain and mountain silts, and discover the same features in ancient ceramics from different regions in Russia. It can be concluded that silts were the earliest raw material used, a tradition that faded away during the evolution of pottery production.

  13. Increased incidence of infertility treatment among women working in the plastics industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K.S.; Hannerz, H.; Feveile, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several plastic chemicals adversely affect reproductive ability. This study examined the possible association between employment in the plastics industry and infertility. Dynamic cohorts of economically active women and men were followed for hospital contacts due to infertility in the Danish...... infertility were observed among female plastic workers, as opposed to an expected 87.15 cases, i.e. relative risk was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.01-1.48). For male workers the numbers were 41 respectively 49.9 cases, with relative risk being 0.82 (95% CI: 0.59-1.11). The increased incidence of infertility treatment...

  14. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  15. Catalytic dry reforming of waste plastics from different waste treatment plants for production of synthesis gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Juniza Md; Williams, Paul T

    2016-12-01

    Catalytic dry reforming of mixed waste plastics, from a range of different municipal, commercial and industrial sources, were processed in a two-stage fixed bed reactor. Pyrolysis of the plastics took place in the first stage and dry (CO2) reforming of the evolved pyrolysis gases took place in the second stage in the presence of Ni/Al2O3 and Ni-Co/Al2O3 catalysts in order to improve the production of syngas from the dry reforming process. The results showed that the highest amount of syngas yield was obtained from the dry reforming of plastic waste from the agricultural industry with the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, producing 153.67mmolsyngasg(-1)waste. The addition of cobalt metal as a promoter to the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst did not have a major influence on syngas yield. Overall, the catalytic-dry reforming of waste plastics from various waste treatment plants showed great potential towards the production of synthesis gases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. DESIGNERS’ KNOWLEDGE IN PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    The Industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics materials and manufacturing principles of polymer products is very important for the innovative strength of the industry, according to a group of Danish plastics manufacturers, design students and practicing industrial designers. These three groups...... answered the first Danish national survey, PD13[1], investigating the importance of industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics and the collaboration between designers and the polymer industry. The plastics industry and the industrial designers collaborate well, but both groups frequently experience...... that the designers’ lack of knowledge concerning polymer materials and manufacturing methods can be problematic or annoying, and design students from most Danish design universities express the need for more contact with the industry and more competencies and tools to handle even simple topics when designing plastic...

  17. Performance of sand-lime products made with plastic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowek Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the studies on the sand-lime (silicate masonry units modified with recycled plastics in various forms: regranulate, regrind and powder. The following materials were examined: high impact polystyrene (HIPS and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS. The results of the functional properties tests, such as compressive strength, softening behavior, bulk density and water absorption are presented in the article. The microstructure of the products was analyzed using SEM and XRD methods.Obtained results show that the properties of modified product largely depend on the type, form and amount of used polymer. The highest compressive strength was achieved with 15% of HIPS regranulate in the product (by weight. ABS does not improve the strength of the sample, however, it does block the capillary action in the sand-lime product. The lowest softening coefficient was obtained in the sample modified with HIPS regranulate. The examined polymers contributed to decrease in bulk density of the samples as well as lowered their water absorption. The samples with pulverized polymer have the worst properties. All the results are compared with those of the traditional sand-lime bricks and sand-lime product modified with other additives. The analysis indicate that silicate masonry units with post-production and post-consumption plastic waste can possess interesting functional properties what brings a new potential possibility to dispose of still growing number of plastic waste.

  18. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70°C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang1968@163.com; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Factors of NaOH treatment were studied by orthogonal and single factor experiments. • Mechanism of alkaline treatment for facilitating flotation was manifested. • Flotation separation of PET was achieved with high purity and efficiency. • A flow sheet of purification PET from MWP was designed. - Abstract: Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L{sub 9} (3{sup 4}) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70 °C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics.

  20. Use of polycarbonate plastic products and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Srivastava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As plastic and plastic products are being used in day to day at the cost of environment pollution, the human and wild life health and has become a global concern. Researchers found link between abnormal liver enzymes in the people and Bisphenol-A (BPA. Changes in insulin resistance, reproduction system, cardiovascular and brain function are also reported. BPA is used in the production of epoxy resins, polycarbonate resins, and polyester resins. BPA can leach out of certain plastic products including variety of modern goods, reusable food storage containers, eyeglass lenses, white dental fillings, sealants, medical equipments etc. In the body, BPA behaves as an estrogen receptor agonist and mimics estrogen hormone. Bisphenol-A (BPA is a widespread endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Children and unborn and new born babies are at high risk of unwanted effects of BPA. Children suffer from chronic exposure to bisphenol A with manifestation of gastrointestinal problems, adrenal stress, immune dysfunction, toxic over load and neurological disorders. Some study in Japan has observed that more BPA can leach from polycarbonate products that have been scratched or is more than 4 years old or used bottles that have been subjected to bottle brushing or dishwashing and sterilization. People exposed to higher levels of BPA due to use of plastic food and beverages containers are more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and metabolic disorder. Recent studies have suggested that BPA exposure may have a role in the development of weight gain, insulin resistance, pancreatic endocrine dysfunction, thyroid hormone disruption, and several other mechanisms involved in the development of diabetes. Urinary BPA levels are found to be associated with diabetes mellitus independent of traditional diabetes risk factors. There is a concern of exposure of BPA to pregnant women that can

  1. Explaining Spatial Convergence of China's Industrial Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the conditions that may auger a reversal of China's increasingly unequal levels of regional industrial productivity during China's first two decades of economic reform. Using international and Chinese firm and industry data over the period 1995–2004, we estimate...... a productivity growth–technology gap reaction function. We find that as China's coastal industry has closed the technology gap with the international frontier, labour productivity growth in the coastal region has begun to slow in relation to the interior. This may serve as an early indicator of China's initial...

  2. Strategies Behind The Successful Industrial Product Launch

    OpenAIRE

    Choffray, Jean-Marie; Gary L. Lilien

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a newly-developed microcomputer decision support system useful for predicting sales growth and testing launch strategies prior to an industrial product market introduction. Peer reviewed

  3. Quality Tools and TRIZ Based Quality Improvement Case Study at PT ‘X’ A Plastic Moulding Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, Christina; Chandra, Fory

    2016-02-01

    Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) is a creative encouraging problem solving method. TRIZ is prepared by Altshuller for product design. Altshuller prepared contradiction matrix and suggestion to solve contradictions usually occur in product design. This paper try to combine TRIZ with quality tools such as Pareto and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) to solve contradiction in quality improvement problem, neither than product design problem. Pareto used to identify defect priority, FTA used to analysis and identify root cause of defect. When there is contradiction in solving defect causes, TRIZ used to find creative problem solving. As a case study, PT ’X’, a plastic molding manufacturing industry was taken. PT ‘X’ using traditional press machine to produce plastic thread cone. There are 5 defect types that might occur in plastic thread cone production, incomplete form, dirty, mottle, excessive form, rugged. Research about quality improvement effort using DMAIC at PT ‘X’ have been done by Fory Candra. From this research, defect types, priority, root cause from FTA, recommendation from FMEA. In this research, from FTA reviewed, contradictions found among causes troublesome quality improvement efforts. TRIZ used to solve the contradictions and quality improvement effort can be made effectively.

  4. Cleaner Production Assessment in Textile Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-zong; LU Shu-yu

    2007-01-01

    Cleaner Production focuses on environmental improvement with economic benefits. Based on the benefit assessment home and abroad, the assessment method and wocess in textile industry is discussed, including maneuverable indicator system, mathematics model. According to corresponding principles of Cleaner Production, representative problems are mentioned. With Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Mathematics, some enterprise is collected to attain the economic, environmental and social benefit of Cleaner Production. The results show that Cleaner Production improves utilization efficiency of resources, energy sources even waste, and creates conditions of Sustainable Development in textile industry.

  5. Industrial Products for Beam Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Schmickler, Hermann

    2001-01-01

    In various branches of high technology industry there has been considerable progress in the past years which could be used for beam instrumentation. The subject will be introduced by two short demonstrations: a demonstration of modern audio electronics with 24bit-96kHz ADC, digital signal electronics and application programs under windows on a PC, which allow to change the parameters of the signal treatment. Potential applications are data monitoring at constant sampling frequency, orbit feedbacks (including high power audio amplifiers), noise reduction on beam current transformers... digital treatment of video signals webcams, frame grabbers, CCD-data via USB, all one needs for image acquisitions, in particular interesting for profile measurements. These introductory demonstrations will not last longer than 30 minutes. The remaining time will be used to pass through the audience collecting information into a two dimensional table, which shall contain as row index the accelerator and as column index the t...

  6. Product modelling in the seafood industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Stella; Vesterager, Johan

    1997-01-01

    assessments, speed up the process and ensure a constant renewal of the seafood products. The objective, therefore, is to estimate the suitability of the CE, and especially CE through product modelling, in the seafood industry as a means to obtain an integration of the entire chain, i.e., a business and market...... based integration obtained by the CE approach and tools. It is described how the knowledge and information of a seafood product can be modelled by using object oriented techniques.......The paper addresses the aspects of Concurrent Engineering (CE) as a means to obtain integrated product development in the seafood industry. It is assumed that the future New Product Development (NPD) in seafood industry companies will shift from being retailer driven and reactive to be more company...

  7. Towards industrial products from microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Gonzalez, Jesus; Olivieri, Guiseppe; Vree, de J.H.; Bosma, R.; Willems, Philippe; Reith, J.H.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Barbosa, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Our society needs new sustainable biobased feedstocks to meet population growth and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Microalgae are considered one of the most promising feedstocks for sustainable production of food, feed, chemicals, materials and fuels. Our mission is to develop a commercial and s

  8. Industrial wastewater treatment plant of sugar production

    OpenAIRE

    Čad, Luka

    2016-01-01

    Sugar as product in our every day’s life’s been consumed in enormous quantities as one of main resources in food and drink industry. Production processes of sugar from sugar beet bring significant environmental impacts with it’s waste waters as the biggest pollutant. The thesis deals with sugar production waste water’s treatment process by presenting an example of waste water treatment plant of sugar factory, therefor presenting the production processes in sugar factories and their environmen...

  9. Industrial requirements for interactive product configurators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queva, Matthieu Stéphane Benoit; Probst, Christian W.; Vikkelsøe, Per

    2009-01-01

    The demand for highly customized products at low cost is driving the industry towards Mass Customization. Interactive product configurators play an essential role in this new trend, and must be able to support more and more complex features. The purpose of this paper is, firstly, to identify requ...

  10. Development of a new approach based on midwave infrared spectroscopy for post-consumer black plastic waste sorting in the recycling industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenstein, Offer; Puckrin, Eldon; Adamowski, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Waste sorting is key to the process of waste recycling. Exact identification of plastic resin and wood products using Near Infrared (NIR, 1-1.7µm) sensing is currently in use. Yet, dark targets characterized by low reflectance, such as black plastics, are hard to identify by this method. Following the recent success of Midwave Infrared (MWIR, 3-12µm) measurements to identify coloured plastic polymers, the aim of this study was to assess whether this technique is applicable to sorting black plastic polymers and wood products. We performed infrared reflectance contact measurements of 234 plastic samples and 29 samples of wood and paper products. Plastic samples included black, coloured and transparent Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), Polyethylene (PE), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Polypropylene (PP), Polylactic acid (PLA) and Polystyrene (PS). The spectral signatures of the black and coloured plastic samples were compared with clear plastic samples and signatures documented in the literature to identify the polymer spectral features in the presence of coloured material. This information was used to determine the spectral bands that best suit the sorting of black plastic polymers. The main NIR-MWIR absorption features of wood, cardboard and paper were identified as well according to the spectral measurements. Good agreement was found between our measurements and the absorption features documented in the literature. The new approach using MWIR spectral features appears to be useful for black plastics as it overcomes some of the limitations in the NIR region to identify them. The main limitation of this technique for industrial applications is the trade-off between the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensor operating in standoff mode and the speed at which waste is moved under the sensor. This limitation can be resolved by reducing the system's spectral resolution to 16cm(-1), which allows for faster spectra acquisition while maintaining a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio

  11. Global interdependence and restructuring of industrial production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Radmila

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to emphasize particular aspects in connection with deindustrialization and globalization processes during transformation of the economic structure in postindustrial age. Conceptions and main features of globalization are presented, i.e. growing interdependence on the global level, then primary characteristics of industrial globalization as one of the forms of globalization process, and in general some brief considerations about the influence of the economic globalization on deindustrialization. In modern economic environment, transformation of production includes, besides other structural changes, modification of the geography of manufacturing and new industrial space - development of the newly industrializing countries, and new spatial forms of production allocation and possibilities for linking of various activities and services (technopolis, industrial, technology and science park, etc..

  12. Industrial parks as an innovative vector of industrial production development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malyuta, Lyudmyla Yaroslavivna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The urgent problem of industrial parks foundation and their activity organization as an innovative structure to provide industrial production and business development has been considered. Etymological role of industrial parks under present economic conditions, preconditions and main stages of their creation in Ukraine have been described. It’s mentioned that the mechanism of industrial parks foundation as a business development instrument provides the customers number increase, markets extension, partnership building and development. The main subjects of the above-mentioned innovative formation, fundamental and competitive features of IP, conditions and advantages of every project participant investing have been determined. A model of managerial decision making about IP foundation has been built. Key factors of success and efficiency of the above-mentioned entrepreneurship structures have been determined. Law basis, possible financing and state support conditions of IP have been analyzed. Some examples of their foundation in certain regions of Ukraine have been considered. Advantages and disadvantages of these innovative structures have been determined.

  13. Forest Products Industry of the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc

    2002-05-01

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc (LATA) conducted an evaluation of the potential impact and value of a portion of the current portfolio of r&d projects supported by the Office of Industrial Technology and the Forest Products Industry of the Future. The mission of the evaluation was to (a) assess the potential impact of the projects to meet the critical goals of the industry as identified in the vision and roadmapping documents. (b) Evaluate the relationship between the current portfolio of projects and the Agenda 202 Implementation Plan. In addition, evaluate the relationship between the portfolio and the newly revised draft technology strategy being created by the industry. (c) Identify areas where current efforts are making significant progress towards meeting industry goals and identify areas where additional work my be required to meet these goals. (d) Make recommendations to the DOE and the Forest Products Industry on possible improvements in the portfolio and in the current methodology that DOE uses to assess potential impacts on its R&D activities.

  14. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules.

  15. Replacing fossil based plastic performance products by bio-based plastic products-Technical feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den Martien; Molenveld, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Larger scale market introduction of new bio-based products requires a clear advantage regarding sustainability, as well as an adequate techno-economic positioning relative to fossil based products. In a previous paper [Broeren et al., 2016], LCA results per kg and per functionality equivalent of

  16. Replacing fossil based plastic performance products by bio-based plastic products-Technical feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den Martien; Molenveld, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Larger scale market introduction of new bio-based products requires a clear advantage regarding sustainability, as well as an adequate techno-economic positioning relative to fossil based products. In a previous paper [Broeren et al., 2016], LCA results per kg and per functionality equivalent of bio

  17. Drivers for Cleaner Production in Malaysian Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2003-01-01

    This working paper tries to piece together information on regulatory initiatives promoting cleaner production (CP) in Malaysian industry, as well as points of discussion on environmental performance in the sector. It draws upon initial data collection by the team of the research project ‘A Study ...

  18. Post-production modification of industrial enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minten, Inge J; Abello, Nicolas; Schooneveld-Bergmans, Margot E F; van den Berg, Marco A

    2014-01-01

    Industry has an increasing interest in the use of enzymes as environmentally friendly, highly efficient, and specific bio-catalysts. Enzymes have primarily evolved to function in aqueous environments at ambient temperature and pressure. These conditions however do not always correspond with industrial processes or applications, and only a small portion of all known enzymes are therefore suitable for industrial use. Protein engineering can sometimes be applied to convey more desirable properties to enzymes, such as increased stability, but is limited to the 20 naturally occurring amino acids or homologs thereof. Using post-production modification, which has the potential to combine desirable properties from the enzyme and the conjugated compounds, enzymes can be modified with both natural and synthetic molecules. This offers access to a myriad of possibilities for tuning the properties of enzymes. At this moment, however, the effects of post-production modification cannot yet be reliably predicted. The increasing number of applications will improve this so that the potential of this technology can be fully exploited. This review will focus on post-production modification of enzymes and its use and opportunities in industry.

  19. [Changes in the forms of industrial production and their effects on workers' health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira; Assunção, Ada Avila; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to identify determinants of health in workers of plastic industries. Production organization, machinery from maintenance and productive areas, and workers' characteristics of 14 plastic industries from Greater Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, were described. Data were collected about development policy of each company; marketing, operational procedures; production and quality requirements, and formal rules of work organization. High strain management techniques for production time reduction have been implemented. The increase of work rhythm, reduction of break time, and a situation of high cognitive demand impose to workers anomalous body positioning for performing tasks that imply repetitive movements. Physical and psychosocial demands (repetitive work, lower control of the worker on his own tasks, time pressure and job dissatisfaction) compose a complex of conditions adverse to workers' health. Changes in production management, personnel and business impose new strains into the development of task by the workers and bringing in new risk factors to workers' health.

  20. Benzotriazole-type ultraviolet stabilizers and antioxidants in plastic marine debris and their new products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manviri; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Jang, Mi; Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee

    2017-02-01

    Ultraviolet stabilizers (UVSs) and antioxidants are the most widely used additives in plastics to enhance the lifetime of polymeric materials. There is growing interest in the roles of plastic marine debris and microplastics as source or vector of toxic substances to marine environment and organisms. However, there is limited information available on plastic associated chemicals, particularly additive chemicals. Therefore, to evaluate their extent of exposure from plastics to the marine environment, we determined UVSs and antioxidants in plastic debris (n=29) collected from beaches along with their corresponding new plastic products in markets (n=27) belonging to food, fisheries, and general use. Antioxidants were present at higher concentrations than UVSs in both plastic debris and new plastics, indicative of their high use over UVSs. Irganox 1076 and Irganox 1010 were more commonly used than other chemicals investigated. The irregular use with high concentration of additive chemicals was observed in short-term use plastic products. Except for Irganox 1076 and UV 326, most antioxidants and UVSs were relatively high in new plastics compared to corresponding plastic marine debris, implying their potential leaching or degradation during use or after disposal. The present study provides quantitative information about additive chemicals contained in plastic marine debris and their new products. These results could be useful for better understanding of environmental exposure to hazardous chemicals through plastic pollution.

  1. Two new cases of liver angiosarcoma: history and perspectives of liver angiosarcoma among plastic industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozo, I; Andelinović, S; Ljutić, D; Bojić, L; Mirić, D; Giunio, L

    1997-01-01

    In this report of two new cases of liver angiosarcoma (ASL) among plastic industry workers, the authors present the history and perspectives of this problem. The first cases of ASL have been registered since 1974, and in 1984, the European register of angiosarcoma was founded. In this register, 11 cases of ASL and one case of haemangiopericytoma have been registered from Croatia, all from a single plastics plant near Split. Two new cases of ASL (in retired autoclave cleaners, who were exposed to a concentration of 500-1000 ppm vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) during the working process) in the same plant are represented. They were detected with combined techniques of ASL detection, and both are still alive. The diagnoses have been histologically confirmed: one of them was surgically treated with segmental liver resection. The appearance of new cases of ASL confirms the perspective presented in the last report by the same authors.

  2. Digital prototyping technique applied for redesigning plastic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, A.; Andrei, A.

    2015-11-01

    After products are on the market for some time, they often need to be redesigned to meet new market requirements. New products are generally derived from similar but outdated products. Redesigning a product is an important part of the production and development process. The purpose of this paper is to show that using modern technology, like Digital Prototyping in industry is an effective way to produce new products. This paper tries to demonstrate and highlight the effectiveness of the concept of Digital Prototyping, both to reduce the design time of a new product, but also the costs required for implementing this step. The results of this paper show that using Digital Prototyping techniques in designing a new product from an existing one available on the market mould offers a significantly manufacturing time and cost reduction. The ability to simulate and test a new product with modern CAD-CAM programs in all aspects of production (designing of the 3D model, simulation of the structural resistance, analysis of the injection process and beautification) offers a helpful tool for engineers. The whole process can be realised by one skilled engineer very fast and effective.

  3. Promotion on the industrial products market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Dania TODOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The literature abounds with articles and books on marketing and especially promoting consumer products. As consumers for these goods we are exposed each day to promotional messages of major product brands in order to attract or retain us when we are already buyers. Fewer things have been written about how to do promotion of industrial goods, which are a special category of goods, but have a very high quota in trade of goods, both nationally and internationally. This article will analy

  4. Biological hydrogen production from industrial wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Guilherme; Pantoja Filho, Jorge Luis Rodrigues; Zaiat, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). School of Engineering. Dept. Hydraulics and Sanitation], Email: peixoto@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This research evaluates the potential for producing hydrogen in anaerobic reactors using industrial wastewaters (glycerol from bio diesel production, wastewater from the parboilization of rice, and vinasse from ethanol production). In a complementary experiment the soluble products formed during hydrogen production were evaluated for methane generation. The assays were performed in batch reactors with 2 liters volume, and sucrose was used as a control substrate. The acidogenic inoculum was taken from a packed-bed reactor used to produce hydrogen from a sucrose-based synthetic substrate. The methanogenic inoculum was taken from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Hydrogen was produced from rice parboilization wastewater (24.27 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) vinasse (22.75 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) and sucrose (25.60 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD), while glycerol only showed potential for methane generation. (author)

  5. Product modelling in the seafood industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Stella; Vesterager, Johan

    1997-01-01

    driven and proactive to comply with the increasing competition, in such a way that the fish processor issues new products covering both the current and especially latent future consumer demands. This implies a need for new systematic approaches in the NPD as procedures and tools, which integrate...... assessments, speed up the process and ensure a constant renewal of the seafood products. The objective, therefore, is to estimate the suitability of the CE, and especially CE through product modelling, in the seafood industry as a means to obtain an integration of the entire chain, i.e., a business and market...... based integration obtained by the CE approach and tools. It is described how the knowledge and information of a seafood product can be modelled by using object oriented techniques....

  6. Impact behaviour of an innovative plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) for the automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C. A.; Bahlouli, N.; Wagner-Kocher, C.; Ahzi, S.; Rémond, Y.

    2015-09-01

    Plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PPVC) is widely used in the automotive industry in the design of structural parts for crashworthiness applications. Thus, it is necessary to study and understand the influence of the mechanical response and mechanical properties of PPVC over a wide range of strain rate, from quasi-static to dynamic loadings. The process is also investigated using different sample thicknesses. In this work, the strain rate effect of a new PPVC is investigated over a wide range of strain rates at three temperatures and for three thicknesses. A modelling of the yield stress is also proposed. The numerical prediction is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Valorization of rendering industry wastes and co-products for industrial chemicals, materials and energy: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Tizazu; Mussone, Paolo; Bressler, David

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, strong global demand for industrial chemicals, raw materials and energy has been driven by rapid industrialization and population growth across the world. In this context, long-term environmental sustainability demands the development of sustainable strategies of resource utilization. The agricultural sector is a major source of underutilized or low-value streams that accompany the production of food and other biomass commodities. Animal agriculture in particular constitutes a substantial portion of the overall agricultural sector, with wastes being generated along the supply chain of slaughtering, handling, catering and rendering. The recent emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) resulted in the elimination of most of the traditional uses of rendered animal meals such as blood meal, meat and bone meal (MBM) as animal feed with significant economic losses for the entire sector. The focus of this review is on the valorization progress achieved on converting protein feedstock into bio-based plastics, flocculants, surfactants and adhesives. The utilization of other rendering streams such as fat and ash rich biomass for the production of renewable fuels, solvents, drop-in chemicals, minerals and fertilizers is also critically reviewed.

  8. Multidisciplinary Graduate Curriculum in Support of the Biobased Products Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Dorgan

    2005-07-31

    The project had a dominant education component. The project involved revising curriculum to educate traditional engineering students in the emerging field of industrial biotechnology. New classes were developed and offered. As a result, the curriculum of the Colorado School of Mines was expanded to include new content. Roughly 100 undergraduates and about 10 graduate students each year benefit from this curricular expansion. The research associated with this project consisted of developing new materials and energy sources from renewable resources. Several significant advances were made, most importantly the heat distortion temperature of polylactide (PLA) was increased through the addition of cellulosic nanowhiskers. The resulting ecobionanocomposites have superior properties which enable the use of renewable resource based plastics in a variety of new applications. Significant amounts of petroleum are thereby saved and considerable environmental benefits also result. Effectiveness and economic feasibility of the project proved excellent. The educational activities are continuing in a sustainable fashion, now being supported by tuition revenues and the normal budgeting of the University. The PI will be teaching one of the newly developed classes will next Fall (Fall 2006), after the close of the DOE grant, and again repeatedly into the future. Now established, the curriculum in biobased products and energy will grow and evolve through regular teaching and revision. On the research side, the new plastic materials appear economically feasible and a new collaboration between the PI’s group and Sealed Air, a major food-packaging manufacturer, has been established to bring the new green plastics to market. Public benefits of the project are noteworthy in many respects. These include the development of a better educated workforce and citizenry capable of providing technological innovation as a means of growing the economy and providing jobs. In particular, the

  9. Wood-plastic composites as promising green-composites for automotive industries!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashori, Alireza

    2008-07-01

    Wood-plastic composite (WPC) is a very promising and sustainable green material to achieve durability without using toxic chemicals. The term WPCs refers to any composites that contain plant fiber and thermosets or thermoplastics. In comparison to other fibrous materials, plant fibers are in general suitable to reinforce plastics due to relative high strength and stiffness, low cost, low density, low CO2 emission, biodegradability and annually renewable. Plant fibers as fillers and reinforcements for polymers are currently the fastest-growing type of polymer additives. Since automakers are aiming to make every part either recyclable or biodegradable, there still seems to be some scope for green-composites based on biodegradable polymers and plant fibers. From a technical point of view, these bio-based composites will enhance mechanical strength and acoustic performance, reduce material weight and fuel consumption, lower production cost, improve passenger safety and shatterproof performance under extreme temperature changes, and improve biodegradability for the auto interior parts.

  10. Engineering organisms for industrial fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David A

    2010-01-01

    Volatile fuel costs, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security concerns are driving efforts to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. Petroleum comes from sunlight, CO(2) and water converted via a biological intermediate into fuel over a several million year timescale. It stands to reason that using biology to short-circuit this time cycle offers an attractive alternative--but only with relevant products at or below market prices. The state of the art of biological engineering over the past five years has progressed to allow for market needs to drive innovation rather than trying to adapt existing approaches to the market. This report describes two innovations using synthetic biology to dis-intermediate fuel production. LS9 is developing a means to convert biological intermediates such as cellulosic hydrolysates into drop-in hydrocarbon product replacements such as diesel. Joule Unlimited is pioneering approaches to eliminate feedstock dependency by efficiently capturing sunlight, CO(2) and water to produce fuels and chemicals. The innovations behind these companies are built with the market in mind, focused on low cost biosynthesis of existing products of the petroleum industry. Through successful deployment of technologies such as those behind LS9 and Joule Unlimited, alternative sources of petroleum products will mitigate many of the issues faced with our petroleum-based economy.

  11. Idaho's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason P. Brandt; Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Jon M. Songster; Timothy P. Spoelma; Larry T. DeBlander

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Idaho's 2006 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; describes the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Wood products industry historical trends and changes in harvest, production, employment, and sales are also examined...

  12. New Product Introduction in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus

    is unknown and negotiations with authorities have become harder, making market introduction more difficult. This dissertation treats the new product introduction process in the pharmaceutical industry from an operations perspective. The overarching aim of this dissertation is to improve the planning......Due to the limited time of the monopoly provided by patent protection that is used for recouping the R&D investment, pharmaceutical companies focus on keeping time-to-market for new products as short as possible. This process is however getting more uncertain, as the outcome of clinical trials...... methodology in this critical process. In an empirical study, the process is first analyzed in detail, leading to the identification of several gaps in the industry’s current planning approaches. To support a set of key operational decisions towards market launch, a model is subsequently developed, considering...

  13. A study on compound contents for plastic injection molding products of metallic resin pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Whan; Kwak, Jae Seob [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyu Sang [Alliance Molding Engineering TeamLG Electronics Inc., Osan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Injection molding process is widely used for producing most plastic products. In order to make a metal-colored plastic product especially in modern luxury home alliances, metallic pigments which are mixed to a basic resin material for injection molding are available. However, the process control for the metal-colored plastic product is extremely difficult due to non-uniform melt flow of the metallic resin pigments. To improve the process efficiency, a rapid mold cooling method by a compressed cryogenic fluid and electricity mold are also proposed to decrease undesired compound contents within a molded plastic product. In this study, a quality of the metal-colored plastic product is evaluated with process parameters; injection speed, injection pressure, and pigment contents, and an influence of the rapid cooling and heating system is demonstrated.

  14. Overcoming the plasticity of plant specialized metabolism for selective diterpene production in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ignea, Codruta; Athanasakoglou, Anastasia; Andreadelli, Aggeliki

    2017-01-01

    Plants synthesize numerous specialized metabolites (also termed natural products) to mediate dynamic interactions with their surroundings. The complexity of plant specialized metabolism is the result of an inherent biosynthetic plasticity rooted in the substrate and product promiscuity...

  15. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Jan

    1999-07-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis.

  16. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Jan

    1999-06-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis

  17. Chemical characterization of smoke from the production process of wood-plastic composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shi-fa; Zhang Ai-jun

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of unpleasant smell, emitted from the production process of wood-plastic composites using Manchurian ash sawdust (Fraxinus mandschurica Rupr.) and polypropylene powder as the raw material, was investigated. Wood sawdust and polypropylene powder were subjected to heat treatment to 290℃ during 8 min (the conditions were similar to those employed on an industrial scale). The emitted compounds were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analytical results showed that the unpleasant smell was emitted from the pyrogenation of wood sawdust rather than from the polypropylene powder. Nine types of compounds (hydrocarbons, ethers, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, acids and their derivatives, furan and its derivatives, and nitrogen-containing compounds) were collected in the gas phase during heating.Among those 126 components detected by GC-MS, 112 compounds were identified.

  18. Solving depressions formed during production of plastic molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobránsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with improvement of design properties of molded plastic parts. It can be achieved by modifying construction of metal injection mold and optimization of parameters in injection process. The subject of our examination was depressions formed on molded plastic parts which are inacceptable in the process of approval. The problem which has arisen was solved in two phases. The first phase consisted in alteration of injection mold design – enlargement of injection molding gate. In the second phase, we have changed the location of injection molding gate. After performing constructional modifications, new molded plastic parts were manufactured and assessed.

  19. Impact behaviour of an innovative plasticized poly(vinyl chloride for the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasticized poly(vinyl chloride (PPVC is widely used in the automotive industry in the design of structural parts for crashworthiness applications. Thus, it is necessary to study and understand the influence of the mechanical response and mechanical properties of PPVC over a wide range of strain rate, from quasi-static to dynamic loadings. The process is also investigated using different sample thicknesses. In this work, the strain rate effect of a new PPVC is investigated over a wide range of strain rates at three temperatures and for three thicknesses. A modelling of the yield stress is also proposed. The numerical prediction is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  20. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wäger, Patrick A., E-mail: patrick.waeger@empa.ch; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses.

  1. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  2. Production of green biodegradable plastics of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from renewable resources of agricultural residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahman, Yaser; Ugwu, Charles U

    2014-08-01

    This work describes potential opportunities for utilization of agro-industrial residues to produce green biodegradable plastics of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). Wheat straws were examined with good efficacy of carbon substrates using Cupriavidus necator. Production was examined in separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) in the presence and absence of WS hydrolysis enzymes, and in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with enzymes. Results showed that production of PHB in SSF was more efficient in terms of viable cell count, cell dry weight, and PHB production and yield compared to those of SHF and glucose-control cultures. While glucose control experiment produced 4.6 g/L PHB; SSF produced 10.0 g/L compared to 7.1 g/L in SHF when utilizing enzymes during WS hydrolysis. Results showed that most of sugars produced during the hydrolysis were consumed in SHF (~98 %) compared to 89.2 % in SSF. Results also demonstrated that a combination of glucose and xylose can compensate for the excess carbon required for enhancing PHB production by C. necator. However, higher concentration of sugars at the beginning of fermentation in SHF can lead to cell inhibition and consequently catabolite repressions. Accordingly, results demonstrated that the gradual release of sugars in SSF enhanced PHB production. Moreover, the presence of sugars other than glucose and xylose can eliminate PHB degradation in medium of low carbon substrate concentrations in SSF.

  3. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the textile-mill-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The Congress, in the National Energy Conservation and Policy Act of 1978 (NECPA), directed the Department of Energy to establish materials recovery targets for the metals and metal products, paper and allied products, rubber, and textile-mill-products industries. The targets were developed to provide incentives for using energy-saving recorded materials and to provied a yardstick for measuring progress and improvement in this endeavor. The NECPA indicates that the targets should represent the maximum technically and economically feasible increase in the use of energy-saving recovered materials that each industry can achieve progressively by January 1, 1987. Materials affected by recovered-materials targets include and are limited to aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, iron, steel, paper and associated products, textile-mill, products, and rubber. Using information gathered from the textile-mill-products industry and from other textile-relaed sources, DOE has developed recovered materials targets for that industry. This report presents those targets and their basis and justification. Following an overview of the textile industry, the chapters are: Textile-Mill-Products Industry Operations; Economic Analysis of the Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Governmental and Regulatory Influence on the US Textile Industry; Current Mill Use of Recovered Materials in the Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Limitations on the Use of Recovered Materials in the US Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Materials-Recovery Targets; and Government and Industry Actions That Could Increase the Use of Recovered Materials.

  4. Spallation products induced by energetic neutrons in plastic detector material

    CERN Document Server

    Grabisch, K; Enge, W; Scherzer, R

    1977-01-01

    Cellulose nitrate plastic detector sheets were irradiated with secondary neutrons of the 22 GeV/c proton beam at the CERN accelerator. He, Li and Be particles which are produced in nuclear interactions of the neutrons with the target elements C, N and O of the plastic detector material are measured. Preliminary angle and range distributions and isotropic abundances of the secondary particles are discussed. (6 refs).

  5. Idaho's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Simmons; Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Chris Witt

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Idaho’s 2011 timber harvest through the primary industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho’s industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry trends are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production, employment, and sales.

  6. Kurumsal Sosyal Sorumluluk Kapsamında Çevre Açıklamaları İle Firma Özellikleri Arasındaki İlişki: Kimya, Petrol, Kauçuk ve Plastik Ürünler Sektöründe Bir Uygulama - Relation Between Company Features And Environmental Statement Within Corporate Social Responsibility: An Application In Chemistry, Petroleum, Rubber And Plastics Products Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule YILDIZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine the relation between company features and environmental statement amounts in the annual activity reports of companies. To this end, activity reports of 19 companies making business in chemistry, petroleum, rubber and plastic products industry in Borsa Istanbul were inspected with content analysis method for 2008 - 2014. The company features inspected within the research are size, equity profitability, active profitability, debt levels, stock market listing date and date of foundation of companies. In the research, the relation between environmental statement level and related company features were analyzed with panel regression model. According to the results of research, the environmental statement level has positive relation with date of foundation and debt level and it has negative relation with size and stock market listing and it is statistically meaningful. However, no statistically meaningful relation was found between equity profitability and asset profitability and the environmental statement level.

  7. Clean Production of Steel and Refractories in China's Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Tiansen

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the importance of clean production of steel and the relationships amongst sustaining development of steel industry, environment protection and the role of refractories in the clean production of steel. The main achievements and main shortcomings in the clean production of China' s steel industry have been reviewed together with the introduction of the policy supporting system and the future development of clean production in China' s steel industry.

  8. The industrial metabolism of plastics : analysis of material flows, energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the lifecycle of plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Ludovicus Antonius Josephus

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with the question: Which are promising options for decreasing material consumption, energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the lifecycle of plastics? The research described in this thesis mainly focuses on measures that change the material system, i.e. measures that change the

  9. The industrial metabolism of plastics : analysis of material flows, energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the lifecycle of plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Ludovicus Antonius Josephus

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals with the question: Which are promising options for decreasing material consumption, energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the lifecycle of plastics? The research described in this thesis mainly focuses on measures that change the material system, i.e. measures that change the pat

  10. Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry. ... are generated which include wastewater effluents, solid wastes, and hazardous wastes. ... industries discharge wastes into the environment without any proper treatment.

  11. 废塑料制品对土壤环境的影响及防治%On Soil Environment and Prevention of Waste Plastic Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周辉

    2016-01-01

    With The Wide Application Of Plastic Products,Plastic Products Are Widely Used In All Walks Of Life,It Is Very Widespread Use In The Agricultural Industry,The Plastic Is Made Into A Plastic Film On The Growth Of Crops Have Been Very Positive,But From The Perspective Of Soil Management,Production And Use Of Plastic Products For The Local Soil Have Great Destructive Force,The Environmental Impact Is Great,This Paper Explores The Waste Plastic Products For Soil Environmental Impacts And Proposed Several Measures To Prevent The Point.%随着塑料制品的广泛应用,塑料制品在各行各业都有广泛的应用,在农业方面使用更是十分的广泛,塑料被制作成塑料薄膜对农作物的生长有非常积极的意义,但是从土壤管理的角度出发,塑料制品的制作以及使用对于当地的土壤有极大的破坏性,对于环境的影响也是极大,为此,本文探究了废塑料制品对土壤环境的影响并提出了防治的措施。

  12. Impacts of the manufacturing process using fiberglass reinforced plastic composite on the environment and occupational health: the automotive industry case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Madureira Orth

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of fiberglass reinforced plastic composite parts may cause serious damages to the health of workers and/or the environment, especially due to the generation of process trimmings, noise level and gas emission.  In view of that, this essay aims at assessing the main impacts of the Molding and Finish processes of an automotive plant on the environment and occupational health. It was observed that the open molding method adopted by the studied plant is the main cause of the generation of residues and that the waste of raw materials as trimmings may reach up to 30%. The final destination of those trimmings, which represent 45% of all the residues generated by the factory, is the industrial landfill. It was also observed that, due to the use of open molds, the levels of styrene and fiber dust were above the tolerance limits, presenting risks to the health of the workers.  Therefore, the studied company should consider the possibility of adopting less aggressive technologies, such as that used in closed molds. The reduction of the negative impacts of the productive processes in their source should be part of the company’s policy. Furthermore, the prevention must be continuous and improved every day.

  13. The changing health care marketplace: current industry trends, new provider organizational structures, and effects on plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, L M

    1998-09-01

    Current market forces are driving the health care industry in new directions. The managed care industry is currently undergoing a market shakeout, as manifested by consolidation, increased competition, and lower profits. Medicare is fighting to remain solvent by lowering fees paid to providers, driving patients into managed care plans, and cracking down on billing irregularities. For providers, the combined effect of these trends is lower fees, increased risk-sharing, and increased overhead. Plastic surgeons face new demands in this environment. They must increase their efficiency and form new alliances with other providers. These alliances allow plastic surgeons to maintain a steady stream of patients, to manage risk, to negotiate more lucrative contracts with managed care organizations, and to increase efficiency. To achieve these alliances, plastic surgeons must alter the organizational structure of their practices. Several corporate practice models are becoming more prevalent; these include large group practices, physician practice management companies, and integrated delivery systems. Each structure has advantages for plastic surgeons, but each also requires plastic surgeons to trade varying degrees of financial and professional autonomy for market strength.

  14. PRODUCT PROMOTION STRATEGY IN SPORTS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla V. Nosova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sports industry is presented like the partof entertainment industry. The authorsemphasize the main income items ofSnowsports unions in Russia and abroad.This paper presents the analysis of development of commercial successful productby foreign federations. The article gives new ways of raising the attractiveness and profitability of the Russian sport.

  15. Forest products industry of the future: Building a sustainable technology advantage for America`s forest products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The US forest, wood, and paper industry ranks as one of the most competitive forest products industries in the world. With annual shipments valued at nearly $267 billion, it employs over 1.3 million people and is currently among the top 10 manufacturing employers in 46 out of 50 states. Retaining this leadership position will depend largely on the industry`s success in developing and using advanced technologies. These technologies will enable manufacturing plants and forestry enterprises to maximize energy and materials efficiency and reduce waste and emissions, while producing high-quality, competitively priced wood and paper products. In a unique partnership, leaders in the forest products industry have teamed with the US Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) to encourage cooperative research efforts that will help position the US forest products industry for continuing prosperity while advancing national energy efficiency and environmental goals.

  16. Operational impact of product variety in the process industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseley, Alexandria Lee; Hvam, Lars; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2016-01-01

    variants and their production sequence must also be considered. Based on the findings, a method for quantifying the production cost of product variety in the process industry is developed, add ing to the literature a rich case howcasing factors which influence production performance and the impact......The purpose of this research article is to examine the impact of product variety on production performance in the process industry. As the number of product variants sold by a process company typically impacts the run length, production data from a mineral wool insulation manufacturer is analyzed...

  17. Utilizing intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity to bolster agricultural and forest productivity under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinwall, Michael J; Loik, Michael E; Resco de Dios, Victor; Tjoelker, Mark G; Payton, Paxton R; Tissue, David T

    2015-09-01

    Climate change threatens the ability of agriculture and forestry to meet growing global demands for food, fibre and wood products. Information gathered from genotype-by-environment interactions (G × E), which demonstrate intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity (the ability of a genotype to alter its phenotype in response to environmental change), may prove important for bolstering agricultural and forest productivity under climate change. Nonetheless, very few studies have explicitly quantified genotype plasticity-productivity relationships in agriculture or forestry. Here, we conceptualize the importance of intraspecific variation in agricultural and forest species plasticity, and discuss the physiological and genetic factors contributing to intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity. Our discussion highlights the need for an integrated understanding of the mechanisms of G × E, more extensive assessments of genotypic responses to climate change under field conditions, and explicit testing of genotype plasticity-productivity relationships. Ultimately, further investigation of intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity in agriculture and forestry may prove important for identifying genotypes capable of increasing or sustaining productivity under more extreme climatic conditions.

  18. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND VISUALISATION-A PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Taking the actual project of teaching and researching process for example, the relationship between the industrial engineering and product development is discussed. And use the novel visualization technology to support the industrial engineering and product development. How to use the new computer modeling and simulating technologies to support the product development and industrial engineering, is introduced especially. The support includes both domestic products and industrial systems. The visualization and computer technologies take a very important role in some system or multi-direction modeling, those technologies mentioned above can help the industrial engineers study the effect of design on the whole life circle, including the producing steps. So the engineers can avoid making the wrong decision which may cause bad effects on the whole industrial engineering.

  19. Applications of KinetiSol dispersing for the production of plasticizer free amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNunzio, James C; Brough, Chris; Miller, Dave A; Williams, Robert O; McGinity, James W

    2010-06-14

    Thermal manufacturing methods for the production of solid dispersions frequently require the addition of a plasticizer in order to achieve requisite molten material flow properties when processed by unit operations such as hot melt extrusion. KinetiSol Dispersing, a rapid high energy thermal manufacturing process, was investigated for the ability to produce amorphous solid dispersions without the aid of a plasticizer. For this study itraconazole was used as a model active ingredient, while Eudragit L100-55 and Carbomer 974P were used as model solid dispersion carriers. Triethyl citrate (TEC) was used as necessary as a model plasticizer. Compositions prepared by KinetiSol Dispersing and hot melt extrusion were evaluated for solid state properties, supersaturated in vitro dissolution behavior under pH change conditions and accelerated stability performance. Results showed that both manufacturing processes were capable of producing amorphous solid dispersions, however compositions produced by hot melt extrusion required the presence of TEC and yielded a glass transition temperature (T(g)) of approximately 54 degrees C. Plasticized and unplasticized compositions were successfully produced by KinetiSol Dispersing, with plasticizer free solid dispersions exhibiting a T(g) of approximately 101 degrees C. Supersaturated in vitro dissolution testing revealed a significantly higher dissolution rate of plasticized material which was attributed to the pore forming behavior of TEC during the acidic phase of testing. A further contribution to release may also have been provided by the greater diffusivity in the plasticized polymer. X-ray diffraction testing revealed that under accelerated stability conditions, plasticized compositions exhibited partial recrystallization, while plasticizer free materials remained amorphous throughout the 6-month testing period. These results demonstrated that KinetiSol Dispersing could be used for the production of amorphous solid dispersions

  20. The global position of the U S forest products industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear; Michaela O. Foster

    2015-01-01

    The United States’ share of global industrial roundwood production has declined since the 1990s. We reviewed data from 1961-2013 to evaluate the extent of this decline for industrial roundwood and derived secondary forest products compared to other major producing countries. We find that the U.S. global share of industrial roundwood peaked at 28 percent in 1999 but...

  1. Benefits of nitrogen for food, fibre and industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoumann Jensen, L.; Schjoerring, J.K.; Hoek, K.W. van der; Damgaard Poulsen, H.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Pallière, C.; Lammel, J.; Brentrup, F.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Willems, J.; Grinsven, H. van

    2011-01-01

    Nature of the issue • Reactive nitrogen (N r ) has well-documented positive eff ects in agricultural and industrial production systems, human nutrition and food security. Limited N r supply was a key constraint to European food and industrial production, which has been overcome by Nr from the Haber–

  2. Industrial mineral powder production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The recent annual output of major industrial mineral powders in the mainland of China has been more than 100 million t, accompanied by active development of such supporting technology as comminution, classification, separation/purification, and surface modification. In particular, the present paper reviews technologies for preparing ultra-fine particles involving dry and wet processing, modification and composition, calcination of kaolin clay, and processing of spherical/acerous industrial minerals.

  3. About the new industrial production management concept as the company strategy in the fourth industrial revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk Julia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new industrial production management requires a review of the third industrial revolution results and accounting for mass adoption of information and communication technologies to create the organizational basis of the fourth industrial revolution. The future changes will affect all components of the organization and management components of industrial enterprises, forming the potential of new competitive advantages in a global economy. The research included the identification of key factors of formation, development and destruction (absorption related branches of knowledge the industrial production management as the theory and practical activities, given the critical approach to its nature and processes. Revealed common signs of the industrial production management need as a field of knowledge in the framework of previous and current industrial revolutions. It is shown that the industrial production management effectively solves the problem of subsistence economy, and substantiates that the modern digital economy also has the characteristics of subsistence economy. It is important the necessity of formulation of a new organizational thinking, the implementation of which is possible in the modern interpretation of the project office. The article represents the theoretical basis for developing practical recommendations for the formation of the new concept of industrial production management to take advantage of the impact of engineering component on the economic results and the creation of project offices for the development of traditional and created markets in the organization of a new production mode (based on the digital economy.

  4. FUTURE MARKETING DRIVERS FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Dasmohapatra

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The forest products industry in North America is increasingly losing its share in its domestic markets. The pressure of low cost manufacturing combined with a slowing economy has painfully caused many mills to close and many workers to lose their jobs in recent years. We ask ourselves whether the forest products industry will be able to survive these gloomy times and what, if any are the factors that would drive the future of the forest products industry. Opening our minds to global markets beyond domestic consumption, targeting products towards changing demographic structure and resulting change in consumer tastes, developing and marketing products with the environmental conscious consumer in mind, product innovations, efficient management of the supply chain, and trade practices and policies will be some of the marketing drivers in the forest products industry in the new era.

  5. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  6. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6-10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail.

  7. Product models for the Construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    1996-01-01

    Different types of product models for the building sector was elaborated and grouped. Some discussion on the different models was given. The "definition" of Product models was given.......Different types of product models for the building sector was elaborated and grouped. Some discussion on the different models was given. The "definition" of Product models was given....

  8. Plastics - the sustainable way to use Oil and Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebourg, Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    Conclusions (drawn by the author): Plastics are a sustainable use of oil and gas - Plastic products enable significant savings of energy and GHG emissions particularly in the use phase; - Plastic products help use resources in the most efficient way. Restricting plastics relative growth would result in increased energy consumption. Diversion from landfill would increase resource efficiency. Waste-to-Energy is an additional resource and is complementary to mechanical recycling. Plastics producers and the Oil and Gas industry should cooperate to produce reliable consumption data. Oil and Gas industry should develop and maintain European (world) eco-profiles (cradle to gate) for their respective industry. (author)

  9. Combustion products of plastics as indicators for refuse burning in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, Bernd R T; Medeiros, Patricia M; Didyk, Borys M

    2005-09-15

    Despite all of the economic problems and environmental discussions on the dangers and hazards of plastic materials, plastic production worldwide is growing at a rate of about 5% per year. Increasing techniques for recycling polymeric materials have been developed during the last few years; however, a large fraction of plastics are still being discarded in landfills or subjected to intentional or incidental open-fire burning. To identify specific tracer compounds generated during such open-fire combustion, both smoke particles from burning and plastic materials from shopping bags, roadside trash, and landfill garbage were extracted for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Samples were collected in Concón, Chile, an area frequently affected by wildfire incidents and garbage burning, and the United States for comparison. Atmospheric samples from various aerosol sampling programs are also presented as supportive data. The major components of plastic extracts were even-carbon-chain n-alkanes (C16-C40), the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, and the antioxidants and lubricants/antiadhesives Irganox 1076, Irgafos 168, and its oxidation product tris(2,4-di-tertbutylphenyl) phosphate. Major compounds in smoke from burning plastics include the non-source-specific n-alkanes (mainly even predominance), terephthalic acid, phthalates, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, with minor amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (including triphenylbenzenes) and tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate. 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene and tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)- phosphate were found in detectable amounts in atmospheric samples where plastics and refuse were burned in open fires, and thus we propose these two compounds as specific tracers for the open-burning of plastics.

  10. Productivity Change in the Australian Sheep Industry Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Villano, Renato A.; Fleming, Euan M.; Farrell, Terence C.; Fleming, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    Recent low estimates of total factor productivity change for wool producers in the Australian sheep industry indicate that they are struggling to improve their performance. This evidence is at odds with the views of many technical observers of industry performance, prompting us to re-estimate total factor productivity change for farmers in a benchmarking group in south-west Victoria who had been the subject of such a negative finding. An important transformation in sheep production in Austral...

  11. The Forest Products Industry in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    are the saw mill, wood based panel, furniture, safety match and the wood treatment industries. .... The wood treatment plants in Nigeria should by now be .... While the need for preservative treatment of wood is becoming germane locally as a ...

  12. Organizational Heritage and Entrepreneurship: Steven Klepper’s Theories Reflected in the Emergence and Growth of the Plastic Molds Industry in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Carla

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of the emergence of the molds and plastics industries in Portugal, finding that this history fits nicely with the accounts—originally proposed in Steven Klepper’s various works—of new industries emerging from older, related industries, and regional clusters emerging fr

  13. Organizational Heritage and Entrepreneurship: Steven Klepper’s Theories Reflected in the Emergence and Growth of the Plastic Molds Industry in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Carla

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of the emergence of the molds and plastics industries in Portugal, finding that this history fits nicely with the accounts—originally proposed in Steven Klepper’s various works—of new industries emerging from older, related industries, and regional clusters emerging fr

  14. Phenotypic plasticity of fine root growth increases plant productivity in pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grissom James E

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plastic response of fine roots to a changing environment is suggested to affect the growth and form of a plant. Here we show that the plasticity of fine root growth may increase plant productivity based on an experiment using young seedlings (14-week old of loblolly pine. We use two contrasting pine ecotypes, "mesic" and "xeric", to investigate the adaptive significance of such a plastic response. Results The partitioning of biomass to fine roots is observed to reduce with increased nutrient availability. For the "mesic" ecotype, increased stem biomass as a consequence of more nutrients may be primarily due to reduced fine-root biomass partitioning. For the "xeric" ecotype, the favorable influence of the plasticity of fine root growth on stem growth results from increased allocation of biomass to foliage and decreased allocation to fine roots. An evolutionary genetic analysis indicates that the plasticity of fine root growth is inducible, whereas the plasticity of foliage is constitutive. Conclusions Results promise to enhance a fundamental understanding of evolutionary changes of tree architecture under domestication and to design sound silvicultural and breeding measures for improving plant productivity.

  15. Traceability: a demand of agro industrial chain for special products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Verissimo Foggiatto Silveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of agricultural products with different nutritional features has altered the relationship, the upstream and the downstream of enterprises that produce and commercialize them. Coordination in the Agro Industrial System is demanded, including traceability as a way to guarantee the conformity of products, attending external clients and agricultural industries that require quality certification. This quality tool enables the identification of some details in the productive chain, such as seeds, farming, harvesting, storage, transportation and industrialization of products. Thus, this essay describes the concept of traceability and provides information of special products from a cooperative from Paraná, which has controlled process in the productive chain, demanded by contractual partnerships done with enterprises that provide fertilizers and food processors. It was identified that this cooperative commercializes three products that need traceability: two special kinds of corn and the regular kind of soybean.

  16. PVC-plasticizer DEHP in medical products: do thin coatings really reduce DEHP leaching into blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Sibylle L; Lehmann, Hans-Dieter; Wodarz, Roman; Ziemer, Gerhard; Wendel, Hans P

    2005-10-01

    The hemocompatibility of artificial surfaces in extracorporeal blood circulation systems can be improved by coatings. According to the literature, heparin coatings should avoid the leaching of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) into the blood from components made from plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). DEHP and its metabolites are known to impair the fertility of male rodents; effects on human fertility are assumed. Three different surface coatings with and without heparin were examined in a Chandler Loop model at 37 degrees C using fresh human blood to evaluate their hemocompatibility and barrier property to plasticizer. The levels of toxic oxidation products of DEHP generated in the blood, particularly, were found as high as in the uncoated tubing. The coatings improved the hemocompatibility, but are not safe protection against the hazardous metabolites of DEHP. For pregnant women, neonates and children, we would recommend using the available surface-coated plasticized PVC tubing sets, but free of DEHP.

  17. Bioconversion technologies of crude glycerol to value added industrial products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Garlapati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Crude glycerol that is produced as the by-product from biodiesel, has to be effectively utilized to contribute to the viability of biodiesel. Crude glycerol in large amounts can pose a threat to the environment. Therefore, there is a need to convert this crude glycerol into valued added products using biotechnological processes, which brings new revenue to biodiesel producers. Crude glycerol can serve as a feedstock for biopolymers, poly unsaturated fatty acids, ethanol, hydrogen and n-butanol production and as a raw material for different value added industrial products. Hence, in this review we have presented different bioconversion technologies of glycerol to value added industrial products.

  18. Drug discovery in pharmaceutical industry: productivity challenges and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Ish

    2012-10-01

    Low productivity, rising R&D costs, dissipating proprietary products and dwindling pipelines are driving the pharmaceutical industry to unprecedented challenges and scrutiny. In this article I reflect on the current status of the pharmaceutical industry and reasons for continued low productivity. An emerging 'symbiotic model of innovation', that addresses underlying issues in drug failure and attempts to narrow gaps in current drug discovery processes, is discussed to boost productivity. The model emphasizes partnerships in innovation to deliver quality products in a cost-effective system. I also discuss diverse options to build a balanced research portfolio with higher potential for persistent delivery of drug molecules.

  19. Comment la production modulaire transforme l'industrie automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Frigant; Bernard Jullien

    2014-01-01

    ?In this paper, we explain why and how the ado? ?ption of a modular product-architecture transforms the organisation of industry. Considering the auto industry, we show that modularity-as-process transforms the overall automobile industry: carmakers, suppliers and buyer/suppliers relationships. Modularity-as-process is a key driver of carmakers’ vertical disintegration, growth of suppliers and emergence of mega-suppliers, international division of labour and delocalizations. This single-indus...

  20. Occupational exposure to styrene in the fibreglass reinforced plastic industry: comparison between two different manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranfo, Giovanna; Gherardi, Monica; Paci, E; Gatto, Mariapia; Gordiani, A; Caporossi, Lidia; Capanna, Silvia; Sisto, Renata; Papaleo, B; Fiumalbi, Carla; Garofani, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Styrene is used in manufacturing fiberglass reinforced plastics: and occupational exposure was related to neurotoxicology and genotoxicity. The sum of the metabolites mandelic and phenylglyoxylic acids is the ACGIH biomarker for occupational exposure with a BEI of 400 mg/g of creatinine in end shift urine corresponding to a airborne styrene concentration of 85 mg/m3. There are two main molding processes, open and closed, the last more effective at controlling worker's styrene exposure. To compare the open molding process to the compression of fiber reinforced resin foils, a kind of closed molding, monitoring the styrene exposure of workers in two production sites (A and B). Environmental Monitoring was carried out by Radiello samplers and Biological Monitoring by means of the determination of MA and PGA with HPLC/MS/MS in 10 workers at Site A and 14 at Site B. The median values for styrene exposure resulted 31.1 mg/m3 for Site A and 24.4 mg/m for Site B, while the medians for the sum of the two metabolites in the end shift urine were 86.7 e 33.8 mg/g creatinine respectively. There is a significant linear correlation between personal styrene exposure and the excretion of styrene metabolites (R = 0.74). As expected the exposure markers of the workers of the two production sites resulted higher in the open process. The analytical results of both environmental and biological monitoring were all below the occupational exposure limits, confirming the efficacy of the protective devices.

  1. The Progress of the World's Plastics Industry in 2011-2012%2011~2012年世界塑料工业进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中蓝晨光化工研究设计院有限公司《塑料工业》编辑部

    2013-01-01

    Based on the collection of the information of the world's plastics industry in July 2011 to June 2012, introduced the development of the 2011 to 2012 World Plastics Industry and provided plastic production output of the world, as well as the consumption and global demand for various types of resin and capacity situation. In the order of thermoplastic resin ( polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, ABS resin ), engineering plastics ( nylon, polycarbonate, polyoxymethylene, thermoplastic polyester, polyphenylene ether) , special engineering plastics (polyphenylene sulfide, liquid crystal polymer, polyether ether ketone), general thermoset resins ( phenolic, polyurethane, unsaturated polyester resin, epoxy resin ) , the description of the output, sale volume, supply abd demand of the resin, the synthetic technology, the development of product, and the extension and application of the variety of resin is made in detail.%收集了2011年7月~ 2012年6月世界塑料工业的相关资料,介绍了2011 ~2012年世界塑料工业的发展情况,提供了世界塑料产量、消费量及全球各类树脂的需求量及产能情况.按通用热塑性树脂(聚乙烯、聚丙烯、聚氯乙烯、聚苯乙烯、ABS树脂),工程塑料(尼龙、聚碳酸酯、聚甲醛、热塑性聚酯、聚苯醚),特种工程塑料(聚苯硫醚、液晶聚合物、聚醚醚酮),通用热固性树脂(酚醛、聚氨酯、不饱和聚酯树脂、环氧树脂)不同品种的顺序,对树脂的产量、消费量、供需状况及合成工艺、产品应用开发、树脂品种的延伸及应用的进一步扩展等技术作了详细介绍.

  2. 2009~2010年世界塑料工业进展%The Progress of the World's Plastics Industry in 2009-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中蓝晨光化工研究院有限公司; 《塑料工业》编辑部

    2011-01-01

    收集了2009年7月~2010年6月世界塑料工业的相关资料,介绍了2009~2010年世界塑料工业的发展情况,提供了世界塑料产量、消费量及全球各类树脂的需求量及产能情况.按通用热塑性树脂(聚乙烯、聚丙烯、聚苯乙烯、聚氯乙烯、ABS树脂),工程塑料(尼龙、聚碳酸酯、聚甲醛、热塑性聚酯、聚苯醚),特种工程塑料(聚苯硫醚、液晶聚合物、聚醚醚酮),通用热固性树脂(酚醛、聚氨酯、不饱和聚酯树脂、环氧树脂)不同品种的顺序,对树脂的产量、消费量、供需状况及合成工艺、产品应用开发、树脂品种的延伸及应用的进一步扩展等技术作了详细介绍.%Based on the collection of the information of the world's plastics industry in July 2009 to June 2010, introduced the development of the 2009 to 2010 World Plastics Industry and provided plastic production output of the world, as well as the consumption and global demand for various types of resin and capacity situation. In the order of thermoplastic resin (polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride,ABS resin), engineering plastics (nylon, polycarbonate, polyoxymethylene, thermoplastic polyester, polyphenylene ether), special engineering plastics (polyphenylene sulfide, liquid crystal polymer, polyether ether ketone), general thermoset resins (phenolic, polyurethane, unsaturated polyester resin, epoxy resin),the description of the output, sale volume, supply abd demand of the resin, the synthetic technology, the development of product, and the extension and application of the variety of resin is made in detail.

  3. The Progress of the World's Plastics Industry in 2010 -2011%2010~2011年世界塑料工业进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中蓝晨光化工研究设计院有限公司《塑料工业》编辑部

    2012-01-01

    Based on the collection of the information of the world's plastics industry in July 2010 to June 2011, introduced the development of the 2010 to 2011 World Plastics Industry and provided plastic production output of the world, as well as the consumption and global demand for various types of resin and capacity situation. In the order of thermoplastic resin (polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, ABS resin), engineering plastics (nylon, polycarbonate, polyoxymethylene, thermoplastic polyester, polyphenylene ether), special engineering plastics (polyphenylene sulfide, liquid crystal polymer, polyether ether ketone), general thermoset resins (phenolic, polyurethane, unsaturated polyester resin, epoxy resin) , the description of the output, sale volume, supply abd demand of the resin, the synthetic technology, the development of product, and the extension and application of the variety of resin is made in detail.%收集了2010年7月~2011年6月世界塑料工业的相关资料,介绍了2010~2011年世界塑料工业的发展情况,提供了世界塑料产量、消费量及全球各类树脂的需求量及产能情况.按通用热塑性树脂(聚乙烯、聚丙烯、聚氯乙烯、聚苯乙烯、ABS树脂),工程塑料(尼龙、聚碳酸酯、聚甲醛、热塑性聚酯、聚苯醚),特种工程塑料(聚苯硫醚、液晶聚合物、聚醚醚酮),通用热固性树脂(酚醛、不饱和聚酯树脂、环氧树脂、聚氨酯)不同品种的顺序,对树脂的产量、消费量、供需状况及合成工艺、产品应用开发、树脂品种的延伸及应用的进一步扩展等技术作了详细介绍.

  4. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...

  5. Study of Injection Process Capability in Production of Plastic Boxes

    OpenAIRE

    Lestyánszka Škůrková Katarína; Kudičová Jozefína

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring the process capability currently means the warranty that produced products will be in accordance with requirements, both on the company‘s as well as customer‘s side. This study focuses on the statistical control of injection process capability in serial production in a company focusing on products for healthcare. The injection process is evaluated by control charts, specifically by control chart for average and range ( x̄ , R). As the results showed, based on the chart for average an...

  6. Bioactive compounds in industrial red seaweed used in carrageenan production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naseri, Alireza; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The main seaweed species used in industrial scale for carrageenan production are Kappaphycus alvarezii, Eucheuma denticulatum, Chondrus crispus, Gigartina sp. and also Furcellaria lumbricalis as a source of furcellaran (Danish Agar) is also classified together with carrageenan. The chemical...

  7. The Effect of Improved Productivity of the Manufacturing Industries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel

    Ethiopia's manufacturing industry is at the onset of development though there are recent .... sided with the 'Unbalanced growth theories. Both schools ... be the rate of growth of labor productivity in that sector (Thirlwall, 1983). The third law is ...

  8. Toward zero waste production in the paint industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    effective treatment different solids content in the wastewater requires different dosage levels of the coagulant. ... Although the type of waste generated by different industries varies .... were raised due to biological and product contamination.

  9. Developing engineering design core competences through analysis of industrial products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2011-01-01

    Most product development work carried out in industrial practice is characterised by being incremental, i.e. the industrial company has had a product in production and on the market for some time, and now time has come to design a new and upgraded variant. This type of redesign project requires...... that the engineering designers have core design competences to carry through an analysis of the existing product encompassing both a user-oriented side and a technical side, as well as to synthesise solution proposals for the new and upgraded product. The authors of this paper see an educational challenge in staging...... a course module, in which students develop knowledge, understanding and skills, which will prepare them for being able to participate in and contribute to redesign projects in industrial practice. In the course module Product Analysis and Redesign that has run for 8 years we have developed and refined...

  10. The second green revolution? Production of plant-based biodegradable plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Brian P

    2009-03-01

    Biodegradable plastics are those that can be completely degraded in landfills, composters or sewage treatment plants by the action of naturally occurring micro-organisms. Truly biodegradable plastics leave no toxic, visible or distinguishable residues following degradation. Their biodegradability contrasts sharply with most petroleum-based plastics, which are essentially indestructible in a biological context. Because of the ubiquitous use of petroleum-based plastics, their persistence in the environment and their fossil-fuel derivation, alternatives to these traditional plastics are being explored. Issues surrounding waste management of traditional and biodegradable polymers are discussed in the context of reducing environmental pressures and carbon footprints. The main thrust of the present review addresses the development of plant-based biodegradable polymers. Plants naturally produce numerous polymers, including rubber, starch, cellulose and storage proteins, all of which have been exploited for biodegradable plastic production. Bacterial bioreactors fed with renewable resources from plants--so-called 'white biotechnology'--have also been successful in producing biodegradable polymers. In addition to these methods of exploiting plant materials for biodegradable polymer production, the present review also addresses the advances in synthesizing novel polymers within transgenic plants, especially those in the polyhydroxyalkanoate class. Although there is a stigma associated with transgenic plants, especially food crops, plant-based biodegradable polymers, produced as value-added co-products, or, from marginal land (non-food), crops such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), have the potential to become viable alternatives to petroleum-based plastics and an environmentally benign and carbon-neutral source of polymers.

  11. RELIABILITY,COMPONENT OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica BALDEA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The reliability defined through probability, reflects the measurement of the product's quality depending on time. We use the probability parameters as aleatory variables, the density functions of probability, the distribution functions

  12. Sunshine Group Builds High-End Aluminum Product Industrial Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In order to propel development of the aluminum industry to move toward featured,specialized,and ecological directions,Sunlight Sanyuan Aluminum Company plans to expropriate 300 mu of land in Hanjiang District of Putian City,Fujian province,where it plans to construct high-end aluminum product industrial park,introduce the world’s most advanced fully automatic production equipment and technologies for aluminum profile and

  13. CONTRIBUTION TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTS QUALITY IN BAKING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandar Marić; Slavko Arsovski; Jasna Mastilović

    2009-01-01

    Food industry occupies special place in the processing industry, especially when we talk on the manufacturing of bakery products. Variable products quality on the market initiated the authors of this study to make an attempt, using comparative analysis of methods for quality control that are at most applied in bakery plants and other "convenient" methods to indicate the shortcomings and to argue convenience of using of methods that would improve testing of the quality. That approach could cre...

  14. EFFECT OF CERTAIN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS ON PLASTICITY AND SWELLING CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EXPANSIVE SOIL – A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR.A.V.NARASIMHA RAO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in population and industrialization cause generation of large quantities of effluents. The bulk effluents generated from industrial activities are discharged either treated or untreated over the soil leading to changes in soil properties causing improvement or degradation of engineering behaviour of soil. If there is an improvement in engineering behaviour of soil, there is a value addition to the industrial wastes serving the three benefits of safe disposal of effluent, using as a stabilizer and return of income on it. If there is degradation of engineering behaviour of soil then solution for decontamination is to be thought of. Expansive soils are mostly found in the arid and semi -arid regions of the world. In India expansive soils are called black cotton soils because of their colour and cotton growing potential. Expansive soils undergo swelling when they come into contact with water and shrink when water is squeezed out. The typical swelling/shrinkage behaviour is due to the basic mineral composition of the montmorillonite. The swelling nature of soil causes lot of damages to the civil engineering structures constructed over them. Hence in this paper the effect of certain industrial effluents on Plasticity and Swelling behaviour of anExpansive Soil has been presented. The soil used in this investigation is classified as “SC” as per I.S. Classification system. It is highly expansive nature as the Differential Free Swell Index is about 255%.In this Investigation tests on Consistency Limits and Swelling Characteristics are conducted on the soil treated withTextile, Tannery and Battery effluents at different percentages from 20 to 100% in increment of 20%.In order to compare the results of admixed soil, tests are also conducted on untreated soil. There is decrease in Plasticity and Swelling characteristics of soil when the soil is treated with Tannery and Textile effluents whereas anincrease Plasticity and Swelling

  15. Research on Plastics Choosing Rule for Industrial Design%工业设计中塑料选择原则探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜炎; 陈炳发

    2011-01-01

    工业设计是一门交叉学科,涉及到艺术、技术、工程等方面的知识,但目前较偏重于概念的呈现.工业设计的选材是连接设计概念与实际生产的桥梁,而塑料又是当前消费品的主要使用材料.通过对工业设计中塑料如何进行选择进行探讨,以提高设计造型与实际生产流通的结合度.%Industrial design is an interdisciplinary subject,which involves the art,technology,engineering and other knowledge. Material choosing is the bridge to connect design concepts and practice,and the plastic plays a great role in materials. This article discusses how to choose plastics in industrial design,so that the design is combined with the production.

  16. Beyond steel : some producers give plastic production tubing a second look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, J.

    2008-11-15

    The oil and gas sector is considering the use of plastics as an alternative to steel for production tubing. Innovations in manufacturing have made exotic plastics more available. Among these is Aramid fibre, a patented plastic marketed by PolyFlow Inc. The tubing known as Thermoflex was designed to improve gas flow out of natural gas wells where liquid loading often occurs in older wells. Plastics have the advantage of being lighter and smoother than steel. A smooth surface and less friction results in less back-pressure downhole. Plastics are inert to many grades of oil and gas, including the corrosive kinds. As such, they are well suited for sour wells. The combination of criss-crossed Aramid fibres wrapped around a Fortron plastic core makes the Thermoflex tubing much stronger than steel. The key disadvantage of Thermoflex is its operating temperature. The tubing should not be installed below -18 degrees C. Warm water must be circulated through the tubing in cold weather applications. To date, operators using Thermoflex tubing in shallow gas wells have not experienced any bitumen buildup that sometimes occurs in steel tubing. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  17. Degradation and metabolism of synthetic plastics and associated products by Pseudomonas sp.: capabilities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, R A; Aristilde, L

    2017-09-01

    Synthetic plastics, which are widely present in materials of everyday use, are ubiquitous and slowly-degrading polymers in environmental wastes. Of special interest are the capabilities of microorganisms to accelerate their degradation. Members of the metabolically diverse genus Pseudomonas are of particular interest due to their capabilities to degrade and metabolize synthetic plastics. Pseudomonas species isolated from environmental matrices have been identified to degrade polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, polyurethane, polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene succinate, polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl alcohol at varying degrees of efficiency. Here, we present a review of the current knowledge on the factors that control the ability of Pseudomonas sp. to process these different plastic polymers and their by-products. These factors include cell surface attachment within biofilms, catalytic enzymes involved in oxidation or hydrolysis of the plastic polymer, metabolic pathways responsible for uptake and assimilation of plastic fragments and chemical factors that are advantageous or inhibitory to the biodegradation process. We also highlight future research directions required in order to harness fully the capabilities of Pseudomonas sp. in bioremediation strategies towards eliminating plastic wastes. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Implementation of NFC technology for industrial applications: case flexible production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallinen, Mikko; Strömmer, Esko; Ylisaukko-oja, Arto

    2007-09-01

    Near Field communication (NFC) technology enables a flexible short range communication. It has large amount of envisaged applications in consumer, welfare and industrial sector. Compared with other short range communication technologies such as Bluetooth or Wibree it provides advantages that we will introduce in this paper. In this paper, we present an example of applying NFC technology to industrial application where simple tasks can be automatized and industrial assembly process can be improved radically by replacing manual paperwork and increasing trace of the products during the production.

  19. CONTRIBUTION TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTS QUALITY IN BAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Marić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Food industry occupies special place in the processing industry, especially when we talk on the manufacturing of bakery products. Variable products quality on the market initiated the authors of this study to make an attempt, using comparative analysis of methods for quality control that are at most applied in bakery plants and other "convenient" methods to indicate the shortcomings and to argue convenience of using of methods that would improve testing of the quality. That approach could create a base for designing of model of quality improvement the baking industry.

  20. A New Color-Texture Approach for Industrial Products Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay A. Akhloufi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an approach for color-texture classification of industrial products. An extension of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM to color images is proposed. Statistical features are computed from an isotropic Color Co-occurrence Matrix for classification. The following color spaces are used: RGB, HSL and La*b*. New combination schemes for texture analysis are introduced. A comparison with Local Binary Patterns (LBP is also performed. The tests were conducted in a variety of industrial samples. The obtained results are promising and show the possibility of efficiently classifying complex industrial products based on color and texture features.

  1. Conversion of Hazardous Motor Vehicle Used Tire and Polystyrene Waste Plastic Mixture into useful Chemical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Sarker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic mixture into fuel recovery using thermal degradation process in laboratory batch process. Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic was use 75 gm by weight. Motor vehicle tire was 25 gm and polystyrene waste plastic was 50 gm. In presence of oxygen experiment was performed under laboratory fume hood. Thermal degradation temperature range was 100 - 420 oC and experiment run time was 5 hours. Product fuel density is 0.84 gm/ml and liquid fuel conversion rate was 54.93 %. Fuel was analysis by GC/MS and compounds are present aliphatic group, aromatic group, alcoholic group, oxygen content and nitrogen content.Fuel can use refinery process as a refinery feed.Keywords: Tire, polystyrene, conversion, chemical product, vehicle, hydrocarbon

  2. Supply of the Industrial Products in Romania. A Territorial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Grigorescu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The industrial products and services supply was analyzed in the present paper through the statistical indicators of the industrial production, applied for Romania (2005, both at macroeconomic and regional level (on development regions. The first part of the paper presents some of the methodological reglamentations used in determining the “industrial production” statistical indicator, according to the European Union statistical practices (Pack, 2000; *** ìMethodology of short-term business statisticsî, 2006; Peneder, 2001. In the second part of the paper, the authors analyze the main industrial policy previsions in Romania in order to accelerate the process of resource allocation among and within the various sectors, to improve the competitiveness, to attenuate the discrepancies between the economic development level of Romanian regions and to become part of a common European industrial policy. Regional analysis is a domain largely studied by Kangas, Leskinen, Kangas, 2007; Leskinen, Kangas, 2005; Rondinelli, 1996; Banai-Kashani, Reza, 1989.  

  3. Innovations in the Forest Products Industry: The Malaysian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegatheswaran RATNASINGAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest products industry is an important socioeconomic sector to many developing countries, both in terms of foreign exchange earnings and employment. In the case of Malaysia, the industry has been one of the fastest growing manufacturing sectors in the country, driven primarily by comparative advantages derived from factor inputs. However, with increasing competition from other cheaper producing nations particularly China and Vietnam, the Malaysian forest products industry is forced to transform and move along the value-chain through innovation and value-addition. Although the government has played a pivotal role in providing a broad policy framework to support value-adding and innovative activities, success on the ground has been limited. The creativity environment, which is plagued with by low-wage economy, coupled with limited network between research, market and industrial enterprises have stifled innovation within the industry. The lack of information and the poor quality human capital has also contributed to the limited innovation within the forest products industry in the country. Against this background, most innovation within the industry is confined to the realms of alternative raw materials, with minimal technological and design variations. Although extensive research and development activities are undertaken, the commercialization potential of the research outputs is limited due to being not market-driven. Inevitably, innovation in the forest products sector must be based on market-needs and must be driven through technological and design change in order to ensure long-term competitiveness.

  4. Industrial natural product chemistry for drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Armin; Brönstrup, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Covering: up to March 2013. In addition to their prominent role in basic biological and chemical research, natural products are a rich source of commercial products for the pharmaceutical and other industries. Industrial natural product chemistry is of fundamental importance for successful product development, as the vast majority (ca. 80%) of commercial drugs derived from natural products require synthetic efforts, either to enable economical access to bulk material, and/or to optimize drug properties through structural modifications. This review aims to illustrate issues on the pathway from lead to product, and how they have been successfully addressed by modern natural product chemistry. It is focused on natural products of current relevance that are, or are intended to be, used as pharmaceuticals.

  5. Efficiency And Import Penetration On The Productivity Of Textile Industry And Textile Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur B Rakhmawan, Djoni Hartono, Agni A Awirya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although textile industry and textile products belong to the strategic sub sector of manufacturing industry in Indonesia, they are facing pro-blems on the availability of energy, old production machines, and the flooding of imported products into the domestic market. This study is aimed to analyze the efficiency and productivity as performance indicators and how the efficiency and import penetration affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The methods of data analysis used in this research are divided in two phases. The first phase, the non-metric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is applied to measure the efficiency and productivity. Secondly, the fixed effect model of econometric regression approach is used to find out the effects of efficiency and import penetration on the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The result shows that the average level of efficiency of textile industry and textile products during the period of 2004 – 2008 is about 40 percent with a growth rate of average productivity increases 2.4 percent. Whereas, the econometric estimation results indicate that the increase of efficiency will positively and significantly affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. On the other hand, the increase of import penetration will negatively affect the productivity of this industry.Keywords:Efficiency, Productivity, Import Penetration, DEA, Fixed Effect

  6. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    Set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials in the metals and metal products industries (ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead) are discussed. Data preparation and methodology development and analysis of the technological and economic factors in order to prepare draft targets for the use of recovered materials are covered. Chapter 2 provides an introductory discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33, including industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends for the 5 industries: ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead. Chapter 4 presents the evaluation of recycling targets for those industries. (MCW)

  7. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  8. Industrial Hemp in North America: Production, Politics and Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome H. Cherney

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Western World banned the cultivation of Cannabis sativa in the early 20th century because biotypes high in ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the principal intoxicant cannabinoid are the source of marijuana. Nevertheless, since 1990, dozens of countries have authorized the licensed growth and processing of “industrial hemp” (cultivars with quite low levels of THC. Canada has concentrated on hemp oilseed production, and very recently, Europe changed its emphasis from fiber to oilseed. The USA, historically a major hemp producer, appears on the verge of reintroducing industrial hemp production. This presentation provides updates on various agricultural, scientific, social, and political considerations that impact the commercial hemp industry in the United States and Canada. The most promising scenario for the hemp industry in North America is a continuing focus on oilseed production, as well as cannabidiol (CBD, the principal non-intoxicant cannabinoid considered by many to have substantial medical potential, and currently in great demand as a pharmaceutical. Future success of the industrial hemp industry in North America is heavily dependent on the breeding of more productive oilseed cultivars, the continued development of consumer goods, reasonable but not overly restrictive regulations, and discouragement of overproduction associated with unrealistic enthusiasm. Changing attitudes have generated an unprecedented demand for the cannabis plant and its products, resulting in urgent needs for new legislative, regulatory, and business frameworks, as well as scientific, technological, and agricultural research.

  9. Study of Injection Process Capability in Production of Plastic Boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestyánszka Škůrková Katarína

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring the process capability currently means the warranty that produced products will be in accordance with requirements, both on the company‘s as well as customer‘s side. This study focuses on the statistical control of injection process capability in serial production in a company focusing on products for healthcare. The injection process is evaluated by control charts, specifically by control chart for average and range ( x̄ , R. As the results showed, based on the chart for average and range, we are able to say that the injection process is under statistical control. The requirement for process capability was met; the indices of process capability Cp and Cpk are higher than the determined value 1.33. The normality of measured values was verified by histogram. The obtained values are: Cp = 1.85 and Cpk = 1.82. Therefore, we may consider the process as capable.

  10. Microbial xylanases: engineering, production and industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juturu, Veeresh; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2012-01-01

    and paper industries for a longer time but more and more attention has been paid to using them in producing sugars and other chemicals from lignocelluloses in recent years. Mining new genes from nature, rational engineering of known genes and directed evolution of these genes are required to get tailor-made xylanases for various industrial applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficiency and Import Penetrationon the Productivity of Textile Industry and Textile Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Basuki Rakhmawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although textile industry and textile products belong to the strategic sub-sector of manufacturing industry in Indonesia, they are facing problems on the availability of energy, old production machines, and the flooding of imported products into the domestic market. This study is aimed to analyze the efficiency and productivity as performance indicators and how the efficiency and import penetration affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The methods of data analysis used in this research are divided in two phases. The first phase, the non-metric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is applied to measure the efficiency and productivity. Secondly, the fixed effect model of econometric regression approach is used to find out the effects of efficiency and import penetration on the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The result shows that the ave-rage level of efficiency of textile industry and textile products during the period of 2004 – 2008 is about 40 percent with a growth rate of average productivity increases 2.4 percent. Whereas, the econometric estimation results indicate that the increase of efficiency will positively and significantly affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. On the other hand, the increase of import penetration will negatively affect the productivity of this industry.

  12. Efficiency and Import Penetration on the Productivity of Textile Industry and Textile Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Basuki Rakhmawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although textile industry and textile products belong to the strategic sub-sector of manufacturing industry in Indonesia, they are facing problems on the availability of energy, old production machines, and the flooding of imported products into the domestic market. This study is aimed to analyze the efficiency and productivity as performance indicators and how the efficiency and import penetration affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The methods of data analysis used in this research are divided in two phases. The first phase, the non-metric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is applied to measure the efficiency and productivity. Secondly, the fixed effect model of econometric regression approach is used to find out the effects of efficiency and import penetration on the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The result shows that the average level of efficiency of textile industry and textile products during the period of 2004 – 2008 is about 40 percent with a growth rate of average productivity increases 2.4 percent. Whereas, the econometric estimation results indicate that the increase of efficiency will positively and significantly affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. On the other hand, the increase of import penetration will negatively affect the productivity of this industry.

  13. Microwaves and the industrial production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senise, J.T.; Concone, B.R.V.; Moraes, V.L.V.; Doin, P.A.; Medugno, C.C.; Andrade, A.O.M.; Perri, E.B.; Perin, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    Production of ethanol from starchy materials is now being investigated in Brazil as an alternative source for alcohol production apart from sugar cane. In the present work, with the objective of optimizing the energy balance of the process, substitution of conventional sources of energy by electricity at one stage of the process is sought. Cooking and dextrinization of cassava roots, previously treated by conventional pretreatments, by microwaves heating (at 2450 MHz) has been studied. Results of saccharification and fermentation of the mash thus obtained were used to evaluate the technical feasibility of the process. Specific energy consumption figures (for the cooking and dextrinization stage) of 600 kcal/l of ethanol produced and efficiencies of 90% (in terms of the theoretical maximum yield from the available starch) were easily and consistently obtained.

  14. AUTOMATION RESEARCHES IN FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Aydın

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood is a natural polymeric material which has a heterogenic nature. The natural growth process and environmental influence can lead to features in wood that are undesirable for certain applications and are known as defects. Defects in wood affect the visual appearance and structural properties of wood. The type of defect is based on whether growth, environmental conditions, handling or processing causes it. The definition and acceptability of defect types can vary between industries. Wood materials such as log, lumber and parquet are usually subject to a classification before selling and these materials are sold based on their quality grades. The ability to detect internal defects both in the log and lumber can save mills time and processing costs. In this study, information on the automation research conducted for detection the defects in wood materials were given. As a result, it is indicated that there are numerous scanning methods able to detect wood features, but no one method is adequate for all defect types

  15. Factors Influencing Productivity Change in the Forest Products Industry,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    36. Chappell , F. 1961. Economic and Social Importance of Productivity Measurement. Productivity Meaurement Review 27:7-15. Chaumet, J. 1961. How...and A. Sherman . 1980. A Direct Measure of the Relationship Between Human Capital and Productivity. Journal of Human Resources XV(l):67-76. Holt, K

  16. Innovation in product and services in the shipping retrofit industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Köhler, Jonathan; Scheepens, Arno

    2015-01-01

    to shed light on this issue, the authors develop a conceptual framework to show how a specific type of business model (Product-Service Systems) could be applied to the context of the maritime industry. With a focus on the Danish maritime industry, the case study addresses two questions: Which business...... to propose a possible product-service system. These results suggest that port-based systems have the highest potential for eco-efficient value creation and a possible product-service system can be designed for this kind of technology. The article highlights the point that authorities need to improve...

  17. Competition and product quality in the supermarket industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsa, David A

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the effect of competition on a supermarket firm's incentive to provide product quality. In the supermarket industry, product availability is an important measure of quality. Using U.S. Consumer Price Index microdata to track inventory shortfalls, I find that stores facing more intense competition have fewer shortfalls. Competition from Walmart—the most significant shock to industry market structure in half a century—decreased shortfalls among large chains by about a third. The risk that customers will switch stores appears to provide competitors with a strong incentive to invest in product quality.

  18. Aggregate productivity in the post-war British coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvie, D.

    1996-02-01

    An economic model, using OLS regression, of aggregate productivity in the post-war British coal industry is presented. Some of the methods used by Weisskopf, Bowles and Gordon (1983) in their `social model` of aggregate productivity in the US economy are drawn upon; however, all `social` variables included in this coal productivity model are found not to be significant. The results suggest that pit closures have been an important source of aggregate productivity growth throughout the period; this does not imply, however, that `unproductive`, or `uneconomic`, pits are intrinsically so, rather their status as such may be the result of a political process. Average colliery size and the industry`s capital stock were also found to be important explanatory variables. Attention was paid to the effects of the national miners` strikes during the period; these were found to be structurally insignificant. 45 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. COST-EFFECTIVE PRODUCTION OF THE BIO-PLASTIC POLY-β-HYDROXYBUTYRATE USING ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII ISOLATE P39

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Salah Elsayed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Being biodegradable and biocompatible natural polymer, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB drew the attention of scientists to substitute synthetic plastics in our daily lives. However, its industrial production is hampered by its high cost. In this study, an extensive screening program was done to isolate bacteria with high PHB productivity from agricultural fields and develop a cost-effective PHB production. A promising bacterial isolate Acinetobacter baumannii P39 was recovered and identified using 16S ribosomal gene sequencing. It produced 24% PHB per dry weight after 48 h. Several experiments were conducted to optimize the composition of the culture medium and environmental factors for the selected isolate. Results revealed that 60% aeration, 28°C incubation temperature and initial pH 7.5 showed the highest productivity. Besides, 0.7% corn oil and 0.1 g/L peptone were the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Substituting glucose with corn oil led to a 23% reduction in total input cost and an estimate price for 1kg PHB is 20.5 L.E. Strain improvement by UV mutation succeeded in improving PHB production by two fold in the selected mutant P39M2. Finally, this study valorizes usage of Acinetobacter isolate in PHB production in addition to solving the critical problem of high cost of production.

  20. Product Innovation Development in the Companies of Creative Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolandas Strazdas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Many authors distinguish product innovation as a key factor for long-term competitiveness. Dominant narrow perception of a product is leading towards incorrect product development process and the consequent result is a bad product. Narrow perception of a product is one of the main paralysing factors affecting the creator in the process of product development, which leads towards a low level of product innovation. As a result, a company is losing its uniqueness, originality, and is not of  interest neither for consumers nor the product developers themselves. This article deals with the product perception problems in the companies of creative industries. The main limiting factors for the perception of a product are analysed in the article as well as possibilities to expand the perception of a product. Five main product development methods: conservative, delegative, holistic, limited open, fully open are described in the article. The choice of the product development methods is especially important for the creative industries companies whose product development process is very intensive. 

  1. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  2. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  3. Activated sludge is a potential source for production of biodegradable plastics from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khardenavis, A; Guha, P K; Kumar, M S; Mudliar, S N; Chakrabarti, T

    2005-05-01

    Increased utilization of synthetic plastics caused severe environmental pollution due to their non-biodegradable nature. In the search for environmentally friendly materials to substitute for conventional plastics, different biodegradable plastics have been developed by microbial fermentations. However, limitations of these materials still exist due to high cost. This study aims at minimization of cost for the production of biodegradable plastics P(3HB) and minimization of environmental pollution. The waste biological sludge generated at wastewater treatment plants is used for the production of P(3HB) and wastewater is used as carbon source. Activated sludge was induced by controlling the carbon: nitrogen ratio to accumulate storage polymer. Initially polymer accumulation was studied by using different carbon and nitrogen sources. Maximum accumulation of polymer was observed with carbon source acetic acid and diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP) as nitrogen source. Further studies were carried out to optimize the carbon: nitrogen ratios using acetic acid and DAHP. A maximum of 65.84% (w/w) P(3HB) production was obtained at C/N ratio of 50 within 96 hours of incubation.

  4. Energy efficiency regulation for industrial products and manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea George-Vlad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the energy efficiency of industrial products or manufacturing as compared to the framework legislative measures implemented by EU through the Eco-design and Energy Labeling Directives. The Eco-design implementing measures such as taking into account all phases of the life cycle (manufacturing, transport, use, disposal, as well as the essential environmental aspects (consumption, materials, emissions, waste, etc. for each phase, are considered. The implementing measures should have no significant negative impact on the functionality, health and safety, affordability and industry's competitiveness, as well as they should not impose proprietary technology on manufacturers and not be an excessive administrative burden for them. In this paper a method for implementing Legislative measures concerning the Eco-design and Energy labeling of industrial product is proposed. It grounds on the analysis of particular interest versus general interest relation, for each product case. Method application consists in products classifying relative to the two types of interest, followed by a voluntary agreement between manufacturers operating on market and EU. Finally, the paper presents the limits and possibilities for Eco-design of industrial products and manufacturing industry.

  5. Do ICTs Affect Workforce Productivity in Egyptian Industrial Organizations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elsaadani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the influence of Information Communication Technologies-ICTs’ dimensions (Information Technology (IT, Management Information System (MIS, Office automation (OA, Intranet and Internet on workforce productivity for a group of industrial organizations in Alexandria - Egypt. The population of the study included managers and staff members working in different areas related to ICTs in selected industrial organizations at various managerial levels. A descriptive-statistical combined research study was conducted. Simple random sampling was used for the selection of the participating industrial organization. A questionnaire was used as the data collection method. Expert comments were used to check the validity of study instrument, and the reliability of questions was calculated as 79% using Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient. Single variable t-test, Friedman and variance analysis tests were used for the analysis. Study findings revealed that the specified dimensions of ICTs positively affect workforce productivity of industrial organizations in Alexandria - Egypt.

  6. Sustainable Product: Personal Protective Equipment Manufactured with Green Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Aparecido Boa Vista

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the case of manufacturing of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE using as raw material biopolymers produced from ethanol from sugar cane, known as green polypropylene, produced since 2008 by BRASKEM. This article studied the PPE for the employee’s head protection, named helmet by NR 6, which is used in situations of exposure to weather and work scenarios in places where there is risk of impact from falling or projecting objects, burns, electric shock, and solar radiation. The MSA, green helmet manufacturer, made an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere by comparing the two manufacturing processes of the helmet shell, covering the January 1 to December 31, 2011 period. It concluded that the sustainable helmet (green polyethylene and pigments robs 231g of CO2 from the atmosphere per produced unit, while the helmet’s production with traditional raw materials (polyethylene and petrochemical pigments found that, for each unit produced, 1029g of CO2 are emitted into the atmosphere. The study showed that substitution of raw materials has led to reduction in the impact generated in the helmets’ production.

  7. Applications of Mass Customization Production Mode in Chinese Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouShichun; DingJianhua; ChenChao

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the conflict between individual needs of market and the efficient mass production requirement of manufacture under the background of market globalization is discussed, a trend that the main production mode for domestic steel industry should be the mass customization is pointed out, and the problems to be solved for domestic enterprise are analyzed. Summarizing the practice of Baosteel Co. LTD on the new production mode, the achievements and experiences are presented.

  8. Lean production and willingness to change: German industrial survey

    OpenAIRE

    Roessler, Markus Philipp; Spiertz, Daniel; Metternich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology led a global benchmark analysis within the automotive industry in the late 1980s. The results showed significant differences in the organization of production between Western and Japanese companies. For these differences one of the researchers involved, John Kraftcik, distinguished between “lean” and “buffered” production systems. In addition to the fact that Japanese car builders met higher quality standards, also productivity and flexibility were si...

  9. Formation algorithm indicative planning of the food industry production activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Bukreev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current process of planning production activities in the food industry in Russia is very different interpretations of both the characteristics of the different stages, and maintaining them in a single scheduling algorithm. In this article, we attempt to form an algorithm indicative planning of production activities with general theoretical positions by considering the process of determining the overall purpose, objectives and consistency of production planning.

  10. Innovation and productivity: empirical evidence for Brazilian industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper is to carry out an empirical investigation into the relationship between innovation and the productive performance of Brazilian businesses measured by Work Productivity and Total Factor Productivity. Data taken from the Research of Innovation and estimated cross section models and panel data was used. The results suggest that innovation produces an incipient impact on competition in the national industry, reflected in the small magnitude of coefficients associated with the diverse indicators of innovation.

  11. 秸秆生物质的工业化利用与秸塑新材料%Industrial utilization of straw biomass and the straw plastic composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈集双; 刘亦良

    2015-01-01

    秸秆是自然界储量最丰富的生物质之一,应该作为农业副产物而不是废弃物对待。秸秆的工业化利用对减少CO2排放具有实际意义。但是,在工业化利用过程中也必须兼顾秸秆本身的生态价值和物理化学特点,做到不以废生废。将之作为大宗工业原料,进行秸秆高值化全价利用,是目前条件下秸秆资源化和工业利用的优解。秸塑新材料是存储秸秆生物质的有效方法,而改性是实现生物质塑化和质量标准控制的关键环节。%Straw is one of the richest biomass in the natural world.It should be regarded as an agricultural by-prod-ucts but not waste.Industrial utilization of straw biomass could contribute for the reduction of CO2 release practical-ly,but its natural ecological value,physical and chemical characterization should be considered during its utilization under industrial level.Production of more contamination should be avoided during such practice.Full prize,high value usage for large quality industrial materials is a kind of scientific way of straw biomass utilization under the present condition.Straw plastic composition (SPC)can effectively store straw biomass,and modification treatment is the key of both plasticizing straw biomass and standard quality control.

  12. Production, composition, and application of coffee and its industrial residues

    OpenAIRE

    Mussatto, Solange I.; Machado, Ercília M. S.; Martins, Silvia; Teixeira, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and is the second largest traded commodity after petroleum. Due to the great demand of this product, large amounts of residues are generated in the coffee industry, which are toxic and represent serious environmental problems. Coffee silverskin and spent coffee grounds are the main coffee industry residues, obtained during the beans roasting, and the process to prepare “instant coffee”, respectively. Recently, some attempts have been m...

  13. DETERMINING SMALL AND MEDIUM INDUSTRY MAIN PRODUCT IN BANYUMAS DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Unggul Abdul Fattah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the main product out of several alternative options of small and medium industries (IKM main product in Banyumas District. The study was conducted by using in-depth interviews with respondents who were skillful experts with the authority to establish the main product in Banyumas. The criteria used in determining the main product come from 12 criteria set out in the Regulation of the Ministry of Home Affairs of Republic of Indonesia Number 9 of 2014. The establishment of criteria values was determined by using AHP and main product assessment with MPE. The results of the assessment indicate that the first priority of main product Banyumas is the coconut sugar. Coconut sugar products are supported by the abundance of natural resources of raw materials, while the other main product priorities include mendoan tempeh and getuk gerbong which are typical products of Banyumas. Both products are products that will facilitate economic growth through tourism as a specific sector for culinary products of Banyumas.Keywords: main product, small and medium industries (IKM, AHP, MPE

  14. "Does the Organization of Plastic Surgery Units into Independent Departments Affect Academic Productivity?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Scott N; Duquette, Stephen; Valsangkar, Nakul; Avula, Umakanth; Lad, Neha; Socas, Juan; Flores, Roberto L; Sood, Rajiv; Koniaris, Leonidas G

    2017-07-12

    There is an increased push for plastic surgery units in the United States to become independent departments administered autonomously rather than as divisions of a multispecialty surgery department. The purpose of this research was to determine if there are any quantifiable differences in the academic performance of departments versus divisions. Using a list of the plastic surgery units affiliated with The American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons (ACAPS), unit websites were queried for departmental status and to obtain a list of affiliated faculty. Academic productivity was then quantified using the SCOPUS database. National Institute of Health (NIH) funding was determined through the Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools database. Plastic surgery departments were comparable to divisions in academic productivity, evidenced by a similar number of publications per faculty (38.9 versus 38.7; p=0.94), number of citations per faculty (692 versus 761; p=0.64), H-indices (9.9 versus 9.9; p=0.99), and NIH grants (3.25 versus 2.84; p=0.80), including RO1 grants (1.33 versus 0.84; p=0.53). There was a trend for departments to have a more equitable male to female ratio (2.8 versus 4.1; p=0.06), and departments trained a greater number of integrated plastic surgery residents (9.0 versus 5.28; p=0.03). This study demonstrates that the academic performance of independent plastic surgery departments is generally similar to divisions, but with nuanced distinctions.

  15. Empirical models for end-use properties prediction of LDPE: application in the flexible plastic packaging industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Burgos Costa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to develop empirical models to predict end use properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE resins as functions of two intrinsic properties easily measured in the polymers industry. The most important properties for application in the flexible plastic packaging industry were evaluated experimentally for seven commercial polymer grades. Statistical correlation analysis was performed for all variables and used as the basis for proper choice of inputs to each model output. Intrinsic properties selected for resin characterization are fluidity index (FI, which is essentially an indirect measurement of viscosity and weight average molecular weight (MW, and density. In general, models developed are able to reproduce and predict experimental data within experimental accuracy and show that a significant number of end use properties improve as the MW and density increase. Optical properties are mainly determined by the polymer morphology.

  16. Economical Recovery of By-products in the Mining Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.

    2001-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies, Mining Industry of the Future Program, works with the mining industry to further the industry's advances toward environmental and economic goals. Two of these goals are (1) responsible emission and by-product management and (2) low-cost and efficient production (DOE 1998). DOE formed an alliance with the National Mining Association (NMA) to strengthen the basis for research projects conducted to benefit the mining industry. NMA and industry representatives actively participate in this alliance by evaluating project proposals and by recommending research project selection to DOE. Similarly, the National Research Council (NRC) has recently and independently recommended research and technology development opportunities in the mining industry (NRC 2001). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Colorado School of Mines engineers conducted one such project for DOE regarding by -product recovery from mining process residue. The results of this project include this report on mining industry process residue and waste with opportunity for by-product recovery. The U.S. mineral processing industry produces over 30,000,000 metric tons per year of process residue and waste that may contain hazardous species as well as valuable by-products. This study evaluates the copper, lead, and zinc commodity sectors which generate between 23,300,000 and 24,000,000 metric tons per year. The distribution of residual elements in process residues and wastes varies over wide ranges* because of variations in the original ore content as it is extracted from the earth's crust. In the earth's crust, the elements of interest to mining fall into two general geochemical classifications, lithophiles and chalcophiles** (Cox 1997). Groups of elements are almost always present together in a given geochemical classification, but the relative amounts of each element are unique to a particular ore body. This paper

  17. The utilization of renewable resources in German industrial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Rainer; Hirth, Thomas; Liese, Andreas; Nordhoff, Stefan; Puls, Jürgen; Pulz, Otto; Sell, Dieter; Syldatk, Christoph; Ulber, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Renewable resources will be an increasingly important issue for the chemical industry in the future. In the context of white biotechnology, they represent the intersection point of agriculture and the chemical industry. The scarcity and related increase in the price of fossil resources make renewable resources an interesting alternative. If one considers the production of bulk chemicals, it is evident that for this area besides the C sources, sugar and starch, new sources of raw materials must be opened up. One possible solution is to utilize lignocellulose both for materials and energy. This article discusses this interesting prospective for the future, particularly from the point of view of the German industry.

  18. Waterpipe industry products and marketing strategies: analysis of an industry trade exhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Nakkash, Rima T; Hawkins, Ben; Akl, Elie A

    2015-12-01

    Understanding product development and marketing strategies of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) has been of vital importance in developing an effective tobacco control policy. However, comparatively little is known of the waterpipe tobacco industry, which TTCs have recently entered. This study aimed to gain an understanding of waterpipe tobacco products and marketing strategies by visiting a waterpipe trade exhibition. In April 2014, the first author attended an international waterpipe trade exhibition, recording descriptions of products and collecting all available marketing items. We described the purpose and function of all products, and performed a thematic analysis of messages in marketing material. We classified waterpipe products into four categories and noted product variation within categories. Electronic waterpipe products (which mimic electronic cigarettes) rarely appeared on waterpipe tobacco marketing material, but were displayed just as widely. Claims of reduced harm, safety and quality were paramount on marketing materials, regardless of whether they were promoting consumption products (tobacco, tobacco substitutes), electronic waterpipes or accessories. Waterpipe products are diverse in nature and are marketed as healthy and safe products. Furthermore, the development of electronic waterpipe products appears to be closely connected with the electronic cigarette industry, rather than the waterpipe tobacco manufacturers. Tobacco control policy must evolve to take account of the vast and expanding array of waterpipe products, and potentially also charcoal products developed for waterpipe smokers. We recommend that tobacco substitutes be classified as tobacco products. Continued surveillance of the waterpipe industry is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Intensity of rivalry in Czech furniture production industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Špačková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on furniture production industry in the Czech Republic and evaluates the influence of competition forces within this industry. These forces have a direct impact on success of competitive strategies of the firms. Furniture production industry is a typical branch occupied by numerous small and medium-sized firms. Small firms aim on satisfying domestic (or rather local demand, medium-sized and big firms are much more aiming on exports. The methodical sources for evaluation of rivalry represent particular influences defined by Porter in his model of five competitive forces. Main influences identified by Porter, which are increasing the intensity of competition in the furniture production industry in the Czech Republic include low industry concentration, relatively low diversity of competitors, decline in sales, low (or none switching costs, and existing excessive capacity within the industry. Further development will be most significantly influenced by a growing concentration of the bigger Czech producers on domestic market and overall economic development.

  20. Resource Efficiency and Carbon Footprint Minimization in Manufacture of Plastic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sabaliauskaitė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient resource management, waste prevention, as well as renewable resource consumption promote sustainable production and lower greenhouse gas emissions to the environment when manufacturing plastic products.The paper presents the analysis of the efficiency of resources and the potential of carbon footprint minimization in manufacture of plastic products by means of implementation of wood-plastic composite (WPC production. The analysis was performed using life cycle assessment and material flow analysis methodology. To devise the solution for better management of resources and minimization of carbon footprint, the environmental impacts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and WPC wall panels through their life cycle were assessed, as well as the detailed material flow analyses of the PVC and WPC in production stages were carried out.The life cycle assessment has revealed that carbon footprints throughout life cycle of 1 kg of WPC wall panel are 37 % lower than those of the same weight of PVC wall panel product. Both products have a major impact on the environment during their production phase, while during this phase WPC wall panel has 35 % smaller carbon footprint and even 47 % smaller during disposal stages than those of the PVC wall panel.The results of material flow analysis have shown that recycling and reuse of production spoilage reduce the need of PVC secondary resources for PVC panels and primary WPC resources for WPC panel production.For better resource efficiency, the conceptual model of material flow management has been proposed. As WPC products are made of primary WPC granules, which are imported from abroad, the model suggests to produce the WPC granules at the company using collected PVC secondary materials (PVC stocks. It would lower environmental costs and environmental impact, increase the efficiency of resources, and diminish dependence on suppliers.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.67.1.6587

  1. Resource Efficiency and Carbon Footprint Minimization in Manufacture of Plastic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilė Sabaliauskaitė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficient resource management, waste prevention, as well as renewable resource consumption promote sustainable production and lower greenhouse gas emissions to the environment when manufacturing plastic products. The paper presents the analysis of the efficiency of resources and the potential of carbon footprint minimization in manufacture of plastic products by means of implementation of wood-plastic composite (WPC production. The analysis was performed using life cycle assessment and material flow analysis methodology. To devise the solution for better management of resources and minimization of carbon footprint, the environmental impacts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and WPC wall panels through their life cycle were assessed, as well as the detailed material flow analyses of the PVC and WPC in production stages were carried out. The life cycle assessment has revealed that carbon footprint throughout life cycle of 1 kg of WPC wall panel is 37 % lower than those of the same weight of PVC wall panel product. Both products have a major impact on the environment during their production phase, while during this phase WPC wall panel has 35 % smaller carbon footprint and even 47 % smaller during disposal stages than those of the PVC wall panel. The results of material flow analysis have shown that recycling and reuse of production spoilage reduce the need of PVC secondary resources for PVC panels and primary WPC resources for WPC panel production. For better resource efficiency, the conceptual model of material flow management has been proposed. As WPC products are made of primary WPC granules, which are imported from abroad, the model suggests to produce the WPC granules at the company using collected PVC secondary materials (PVC stocks. It would lower environmental costs and environmental impact, increase the efficiency of resources, and diminish dependence on suppliers.

  2. Fungal Morphology in Industrial Enzyme Production - Modelling and Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintanilla, D.; Hagemann, T.; Hansen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are widely used in the biotechnology industry for the production of industrial enzymes. Thus, considerable work has been done with the purpose of characterizing these processes. The ultimate goal of these efforts is to be able to control and predict fermentation performance...... on the basis of "standardized" measurements in terms of morphology, rheology, viscosity, mass transfer and productivity. However, because the variables are connected or dependent on each other, this task is not trivial. The aim of this review article is to gather available information in order to explain......, and on the way the data is interpreted-i.e. which models were applied. The main filamentous fungi used in industrial fermentation are introduced, ranging from Trichoderma reesei to Aspergillus species. Due to the fact that secondary metabolites, like antibiotics, are not to be considered bulk products, organisms...

  3. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.

  4. OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITE PRODUCTS IN THE U.S. HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Knowles

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the market potential for wood plastic composite (WPC products in the highway construction sector in place of non-renewable materials (e.g. virgin plastic and steel and preservative-based products (treated wood. State-level transportation officials indicate that the majority of highway construction purchases are conducted by highway construction contractors. Results from a mail survey of highway contractors in eight western U.S. states indicate that a substantial volume of highway construction material may be suitable for substitution with WPCs. Overall, respondents were not familiar with WPC as a material, but compared it favorably with other materials commonly used in the sector. When making purchase decisions, respondents were most concerned with products meeting regulatory specifications, cost, availability, and trust in quality. Attributes related to sustainability, location of manufacture, and content of recycled material were viewed as less important.

  5. Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous for the industrial production of astaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sáiz, Marta; de la Fuente, Juan Luis; Barredo, José Luis

    2010-10-01

    Astaxanthin is a red xanthophyll (oxygenated carotenoid) with large importance in the aquaculture, pharmaceutical, and food industries. The green alga Haematococcus pluvialis and the heterobasidiomycetous yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous are currently known as the main microorganisms useful for astaxanthin production at the industrial scale. The improvement of astaxanthin titer by microbial fermentation is a requirement to be competitive with the synthetic manufacture by chemical procedures, which at present is the major source in the market. In this review, we show how the isolation of new strains of X. dendrorhous from the environment, the selection of mutants by the classical methods of random mutation and screening, and the rational metabolic engineering, have provided improved strains with higher astaxanthin productivity. To reduce production costs and enhance competitiveness from an industrial point of view, low-cost raw materials from industrial and agricultural origin have been adopted to get the maximal astaxanthin productivity. Finally, fermentation parameters have been studied in depth, both at flask and fermenter scales, to get maximal astaxanthin titers of 4.7 mg/g dry cell matter (420 mg/l) when X. dendrorhous was fermented under continuous white light. The industrial scale-up of this biotechnological process will provide a cost-effective method, alternative to synthetic astaxanthin, for the commercial exploitation of the expensive astaxanthin (about $2,500 per kilogram of pure astaxanthin).

  6. Group and insidious tetraethyl lead poisoning occurred in industry of plastic weaving: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Bai, Ying; Zhu, Baoli; Zhu, Wenjing; Ye, Mingxian

    2016-05-01

    Tetraethyl lead (TEL) poisoning has declined sharply with decreasing consumption of gasoil and other chemicals contained TEL. Here we reported group TEL poisoning in the plastic weaving factory. We investigated 16 cases with the typical nerves disorder which is similar to organotin poisoning, and the result suggested that the poisoning may cause by applied "white oil" contented TEL. Despite its rareness, our cases emphasize that clinicians should pay attention to the difference from the treatment of organic tin poisoning.

  7. Thermal recycling of plastic waste using pyrolysis-gasification process for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbit, George Teke

    2012-04-04

    The disposal of mixed waste in landfills, dump sites and open burning without material and energy recovery leads to resource loss, causes health problems, pollution and littering. Increasing energy demand for industrial and domestic application with rising costs due to scarcity motivates a constant search for alternative clean energy sources. Recovering energy from waste presents various incentives e.g. creating jobs, alleviating poverty, combating and mitigating climate change, protecting the environment and reducing dependence on traditional fuels sources. Hence, plastics end up in landfills, surface waters and ocean bed with serious negative impact on terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. Plastic waste with high calorific value (36-46MJ/kg) occupies the greatest portion of landfill space. Hence, using an appropriate technology to transform waste plastic to a hot gaseous mixture which is burned in-situ produces enormous amount of energy without pollution. Based on this hypothesis, the study objectives accomplished were to: 1. Characterise, quantify and classify waste fractions and plastic components common in MSW by manual sorting 2. Evaluate options for sustainable plastic waste management especially for developing countries 3. Design, construct, test and optimize an appropriate technology that applies pyrolysis and gasification processes to convert non-PVC plastic waste to energy 4. Assess the efficiency of the technology based on the functioning, the engineering, mass and energy analysis including socioeconomic and environmental impacts An integrated methodology involving review of current literature, field and laboratory experiments on mixed waste and plastic waste analysis was used. In addition, the pyrolysis-gasification technology (PGT) was conceptualised, designed, constructed, tested and optimised at BTU Cottbus, Germany; Lagos, Nigeria and Dschang, Cameroon. Field studies involving natural observation, interviews, personal discussions and visits to

  8. Biobased plastics in a bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, J C; Ritchie, R J; Guy, K

    2013-02-01

    Bioeconomy plans include a biobased industries sector in which some oil-derived plastics and chemicals are replaced by new or equivalent products derived, at least partially, from biomass. Some of these biobased products are here today, but to fulfil their societal potential, greater attention is required to promote awareness, and to improve their market share while making valuable contributions to climate change mitigation.

  9. Industrial production and professional application of manufactured nanomaterials-enabled end products in Dutch industries: potential for exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Cindy; Brouwer, Derk H; Tielemans, Erik; Pronk, Anjoeka

    2013-04-01

    In order to make full use of the opportunities while responsibly managing the risks of working with manufactured nanomaterials (MNM), we need to gain insight into the potential level of exposure to MNM in the industry. Therefore, the goal of this study was to obtain an overview of the potential MNM exposure scenarios within relevant industrial sectors, applied exposure controls, and number of workers potentially exposed to MNM in Dutch industrial sectors producing and applying MNM-enabled end products in the Netherlands. A survey was conducted in three phases: (i) identification of MNM-enabled end products; (ii) identification of relevant industrial sectors; and (iii) a tiered telephone survey to estimate actual use of the products among 40 sector organizations/knowledge centres (Tier 1), 350 randomly selected companies (Tier 2), and 110 actively searched companies (Tier 3). The most dominant industrial sectors producing or applying MNM-enabled end products (market penetration >5%) are shoe repair shops, automotive, construction, paint, metal, and textile cleaning industry. In the majority of the companies (76%), potential risks related to working with MNM are not a specific point of interest. The total number of workers potentially exposed to MNM during the production or application of MNM-enabled end products was estimated at approximately 3000 workers in the Netherlands. The results of this study will serve as a basis for in-depth exposure and health surveys that are currently planned in the Netherlands. In addition, the results can be used to identify the most relevant sectors for policy makers and future studies focussing on evaluating the risks of occupational exposure to MNM.

  10. Experimental operation of the production line for carbon fiber-reinforced plastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldin, V.M.; Denezhkin, N.M.; Krivoshchekova, N.P.; Krotova, Z.S.; Yermakov, V.F.

    1979-01-01

    Verifications of the quality of the manufactured tubings established that in physical-mechanical indicators the carbon fiber-reinforced plastic corresponds to the requirements which are made for the material of the timbering rising, operated in the zone of intensive manifestation of mine pressure, and exposed to the effect of a stream of coal transmitted through it. Average data are presented for physical-mechanical properties of the carbon fiber-reinforced plastic according to samples manufactured from the tubings. In 1974-1978 the production line produced over 130,000 tubings, or 6600m of timbering to two type-sizes with inner diameter of 850 and 1090 mm. Experimental operation of the production line indicated that as a whole it is efficient, simple and convenient to operate, and guarantees safe working conditions of the service personnel. Verification and pinpointing of the production parameters for making timbering, as well as generalization of the experience of operating the line made it possible to plan a production line with maximum mechanization and automation of the operations of the production process and increase its productivity two-fold. The production line will be put into operation in 1980 in the experimental shop TsEMM No 4 of the production association ''Prokop'yevskugol'.''

  11. Innovation in product and services in the shipping retrofit industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Köhler, Jonathan

    . Similarly, given the deindustrialisation dynamics to regions with lower manufacturing costs, it is argued that a combination of knowledge intensive and service-based economy will eventually fill the gap left by manufacturing industries. To create added value to their products, some leading firms...... are increasingly developing product-service systems. It is however, argued that product-service systems are not always sustainable, and thus little evidence connect them with green growth. To fill in this gap, we are carrying a case study guided by the following research question: “How the ballast water treatment...... regulation could create innovation in green products and services in the maritime retrofitting industry?” Our case study focus on business models for the development, installation and operation of ballast water management systems in Denmark. We engaged the perspectives of ship-owners, equipment manufacturers...

  12. Procedimientos y productos industriales - Procedures and industrial products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos López, Pascual

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives news of the six patents filed by the inventor Antonio Pérez Cano, Cieza neighbor, in the period from 1916-1922. All related to industry of esparto of Cieza booming in those years. Four of these patents were registered in the year of the crisis of 1917 that led to the First World War (1914-1918. The first patent covers a bleaching process, three on new industrial products and the remaining two on addition or enhancement of these products.Often the patent specifications speak of the art at the time they were recorded as well as the opportunity of the inventors to take advantage of the historical economic situation and increase the production of goods and products manufactured with raw materials not imported.

  13. Integration of Mobile Manipulators in an Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole; Bøgh, Simon; Schou, Casper

    2015-01-01

    , it was possible to program both robots to perform the production scenario in collaboration. Despite the success, the experiment clearly demonstrated several topics in need of further research before the technology can be made available to the industry: robustness and cycle time, safety investigations and possibly...... reports from such a real-world industrial experiment with two mobile manipulators. Design/methodology/approach – In the experiment, autonomous industrial mobile manipulators are integrated into the actual manufacturing environment of the pump manufacturer Grundfos. The two robots together solve the task...... of producing rotors; a task constituted by several sub-tasks ranging from logistics to complex assembly. With a total duration of 10 days, the experiment includes workspace adaptation, safety regulations, rapid robot instruction and running production. Findings – With a setup time of less than one day...

  14. Industrial transformation and green production to reduce environmental emissions:Taking cement industry as a case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU¨ Yong-Long; GENG Jing; HE Gui-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Industrial transformation and green production (ITGP) is a new 10-year international research initiative proposed by the Chinese National Committee for Future Earth. It is also an important theme for adapting and responding to global environmental change. Aiming at a thorough examination of the implementation of ITGP in China, this paper presents its objectives, its three major areas, and their progress so far. It also identifies the key elements of its management and proposes new perspectives on managing green transformation. For instance, we introduce a case study on cement industry that shows the positive policy effects of reducing backward production capacity on PCDD/Fs emissions. Finally, to develop different transformation scenarios for a green future, we propose four strategies:1) policy integration for promoting green industry, 2) system innovation and a multidisciplinary approach, 3) collaborative governance with all potential stakeholders, and 4) managing uncertainty, risks, and long-time horizons.

  15. Industrial transformation and green production to reduce environmental emissions: Taking cement industry as a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Long Lü

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial transformation and green production (ITGP is a new 10-year international research initiative proposed by the Chinese National Committee for Future Earth. It is also an important theme for adapting and responding to global environmental change. Aiming at a thorough examination of the implementation of ITGP in China, this paper presents its objectives, its three major areas, and their progress so far. It also identifies the key elements of its management and proposes new perspectives on managing green transformation. For instance, we introduce a case study on cement industry that shows the positive policy effects of reducing backward production capacity on PCDD/Fs emissions. Finally, to develop different transformation scenarios for a green future, we propose four strategies: 1 policy integration for promoting green industry, 2 system innovation and a multidisciplinary approach, 3 collaborative governance with all potential stakeholders, and 4 managing uncertainty, risks, and long-time horizons.

  16. Description of the production process - industrial phase; Descricao do processo produtivo - fase industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter presents the description of the present state-of-art, in this paper called first generation of the productive process of sugar-cane bio ethanol in Brazil, related to the industrial phase involving their improvements and also the aspects related to the second generation technologies, particularly the hydrolysis and gasification of the biomass technologies. The chapter also approaches the aspects referred to the use of sugar cane bagasse and the straw cape, and also the production of electric power surplus.

  17. Towards eco-agro industrial clusters in aquatic production: the case of shrimp processing industry in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Thi Ahn,; Tran Thi My Dieu,; Mol, A.P.J.; Kroeze, C.; Bush, S.R.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of industrial ecology has been applied in this research to study possibilities to develop an eco-industrial cluster model for fishery production industry in Vietnam. By learning from experiments of other developed countries, we apply the principles of Industrial Ecology and of Ecological

  18. Towards eco-agro industrial clusters in aquatic production: the case of shrimp processing industry in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Thi Ahn,; Tran Thi My Dieu,; Mol, A.P.J.; Kroeze, C.; Bush, S.R.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of industrial ecology has been applied in this research to study possibilities to develop an eco-industrial cluster model for fishery production industry in Vietnam. By learning from experiments of other developed countries, we apply the principles of Industrial Ecology and of Ecological

  19. Ethanol production in Brazil: a bridge between science and industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lucio Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the last 40 years, several scientific and technological advances in microbiology of the fermentation have greatly contributed to evolution of the ethanol industry in Brazil. These contributions have increased our view and comprehension about fermentations in the first and, more recently, second-generation ethanol. Nowadays, new technologies are available to produce ethanol from sugarcane, corn and other feedstocks, reducing the off-season period. Better control of fermentation conditions can reduce the stress conditions for yeast cells and contamination by bacteria and wild yeasts. There are great research opportunities in production processes of the first-generation ethanol regarding high-value added products, cost reduction and selection of new industrial yeast strains that are more robust and customized for each distillery. New technologies have also focused on the reduction of vinasse volumes by increasing the ethanol concentrations in wine during fermentation. Moreover, conversion of sugarcane biomass into fermentable sugars for second-generation ethanol production is a promising alternative to meet future demands of biofuel production in the country. However, building a bridge between science and industry requires investments in research, development and transfer of new technologies to the industry as well as specialized personnel to deal with new technological challenges.

  20. Inner Mongolia to Implement Production Quota in Iron Alloy Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>During the 12th Five-Year Plan period, Inner Mongolia will accelerate to eliminate outdated capacity, speed up to work out implementation plan for key industries to eliminate outdated production capacity during the 12th Five-Year Plan period, break down and assign the tasks by year to all leagues and cities; improve the

  1. Ethanol production in Brazil: a bridge between science and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mario Lucio; Paulillo, Silene Cristina de Lima; Godoy, Alexandre; Cherubin, Rudimar Antonio; Lorenzi, Marcel Salmeron; Giometti, Fernando Henrique Carvalho; Bernardino, Claudemir Domingues; Amorim Neto, Henrique Berbert de; Amorim, Henrique Vianna de

    2016-12-01

    In the last 40 years, several scientific and technological advances in microbiology of the fermentation have greatly contributed to evolution of the ethanol industry in Brazil. These contributions have increased our view and comprehension about fermentations in the first and, more recently, second-generation ethanol. Nowadays, new technologies are available to produce ethanol from sugarcane, corn and other feedstocks, reducing the off-season period. Better control of fermentation conditions can reduce the stress conditions for yeast cells and contamination by bacteria and wild yeasts. There are great research opportunities in production processes of the first-generation ethanol regarding high-value added products, cost reduction and selection of new industrial yeast strains that are more robust and customized for each distillery. New technologies have also focused on the reduction of vinasse volumes by increasing the ethanol concentrations in wine during fermentation. Moreover, conversion of sugarcane biomass into fermentable sugars for second-generation ethanol production is a promising alternative to meet future demands of biofuel production in the country. However, building a bridge between science and industry requires investments in research, development and transfer of new technologies to the industry as well as specialized personnel to deal with new technological challenges.

  2. Product costing practices in the North American hardwood component industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jan Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2011-01-01

    Companies, when bidding for jobs, need to be able to price products competitively while also assuring that the necessary profitability can be achieved. These goals, competitive pricing and profitability, cannot be reliably achieved unless industry participants possess a full understanding of their company's cost structure. Competitors blame companies without...

  3. Production Management in SME's Industry: Case Study of CV Wiracana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apriani Kurnia Suci

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Production Management is the act of designing, operating, and improving the productive systems – a system for getting the work done. Along the process, the synergy in between machineries, facilities and people could empower the sustainable of the production. In fact, for some cases, the implementation of unique system is needed for the production process. The example for this transformation production management is in the case of CV Wiracana, a handmade manufacturing company for folding hand fans from Bali. CV Wiracana's products are very unique, combined from mass production for the speed and an art for the custom made product. At one side, the market forces them to speed up the production and for this purpose, they must set up the new system on their production line. On the other side, the masterpiece also needs to be produced without jeopardizing mass production line schedule. The transformation production system needs to be done no later than 2015 as the urgency to fulfill the customer demand, business growth, compete in the industry and sustainability. The changes are expected to improve the production at least about 20% or doubled from the current production.

  4. Studies on the preparation of value-added products for industrial minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Studies on the preparation of value-added products for limestone: This study has investigated to raise to high grade by economical processes with low grade of domestic limestone. We investigated the status of application utilize and related industries with the domestic limestone, and then being consideration with condition selected the adequate sample from Andong, Jungsun and Kumsan area. Magnetic materials were involved in impurities of sample, so magnetic separation method was applied in elimination of the ferro- and para-magnetic materials, such as chlorite, muscovite, quartz, dolomite, magnetite, feldspar and so on. Investigation of flotation was undertaken to eliminate impurities from limestone crude ore and the tests were performed to get a optimum condition adding oleic acid as a promoter, sodium silicate and sodium carbonate as a conditioning agents and MIBC as a frother, while to float the sulfide minerals added amyl xanthate as a promoter, and sulfuric acid as a pH regulator. Selective crushing and classification methods were performed to eliminate impurities depends on the mineral properties and should be the selective crushing methods are very useful at the manufacturing factory of heavy calcium carbonate with the dry milling system. 2) A study on development of value added technology of pyrophyllite and dickite: Pyrophyllite and dickite have being utilized as refractories, ceramics, cement, fiber glass, paper, rubber, paints etc. However, there are not any domestic companies to produce fillers of pyrophyllite and dickite for plastic and rubber. Moreover, several kinds of fillers are imported every year with expensive price for plastic and rubber filler. This study has purpose to develop manufacturing technologies to produce fillers for plastic and rubber of pyrophyllite and dickite. The chemical and mineralogical properties of samples, the optimum grinding condition and device for producing plastic fillers and

  5. GGDC Productivity Level Database: International Comparisons of Output, Inputs and Productivity at the Industry Level

    OpenAIRE

    Inklaar, Robert; Timmer, Marcel P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the GGDC Productivity Level database. This database provides comparisons of output, inputs and productivity at a detailed industry level for a set of thirty OECD countries. It complements the EU KLEMS growth and productivity accounts by providing comparative levels and follows it in terms of country and industry coverage, variable definition and basic data (O?Mahony and Timmer, 2008). As such, the level and growth accounts can be used together in comparative analyse...

  6. Industrial water demand management and cleaner production potential: a case of three industries in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Mlilo, Sipho; Broome, Jeff; Lumbroso, Darren

    The combination of water demand management and cleaner production concepts have resulted in both economical and ecological benefits. The biggest challenge for developing countries is how to retrofit the industrial processes, which at times are based on obsolete technology, within financial, institutional and legal constraints. Processes in closed circuits can reduce water intake substantially and minimise resource input and the subsequent waste thereby reducing pollution of finite fresh water resources. Three industries were studied in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe to identify potential opportunities for reducing water intake and material usage and minimising waste. The industries comprised of a wire galvanising company, soft drink manufacturing and sugar refining industry. The results show that the wire galvanising industry could save up to 17% of water by recycling hot quench water through a cooling system. The industry can eliminate by substitution the use of toxic materials, namely lead and ammonium chloride and reduce the use of hydrochloric acid by half through using an induction heating chamber instead of lead during the annealing step. For the soft drink manufacturing industry water intake could be reduced by 5% through recycling filter-backwash water via the water treatment plant. Use of the pig system could save approximately 12 m 3/month of syrup and help reduce trade effluent fees by Z30/m 3 of “soft drink”. Use of a heat exchanger system in the sugar refining industry can reduce water intake by approximately 57 m 3/100 t “raw sugar” effluent volume by about 28 m 3/100 t “raw sugar”. The water charges would effectively be reduced by 52% and trade effluent fees by Z3384/100 t “raw sugar” (57%). Proper equipment selection, equipment modification and good house-keeping procedures could further help industries reduce water intake and minimise waste.

  7. Hybrid Integration of Taguchi Parametric Design, Grey Relational Analysis, and Principal Component Analysis Optimization for Plastic Gear Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Mizamzul Mehat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of optimal processing parameters is an important practice in the plastic injection moulding industry because of the significant effect of such parameters on plastic part quality and cost. However, the optimization design of injection moulding process parameters can be difficult because more than one quality characteristic is used in the evaluation. This study systematically develops a hybrid optimization method for multiple quality characteristics by integrating the Taguchi parameter design, grey relational analysis, and principal component analysis. A plastic gear is used to demonstrate the efficiency and validity of the proposed hybrid optimization method in controlling all influential injection moulding processing parameters during plastic gear manufacturing. To minimize the shrinkage behaviour in tooth thickness, addendum circle, and dedendum circle of moulded gear, the optimal combination of different process parameters is determined. The case study demonstrates that the proposed optimization method can produce plastic-moulded gear with minimum shrinkage behaviour of 1.8%, 1.53%, and 2.42% in tooth thickness, addendum circle, and dedendum circle, respectively; these values are less than the values in the main experiment. Therefore, shrinkage-related defects that lead to severe failure in plastic gears can be effectively minimized while satisfying the demand of the global plastic gear industry.

  8. RAPID WAY TO ASSESS THE SAFETY OF PRODUCTS FROM PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE PLASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. An express method for determining of volatile components in the products of phenol-formaldehyde plastics is developed by detecting them in the equilibrium gas phase using the piezosensors array. The sorption of substances-marker vapor which are the main pollutants in the air diffusing from plastic household products has been studied under identical conditions. The array of 8 piezosensors is selected providing minimal impact of water vapor on the microbalance results; maximum sensitivity to one / several classes of organic compounds; identification of phenol / formaldehyde in the mixtures. A method of evaluation the level of emissions of phenol, formaldehyde, toluene, acetone from household plastic products is developed using the piezosensors array. It has been proposed the ranking samples nonfood polymers into groups according to the danger degree based on the total content of volatile organic compounds and the presence of phenol / formaldehyde. Accuracy of the phenol determination in polymers is verified by standard spectrophotometric method with 4-aminoantipyrine, it is shown the results of both methods satisfactorily converge. The proposed method can significantly reduce the economic and time costs on analysis and expand the analytical information about the content of other volatile substances in a single measurement.

  9. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...... are blended into end products to minimise the total operational costs under production and storage capacity limitations. A comprehensive mixed-integer linear model is developed for the problem. The model is applied on a data set collected from a real-life case. The trade-offs between capacity limitations...... and operational costs are analysed, and the effects of different types of cost parameters and capacity limitations on the selection of intermediates and end-product recipes are investigated....

  10. Design and industrial production of frequency standards in the USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, Nikolai A.; Uljanov, Adolph A.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of research development and production of quantum frequency standards, carried out in QUARTZ Research and Production Association (RPA), Gorky, U.S.S.R., were investigated for the last 25 to 30 years. During this period a number of rubidium and hydrogen frequency standards, based on the active maser, were developed and put into production. The first industrial model of a passive hydrogen maser was designed in the last years. Besides frequency standards for a wide application range, RPA QUARTZ investigates metrological frequency standards--cesium standards with cavity length 1.9 m and hydrogen masers with a flexible storage bulb.

  11. Design and industrial production of frequency standards in the USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, Nikolai A.; Uljanov, Adolph A.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of research development and production of quantum frequency standards, carried out in QUARTZ Research and Production Association (RPA), Gorky, U.S.S.R., were investigated for the last 25 to 30 years. During this period a number of rubidium and hydrogen frequency standards, based on the active maser, were developed and put into production. The first industrial model of a passive hydrogen maser was designed in the last years. Besides frequency standards for a wide application range, RPA QUARTZ investigates metrological frequency standards--cesium standards with cavity length 1.9 m and hydrogen masers with a flexible storage bulb.

  12. Palm oil based surfactant products for petroleum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permadi, P.; Fitria, R.; Hambali, E.

    2017-05-01

    In petroleum production process, many problems causing reduced production are found. These include limited oil recovery, wax deposit, asphaltene deposit, sludge deposit, and emulsion problem. Petroleum-based surfactant has been used to overcome these problems. Therefore, innovation to solve these problems using surfactant containing natural materials deserves to be developed. Palm oil-based surfactant is one of the potential alternatives for this. Various types of derivative products of palm oil-based surfactant have been developed by SBRC IPB to be used in handling problems including surfactant flooding, well stimulation, asphaltene dissolver, well cleaning, and wax removal found in oil and gas industry.

  13. Compatibilized blends and value added products from leather industry waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartore, Luciana; Di Landro, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Blends based on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and hydrolyzed proteins (IP), derived from waste products of the leather industry, have been obtained by reactive blending and their chemical physical properties as well as mechanical and rheological behavior were evaluated. The effect of vinyl acetate content and of transesterification agent addition to increase interaction between polymer and bio-based components were considered. These blends represent a new type of biodegradable material and resulted promising for industrial application in several fields such as packaging and agriculture as transplanting or mulching films with additional fertilizing action of IP.

  14. Environmental Design of Industrial Products (EDIP), anchoring of the life cycle concept in industry and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1999-01-01

    The Danish methodology and tools for environmental assessment of products (EDIP) became public available in 1996-97. Following the EDIP-project, projects reflecting methodological developments and simplifications for a broader use have been lanuched, also taking the methodology beyond Danish bord...... borders and into Europe and Asia. Simplification projects comprise development of a manual for SME's and identification of product families. Industrial applications are exemplified by a product development project at the pump manufacturer Grundfos, and by this company's use of the EDIP...

  15. Environmental Design of Industrial Products (EDIP), anchoring of the life cycle concept in industry and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1999-01-01

    The Danish methodology and tools for environmental assessment of products (EDIP) became public available in 1996-97. Following the EDIP-project, projects reflecting methodological developments and simplifications for a broader use have been lanuched, also taking the methodology beyond Danish bord...... borders and into Europe and Asia. Simplification projects comprise development of a manual for SME's and identification of product families. Industrial applications are exemplified by a product development project at the pump manufacturer Grundfos, and by this company's use of the EDIP......-methodology in connection with EMAS-registration....

  16. Analysis of phthalic acid diesters, monoester, and other plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride household products in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Isama, Kazuo; Matsuoka, Atsuko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of six phthalic acid diesters (PAEs) [di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP)], two non-phthalic plasticizers [di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutylate (TMPDIB)], and mono 2-ethylhexyl phthalate(MEHP) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) household products that children often places in their mouths and/or contact with their skin (41 products, 47 samples) in Japan. The detection frequencies of the studied compounds were as follows: DEHP (79 %), DINP-2 (13 %), DINP-1 (11 %), DBP (8.5 %), DEHA (8.5 %), DIDP (4.3 %), and DNOP (2.1 %). Concentrations of these compounds ranged from 0.021 % to 48 %. BBP and TMPDIB were not detected in the all samples. Most samples contained DEHP and DINP at high concentrations over 0.1 %. High concentrations of PAEs were detected in PVC household products that appear appealing to children and can possibly be licked and chewed by them. Di(2-ethylhexyl) terephtalete, diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, acetyl tributyl citrate, and di(2-ethylhexyl) 4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylate used as substitute plasticizers were also detected in several samples. MEHP was present in 70 % of the samples, with concentrations ranging from trace amounts to 140 μg/g. The ratios of MEHP against DEHP were 6.2 × 10(-4) to 1.6 × 10(-1) %. MEHP in the household products investigated in this study was most probably an impurity in DEHP. The high concentrations of PAEs detected in products that children often place in their mouth reveal the importance of replacing plasticizers in common household products, and not just children's toys, with safer alternatives.

  17. Fumonisin and ochratoxin production in industrial Aspergillus niger strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens C Frisvad

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe. However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B(2, B(4, and B(6 were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins.

  18. Factors affecting the dairy industry's products export in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aazam Yazdaninasab

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Export dairy products as an important part of non-oil exports can play an important role in improving the economic situation of Iran. Therefore, in this study factors affecting the exports of dairy products in the period 2002-2014 will be discussed. The results indicate a trend of increasing exports of dairy products during the 13 year study. This reflects the fact that the dairy industry of great potential capacity to provide part of the non-oil revenues in the agricultural subsector. In this study, the dependent variable was the amount of exports of dairy products. Independent variables included: investment in large dairy factories, the price of goods and services consumed by this sector, GDP, exchange rate, export prices for dairy products. The results showed that the effect of all independent variables on the dependent variable is positive and rising: such as investment and exchange rate. So that with an increase of 10 percent each of the indicators the country's exports of dairy products will be increase. The original proposal of the present study is: the use of policies and financial instruments and non-financial, such as paying attention to the comparative advantages of export, focusing on the right target export markets in order to support the country's dairy industry to increase production and exports.

  19. Production of recyclates – compared with virgin Plastics – a LCA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storm Birgit Kjærside

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastix A/S is a Danish cleantech company transforming discarded fishing trawls and nets into valuable green raw materials. Plastix– technology and processes solve a maritime waste problem and contribute to a more circular green economy and reduce landfilling, marine pollution, CO2 emissions and especially loss of valuable resources. Plastix– recycling technology enables recovery of discarded fishing trawls and nets via mechanical and thermal processes transforming the waste into valuable recycles which can be converted into plastic products replacing virgin raw materials. The performance has been proved through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA study. The results from the LCA study are compared with the production of virgin materials. The results of the LCA show that especially the carbon footprint is remarkable better for Oceanix than for virgin plastics. Oceanix HDPE is 5 times better than virgin HDPE, when talking about the carbon foot print, and the results for Oceanix PP and Oceanix PA6 are 5 times and 20 times better compared with virgin PP and PA6. Also other environmental indicators are better for Oceanix compared with virgin plastics.

  20. GGDC Productivity Level Database : International Comparisons of Output, Inputs and Productivity at the Industry Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, Robert; Timmer, Marcel P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the GGDC Productivity Level database. This database provides comparisons of output, inputs and productivity at a detailed industry level for a set of thirty OECD countries. It complements the EU KLEMS growth and productivity accounts by providing comparative levels and fol

  1. Products Depend on Creative Potential: A Comment on the Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runco, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Ghassib (2010) presents a provocative view of science as industry. He ties science specifically to a "productivist" industrial model and to knowledge production. If judged based on what is explicit in this article, his theory is useful and logical. There are, however, several concerns as well. Some of these are implied by the title of his article,…

  2. H₂-rich syngas production by fluidized bed gasification of biomass and plastic fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoppolo, G; Ammendola, P; Chirone, R; Miccio, F

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports the results of gasification tests using a catalytic fluidized bed gasifier to obtain a H(2)-rich stream by feeding different pellets made of wood, biomass/plastic and olive husks to the gasifier. The effects of both the steam supply and an in-bed catalyst on gasifier performance have been investigated. In general, pelletization was an effective pre-treatment for improving the homogeneity of the fuel and the reliability of the feeding devices. The use of biomass/plastic pellets in a catalyst bed yielded good results in terms of the hydrogen concentration (up to 32%vol.), even if an increase in tar production and in the fine/carbon elutriation rate was observed in comparison with wood pellets.

  3. Production of steam cracking feedstocks by mild cracking of plastic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angyal, Andras; Miskolczi, Norbert; Bartha, Laszlo; Tungler, Antal; Nagy, Lajos; Vida, Laszlo; Nagy, Gabor

    2010-11-15

    In this work the utility of new possible petrochemical feedstocks obtained by plastic waste cracking has been studied. The cracking process of polyethylene (PE), polyethylene-polypropylene (PEPP) and polyethylene-polystyrene (PEPS) has been carried out in a pilot scale tubular reactor. In this process mild reaction parameters has been applied, with the temperature of 530 C and the residence time of 15 min. The produced hydrocarbon fractions as light- and middle distillates were tested by using a laboratory steam cracking unit. It was concluded that the products of the mild cracking of plastic wastes could be applied as petrochemical feedstocks. Based on the analytical data it was determined that these liquid products contained in significant concentration (25-50 wt.%) of olefin hydrocarbons. Moreover the cracking of polystyrene containing raw material resulted in liquid products with significant amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons too. The steam cracking experiments proved that the products obtained by PE and PEPP cracking resulted in similar or better ethylene and propylene yields than the reference samples, however the aromatic content of PEPS products reduced the ethylene and propylene yields. (author)

  4. DETECTING VERTICAL INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE IN CULTURAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affortunato Francesca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process has always since markedly characterized by the increasing incidence of Intra-Industry Trade. This has been theoretically justified on the grounds of the new approaches emerging in international trade literature, based on imperfect competition and differentiated products. In recent years another distinctive economic feature of European Union is the importance gained by the so called “cultural and creative sectors”, which are often studied and monitored by reports for their great growth potential. We provide here a systematic decomposition of world trade in “cultural/creative goods” for the year 2009 (using harmonised bilateral flows for some 213 products defined as “cultural products” by UNESCO, 2009 into three trade types: inter-industry, intra-industry (IIT in horizontally versus vertically differentiated products. We show that the world trade in cultural goods is significantly characterised by two-way trade of vertically differentiated products. Moreover we specifically focus on the Italian peculiarities in the “cultural trade”: therefore we first work out which ones of the world countries are the “top exporters” of these categories of products and then we compute an indicator of the Italian goods’ quality relative to each of these competitors. Not surprisingly, we find that the most important bilateral IIT intensities in cultural products are observed in Europe. However the presence of developing countries is not unimportant. This can be explained partly to as a consequence of the increasing level of trade integration among some Asian countries and as a consequence of an increasing despecialization of firstly industrialized countries in the production and trading of these products. Finally, with reference to the relative quality of Italian cultural products compared with that of the other top-exporters in these sectors, we find that Italian

  5. 78 FR 32667 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Rheumatoid Arthritis: Developing Drug Products for Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Rheumatoid Arthritis... guidance for industry entitled ``Rheumatoid Arthritis: Developing Drug Products for Treatment.'' This... products developed as drug-device combination products. This guidance revises the guidance for...

  6. The Productivity Analysis of Chennai Automotive Industry Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2014-07-01

    Chennai, also called the Detroit of India, is India's second fastest growing auto market and exports auto components and vehicles to US, Germany, Japan and Brazil. For inclusive growth and sustainable development, 250 auto component industries in Ambattur, Thirumalisai and Thirumudivakkam Industrial Estates located in Chennai have adopted the Cluster Development Approach called Automotive Component Cluster. The objective is to study the Value Chain, Correlation and Data Envelopment Analysis by determining technical efficiency, peer weights, input and output slacks of 100 auto component industries in three estates. The methodology adopted is using Data Envelopment Analysis of Output Oriented Banker Charnes Cooper model by taking net worth, fixed assets, employment as inputs and gross output as outputs. The non-zero represents the weights for efficient clusters. The higher slack obtained reveals the excess net worth, fixed assets, employment and shortage in gross output. To conclude, the variables are highly correlated and the inefficient industries should increase their gross output or decrease the fixed assets or employment. Moreover for sustainable development, the cluster should strengthen infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing interrelationships to decrease costs and to increase productivity and efficiency to compete in the indigenous and export market.

  7. Risk Management for New Product Development Projects in Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porananond, D.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Project risk management provides a guideline for decision making in new product development (NPD projects, reducing uncertainty and increasing success rate. However, the acceptance of formal risk management applications in industry, especially for NPD projects is still in question. A study of a food conglomerate in Thailand found that only 9% of NPD projects used a systematic approach for managing risk. 61% of the projects realised the importance of risk management, while the remaining 30% did not involve risk management at all. This study aims to develop a risk management model for NPD projects in the food industry. The first section of this paper reviews the literature on risk management theory, including international standards for risk and project management (ISO31000 and ISO21500, publications for the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK, by a professional organisation the Project Management Institute (PMI, and also academic research. 182 academic papers, published between January 2002 and August 2012 were selected. The second part interviews conducted with eight NPD experts from five of the major food manufacturers in Thailand to examine their risk management practices and problems. Conclusions are made on five topics : classification of research method, project type and industrial segment, distribution of articles by region, tools & techniques for risk management and risk factors in projects. Specific requirements of risk management for NPD projects in the food industry are identified. A risk management model and the concept of risk management applications for the food industry are proposed.

  8. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A.; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N.; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J.; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C.; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G.; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K. Thomas; Mullen, Robert T.; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M.; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2016-01-01

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds. PMID:26916792

  9. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K Thomas; Mullen, Robert T; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2016-02-26

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds.

  10. Early age shrinkage pattern of concrete on replacement of fine aggregate with industrial by-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Mishra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This is an experimental work carried out to investigate early age shrinkage pattern of concrete, prepared, on 50% replacement of industrial by-product (like pond ash and granulated blast furnace slag as fine aggregate using OPC, PPC and PSC as a binder. This is to observe the effect of pond ash and slag as they are having some cementitious properties and effect of cement type is also discussed. All the mixes were prepared keeping in view of pumpable concrete without any super plasticizers. Higher shrinkage value indicates the presence of more bleed water or internal moisture. It is concluded that slag is the best option for fine aggregate replacement for concrete making and durable structure.

  11. BUSINESS CLIMATE INDICATOR AS A PREDICTOR OF CROATIAN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Čižmešija

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Business and Consumer Surveys (BCS are one of the most frequently used tools to assess economy’s cyclical behavior. Croatia has been conducting the surveys continually since 1995. Nevertheless, there is still a research niche in the Croatian BCS framework that has not been adequately represented. The Joint Harmonised EU Programme of Business and Consumer Surveys suggests Business Climate Indicator (BCI as a composite leading indicator of the economy as a whole. In accordance to the EU methodology, this paper examines managers’ qualitative assessments on five important variables related to their economic environment. Using factor analysis one factor was extracted from those five variables, representing the BCI. It’s predictive properties were analyzed with regards to Croatian industrial production using Granger causality test, impulse response and variance decomposition analysis. Results strongly confirm the precedence of BCI to the changes of Croatian industrial production, validating the importance of its introduction and utilization in Croatian economic cycles analysis.

  12. Benefits of nitrogen for food, fibre and industrial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L S; Schjoerring, J K; van der Hoek, K W

    2011-01-01

    Nature of the issue • Reactive nitrogen (N r ) has well-documented positive effects in agricultural and industrial production systems, human nutrition and food security. Limited N r supply was a key constraint to European food and industrial production, which has been overcome by N r from the Haber–Bosch...... value of N benefi ts to the European economy is very substantial. Almost half of the global food can be produced because of N r from the Haber–Bosch, and cereal yields in Europe without fertilizer would only amount to half to two-thirds of those with fertilizer application at economically optimal rates...... to achieve this via N-conserving field practices such as catch crops, reduced soil tillage, better estimation of crop N requirements and improved timing and placement of N inputs. Also modifications to livestock diets, enhanced recycling of livestock wastes, prevention of ammonia loss from animal housing...

  13. Multimedia pollution assessment of the wood products industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casana, J.

    1984-02-01

    This report presents a summary and commentary on pollutants, abatement technologies, and regulations in the wood products industries. Industries included in the study are pulp, paper and paperboard, veneer/plywood, particleboard, millwork and structural members, fabricated wood products, and gum and wood chemicals, and wood preserving. Water pollution abatement legislation has established guidelines based on Best Practicable Control Technology Currently Available (BPCTCA). These guidelines primarily address conventional pollutants, including five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS) and pH. In addition, guidelines based on Best Available Technology Economically Achievable (BATEA) and Best Conventional Pollutant Control Technology (BCPCT) are currently being established to address conventional, priority (toxic), and nonconventional (neither conventional nor toxic) pollutants. Existing external air pollution control devices, in conjunction with internal process controls, can be effective in the reduction of air pollutants, especially particulates and sulfur dioxide.

  14. Plant resource-use strategies: the importance of phenotypic plasticity in response to a productivity gradient for two subalpine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassein, Fabrice; Till-Bottraud, Irène; Lavorel, Sandra

    2010-10-01

    Functional traits are indicators of plant interactions with their environment and the resource-use strategies of species can be defined through some key functional traits. The importance of genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity in trait variations in response to a common environmental change was investigated in two subalpine species. Two species with contrasted resource-use strategies, Dactylis glomerata and Festuca paniculata, were grown along a productivity gradient in a greenhouse experiment. Functional traits of different genotypes were measured to estimate the relative roles of phenotypic plasticity and genetic variability, and to compare their levels of phenotypic plasticity. Trait variability in the field for the two species is more likely to be the result of phenotypic plasticity rather than of genetic differentiation between populations. The exploitative species D. glomerata expressed an overall higher level of phenotypic plasticity compared with the conservative species F. paniculata. In addition to different amplitudes of phenotypic plasticity, the two species differed in their pattern of response for three functional traits relevant to resource use (specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content and leaf nitrogen content). Functional trait variability was mainly the result of phenotypic plasticity, with the exploitative species showing greater variability. In addition to average trait values, two species with different resource-use strategies differed in their plastic responses to productivity.

  15. Robust control charts in industrial production of olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Luís M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.; Alves, Ana C.; Grilo, Helena L.

    2014-10-01

    Acidity is one of the most important variables in the quality analysis and characterization of olive oil. During the industrial production we use individuals and moving range charts to monitor this variable, which is not always normal distributed. After a brief exploratory data analysis, where we use the bootstrap method, we construct control charts, before and after a Box-Cox transformation, and compare their robustness and performance.

  16. Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry Vision and Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalla, Rajai [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Beecher, James [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Caron, Robert [Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, Peachtree Corners, GA (United States); Catchmark, Jeffrey [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Deng, Yulin [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Glasser, Wolfgang [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Gray, Derek [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Haigler, Candace [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Jones, Philip [Imerys, Paris (France); Joyce, Margaret [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States); Kohlman, Jane [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Koukoulas, Alexander [Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, Peachtree Corners, GA (United States); Lancaster, Peter [Weyerhaeuser Company, Longview, WA (United States); Perine, Lori [American Forest and Paper Association, Washington, DC (United States); Rodriguez, Augusto [Georgia-Pacific Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ragauskas, Arthur [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Wegner, Theodore [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Zhu, Junyong [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    2005-03-01

    A roadmap for Nanotechnology in the Forest Products Industries has been developed under the umbrella of the Agenda 2020 program overseen by the CTO committee. It is expected that the use of new analytical techniques and methodologies will allow us to understand the complex nature of wood based materials and allow the dramatically enhanced use of the major strategic asset the US has in renewable, recyclable resources based on its well managed Forests.

  17. Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) in industry trial testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris

    2006-12-01

    To identify patterns in trial testimony that may reflect on the intentions or expectations of tobacco manufacturers with regard to the introduction of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs). Research was conducted using the Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA) collection of trial testimony and depositions housed online at Tobacco Documents Online (www.tobaccodocuments.org). Relevant testimony was identified through full-text searches of terms indicating PREPs or harm reduction strategies. The role and function of PREPs in testimony were classified according to common and contrasting themes. These were analysed in the context of broader trial arguments and against changes in time period and the market. Analysis of testimony suggests that the failure of PREPs in the market tempered initial industry enthusiasm and made protection of the conventional cigarette market its major priority. The "breakthrough" character of PREPs has been de-emphasised, with trial arguments instead positioning PREPs as simply another choice for consumers. This framework legitimises the sale of conventional brands, and shifts the responsibility for adoption of safer products from the manufacturer to the consumer. Likewise, testimony has abandoned earlier dramatic health claims made with regard to PREPs, which had undermined industry arguments regarding efforts to reduce harm in conventional products. More recent testimony advocates the broad acceptance of independent guidelines that would validate use of health claims and enable the industry to market PREPs to consumers. Trial testimony reflects the changing role and positioning of PREPs by the tobacco industry. The findings are of particular importance with regard to future evaluation and potential regulation of reduced harm products.

  18. Phenotypic evaluation of natural and industrial Saccharomyces yeasts for different traits desirable in industrial bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Vaskar; Steensels, Jan; Lievens, Bart; Van de Voorde, Ilse; Verplaetse, Alex; Aerts, Guido; Willems, Kris A; Thevelein, Johan M; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Ruyters, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the organism of choice for many food and beverage fermentations because it thrives in high-sugar and high-ethanol conditions. However, the conditions encountered in bioethanol fermentation pose specific challenges, including extremely high sugar and ethanol concentrations, high temperature, and the presence of specific toxic compounds. It is generally considered that exploring the natural biodiversity of Saccharomyces strains may be an interesting route to find superior bioethanol strains and may also improve our understanding of the challenges faced by yeast cells during bioethanol fermentation. In this study, we phenotypically evaluated a large collection of diverse Saccharomyces strains on six selective traits relevant for bioethanol production with increasing stress intensity. Our results demonstrate a remarkably large phenotypic diversity among different Saccharomyces species and among S. cerevisiae strains from different origins. Currently applied bioethanol strains showed a high tolerance to many of these relevant traits, but several other natural and industrial S. cerevisiae strains outcompeted the bioethanol strains for specific traits. These multitolerant strains performed well in fermentation experiments mimicking industrial bioethanol production. Together, our results illustrate the potential of phenotyping the natural biodiversity of yeasts to find superior industrial strains that may be used in bioethanol production or can be used as a basis for further strain improvement through genetic engineering, experimental evolution, or breeding. Additionally, our study provides a basis for new insights into the relationships between tolerance to different stressors.

  19. Implementing total productive maintenance in Nigerian manufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eti, M.C. [Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt (Nigeria). Mechanical Engineering Department; Ogaji, S.O.T.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom). School of Engineering

    2004-12-01

    Remarkable improvements have occurred recently in the maintenance management of physical assets and productive systems, so that less wastages of energy and resources occur. The requirement for optimal preventive maintenance, using, for instance, just-in-time (JIT) and total quality-management (TQM) techniques, has given rise to what has been called the total productive-maintenance (TPM) approach. This study explores the ways in which Nigerian manufacturing industries can implement TPM as a strategy and culture for improving its performance and suggests self-auditing and bench-marking as desirable prerequisites before TPM implementation. (author)

  20. Designing Integrated Product- Service System Solutions in Manufacturing Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Nina; Patrício, Lia; Morelli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing firms are increasingly evolving towards the design of integrated product-service solutions but servitization literature does not provide specific guidance on how to design these integrated solutions. Building upon ProductService System (PSS) and Service Design (SD) approaches......, this paper proposes an integrative method that joins PSS’s systems and network approach with the creative, human-centered, value cocreation approach of SD. The paper also describes the development and application of this method to the creation of integrated solutions for the laboratory industry, highlighting...

  1. Applied TRIZ in Improving Productivity in Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Aminah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available TRIZ is a methodology and a collection of problem solving tools and strategies that has been used in many other fields. Therefore, this paper proposes TRIZ method for improving the productivity in a textile industry. It focuses at the packing department in a textile company situated in Malaysia. The process was monitored and the problem was observed. TRIZ method is applied in this problem using Functional Analysis and trimming method. A comparison between before and after implementation is done in order to evaluate the productivity effectiveness.

  2. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  3. An Explanatory Study of Lean Practices in Job Shop Production/ Special Job Production/ Discrete Production/ Batch Shop Production Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavlesh Kumar Sharma

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the study explores the benefits and advantages of Lean Practices or Lean Thinking in Job shop production/ Special job production/ Discrete production/ Batch shop production industries. The Lean Practices have been applied more compatible in Job shop production than in the continuous/ mass production because of several barriers and hurdles in the industrial context that influence the whole processes again and again, this happens due to the lack of knowledge about the wastes during the production of a variety of jobs or discrete manufacturing. This paper provides the guidelines to adopt and mentions to become Lean. In variety of production, it is very difficult to find out all the wastes during the processes from input to desired output, thus Lean techniques may be most suitable to minimize the wastage, time, inventory and assist to improve quality and become economical. These wastes may be managed by means of several Lean principles and techniques available. This paper gives a brief introduction of VSM, in order to recognize the opportunities for the various lean techniques, VSM is the main tool, especially it is used to observe the wastes and time spoilage through knowledge management.

  4. Cleaner production at pharmaceutical industry: first steps assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Conceição Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production (CP is an environmental management system effective to comply the environmental obligations and promote sustainable development of enterprises. In this study, the implementing possibilities of CP practices were evaluated to pharmaceutical industry, through prior identification procedures for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. The study was conducted in a scientific and health care institution, which produces pharmaceutical drugs and makes assistance for public health. The production process was evaluated and made a survey of the main points of waste and sewage generations in each stage, in order to diagnose the measures of CP established and propose new actions. Thus, by using this tool, it was possible to demonstrate the reduction of environmental impacts associated with pharmaceutical production. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices also contributed to the implementation of measures CP, preserving the final product quality, and generating environmental and economic benefits.

  5. Methodology for the design, production, and test of plastic optical displacement sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahlves, Maik; Kelb, Christian; Reithmeier, Eduard; Roth, Bernhard

    2016-08-01

    Optical displacement sensors made entirely from plastic materials offer various advantages such as biocompatibility and high flexibility compared to their commonly used electrical and glass-based counterparts. In addition, various low-cost and large-scale fabrication techniques can potentially be utilized for their fabrication. In this work we present a toolkit for the design, production, and test of such sensors. Using the introduced methods, we demonstrate the development of a simple all-optical displacement sensor based on multimode plastic waveguides. The system consists of polymethylmethacrylate and cyclic olefin polymer which serve as cladding and core materials, respectively. We discuss several numerical models which are useful for the design and simulation of the displacement sensors as well as two manufacturing methods capable of mass-producing such devices. Prior to fabrication, the sensor layout and performance are evaluated by means of a self-implemented ray-optical simulation which can be extended to various other types of sensor concepts. Furthermore, we discuss optical and mechanical test procedures as well as a high-precision tensile testing machine especially suited for the characterization of the opto-mechanical performance of such plastic optical displacement sensors.

  6. [Example of product development by industry and research solidarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    When the industrial firms develop the product, the research result from research institutions is used or to reflect the ideas from users on the developed product would be significant in order to improve the product. To state the software product which developed jointly as an example to describe the adopted development technique and its result, and to consider the modality of the industry solidarity seen from the company side and joint development. The software development methods have the merit and demerit and necessary to choose the optimal development technique by the system which develops. We have been jointly developed the dose distribution browsing software. As the software development method, we adopted the prototype model. In order to display the dose distribution information, it is necessary to load four objects which are CT-Image, Structure Set, RT-Plan, and RT-Dose, are displayed in a composite manner. The prototype model which is the development technique was adopted by this joint development was optimal especially to develop the dose distribution browsing software. In a prototype model, since the detail design was created based on the program source code after the program was finally completed, there was merit on the period shortening of document written and consist in design and implementation. This software eventually opened to the public as an open source. Based on this developed prototype software, the release version of the dose distribution browsing software was developed. Developing this type of novelty software, it normally takes two to three years, but since the joint development was adopted, it shortens the development period to one year. Shortening the development period was able to hold down to the minimum development cost for a company and thus, this will be reflected to the product price. The specialists make requests on the product from user's point of view are important, but increase in specialists as professionals for product

  7. Fixed bed gasification for production of industrial fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of technical and economic evaluations of six commercially available, fixed-bed coal gasification processes for the production of industrial fuel gas. The study was performed for DOE and is intended to assist industrial companies in exploring the feasibility of producing gaseous fuels for both retrofit and new industrial plant situations. The report includes a technical analysis of the physical configuration, performance capabilities, and commercial experiments to-date for both air-blown and oxygen-blown fixed bed gasifiers. The product gas from these gasifiers is analyzed economically for three different degrees of cleanliness: (1) hot raw gas, (2) dust-, tar-, and oil-free gas, and (3) dust-, tar-, oil-free and desulfurized gas. The evaluations indicate that low-Btu gases produced from fixed bed gasifiers constitute one of the most logical short-term solutions for helping ease the shortage of natural gas for industrial fuel applications because the technology is well-proven and has been utilized on a commercial scale for several decades both in this country and overseas; time from initiation of design to commercial operation is about two years; the technology is not complicated to construct, operate, or maintain; and a reliable supply of product gas can be generated on-site. The advantages and disadvantages of fixed bed gasification technology are listed. The cost of the low Btu gas is estimated at $2 to $4 per MM Btu depending on gas purity, cost of coal ($20 to $50 per ton) and a number of specified assumptions with respect to financing, reliability, etc. (LTN)

  8. Opportunities, perspectives and limits in lactic acid production from waste and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Dragana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the goals of sustainable development and environmental protection today great attention is directed towards new technologies for waste and industrial by-products utilization. Waste products represent potentially good raw material for production other valuable products, such as bioethanol, biogas, biodiesel, organic acids, enzymes, microbial biomass, etc. Since the first industrial production to the present, lactic acid has found wide application in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In recent years, the demand for lactic acid has been increasing considerably owing to its potential use as a monomer for the production of poly-lactic acid (PLA polymers which are biodegradable and biocompatible with wide applications. Waste and industrial by-products such are whey, molasses, stillage, waste starch and lignocellulosic materials are a good source of fermentable sugars and many other substances of great importance for the growth of microorganisms, such as proteins, minerals and vitamins. Utilization of waste products for production of lactic acid could help to reduce the total cost of lactic acid production and except the economic viability of the process offers a solution of their disposal. Fermentation process depends on chemical and physical nature of feedstocks and the lactic acid producer. This review describes the characteristics, abilities and limits of microorganisms involved in lactic acid production, as well as the characteristics and types of waste products for lactic acid production. The fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production are summarized and compared. In order to improve processes and productivity, fed-batch fermentation, fermentation with immobilized cell systems and mixed cultures and opportunities of open (non-sterilized fermentation have been investigated.

  9. Identification and weighting factors influencing the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in plastic injection industry using VIKOR and Shannon Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Hashemzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Single minute exchange of dies (SMED is one of the most important tools to achieve lean production system. The main idea of this system is to provide methods and to use creative and innovative solutions for continuous improvement. Due to the importance of this issue and its effect on reducing waste during the production process, this study presents a method to identify and to weight factors in the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in 14 plastic injection factories. In this study, fourteen factories in injection industry were chosen and the factors influencing the implementation of single minute exchange of dies were identified. Following data collection, decision matrix was formed and the weight of each factor was determined by using Shannon Entropy. Then, in order to determine the readiness of factories, VIKOR method was used to rank companies. The results indicate priorities of the following factors in establishing SMED that include: Senior management support, technical capabilities, technical knowledge of staff and consultants, knowledge of mold design, manufacturing infrastructure, team work, combination of the project team work, benchmarking, training, clear understanding of project objectives, rewards and motivation, proper management expectation, project management, teamwork and organizational culture. Practical implications: Due to the factors, Top manager can make the best decision for implementing of SMED technique. This study develops factors influencing on SMED implementation based on Shannon and VIKOR methods for ranking parameters and plants.

  10. CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE PLASTIC INTO GASOLINE-RANGE PRODUCTS OVER MESOPOROUS MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge Norberto Beltramini

    2006-01-01

    In the last 20 years, it has become apparent that waste produced from plastics was becoming an environmental problem because of their low biodegradability. Though several methods have been proposed for recycling waste plastics, it is generally accepted that material recovery is not a long-term solution to the present problem, and that energy or chemical recovery is a more attractive alternative, including cracking into the monomer constituents, combustion to produce energy, and thermal or catalytic conversion to produce useful intermediate chemicals.This paper is a contribution in the area of the last option for energy recovery. There have been a number of publications reporting the use of molecular sieves and amorphous silica-alumina catalysts for the cracking of polymers into a range of hydrocarbons. The research work reported here demonstrates the ability of mesoporous catalysts in cracking polyethylene into gasoline range products.It was found that for mesoporous MCM-41 catalysts, its cracking activity increases with its crystallinity, displaying higher activity with smaller pore diameters. The hydrocarbon product distribution strongly indicates a carbenium ion cracking mechanism. The product distribution was also compared with those obtained from thermal cracking tests.

  11. The feasibility of biodiesel production by microalgae using industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li Fen; Chen, Pei Chung; Huang, Ai Ping; Lee, Chi Mei

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated nitrogen and phosphorus assimilation and lipid production of microalgae in industrial wastewater. Two native strains of freshwater microalgae were evaluated their biomass growth and lipid production in modified BBM medium. Chlamydomonas sp. TAI-2 had better biomass growth and higher lipid production than Desmodesmus sp.TAI-1. The optimal growth and lipid accumulation of Chlamydomonas sp. TAI-2 were tested under different nitrogen sources, nitrogen and CO(2) concentrations and illumination period in modified BBM medium. The optimal CO(2) aeration was 5% for Chlamydomonas sp. TAI-2 to achieve maximal lipid accumulation under continuous illumination. Using industrial wastewater as the medium, Chlamydomonas sp. TAI-2 could remove 100% NH(4)(+)-N (38.4 mg/L) and NO(3)(-)-N (3.1mg/L) and 33% PO(4)(3-)-P (44.7 mg/L) and accumulate the lipid up to 18.4%. Over 90% of total fatty acids were 14:0, 16:0, 16:1, 18:1, and 18:3 fatty acids, which could be utilized for biodiesel production.

  12. Plastic paradise: transforming bodies and selves in Costa Rica's cosmetic surgery tourism industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Sara L

    2010-10-01

    Long popular as a nature tourism destination, Costa Rica has recently emerged as a haven for middle class North Americans seeking inexpensive, state-of-the-art cosmetic surgery. This paper examines "cosmetic surgery tourism" in Costa Rica as a form of medicalized leisure, situated in elite private spaces and yet inextricably linked to a beleaguered national medical program. Through historical context and ethnographic analysis of activities at medical hotels and clinics, I describe how the recovery industry operates on the embodied subjectivities of visiting patients and their local caretakers. Recovery sociality and healing landscapes facilitate patients' transition through a period of post-surgical liminality and provide nostalgic transport to an imagined medical arcadia, while clinicians are attracted by a neoliberal promise of prosperity and autonomy. Ultimately, Costa Rica's transformation into a paradise of medical consumption and self-optimization is contingent on a mythology that obscures growing uncertainties and inequities in the nation's broader medical landscape.

  13. Evaluation of total productivity growth of production factors in industries of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmodzadeh Mahmod

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Economists try to develop some models to investigate the relationship between economic growth and production growth in different sectors. This study has been conducted with this question that what is portion of technological promotion, technical efficiency and allocated efficiency and effects of scale in productivity growth of production factors in Iran industries in rows 15-36 of ISIC classification and with the hypothesis that effects of scale are the most important drivers of total productivity growth of production factors in these industries. Previous studies had considered two factors of technological promotion and technical efficiency, in addition to 4 above mentioned factors. Time scope of the study is 2000-2007. Production function used in this study is Tran slog and the estimations have been analyzed using Frontier 4.1 and Reviews software using Panel Data. Obtained results from the study show that in Iranian factory industries, technologic promotion is the only factor for productivity growth. Moreover, it is possible to increase production capacity to 24.3% in factory industries.

  14. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  15. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Garima; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Chopra, Harish Kumar

    2013-11-21

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc.

  16. Systems of attitudes towards production in the pork industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia; Veflen Olsen, Nina

    2012-01-01

    , understanding them as embedded into a wider attitude system that consists of attitudes towards objects of different abstraction levels, ranging from personal value orientations over general socio-political attitudes to evaluations of specific characteristics of agricultural production systems. It is assumed...... production systems was modelled. The analysis was based on data from a cross-national survey involving 1931 participants from Belgium, Denmark, Germany and Poland. The survey questionnaire contained measures of personal value orientations and attitudes towards environment and nature, industrial food...... search algorithms and structural equation models. The results suggest that evaluative judgments of the importance of pork production system attributes are generated in a schematic manner, driven by personal value orientations. The effect of personal value orientations was strong and largely unmediated...

  17. CAD/CAM approach to improving industry productivity gathers momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results and planning for the NASA/industry Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) program for improving productivity with CAD/CAM methods are outlined. The industrial group work is being mainly done by Boeing, and progress has been made in defining the designer work environment, developing requirements and a preliminary design for a future CAD/CAM system, and developing CAD/CAM technology. The work environment was defined by conducting a detailed study of a reference design process, and key software elements for a CAD/CAM system have been defined, specifically for interactive design or experiment control processes. Further work is proceeding on executive, data management, geometry and graphics, and general utility software, and dynamic aspects of the programs being developed are outlined

  18. Managing salinity in water associated with petrol industry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Guerrero Fajardo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a conceptual design for handling an oilfield’s industrial wastewater; its oblective was to use type-1 fractioned crystallisation within a feasible environmental and technical framework for obtaining the highest percentage of salt.La Gloria, La Gloria Norte and Morichal (all belonging to the Casanare department association stations were used for planning and analysing this handling alternative as they produce high salt-containing industrial effluent.This alternative was focused on treating 30% of the total volume of the associated water so produced. This volume is expected to be 1239 m3/d in 2000 in the oilfields being studied here. The process allows 92% retrieval from present NaCl (0.918 Ton/h, having 97% purity. Evaporation and aeration systems should be set prior to the crystallisation stage as a means of guaranteeing final product quality and making good use of the field’s facilities.

  19. (Industrial Research on Building Production: results and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Alaimo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the most recent management mandate, ISTeA (Italian Society of Science, Technology and engineering of Architecture has devoted its efforts to outlining those topics which are of fundamental importance for the activity of its stakeholders, in line with the road maps of national and Community funding programmes and with the strategic objectives of (Industrial Research which range from the energy-environmental performance of buildings and districts to automation in construction within the context of Smart Cities and Social Innovation. These research programmes need to be planned and negotiated with industrial stakeholders and carried out in partnership with them. This explains why the 2011 ISTeA Conference produced a number of position papers, the 2012 Conference traced the state of the art in the topics identified and the 2013 Conferencedeals with the non-instrumental relationship between Building Production and ICT.

  20. Thermal recycling of plastic waste using pyrolysis-gasification process for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbit, George Teke

    2012-04-04

    The disposal of mixed waste in landfills, dump sites and open burning without material and energy recovery leads to resource loss, causes health problems, pollution and littering. Increasing energy demand for industrial and domestic application with rising costs due to scarcity motivates a constant search for alternative clean energy sources. Recovering energy from waste presents various incentives e.g. creating jobs, alleviating poverty, combating and mitigating climate change, protecting the environment and reducing dependence on traditional fuels sources. Hence, plastics end up in landfills, surface waters and ocean bed with serious negative impact on terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. Plastic waste with high calorific value (36-46MJ/kg) occupies the greatest portion of landfill space. Hence, using an appropriate technology to transform waste plastic to a hot gaseous mixture which is burned in-situ produces enormous amount of energy without pollution. Based on this hypothesis, the study objectives accomplished were to: 1. Characterise, quantify and classify waste fractions and plastic components common in MSW by manual sorting 2. Evaluate options for sustainable plastic waste management especially for developing countries 3. Design, construct, test and optimize an appropriate technology that applies pyrolysis and gasification processes to convert non-PVC plastic waste to energy 4. Assess the efficiency of the technology based on the functioning, the engineering, mass and energy analysis including socioeconomic and environmental impacts An integrated methodology involving review of current literature, field and laboratory experiments on mixed waste and plastic waste analysis was used. In addition, the pyrolysis-gasification technology (PGT) was conceptualised, designed, constructed, tested and optimised at BTU Cottbus, Germany; Lagos, Nigeria and Dschang, Cameroon. Field studies involving natural observation, interviews, personal discussions and visits to

  1. Overcoming the plasticity of plant specialized metabolism for selective diterpene production in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignea, Codruta; Athanasakoglou, Anastasia; Andreadelli, Aggeliki; Apostolaki, Maria; Iakovides, Minas; Stephanou, Euripides G; Makris, Antonios M; Kampranis, Sotirios C

    2017-08-18

    Plants synthesize numerous specialized metabolites (also termed natural products) to mediate dynamic interactions with their surroundings. The complexity of plant specialized metabolism is the result of an inherent biosynthetic plasticity rooted in the substrate and product promiscuity of the enzymes involved. The pathway of carnosic acid-related diterpenes in rosemary and sage involves promiscuous cytochrome P450s whose combined activity results in a multitude of structurally related compounds. Some of these minor products, such as pisiferic acid and salviol, have established bioactivity, but their limited availability prevents further evaluation. Reconstructing carnosic acid biosynthesis in yeast achieved significant titers of the main compound but could not specifically yield the minor products. Specific production of pisiferic acid and salviol was achieved by restricting the promiscuity of a key enzyme, CYP76AH24, through a single-residue substitution (F112L). Coupled with additional metabolic engineering interventions, overall improvements of 24 and 14-fold for pisiferic acid and salviol, respectively, were obtained. These results provide an example of how synthetic biology can help navigating the complex landscape of plant natural product biosynthesis to achieve heterologous production of useful minor metabolites. In the context of plant adaptation, these findings also suggest a molecular basis for the rapid evolution of terpene biosynthetic pathways.

  2. THE TOTAL SOLUTION FOR DEVELOPING NEW PRODUCTS OF FOOTWEAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRIŞCU Mariana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new solutions for shoemakers, for developing new products and new markets of footwear industry using the basic function of the system CRISPIN Dynamics CAD SUITE. These are the key issues - this is why CRISPIN Dynamics CAD SUITE has developed a range of quality software products to give the shoemaker a major advantage in shoe-making. This application offer functions for creating realistic looking designs of footwear products and for flattening the styles for development in 2D. There are also facilities to re-centre front and back guide lines, change foot (no need to re-digitize and set the correct heel height and roll. It is also possible to create guidelines to match with the last and extend the last for a boot design. The last type can also be changed to a type that allows the entire last surface to be used for a design. The system brings cutting-edge CAD/CAM technology to footwear designers providing benefits through all stages of their product development process. Major benefits include the ability to visualize a design for appraisal and the transfer of the design into CRISPIN 2D pattern development products. This allows increased productivity, shorter lead times, accurate interpretation of 3D designs in 2D and a reduction in the number of samples needed before approval of the design.

  3. India's Fertilizer Industry: Productivity and Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's fertilizer sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Our analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the fertilizer sector increased by 2.3% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's fertilizer sector has been biased towards the use of energy, while it has been capital and labor saving. The increase in productivity took place during the era of total control when a retention price system and distribution control was in effect. With liberalization of the fertilizer sector and reduction of subsidies productivity declined substantially since the early 1990s. Industrial policies and fiscal incentives still play a major role in the Indian fertilizer sect or. As substantial energy savings and carbon reduction potential exists, energy policies can help overcome barriers to the adoption of these measures in giving proper incentives and correcting distorted prices.

  4. NEW ECO-EFFICIENT PRODUCTS USED IN LEATHER INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSU Dan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In today's move to "sustainable production" the leather industry, as well as many other industries is recognized as a polluting one. Traditional chemical operations are polluting because of the levels of inorganic chemical waste. Process chemicals which are not consumed within the reactions necessary to convert collagen to leather are currently discharged to waste. These are usually applied during bulk production, such as inorganic agents from beam house and tanning processes, e.g. lime, sulphide, ammonium salts, sulphuric acid and sodium chloride, mineral tanning agents – mainly Cr(III and the less common Al(III, Zr(III, Ti(III, Fe(III salts -, whereas depending on the tanning process and the leather article produced organic chemical waste discharged comprises aldehydic and polyphenolic tanning products, bating enzymes, organic carboxylic acids and excess electrolyte stable synthetic fat liquors. It is rare for chemicals and water to be recovered for re-use from several of these process steps. Moreover, tanners worldwide are required to operate within strict legislative boundaries. Serious drawbacks continuously arise concerning the chrome–tanning process in leather industry and the environmental hazardous consequences of chromium containing effluents. In order to overcome this impediment, a great deal of research has been focused on developing chrome–free tanning methods in the past years, such as titanium tanning. In the present study, Ti–Al tanned bovine leather was characterized by means of SEM microscopy, EDAX elemental analysis, ATR–FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry TGA, and differential scanning calorimetry DSC techniques.

  5. A Perspective on the Prowaste Concept: Efficient Utilization of Plastic Waste through Product Design and Process Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Greco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed to present an innovative technology for the reinforcement of beams for urban furniture, produced by in-mold extrusion of plastics from solid urban waste. This material, which is usually referred to as “recycled plastic lumber”, is characterized by very poor mechanical properties, which results in high deflections under flexural loads, particularly under creep conditions. The Prowaste project, founded by the EACI (European Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation in the framework of the Eco-Innovation measure, was finalized to develop an innovative technology for selective reinforcement of recycled plastic lumber. Selective reinforcement was carried out by the addition of pultruded glass rods in specific positions with respect to the cross section of the beam, which allowed optimizing the reinforcing efficiency. The reinforcement of the plastic lumber beams with pultruded rods was tested at industrial scale plant, at Solteco SL (Alfaro, Spain. The beams obtained, characterized by low cost and weight, were commercialized by the Spanish company. The present paper presents the most relevant results of the Prowaste project. Initially, an evaluation of the different materials candidates for the reinforcement of recycled plastic lumber is presented. Plastic lumber beams produced in the industrial plant were characterized in terms of flexural properties. The results obtained are interpreted by means of beam theory, which allows for extrapolation of the characteristic features of beams produced by different reinforcing elements. Finally, a theoretical comparison with other approaches which can be used for the reinforcement of plastic lumber is presented, highlighting that, among others, the Prowaste concept maximizes the stiffening efficiency, allowing to significantly reduce the weight of the components.

  6. Development of Integrated Production Scheduling System in the Process Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed K. Omar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a three-level hierarchical production planning and scheduling approach developed and implemented in a resin factory. Our approach proposes at the first level a mixed-integer linear programming for solving the aggregate planning model. At the second level, a weighted-integer goal-programming model is developed to disaggregate the developed aggregate plans. A sequencing algorithm is developed for the third level that tends to minimize the total weighted tardiness. Real industrial data is used to test and validate the proposed models.

  7. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor river. The expected arsenic content in treated waste water after using HDS procedure is also presented.

  8. Production of cement requiring low energy expenditure. An industrial test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, S.; Blanco, M.T.; Palomo, A.; Puertas, F. (Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion, Madrid (Spain))

    1991-01-01

    A new method for making cement is proposed. It is based on the use of CaF{sub 2} and CaSO{sub 4} for partial replacement of the usual raw materials in cement manufacturing. This paper shows the feasibility of the proposed method on an industrial scale. A test carried out in a Spanish cement factory (1500 t yield of the new cement) has revealed that the mehtod can not only be adapted to the current technology but also requires a much lower energy expenditure. The final product is shown to have excellent properties in comparison with OPC. (orig.).

  9. Context-Aware Software Ecosystem for Industrial Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomlein, Matus

    2016-01-01

    As software on embedded devices is becoming increasingly important, manufacturers are interested in new ways for continuous deployment of software to embedded devices. The success of app stores on smartphones has also created interest for a software ecosystem that would enable external developers...... to create add-on applications for embedded devices. These opportunities provide the motivation for this project. The project works on challenges in introducing a software ecosystem with continuous deployment of software components to physical and software-intensive industrial products. It is based...

  10. Innovation in product and services in the shipping retrofit industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Köhler, Jonathan

    regulation could create innovation in green products and services in the maritime retrofitting industry?” Our case study focus on business models for the development, installation and operation of ballast water management systems in Denmark. We engaged the perspectives of ship-owners, equipment manufacturers...... and maritime service companies through in-depth interviews, document analysis and observation. The findings support the initial claim that the ballast water treatment regulation may create new market opportunities for service providers to shipyards and shipping companies in design, installation and retrofit...

  11. Production of an alternative fuel by the co-pyrolysis of landfill recovered plastic wastes and used lubrication oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Sacha; Mekhitarian, Loucine; Rimez, Bart; Haut, B

    2017-02-01

    This work is a preliminary study for the development of a co-pyrolysis process of plastic wastes excavated from a landfill and used lubrication oils, with the aim to produce an alternative liquid fuel for industrial use. First, thermogravimetric experiments were carried out with pure plastics (HDPE, LDPE, PP and PS) and oils (a motor oil and a mixture of used lubrication oils) in order to highlight the interactions occurring between a plastic and an oil during their co-pyrolysis. It appears that the main decomposition event of each component takes place at higher temperatures when the components are mixed than when they are alone, possibly because the two components stabilize each other during their co-pyrolysis. These interactions depend on the nature of the plastic and the oil. In addition, co-pyrolysis experiments were led in a lab-scale reactor using a mixture of excavated plastic wastes and used lubrication oils. On the one hand, the influence of some key operating parameters on the outcome of the process was analyzed. It was possible to produce an alternative fuel for industrial use whose viscosity is lower than 1Pas at 90°C, from a plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction between 40% and 60%, by proceeding at a maximum temperature included in the range 350-400°C. On the other hand, the amount of energy required to successfully co-pyrolyze, in lab conditions, 1kg of plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction of 60% was estimated at about 8MJ. That amount of energy is largely used for the thermal cracking of the molecules. It is also shown that, per kg of mixture introduced in the lab reactor, 29MJ can be recovered from the combustion of the liquid resulting from the co-pyrolysis. Hence, this co-pyrolysis process could be economically viable, provided heat losses are addressed carefully when designing an industrial reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRODUCTION OF PLASTICS - A COMPARISON OF PRODUCTION FROM CRUDE OIL AND RECYCLING FOR THE DUTCH CASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rem, Peter C.; Olsen, Stig Irving; Welink, Jan-Henk

    2009-01-01

    Literature data show that in general, plastics produced through the mechanical recycling route involve less carbon dioxide emission than when produced from crude oil. A review of readily available data shows that road transport of untreated waste plastics account for a significant portion...... of the carbon dioxide emission generated during recycling. Therefore, much carbon dioxide emission can be saved by optimizing the logistics in the recycling of plastics. On the example of polyolefins originating from household packaging waste, this paper attempts to compare two different scenarios of mechanical...... recycling to the production of plastics from crude oil as a reference. The first scenario deals with packaging waste from selective collection, in which data from the current practice of the German DSD system were translated for the Dutch situation. In the second scenario, plastic packaging recovered from...

  13. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  14. Copper removal from an effluent generated by a plastics chromium-plating industry using a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, F F; González, I; Nava, J L

    2008-08-01

    This work shows the application of a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) in the removal of Cu(II) content from an effluent generated by a plastics chromium-plating industry, on the laboratory scale; in particular, it deals with rinse water from the electrolytic copper process. This process was designed to convert cupric ions in solution to metal powder. The generation of metal powders in the RCE was achieved at Reynolds numbers between 52925 and 83183 and limiting current densities (J(L)) in the range of 17 to 25 mA cm(-2). The removal of Cu(II) (initially 922 ppm) reached 43 ppm in 10 minutes of electrolysis for Re = 83183 and J = 25 mA cm(-2), with a space-time yield of 88 mg Cu(II) L(-1) min(-1), 95% current efficiency, and energy consumption of 5.3 KWh m(-3). The electrochemical treatment applied to waste rinse water at the RCE allows this treated water to be recycled back to the same rinsing process, avoiding additional consumption and discharge of this liquid.

  15. Michigan timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Anthony K. Weatherspoon

    2010-01-01

    Reports forest-industry trends, production and receipts of industrial roundwood, and production of saw logs, veneer logs, excelsior/shavings, and other products for Michigan's timber industry in 2004. Also reports logging residue generated from timber harvest operations in Michigan as well as the generation and disposition of wood and bark residue generated by...

  16. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  17. Energetics of Eco-Industry of Food Concentrates Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of eco-industry in food production is formulated. The problems of processes of dehydration, heat balance and prospects of technologies directed energy action are considered. We offer the ways of solving an energy problems in product drying. The hypostases are formulated and the possibilities of laminar and turbulent diffusion to heat transfer mechanisms are analyzed. Increasing of drying speed with barodiffusional flows involvement is demonstrated. The extraction kinetic model is given in differential form. The prospects of usage directed action principles in target compounds extraction processes are analyzed. The analysis of drying technologies energy efficiency on base new similarity (similarity of energy action is carried out. We demonstrated that impulse electromagnetic field can trigger in basically new effect, which one named mechanodiffusion.

  18. From product to service orientation in the maritime equipment industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Detlef; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2008-01-01

    of their products in operation. In this paper we present a case study of a shipping equipment manufacturer that is currently shifting business focus from manufacturing towards services delivery. Using a modelling scheme to differentiate and categorise different development tasks within the frame of business......In the shipping industry, operational performance of ships and their equipment is crucial to business. Suppliers of machinery and equipment are aware of this situation and see business development potential in setting up service systems that are dedicated to ensuring the performance...... development towards service oriented business, the case delivers insights into the broader context and product related parameters influencing the options and requirements for service system development....

  19. [The shoe industry: from productive reality to risk individualization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saretto, Gianni; Dulio, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article describes in detail each stage of the shoe manufacturing process: design, cutting and shearing, sewing and trimming, assemblage, sole preparation, finishing, packaging and stocking, shoe manufacturing with synthetic materials. It will then discuss new technologies and their impact on the improvement of the worker's health, safety and convenience. A definition of the shoe parts and of the materials and machinery employed in its production will be provided, as well as a synthesis of the occupational hazards involved in each department. Although dealing with competitors who can take advantage of low-cost production and lack of concern for labour protection and environmental issues, the industry should always take great care of topics such as innovation and automation, but also workplace health and safety, while pushing the limits of that technological advance which companies have to face.

  20. Industrial Assessment Centers - Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy & Increase Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-11-06

    Since 1976, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), administered by the US Department of Energy, have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce energy use and increase their productivity and competitiveness. The 24 IACs, located at premier engineering universities around the country (see below), send faculty and engineering students to local small and medium-sized manufacturers to provide no-cost assessments of energy use, process performance and waste and water flows. Under the direction of experienced professors, IAC engineering students analyze the manufacturer’s facilities, energy bills and energy, waste and water systems, including compressed air, motors/pumps, lighting, process heat and steam. The IACs then follow up with written energy-saving and productivity improvement recommendations, with estimates of related costs and payback periods.

  1. Bromine in plastic consumer products - Evidence for the widespread recycling of electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Filella, Montserrat

    2017-12-01

    A range of plastic consumer products and components thereof have been analysed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry in a low density mode for Br as a surrogate for brominated flame retardant (BFR) content. Bromine was detected in about 42% of 267 analyses performed on electronic (and electrical) samples and 18% of 789 analyses performed on non-electronic samples, with respective concentrations ranging from 1.8 to 171,000μgg(-1) and 2.6 to 28,500μgg(-1). Amongst the electronic items, the highest concentrations of Br were encountered in relatively small appliances, many of which predated 2005 (e.g. a fan heater, boiler thermostat and smoke detector, and various rechargers, light bulb collars and printed circuit boards), and usually in association with Sb, a component of antimony oxide flame retardant synergists, and Pb, a heavy metal additive and contaminant. Amongst the non-electronic samples, Br concentrations were highest in items of jewellery, a coffee stirrer, a child's puzzle, a picture frame, and various clothes hangers, Christmas decorations and thermos cup lids, and were often associated with the presence of Sb and Pb. These observations, coupled with the presence of Br at concentrations below those required for flame-retardancy in a wider range of electronic and non-electronic items, are consistent with the widespread recycling of electronic plastic waste. That most Br-contaminated items were black suggests the current and recent demand for black plastics in particular is met, at least partially, through this route. Given many Br-contaminated items would evade the attention of the end-user and recycler, their disposal by conventional municipal means affords a course of BFR entry into the environment and, for food-contact items, a means of exposure to humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Lesson Plan to Develop Structured Discussion of the Benefits and Disadvantages of Selected Plastics Using the Product-Testing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Mareike; Eilks, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    People use many different products made from plastics every day. But conventional plastics such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) do not always have a good reputation in society at large. Bioplastics such as thermoplastic starch (TPS) promise to be better alternatives but are they really better than conventional plastics? This article presents a new…

  3. Technology for Price Management in Industrial Differential Product Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Orlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies price behavior of oligopolies in industrial market where price competition is replaced by non-price competition. There is a developed technology for pricing management of the products of industrial enterprises, which, unlike the existing ones, takes into account the dynamics of changes in consumer preferences and changes in the pricing policy of the enterprise competitor and is based on usage of system dynamics models to simulate the financial and economic performance of enterprises and the fuzzy model for situational analysis and decisionmaking on changes in prices for the products. A pricing simulation model is offered. It is based on system-dynamic modeling method, which takes into account the complex cause-to-effect concatenation of factors on price such as product quality, cost, price competition, price elasticity of economic demand, competitors’ quantity of output and estimates the impact of changing factors of internal and external enterprise environment on the effectiveness of its activities.The simulation model allows us to conduct diverse experiments and analyze the impact of management decisions on the efficiency of the enterprise. Based on the fuzzy approach a price decision-making model is developed. It operates not only precise (numeric values, but also qualitative assessments of variables and provides an adequate use of logical relationships and the laws of the mutual influence of market and production and economic factors. Qualitative dependences, which establish the influence of external and internal factors on the price change, are identified as a result of the study of economic laws and legal conformity that are in the context of rapid economic change and market turbulence may not be strictly formalized and take the form of linguistic statements, which express the conditional relationship between the qualitative assessments of initial factors and changes in the relative price.

  4. L-(+-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B103 from dairy industry waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Piassi Bernardo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lactic acid, which can be obtained through fermentation, is an interesting compound because it can be utilized in different fields, such as in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as a bio-based molecule for bio-refinery. In addition, lactic acid has recently gained more interest due to the possibility of manufacturing poly(lactic acid, a green polymer that can replace petroleum-derived plastics and be applied in medicine for the regeneration of tissues and in sutures, repairs and implants. One of the great advantages of fermentation is the possibility of using agribusiness wastes to obtain optically pure lactic acid. The conventional batch process of fermentation has some disadvantages such as inhibition by the substrate or the final product. To avoid these problems, this study was focused on improving the production of lactic acid through different feeding strategies using whey, a residue of agribusiness. The downstream process is a significant bottleneck because cost-effective methods of producing high-purity lactic acid are lacking. Thus, the investigation of different methods for the purification of lactic acid was one of the aims of this work. The pH-stat strategy showed the maximum production of lactic acid of 143.7 g/L. Following purification of the lactic acid sample, recovery of reducing sugars and protein and color removal were 0.28%, 100% and 100%, respectively.

  5. Utilization of agro-based industrial by-products for biogas production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoc, U.N.; Schnitzer, H. [Graz Univ. of Technology, (Austria). Inst. for Resource Efficient and Sustainable Systems; Berghold, H. [Joanneum Research Inst. for Sustainable Techniques and Systems (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    Due to the rapid rates of urbanization occurring in many countries in the world, the importance of an efficient and effective solid waste management system and the utilization/reuse of waste are more critical than ever before, especially for agricultural residues and agro-based industrial by-products. Over the past decade, the amount of solid waste generated in Vietnam has been increasing steadily. Numbers are predicted to continue to increase as well. There is significant potential to use the large amount of wastes for biogas conversion processes and for further production of commercial energy. This paper presented starts with estimation and analysis of the amounts of organic waste, agricultural residues, and agro-based industrial by-products generated from food industrial processes using general data sources for Vietnam. A laboratory study examined the use of agro-based industrial by-products and agricultural residues from cassava, sweet potato, pineapple residues, organic wastes, manures as input materials for biogas production in the anaerobic process. This paper provided an overview of Vietnam as a country, as well as a general overview of the amount of organic waste generated in the country. It also discussed the fermentation tests that were conducted to find out the potential of biogas production from some residues. It was concluded that a significant portion of waste could be reused as an environmentally sound source of energy. The utilization of agricultural residues and industrial byproducts as input materials for biogas production will not only reduce the quantity of organic waste thrown into landfills, but also reduce the negative impact on the environment. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  6. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminda Tsouko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  7. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients. PMID:26140376

  8. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-07-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102-138 g · water/g · dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7-9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1-2672.8, stress at break of 72.3-139.5 MPa and Young's modulus of 0.97-1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  9. Impact of price collapse of international crude oil on the import waste plastics industry%浅谈国际原油价格暴跌对进口废塑料行业的影响及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢经; 张国庆; 刘建东

    2015-01-01

    作为资源的重要补充,近年来国内塑料加工行业对进口废塑料的需求市场不断扩大,但作为原油的下游产品,因原油价格波动带来的经营影响和环保风险不容忽视。为有效规避风险,提升行业竞争力,在源头控制、行业转型、通关便利等方面提供可行性建议。%As an important supplement to the resources, in recent years the domestic plastic processing industry demand for imports of waste plastics market continues to expand, but as the downstream product of crude oil, crude oil price fluctuations caused by the effect of management and environmental risk can not be ignored. To evade the risk effectively and enhance the competitiveness of the industry, the feasible suggestions about source control, industry restructure and customs clearance facility were provided.

  10. The rate of the productivity of human resources, capital, and energy in sub-sectors of industry during 1991-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Parandakh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the rate of productivity of human resources, capital, and energy (electricity in a selection of sub-sectors of industry (basic metals, chemicals, non-metallic minerals, rubber and plastic products, and food products during 1991-2011 using the econometric methods. For this purpose, first, the amount of the stability of the model's variables in time series was tested. Then, the existence of co-integration between them was determined and, finally, the productivity of the model was calculated using ARDL. According to the results, the elasticity of labor force, capital and energy were 1.07, 1.47 and -0.23, respectively.

  11. Factors driving and restraining adoption of Automation technologies in Swedish wood product industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Mapulanga, Mwanza; Saladi, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Swedish wood product industry contributes significantly to the economy of the country. This industry adds more value to the sawn timber produced in order to manufacture different wooden products. Companies in Swedish wood product industry are presently seen as underdeveloped in terms of investments and developments in automation technologies. Automation technologies are seen by companies as a solution for improving productivity, product quality, manufacturing cost reduction and ultimately imp...

  12. Strain and plastic composite support (PCS) selection for vitamin K (Menaquinone-7) production in biofilm reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdinia, Ehsan; Demirci, Ali; Berenjian, Aydin

    2017-06-30

    Menaquinone-7 (MK-7), a subtype of vitamin K, has received a significant attention due to its effect on improving bone and cardiovascular health. Current fermentation strategies, which involve static fermentation without aeration or agitation, are associated with low productivity and scale-up issues and hardly justify the commercial production needs of this vitamin. Previous studies indicate that static fermentation is associated with pellicle and biofilm formations, which are critical for MK-7 secretion while posing significant operational issues. Therefore, the present study is undertaken to evaluate the possibility of using a biofilm reactor as a new strategy for MK-7 fermentation. Bacillus species, namely, Bacillus subtilis natto, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquifaciens as well as plastic composite, supports (PCS) were investigated in terms of MK-7 production and biofilm formation. Results show the possibility of using a biofilm reactor for MK-7 biosynthesis. Bacillus subtilis natto and soybean flour yeast extract PCS in glucose medium were found as the most potent combination for production of MK-7 as high as 35.5 mg/L, which includes both intracellular and extracellular MK-7.

  13. Workshop on Indian Chemical Industry: perspectives on safety, cleaner production and environment production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A Workshop on "Indian Chemical Industry: Perspectives on Safety, Cleaner Production and Environmental Protection" was held on 3, 4 and 5 January 1996, in Bombay, India. The main objective of the workshop, which was organised jointly by the Government of India, UNIDO/UNDP and the Indian Chemical Manu

  14. Some Exploitation Properties of Wood Plastic Hybrid Composites Based on Polypropylene and Plywood Production Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajaks, Janis; Kalnins, Karlis; Uzulis, Sandris; Matvejs, Juris

    2015-12-01

    During the last 20-30 years many researchers have paid attention to the studies of properties of thewood polymer composites (WPC). A lot of works are closely related to investigations of exploitation properties of wood fibres or wood flour containing polyolefine composites [1, 2]. The most useful from wide selection of polyolefines are polypropylenes, but timber industry waste materials comprising lignocellulose fibres are often used as reinforcement of WPC [3-12]. Plywood industry is not an exception - part of waste materials (by-products) are used for heat energy, i.e. burned. In this work we have approbated reinforcing of polypropylene (PP) with one of the plywood industry by-products, such as birch plywood sawdust (PSWD),which containswood fibre fractions with different length [13]. The main fraction (50%) includes fibres with length l = 0.5 - 1 mm. Our previous study [13] has confirmed that PSWD is a promising filler for PP reinforcing. Addition of PSWD up to 40-50 wt.% has increased WPC tensile and flexural modulus, but decreased deformation ability of PP matrix, impact strength, water resistance and fluidity of composite melts. It was shown [13] that modification of the composites with interfacial modifier - coupling agent maleated polypropylene (MAPP content up to 5-7 wt.%) considerably improved all the abovementioned properties. SEM investigations also confirmed positive action of coupling agent on strengthening of adhesion interaction between components wood and PP matrix. Another way how to make better properties of the WPC is to form hybridcomposites [1, 14-24]. Very popular WPC modifiers are nanoparticle additions like organonanoclays, which increase WPC physical-mechanical properties - microhardness, water resistance and diminish barrier properties and combustibility [1, 2, 14-17, 19, 20]. The goal of this study was to investigate organonanoclays influence on plywood production industry by-product birch plywood sawdust (PSWD) containing

  15. Oregon’s forest products industry and timber harvest, 2008: industry trends and impacts of the Great Recession through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Gale; Charles E. Keegan; Erik C. Berg; Jean Daniels; Glenn A. Christensen; Colin B. Sorenson; Todd A. Morgan; Paul. Polzin

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Oregon’s 2008 timber harvest through the primary timber processing industry and provides a description of the structure, operation, and condition of Oregon’s forest products industry as a whole. It is the second in a series of reports that update the status of the industry every 5 years. Based on a census conducted in 2009 and 2010, we...

  16. Occurrence, distribution and characteristics of beached plastic production pellets on the island of Malta (central Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Holmes, Luke

    2011-02-01

    The distribution, abundance and chemical characteristics of plastic production pellets on beaches of the island of Malta have been determined. Pellets were observed at all locations visited and were generally most abundant (> 1000m⁻² at the surface) on the backshores of beaches with a westerly aspect. Most pellets were disc-shaped or flattened cylinders and could be categorised as white, yellow, amber or brown. The polymeric matrix of all pellets analysed by infrared spectroscopy was polyethylene and the degree of yellowing or darkening was associated with an increase in the carbonyl index, hence extent of photo-oxidation or aging. Qualitatively, pellets are similar to those reported for other regions of the Mediterranean in surveys spanning three decades, suggesting that they are a general and persistent characteristic of the region.

  17. Fate and environmental impact of pesticides in plastic mulch production runoff: field and laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Andrea M; Gallagher, Daniel L

    2002-07-17

    Concentrations of copper, azinphosmethyl, chlorothalonil, and endosulfan sulfate ranged from less than 1 to greater than 1000 microg/L in runoff from tomato plastic mulch production. When this runoff entered local creeks, the copper concentration was as high as 22 microg/L, which exceeded the measured larval clam LC50 values of 21 and 12 microg/L Cu at 96 and 192 h, respectively. A greenhouse scale investigation of copper and toxicity demonstrated that sedimentation reduced total copper concentration in runoff by 90%, although the dissolved copper concentration was unchanged, averaging 139 +/- 55 microg/L. When runoff was applied to marine mesocosms containing grass shrimp and mummichog fish, unsettled runoff produced the greatest mortality, although even settled runoff caused more mortality than that in the control mesocosm receiving runoff without added copper. Desorption of soil-sorbed copper occurred quickly in saline water and contributed to toxicity. Copper toxicity in runoff can be reduced, but not eliminated, by sedimentation.

  18. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 1: SRF produced from commercial and industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of a solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). In this work various streams of material produced in SRF production process are analyzed for their proximate and ultimate analysis. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. Here mass balance describes the overall mass flow of input waste material in the various output streams, whereas material balance describes the mass flow of components of input waste stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. A commercial scale experimental campaign was conducted on an MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&IW. All the process streams (input and output) produced in this MT plant were sampled and treated according to the CEN standard methods for SRF: EN 15442 and EN 15443. The results from the mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&IW material to MT waste sorting plant, 62% was recovered in the form of SRF, 4% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal and 21% was sorted out as reject material, 11.6% as fine fraction, and 0.4% as heavy fraction. The energy flow balance in various process streams of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&IW to MT plant, 75% energy was recovered in the form of SRF, 20% belonged to the reject material stream and rest 5% belonged with the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. In the material balances, mass fractions of plastic (soft), plastic (hard), paper and cardboard and wood recovered in the SRF stream were 88%, 70%, 72% and 60% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC), rubber material and non

  19. Ion beam system for implanting industrial products of various shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, A. S.; Wittkower, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    Implantation of metals and ceramics with ions of nitrogen and other species has improved surface properties such as friction, wear and corrosion in numerous industrial applications. Zymet has built a production machine to take advantage of this process which can implant a 2 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 dose of nitrogen ions into a 20 cm × 20 cm area in about 30 min using a 100 keV beam. Treatment is accomplished by mounting the product on a cooled, tiltable, turntable which rotates continuously, or is indexed in 15° steps to expose different surfaces in fixed position. Product cooling is accomplished by using a chilled eutectic metal to mount and grip the variously shaped objects. A high voltage supply capable of 10 mA at 100 kV is used, and the equipment is microcomputer controlled via serial light links. All important machine parameters are presented in sequenced displays on a CRT. Uniformity of treatment and accumulated dose are monitored by a Faraday cup system which provides the microprocessor with data for display of time to completion on the process screen. For routine implants the operator requires only two buttons; one for chamber vacuum control, and the other for process start and stop.

  20. Updates on industrial production of amino acids using Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Volker F; Jorge, João M P; Pérez-García, Fernando; Sgobba, Elvira

    2016-06-01

    L-Amino acids find various applications in biotechnology. L-Glutamic acid and its salts are used as flavor enhancers. Other L-amino acids are used as food or feed additives, in parenteral nutrition or as building blocks for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. L-amino acids are synthesized from precursors of central carbon metabolism. Based on the knowledge of the biochemical pathways microbial fermentation processes of food, feed and pharma amino acids have been developed. Production strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which has been used safely for more than 50 years in food biotechnology, and Escherichia coli are constantly improved using metabolic engineering approaches. Research towards new processes is ongoing. Fermentative production of L-amino acids in the million-ton-scale has shaped modern biotechnology and its markets continue to grow steadily. This review focusses on recent achievements in strain development for amino acid production including the use of CRISPRi/dCas9, genome-reduced strains, biosensors and synthetic pathways to enable utilization of alternative carbon sources.

  1. Process model economics of xanthan production from confectionery industry wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajić, Bojana Ž; Vučurović, Damjan G; Dodić, Siniša N; Grahovac, Jovana A; Dodić, Jelena M

    2017-09-04

    In this research a process and cost model for a xanthan production facility was developed using process simulation software (SuperPro Designer(®)). This work represents a novelty in the field for two reasons. One is that xanthan gum has been produced from several wastes but never from wastewaters from confectionery industries. The other more important is that the aforementioned software, which in intended exclusively for bioprocesses, is used for generating a base case, i.e. starting point for transferring the technology to industrial scales. Previously acquired experimental knowledge about using confectionery wastewaters from five different factories as substitutes for commercially used cultivation medium have been incorporated into the process model in order to obtain an economic viability of implementing such substrates. A lower initial sugar content in the medium based on wastewater (28.41 g/L) compared to the synthetic medium (30.00 g/L) gave a lower xanthan content at the end of cultivation (23.98 and 26.27 g/L, respectively). Although this resulted in somewhat poorer economic parameters, they were still in the range of being an investment of interest. Also the possibility of utilizing a cheap resource (waste) and reducing pollution that would result from its disposal has a positive effect on the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of the Large-area Plastic Scintillator for Beta-ray Detection using Epoxy Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jong Soo; Choi, Yong Seok; Hong, Sang Bum; Seo, Bum Kyung; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, we prepared a plastic scintillator whose manufacturing process is simple and can be freely shaped. A thin plate of the plastic scintillator was manufactured using epoxy resin as a polymer. The plastic scintillator was made by mixing epoxy resin and organic scintillators under various conditions. The optimal mixture ratio to prepare the plastic scintillator was derived from the above results. Using the derived results, we made the large-area plastic scintillator which can quickly measure the contamination site and evaluated characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator in the laboratory. A thin plate of a plastic scintillator with a simple preparation process can be freely shaped using epoxy resin and organic scintillators such as PPO and POPOP. PPO emits scintillation of light in the ultraviolet range, and POPOP is a wave shifter for moving the wavelength responsible for the PMT. The mixture ratio of PPO and POPOP was determined using their emission spectra. The optimal weight percentage of PPO and POPOP in an organic scintillator was determined to be 0.2 wt%:0.01 wt%. Based on the above results, the large-area plastic scintillator of the window size of a typical pancake-type αβ surface contamination counter was prepared. We want to evaluate the characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator. However, there were the difficulties in evaluating characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator. The cross-sectional area of the large-area plastic scintillator is significantly different to PMT.

  3. Trends in the US hardwood lumber distribution industry: changing products, customers, and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Omar Espinoza; Matthew Bumgardner; Bob. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Efficient and effective supply chains are the backbone of any industry, including the forest products industry. As the US secondary hardwood industry has undergone a profound transformation and large parts of the industry have moved offshore, the supply chain is adapting to these new realities. Remaining and new customers of US hardwood lumber distributors tend to be...

  4. PRACTICE OF GESTALT THEORY IN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkut ERYAYAR

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that Gestalt Theory argues that an organized whole represents more than the sum of its parts. According to this theory, which emerged in studies on visual perception, a whole is made up of many parts each of which cannot reflect the whole on its own. Likewise, an industrial design comprises various parts which create a meaningful and functional whole. The success of a design can be measured against its ability to be perceived the same way as it is designed. In this respect, the inclusion of Gestalt theory principles in the process of design will enable the end product to differ from others and its user to perceive it in the right direction.

  5. Recycling of the product of thermal inertization of cement-asbestos for various industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Sardisco, Lorenza; Saraceno, Michele; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Cavenati, Cinzia; Zanatto, Ivano

    2011-01-01

    Recycling of secondary raw materials is a priority of waste handling in the countries of the European community. A potentially important secondary raw material is the product of the thermal transformation of cement-asbestos, produced by prolonged annealing at 1200-1300 °C. The product is chemically comparable to a Mg-rich clinker. Previous work has assured the reliability of the transformation process. The current challenge is to find potential applications as secondary raw material. Recycling of thermally treated asbestos-containing material (named KRY·AS) in traditional ceramics has already been studied with successful results. The results presented here are the outcome of a long termed project started in 2005 and devoted to the recycling of this secondary raw materials in various industrial applications. KRY·AS can be added in medium-high percentages (10-40 wt%) to commercial mixtures for the production of clay bricks, rock-wool glasses for insulation as well as Ca-based frits and glass-ceramics for the production of ceramic tiles. The secondary raw material was also used for the synthesis of two ceramic pigments; a green uvarovite-based pigment [Ca(3)Cr(2)(SiO(4))(3)] and a pink malayaite-based pigment [Ca(Sn,Cr)SiO(5)]. The latter is especially interesting as a substitute for cadmium-based pigments. This work also shows that KRY·AS can replace standard fillers in polypropylene plastics without altering the properties of the final product. For each application, a description and relevant results are presented and discussed.

  6. The effect of glycerol from biodiesel production waste as a plasticizer on physical character edible film of chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosyid, Fajar Abdul; Triastuti, Rr. Juni; Andriyono, Sapto

    2017-02-01

    Chitosan edible film is a thin layer of clear packaging made from chitosan edible and biodegradable. Edible chitosan films are stiffer and less elastic, so it should be added plasticizer glycerol. One source of glycerol is inexpensive and easily obtained is crude glycerol from biodiesel production. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of various concentrations of crude glycerol plasticizer on the physical characteristics of chitosan edible film and determine the best concentration of crude glycerol plasticizer. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments and four replications. The Edible film using the g chitosan and some plasticizers concentration of crude glycerol (0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1 mL) and a control treatment that used 0.4 mL of pure glycerol was made. The results showed that the use of crude glycerol plasticizer had effect to the physical character of chitosan edible film. Increasing concentrations of crude glycerol plasticizer exhibits the lowers value of the thickness and tensile strength, however, can increase the value of percent elongation. The best concentration of this research is the treatment of B (0.2 ml crude glycerol) which resulted in 0.55 mm thickness, the tensile strength of 95.38 kgf/cm2 and a percent elongation of 2.13%.

  7. Plasticity in speech production and perception: A study of accent change in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bronwen G.; Iverson, Paul

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated plasticity in speech production and perception among university students, as individuals change their accent from regional to educated norms. Subjects were tested before beginning university, 3 months later and on completion of their first year of study. At each stage they were recorded reading a set of test words and a short passage. They also completed two perceptual tasks; they found best exemplar locations for vowels embedded in carrier sentences and identified words in noise. The results demonstrated that subjects changed their spoken accent after attending university. The changes were linked to sociolinguistic factors; subjects who were highly motivated to fit in with their university community changed their accent more. There was some evidence for a link between production and perception; between-subject differences in production and perception were correlated. However, this relationship was weaker for within-subject changes in accent over time. The results suggest that there were limitations in the ability of these subjects to acquire new phonological rules.

  8. 75 FR 73109 - Guidance for Industry on Antibacterial Drug Products: Use of Noninferiority Trials to Support...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Antibacterial Drug Products: Use of.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry... of the draft guidance for industry entitled ``Antibacterial Drug Products: Use of...

  9. Lipase production by Penicillium restrictum using solid waste of industrial babassu oil production as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, M B; Pinto, A L; Gombert, A K; Seitz, K H; Kivatinitz, S C; Castilho, L R; Freire, D M

    2000-01-01

    Lipase, protease, and amylase production by Penicillium restrictum in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The basal medium was an industrial waste of babassu oil (Orbignya oleifera) production. It was enriched with peptone, olive oil, and Tween-80. The supplementation positively influenced both enzyme production and fungal growth. Media enriched with Tween-80 provided the highest protease activity (8.6 U/g), whereas those enriched with peptone and olive oil led to the highest lipase (27.8 U/g) and amylase (31.8 U/g) activities, respectively.

  10. Examination of the producting method of electric conductive plastic for medical needle. Iryoyo dodensei plastic no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, K.; Yagi, J. (Shizuoka Industrial Reseach Institute, Shizuoka (Japan)); Ide, S.; Shibuya, Y. (Toyo Resin Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan))

    1992-07-01

    The development of needle materials to be used for stimulating electrotherapy was studied. The aimed material was plastic which is low cost and flexible, and has uniform electric conductivity. Polypropylene as the material and carbon such as graphite as the electric conductive filler were selected. It was found that the increase of filler addition lowered the variation of electric resistance but lost flexibility. Carbon of super fine particles as the filler was studied to get the aimed skin resistance value with a small amount of addition, and this aim could be achieved by adding 10 to 20 PHR of carbon black of 30[mu]m average diameter. The addition of 3PHR was determined as the optimal mixing condition by determining the relationship between the dispersant (like oleic acid, etc.) and the electric conductivity and from the relationship between the original torque value and the variation of electric conductivity. It was clarified that the temperature relates to filler dispersion by studying the relationship between the mixing temperature and the electric conductivity. It was confirmed that when raw materials are irradiated by electricity, static electricity generated at mixing from resin is suppressed and filler aggregation can be prevented. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  12. Effects of No-tillage Combined with Reused Plastic Film Mulching on Maize Yield and Irrigation Water Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SU Yong-zhong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of reused plastic film mulching and no-tillage on maize yield and irriga-tion water productivity(IWP in the marginal oasis in the middle of Hexi Corridor region of northwestern China. The aim is to provide an alternative tillage and cultivation pattern for reducing plastic film pollution, saving cost and increasing income, and improving resource use efficiency. The field experiment was carried out in three soils with different textures and fertility levels. Three treatments for each soil were set up:(1 conventional tillage,winter irrigation, and new plastic mulching cultivation(NM;(2 no tillage, less winter irrigation and reused plastic mulching cultivation (RM;(3 no tillage, less winter irrigation and reused plastic mulching combined with straw mulching (RMS. The results showed that the average daily soil temperature in the two reused plastic mulching treatment(RM and RMS during maize sowing and elongation stage was lower 0.6~1.0℃(5 cm depth and 0.5~0.8℃(15 cm depth than that in the NM. This result suggested that no tillage and reused plastic mulching cultivation still had the effect of increasing soil temperature. Maize grain yield in the RM was reduced by 4.4%~10.6% compared with the conventional cultivation(NM, while the net income increased due to saving in plastic film and tillage ex-penses. There was no significant difference in maize grain yield between the RMS and NM treatment, but the net income in the RMS was in-creased by 12.5%~17.1% than that in the NM. Compared with the NM, the two reused plastic film mulching treatments (RM and RMS decreased the volume of winter irrigation, but maize IWP increased. Soil texture and fertility level affected significantly maize nitrogen uptake and IWP. In the arid oases with the shortage of water resources, cultivation practices of conservation tillage with recycle of plastic film is an ideal option for saving cost and increasing income

  13. Product Migration Strategies to Product-Service Systems Based on Korean Industrial Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Chan Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Product-service system (PSS is a system of products, service, supporting networks and infrastructure that is designed to be competitive. The concept of PSS is rather new and currently many companies and governmental institute are eager to implement the PSSs as a new business model. In this paper, we propose a three-dimensional model to classify PSS based on three axes. The three axes consist of selling product type, product usage type, and sustainability. The selling product type is classified as physical product, physical product and added services, and product-service system. The product usages type is classified as product-oriented, use-oriented, and result-oriented usage. The sustainability is classified as economy, society and environment. The 3D model is applied to the surveyed Korean industrial practices to identify some typical migration paths from physical product to PSS. Three typical migration paths are identified and the paths are used to suggest Sustainable PSS(SPSS development strategies. Three identified paths are value-extended SPSS, positioning-extended SPSS, and field-extended SPSS.

  14. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California`s residential marketplace.

  15. Production of High Value Fluorine Gases for the Semiconductor Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulko, J. B.

    2003-10-23

    The chemistry to manufacture high purity GeF{sub 4} and WF{sub 6} for use in the semiconductor industry using Starmet's new fluorine extraction technology has been developed. Production of GeF{sub 4} was established using a tube-style reactor system where conversion yields as high as 98.1% were attained for the reaction between and GeO{sub 2}. Collection of the fluoride gas improved to 97.7% when the reactor sweep gas contained a small fraction of dry air (10-12 vol%) along with helium. The lab-synthesized product was shown to contain the least amount of infrared active and elemental impurities when compared with a reference material certified at 99.99% purity. Analysis of the ''as-produced'' gas using ICP-MS showed that uranium could not be detected at a detection limit of 0.019ppm-wt. A process to make WF{sub 6} from WO{sub 2}, and UF{sub 4}, produced a WOF{sub 4} intermediate, which proved difficult to convert to tungsten hexafluoride using titanium fluoride as a fluorinating agent.

  16. Traceability in the pharmaceutical industry: application to radiopharmaceutical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanette, Camila; Melero, Laura T.U.H.; Araujo, Elaine B. de; Mengatti, Jair; Silva, Katia S. de S., E-mail: czanette@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The development of tools to promote the traceability of the drugs in the pharmaceutical industry during all the production chain is a necessary requisite. The traceability system is applied to enable the identification of the origin, destination and exact location of the drug. Traceability optimizes the process chain, reduces errors, is a requirement for quality process, promotes safety for the user and assists in pharmacovigilance. The health regulatory agency in Brazil (ANVISA) will implement a tracking system for medicaments with RDC no. 59 of 2009, to control distribution since the producer until the patients in order to prevent the traffic and adulteration of drugs. Thus, this study discusses the importance and impact of the new traceability system proposed by ANVISA in the production and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals from the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN). The radiopharmaceuticals have a difference track when compared with another drug classes. In this context, this RDC would increase the price of the medicines by up to 10%, since it provides deployment of a single stamp supplied by the Mint. Considering that radiopharmaceuticals are not sold to the final consumer (patients), but only for accredited medical clinics and nuclear medicine physicians, and the transport of radiopharmaceuticals is performed by specialized companies licensed by CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission), the use of the stamp to ensure authenticity and prevent falsification should not be appropriated and represents and additional cost for the radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  17. Production optimisation in the petrochemical industry by hierarchical multivariate modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Magnus; Furusjoe, Erik; Jansson, Aasa

    2004-06-01

    This project demonstrates the advantages of applying hierarchical multivariate modelling in the petrochemical industry in order to increase knowledge of the total process. The models indicate possible ways to optimise the process regarding the use of energy and raw material, which is directly linked to the environmental impact of the process. The refinery of Nynaes Refining AB (Goeteborg, Sweden) has acted as a demonstration site in this project. The models developed for the demonstration site resulted in: Detection of an unknown process disturbance and suggestions of possible causes; Indications on how to increase the yield in combination with energy savings; The possibility to predict product quality from on-line process measurements, making the results available at a higher frequency than customary laboratory analysis; Quantification of the gradually lowered efficiency of heat transfer in the furnace and increased fuel consumption as an effect of soot build-up on the furnace coils; Increased knowledge of the relation between production rate and the efficiency of the heat exchangers. This report is one of two reports from the project. It contains a technical discussion of the result with some degree of detail. A shorter and more easily accessible report is also available, see IVL report B1586-A.

  18. Multivariate Statistical Process Optimization in the Industrial Production of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimkiewicz, Anna

    In modern biotech production, a massive number of diverse measurements, with a broad diversity in information content and quality, is stored in data historians. The potential of this enormous amount of data is currently under-employed in process optimization efforts. This is a result of the deman......In modern biotech production, a massive number of diverse measurements, with a broad diversity in information content and quality, is stored in data historians. The potential of this enormous amount of data is currently under-employed in process optimization efforts. This is a result...... and difficulties related to ‘recycling’ of historical data from a full-scale manufacturing of industrial enzymes. First, the crucial and tedious step of retrieving the data from the systems is presented. The prerequisites that need to be comprehended are discussed, such as sensors accuracy and reliability, aspects...... related to the actual measuring frequency and non-equidistance retaining strategies in data storage. Different regimes of data extraction can be employed, and some might introduce undesirable artifacts in the final analysis results (POSTER II1). Several signal processing techniques are also briefly...

  19. Recombinant Acremonium chrysogenum strains for the industrial production of cephalosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, B; Mellado, E; Fouces, R; Rodríguez, M; Barredo, J L

    1996-09-01

    Conventional strain improvement programs based on random mutagenesis and rational screening have meant valuable results to the antibiotic producing companies. The development of recombinant DNA techniques and their applications to the industrially-used cephalosporin-producing fungus Acremonium chrysogenum has provided a new tool, complementary to classical mutation, promoting the design of alternative biosynthetic pathways making it possible to obtain new antibiotics and to improve cephalosporin production. Yield increases have been achieved by increasing the dosage of the biosynthetic genes cefEF (deacetoxycephalosporin C expandase/hydroxylase) and cefG (deacetylcephalosporin C acetyltransferase) or enhancing the oxygen uptake by expressing a bacterial oxygen-binding heme protein (Vitreoscilla hemoglobin). New biosynthetic capacities such as the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) or penicillin G have been achieved through the expression of the foreign genes dao (D-amino acid oxidase) coupled with cephalosporin acylase or penDE(acyl-CoA:6-APA acyltransferase) respectively. Confined manipulation of the above-mentioned recombinant strains must be performed according to standing rules.

  20. Production optimisation in the petrochemical industry by hierarchical multivariate modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Magnus; Furusjoe, Erik; Jansson, Aasa

    2004-06-01

    This project demonstrates the advantages of applying hierarchical multivariate modelling in the petrochemical industry in order to increase knowledge of the total process. The models indicate possible ways to optimise the process regarding the use of energy and raw material, which is directly linked to the environmental impact of the process. The refinery of Nynaes Refining AB (Goeteborg, Sweden) has acted as a demonstration site in this project. The models developed for the demonstration site resulted in: Detection of an unknown process disturbance and suggestions of possible causes; Indications on how to increase the yield in combination with energy savings; The possibility to predict product quality from on-line process measurements, making the results available at a higher frequency than customary laboratory analysis; Quantification of the gradually lowered efficiency of heat transfer in the furnace and increased fuel consumption as an effect of soot build-up on the furnace coils; Increased knowledge of the relation between production rate and the efficiency of the heat exchangers. This report is one of two reports from the project. It contains a technical discussion of the result with some degree of detail. A shorter and more easily accessible report is also available, see IVL report B1586-A.

  1. Semi-industrial production of methane from textile wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opwis, Klaus; Mayer-Gall, Thomas; Gutmann, Jochen S. [Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West e.V., Krefeld (DE)] (and others)

    2012-12-15

    The enzymatic desizing of starch-sized cotton fabrics leads to wastewaters with an extremely high chemical oxygen demand due to its high sugar content. Nowadays, these liquors are still disposed without use, resulting in a questionable ecological pollution and high emission charges for cotton finishing manufacturers. In this paper, an innovative technology for the production of energy from textile wastewaters from cotton desizing was developed. Such desizing liquors were fermented by methane-producing microbes to biogas. For this purpose, a semi-industrial plant with a total volume of more than 500 L was developed and employed over a period of several weeks. The robust and trouble-free system produces high amounts of biogas accompanied by a significant reduction of the COD of more than 85%. With regard to growing standards and costs for wastewater treatment and disposal, the new process can be an attractive alternative for textile finishing enterprises in wastewater management, combining economic and ecological benefits. Moreover, the production of biogas from textile wastewaters can help to overcome the global energy gap within the next decades, especially with respect to the huge dimension of cotton pretreatment and, therefore, huge desizing activities worldwide.

  2. 77 FR 74669 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Product-Specific Bioequivalence Recommendations; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... additional draft and revised draft product-specific bioequivalence (BE) recommendations. The recommendations... industry entitled ``Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products,'' which explained the...

  3. 78 FR 37230 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Product-Specific Bioequivalence Recommendations; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... additional draft and revised draft product-specific bioequivalence (BE) recommendations. The recommendations... industry entitled ``Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products,'' which explained the...

  4. 78 FR 66745 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Product-Specific Bioequivalence Recommendations; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... additional draft and revised draft product-specific bioequivalence (BE) recommendations. The recommendations... industry entitled ``Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products,'' which explained the...

  5. 77 FR 10536 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Product-Specific Bioequivalence Recommendations; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... additional draft and revised draft product-specific bioequivalence (BE) recommendations. The recommendations... guidance for industry entitled ``Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products,'' which...

  6. 78 FR 20925 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Product-Specific Bioequivalence Recommendations; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... additional draft and revised draft product-specific bioequivalence (BE) recommendations. The recommendations... guidance for industry entitled ``Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products,'' which...

  7. 77 FR 35688 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... Product-Specific Bioequivalence Recommendations; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... additional draft and revised draft product-specific bioequivalence (BE) recommendations. The recommendations... guidance for industry entitled ``Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products,'' which...

  8. 77 FR 74196 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Product Design To Minimize Medication...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Product Design To Minimize Medication Errors; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance for industry entitled ``Safety Considerations for Product Design to Minimize Medication Errors... using a systems approach to minimize medication errors relating to product design. The draft...

  9. 75 FR 50771 - Draft Revised Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Industry on Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal Products, Active Substances and Excipients... comments of a draft revised guidance for industry ( 100) entitled ``Residual Solvents in New Veterinary... veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for...

  10. 48 The Nigerian Musical Instrument Production Industry Sunday ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    appreciate the impacts of the industry by recognizing, supporting, strengthening and making it .... identity interests of Nigeria and its individual citizens are enormous. ... instrument industry being a valuable tourists' attraction invariably adds to ...

  11. SUATU PENDEKATAN BARU DALAM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT COSTING UNTUK BARANG-BARANG INDUSTRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kussetya Ciptani

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the very competitive bussiness environment, the company ability to create or develop its product is an important thing to keep. With the competitivenes of each product, especially industrial product, each product has a short life-cycle. The life-cycle of an industrial product become shorter because of the technology used in its development phase. This will be one of many factors that encourage industrial company to develop their product, besides the profitability factor that many companies achieve for. In industrial product development process, companies use many method to develop its product and shorten their industrial product life-cycle, but it is still difficult to obtain cost which incur to develop an industrial product. An industrial company has to know exactly its product development costs and determine its most expensive production activities in order to plan future financial performance and identify potential improvements. Using life-cycle costing, a company can anticipate the costs which occur in each phase of product life-cycle and determine the product cost of new industrial product which has been developed accurately. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Dalam persaingan dunia bisnis yang sangat ketat, kemampuan perusahaan untuk dapat menciptakan atau mengembangkan produk baru sangat diperlukan. Dengan semakin ketatnya persaingan antar perusahaan tersebut produk yang dihasilkan oleh suatu perusahaan akan memiliki jangka waktu (umur tertentu di pasaran. Khusus untuk barang-barang industri, daur hidup produk industri akan memiliki kecenderungan umur hidup yang semakin pendek terutama didukung dengan adanya perkembangan teknologi yang digunakan oleh perusahaan tersebut. Hal ini menjadi salah satu faktor yang mendorong dilakukannya proses pengembangan produk industri selain faktor laba (profit yang diperoleh oleh perusahaan dengan melakukan usaha pengembangan produk. Dalam usaha pengembangan produk untuk barang-barang industri, perusahaan

  12. Field-portable-XRF reveals the ubiquity of antimony in plastic consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Filella, Montserrat

    2017-02-09

    Very little systematic information exists on the occurrence and concentrations of antimony (Sb) in consumer products. In this study, a Niton XL3t field-portable-X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometer was deployed in situ and in the laboratory to provide quantitative information on Sb dissipated in plastic items and fixtures (including rubber, textile and foamed materials) from the domestic, school, vehicular and office settings. The metalloid was detected in 18% of over 800 measurements performed, with concentrations ranging from about 60 to 60,000μgg(-1). The highest concentrations were encountered in white, electronic casings and in association with similar concentrations of Br, consistent with the use of antimony oxides (e.g. Sb2O3) as synergistic flame retardants. Concentrations above 1000μgg(-1), and with or without Br, were also encountered in paints, piping and hosing, adhesives, whiteboards, Christmas decorations, Lego blocks, document carriers, garden furniture, upholstered products and interior panels of private motor vehicles. Lower concentrations of Sb were encountered in a wide variety of items but its presence (without Br) in food tray packaging, single-use drinks bottles, straws and small toys were of greatest concern from a human health perspective. While the latter observations are consistent with the use of antimony compounds as catalysts in the production of polyethylene terephthalate, co-association of Sb and Br in many products not requiring flame retardancy suggests that electronic casings are widely recycled. Further research is required into the mobility of Sb when dissipated in new, recycled and aged polymeric materials.

  13. Engineering microbial cell factories for the production of plant natural products: from design principles to industrial-scale production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaonan; Ding, Wentao; Jiang, Huifeng

    2017-07-19

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are widely used as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, seasonings, pigments, etc., with a huge commercial value on the global market. However, most of these PNPs are still being extracted from plants. A resource-conserving and environment-friendly synthesis route for PNPs that utilizes microbial cell factories has attracted increasing attention since the 1940s. However, at the present only a handful of PNPs are being produced by microbial cell factories at an industrial scale, and there are still many challenges in their large-scale application. One of the challenges is that most biosynthetic pathways of PNPs are still unknown, which largely limits the number of candidate PNPs for heterologous microbial production. Another challenge is that the metabolic fluxes toward the target products in microbial hosts are often hindered by poor precursor supply, low catalytic activity of enzymes and obstructed product transport. Consequently, despite intensive studies on the metabolic engineering of microbial hosts, the fermentation costs of most heterologously produced PNPs are still too high for industrial-scale production. In this paper, we review several aspects of PNP production in microbial cell factories, including important design principles and recent progress in pathway mining and metabolic engineering. In addition, implemented cases of industrial-scale production of PNPs in microbial cell factories are also highlighted.

  14. Other solutions for the plastic residue from the automobile industry and used as additives in the asphaltic bitumens; Alternativas de los residuos plasticos de la automocion y su empleo como aditivos de los betunes asfalticos. Parte I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Vidriero, E.; Castillo, F. [CEDEX. Ministerio de Fomento. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-08-01

    This article forms part of an investigation which aims to achieve two adjectives. The first is to cooperate in the improvement of the environment by decreasing the amount of plastic residue from the automobile industry. The second is to improve the characteristics of asphaltic bitumens used in roofing and waterproofing in civil engineering, through the addition of plastic residue from the automobile industry. (Author) 4 refs.

  15. Production of biodegradable plastics from volatile fatty acids using activated sludge; Kassei odei wo mochiiru kihatsuei teikyu shibosan kara no seibunkaisei plastic no seisan to hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y.; Soejima, T.; Tomozawa, T. [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Doi, Y. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan); Kiya, F. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-21

    The production of biodegradable plastics, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from volatile fatty acids (VFA) by aerobic or anaerobic/aerobic activated sludge was investigated. The anaerobic/aerobic activated sludge produced co-polyesters composed of 2-4 monomer units from VFA(C 2-C 5), and that the contents in dried sludge were as high as 7.8. -18.2wt%. The anaerobic/aerobic activated sludge produced co-polyester composed of [R]-hydroxybuyrate (3HB), [R]-3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV), [R]-3-hydroxynonanoate(3HN), and [R]-3-hydroxydecanoate (3HD) with high yield of 40 wt% from acetic acid as the sole carbon source in nitrogen-free wastewater for 6-12 h. It was suggested that PHA production from wastewater treatment was possible by using the anaerobic/aerobic activated sludge. 9 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Some exploitation properties of wood plastic composites (WPC), based on high density polyethylene and timber industry waste

    OpenAIRE

    janis kajaks

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: In this study, the influence of wood fiber content (40, 50 and 60 wt.%) and coupling agent concentration (3 and 5 wt.%) on the mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) was investigated. Two types of plastic (high-density-polyethylene (HDPE) and recycled high-density-polyethylene (rHDPE)) were used as polymer matrices for preparing WPC. As reinforcement, prior grinded (fiber length < 0.5 mm) coniferous wood shavings were utilized. Overall trend showed, that by addin...

  17. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    The introductory chapter provides a discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. It discusses these industries in terms of resource characteristics, industry technology, pollution control requirements, market structure, the economics of recycling, and the issues involved in econometrically estimating scrap supply response behavior. It further presents the methodology established by DOE for the metals, textiles, rubber, and pulp and paper industries. The areas in which government policies might have a significant impact on the utilization of primary and secondary metals and on any recycling targets between now and 1987 are noted. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33. The profiles include such topics as industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends. Chapter 4 specifically covers the evaluation of recycling targets for the ferrous, aluminum, copper, zinc, and lead industries. (MCW)

  18. 76 FR 9028 - Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' dated January 2011. The guidance document provides manufacturers of cellular and gene therapy (CGT) products with recommendations for developing... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products''...

  19. Conceptualizing the use of system products and system deliveries in the building industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Thuesen, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the concepts system products and system deliveries based on the use of product modularization and product configuration. The concepts are outlined and discussed based on examples from both the construction industry and related industry. The description focuses partly...

  20. The Importance and Weaknesses of the Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roland S.

    2010-01-01

    To view contemporary Science as an industry is a very apt and timely stance. Ghassib's (2010) historical analysis of knowledge production, which he terms "A Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production," is an interesting one. It is important, however, to observe that the outline of this model is based entirely on the production of…

  1. Kansas timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent Kansas forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  2. North Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Robert A. Harsel

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent North Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  3. Maryland timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Daniel R. Rider; Ronald J. Piva

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Maryland forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  4. Minnesota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Keith. Jacobson

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Minnesota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2007. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  5. South Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Gregory J. Josten

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent South Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  6. Wisconsin timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  7. Missouri timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Thomas B. Treiman

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Missouri forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  8. Nebraska timber Industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Dennis M. Adams

    2008-01-01

    Presents recent Nebraska forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, excelsior/shavings, and other products in 2006. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  9. Indiana timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Jeff Settle; Ronald J. Piva

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Indiana forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  10. Michigan timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Anthony K. Weatherspoon

    2010-01-01

    Presents recent Michigan forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2006. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  11. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology Laid out Objectives and Tasks on Eliminating Backward Production Capacity for 18 Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ In order to implement the plan and requirements set forth by the State Council to further strengthen the work of eliminating backward production capacity,and assign and implement the tasks in 2010,the working conference of the national industrial system on eliminating backward production capacity was held in Beijing on May 27th and 28th,2010.

  12. Can niche plasticity promote biodiversity-productivity relationships through increased complementarity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklaus, Pascal A; Baruffol, Martin; He, Jin-Sheng; Ma, Keping; Schmid, Bernhard

    2017-01-27

    Most experimental biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research to date has addressed herbaceous plant communities. Comparably little is known about how forest communities will respond to species losses, despite their importance for global biogeochemical cycling. We studied tree species interactions in experimental subtropical tree communities with 33 distinct tree species mixtures and one, two, or four species. Plots were either exposed to natural light levels or shaded. Trees grew rapidly and were intensely competing above ground after 1.5 growing seasons when plots were thinned and the vertical distribution of leaves and wood determined by separating the biomass of harvested trees into 50 cm height increments. Our aim was to analyze effects of species richness in relation to the vertical allocation of leaf biomass and wood, with an emphasis on bipartite competitive interactions among species. Aboveground productivity increased with species richness. The community-level vertical leaf and wood distribution depended on the species composition of communities. Mean height and breadth of species-level vertical leaf and wood distributions did not change with species richness. However, the extra biomass produced by mixtures compared to monocultures of the component species increased when vertical leaf distributions of monocultures were more different. Decomposition of biodiversity effects with the additive partitioning scheme indicated positive complementarity effects that were higher in light than in shade. Selection effects did not deviate from zero, irrespective of light levels. Vertical leaf distributions shifted apart in mixed stands as consequence of competition-driven phenotypic plasticity, promoting realized complementarity. Structural equation models showed that this effect was larger for species that differed more in growth strategies that were characterized by functional traits. In 13 of the 18 investigated two-species mixtures, both species benefitted

  13. Comparative acute toxicity of leachates from plastic products made of polypropylene, polyethylene, PVC, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, and epoxy to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithner, Delilah; Nordensvan, Ildikó; Dave, Göran

    2012-06-01

    The large global production of plastics and their presence everywhere in the society and the environment create a need for assessing chemical hazards and risks associated with plastic products. The aims of this study were to determine and compare the toxicity of leachates from plastic products made of five plastics types and to identify the class of compounds that is causing the toxicity. Selected plastic types were those with the largest global annual production, that is, polypropylene, polyethylene, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), or those composed of hazardous monomers (e.g., PVC, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene [ABS], and epoxy). Altogether 26 plastic products were leached in deionized water (3 days at 50°C), and the water phases were tested for acute toxicity to Daphnia magna. Initial Toxicity Identification Evaluations (C18 filtration and EDTA addition) were performed on six leachates. For eleven leachates (42%) 48-h EC50s (i.e the concentration that causes effect in 50 percent of the test organisms) were below the highest test concentration, 250 g plastic/L. All leachates from plasticized PVC (5/5) and epoxy (5/5) products were toxic (48-h EC50s ranging from 2 to 235 g plastic/L). None of the leachates from polypropylene (5/5), ABS (5/5), and rigid PVC (1/1) products showed toxicity, but one of the five tested HDPE leachates was toxic (48-h EC50 17-24 g plastic/L). Toxicity Identification Evaluations indicated that mainly hydrophobic organics were causing the toxicity and that metals were the main cause for one leachate (metal release was also confirmed by chemical analysis). Toxic chemicals leached even during the short-term leaching in water, mainly from plasticized PVC and epoxy products.

  14. Managing plastic waste in urban Kenya: niche innovations in production and recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ombis, L.O.

    2012-01-01

    The problems with plastic waste in Kenyan cities are increasing to alarming levels. Especially disposable packaging made of very light plastic materials continues to burden the environment as well as compromise management capacities for waste by city authorities. In light of this, major cities of

  15. Managing plastic waste in urban Kenya: niche innovations in production and recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ombis, L.O.

    2012-01-01

    The problems with plastic waste in Kenyan cities are increasing to alarming levels. Especially disposable packaging made of very light plastic materials continues to burden the environment as well as compromise management capacities for waste by city authorities. In light of this, major cities of Ke

  16. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. STANDARD CALCULATION PER PRODUCT IN THE CHEMICAL FERTILIZER INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ionescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the research is to present a way of organising the managerial accounting of totally and semi finished product obtained in chemical fertilizer industry entities. For this study, we analyzed the current principle of managerial accounting to an entity in the studied area, in order to emphasize the need of organizing and implementing a modern accounting management to control the cost and increase the performance of the entities in this area, starting from the premise that there are sufficient similarities between entities in the field. Research carried out has revealed that currently, the costing is organized in terms of using traditional methods and that it is necessary to organize and implement an accounting management based on the use of modern methods, namely the method of standard costs combined with the method of centres of costs. The major implications of the proposed system for the investigated field consist of determining a relevant cost-oriented management entity, highlighting the shortcomings of traditional methods of cost

  18. Sustainability of the Biorefinery Industry for Fuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels have been extensively explored and applied in the Brazilian market. In Brazil, ethanol and biodiesel are produced on an industrial scale. Ethanol is commercialized and used in engines in both the hydrated form (96% °GL and the anhydrous form, mixed with gasoline at a proportion of up to 25% by volume. In turn, biodiesel is blended with diesel in a proportion of 5% by volume. Thus, the goal of the use of biofuels is to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gases and other pollutants emitted into the atmosphere during burning. This article describes some recent developments in the characterization of the environmental and economic impacts of the production of these biofuels from different biomass sources. On this regard, this review presents results of life-cycle assessments (LCAs, life-cycle cost assessments (LCCAs and Structural Path Analysis (SPA, this last one depicting a sectorial perspective rather than LCA process level data approaches. The results showed that the inclusion of biofuels in transportation activities can lead to the mitigation of the environmental impacts of certain activities, such as emissions of greenhouse gases. However, greater attention must be paid to the improvement of agricultural management to decrease fuel, fertilizer and herbicide consumption.

  19. Tendencias actuales de los plásticos en la industria automovilística // Current trends of plastic in the car industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Palmer Martín

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente articulo se realiza un análisis de la inserción actual de los plásticos en la industria automovilística, posición queocupan en este mercado, ventajas generales que presentan frente a otros materiales de primera línea, principales materiasplásticas empleadas y aplicaciones fundamentales, entre otros aspectos de gran interés técnico y estadístico._______________________________________________________________________AbstractIn the present article is accomplished an analysis of the current insert of plastic in car industry, occupied position in thismarket, general advantages compared with other material of first line, principal employed plastic matters and fundamentalapplications, between other aspects of great technical and statistic interest.

  20. 机械产品设计中的造型学研究%Plasticism study in design of mechanical products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文涛

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the application of plasticism in the design of mechanical product designs. By taking the aesthetics rules of product modeling as the starting point, and with mechanical products as the main design object, the study is emphasized on the mechanical product design modeling element characteristics and design method in the mechanical product designs according to its category. Based on the analysis and designs of geometric modeling, technology modeling and bionic modeling, the purpose of the study is how to unify industrial technology and art design to make excellent mechanical product design.%文中分析了机械产品设计中的造型学运用,以产品造型的美学法则为切入点,再以机械产品为主要设计对象,重点分类研究机械产品设计的造型元素特征和设计方法.针对几何造型、工艺造型和仿生造型进行设计分析,研究如何将工业技术和设计艺术结合统一,造就优良的机械产品.

  1. Research on the recycling industry development model for typical exterior plastic components of end-of-life passenger vehicle based on the SWOT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In-depth studies on the recycling of typical automotive exterior plastic parts are significant and beneficial for environmental protection, energy conservation, and sustainable development of China. In the current study, several methods were used to analyze the recycling industry model for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles in China. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges of the current recycling industry for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles were analyzed comprehensively based on the SWOT method. The internal factor evaluation matrix and external factor evaluation matrix were used to evaluate the internal and external factors of the recycling industry. The recycling industry was found to respond well to all the factors and it was found to face good developing opportunities. Then, the cross-link strategies analysis for the typical exterior parts of the passenger car industry of China was conducted based on the SWOT analysis strategies and established SWOT matrix. Finally, based on the aforementioned research, the recycling industry model led by automobile manufacturers was promoted.

  2. Spore production of Beauveria bassiana from agro-industrial residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herta Stutz Dalla Santa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to produce Beauveria bassiana by Solid-State Fermentation using agro-industrial residues and optimizing the cultivation conditions. Refused potatoes, coffee husks and sugar-cane bagasse were tested. The blend of refused potatoes and sugar-cane bagasse (60-40% with particle size in the range of 0.8-2 mm was used in the fermentation experiments. In Erlenmeyer flasks the best spore production was achieved with the following conditions: incubation temperature 26º C; initial pH 6.0; inoculum concentration 10(7 spores.g-1.dw and initial moisture 75%. In the column type reactor using forced aeration under the optimized conditions, the maximum production (1.07x10(10spores.g-1.dw was obtained at the 10th day of fermentation. The respirometric analyses of the fermentation showed a strong correlation between fungal growth and spore production.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir Beauveria bassiana por fermentação no estado sólido em resíduos agro-industriais e otimizar as condições de cultivo. Batata-refugo, polpa de café e bagaço de cana de açúcar foram testados. A mistura de batata-refugo e de bagaço de cana de açúcar (60:40%, com granulometria de 2 a 0,8 mm foi escolhida como melhor substrato/suporte. Em frascos de Erlenmeyer a produção de esporos foi maior com as seguintes condições: pH 6,0; temperatura de incubação de 26º C; taxa de inóculo de 10(7 esporos.g-1 de matéria seca; e umidade inicial de 75%. Em bioreator do tipo coluna com aeração forçada, as condições otimizadas possibilitaram uma produção máxima de esporos no 10º dia de fermentação, obtendo-se 1,07x10(10 esporos.g-1 de matéria seca. A análise respirométrica desta fermentação permitiu correlacionar o desenvolvimento do fungo com a produção de esporos.

  3. Hygienic effects and gas production of plastic bio-digesters under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen-Phi, Vo Thi; Clemens, Joachim; Rechenburg, Andrea; Vinneras, Björn; Lenssen, Christina; Kistemann, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Plastic plug-flow bio-digesters have been promoted as a good option for improved treatment of manure and wastewater in developing countries although minimal information has been published on their hygienic status. This bench-scale study replicates bio-digester conditions to evaluate the reduction of pathogen and indicator microorganisms at three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) in the anaerobic treatment of pig manures at 30 degrees C for 50 days. Results showed that physicochemical values differed between HRTs. Gas production efficiency was better for longer HRTS. The accumulated sludge at the reactor's base increased with longer HRT. Phages and bacteria examined were reduced, but none was completely eliminated. Log10 reduction of bacteria ranged from 0.54 to 2.47. Phages ranged from 1.60 to 3.42. The reduction of organisms at HRT = 30 days was about one log10 unit higher than HRT = 15 days and about two log10 units higher than HRT = 3 days. The results indicate that the reduction of tested organisms increases with HRT. However the hygienic quality of the liquid effluent does not meet required quality values for surface and irrigation water. Longer HRTs are recommended to increase gas yield and achieve higher pathogen reduction. More barriers should be applied while handling bio-digester outputs to minimise risks to environmental and human health.

  4. Mass spectrometry analysis of etch products from CR-39 plastic irradiated by heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, S.; Nanjo, D.; Kawashima, H.; Yasuda, N.; Konishi, T.; Kurano, M.; Kitamura, H.; Uchihori, Y.; Naka, S.; Ota, S.; Ideguchi, Y.; Hasebe, N.; Mori, Y.; Yamauchi, T.

    2012-09-01

    As a feasibility study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) have been applied to analyze etch products of CR-39 plastic (one of the most frequently used solid states nuclear track detector) for the understanding of track formation and etching mechanisms by heavy ion irradiation. The etch products of irradiated CR-39 dissolved in sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) contain radiation-induced fragments. For the GC-MS analysis, we found peaks of diethylene glycol (DEG) and a small but a definitive peak of ethylene glycol (EG) in the etch products from CR-39 irradiated by 60 MeV N ion beams. The etch products of unirradiated CR-39 showed a clear peak of DEG, but no other significant peaks were found. DEG is known to be released from the CR-39 molecule as a fragment by alkaline hydrolysis reaction of the polymer. We postulate that EG was formed as a result of the breaking of the ether bond (C-O-C) of the DEG part of the CR-39 polymer by the irradiation. The mass distribution of polyallylalcohol was obtained from the etch products from irradiated and unirradiated CR-39 samples by MALDI-MS analysis. Polyallylalcohol, with the repeating mass interval of m/z = 58 Da (dalton) between m/z = 800 and 3500, was expected to be produced from CR-39 by alkaline hydrolysis. We used IAA as a matrix to assist the ionization of organic analyte in MALDI-MS analysis and found that peaks from IAA covered mass spectrum in the lower m/z region making difficult to identify CR-39 fragment peaks which were also be seen in the same region. The mass spectrometry analysis using GC-MS and MALDI-MS will be powerful tools to investigate the radiation-induced polymeric fragments and helping to understand the track formation mechanism in CR-39 by heavy ions.

  5. Detection of plastic and oily contamination in seed cotton at the gin using infra-red

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastic and oily foreign material in bales of cotton lint poses problems to spinning and textile mills in the form of decreased productivity and products with inferior quality. Detecting and removing this plastic and oily foreign material at the gin is a long term goal of the cotton industry. In t...

  6. Pyrolysis-catalysis of waste plastic using a nickel-stainless-steel mesh catalyst for high-value carbon products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yeshui; Nahil, Mohamad A; Wu, Chunfei; Williams, Paul T

    2017-02-03

    A stainless-steel mesh loaded with nickel catalyst was produced and used for the pyrolysis-catalysis of waste high-density polyethylene with the aim of producing high-value carbon products, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The catalysis temperature and plastic-to-catalyst ratio were investigated to determine the influence on the formation of different types of carbon deposited on the nickel-stainless-steel mesh catalyst. Increasing temperature from 700 to 900°C resulted in an increase in the carbon deposited on the nickel-loaded stainless-steel mesh catalyst from 32.5 to 38.0 wt%. The increase in sample-to-catalyst ratio reduced the amount of carbon deposited on the mesh catalyst in terms of g carbon g(-1) plastic. The carbons were found to be largely composed of filamentous carbons, with negligible disordered (amorphous) carbons. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the filamentous carbons revealed them to be composed of a large proportion (estimated at ∼40%) multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The optimum process conditions for CNT production, in terms of yield and graphitic nature, determined by Raman spectroscopy, was catalysis temperature of 800°C and plastic-to-catalyst ratio of 1:2, where a mass of 334 mg of filamentous/MWCNTs g(-1) plastic was produced.

  7. 48 CFR 52.234-1 - Industrial Resources Developed Under Defense Production Act Title III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial Resources... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.234-1 Industrial Resources Developed Under Defense Production Act Title III. As prescribed at 34.104, insert the following clause: Industrial Resources...

  8. Analysis of electricity consumption: a study in the wood products industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Quesada-Pineda; Jan Wiedenbeck; Brian. Bond

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of industry segment, year, and US region on electricity consumption per employee, per dollar sales, and per square foot of plant area for wood products industries. Data was extracted from the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) database and imported into MS Excel. The extracted dataset was examined for outliers and abnormalities with...

  9. 75 FR 73108 - Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Impurities in Drug Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Applications...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry...) guidance for industry ``Q3B(R) Impurities in New Drug Products,'' which was announced in August 2006....

  10. 78 FR 21611 - Guidance for Industry on Self-Selection Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Self-Selection Studies for...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry... appropriate for them to use a drug product. The guidance provides recommendations to industry involved...

  11. 76 FR 60504 - Guidance for Industry on Time and Extent Applications for Nonprescription Drug Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (Formerly 2004D-0027) Guidance for Industry on Time and... a guidance for industry entitled ``Time and Extent Applications for Nonprescription Drug Products... in 21 CFR part 25 and the guidance for industry entitled ``Environmental Assessment of Human Drug...

  12. Integration of Mobile Manipulators in an Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole; Bøgh, Simon; Schou, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study has been to evaluate the technology of autonomous mobile manipulation in a real world industrial manufacturing environment. The objective has been to obtain experience in the integration with existing equipment and determine key challenges in maturing the techn......Purpose – The purpose of this study has been to evaluate the technology of autonomous mobile manipulation in a real world industrial manufacturing environment. The objective has been to obtain experience in the integration with existing equipment and determine key challenges in maturing...... the technology to a level of readiness suitable for industry. Despite much research within the topic of industrial mobile manipulation, the technology has not yet found its way to the industry. To mature the technology to a level of readiness suitable for industry real-world experience is crucial. This paper...... reports from such a real-world industrial experiment with two mobile manipulators. Design/methodology/approach – In the experiment, autonomous industrial mobile manipulators are integrated into the actual manufacturing environment of the pump manufacturer Grundfos. The two robots together solve the task...

  13. FORMATION OF BRANCH TECHNOLOGY CLUSTERS IN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei S. Kabanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of cluster analysis as a universal method of interpreting the empirical research is considered in the article. Basic results of analysis of technological development of Russian industry are represented. Quantitative study of the existence of industrial clusters and practical recommendations to improve its internal economic characteristics are given.

  14. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Li Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A.; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; Loo, Van Eibertus N.; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J.; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C.; Zhou, Xue Rong; Green, Allan G.; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, Thomas K.; Mullen, Robert T.; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M.; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2016-01-01

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petroch

  15. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Li Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A.; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; Loo, Van Eibertus N.; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J.; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C.; Zhou, Xue Rong; Green, Allan G.; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, Thomas K.; Mullen, Robert T.; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M.; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2016-01-01

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petroch

  16. Industry regulation, competition, and the dynamics of productivity growth: evidence from China’s iron and steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbai Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the characteristics of the efficient evolution of China’s iron and steel industry against the backdrop of limited openness and regulation and to discuss the important effects of regulatory policy and total factor productivity (TFP of China’s iron and steel industry. The method adopted the Cobb–Douglas production function combined with a semi-parametric method to decompose productivity. This study based on the micro-level dataset of iron and steel enterprises in the database of China’s industrial enterprises between 1998 and 2007 that investigated the intrinsic correlation among corporate entry and exit, market competition of existing enterprises, and TFP growth in the iron and steel industry. The results of the research show that the entry-exit would promote the growth of the aggregate productivity, while the low efficiency of resource allocation would significantly inhibit the TFP growth. The basic conclusion is that, with substantial government intervention in enterprise investments, market competition may not promote optimal resource allocation efficiency in China’s iron and steel industry, but make the allocation less efficient.

  17. Our plastic age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard C. Thompson; Shanna H. Swan; Charles J. Moore; Frederick S. vom Saal

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production...

  18. EFFECTS OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN THE EUROZONE MEMBER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz BAYAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production is one of the leading indicators of gross domestic product which reflects the overall economic performance of a country. In other words decreases or increases in industrial production point out a contracting or expanding economy. Therefore, changes in prices of oil and natural gas which are the crucial inputs to the industrial production are also important for the overall economy. This study examines the effects of changes in oil and natural gas prices on the industrial production in the 18 Eurozone member countries during the period January 2001-September 2013 by using panel regression. We found that oil prices and natural gas prices had negative effect on industrial production in the Eurozone member countries.

  19. 78 FR 21612 - Medical Device Classification Product Codes; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Medical Device Classification Product Codes; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance entitled ``Medical Device Classification Product Codes.'' This document describes how device...

  20. Approaches to Product Liability Risk in the U.S. Automotive Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... The volume offers studies of selected industries, exploring the effect of product liability on corporate product development decisions and on the creative opportunities and day-to-day work of engineers...

  1. 75 FR 33311 - Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance for industry entitled ``Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products.'' This guidance... bioequivalence (BE) studies to support abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs). Under this process,...

  2. Establishing sustainable design and development for plastic mold under product service system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Yu-Chen; Tu, Jui-Che; Kuo, Kuo-Pin

    2017-01-01

    Face the energy recovery and environmental concerns and policy, the plastic molds design and develop have to focus on the issues of the lead-free, non-toxic, recyclable, re-manufactured, and integrate...

  3. Bio-based and recycled polymers for cleaner production : an assessment of plastics and fibres

    OpenAIRE

    L. Shen

    2011-01-01

    Today, almost all man-made plastics and fibres are produced from synthetic polymers. Synthetic polymers, made from petroleum which took millions of years to form, have three sustainability challenges: (i) the limited fossil fuel resources, (ii) the environmental impacts caused by non-degradable plastics waste, and (iii) greenhouse gas emissions caused by combusting fossil fuels. To tackle these sustainability challenges, two strategies have been proposed. First, use bio-based polymers to repl...

  4. Bio-based and recycled polymers for cleaner production : an assessment of plastics and fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Today, almost all man-made plastics and fibres are produced from synthetic polymers. Synthetic polymers, made from petroleum which took millions of years to form, have three sustainability challenges: (i) the limited fossil fuel resources, (ii) the environmental impacts caused by non-degradable plastics waste, and (iii) greenhouse gas emissions caused by combusting fossil fuels. To tackle these sustainability challenges, two strategies have been proposed. First, use bio-based polymers to repl...

  5. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Thrane, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded...... as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were...

  6. Características de plasticidade de argilas para uso em cerâmica vermelha ou estrutural Plasticity characteristics of clays for use in structural clay products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. A. Campos

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Nos estudos de caracterização de argilas plásticas para uso em cerâmica vermelha é usual a determinação das características mineralógicas por ATD e de plasticidade através dos índices de Atterberg. Os métodos convencionais utilizados para determinação do LL, LP e IP merecem muita atenção por apresentarem alguns inconvenientes. No caso específico da tecnologia cerâmica para moldagem de tijolos furados por extrusão poucos dados são encontrados, relativos à faixa de plasticidade adequada. Pretende-se neste trabalho estudar a mineralogia de 15 amostras de argilas plásticas usadas na indústria de cerâmica vermelha do estado da Paraíba, pelo método de ATD, bem como sua faixa de plasticidade por meio dos índices de Atterberg determinados pelo método de Casagrande e cone de penetração. Os resultados obtidos indicam tratarem-se de argilas quaternárias recentes cauliníticas com matéria orgânica e com LP variando de 15,42% a 36,72%, LL variando de 24,70% a 71,00% e IP variando de 6,82% a 34,28% pelo método de Casagrande e LP variando de 6,60% a 47,70%, LL variando de 26,50% a 71,60% e IP variando de 4,00% a 47,70% pelo cone de penetração, que são faixas de plasticidade recomendadas para argilas plásticas para utilização na indústria de cerâmica vermelha.In the studies of plastic clays for use in structural clay products is usual the determination of the mineralogicals characteristcs by DTA and plasticity through the Atterberg limits. The conventional method utilized for determination of the LL, LP and IP requires much attention. In the specific case of the ceramic technology for moulding hole bricks by extrusion, not many data have been reported. The purpose of this work is to study the mineralogy of 15 specimens of plastics clays used in the structural clay products industry in Paraíba State, by DTA method, as well as their plasticity limits using the Atterberg limits by Casagrande method and cone penetration

  7. An applied investigation of corn-based distillers dried grains with solubles in the production of natural fiber-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Hugo Eudosio

    The main objective of this research was to examine uses for distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a coproduct of ethanol production plant, in the fiber-reinforced plastic composites industry. Initially the effort intended to take advantage of the DDGS components, using chemical reactions, to produce coupling agents to improve the physical properties of the composite. Four different chemicals plus water were used to convert proteins into soluble amino acids. The results were not as expected, and appeared to show an early pyrolysis of DDGS components. This may be due to regeneration of proteins when pH of solutions is neutralized. Procedures were then investigated to utilize DDGS for different markets. Considering that oils and proteins of DDGS can thermally decompose, it seemed important to separate the major components and work with DDGS fiber alone. A procedure to extract oil from DDGS using ethanol and then to hydrolyze proteins with ethanol diluted with water, acid and sodium sulfite, was developed. The resulting DDGS fiber or residual material, with a low content of oil and proteins, was used as filler in a propylene matrix with a lubricant and coupling agent to make natural fiber plastic composites (NFPC). Composites containing wood flour (WPC) were prepared simultaneously with those of DDGS fiber to compare tensile properties and fracture surfaces of the specimens by scanning electron microscope (SEM). This study demonstrates that DDGS fiber can replace wood fiber as a filler in NFPC.

  8. 食品用塑料制品掺杂回收塑料鉴别方法的研究%Research on the Identification Methods Adopting Recycled Plastics in Food-related Plastic Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪斌; 王磊

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of the identification methods adopting recycled plastics in food-related plastic products.To adopt the test methods of IR、NMR、TG、DSC to identify whether the food-related plastic products adopt recycled plastics and provide technical support to the risk assessment of public food safety.%论证了鉴别食品用塑料制品掺杂回收塑料方法的可行性。采用IR、NMR、TG、DSC等手段进行检测,用于鉴别食品用塑料制品是否掺杂回收塑料,从而为食品公共安全风险评估提供技术支撑。

  9. The New Trend of Domestic Plastic Masterbatch Industry in 12th Five-year-plan%“十二五”我国塑料母料行业发展新趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗崇远

    2013-01-01

    2013 is the key to the development of China's "Twelfth Five Year Plan" period,but also the global economic recovery after the financial crisis to ease the turning point.As a pillar industry of national key support in the Twelfth Five Year Plan period,plastic masterbatch industry,moving towards direction of functionality,standardization,lightweight,environmental protection,energy saving,safety,low carbon,high performance,low cost and other high-end core technology,has a huge market potential,and its position and function will get more and more important.Plastic masterbatch enterprises should make great efforts to enhance scientific and technological innovation,promoting enterprise restructuring and industrial upgrading,thus supporting the sustainable and rapid development of plastic products industry with the multi functional masterbatch of non pollution,high technological content and value.%2013年是我国“十二五”期间发展的关键年,也是后金融危机全球经济缓和复苏的转折年.作为“十二五”期间国家重点支持的支柱产业,塑料母料行业向功能化、标准化、轻量化、环保、节能、安全、低碳、高性能、低成本等高端核心技术发展,具有巨大的市场需求,其地位和作用将越来越重要.塑料母料企业应努力提升科技创新能力,促成企业转型和产业升级,以绿色环保、高技术含量、高附加值的多功能母料支撑塑料制品行业的可持续性高速发展.

  10. Biorefinery cascade processing for creating added value on tomato industrial by-products from Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Kehili, Mouna; Schmidt, Lisa Marie; Reynolds, Wienke; Zammel, Ayachi; Zetzl, Carsten; Smirnova, Irina; Allouche, Noureddine; Sayadi, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Background In today’s consumer perception of industrial processes and food production, aspects like food quality, human health, environmental safety, and energy security have become the keywords. Therefore, much effort has been extended toward adding value to biowastes of agri-food industries through biorefinery processing approaches. This study focused, for the first time, on the valorization of tomato by-products of a Tunisian industry for the recovery of value-added compounds using biorefi...

  11. Biohydrogen production from glucose in upflow biofilm reactors with plastic carriers under extreme thermophilic conditions (70(degree)C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, H.; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Biohydrogen could efficiently be produced in glucose-fed biofilm reactors filled with plastic carriers and operated at 70°C. Batch experiments were, in addition, conducted to enrich and cultivate glucose-fed extremethermophilic hydrogen producing microorganisms from a biohydrogen CSTR reactor fed...... with household solid waste. Kinetic analysis of the biohydrogen enrichment cultures show that substrate (glucose) likely inhibited hydrogen production when its concentration was higher than 1 g/L. Different start up strategies were applied for biohydrogen production in biofilm reactors operated at 70°C, and fed...... with synthetic medium with glucose as the only carbon and energy source. A biofilm reactor, started up with plastic carriers, that were previously inoculated with the enrichment cultures, resulted in higher hydrogen yield (2.21 mol H2/mol glucose consumed) but required longer start up time (1 month), while...

  12. Product modeling standards for the building and construction industry : Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolman, F.P.

    1999-01-01

    For the past ten years most sectors of industry have been developing standards for the electronic sharing and exchange of product model data. While several related industries, such as automotive and shipbuilding manufacturing have been relatively successful in integrating electronic product models i

  13. Spore production in Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) samson strains on agro-industrial residues

    OpenAIRE

    Robl, Diogo; Sung, Letizia B.; Novakovich,João Henrique; Marangoni, Paulo R.D.; Zawadneak, Maria Aparecida C.; Dalzoto,Patricia R.; Gabardo,Juarez; Pimentel,Ida Chapaval

    2009-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus has potential for pests control. We aimed to analyze mycelial growth and spore production in P. lilacinus strains in several agro-industrial residues and commercial media. This study suggests alternative nutrient sources for fungi production and that the biotechnological potential of agro-industrial refuses could be employed in byproducts development.

  14. Cost competitive “soft sensor” for determining product recovery in industrial methanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S.B.A. Udugama, Isuru; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of ratio of product recovery in industrial methanol distillation is of high economic importance and represent a key performance index (KPI) of the distillation unit. In current operations, the product recovery of many industrial distillation units are not actively monitored, instead...

  15. 16 CFR 18.8 - Deception as to origin or source of industry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an unfair or deceptive act or practice to sell, offer for sale, or advertise an industry product by...,” “California Privet,” “Japanese Barberry,” etc.). (b) It is also an unfair or deceptive act or practice to advertise, sell, or offer for sale an industry product of foreign origin without adequate and non-deceptive...

  16. Kansas timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H., IV Reading; David L. Bruton

    2007-01-01

    Discusses recent forest industry trends in Kansas; reports production and receipts of industrial roundwood by product, species, and county in 2003. Also reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of mill residues.

  17. Minnesota timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H., IV. Reading; Keith Jacobson

    2008-01-01

    Discusses recent forest industry trends in Minnesota; reports production and receipts of industrial roundwood by product, species, and county in 2004. Also reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of mills residue.

  18. Product Customization and Firm Survival : A Longitudinal Study of Laser and Related Industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bhaskarabhatla (Ajay)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the impact of product customization activity on firm survival. Using unique data on laser and 12 related industries between 1997 and 2009, I examine whether, as the submarkets model of industry evolution suggests, firms that undertake product customization

  19. Clinker Production from Wastes of Cellulose and Granite Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassoni, Délio Porto; de Cássia, Alvarenga Rita; Pedrotti, Leonardo; Mendes, Beatryz

    This work present a belite cement based made from two industrial waste types. Binary mixtures were prepares using waste from rock cutting and polishing industries and waste from cellulose industry (named grits), in diferente proportions. The mixed raw materials were burned at a temperature of 950 °C in an electric oven for 30 minutes and then cooled at a rate of 70 °C per minute. The mineralogical composition of the material obtained was studied by means of XRD techniques, confirming the dominance of dicalcium silicate. Mixed mortars produced with the new material, in full replacement of Portland cement, showed satisfactory performance for use in construction works. This research shows that it is possible to obtain hydraulic binders from industrial waste, at lower temperatures than the required for the consumption of non-renewable resources and energy.

  20. Industrial Production of High-carotene-content Carrot Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scientific experiments have shown that β-carotene from fresh carrots and other fruits and vegetables, rather than chemosynthetic ones, could have preventive effects on the lung cancer. This makes β-carotene processing an industry with great prospects.

  1. By-Product of Industrialization: The Victorian Myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercom, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A case study designed to provide a picture of sex stereotypes in Europe and America before and after the industrial revolution. Qualities most often exhibited and admired by Victorian men and women are described. (Author/DB)

  2. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    The National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 directs DOE to set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials for certain industries. These targets are to be established at levels representing the maximum feasible increase in utilization of recovered materials that can be achieved progressively by January 1, 1987 and is consistent with technical and economic factors. A benefit to be derived from the increased use of recoverable materials is in energy savings, as state in the Act. Therefore, emhasis on different industries in the metals sector has been related to their energy consumption. The ferrous industry (iron and steel, ferrour foundries and ferralloys), as defined here, accounts for approximately 3%, and all others for the remaining 3%. Energy consumed in the lead and zinc segments is less than 1% each. Emphasis is placed on the ferrous scrap users, followed by the aluminum and copper industries. A bibliography with 209 citations is included.

  3. Favored use of anti-predator netting (APN) applied for the farming of clams leads to little benefits to industry while increasing nearshore impacts and plastics pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, L I

    2015-02-15

    An overview of the efficacy of anti-predator netting (APN) used by the shellfish industry is presented. There is little support that the currently favored APN effectively protects farmed clams from predators. Evidence does suggest that APN leads to impacts and pollution. APN is an attractant for predators, e.g., crabs, by providing a refuge within Ulva sp. which attaches onto the surface of APN. APN entrains silt and organic matter and increases sediment temperatures degrading habitat underneath the APN. APN present hazards to fish and wildlife and is a source of plastics to the marine environment. The continued use of ineffective APN does not serve either the environment or industry well, and many of these issues could be addressed through the alternate use of "ancient" technology used by aboriginal people to maintain clam gardens; building of rock walls optimizing the amount of clam habitat thereby increasing numbers without the use of APN.

  4. 单甘酯的合成及在塑料工业中的应用%Synthesis of Glycerin Monostearate and Its Application in Plastic Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷晶莉; 杨占红

    2012-01-01

    As a kind of surfactant ,glycerin monostearate is widely used in food, agriculture, industry, and many other fields. Glycerin monostearate is also an indispensable chemical additive in our daily life. The syn- thesis, mechanism and application in plastic industry of glycerin monostearate were discussed in this paper.%单甘酯作为一种表面活性剂广泛应用于食品、农业、工业等各个领域,是日常生活中不可或缺的化学添加剂。本文重点介绍了单甘酯的合成,并探讨了单甘酯在塑料工业中的作用机理及应用。

  5. Managing salinity in water associated with petrol industry production

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Guerrero Fajardo; Sandra Escobar C; Diego Ramírez N

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a conceptual design for handling an oilfield’s industrial wastewater; its oblective was to use type-1 fractioned crystallisation within a feasible environmental and technical framework for obtaining the highest percentage of salt.La Gloria, La Gloria Norte and Morichal (all belonging to the Casanare department association) stations were used for planning and analysing this handling alternative as they produce high salt-containing industrial effluent.This alternative was...

  6. Characterization and Conditions of the Internationalization Process of Companies in the Plastic Products Manufacturing Subsector in Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Paul Pereira Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a qualitative research by conducting surveys in 30 companies from the plastic products manufacturing subsector, based on theories of internationalization. It aims to find the main determinants of internationalization of these companies, while characterizing and analyzing evidence by contrasting practice and theory, in order to explain how the dynamics in the sector and its current state are and to propose recommendations for greater competitiveness and efficiency in foreign trade.

  7. Study on Moulding Technology of Starch-Based Totally-Biodegradable Plastic Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Tao; LIU Chang-jiang

    2005-01-01

    Based on monofactorial comparison experiment,the following two excellent technological formations are derived for the production of starch-based totally-biodegradable tray via extruding,pelleting,slicing,and sucking molding:The first formulation:40% of starch,12.5% of DOP,5% of EVA,15% of polyvinyl alcohol,20%of talc power and calcium carbonate,and 7.5% of other materials. The material temperature in high-speed kneader is about 90℃,rotation velocity is 600 r/min,kneading duration is 5 ~ 10 minutes,diameter of screw stem of extruder is 90 mm,ratio of length versus diameter of screw stem (L/D) is 44,rotation velocity of the screws stem is 40 ~ 50 r/min. Temperature in four segments of extruder is 145 ℃,155 ℃,150℃,and 160 ℃ respectively,and temperature in extruder head is 170 ℃; the material rod extruded is set while passing a cold water bath,and then is cut to pellets whose size is 3 mm × 3 mm; the latter is transformed into slices and subject to sucking molding after predrying; temperature of sucking molding is 180~190 ℃,and sucking molding duration is 15~20 seconds.The second formulation:60% of starch,15% of DOP,5% of PHB,15% of polyvinyl alcohol,and 5 % of other materials. All technological parameters are the same with that for the first formulation.According to the test result of Chinese Institute of Plastic Processing,the biodegradation ratio of the tray made through the above treatment 1 and 2 in 30 days amounted to 54.2 % and 70.6 % respectively,which shows that a satisfied biodegradation effect is realized.

  8. 40 CFR 63.5795 - How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I know if my reinforced plastic...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers §...

  9. Monitoring and evaluation of production processes an analysis of the automotive industry

    CERN Document Server

    Panda, Anton; Pandová, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    This book presents topics on monitoring and evaluation of production processes in the automotive industry. Regulation of production processes is also described in details. The text deals with the implementation and evaluation of these processes during the mass production of components useful in the automotive industry. It evaluates the effects and results achieved after implementation in practice. The book takes into account the different methodologies of the world's automakers and applicable standards, such as standard EN ISO 9001 and the requirements of VDA and ISO/TS 16949. The content is used to those working with the development, production and quality control of new products in the demanding automotive industry. The information provided may also be useful to engineers and technical staff in organizations working with series production and production of spare parts for the automotive and other demanding industries. The content presented was written based on discussions with various companies and organiza...

  10. Sustainable Industrial Product Systems. Integration of Life Cycle Assessment in Product development and Optimization of Product Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Ole Joergen

    1997-12-31

    This thesis contributes to the development and testing of environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) in product development and management in industry. It is based on systems theory and systems engineering. It develops a method for sustainable product development that has been successfully tested in the Nordic project called NEP. The LCA method is also a basis for an optimization model, where life cycle economy and environmental impacts from product systems are optimized with a non-linear model. A more complete mathematical model for LCA, based on the functional requirements on a product system, is also developed. The statistical properties of emission factors are studied using a data set from the Swedish Kraft Mill industry. It is shown that emission factors may be assumed constants in the LCA model, but with rather large variations within a population of Kraft mills. It is shown that there are a few environmental impacts which are important for most types of products under Scandinavian conditions, especially global warming potential, acidification, human toxicity and fossil energy depletion. There are significant differences between the contribution to these impacts from different life cycle stages, where raw material processing and use of products are generally more important than the other stages. Test cases indicate that there are no large conflicts between improvements in environmental impacts and customer requirements. Environmental improvements seem to increase purchase cost of products in some cases, but the life cycle cost of the products seem in most cases to be reduced. It is concluded that there are opportunities for 30-50% improvements in product system, based on relatively simple modifications of the systems. 246 refs., 63 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Enriched environment, nitric oxide production and synaptic plasticity prevent the aging-dependent impairment of spatial cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz, Silvia Lores; D'Amico, Gabriela; Paglia, Nora; Arismendi, Mariana; Basso, Nidia; del Rosario Lores Arnaiz, María

    2004-01-01

    In rodents, neuronal plasticity decreases and spatial learning and working memory deficits increase upon aging. Several authors have shown that rats reared in enriched environments have better cognitive performance in association with increased neuronal plasticity than animals reared in standard environments. We hypothesized that enriched environment could preserve animals from the age-associated neurological impairments, mainly through NO-dependent mechanisms of induction of neuronal plasticity. We present evidence that 27 months old rats from an enriched environment show a better performance in spatial working memory than standard reared rats of the same age. Both mtNOS and cytosolic nNOS activities were found significantly increased (73% and 155%, respectively) in female rats from enriched environment as compared with control animals kept in a standard environment. The enzymatic activity of complex I was 80% increased in rats from enriched environment as compared with control rats. We conclude that an extensively enriched environment prevents old rats from the aging-associated impairment of spatial cognition, synaptic plasticity and nitric oxide production.

  12. A novel brominated triazine-based flame retardant (TTBP-TAZ) in plastic consumer products and indoor dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; de Boer, Jacob; Leonards, Pim E G

    2014-04-15

    The presence of a novel brominated flame retardant named 2,4,6-tris(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine (TTBP-TAZ) is reported for the first time in plastic parts of consumer products and indoor dust samples. TTBP-TAZ was identified by untargeted screening and can be a replacement of the banned polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Analysis techniques based on ambient mass spectrometry and on liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization combined with high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry were developed for the screening, detection and quantification of this low volatility and high molecular weight compound. TTBP-TAZ was present in 8 of 13 plastic parts of consumer products (from mainly electric and electronic equipment acquired in 2012) at estimated concentrations of 0.01-1.9% by weight of the product (%, w/w). It was not present in any of the older 13 plastic samples that were collected in a recycling park (manufacture date before 2006), this suggests a recent use of TTBP-TAZ. It was also found in 9 of 17 house dust samples in the range of 160-22150 ng g(-1), with the highest levels being found in samples collected on electronic and electrical equipment. These preliminary results highlight the need for further research on TTBP-TAZ and the potential of using alternative analysis methods for the identification of new flame retardants.

  13. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  14. Process improvement of knives production in a small scale industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Muktasim, Irfan

    2017-06-01

    Small scale industry that produces several kinds of knive should increase its capacity due to the demand from the market. Qualitatively, this case study consisted of formulating the problems, collecting and analyzing the necessary data, and determining the possible recommendations for the improvement. While the current capacity is only 9 (nine), it is expected that 20 units of knife will produced per month. The processes sequence are: profiling (a), truing (b), beveling (c), heat treatment (d), polishing (e), assembly (f), sharpening (g) and finishing (h). The first process (a) is held by out-house vendor company while other steps from (b) to (g) are executed by in-house vendor. However, there is a high dependency upon the high skilled operator who executes the in -house processes that are mostly held manually with several unbalance successive tasks, where the processing time of one or two tasks require longer duration than others since the operation is merely relied on the operator's skill. The idea is the improvement or change of the profiling and beveling process. Due to the poor surface quality and suboptimal hardness resulted from the laser cut machine for profiling, it is considered to subst itute this kind of process with wire cut that is capable to obtain good surface quality with certain range levels of roughness. Through simple cutting experiments on the samples, it is expected that the generated surface quality is adequate to omit the truing process (b). In addition, the cutting experiments on one, two, and four test samples resulted the shortest time that was obtained through four pieces in one cut. The technical parameters were set according to the recommendation of machine standard as referred to samples condition such as thickness and path length that affect ed the rate of wear. Meanwhile, in order to guarantee the uniformity of knife angles that are formed through beveling process (c), a grinding fixture was created. This kind of tool diminishes the

  15. Reliable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for investigation of primary aromatic amines migration from food packaging and during industrial curing of multilayer plastic laminates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Francesca; Di Lallo, Valentina; Catellani, Dante; Mattarozzi, Monica; Careri, Maria; Suman, Michele

    2014-09-01

    Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) can migrate from packaging into food from different sources such as polyurethanic adhesives used for the manufacture of multilayer films, which may contain residual aromatic isocyanates, or recycled paperboard, because of the presence of azo dyes in the printed paper massively used in the recycling process. In the present work, a reliable analytical method, exploiting a conventional high-performance liquid chromatography-(selected ion monitoring)-mass spectrometry system, for PAAs compliance assessment in food contact materials was developed as an effective alternative to the current standard spectrophotometric one, moving in this way from the screening to the accurate and selective quantitation perspective for the analysis of PAAs both in aqueous and acidic food simulants. The main validation parameters were verified achieving very satisfactory results in terms of linearity range, limit of detection (ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 µg kg(-1)) and quantitation (ranging from 0.1 to 3.6 µg kg(-1)), repeatability and accuracy. Suitability of the method was demonstrated for a wide range of commercial samples, chosen among different producers of the most common used food packaging plastic and paperboard categories and then analyzed to assess the risk related to PAAs migration. Finally, the method was also successfully exploited to monitor the evolution of potential PAAs migration during the industrial curing process of multilayer plastic laminates, prior to their release for delivery to the food industry end user.

  16. Engineering Ashbya gossypii strains for de novo lipid production using industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Martínez, Patricia; Buey, Rubén M; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José Luis

    2017-03-01

    Ashbya gossypii is a filamentous fungus that naturally overproduces riboflavin, and it is currently exploited for the industrial production of this vitamin. The utilization of A. gossypii for biotechnological applications presents important advantages such as the utilization of low-cost culture media, inexpensive downstream processing and a wide range of molecular tools for genetic manipulation, thus making A. gossypii a valuable biotechnological chassis for metabolic engineering. A. gossypii has been shown to accumulate high levels of lipids in oil-based culture media; however, the lipid biosynthesis capacity is rather limited when grown in sugar-based culture media. In this study, by altering the fatty acyl-CoA pool and manipulating the regulation of the main ∆9 desaturase gene, we have obtained A. gossypii strains with significantly increased (up to fourfold) de novo lipid biosynthesis using glucose as the only carbon source in the fermentation broth. Moreover, these strains were efficient biocatalysts for the conversion of carbohydrates from sugarcane molasses to biolipids, able to accumulate lipids up to 25% of its cell dry weight. Our results represent a proof of principle showing the promising potential of A. gossypii as a competitive microorganism for industrial biolipid production using cost-effective feed stocks. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Development of industrial yeast for second generation bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X.

    2012-01-15

    The cost of lignocellulose-based bioethanol needs to be reduced, in order to commercialize this clean and sustainable fuel substitute for fossil fuels. A microorganism that can completely and efficiently convert all the sugars in lignocellulose into ethanol is one of the prerequisites of a cost-effective production process. In addition, the microorganisms should also have a high tolerance towards the inhibitory compounds present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate, which are formed during the pretreatment of lignocellulose. Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is generally regarded as a robust microorganism and can efficiently ferment glucose. But it lacks the ability to ferment xylose which comprises 20-35% of lignocellulose. Naturally xylose-fermenting yeast such as Pichia stipitis is much more sensitive to inhibitors than S. cerevisiae and it requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, a novel xylose fermenting yeast Spathaspora passalidarum displayed fast cell growth and efficient xylose fermentation under anaerobic conditions. In contrast, P. stipitis was almost unable to utilize xylose under the same conditions. It is further demonstrated that S. passalidarum converts xylose by means of NADH-preferred xylose reductase (XR) and NAD+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). Thus, the capacity of S. passalidarum to utilize xylose under anaerobic conditions is possibly due to a balance between supply and demand of cofactor through this XR-XDH pathway. Only one other XR with NADH preference has been reported so far. Unfortunately, S. passalidarum also has a low tolerance towards inhibitors generated during pretreatment, which prevents immediate use of this yeast in industrial application. S. passalidarum is able to convert the inhibitor furfural to furfuryl alcohol in a synthetic medium when the addition of furfural is low. The enzymes

  18. Toyota production system - one example to shipbuilding industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmo Alves de Moura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The shipbuilding system can use the techniques used in the Toyota Production System as an example for its production process. Production should be lean, minimize defects, stop production and reduce or eliminate inventories. Lean production is regarded by many as simply an enhancement of mass production methods, whereas agility implies breaking out of the mass production mould and producing much more highly customized products - where the customer wants them in any quantity. In a product line context, it amounts to striving for economies of scope, rather than economies of scale ideally serving ever smaller niche markets, even quantities of one, without the high cost traditionally associated with customization. A lean company may be thought of as a very productive and cost efficient producer of goods or services.

  19. Plasticity in major ampullate silk production in relation to spider phylogeny and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutry, Cecilia; Řezáč, Milan; Blackledge, Todd Alan

    2011-01-01

    Spider major ampullate silk is a high-performance biomaterial that has received much attention. However, most studies ignore plasticity in silk properties. A better understanding of silk plasticity could clarify the relative importance of chemical composition versus processing of silk dope for silk properties. It could also provide insight into how control of silk properties relates to spider ecology and silk uses. We compared silk plasticity (defined as variation in the properties of silk spun by a spider under different conditions) between three spider clades in relation to their anatomy and silk biochemistry. We found that silk plasticity exists in RTA clade and orbicularian spiders, two clades that differ in their silk biochemistry. Orbiculariae seem less dependent on external spinning conditions. They probably use a valve in their spinning duct to control friction forces and speed during spinning. Our results suggest that plasticity results from different processing of the silk dope in the spinning duct. Orbicularian spiders seem to display better control of silk properties, perhaps in relation to their more complex spinning duct valve.

  20. Plasticity in major ampullate silk production in relation to spider phylogeny and ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Boutry

    Full Text Available Spider major ampullate silk is a high-performance biomaterial that has received much attention. However, most studies ignore plasticity in silk properties. A better understanding of silk plasticity could clarify the relative importance of chemical composition versus processing of silk dope for silk properties. It could also provide insight into how control of silk properties relates to spider ecology and silk uses. We compared silk plasticity (defined as variation in the properties of silk spun by a spider under different conditions between three spider clades in relation to their anatomy and silk biochemistry. We found that silk plasticity exists in RTA clade and orbicularian spiders, two clades that differ in their silk biochemistry. Orbiculariae seem less dependent on external spinning conditions. They probably use a valve in their spinning duct to control friction forces and speed during spinning. Our results suggest that plasticity results from different processing of the silk dope in the spinning duct. Orbicularian spiders seem to display better control of silk properties, perhaps in relation to their more complex spinning duct valve.

  1. [Fermentation production of microbial catalase and its application in textile industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongxu; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2010-11-01

    Microbial catalase is an important industrial enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. This enzyme has great potential of application in food, textile and pharmaceutical industries. The production of microbial catalase has been significantly improved thanks to advances in bioprocess engineering and genetic engineering. In this paper, we review the progresses in fermentation production of microbial catalase and its application in textile industry. Among these progresses, we will highlight strain isolation, substrate and environment optimization, enzyme induction, construction of engineering strains and application process optimization. Meanwhile, we also address future research trends for microbial catalase production and its application in textile industry. Molecular modification (site-directed mutagenesis and directed revolution) will endue catalase with high pH and temperature stabilities. Improvement of catalase production, based on the understanding of induction mechanism and the process control of recombinant stain fermentation, will further accelerate the application of catalase in textile industry.

  2. Operations management in automotive industries from industrial strategies to production resources management, through the industrialization process and supply chain to pursue value creation

    CERN Document Server

    Gobetto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This book has proved its worth over the years as a text for courses in Production Management at the Faculty of Automotive Engineering in Turin, Italy, but deserves a wider audience as it presents a compendium of basics on Industrial Management, since it covers all major topics required. It treats all subjects from product development and “make or buy”-decision strategies to the manufacturing systems setting and management through analysis of the main resources needed in production and finally exploring the supply chain management and the procurement techniques. The very last chapter recapitulates the previous ones by analysing key management indicators to pursue the value creation that is the real purpose of every industrial enterprise. As an appendix, a specific chapter is dedicated to the basics of production management where all main relevant definitions, techniques and criteria are treated, including some numerical examples, in order to provide an adequate foundation for understanding the other chapte...

  3. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LCA...... methodology can assist the product developer in development of more environmentally friendly products. Finally, common experience gained will be discussed....

  4. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LCA...... methodology can assist the product developer in development of more environmentally friendly products. Finally, common experience gained will be discussed....

  5. Production of Soy Sauce Koji Mold Spore Inoculum in Plastic Bags

    OpenAIRE

    Lotong, N.; Suwanarit, P.

    1983-01-01

    An innovation is described for producing soy sauce koji mold spore inoculum by using inexpensive autoclavable plastic bags and reuseable plastic enclosures to make culture vessels. After growth, the spore mass could be dried and packaged in the same bag after removing the enclosure. Broken rice was used as the substrate for mold cultivation. Viable spore counts of 109 spores per g were obtained under optimal conditions. After drying at 50°C for 6 h, the moisture content of the spore mass decr...

  6. The research of the production function of an industrial enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezepin Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of a production function model for the description of production process and the solution of practical problems, such as choice of technological method of production, rational and effective use of invested funds. Analysis of the production process is carried out by the example of Urals Stampings Plant. The analysis consists of two parts. In the first part with the use of regression analysis the production function is evaluated and the elasticity of revenue is calculated on the cost for main types of resources. In the second part of the analysis with the help of artificial neural networks constructing authors investigate the significance of influence the dynamics in the number of production factors and productivity on the physical volume of the issue. In conclusion, the authors provide recommendations for the implementation to increase the level of productivity of the investment strategy for the Urals Stampings Plant.

  7. Dynamic Productivity Growth in the Spanish Meat Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator and decomposes it to identify the contributions of technical change, technical efficiency change and scale change. The Luenberger productivity growth indicator is estimated using Data Envelopment Analysis. The empirical

  8. Productive efficiency of tea industry: A stochastic frontier approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... 1School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 ... of production in developing agricultural economics. In ... new technology to raise tea productivity in Bangladesh. ...... done for a meaningful policy implication.

  9. Successful new product development in the food packaging industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... The relevance of product innovations and new product development for the competitive ... The analysis is proposed in the form of a case study-based research, which was ...

  10. Production of Starch Based Bioplastic from Cassava Peel Reinforced with Microcrystalline Celllulose Avicel PH101 Using Sorbitol as Plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulida; Siagian, M.; Tarigan, P.

    2016-04-01

    The production of starch based bioplastics from cassava peel reeinforced with microcrystalline cellulose using sorbitol as plasticizer were investigated. Physical properties of bioplastics were determined by density, water uptake, tensile strength and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Bioplastics were prepared from cassava peel starch plasticized using sorbitol with variation of 20; 25; 30% (wt/v of sorbitol to starch) reinforced with microcrystalline celllulose (MCC) Avicel PH101 fillers with range of 0 to 6% (wt/wt of MCC to starch). The results showed improvement in tensile strength with higher MCC content up to 9, 12 mpa compared to non-reinforced bioplastics. This could be mainly attributed to the strong hydrogen bonds between MCC and starch. On the contrary, the addition of MCC decreased the elongation at break, density and water uptake. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy showed the functional groups of bioplastics, which the majority of O-H groups were found at the bioplastics with reinforcing filler MCC that represented substantial hydrogen bonds. The highest tensile strength value was obtained for bioplastic with MCC content 6% and sorbitol content 20%. With good adhesion between MCC and starch the production of bioplastics could be widely used as a substitute for conventional plastics with more benefits to the environment.

  11. Import Substitution in Regional Industrial Production: Theoretical and Practical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Georgievich Animitsa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the important role of import substitution in the economic security protection of state and its regions, especially in times of crisis, geopolitical and economical instability. The authors argue that the problem of import substitution is not modern, trendy scientific stream. The issue of displacement of import goods by domestic ones was brought up in famous classic theories of mercantilists. The particular emphasis is placed on the analysis and systematization of different scientific approaches, which are utilized by native and foreign scientists to bring out the matter of “import substitution,” to determine its essential characteristics. The authors suggest their own interpretation of the import substitution notion. In the article, the most significant pro and contra arguments in import substitution policy are defined. The regional aspects in the import substitution are approved: case study — organization of industrial import substitution in the Sverdlovsk region. In the article, the authors analyze the subject matter of the Program “Development of Intraregional Industrial Cooperation and Implementation of an Import Substitution in Branches of Industry in the Sverdlovsk Region.” It is resumed, that active policy of import substitution in the industry may become the driver of regional economic development.

  12. Films that Work : Industrial Film and the Productivity of Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Industriële films worden gezien als een apart filmgenre van de twintigste eeuw. Ze werden geproduceerd en gesponsord door de overheid en grote bedrijven en moesten vooral aan de wensen van de sponsors voldoen, en niet zo zeer aan die van de filmmakers. In de hoogtijdagen werkten er duizenden mensen

  13. Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Azad; Seyed Mohsen Seyed Aliakbar; Seyed Foad Zarifi; Somayeh Hozouri

    2013-01-01

    Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies us...

  14. Proposed industrial recoverd materials utilization targets for the textile mill products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Materials recovery targets were established to represent the maximum technically and economically feasible increase in the use of energy-saving materials by January 1, 1987. This report describes targets for the textile industry and describes how those targets were determined. (MCW)

  15. Catalytic plastics cracking for recovery of gasoline-range hydrocarbons from municipal plastic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buekens, A.G.; Huang, H. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry - CHIS 2, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050 (Belgium)

    1998-08-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in plastics cracking, a process developed to recycle plastic wastes into useful petrochemical materials. Under thermal cracking conditions, plastic wastes can be decomposed into three fractions: gas, liquid and solid residue. The liquid products are usually composed of higher boiling point hydrocarbons. By adopting customary fluid cracking catalysts and reforming catalysts, more aromatics and naphthenes in the C{sub 6}-C{sub 8} range can be produced, which are valuable gasoline-range hydrocarbons. More tests are, however, needed to verify the pyrolysis process in a pilot scale particularly for treatment of mixtures of bulk plastics. Plastics cracking is only an elementary conversion technology; its application has to be combined with other technologies such as municipal solid waste collection, classification and pretreatment at the front end, as well as hydrocarbon distillation and purification at the back end. Social, environmental and economic factors are also important in industrial implementation of the technology

  16. Industrialization of mAb production technology The bioprocessing industry at a crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Manufacturing processes for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have evolved tremendously since the first licensed mAb product in 1986. The rapid growth in product demand for mAbs triggered parallel efforts to increase production capacity through construction of large bulk manufacturing plants as well as improvements in cell culture processes to raise product titers. This combination has led to an excess of manufacturing capacity, and together with improvements in conventional purificati...

  17. Modern technologies of waste utilization from industrial tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimov, Yusuf; Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    The innovative technology of waste tire production recovery from JSC "Nizhnekamskshina", which determines the possibility of obtaining a new type of composite material in the form fiber filled rubber compound (FFRC) as the raw material, production of rubber products with high technical and operational characteristics.

  18. Development of A Flexible System for the Simultaneous Conversion of Biomass to Industrial Chemicals and the Production of Industrial Biocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Johnway; Hooker, Brian S.; Skeen, R S.; Anderson, D B.; Lankey, R. L.; Anastas, P. T.

    2002-01-01

    A flexible system was developed for the simultaneous conversion of biomass to industrial chemicals and the production of industrial biocatalysts. In particular, the expression of a bacterial enzyme, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), was investigated using a genetically modified starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain in suspension cultures in starch media. Different sources of starch including corn and waste potato starch were used for yeast biomass accumulation and GUS expression studies under controls of inducible and constitutive promoters. A thermostable bacterial cellulase, Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase gene was also cloned into an episomal plasmid expression vector and expressed in the starch-degrading Saccharomyces strain.

  19. Impact of industrial production and packaging processes on the concentration of per- and polyfluorinated compounds in milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Mona; Schlummer, Martin; Gruber, Ludwig; Fiedler, Dominik; Wolz, Gerd

    2013-09-25

    Perfluorinated alkylated compounds (PFAA) have been identified in milk and dairy products at sub ppb levels, however, knowledge on the impact of industrial milk processing on PFAA levels is rare. This study examined industrial milk processing first by analytical screening of products of a cooperating dairy, which varied in kind and number of processing steps. Second, amounts of PFAA in raw milk, cream, skim milk, butter milk, and butter were mass balanced in industrial production. For migration testing, unpacked butter was sampled from the production and exposed to original packaging at 5 °C for 45 days. Screening identified dairy products with high fat contents to bear higher loads of PFAA. The mass balance of butter production revealed a significant impact of phase separation processes on concentrations in fat rich and aqueous phases. Storage of butter in packaging coated with a fluorinated polymer increased butter levels of both PFAA and FTOH.

  20. Reúso de água em indústria de reciclagem de plástico tipo PEAD Water reuse on HDPE plastics recycling pack industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cristina Orsi Bordonalli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A discussão acerca da viabilidade técnica, econômica e ambiental do reúso da água em processos industriais tem sido uma preocupação constante. Neste trabalho propõe-se uma alternativa simplificada para o tratamento de efluentes com vistas ao seu reúso em uma indústria de reciclagem de plásticos. A água, no presente caso, é componente fundamental para o processo, já que participa como elemento de remoção de detritos e impurezas que contaminam a matriz da matéria-prima utilizada, proveniente, principalmente, de aterros sanitários e lixões. As embalagens plásticas recicladas pela indústria em questão são, em sua grande maioria, de uso doméstico e, em menor escala, frascos contaminados com óleos lubrificantes. Os resultados demonstraram a viabilidade do tratamento através de processo físico-químico por coagulação, floculação, decantação e filtração em manta geotêxtil, com o uso do hidroxicloreto de alumínio (PAC como coagulante, soda cáustica (50% como alcalinizante e polieletrólito como auxiliar de floculação e desidratação do lodo, bem como a exequibilidade do reúso dos efluentes em circuito fechado.The discussion about technical, economical and environmental feasibility of water reuse in industrial process has been a constant concern. This paper purposes a simplified choice for waste water treatment seeking reuse in a plastic recycle industry. The water, in this case, is a prime component because it is the main element for the debris and impurities removal that contaminates the matrix of plastic raw material, which comes, mostly, from landfill and waste disposals. The recycled plastic packages, from the company that had been used for this research, come mostly from domestic use and, in a minor scale, the plastic package contaminated by lubricant oil. The final results show feasible for the treatment through physical-chemical process by coagulation, flocculation, decantation and filtration on geotextile

  1. Development and industry prospect of Straw-Plastic Composites%秸塑复合材料研究及其产业前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文涛; 陈集双

    2016-01-01

    The history and industrial development of Wood-Plastic Composites (WPC) were analyzed, pointing out the present demands of"straw instead of wood"and"straw instead of plastic". Straw, as a kind of abundant renewable biomass resources, has the potential to be developed as a new environmentally friendly material. The concept of Straw- Plastic Composite (SPC) was creatively proposed in this paper. The characteristics of straw biomass fibers were dissected and the bio-based minerals in the straw may be one of the important factors, led to SPC is superior to WPC. Moreover, the conditions for the development of SPC were elaborated, which pointed out SPC is a typical model for the full-price and high-value industrialization of straw biomass. The feasible solution that pioneered the development of SPC has been put forward under the existing conditions in the country.%通过分析木塑复合材料的发展历程和产业现状,指出了当前"以秸代木"和"以秸代塑"的新需求.秸秆作为一种丰富的可再生生物质资源,具备开发为新型环保材料的潜力.本文创造性地提出了秸塑复合材料(Straw-Plastic Composites,SPC)的概念,剖析了秸秆生物质纤维的特性,秸秆中富含的生物基矿物质可能是秸塑作为新材料形成优于木塑材料的重要因素,同时阐述了秸塑产业发展的条件,指出了SPC是秸秆生物质全价工业化、高值化利用的典范,并提出现有条件下,在我国率先开发SPC的可行方案.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Capital Productivity in China's High-Tech Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LingWang; AdamSzirmai

    2005-01-01

    While labor productivity is a topic of constant debate and has been studied extensively, far less attention has been devoted to the question of capital productivity. Productive use of physical capital is an important source of economic growth and investment return. This paper presents a comparative study of capital productivity in China's high-tech industry. Using a version of the perpetual inventory method (PIM), new estimates have been made of the physical capital stock by sector. Capital productivity in China's high-tech industry is higher than in total manufacturing, but the gap between them has been shrinking. Comparison with high-tech industries in the US., highlights that China's high-tech industries could play a more important role in the growth of manufacturing and the whole economy.

  3. Mechanisms operating during plastic deformation of metals under concurrent production of cascades and dislocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkaus, H.; Singh, Bachu Narain

    Recent in-reactor tensile tests (IRTs) on pure copper have revealed a deformation behaviour which is significantly different from that observed in post-irradiation tensile tests (PITs). In IRTs, the material deforms uniformly and homogeneously without yield drop and plastic instability as commonly...

  4. Research Advances: Paper Batteries, Phototriggered Microcapsules, and Oil-Free Plastic Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2010-01-01

    Chemists continue to work at the forefront of materials science research. Recent advances include application of bioengineering to produce plastics from renewable biomass instead of petroleum, generation of paper-based batteries, and development of phototriggerable microcapsules for chemical delivery. In this article, the author provides summaries…

  5. Bio-based and recycled polymers for cleaner production : an assessment of plastics and fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310872022

    2011-01-01

    Today, almost all man-made plastics and fibres are produced from synthetic polymers. Synthetic polymers, made from petroleum which took millions of years to form, have three sustainability challenges: (i) the limited fossil fuel resources, (ii) the environmental impacts caused by non-degradable

  6. Phenotypic plasticity and modularity allow for the production of novel mosaic phenotypes in ants

    OpenAIRE

    Londe, Sylvain; Monnin, Thibaud; Cornette, Raphaël; Debat, Vincent; Brian L Fisher; Molet, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Background: The origin of discrete novelties remains unclear. Some authors suggest that qualitative phenotypic changes may result from the reorganization of preexisting phenotypic traits during development (i.e., developmental recombination) following genetic or environmental changes. Because ants combine high modularity with extreme phenotypic plasticity (queen and worker castes), their diversified castes could have evolved by developmental recombination. We performed...

  7. Bio-based and recycled polymers for cleaner production : an assessment of plastics and fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Today, almost all man-made plastics and fibres are produced from synthetic polymers. Synthetic polymers, made from petroleum which took millions of years to form, have three sustainability challenges: (i) the limited fossil fuel resources, (ii) the environmental impacts caused by non-degradable plas

  8. Enhancing Alkane Production in Cyanobacterial Lipid Droplets: A Model Platform for Industrially Relevant Compound Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Peramuna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial lipid droplets (LDs are packed with hydrophobic energy-dense compounds and have great potential for biotechnological expression and the compartmentalization of high value compounds. Nostoc punctiforme normally accumulates LDs containing neutral lipids, and small amounts of heptadecane, during the stationary phase of growth. In this study, we further enhanced heptadecane production in N. punctiforme by introducing extrachromosomal copies of aar/adc genes, and report the discovery of a putative novel lipase encoded by Npun_F5141, which further enhanced alkane production. Extra copies of all three genes in high light conditions resulted in a 16-fold higher accumulation of heptadecane compared to the wild type strain in the exponential phase. LD accumulation during exponential phase also increased massively to accommodate the heptadecane production. A large number of small, less fluorescent LDs were observed at the cell periphery in exponential growth phase, whereas fewer number of highly fluorescent, much larger LDs were localized towards the center of the cell in the stationary phase. These advances demonstrate that cyanobacterial LDs are an ideal model platform to make industrially relevant compounds, such as alkanes, during exponential growth, and provide insight into LD formation in cyanobacteria.

  9. A measure of productivity and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R

    2016-11-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has faced enormous pressures over the last few decades. Declining revenues, increasing payer pressures, and a constantly changing regulatory landscape have forced all companies to identify processes to increase productivity and innovation. However, to date, no one agrees on precisely how to measure these attributes or how to interpret these results to understand the state of the industry. We propose new quantitative measures of productivity and innovation and use these to illustrate an industry that has in recent years become more innovative and productive after years of decline.

  10. Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies using factor analysis. The proposed model of this paper investigates 36 factors and, using factor analysis, we extract six most influential factors including information sharing, intelligence information, exposure strategy, differentiation, research and development strategy and market survey. The first strategy, partnership, includes five sub-factor including product development partnership, partnership with foreign firms, customers’ perception from competitors’ products, Customer involvement in product development, inter-agency coordination, customer-oriented approach to innovation and transmission of product development change where inter-agency coordination has been considered the most important factor. Internal strengths are the most influential factors impacting the second strategy, intelligence information. The third factor, introducing strategy, introducing strategy, includes four sub criteria and consumer buying behavior is the most influencing factor. Differentiation is the next important factor with five components where knowledge and expertise in product innovation is the most important one. Research and development strategy with four sub-criteria where reducing product development cycle plays the most influential factor and finally, market survey strategy is the last important factor with three factors and finding new market plays the most important role.

  11. Potato Processing Industry By-products and Their Evaluation in Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Özdemir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available All around the world, particularly in developed countries, fresh potato consumption decreased while the consumption as fast food, snack and convenience food was increased. Potato processing industry has by-products such as cull potato, peel, pulp, and waste water. These by-products can be utilized for production of ethyl alcohol, single cell protein, microbial enzymes, lactic acid, organic fertilizer and bioethanol. The pulp obtained from the processing of potato for starch production can be considered as an energy source with starch content in animal nutrition. Recently, potato peel with the contents of bioactive compounds (chlorogenic, caffeic, gallic, protocatechuic acids and their antioxidant and antimicrobial effects have been intensely focused on. Conversion of by-products of potato processing industry into value-added products is economically important. It was reviewed here by-products of potato processing industry and their evaluation in animal nutrition.

  12. Development of industrial catalysts for sustainable chlorine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Cecilia; Amrute, Amol P; Moser, Maximilian; Schmidt, Timm; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The heterogeneously catalyzed gas-phase oxidation of HCl to Cl(2) offers an energy-efficient and eco- friendly route to recover chlorine from HCl-containing byproduct streams in the chemical industry. This process has attracted renewed interest in the last decade due to an increased chlorine demand and the growing excess of byproduct HCl from chlorination processes. Since its introduction (by Deacon in 1868) and till recent times, the industrialization of this reaction has been hindered by the lack of sufficiently active and durable materials. Recently, RuO(2)-based catalysts with outstanding activity and stability have been designed and they are being implemented for large-scale Cl(2) recycling. Herein, we review the main limiting features of traditional Cu-based catalysts and survey the key steps in the development of the new generation of industrial RuO(2)-based materials. As the expansion of this technology would benefit from cheaper, but comparably robust, alternatives to RuO(2)-based catalysts, a nov el CeO(2)-based catalyst which offers promising perspectives for application in this field has been introduced.

  13. Nitrogen Sources Screening for Ethanol Production Using Carob Industrial Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, S; Constantino, A; Rodrigues, F; Rodrigues, B; Lima-Costa, M E

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, bioethanol production is one of the most important technologies by the necessity to identify alternative energy resources, principally when based on inexpensive renewable resources. However, the costs of 2nd-generation bioethanol production using current biotechnologies are still high compared to fossil fuels. The feasibility of bioethanol production, by obtaining high yields and concentrations of ethanol, using low-cost medium, is the primary goal, leading the research done today. Batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of high-density sugar from carob residues with different organic (yeast extract, peptone, urea) and inorganic nitrogen sources (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate) was performed for evaluating a cost-effective ethanol production, with high ethanol yield and productivity. In STR batch fermentation, urea has proved to be a very promising nitrogen source in large-scale production of bioethanol, reaching an ethanol yield of 44 % (w/w), close to theoretical maximum yield value and an ethanol production of 115 g/l. Urea at 3 g/l as nitrogen source could be an economical alternative with a great advantage in the sustainability of ethanol production from carbohydrates extracted from carob. Simulation studies, with experimental data using SuperPro Design software, have shown that the bioethanol production biorefinery from carob wastes could be a very promising way to the valorization of an endogenous resource, with a competitive cost.

  14. Effect of high-quality technical capacity characteristics to the impact of industrial production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysenko Y.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of the qualitative assessment of the technical capacity of the economic industrial organizations, in which the development of methods for assessment and management of heterogeneous quality of resources requires establishing their resultant value at any ratio of the structural elements (resources and the definition (increase or decrease the effectiveness of their quantitative characteristics. The extent of the qualitative assessment of the adequacy of technical capacity of industry organizations has a direct impact on the efficiency of its formation. The article made specific calculations to identify the functional relationship between the productivity of industrial production and the main characteristics of the technical capacity of industry organizations Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk regions. It was concluded that the negative correlation between the quantitative security technology and efficiency of industrial production - the last influence energy power technical capacity. The equations of regression, depending on the factor variable, made their forecast.

  15. Industrialization of mAb production technology: the bioprocessing industry at a crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Manufacturing processes for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have evolved tremendously since the first licensed mAb product in 1986. The rapid growth in product demand for mAbs triggered parallel efforts to increase production capacity through construction of large bulk manufacturing plants as well as improvements in cell culture processes to raise product titers. This combination has led to an excess of manufacturing capacity, and together with improvements in conventional purification technologies, promises nearly unlimited production capacity in the foreseeable future. The increase in titers has also led to a marked reduction in production costs, which could then become a relatively small fraction of sales price for future products which are sold at prices at or near current levels. The reduction of capacity and cost pressures for current state-of-the-art bulk production processes may shift the focus of process development efforts and have important implications for both plant design and product development strategies for both biopharmaceutical and contract manufacturing companies.

  16. Industrial Production and Professional Application of Manufactured Nanomaterials-Enabled End Products in Dutch Industries: Potential for Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, C.; Brouwer, D.H.; Tielemans, E.; Pronk, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In order to make full use of the opportunities while responsibly managing the risks of working with manufactured nanomaterials (MNM), we need to gain insight into the potential level of exposure to MNM in the industry. Therefore, the goal of this study was to obtain an overview of the po

  17. Microbial Enzymatic Degradation of Biodegradable Plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi; Bano, Kulsoom; Kuddus, Mohammed; Zaheer, Mohammed R; Zia, Qamar; Khan, Mohammed F; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Gupta, Anamika; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2017-01-01

    The renewable feedstock derived biodegradable plastics are important in various industries such as packaging, agricultural, paper coating, garbage bags and biomedical implants. The increasing water and waste pollution due to the available decomposition methods of plastic degradation have led to the emergence of biodegradable plastics and biological degradation with microbial (bacteria and fungi) extracellular enzymes. The microbes utilize biodegradable polymers as the substrate under starvation and in unavailability of microbial nutrients. Microbial enzymatic degradation is suitable from bioremediation point of view as no waste accumulation occurs. It is important to understand the microbial interaction and mechanism involved in the enzymatic degradation of biodegradable plastics under the influence of several environmental factors such as applied pH, thermo-stability, substrate molecular weight and/or complexity. To study the surface erosion of polymer film is another approach for hydrolytic degradation characteristion. The degradation of biopolymer is associated with the production of low molecular weight monomer and generation of carbon dioxide, methane and water molecule. This review reported the degradation study of various existing biodegradable plastics along with the potent degrading microbes (bacteria and fungi). Patents available on plastic biodegradation with biotechnological significance is also summarized in this paper. This paper assesses that new disposal technique should be adopted for the degradation of polymers and further research is required for the economical production of biodegradable plastics along with their enzymatic degradation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Some exploitation properties of wood plastic composites (WPC, based on high density polyethylene and timber industry waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    janis kajaks

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this study, the influence of wood fiber content (40, 50 and 60 wt.% and coupling agent concentration (3 and 5 wt.% on the mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs was investigated. Two types of plastic (high-density-polyethylene (HDPE and recycled high-density-polyethylene (rHDPE were used as polymer matrices for preparing WPC. As reinforcement, prior grinded (fiber length < 0.5 mm coniferous wood shavings were utilized. Overall trend showed, that by adding a wood fiber, flexural properties and microhardness of the composites significantly were enhanced. However, impact strength, water resistance, and fluidity of polymer melts decreased with increase in fiber content. The virgin HDPE-based composites as well as recycled HDPE-based composites, reinforced with fibers from coniferous wood, showed good mechanical properties. Based on the findings in this work, it appears that WPCs based on virgin HDPE, as well as on recycled HDPE, can be used to manufacture value-added panels. Optimal content of wood fibres were 50-60 wt.%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7283

  19. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  20. Designing Integrated Product- Service System Solutions in Manufacturing Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Nina; Patrício, Lia; Morelli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing firms are increasingly evolving towards the design of integrated product-service solutions but servitization literature does not provide specific guidance on how to design these integrated solutions. Building upon ProductService System (PSS) and Service Design (SD) approaches...... how it brings new insights to manufacturing companies moving to a service, value cocreation perspective....