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Sample records for plastic ice cream

  1. Ice Cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.

    2014-01-01

    Ice cream is a popular dessert, which owes its sensorial properties (mouth feel) to its complex microstructure. The microstructure is a result of the combination of the ingredients and the production process. Ice cream is produced by simultaneous freezing and shearing of the ice cream mix, which

  2. Ice Cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.

    2014-01-01

    Ice cream is a popular dessert, which owes its sensorial properties (mouth feel) to its complex microstructure. The microstructure is a result of the combination of the ingredients and the production process. Ice cream is produced by simultaneous freezing and shearing of the ice cream mix, which res

  3. Ice Cream Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Ice cream headaches By Mayo Clinic Staff Ice cream headaches are brief, stabbing headaches that can happen when you eat, drink or inhale something cold. Digging into an ice cream cone is a common trigger, but eating or ...

  4. Ice Cream Stick Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Cynthia

    1992-01-01

    Described is a teaching technique which uses the collection of ice cream sticks as a means of increasing awareness of quantity in a self-contained elementary special class for students with learning disabilities and mild mental retardation. (DB)

  5. Ice Cream Stick Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Cynthia

    1992-01-01

    Described is a teaching technique which uses the collection of ice cream sticks as a means of increasing awareness of quantity in a self-contained elementary special class for students with learning disabilities and mild mental retardation. (DB)

  6. Ice Cream Wars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAMMYTANG

    2004-01-01

    In early March, most Chinese can only vaguely sense a trace of warmth in the spring winds. For thecountry's ice cream producers however, the hot season has already arrived as they scramble for a niche position in thecountry's huge and lucrative

  7. Ice cream with additional value

    OpenAIRE

    Melicharová, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to summarise current knowledge about production and properties of ice cream with an additional value. Nowadays, incorporation of probiotics is considered as the most intensively studied possibility for functional ice cream manufacture. Their viability depends on the kind of a microorganism, for example bifidobacteria are mostly less stable than lactobacilli in ice cream matrix. Lactobacillus acidophilus AB518, AK414, Lactobacillus agilis AA1773, AC1888 and L...

  8. 7 CFR 58.326 - Plastic cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.326 Section 58.326 Agriculture... Material § 58.326 Plastic cream. To produce plastic cream eligible for official certification, the quality of the cream used shall meet the requirements of cream acceptable for the manufacture of U.S....

  9. The physics of ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Chris

    2003-05-01

    Almost everybody likes ice cream, so it can provide an excellent vehicle for discussing and demonstrating a variety of physical phenomena, such as Newton's law of cooling, Boyle's law and the relationship between microstructure and macroscopic properties (e.g. Young's modulus). Furthermore, a demonstration of freezing point depression can be used to make ice cream in the classroom!

  10. Let's Make Metric Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marianna

    1975-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity which involved sixth grade students in a learning situation including making ice cream, safety procedures in a science laboratory, calibrating a thermometer, using metric units of volume and mass. (EB)

  11. Let's Make Metric Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marianna

    1975-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity which involved sixth grade students in a learning situation including making ice cream, safety procedures in a science laboratory, calibrating a thermometer, using metric units of volume and mass. (EB)

  12. Heavy Metal Presence in Two Different Types of Ice Cream: Artisanal Ice Cream (Italian Gelato) and Industrial Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conficoni, D; Alberghini, L; Bissacco, E; Ferioli, M; Giaccone, V

    2017-03-01

    Ice cream, a popular product worldwide, is usually a milk-based product with other types of ingredients (fruit, eggs, cocoa, dried fruit, additives, and others). Different materials are used to obtain the desired taste, texture, consistency, and appearance of the final product. This study surveyed ice cream products available in Italy for heavy metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, tin, and arsenic). The differences between artisanal and industrial ice cream were also investigated because of the importance in the Italian diet and the diffusion of this ready-to-eat food. Ice cream sampling was performed between October 2010 and February 2011 in the northeast of Italy. A total of 100 samples were randomly collected from different sources: 50 industrial samples produced by 19 different brands were collected in coffee bars and supermarkets; 50 artisanal ice cream samples were gathered at nine different artisanal ice cream shops. Ten wooden sticks of industrial ice cream were analyzed in parallel to the ice cream. All samples were negative for arsenic and mercury. None of the artisanal ice cream samples were positive for lead and tin; 18% of the industrial ice cream samples were positive. All positive lead samples were higher than the legal limit stated for milk (0.02 mg/kg). All industrial ice cream samples were negative for cadmium, but cadmium was present in 10% of the artisanal ice cream samples. Chromium was found in 26% of the artisanal and in 58% of the industrial ice cream samples. The heavy metals found in the wooden sticks were different from the corresponding ice cream, pointing out the lack of cross-contamination between the products. Considering the results and the amount of ice cream consumed during the year, contamination through ice cream is a low risk for the Italian population, even though there is need for further analysis.

  13. We Scream for Nano Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Krebs, Denise L.; Banks, Alton J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a wide range of new products emerging from nanotechnology, and "nano ice cream" is an easy one that you can use to teach topics from surface area to volume applications. In this activity, students learn how ice cream can be made smoother and creamier tasting through nanoscience. By using liquid nitrogen to cool the cream mixture, students…

  14. We Scream for Nano Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Krebs, Denise L.; Banks, Alton J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a wide range of new products emerging from nanotechnology, and "nano ice cream" is an easy one that you can use to teach topics from surface area to volume applications. In this activity, students learn how ice cream can be made smoother and creamier tasting through nanoscience. By using liquid nitrogen to cool the cream mixture, students…

  15. 7 CFR 58.348 - Plastic cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.348 Section 58.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.348 Plastic cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  16. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.

  17. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice cream and frozen custard. 135.110 Section 135....110 Ice cream and frozen custard. (a) Description. (1) Ice cream is a food produced by freezing, while... accomplish specific functions. Ice cream is sweetened with safe and suitable sweeteners and may...

  18. Ice cream structural elements that affect melting rate and hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muse, M R; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    Statistical models were developed to reveal which structural elements of ice cream affect melting rate and hardness. Ice creams were frozen in a batch freezer with three types of sweetener, three levels of the emulsifier polysorbate 80, and two different draw temperatures to produce ice creams with a range of microstructures. Ice cream mixes were analyzed for viscosity, and finished ice creams were analyzed for air cell and ice crystal size, overrun, and fat destabilization. The ice phase volume of each ice cream were calculated based on the freezing point of the mix. Melting rate and hardness of each hardened ice cream was measured and correlated with the structural attributes by using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. Fat destabilization, ice crystal size, and the consistency coefficient of the mix were found to affect the melting rate of ice cream, whereas hardness was influenced by ice phase volume, ice crystal size, overrun, fat destabilization, and the rheological properties of the mix.

  19. 7 CFR 58.649 - Physical requirements for ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical requirements for ice cream. 58.649 Section 58... requirements for ice cream. (a) Flavor. The flavor of the finished ice cream shall be pleasing and desirable, and characteristic of the fresh milk and cream and the particular flavoring used. (b) Body and...

  20. 7 CFR 58.715 - Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat. 58.715 Section 58.715 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.715 Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous...

  1. Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contaminants Buy, Store & Serve Safe Food Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection Share Tweet ... it Email Print August 2004 Every year homemade ice cream causes several outbreaks of Salmonella infection with up ...

  2. TURKISH CONSUMER DECISIONS AFFECTING ICE CREAM CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Topcu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the main factors affecting the national-branded ice cream preferences of Turkish consumers, and to analyze the relationships between their preferences and consumption amounts. The data obtained from 400 households in Kahramanmaras, Turkey were used for Principal Component, K-Means Cluster and Multiple Regression Analyses. The results of the study highlighted clearly that the consumers of the high (C1, middle (C2 and low-income users (C3 satisfied with the manufacturer brand, the individual private label, and the retailer brands on the ice cream purchase decision and consumption amounts, respectively. The manufacturers, retailers and marketers of the ice cream, therefore, should implement effectively the manufacturer brand, the private label and the retailer brand for C1, C2 and C3, respectively, and then they could also increase the demand trends of the target consumers segments satisfied.

  3. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner prescribed in § 135.110 for ice cream, and complies with all the provisions of § 135.110, except that...

  4. Characterization of Homemade Vanilla Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bujancă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to achieve a screening on organoleptic and sensory characteristics, physical-chemical properties, microbial load and degree of contamination with heavy metals and arsenic of homemade vanilla ice cream. Dry substance ranged between 31.69% and 32.16%, all samples showing values below the 33% minimum eligibility. Regarding the acidity of the analyzed samples, they were within the legislative norms in force, showing values below 24°T. Also, analyzed  ice cream samples showed no microbial loads or contamination with heavy metals or arsenic.

  5. Filtrates and Residues: Ice Cream: Delicious Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, James

    1983-01-01

    An experiment involving preparation of ice cream is conducted after students complete units on solutions, atomic structure, molecular architecture, and bonding. The laboratory gives practical illustration of relation of physical properties to bond type and solution theory developed. Materials needed, procedures used, and questions asked are…

  6. Filtrates and Residues: Ice Cream: Delicious Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, James

    1983-01-01

    An experiment involving preparation of ice cream is conducted after students complete units on solutions, atomic structure, molecular architecture, and bonding. The laboratory gives practical illustration of relation of physical properties to bond type and solution theory developed. Materials needed, procedures used, and questions asked are…

  7. Delicious ice cream, why does salt thaw ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2016-04-01

    During winter, we use to spread salt to thaw ice on the streets. In a physics show, one can be almost sure that after showing this effect, the answer to what happens to temperature will be "it increases". But no! It goes down, in such amount that one can complement the show by producing hand-made ice creams [1].

  8. Microbial contamination determination of Cream suit,Traditional Ice Cream and Olovia in Yasuj City

    OpenAIRE

    SS Khoramrooz; M Sarikhani; SA Khosravani; M Farhang Falah; Y. Mahmoudi; A Sharifi

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Prevalence of diseases caused by consumption of contaminated food has always been a problem all over the world, and every year spent on improving the disease is costly.Cream suit, Ice cream & olowye for ingredient substance and manufacture & preservation conditional have very high possibility for contamination.The aim of this study is Microbial contamination determination of Cream suit, Traditional Ice Cream and Olovia in Yasuj City Methods: This study is randomized cros...

  9. Development of technology for manufacture of ragi ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, I J; Dharaiya, C N; Pinto, S V

    2015-07-01

    Ragi (Finger millet) improves the nutritional value of ice cream by enhancing the iron and fibre content. Caramel flavoured medium fat ice cream (6 % fat) was prepared by addition of gelatinized malted ragi flour roasted in butter (MRB) @ 8 %, 9 % and 10 % by weight of mix and compared with control (C) i.e. vanilla ice cream containing 10 % fat. The overall acceptability score of product prepared using 9 % MRB was statistically (P > 0.05) at par with the C, hence, it was selected. In the next part of the study, ragi ice cream was prepared using 4 different flavours viz. vanilla, mango, chocolate and caramel. Chocolate flavoured ragi ice cream was adjudged as best, followed by mango, caramel and vanilla ice cream. The iron and fibre content of chocolate flavoured ragi ice cream was found to be 12.8 ppm and 1.36 % respectively. vs. 1.5 ppm and 0.18 % respectively in control (C). Heat shock treatment as well as storage up to 30 days had no adverse effect on the sensory quality of the chocolate flavored ragi ice cream. Incorporation of finger millet in ice cream resulted in reduction in the amount of stabilizer used and effectively functioned as fat replacer in ice cream.

  10. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream as affected by ice structuring proteins from winter wheat grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regand, A; Goff, H D

    2006-01-01

    Ice recrystallization in quiescently frozen sucrose solutions that contained some of the ingredients commonly found in ice cream and in ice cream manufactured under commercial conditions, with or without ice structuring proteins (ISP) from cold-acclimated winter wheat grass extract (AWWE), was assessed by bright field microscopy. In sucrose solutions, critical differences in moisture content, viscosity, ionic strength, and other properties derived from the presence of other ingredients (skim milk powder, corn syrup solids, locust bean gum) caused a reduction in ice crystal growth. Significant ISP activity in retarding ice crystal growth was observed in all solutions (44% for the most complex mix) containing 0.13% total protein from AWWE. In heat-shocked ice cream, ice recrystallization rates were significantly reduced 40 and 46% with the addition of 0.0025 and 0.0037% total protein from AWWE. The ISP activity in ice cream was not hindered by its inclusion in mix prior to pasteurization. A synergistic effect between ISP and stabilizer was observed, as ISP activity was reduced in the absence of stabilizer in ice cream formulations. A remarkably smoother texture for ice creams containing ISP after heat-shock storage was evident by sensory evaluation. The efficiency of ISP from AWWE in controlling ice crystal growth in ice cream has been demonstrated.

  11. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Microbiological requirements for ice cream. 58.648 Section 58.648 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  12. 7 CFR 58.647 - Composition requirements for ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition requirements for ice cream. 58.647 Section 58.647 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. See § 58.605(a)....

  13. Bacterial contamination of traditional ice creams in Kermanshah in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Emami

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ice cream is a dairy product that is very popular during warm seasons. Ice cream can be contaminated with various microorganisms including pathogenic bacteria if hygienic procedures are not followed during preparation, distribution and preservation processes. This may put the health of people using ice cream at risk. Our study aimed to examine the bacterial contamination of traditional ice creams in Kermanshah city during 2008. Methods: During summer 2008, 80 samples of traditional ice creams were collected. The samples were examined according to the Iranian National Standard protocols for E. coli, Coliforms,  Salmonella,  Staphylococcus aureus and complete count of microorganisms. Results: Overall, 62 (77.5% samples had microbial contaminations more than the standard limit. Results showed 59 (73.75% and 54 (67.5 % of the samples contained a high number of microorganisms and coliform, respectively. Furthermore 30 (37.5% and 23 (28.75% of the samples were contaminated with E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. However, Salmonella spp. was not found in any of the ice cream samples. Conclusion: The traditional ice creams tested in Kermanshah were heavily contaminated with bacteria. It could be due to the inappropriate preparation and preservation procedures using unpasteurized milk and other materials.  Contaminations may also be induced by personals. So it is recommended to apply the hygienic procedures for preparation and preservation of ice cream including the use of pasteurized milk and other materials.

  14. Increasing the protein content of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M R; Baer, R J; Acharya, M R

    2006-05-01

    Vanilla ice cream was made with a mix composition of 10.5% milk fat, 10.5% milk SNF, 12% beet sugar, and 4% corn syrup solids. None of the batches made contained stabilizer or emulsifier. The control (treatment 1) contained 3.78% protein. Treatments 2 and 5 contained 30% more protein, treatments 3 and 6 contained 60% more protein, and treatments 4 and 7 contained 90% more protein compared with treatment 1 by addition of whey protein concentrate or milk protein concentrate powders, respectively. In all treatments, levels of milk fat, milk SNF, beet sugar, and corn syrup solids were kept constant at 37% total solids. Mix protein content for treatment 1 was 3.78%, treatment 2 was 4.90%, treatment 5 was 4.91%, treatments 3 and 6 were 6.05%, and treatments 4 and 7 were 7.18%. This represented a 29.89, 60.05, 89.95, 29.63, 60.05, and 89.95% increase in protein for treatment 2 through treatment 7 compared with treatment 1, respectively. Milk protein level influenced ice crystal size; with increased protein, the ice crystal size was favorably reduced in treatments 2, 4, and 5 and was similar in treatments 3, 6, and 7 compared with treatment 1. At 1 wk postmanufacture, overall texture acceptance for all treatments was more desirable compared with treatment 1. When evaluating all parameters, treatment 2 with added whey protein concentrate and treatments 5 and 6 with added milk protein concentrate were similar or improved compared with treatment 1. It is possible to produce acceptable ice cream with higher levels of protein.

  15. 7 CFR 58.2825 - United States Standard for ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Standard for ice cream. 58.2825 Section... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 United States Department of Agriculture Standard for Ice Cream § 58.2825 United States Standard for ice cream. (a) Ice cream shall contain at least 1.6 pounds of total solids to the...

  16. Behaviour of casein micelles at conditions comparable to those in ice cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The physical properties of ice cream are mainly determined by the processing and the ingredients. Milk (powder) is one of the ingredients and ice cream thus contains casein, the major milk protein. A large proportion of casein in ice cream is present in the plasma phase of ice cream. Since the behav

  17. Behaviour of casein micelles at conditions comparable to those in ice cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The physical properties of ice cream are mainly determined by the processing and the ingredients. Milk (powder) is one of the ingredients and ice cream thus contains casein, the major milk protein. A large proportion of casein in ice cream is present in the plasma phase of ice cream. Since

  18. The Effects of Fat Structures and Ice Cream Mix Viscosity on Physical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Julia; Hartel, Rich; Rankin, Scott

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate iciness perception and other sensory textural attributes of ice cream due to ice and fat structures and mix viscosity. Two studies were carried out varying processing conditions and mix formulation. In the 1st study, ice creams were collected at -3, -5, and -7.5 °C draw temperatures. These ice creams contained 0%, 0.1%, or 0.2% emulsifier, an 80:20 blend of mono- and diglycerides: polysorbate 80. In the 2nd study, ice creams were collected at -3 °C draw temperature and contained 0%, 0.2%, or 0.4% stabilizer, a blend of guar gum, locust bean gum, and carrageenan. Multiple linear regressions were used to determine relationships between ice crystal size, destabilized fat, and sensory iciness. In the ice and fat structure study, an inverse correlation was found between fat destabilization and sensory iciness. Ice creams with no difference in ice crystal size were perceived to be less icy with increasing amounts of destabilized fat. Destabilized fat correlated inversely with drip-through rate and sensory greasiness. In the ice cream mix viscosity study, an inverse correlation was found between mix viscosity and sensory iciness. Ice creams with no difference in ice crystal size were perceived to be less icy when formulated with higher mix viscosity. A positive correlation was found between mix viscosity and sensory greasiness. These results indicate that fat structures and mix viscosity have significant effects on ice cream microstructure and sensory texture including the reduction of iciness perception. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Ice cream and orbifold Riemann-Roch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Anita; Reid, Miles; Zhou, Shengtian

    2013-06-01

    We give an orbifold Riemann-Roch formula in closed form for the Hilbert series of a quasismooth polarized n-fold (X,D), under the assumption that X is projectively Gorenstein with only isolated orbifold points. Our formula is a sum of parts each of which is integral and Gorenstein symmetric of the same canonical weight; the orbifold parts are called ice cream functions. This form of the Hilbert series is particularly useful for computer algebra, and we illustrate it on examples of {K3} surfaces and Calabi-Yau 3-folds. These results apply also with higher dimensional orbifold strata (see [1] and [2]), although the precise statements are considerably trickier. We expect to return to this in future publications.

  20. Investigation of rheological properties of mixtures of soft ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of the rheological properties of multicomponent mixtures for soft ice cream enriched with various stabilizers to facilitate evaluation and selection of the optimal mixture.

  1. A TROPICAL COUNTRY WHICH IS COOL TO ICE CREAMS!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. ANIRVINNA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One market which is expected to make a brisk business in the summer is none other than ice-cream. For consumers too there is nothing better than craving for an ice cream particularly during unbearable hot summer period of April-June. But astonishingly given the climate in India, the per capita consumption in India 250 ml has been much lower compared to the countries compared to 23 lt in the US, 18 lt in Australia, 14 lt in Sweden and 800 ml even in neighbouring Pakistan, Sri Lanka shows immense potential for expansion. The US has been the leading producer of ice-cream in the world albeit Europe introduced the product into the country. The ice-cream cone was invented as early as 1904 shows the hallmark of a product innovation in the US.

  2. Microbial contamination determination of Cream suit,Traditional Ice Cream and Olovia in Yasuj City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Khoramrooz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Prevalence of diseases caused by consumption of contaminated food has always been a problem all over the world, and every year spent on improving the disease is costly.Cream suit, Ice cream & olowye for ingredient substance and manufacture & preservation conditional have very high possibility for contamination.The aim of this study is Microbial contamination determination of Cream suit, Traditional Ice Cream and Olovia in Yasuj City Methods: This study is randomized cross sectional study was performed on 64 samples.The samples were taken from the ice cream and confectionery shops in Yasuj city and keep on cold box then the samples were transported in sterile conditions, to the department of medical microbiology laboratory in medical university of yasuj and  microbial contamination rate evaluated by national standard method. Collected data analysed with SPSS software for data description,from central dispersion and table frequency and draw chart.  RESULTS: The survey results showed that 40% o traditional ice cream,cream suit were infected by Staph aurous, Escherichia coli and salmonella respectly (6.7,87 and 0,(50,30 and 0.(0,0 and0 present, and no seen any bacteria on olowye. Conclusion: Due to our research contamination rate traditional ice cream,cream suit and olowye were by Staph aurous, Escherichia coli and salmonella were very high . therefore using different ways to control bacterial growth especaly E.coli the mostly transmited by fecal oral including the use of healthly and safe raw material for promoting health awareness of people involved in the food preparation and production is essential.

  3. Lactose reduced ice cream enriched with whey powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Tsuchiya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a food product that pleases the palate of consumers worldwide. Whey powder (WP has various technological and functional properties. However, WP increases the lactose content of the final products in which it is incorporated and causes grittiness and intolerance in lactose-sensitive individuals. This study aimed to produce ice cream with milk powder (MP replaced by WP (MP/WP, decrease the lactose content by enzymatic hydrolysis and verify the physicochemical and microbiological parameters of the final product. Initially, the variables ?-galactosidase concentration and reaction time were studied for the response of the percentage of lactose hydrolysis in a milk ice cream base, using a full 22 factorial design(FFD.With the reaction conditions defined (0.5 g L-1 of ?-galactosidase at 37 C for 4 hthe sucrose concentration and MP/WP replacement variables were then studied in the ice cream formulation for the percentage of lactose hydrolysis and overrun responses using a 22 FFD. The lactose hydrolysis, which ranged between 86.59-97.97%, was not affected by the MP/WP replacement in the ice cream, whilst the overrun was increased by the MP/WP replacement. The physicochemical and microbiological parameters of the ice cream were either not influenced or positively influenced by lactose hydrolysis and MP/WP replacement.

  4. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ashish S.; Jana, Atanu H.; Aparnathi, Kishore D.; Pinto, Suneeta V.

    2010-01-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized ‘ice and salt’ type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus a...

  5. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ashish S.; Jana, Atanu H.; Aparnathi, Kishore D.; Pinto, Suneeta V.

    2010-01-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized ‘ice and salt’ type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus a...

  6. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashish S; Jana, Atanu H; Aparnathi, Kishore D; Pinto, Suneeta V

    2010-10-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized 'ice and salt' type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus and Butter Buds were used at levels of 0.2% and 0.05%, respectively. The dietetic low fat ice creams compared well in sensory colour and appearance, flavour, body and texture, and melting quality to that of control ice cream. Incorporation of 2.5% powdered sago and 0.2% Cream Plus as flavour adjunct is recommended in the manufacture of 'low-fat' mango ice cream. The energy values for control and dietetic mango ice cream was 202.8 and 142.9 kcal/100 g, respectively, which represents about 30% reduction in calorie. The cost of ice cream per liter was Rs 39.9, Rs 37.6 and Rs 49.7 for experimental ice creams containing Cream Plus and Butter Bud, and control, respectively.

  7. Effects of inulin and oligofructose on the rheological characteristics and probiotic culture survival in low-fat probiotic ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalin, A S; Erişir, D

    2008-05-01

    The effects of supplementation of oligofructose or inulin on the rheological characteristics and survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 in low-fat ice cream stored at -18 degrees C for 90 d were studied. Addition of oligofructose or inulin to ice cream mix significantly increased apparent viscosity and overrun and developed the melting properties in ice cream during storage (P ice cream containing inulin (P ice cream mix (P ice cream with oligofructose during storage.

  8. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Ice-Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 that it can be found in milk and dairy products. In this study, ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique was used for detection of AFM1 in ice-cream in Guilan province (Northern Iran. A total of 90 ice-cream samples was randomly obtained from different supermarkets. In 62 of the 90 ice-cream samples examined (68.88%, the presence of AFM1 was detected in concentrations between 8.4 -147.7 ng/l. The mean level of AFM1 in positive samples was 40.36 ng/l. AFM1 levels in 11 samples (12.22% were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by ISIRI, European Community and Codex Alimentarius.

  9. Testing the reliability of ice-cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zonghao; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, Chuanbing; Liu, Kai; Xue, Xianghui; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2015-04-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CME)'s properties are important to not only the physical scene itself but space-weather prediction. Several models (such as cone model, GCS model, and so on) have been raised to get rid of the projection effects within the properties observed by spacecraft. According to SOHO/ LASCO observations, we obtain the 'real' 3D parameters of all the FFHCMEs (front-side full halo Coronal Mass Ejections) within the 24th solar cycle till July 2012, by the ice-cream cone model. Considering that the method to obtain 3D parameters from the CME observations by multi-satellite and multi-angle has higher accuracy, we use the GCS model to obtain the real propagation parameters of these CMEs in 3D space and compare the results with which by ice-cream cone model. Then we could discuss the reliability of the ice-cream cone model.

  10. An ice-cream cone model for coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, X. H.; Wang, C. B.; Dou, X. K.

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we use an ice-cream cone model to analyze the geometrical and kinematical properties of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Assuming that in the early phase CMEs propagate with near-constant speed and angular width, some useful properties of CMEs, namely the radial speed (v), the angular width (α), and the location at the heliosphere, can be obtained considering the geometrical shapes of a CME as an ice-cream cone. This model is improved by (1) using an ice-cream cone to show the near real configuration of a CME, (2) determining the radial speed via fitting the projected speeds calculated from the height-time relation in different azimuthal angles, (3) not only applying to halo CMEs but also applying to nonhalo CMEs.

  11. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  12. Orange fiber as a novel fat replacer in lemon ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainara de Moraes Crizel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange fiber was used as a novel fat replacer in light lemon ice cream. Nine ice cream formulations were compared: standard control ice cream (IC; ice cream with fiber (F1 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed (ICA and ICB; ice cream with fiber (F2 from the orange peel alone (ICC and ICD; ice cream with fiber (F3 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICE and ICF; and ice cream with fiber (F4 from the orange peel pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICG and ICH.The orange fiber reduced the ice cream fat content (50 % and the overrun ratio and increased the fiber content and the hardness, gumminess, and springiness values, but it did not affect the adhesiveness and odor of the samples. The samples with 1.0 % of orange fiber showed low melting rate values than those of the control ice cream. The overall acceptance of the ice cream with 1.0 % of pre-treated orange peel fiber did not differ from that of the control ice cream (80 %. The orange fiber proved a promising food ingredient since it can be used to decrease the fat content and increase bioactive compounds content, such as fiber and carotenoids.

  13. Teaching Process Engineering Principles Using an Ice Cream Maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaletunc, Gonul; Duemmel, Kevin; Gecik, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The ice cream laboratory experiment is designed to illustrate and promote discussion of several engineering and science topics including material and energy balances, heat transfer, freezing, mass transfer, mixing, viscosity, and freezing point depression in a sophomore level engineering class. A pre-lab assignment requires the students to develop…

  14. Ice Cream/I Scream for YA Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Don

    2010-01-01

    From a 40-year perspective, Don Gallo examines the field of young adult literature, comparing it to ice cream--its various flavors and levels of richness. The article proclaims the profundity of the field and the quality of its writers, summarizes historical highlights, defends it against its detractors, and explains the importance of helping…

  15. Teaching Process Engineering Principles Using an Ice Cream Maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaletunc, Gonul; Duemmel, Kevin; Gecik, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The ice cream laboratory experiment is designed to illustrate and promote discussion of several engineering and science topics including material and energy balances, heat transfer, freezing, mass transfer, mixing, viscosity, and freezing point depression in a sophomore level engineering class. A pre-lab assignment requires the students to develop…

  16. Ice Cream/I Scream for YA Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Don

    2010-01-01

    From a 40-year perspective, Don Gallo examines the field of young adult literature, comparing it to ice cream--its various flavors and levels of richness. The article proclaims the profundity of the field and the quality of its writers, summarizes historical highlights, defends it against its detractors, and explains the importance of helping…

  17. Effect of galactooligosaccharide addition on the physical, optical, and sensory acceptance of vanilla ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Celeguini, R M S; Santos, R; Pastore, G M; Junior, C A Conte; Freitas, M Q; Nogueira, L C; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the addition of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the physicochemical, optical, and sensory characteristics of ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice cream was supplemented with 0, 1.5, and 3.0% (wt/wt) GOS and characterized for pH, firmness, color, melting, overrun, as well as subjected to a discriminative sensory test (triangle test). For comparison purposes, ice creams containing fructooligosaccharide were also manufactured. The GOS ice creams were characterized by increased firmness and lower melting rates. Different perceptions were reported in the sensory evaluation for the 3.0% GOS ice cream when compared with the control, which was not observed for the fructooligosaccharide ice cream. Overall, the findings suggest it is possible to produce GOS ice cream with improved stability in relation to the physicochemical parameters and sensory perception.

  18. Production and characterization of ice cream with high content in oleic and linoleic fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marín-Suárez, Marta; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Padial-Domínguez, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Ice creams produced with unsaturated fats rich in oleic (OO, 70.7% of oleic) and linoleic (LO, 49.0% of linoleic) fatty acids, were compared to ice cream based on saturated coconut oil (CO, 50% of lauric acid). The globule size distribution of OO mix during aging (72 h at 4°C) followed a similar...... trend to CO mix, being stable after 48 h; whereas LO mix destabilized after 24 h. CO mix showed higher destabilization during ice cream production, but no significant differences among fats were observed in the particle size of the ice cream produced. The overrun was also lower for OO and LO ice creams...... (34.19 and 27.12%, respectively) compared to CO based ice cream (45.06%). However, an improved melting behavior, which gradually decreased from 88.69% for CO to 66.09% for LO ice cream, was observed....

  19. Experimental provocation of 'ice-cream headache' by ice cubes and ice water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mages, Stephan; Hensel, Ole; Zierz, Antonia Maria; Kraya, Torsten; Zierz, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Background There are various studies on experimentally provoked 'ice-cream headache' or 'headache attributed to ingestion or inhalation of a cold stimulus' (HICS) using different provocation protocols. The aim of this study was to compare two provocation protocols. Methods Ice cubes pressed to the palate and fast ingestion of ice water were used to provoke HICS and clinical features were compared. Results The ice-water stimulus provoked HICS significantly more often than the ice-cube stimulus (9/77 vs. 39/77). Ice-water-provoked HICS had a significantly shorter latency (median 15 s, range 4-97 s vs. median 68 s, range 27-96 s). There was no difference in pain localisation. Character after ice-cube stimulation was predominantly described as pressing and after ice-water stimulation as stabbing. A second HICS followed in 10/39 (26%) of the headaches provoked by ice water. Lacrimation occurred significantly more often in volunteers with than in those without HICS. Discussion HICS provoked by ice water was more frequent, had a shorter latency, different pain character and higher pain intensity than HICS provoked by ice cubes. The finding of two subsequent HICS attacks in the same volunteers supports the notion that two types of HICS exist. Lacrimation during HICS indicates involvement of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex.

  20. Formulation of a peach ice cream as potential symbiotic food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Josué VILLALVA

    Full Text Available Abstract Today’s population increasingly demands and consumes healthy products. For this reason, the food industry has been developing and marketing food with added bioactive components. The aim of this work was to formulate a peach ice cream reduced in calories with an added probiotic (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and prebiotics (inulin, and to evaluate its sensory quality and acceptability as potential symbiotic food. The moisture content was 76.47%; 7.14% protein; 0.15% fat; 6.37%; carbohydrates; 9.87% inulin; 1.22% ash; 0.201% calcium, 0.155% phosphorus and 0.168% sodium. On the first and 21th day of storage counts of B. lactis Bb – 12 was 4 x 108 CFU/mL and 1.5 x 107 CFU/mL, respectively. It was possible to formulate a peach ice cream reduced in calories, fat, and sugar and with potential symbiotic effect, by addition of B. lactis Bb – 12. A product with suitable organoleptic characteristics, creamy texture, peachy colour, taste and flavour, and no ice crystals was obtained. This ice cream would be a suitable food matrix to incorporate prebiotic and probiotic ingredients as a potential symbiotic food.

  1. Inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Srinivasan

    2007-12-26

    The inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate produced by papain action was studied. The ice crystal growth was monitored by thermal cycling between -14 and -12 degrees C at a rate of one cycle per 3 min. It is shown that the hydrolysate fraction containing peptides in the molecular weight range of about 2000-5000 Da exhibited the highest inhibitory activity on ice crystal growth in ice cream mix, whereas fractions containing peptides greater than 7000 Da did not inhibit ice crystal growth. The size distribution of gelatin peptides formed in the hydrolysate was influenced by the pH of hydrolysis. The optimum hydrolysis conditions for producing peptides with maximum ice crystal growth inhibitory activity was pH 7 at 37 degrees C for 10 min at a papain to gelatin ratio of 1:100. However, this may depend on the type and source of gelatin. The possible mechanism of ice crystal growth inhibition by peptides from gelatin is discussed. Molecular modeling of model gelatin peptides revealed that they form an oxygen triad plane at the C-terminus with oxygen-oxygen distances similar to those found in ice nuclei. Binding of this oxygen triad plane to the prism face of ice nuclei via hydrogen bonding appears to be the mechanism by which gelatin hydrolysate might be inhibiting ice crystal growth in ice cream mix.

  2. 40 CFR 405.80 - Applicability; description of the ice cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy Desserts Subcategory § 405.80 Applicability; description of the ice cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy... manufacture of ice cream, ice milk, sherbert, water ices, stick confections, frozen novelties products,...

  3. Factors Affecting the Changes of Ice Crystal Form in Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    In this study, the shape of ice crystals in ice cream was quantitatively evaluated by introducing fractal analysis. A small droplet of commercial ice cream mix was quickly cooled to about -30°C on the cold stage of microscope. Subsequently, it was heated to -5°C or -10°C and then held for various holding time. Based on the captured images at each holding time, the cross-sectional area and the length of circumference for each ice crystal were measured to calculate fractal dimension using image analysis software. The results showed that the ice crystals were categorized into two groups, e.g. simple-shape and complicated-shape, according to their fractal dimensions. The fractal dimension of ice crystals became lower with increasing holding time and holding temperature. It was also indicated that the growing rate of complicated-shape ice crystals was relatively higher because of aggregation.

  4. Application of HACCP system in the ice cream production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meho Bašić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For enhancement of quality in all production segments, the ice cream factory «SA&JACOM» Sarajevo has made a decision to introduce a system of quality control and health safety for all of its products.Possible critical control points were analyzed and successfully specified, with hazard reduction to tolerant level, and in some cases with total hazard elimination. Using HACCP methodology, it is expected that the factory will produce the ice-creams with reliable preliminary established quality and accepted level of hygienic and health safety. All the activities are applied in a precise and documented way, so the products of this factory achieve trust of the customers and provide an official production certificate.

  5. Evaluation of texture and colorimetric properties of irradiated ice cream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: vladrogo@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The ice cream consists of an aerated suspension of fat and crystals in a concentrate sugar solution where other ingredients may be added provided that does not mis characterize the product. It is one of the most important product of the dairy industry. The ice cream is considered a high nutritional value food providing fat, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and mineral to its consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation process in the color and texture of milk based ice cream purchased at Sao Paulo retail market, Brazil. The samples were irradiated with doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy into isothermal boxes at {sup 6}0{sup C}o Multipurpose Irradiator (IPEN-CNEN/SP) at -72 °C and it was immediately stored at -10 °C until the moment of the analyses. The color parameter were L *, a * and b * using a CR-400 Minolta Colorimeter and the texture was analyzed using a Stable Micro Systems texture analyzer (model TA-TX Plus) equipped with a Multiple Puncture Probe. It was observed that the control and irradiated sample differs statistically for the texture analysis. In the color analysis it was observed that the L * parameter have increased less than 5.0 % between the control and 2.0 kGy sample. For the parameters a * and b * the value rose by 18 % and 2.31 %, respectively. The authors concluded that even with the statistical difference the gamma radiation can be applied in ice creams. (author)

  6. ESR/spin probe study of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Duncan G; Greenley, Katherine R; Sutcliffe, Leslie H

    2006-07-12

    Spin probes based on the 1,1,3,3-tetramethylisoindolin-2-yl structure have been used, in conjunction with electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), to study the physical changes occurring in ice cream during freezing and melting. The ESR measurements allowed the rotational correlation times, tau(B), of the spin probes to be determined. Two probes were used together in a given sample of ice cream, namely, 1,1,3,3-tetramethylisoindolin-2-yl (TMIO), which samples the fat phase, and the sodium salt of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylisoindolin-2-yloxyl-5-sulfonate (NaTMIOS), which samples the aqueous phase. Data from the TMIO probe showed that when ice cream is cooled, the fat phase is a mixture of solid and liquid fat until a temperature of approximately -60 degrees C is reached. The water-soluble probe NaTMIOS showed that the aqueous phase changes completely from liquid to solid within 1 degrees C of -18 degrees C. On cooling further to -24.7 degrees C and then allowing it to warm to +25.0 degrees C, the rotational correlation times of the NaTMIOS were slow to recover to their previous values. For the lipid phase, tau(B)(298) was found to be 65.7 +/- 2.0 ps and the corresponding activation enthalpy, DeltaH, was 32.5 +/- 0.9 kJ mol(-)(1): These values are typical of those expected to be found in the type of fat used to make ice cream. The water phase gave corresponding values of 32.2 +/- 0.5 ps and 24.5 +/- 0.4 kJ mol(-)(1) values, which are those expected for a sucrose concentration of 24%.

  7. Development of Job’s-tears ice cream recipe

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2009-01-01

    Job’s tears ice cream recipe was developed by varying proportions of Job’s tears, sucrose, salt and coconut milk. Product positioning mapping was used to identify the sensory attributes that were drivers of preference, which appeared to be sweetness, smoothness, richness, and coconut milk and Job's-tears flavours of the product. Cluster analysis was used to differentiate consumers by their preference direction. Nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of th...

  8. ICE CREAM WITH A COMBINED COMPOSITION OF RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Khodyreva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are the product of daily demand. Nowadays actively assimilate new types of raw materials, tech-nology, formulation. One of the propagation methods of enriching dairy products is a combination of milk and vegetable raw materials. The possibility of making a concentrated paste of Jerusalem artichoke in dairy products was investigated. The ice cream sundae "Vanilla" was chosen as the object of research.

  9. Sensory Acceptability of Squash (Cucurbita Maximain Making Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymund B. Moreno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available - This experimental research was conducted to determine the sensory acceptability of mashed squash (Cucurbita Maxima of different proportions in making ice cream in terms of appearance, aroma, texture, taste and general acceptability. Five treatments were formulated in the study—four of which utilized mashed squash at various proportions and one treatment was used as the control variable which contains no mashed squash at all. The respondents of the study were the 20 Food Technology students and 10 faculty members of West Visayas State University Calinog Campus who were selected through random sampling. The respondents evaluated the finished products using a modified sensory evaluation score sheet based on Six Point Hedonic Scale. The statistical tools used were the means, standard deviation, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The 0.01 alpha level was used as the criterion for acceptance or rejection of the null hypothesis. The result of the study led to the conclusion that there is a significant difference that existed in the level of acceptability of mashed squash in making ice cream in terms of appearance, aroma, and general acceptability, therefore the null hypothesis is rejected. However, no significant difference in the level of acceptability of using mashed squash in making ice cream in terms of taste and texture.

  10. The effect of gum tragacanth on the rheological properties of salep based ice cream mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Abdullah; Cengiz, Alime; Kahyaoglu, Talip

    2016-06-05

    The influence of concentration (0-0.5%, w/w) of gum tragacanth (GT) on thixotropy, dynamic, and creep-recovery rheological properties of ice cream mixes prepared with milk or water based were investigated. These properties were used to evaluate the viscoelastic behavior and internal structure of ice cream network. The textural properties of ice cream were also evaluated. Thixotropy values of samples were reduced by increasing GT concentration. The dynamic and creep-recovery analyses exhibited that GT addition increased both ice cream elastic and viscous behaviors. The increasing of Burger's model parameters with GT concentration indicated higher resistance network to the stress and more elastic behavior of samples. The applying of Cox-Merz rule is possible by using shift factor (α). GT also led to an increase in Young's modulus and the stickiness of ice creams. The obtained results highlighted the possible application of GT as a valuable member to promote structural properties of ice cream.

  11. Frequent ice cream consumption is associated with reduced striatal response to receipt of an ice cream-based milkshake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S; Stice, Eric

    2012-04-01

    Weight gain leads to reduced reward-region responsivity to energy-dense food receipt, and consumption of an energy-dense diet compared with an isocaloric, low-energy-density diet leads to reduced dopamine receptors. Furthermore, phasic dopamine signaling to palatable food receipt decreases after repeated intake of that food, which collectively suggests that frequent intake of an energy-dense food may reduce striatal response to receipt of that food. We tested the hypothesis that frequent ice cream consumption would be associated with reduced activation in reward-related brain regions (eg, striatum) in response to receipt of an ice cream-based milkshake and examined the influence of adipose tissue and the specificity of this relation. Healthy-weight adolescents (n = 151) underwent fMRI during receipt of a milkshake and during receipt of a tasteless solution. Percentage body fat, reported food intake, and food craving and liking were assessed. Milkshake receipt robustly activated the striatal regions, yet frequent ice cream consumption was associated with a reduced response to milkshake receipt in these reward-related brain regions. Percentage body fat, total energy intake, percentage of energy from fat and sugar, and intake of other energy-dense foods were not related to the neural response to milkshake receipt. Our results provide novel evidence that frequent consumption of ice cream, independent of body fat, is related to a reduction in reward-region responsivity in humans, paralleling the tolerance observed in drug addiction. Data also imply that intake of a particular energy-dense food results in attenuated reward-region responsivity specifically to that food, which suggests that sensory aspects of eating and reward learning may drive the specificity.

  12. An analysis of at-home demand for ice cream in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C G; Blayney, D P; Yen, S T; Cooper, J

    2009-12-01

    Ice cream has been manufactured commercially in the United States since the middle of the 19th century. Ice cream and frozen dessert products comprise an important and relatively stable component of the United States dairy industry. As with many other dairy products, ice cream is differentiated in several dimensions. A censored translog demand system model was employed to analyze purchases of 3 ice cream product categories. The objective of this study was to determine the effect that changes in retail prices and consumer income have on at-home ice cream consumption. The analysis was based on Nielsen 2005 home scan retail data and used marital status, age, race, education, female employment status, and location in the estimations of aggregate demand elasticities. Results revealed that price and consumer income were the main determinants of demand for ice cream products. Calculated own-price elasticities indicated relatively elastic responses by consumers for all categories except for compensated bulk ice cream. All expenditure elasticities were inelastic except for bulk ice cream, and most of the ice cream categories were substitutes. Ongoing efforts to examine consumer demand for these products will assist milk producers, dairy processors and manufacturers, and dairy marketers as they face changing consumer responses to food and diet issues.

  13. A critical overview: The reason for the public sector’s ice cream production in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkan KARAGÖZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Whereas, the public sector in Turkey has withdrawn from the production of private goods, the public sector in Turkey still has produces ice cream. In recent years, related public enterprise has taken up the capacity expansion of ice cream production. And also, it has got a target of growing market share. However, there isn’t a strong argument about the public sector’s ice cream production. In this study, it is researched that why the public sector in Turkey produces ice cream.

  14. Application of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA 5) strain in fruit-based ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Suraji A; Fernando, Sirimali; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur; Arsekularatne, Mariam

    2013-11-01

    A study was performed to apply a probiotic strain into fermented ice cream mix with suitable fruit bases to develop a value-added product with a substantial level of viable organisms for a sufficient shelf life. Pure direct vat strain culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA 5) in freeze-dried form was inoculated into a mixture of ice cream, frozen, and the number of viable organisms during frozen storage for a period of time was enumerated, using turbidity measurements with a spectrophotometer. An ice cream sample prepared without the probiotic culture was compared with the test sample for quality, by testing the basic quality parameters for ice cream. Results show a reduction in the over run of the probiotic ice cream compared to the nonprobiotic ice cream. Significantly high level (P ice cream. Significantly low pH level in the probiotic sample may be due to the lactic acid produced by the probiotic culture. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in the fat content in the two types of ice cream was observed. A significantly low level (P ice cream. Results show the presence of a sufficient number of viable organisms in the product for the 10-week period, which would be beneficial to consumers.

  15. Inhibition by ice cream of the antidotal efficacy of activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, G; Soda, D M; Lampman, T A

    1975-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine if ice cream and sherbet interfered with the adsorption of aspirin onto activated charcoal both in vivo and in vitro. An aqueous suspension of 20 g activated charcoal decreased the absorption of 1 g aspirin by 65%; the same dose of activated charcoal with 50 g of ice cream reduced aspirin absorption by only 42% under otherwise identical conditions. In vitro tests showed that different ice creams and sherbet decrease the adsoprtion of aspirin onto activated charcoal. Thus, although ice cream is useful for preparing palatable suspensions of activated charcoal, it decreases appreciably the antidotal efficacy of the adsorbent.

  16. Physical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream Containing Fermented Pepper Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Kim, Ji-Han; Hong, Go-Eun; Park, Woojoon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Seo, Han-Geuk; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the physical and sensory properties of ice cream containing fermented pepper powder. Three ice cream formulas were manufactured: 1, control; 2, supplemented with 0.1% fermented pepper powder; and 3, supplemented with 0.2% fermented pepper powder. Formulas 2 and 3 had significantly higher viscosity and lower overrun than formula 1 (pice creams supplemented with fermented pepper powder were harder and maintained their forms longer than the controls. 0.2% fermented pepper powder added ice cream had no pungency as much as that of control and overall sensory attribute was not significantly different from control. Therefore, ice cream containing fermented pepper powder maintained physical and sensory properties similar to the controls, and maintenance was better. It means fermented pepper powder ice cream can be utilized as the material of functional food (dessert).

  17. Effect of storage temperature on quality of light and full-fat ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyck, J R; Baer, R J; Choi, J

    2011-05-01

    Ice cream quality is dependent on many factors including storage temperature. Currently, the industry standard for ice cream storage is -28.9 °C. Ice cream production costs may be decreased by increasing the temperature of the storage freezer, thus lowering energy costs. The first objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of 4 storage temperatures on the quality of commercial vanilla-flavored light and full-fat ice cream. Storage temperatures used were -45.6, -26.1, and -23.3 °C for the 3 treatments and -28.9 °C as the control or industry standard. Ice crystal sizes were analyzed by a cold-stage microscope and image analysis at 1, 19.5, and 39 wk of storage. Ice crystal size did not differ among the storage temperatures of light and full-fat ice creams at 19.5 or 39 wk. An increase in ice crystal size was observed between 19.5 and 39 wk for all storage temperatures except -45.6 °C. Coldness intensity, iciness, creaminess, and storage/stale off-flavor of the light and full-fat ice creams were evaluated at 39 wk of storage. Sensory evaluation indicated no difference among the different storage temperatures for light and full-fat ice creams. In a second study, light and full-fat ice creams were heat shocked by storing at -28.9 °C for 35 wk and then alternating between -23.3 and -12.2 °C every 24h for 4 wk. Heat-shocked ice creams were analyzed at 2 and 4 wk of storage for ice crystal size and were evaluated by the sensory panel. A difference in ice crystal size was observed for light and full-fat ice creams during heat-shock storage; however, sensory results indicated no differences. In summary, storage of light or full-fat vanilla-flavored ice creams at the temperatures used within this research did not affect quality of the ice creams. Therefore, ice cream manufacturers could conserve energy by increasing the temperature of freezers from -28.9 to -26.1 °C. Because freezers will typically fluctuate from the set temperature, usage of -26.1

  18. Effect of okra cell wall and polysaccharide on physical properties and stability of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuennan, Pilapa; Sajjaanantakul, Tanaboon; Goff, H Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Stabilizers are used in ice cream to increase mix viscosity, promote smooth texture, and improve frozen stability. In this study, the effects of varying concentrations (0.00%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45%) of okra cell wall (OKW) and its corresponding water-soluble polysaccharide (OKP) on the physical characteristics of ice cream were determined. Ice cream mix viscosity was measured as well as overrun, meltdown, and consumer acceptability. Ice recrystallization was determined after ice cream was subjected to temperature cycling in the range of -10 to -20 °C for 10 cycles. Mix viscosity increased significantly as the concentrations of OKW and OKP increased. The addition of either OKW or OKP at 0.15% to 0.45% significantly improved the melting resistance of ice cream. OKW and OKP at 0.15% did not affect sensory perception score for flavor, texture, and overall liking of the ice cream. OKW and OKP (0.15%) reduced ice crystal growth to 107% and 87%, respectively, as compared to 132% for the control (0.00%). Thus, our results suggested the potential use of OKW and OKP at 0.15% as a stabilizer to control ice cream quality and retard ice recrystallization. OKP, however, at 0.15% exhibited greater effect on viscosity increase and on ice recrystallization inhibition than OKW.

  19. Development of Job’s-tears ice cream recipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Job’s tears ice cream recipe was developed by varying proportions of Job’s tears, sucrose, salt and coconut milk. Product positioning mapping was used to identify the sensory attributes that were drivers of preference, which appeared to be sweetness, smoothness, richness, and coconut milk and Job's-tears flavours of the product. Cluster analysis was used to differentiate consumers by their preference direction. Nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of the final product were also determined.

  20. Connecting the dots between bacterial biofilms and ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley-Wall, Nicola R.; MacPhee, Cait E.

    2015-12-01

    Emerging research is revealing a diverse array of interfacially-active proteins that are involved in varied biological process from foaming horse sweat to bacterial raincoat formation. We describe an interdisciplinary approach to study the molecular and biophysical mechanisms controlling the activity of an unusual bacterial protein called BslA. This protein is needed for biofilm formation and forms a protective layer or raincoat over the bacterial community, but also has a multitude of potential applications in multiphase formulations. Here we document our journey from fundamental research to an examination of the applications for this surface-active protein in ice cream.

  1. Enhancing the functional properties and nutritional quality of ice cream with processed amla (Indian gooseberry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Rajpreet Kaur; Bajwa, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Amla (Indian gooseberry) and its processed products are rich source of vitamin C, phenols, dietary fibre and antioxidants. In contrast, ice cream is a poor source of these phytochemicals and antioxidants; therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to enhance the functional properties and nutritional quality of ice cream with the incorporation of processed amla. Ice cream was prepared using amla shreds, pulp, preserve and candy at 5 to 20 % and powder at 0.5 to 2.0 % levels in ice cream mix prior to freezing. Inclusion of amla products at augmented levels resulted in significant changes in physico-chemical properties and phytochemical content of ice cream. The total solids decreased on addition of shreds and pulp and increased with preserve, candy and powder in ice cream at increasing levels. The functional constituents i.e. fibre, total phenols, tannins, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity increased with greater level of inclusion. Incorporation of processed amla raised the melting resistance of ice cream and decreased the overrun. The samples with 5 % shreds and pulp, 10 % preserve and candy and 0.5 % powder were found to have highest overall acceptability scores. Inclusion of amla in all the forms i.e. shreds, pulp, preserve, candy and powder enhanced the functional properties and nutritional value of ice cream.

  2. Viability of human-derived probiotic lactobacilli in ice cream produced with sucrose and aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başyiğit, Gülden; Kuleaşan, Hakan; Karahan, Aynur G

    2006-09-01

    A mixture of human-derived probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. agilis and L. rhamnosus was used as a probiotic culture in ice cream manufacture. Viability and survival of these probiotic cultures were investigated in two different ice cream formulations. Ice cream with sucrose and ice cream with aspartame were prepared and each of these was divided into two subgroups: one with direct addition of the probiotic culture and one with milk fermented by the same probiotic culture. Ice cream samples were stored at -20 degrees C for 6 months and the survival rate of cultures were determined monthly. Probiotic cultures underwent tests for resistance to bile salts, antibiotics, acidic conditions; they were found to be highly resistant to such challenges. Chemical analysis of ice cream samples, such as determination of acidity, pH and solid matter, was also performed. The probiotic cultures remained unchanged in ice cream stored for up to 6 months regardless of the sweeteners used. Using probiotic cultures in ice cream mixes did not alter the characteristics of the product.

  3. When ice cream was poisonous: adulteration, ptomaines, and bacteriology in the United States, 1850-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Edward

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of ice cream in the nineteenth century, the incidence of foodborne illness attributed to this dessert exploded. Struggling to understand the causes of the mysterious and sometimes lethal ailment called "ice cream poisoning," Victorian doctors and scientists advanced theories including toxic vanilla, galvanism in ice cream freezers, and extreme indigestion. In the late 1880s Victor C. Vaughan's argument that ice cream poisoning could be attributed to the ptomaine "tyrotoxicon" received widespread acceptance. To date historians have neglected the role played by the ptomaine theory of food poisoning in shaping the evolution of both scientific thinking and public health in the late nineteenth century. The case of ice cream poisoning illustrates the emergence, impact, and decline of the ptomaine idea.

  4. Sensory acceptance and survival of probiotic bacteria in ice cream produced with different overrun levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Juliana L; Cruz, Adriano G; Cadena, Rafael S; Freitas, Monica Q; Pinto, Uelinton M; Carvalho, Celio C; Faria, Jose A F; Bolini, Helena M A

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different overrun levels on the sensory acceptance and survival of probiotic bacteria in ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice creams supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus were processed with overruns of 45%, 60%, and 90%. Viable probiotic bacterial counts and sensory acceptance were assessed. All the ice creams presented a minimum count of 6 log CFU/g at the end of 60 d of frozen storage. However, higher overrun levels negatively influenced cell viability, being reported a decrease of 2 log CFU/g for the 90% overrun treatment. In addition, it was not reported an influence about acceptability with respect to appearance, aroma, and taste of the ice creams (P > 0.05). Overall, the results suggest that lower overrun levels should be adopted during the manufacture of ice cream in order to maintain its probiotic status through the shelf life.

  5. Magnesium enriched lactic acid bacteria as a carrier for probiotic ice cream production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Małgorzata; Kozłowicz, Katarzyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula; Góral, Dariusz

    2018-01-15

    The following strains of bacteria: Lactobacillus rhamnosus B 442, Lactobacillus rhamnosus 1937, and Lactococcus lactis JBB 500 were enriched with magnesium ions using Pulsed Electric Fields. The potentially probiotic strains were added to the mixture in the DVS process and applied for the production of ice cream which were then analyzed physicochemically and microbiologically. Results showed that addition of bacteria enriched with magnesium did not change chemical parameters of the ice cream and did not affect the freezing process, meltability, and hardness. No significant differences were noted in colour of the samples. The ice cream with addition of bacteria enriched with magnesium had higher adhesiveness. The results of viability determination showed that the total number of microorganisms in the ice cream was higher than in the starter cultures. Viability of the bacteria enriched with magnesium in the obtained ice cream was lower in comparison to the control samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 40 CFR 405.70 - Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. 405.70 Section 405.70 Protection of... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Mix for Ice Cream and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.70 Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. The...

  7. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Loquasto, Joseph R; Roberts, Robert F; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  8. Rheological properties of reduced fat ice cream mix containing octenyl succinylated pearl millet starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Singh, Ashish K; Yadav, Deep N

    2017-05-01

    The octenyl succinyl anhydride (OSA) esterified pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) starch was evaluated as fat replacer in soft serve ice cream in comparison to other fat replacers viz. inulin, whey protein concentrate-70 and commercial starch. During temperature sweep test, the yield stress and flow behaviour index of un-pasteurized ice cream mixes increased as the temperature increased from 40 to 80 °C, while the consistency index decreased. Consistency index of aged ice cream mixes containing 2% fat replacer was higher as compared to mixes with 1% level. The aged ice cream mixes exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour as flow behaviour index values were less than one. Apparent viscosity (at 50 s(-1) shear rate) of control as well as ice cream mix containing 1% OSA-esterified pearl millet starch samples was 417 and 415 mPas, respectively and did not differ significantly. The overrun of the ice cream (with 5 and 7.5% fat) containing 1 and 2% of above fat replacers ranged between 29.7 and 34.3% and was significantly lower than control (40.3%). The percent melted ice cream was also low for the ice creams containing 2% of above fat replacers at 5% fat content as compared to control. However, sensory acceptability and rheological characteristics of reduced fat ice creams containing 1.0 and 2.0% OSA-esterified pearl millet starch were at par with other fat replacers under the study. Thus, OSA-esterified pearl millet starch has potential to be used as fat replacer in reduced fat ice cream.

  9. Preference direction study of Job’s-tears ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Job's-tears (Coix lachryma-jobi L. is a kind of cereal commonly used in Asia as food and medicine, but it is still not widely consumed in Thailand. Four prototype products of Job’s-tears ice cream were developed by varying 2 levels of glucose syrup (16 and 32% of Job's-tears used and coconut milk (50 and 100 % of Job's-tears used. Their sensory attribute profiles were evaluated by 3 groups of 10 selected panelists using Ratio profile test (RPT, and their acceptances, hedonic scores, were evaluated by 100 consumers. Results showed that there were significant effects of coconut milk quantity on several attributes, such as appearance (whiteness, texture (hardness, smoothness, and flavour (coconut milk aroma, sweetness, saltiness, but the effect of glucose syrup quantity was significant on hardness only. Acceptance data were analyzed by cluster analysis to find out the difference of preference directions and 3 clusters (n1 = 39, n2 = 25, n3 = 36 were found. The first cluster preferred Job's tears ice cream containing high glucose syrup and low coconut milk, whilst the second preferred high level of only one of these two ingredients, and the third preferred high level of both ingredients. External preference maps were created from RPT and acceptance data to express the preference direction of each cluster.

  10. Studies on Physical and Sensory Properties of Premium Vanilla Ice Cream Distributed in Korean Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Jung; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the difference in physical and sensory properties of various premium ice creams. The physical properties of the various ice creams were compared by manufacturing brand. The water contents of the samples differed, with BR having the highest value at 60.5%, followed by NT and CS at 57.8% and 56.9%, respectively. The higher the water content, the lower Brix and milk fat contents in all samples. The density of the samples showed almost similar values in all samples (p>0.05). The viscosity of each ice cream had no effect on the water content in any of the brands. Before melting of the ice cream, the total color difference was dependent on the lightness, especially in the vanilla ice cream, owing to the reflection of light on the surface of the ice crystals. The CS product melted the fastest. In the sensory test, CS obtained a significantly higher sweetness intensity score but a lower score for color intensity, probably due to the smaller difference in total color, by which consumers might consider the color of CS as less intense. From this study, the cold chain system for ice cream distribution might be important to decide the physical properties although the concentration of milk fat is key factor in premium ice cream.

  11. Cold pleasure. Why we like ice drinks, ice-lollies and ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, R; Du-Plessis, L; Dommels, Y; Wilkinson, J E

    2013-12-01

    This review discusses how the ingestion of cold foods and drinks may be perceived as pleasant because of the effects of cooling of the mouth. The case is made that man has originated from a tropical environment and that cold stimuli applied to the external skin may initiate thermal discomfort and reflexes such as shivering and vasoconstriction that defend body temperature, whereas cold stimuli applied to the mouth are perceived as pleasant because of pleasure associated with satiation of thirst and a refreshing effect. Cold water is preferred to warm water as a thirst quencher and cold products such as ice cream may also be perceived as pleasant because oral cooling satiates thirst. The case is made that cold stimuli may be perceived differently in the skin and oral mucosa, leading to different effects on temperature regulation, and perception of pleasure or displeasure, depending on the body temperature and the temperature of the external environment.

  12. Physicochemical and sensory properties of ice-cream formulated with virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, S Y; Leong, S K; Henna Lu, F S

    2010-12-01

    The substitution of milk fat with virgin coconut oil (VCO) was used to produce nutritious ice cream with pleasant coconut flavor and aroma. Three formulations were developed whereby formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 was substituted with 4%, 8% and 12% of VCO, respectively. The physicochemical properties of ice creams analyzed include overrun, meltdown, pH, titratable acidity, total solid, protein and fat content. The fatty acids profile of VCO formulated ice creams and their stabilities over 3 and 6 weeks storage were studied respectively using gas chromatography (GC). Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and consumer affective test were performed among the trained and untrained panelists. Significant differences (p ice cream formulations were observed except titratable acidity. Increased VCO content in ice cream formulations lowered the melting resistance of ice cream. For GC analysis, the major fatty acid identified was lauric acid. Upon storage time, the concentration of unsaturated fatty acid decreased but the concentration of saturated fatty acid increased. The result of QDA showed that formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 were significantly (p ice cream. Formulation VCO12 was highly accepted by panelists in terms of the acceptance level of appearance, aroma, texture, flavor and overall acceptability. Hence, it has a potential marketable value.

  13. Preparation and quality characterization of soy milk based non-dairy ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Ahsan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soy milk made from soybean has prospective to be used as a substitute of milk due to its health benefits. It is a rich source of iso-flavones, omega-3-fatty acid, dietary fiber, vitamin C, carotenoids, protein and oligosaccharides. The current study was designed to examine the effects of galacto-manan on ice cream by using commercially available (silk and locally prepared soy milk. Galacto-mannan (guar gum was used in different concentration (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6% for the preparation of ice cream. Ice cream was analyzed for physico-chemical and sensory characteristics at 0, 30 and 60 days of storage interval. Overrun, meltdown, viscosity, total solids, pH and acidity were affected significantly by ice cream samples as well as storage. While non-significant effects of stabilizer and storage were found on fat, protein, and ash contents of ice cream. On organoleptic evaluation, the highest scores were awarded to the ice cream sample prepared with 0.5% of guar gum. Ice cream manufactured with locally prepared soy milk and guar gum revealed comparable quality with lower cost.

  14. Development of formulations and processes to incorporate wax oleogels in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of emulsifiers, waxes, fat concentration, and processing conditions on the application of wax oleogel to replace solid fat content and create optimal fat structure in ice cream. Ice creams with 10% or 15% fat were formulated with rice bran wax (RBW), candelilla wax (CDW), or carnauba wax (CBW) oleogels, containing 10% wax and 90% high-oleic sunflower oil. The ice creams were produced using batch or continuous freezing processes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the microstructure of ice cream and the ultrastructure of oleogel droplets in ice cream mixes. Among the wax oleogels, RBW oleogel had the ability to form and sustain structure in 15% fat ice creams when glycerol monooleate (GMO) was used as the emulsifier. TEM images revealed that the high degree of fat structuring observed in GMO samples was associated with the RBW crystal morphology within the fat droplet, which was characterized by the growth of crystals at the outer edge of the droplet. Continuous freezing improved fat structuring compared to batch freezing. RBW oleogels established better structure compared to CDW or CBW oleogels. These results demonstrate that RBW oleogel has the potential to develop fat structure in ice cream in the presence of GMO and sufficiently high concentrations of oleogel.

  15. Functionality of kumquat (Fortunella margarita) in the production of fruity ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakmakçı, Songül; Topdaş, Elif Feyza; Çakır, Yusuf; Kalın, Pınar

    2016-03-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of kumquat (Fortunella margarita) on the quality characteristics of ice cream. Kumquat paste (KP) was added to an ice cream mix at four concentrations, 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15% (w/w), for ice cream production. The increment of KP level caused an increase in acidity, vitamin C content, b* value and overrun value compared with the control ice cream. The apparent viscosity of samples decreased with the addition of KP at concentrations of 5 and 10% compared with the control. Results indicated that lyophilized water extract of KP (LKE) contained remarkable phenolic compounds. It was observed that LKE exhibited moderate in vitro antioxidant capacity. KP enhanced the color, flavor, vitamin C content and Mg and K contents of the ice cream. The addition of KP positively affected the sensory properties. KP may be used as a suitable source of natural color and flavor agent in ice cream production. KP enhanced the vitamin C content and Mg and K contents of ice cream and improved its sensory properties. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Properties of ice-cream fortified with zinc and Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheisari, Hamid R; Ahadi, Leila; Khezli, Sanaz; Dehnavi, Tayebeh

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the possible effects of zinc on physicochemical properties of ice cream and the survival of Lactobacillus casei during a 90 days storage at -18°C was investigated. Samples were divided into four experimental groups as follows: control, zinc fortified ice cream, probiotic ice cream, zinc fortified and probiotic ice cream. The physicochemical, texture, organoleptic properties and the survival of probiotics, were investigated. Results showed that the addition of zinc did not affect the textural properties of ice creams. Viscosity and pH were independently decreased in all groups in the presence of zinc. A significant increase in the lipid oxidation rate especially in the zinc fortified group was also observed. The probiotic counts were maintained above the least advised quantities (106 cfu/g) which were subsequently reduced following the three months of storage. In the zinc fortified samples, the counts were higher compared to the other groups with no zinc addition. The addition of probiotics and zinc had no significant effect on the sensory properties of ice cream. As a final conclusion, the commercial production of zinc fortified ice cream is recommended.

  17. Preparation and quality characterization of soy milk based non-dairy ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Ahsan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soy milk made from soybean has prospective to be used as a substitute of milk due to its health benefits. It is a rich source of iso-flavones, omega-3-fatty acid, dietary fiber, vitamin C, carotenoids, protein and oligosaccharides. The current study was designed to examine the effects of galacto-manan on ice cream by using commercially available (silk and locally prepared soy milk. Galacto-mannan (guar gum was used in different concentration (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6% for the preparation of ice cream. Ice cream was analyzed for physico-chemical and sensory characteristics at 0, 30 and 60 days of storage interval. Overrun, meltdown, viscosity, total solids, pH and acidity were affected significantly by ice cream samples as well as storage. While non-significant effects of stabilizer and storage were found on fat, protein, and ash contents of ice cream. On organoleptic evaluation, the highest scores were awarded to the ice cream sample prepared with 0.5% of guar gum. Ice cream manufactured with locally prepared soy milk and guar gum revealed comparable quality with lower cost.

  18. Calcium absorption from fortified ice cream formulations compared with calcium absorption from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hee, Regine M; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Rietveld, Anton G; Wilkinson, Joy E; Quail, Patricia J; Berry, Mark J; Dainty, Jack R; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2009-05-01

    Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fortified ice cream formulation that is lower in fat than regular ice cream and could provide a useful source of additional dietary calcium. Calcium absorption from two different ice cream formulations was determined in young adults and compared with milk. Sixteen healthy volunteers (25 to 45 years of age), recruited from the general public of The Netherlands, participated in a randomized, reference-controlled, double-blind cross-over study in which two test products and milk were consumed with a light standard breakfast on three separate occasions: a standard portion of ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a low level (3%) of butter fat, ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a typical level (9%) of coconut oil, and reduced-fat milk (1.7% milk fat) (200 mL). Calcium absorption was measured by the dual-label stable isotope technique. Effects on calcium absorption were evaluated by analysis of variance. Fractional absorption of calcium from the 3% butterfat ice cream, 9% coconut oil ice cream, and milk was 26%+/-8%, 28%+/-5%, and 31%+/-9%, respectively, and did not differ significantly (P=0.159). Results indicate that calcium bioavailability in the two calcium-fortified ice cream formulations used in this study is as high as milk, indicating that ice cream may be a good vehicle for delivery of calcium.

  19. A review of modern instrumental techniques for measurements of ice cream characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahram-Parvar, Maryam

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing demand of the food industries and research institutes to have means of measurement allowing the characterization of foods. Ice cream, as a complex food system, consists of a frozen matrix containing air bubbles, fat globules, ice crystals, and an unfrozen serum phase. Some deficiencies in conventional methods for testing this product encourage the use of alternative techniques such as rheometry, spectroscopy, X-ray, electro-analytical techniques, ultrasound, and laser. Despite the development of novel instrumental applications in food science, use of some of them in ice cream testing is few, but has shown promising results. Developing the novel methods should increase our understanding of characteristics of ice cream and may allow online testing of the product. This review article discusses the potential of destructive and non-destructive methodologies in determining the quality and characteristics of ice cream and similar products.

  20. Evaluation of soluble solids content and pH of ice cream treated with gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, V.D.; Nunes, T.C.F.; Fabbri, A.D.T.; Sagretti, J.M.; Sabato, S.F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The ice cream is considered an aerated suspension of fat and ice crystals in a concentrated sugar solution containing hydrocolloids, proteins and casein micelles. Only in Brazil, in the year 2010, it was produced 1120 million liter of ice cream and due to high demand by the consumers, this is considered the most important product of the dairy industry. The objective of this work is to evaluate the soluble solids content (SSC) and the hydrogenionic potential (pH) of vanilla ice cream conditioned in isothermal boxes irradiated with 3.0 and 5.0 kGy in the Multipurpose Irradiator of {sup 60}Co located at IPEN - CNEN/SP. It can be concluded that the treatment of ice cream with gamma radiation did not cause changes in the analyzed parameters. . (author)

  1. Development of ice cream based sugar cane juice and sensory evaluation with children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pedro da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a tasty and nutritious source of protein and calcium, but it is deficient in some minerals, as iron, but it is found in sugar cane juice, which is a source of minerals such as iron, phosphorus, calcium, sodium among others. The objective of the present study are: to develop sugar cane juice ice cream, in order to increase the mineral content replacing refined sugar and water during the manufacturing process by sugar cane juice; to analyze its physical-chemical composition; to check your sensory acceptance with children. Three formulations were prepared from sugar cane juice ice cream: sugar cane juice ice cream (SC, sugar cane juice ice cream with molasses (SCM and sugar cane juice ice cream with brown sugar (SCR. Sensory evaluation was conducted with 120 children (62 boys and 58 girls from 8 to 10 years old, students from 3rd to 5th years of primary school. Sensory tests were ordering-preference, intention to use and acceptance with facial hedonic scale of 7 points. The results of physico-chemical and acceptance testing were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, the scores compared by Tukey test (p ? 0.05 and the result of the sensory test ordering-preference were assessed using the Friedman. The ice cream it presents has a reduced fat content because it was formulated with palm trans-fat free. The use of sugar cane juice in the formulation of the ice cream increased the amount of minerals when compared to ordinary ice cream. Therefore, sugar cane juice ice cream demonstrated to be more healthy and nutritious compared with traditional ice cream, besides being source of calcium, iron and phosphorus; serving the needs of the recommended daily intake (IDR for children from 7 to 10 years old. About the sensory evaluation, all formulations of sugar cane juice ice cream obtained great sensory acceptance among children in all sensory attributes evaluated, showing excellent percentages of acceptance and intention to use by

  2. Delicious ice Creams in Plain Awful. Why does salt thaw ice?

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Plain Awful is an imaginary valley on the Andes populated by a highly-imitative, cubical people for which the most criminal offence is to exhibit round objects. The duck family (Scrooge, Donald and nephews) are teaming against Scrooge's worst enemy, Flintheart Glomgold, trying to buy the famous Plain Awful square eggs. Inadvertently, Scrooge violates the taboo, showing his Number One Dime, and is imprisoned in the stone quarries. He can be released only after the presentation of an ice cream ...

  3. Effects of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil and whipping time on qualities of milk ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrit Thaiudom

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualities of ice cream are based on air cells, ice crystals and fat particles, which are the important parts to build up a good structure of ice cream. Ice cream whipping time also affects the ice cream qualities.This study focused on effects of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil, whipping time, and their interaction on ice cream mix viscosity, overrun, air cell size, fat destabilization, hardness, melting rate, and shape retention ofice cream. Ice creams with ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil at 100:0, 50:50, 0:100 and whipping time at 15 and 20 min were produced and determined for their qualities. The results showed that ratio of milk fat to soybean oil affected all qualities of ice cream, while duration of whipping time influenced the overrun and air cell size. The interaction of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil and whipping time affected only overrun. Ice creammix with ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil 100:0 showed the highest apparent viscosity and hardness and the biggest air cell size. Whipping time of ice cream for 20 min showed a bigger size of air cells than the whippingtime for 15 min (p < 0.05. These results can be applied to the manufacture of modified ice cream.

  4. Delicious ice Creams in Plain Awful. Why does salt thaw ice?

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Plain Awful is an imaginary valley on the Andes populated by a highly-imitative, cubical people for which the most criminal offence is to exhibit round objects. The duck family (Scrooge, Donald and nephews) are teaming against Scrooge's worst enemy, Flintheart Glomgold, trying to buy the famous Plain Awful square eggs. Inadvertently, Scrooge violates the taboo, showing his Number One Dime, and is imprisoned in the stone quarries. He can be released only after the presentation of an ice cream soda to the President of Plain Awful. Donald and his nephews fly with Flintheart to deliver it, but Scrooge's enemy, of course, betrays the previous agreement after getting the ice cream, forcing the ducks into making an emergence replacement on the spot. Using dried milk, sugar and chocolate from their ration packs, plus some snow and salt for cooling they are able make the ice cream, and after dressing it with the carbonated water from a fire extinguisher they finally manage to produce the desired dessert. This comic ma...

  5. Frequency of Bacterial Frequency of Bacterial Contamination in Traditional Ice Cream Produced in Arak, Iran (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaei, M. (MSc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Ice cream is a suitable environment for microbial growth due to its chemical structure, ingredients, and its increased supply and demand. In the absence of hygienic considerations, it can cause poisoning. This study aimed to determine bacterial contamination in traditional ice cream produced in Arak city in 2011. Material and Methods: The samples (n= 30 were randomly obtained from different parts of Arak in, 2011. The Samples were shipped in cold conditions and total count of microorganisms test was performed according to Iranian national standards. Results: In 16.66%, the microbial contamination was below the limit of microbial load (5×104, and in 83.3% the contamination was more than allowed level. Conclusion: This study highlights the dire situation for bacterial contamination of traditional ice cream in Arak city. Keywords: Arak, Ice Cream, Microbial Contamination

  6. Effect of Microbial Transglutaminase on Ice Cream Heat Resistance Properties – a Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprzyk Iwona

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the addition of transglutaminase (TG preparation Saprovia L ® (PMT TRADING Co. Ltd, Lodz, Poland on the properties of ice cream with 40 g/kg and 70 g/kg fat content. TG was added at a concentration of 2 U/g protein. We studied the effect of transglutaminase on fresh and 3-month-stored at -25°C ice cream. Ice cream mixes were prepared with 5 g/kg stabilizer. Melting test was performed after thermal shocks until the “1st drop” occurrence. The amount of effluent was measured within the 0-120 min time frame. We evaluated the appearance of the samples and carried out the TPA and compression analysis. The addition of the enzyme has increased the resistance of stored ice cream to repeated thermal shocks.

  7. Sensorial and fatty acid profile of ice cream manufactured with milk of crossbred cows fed palm oil and coconut fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, S A S; Madrona, G S; Visentainer, J V; Bonafe, E G; Carvalho, C B; Roche, P M; Prado, I N

    2014-11-01

    This work was carried out to study the nutritional quality of milk of cows fed palm oil (PAL) or coconut fat (COC), and the use of that milk as raw material for ice cream production. Three treatments were tested with 23 healthy cows: control (CON), PAL, and COC. The milk was collected at d 21 and 36 of the experimental diet. Proximate composition (moisture, ash, fat, protein, and carbohydrates) and fatty acid composition were evaluated on milk and ice cream, and sensorial analysis, color (lightness, green/red, and blue/yellow), overrun, and texture were evaluated on the ice cream. Fatty acids present in milk and ice cream were determined by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis results showed that the ice cream acceptability index was above 70%. No difference was observed for proximate composition in milk and ice cream. Chromatographic analysis showed an increase in saturated fatty acid concentration in CON and lower levels in PAL; polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration was higher in PAL and lower in CON, in milk and ice cream; monounsaturated fatty acid concentration in milk was higher in PAL and lower in CON but no difference was found in ice cream. Comparing n-3 content in milk and ice cream, we observed that PAL had higher levels than CON and COC. The results indicate that it is feasible to add sources of fat to the animal feed for fatty acid composition modulation of milk and ice cream.

  8. Effect of fat content on the physical properties and consumer acceptability of vanilla ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolon, M Laura; Bakke, Alyssa J; Coupland, John N; Hayes, John E; Roberts, Robert F

    2017-07-01

    Ice cream is a complex food matrix that contains multiple physical phases. Removal of 1 ingredient may affect not only its physical properties but also multiple sensory characteristics that may or may not be important to consumers. Fat not only contributes to texture, mouth feel, and flavor, but also serves as a structural element. We evaluated the effect of replacing fat with maltodextrin (MD) on select physical properties of ice cream and on consumer acceptability. Vanilla ice creams were formulated to contain 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14% fat, and the difference was made up with 8, 6, 4, 2, and 0% maltodextrin, respectively, to balance the mix. Physical characterization included measurements of overrun, apparent viscosity, fat particle size, fat destabilization, hardness, and melting rate. A series of sensory tests were conducted to measure liking and the intensity of various attributes. Tests were also conducted after 19 weeks of storage at -18°C to assess changes in acceptance due to prolonged storage at unfavorable temperatures. Then, discrimination tests were performed to determine which differences in fat content were detectable by consumers. Mix viscosity decreased with increasing fat content and decreasing maltodextrin content. Fat particle size and fat destabilization significantly increased with increasing fat content. However, acceptability did not differ significantly across the samples for fresh or stored ice cream. Following storage, ice creams with 6, 12, and 14% fat did not differ in acceptability compared with fresh ice cream. However, the 8% fat, 6% MD and 10% fat, 4% MD ice creams showed a significant drop in acceptance after storage relative to fresh ice cream at the same fat content. Consumers were unable to detect a difference of 2 percentage points in fat level between 6 and 12% fat. They were able to detect a difference of 4 percentage points for ice creams with 6% versus 10%, but not for those with 8% versus 12% fat. Removing fat and replacing

  9. High hydrostatic pressure modification of whey protein concentrate for improved body and texture of lowfat ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S-Y; Swanson, B G; Ross, C F; Clark, S

    2008-04-01

    Previous research demonstrated that application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), particularly at 300 MPa for 15 min, can enhance foaming properties of whey protein concentrate (WPC). The purpose of this research was to determine the practical impact of HHP-treated WPC on the body and texture of lowfat ice cream. Washington State University (WSU)-WPC was produced by ultrafiltration of fresh separated whey received from the WSU creamery. Commercial whey protein concentrate 35 (WPC 35) powder was reconstituted to equivalent total solids as WSU-WPC (8.23%). Three batches of lowfat ice cream mix were produced to contain WSU-WPC without HHP, WSU-WPC with HHP (300 MPa for 15 min), and WPC 35 without HHP. All lowfat ice cream mixes contained 10% WSU-WPC or WPC 35. Overrun and foam stability of ice cream mixes were determined after whipping for 15 min. Ice creams were produced using standard ice cream ingredients and processing. The hardness of ice creams was determined with a TA-XT2 texture analyzer. Sensory evaluation by balanced reference duo-trio test was carried out using 52 volunteers. The ice cream mix containing HHP-treated WSU-WPC exhibited the greatest overrun and foam stability, confirming the effect of HHP on foaming properties of whey proteins in a complex system. Ice cream containing HHP-treated WSU-WPC exhibited significantly greater hardness than ice cream produced with untreated WSU-WPC or WPC 35. Panelists were able to distinguish between ice cream containing HHP-treated WSU-WPC and ice cream containing untreated WPC 35. Improvements of overrun and foam stability were observed when HHP-treated whey protein was used at a concentration as low as 10% (wt/wt) in ice cream mix. The impact of HHP on the functional properties of whey proteins was more pronounced than the impact on sensory properties.

  10. Enrichment of functional properties of ice cream with pomegranate by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çam, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Fatma; Aslan, Duygu; Dinç, Merve

    2013-10-01

    Pomegranate peel rich in phenolics, and pomegranate seed which contain a conjugated fatty acid namely punicic acid in lipid fraction remain as by-products after processing the fruit into juice. Ice cream is poor in polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolics, therefore, this study was conducted to improve the functional properties of ice cream by incorporating pomegranate peel phenolics and pomegranate seed oil. Incorporation of the peel phenolics into ice cream at the levels of 0.1% and 0.4% (w/w) resulted in significant changes in the pH, total acidity, and color of the samples. The most prominent outcomes of phenolic incorporation were sharp improvements in antioxidant and antidiabetic activities as well as the phenolic content of ice creams. Replacement of pomegranate seed oil by milk fat at the levels of 2.0% and 4.0% (w/w) increased the conjugated fatty acid content. However, perception of oxidized flavor increased with the additional seed oil. When one considers the functional and nutritional improvements in the enrichment of the ice cream together with overall acceptability results of the sensory analysis, then it follows from this study that ice creams enriched with pomegranate peel phenolics up to 0.4% (w/w) and pomegranate seed oil up to 2.0% (w/w) could be introduced to markets as functional ice cream. Enrichment of ice creams with pomegranate by-products might provide consumers health benefits with striking functional properties of punicalagins in pomegranate peel, and punicic acid in pomegranate seed oil.

  11. The implementation of HACCP management system in a chocolate ice cream plant

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    To guarantee the safety of chocolate ice cream production, the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system was applied to the production process. The biological, chemical, and physical hazards that may exist in every step of chocolate ice cream production were identified. In addition, the critical control points were selected and the critical limits, monitoring, corrective measures, records, and verifications were established. The critical control points, which include pasteurizati...

  12. Staphylococcus aureus food-poisoning outbreak associated with the consumption of ice-cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetsch, A; Contzen, M; Hartelt, K; Kleiser, A; Maassen, S; Rau, J; Kraushaar, B; Layer, F; Strommenger, B

    2014-09-18

    In April 2013, a food poisoning outbreak caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in ice-cream occurred in Freiburg, Germany, among the 31 participants of a christening party. Of the 13 cases, seven were hospitalized or obtained ambulatory treatment. Different types of ice-cream, which was freshly produced at the hotel where the party took place, were found to contain SE and high amounts of coagulase positive staphylococci. Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ice-cream and human cases were of the same spa-type (t127), harboured the sea gene and displayed identical phenotypic resistance-, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy- (FT-IR) and microarray-profiles. Despite the strong microbiological and epidemiological evidence of ice-cream being the incriminated food vehicle of the outbreak, a common source of S. aureus from the ice-cream could not be deduced. As none of the employees carried the outbreak strain, either the equipment used for the production of the ice-cream or a contaminated ingredient is the most likely introduction source.

  13. Effect of Porcine Collagen Peptides on the Rheological and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liying; Kim, Jae-Hyeong; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Min, Sang-Gi; Chun, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The effects of low molecular-weight collagen peptides derived from porcine skin were investigated on the physicochemical and sensorial properties of chocolate ice cream. Collagen peptides less than 1 kDa in weight were obtained by sub-critical water hydrolysis at a temperature of 300℃ and a pressure of 80 bar. Ice cream was then prepared with gelatin powder and porcine skin hydrolysate (PSH) stabilizers mixed at seven different ratios (for a total of 0.5 wt%). There was no significant difference in color between the resulting ice cream mixtures. The increase in apparent viscosity and shear thinning of the ice cream was more moderate with PSH added than with gelatin. Moreover, the samples containing more than 0.2 wt% PSH had enhanced melting resistance, while the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH had the lowest storage modulus at -20℃ and the second highest loss modulus at 10℃, indicating that this combination of hydrocolloids leads to relatively softer and creamier chocolate ice cream. Among the seven types of ice creams tested, the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH and 0.3 wt% gelatin had the best physicochemical properties. However, in sensory evaluations, the samples containing PSH had lower chocolate flavor scores and higher off-flavor scores than the sample prepared with just 0.5 wt% gelatin due to the strong off-flavor of PSH.

  14. Chemical properties and sensory quality of ice cream fortified with fish protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviklo, Gholam Reza; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun; Rafipour, Fereidon

    2011-05-01

    Fish protein powder is a functional ingredient that can be used for enhancing the nutritional value of food products. In this study the effect of fortification with different levels of fish protein powder (FP) on chemical properties and sensory quality of Persian ice cream with 0, 30 and 50 g kg(-1) FP during storage at - 18 °C for 4 months was investigated. Ice creams fortified with 50 and 30 g kg(-1) FP had significantly higher protein and solid-non-fat content than ice cream with 0% FP or 83, 69 and 51 g kg(-1) protein and 215, 204 and 181 g kg(-1) solid non-fat, respectively. All products had the same levels of fat, lactose, acidity and pH. They had similar sensory quality after production except for colour, but sensory properties of fortified samples changed significantly after 2 months of storage. Colour faded, cohesiveness decreased, sandiness/coarseness increased, sweetness decreased and fish flavour and off-odour increased. The control ice cream scored highest for additives odour and flavour. Development of ice cream fortified with fish protein powder could be an effective way to enhance nutritional and functional value of ice cream. But studies on storage stability, consumers' acceptance and attitudes are recommended if companies are planning to do so. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Perception of melting and flavor release of ice cream containing different types and contents of fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvönen, L; Linna, M; Tuorila, H; Dijksterhuis, G

    2003-04-01

    Temporal effects of dairy and vegetable fats (0 to 18%) on perception of strawberry flavor release and melting of ice cream were studied using the time intensity sensory method. Also, aroma and flavor attributes of the ice cream samples were evaluated. Only slight effects of fat on the rate of flavor release and flavor intensity were perceived. A slightly faster flavor release from the vegetable fat compared with dairy fat was noticed. Polydextrose and maltodextrin as bodying agents in the fat-free ice cream significantly increased flavor release and melting rate of the ice cream. Increasing fat content slightly retarded melting of ice cream in the mouth. No significant effect of the fat quality on perceived melting was noticed. Significant differences in aroma and flavor attributes of the fat-free and other samples were perceived. Intensity and sharpness of the strawberry aroma and flavor were greater in fat-free samples and they were perceived as nontypical. Fattiness and creaminess were highly correlated. Maltodextrin and polydextrose increased perceived fattiness and creaminess of fat-free ice cream.

  16. Effect of fat level on the perception of five flavor chemicals in ice cream with or without fat mimetics by using a descriptive test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, B K; Grün, I U

    2007-10-01

    Fat mimetics are commonly used in the manufacture of low-fat and fat-free ice creams. However, the use of fat mimetics affects flavor and texture characteristics of ice cream, which results in decreased overall acceptability by consumers. The initial objective of this study was to investigate the release behavior of 5 strawberry flavor compounds in ice creams with Simplesse((R)), Litesse((R)), and Litesse((R))/Simplesse((R)) mixes using descriptive analysis. Fat mimetics and flavor formulation significantly influenced the perception of Furaneoltrade mark (cooked sugar flavor), alpha-ionone (violet flavor), and gamma-undecalactone (peach flavor), but there was no interaction between ice cream type and flavor formulation for the 3 flavors. Furaneol and ethyl-3-methyl-3-phenylglycidate (candy flavor) were perceived more strongly in full-fat ice cream, while cis-3-hexen-1-ol (grassy flavor), alpha-ionone, and gamma-undecalactone were perceived more strongly in low-fat ice cream. Ice creams with Simplesse and full-fat ice cream had similar sensory characteristics, while ice creams with Litesse were similar to low-fat ice creams in flavor characteristics, and ice creams with Litesse/Simplesse mixes were closer in flavor profile to low-fat ice cream but had similar texture properties to those of full-fat ice cream. Simplesse was found to be a better fat mimetic for duplicating the flavor profiles and mouthfeel of full-fat ice cream.

  17. Regenerator-based thermoacoustic refrigerator for ice cream storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poese, Matthew E.; Smith, Robert W. M.; Garrett, Steven L.

    2003-10-01

    A regenerator-based chiller has been built in the ``bellows bounce'' style [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 15 (2002)] to replace the vapor compression system in an ice cream sales cabinet. It utilizes a 6-in.-diam metal bellows to form a compliant cavity that contains the dynamic pressure oscillation (>50 kPa). The stiffness of the gas trapped in the bellows is resonated against the mass of the bellows-cap and the mass of a moving-magnet linear motor which is capable of high (>85%) electro-acoustic efficiency. A second resonator, operated well below its natural frequency, uses the gas stiffness of a 1-l volume nested within the bellows and the inertia of an ordinary loudspeaker cone to create the pressure difference across the regenerator that drives gas flow that is in-phase with pressure. The mass of the cone can be adjusted to vary the multiplication factor that is typically 5%-10% greater than the dynamic pressure within the bellows. The loudspeaker cone suffers none of the hydrodynamic losses associated with an acoustic inertance and eliminates problems with dc gas flow in the energy feedback path. The cold heat exchanger forms one surface of the pressure vessel permitting direct contact with any thermal load. [Work supported by Ben and Jerry's Homemade.

  18. Cleaning frequency and the microbial load in ice-cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sonya; Toma, Ramses B; Reiboldt, Wendy; Newcomer, Chris; Calicchia, Melissa

    2002-07-01

    This study investigates the efficacy of a 62 h cleaning frequency in the manufacturing of ice-cream. Various product and product contact surfaces were sampled progressively throughout the time period between cleaning cycles, and analyzed for microbial growth. The coliform and standard plate counts (SPC) of these samples did not vary significantly over time after 0, 24, 48, or 62 h from Cleaning in Place (CiP). Data for product contact surfaces were significant for the SPC representing sample locations. Some of the variables in cleaning practices had significant influence on microbial loads. An increase in the number of flavors manufactured caused a decrease in SPC within the 24 h interval, but by the 48 h interval the SPC increased. More washouts within the first 24 h interval were favorable, as indicated by decreased SPC. The more frequently the liquefier was sanitized within the 62 h interval, the lower the SPC. This study indicates that food safety was not compromised and safety practices were effectively implemented throughout the process.

  19. Effect of Frozen Storage Temperature on the Quality of Premium Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Geun-Pyo; Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The market sales of premium ice cream have paralleled the growth in consumer desire for rich flavor and taste. Storage temperature is a major consideration in preserving the quality attributes of premium ice cream products for both the manufacturer and retailers during prolonged storage. We investigated the effect of storage temperature (-18℃, -30℃, -50℃, and -70℃) and storage times, up to 52 wk, on the quality attributes of premium ice cream. Quality attributes tested included ice crystal size, air cell size, melting resistance, and color. Ice crystal size increased from 40.3 μm to 100.1 μm after 52 wk of storage at -18℃. When ice cream samples were stored at -50℃ or -70℃, ice crystal size slightly increased from 40.3 μm to 57-58 μm. Initial air cell size increased from 37.1 μm to 87.7 μm after storage at -18℃ for 52 wk. However, for storage temperatures of -50℃ and -70℃, air cell size increased only slightly from 37.1 μm to 46-47 μm. Low storage temperature (-50℃ and -70℃) resulted in better melt resistance and minimized color changes in comparison to high temperature storage (-18℃ and -30℃). In our study, quality changes in premium ice cream were gradually minimized according to decrease in storage temperature up to-50℃. No significant beneficial effect of -70℃ storage was found in quality attributes. In the scope of our experiment, we recommend a storage temperature of -50℃ to preserve the quality attributes of premium ice cream.

  20. Structural, compositional, and sensorial properties of United States commercial ice cream products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Maya M; Hartel, Richard W

    2014-10-01

    Commercial vanilla ice cream products from the United States (full fat, low fat, and nonfat) were analyzed for their structural, behavioral (i.e., melt rate and drip-through), compositional, and sensorial attributes. Mean size distributions of ice crystals and air cells, drip-through rates, percent partially coalesced fat, percent overrun and total fat, and density were determined. A trained panel carried out sensory analyses in order to determine correlations between ice cream microstructure attributes and sensory properties using a Spectrum(TM) descriptive analysis. Analyses included melt rate, breakdown, size of ice particulates (iciness), denseness, greasiness, and overall creaminess. To determine relationships and interactions, principle component analysis and multivariate pairwise correlation were performed within and between the instrumental and sensorial data. Greasiness and creaminess negatively correlated with drip-through rate and creaminess correlated with percent total fat and percent fat destabilization. Percent fat did not determine the melt rate on a sensorial level. However, drip-through rate at ambient temperatures was predicted by total fat content of the samples. Based on sensory analysis, high-fat products were noted to be creamier than low and nonfat products. Iciness did not correlate with mean ice crystal size and drip-through rate did not predict sensory melt rate. Furthermore, on a sensorial level, greasiness positively correlated with total percent fat destabilization and mean air cell size positively correlated with denseness. These results indicate that commercial ice cream products vary widely in composition, structure, behavior, and sensory properties. There is a wide range of commercial ice creams in the United States market, ranging from full fat to nonfat. In this research we showed that these ice creams vary greatly in their microstructures, behaviors (the melt/drip-though, collapse, and/or stand up properties of ice cream

  1. Manufacture of ice cream with improved microbiological safety by using gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Ham, Jun-Sang; Byun, Myung-Woo; Baek, Min; Jo, Cheorun; Shin, Myung-Gon

    2009-07-01

    Children suffered from leukemia want to eat delicious dishes, such as cake and ice cream. However, it is very difficult to serve these foods to immune-compromised patients without application of any adequate sanitary measures. This study was conducted to evaluate application of irradiation to frozen ready-to-eat food, ice cream. Three ice creams with flavors of vanilla, chocolate and strawberry were manufactured and gamma irradiated at the absorbed doses of 1, 3, and 5 kGy at -70 °C. Total microflora and coliform bacteria were determined, and Listeria spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were also tested by the use of API 20E Kit. Aerobic bacteria, yeast/mold and coliforms were contaminated in the levels of 2.3 to 3.3, 2.3 to 2.7 and 1.7 to 2.4 log CFU/g, respectively. In samples irradiated at 5 kGy, the growth of any microorganisms could not be observed. Listeria spp. and E. coli were detected at non-irradiated samples, but S. spp. was not existed. D10 values of L. ivanovii and E. coli were 0.75 and 0.31 kGy, respectively, in ice cream. From these results, irradiation technology can reduce the risk by the food-borne pathogens of ice cream.

  2. Reward sensitivity predicts ice cream-related attentional bias assessed by inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Tao, Qian; Fang, Ya; Cheng, Chen; Hao, Yangyang; Qi, Jianjun; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2015-06-01

    The cognitive mechanism underlying the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving is unknown. The present study explored the mechanism by examining the role of reward sensitivity in attentional bias toward ice cream cues. Forty-nine college students who displayed high level of ice cream craving (HICs) and 46 who displayed low level of ice cream craving (LICs) performed an inattentional blindness (IB) task which was used to assess attentional bias for ice cream. In addition, reward sensitivity and coping style were assessed by the Behavior Inhibition System/Behavior Activation System Scales and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. Results showed significant higher identification rate of the critical stimulus in the HICs than LICs, suggesting greater attentional bias for ice cream in the HICs. It was indicated that attentional bias for food cues persisted even under inattentional condition. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the attentional bias and reward sensitivity after controlling for coping style, and reward sensitivity predicted attentional bias for food cues. The mediation analyses showed that attentional bias mediated the relationship between reward sensitivity and food craving. Those findings suggest that the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving may be attributed to attentional bias for food-related cues.

  3. Development of a full ice-cream cone model for halo CME structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2015-04-01

    The determination of three dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, source location) of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) is very important for space weather forecast. To estimate these parameters, several cone models based on a flat cone or a shallow ice-cream cone with spherical front have been suggested. In this study, we investigate which cone model is proper for halo CME morphology using 33 CMEs which are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or STEREO-A or B) and as limb CMEs by the other ones. From geometrical parameters of these CMEs such as their front curvature, we find that near full ice-cream cone CMEs (28 events) are dominant over shallow ice-cream cone CMEs (5 events). So we develop a new full ice-cream cone model by assuming that a full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. This model is carried out by the following steps: (1) construct a cone for given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection points with the observed ones. We apply this model to several halo CMEs and compare the results with those from other methods such as a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model and a geometrical triangulation method.

  4. Influence of high power ultrasound on rheological and foaming properties of model ice-cream mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Batur

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research of the high power ultrasound effect on rheological and foaming properties of ice cream model mixtures. Ice cream model mixtures are prepared according to specific recipes, and afterward undergone through different homogenization techniques: mechanical mixing, ultrasound treatment and combination of mechanical and ultrasound treatment. Specific diameter (12.7 mm of ultrasound probe tip has been used for ultrasound treatment that lasted 5 minutes at 100 percent amplitude. Rheological parameters have been determined using rotational rheometer and expressed as flow index, consistency coefficient and apparent viscosity. From the results it can be concluded that all model mixtures have non-newtonian, dilatant type behavior. The highest viscosities have been observed for model mixtures that were homogenizes with mechanical mixing, and significantly lower values of viscosity have been observed for ultrasound treated ones. Foaming properties are expressed as percentage of increase in foam volume, foam stability index and minimal viscosity. It has been determined that ice cream model mixtures treated only with ultrasound had minimal increase in foam volume, while the highest increase in foam volume has been observed for ice cream mixture that has been treated in combination with mechanical and ultrasound treatment. Also, ice cream mixtures having higher amount of proteins in composition had shown higher foam stability. It has been determined that optimal treatment time is 10 minutes.

  5. Effect of Storage Period on the Physicochemical, Sensory and Microbiological Quality of Bakery Flavoured Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arashdeep Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Storage conditions were known to bring about some physicochemical changes in frozen foods. The present investigation was therefore carried out to examine the effect of storage period on the physicochemical, sensory and microbiological quality of bakery flavoured ice cream. Bakery flavoured ice cream incorporating cookies (plain and chocolate and cakes (vanilla and chocolate at 10 per cent level were prepared and subjected to 60 days of frozen storage and evaluated periodically at intervals of 15 days. With the progress in the storage period total solids, acidity and specific gravity of all ice cream samples increased significantly (p<0.01 during the storage, while pH, antioxidant activity and overrun decreased significantly (p<0.01. Protein, fibre and ash content do not show any significant change during storage. The decrease in total phenolic content was found to be non significant with increase in storage period from 0 to 60 days. Storage period had significant (p<0.01 on L and a*colour attributes of ice cream samples. First dripping time increased while melting rate decreased in all samples. The mean sensory scores of all ice cream samples decreased significantly with progress in storage period at -18±1o C. There was a significant decline in Standard Plate Count (SPC and increase in psychrophillic count with progress in storage period.

  6. Flow properties of ice cream mix prepared from palm oil: anhydrous milk fat blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnani, A I Wan; Aini, I Nor; Yazid, A M M; Dzulkifly, M H

    2007-05-15

    Ice cream mixes containing 33.4% total solids including 10% fat, 11.1% milk solid-non fat (MSNF), 12% sugar, 0.35% commercial blend of emulsifier/ stabiliser and water were produced. The blending of PO with AMF were conducted at three different ratios 30: 70, 50: 50 and 70: 30, respectively. The experimental ice cream mixes were compared with a control ice cream mix prepared from AMF. The flow properties were measured after ageing at 0, 1, 1.5, 2 and 24 h and determined using a controlled stress rheometer (Haake RS 100). The Power Law and Casson equation was employed to estimate the yield stress of an ice cream mixes. The regression coefficients (r) was represented well by the Casson model (r > 0.99) for all the samples, indicating goodness of fit. The profiles of the consistency coefficients (K(c)) were quite similar for all experimental samples, which could be attributed to the fact that all the samples exhibited similar viscoelastic behaviour. The flow behaviour index (n) of an ice cream mix prepared from PO and their blends with AMF were less then 1.0 (range 0.04-0.08) indicating that they were psuedoplastic fluid. The eta(o) at shear rate 20(-1) indicated higher degree of viscosity in AMF.

  7. Determination of CME 3D parameters based on a new full ice-cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2017-08-01

    In space weather forecast, it is important to determine three-dimensional properties of CMEs. Using 29 limb CMEs, we examine which cone type is close to a CME three-dimensional structure. We find that most CMEs have near full ice-cream cone structure which is a symmetrical circular cone combined with a hemisphere. We develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (i.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model). In addition, we derive CME mean density (ρmean=Mtotal/Vcone) based on the full ice-cream cone structure. For several limb events, we determine CME mass by applying the Solarsoft procedure (e.g., cme_mass.pro) to SOHO/LASCO C3 images. CME volumes are estimated from the full ice-cream cone structure. From the power-law relationship between CME mean density and its height, we estimate CME mean densities at 20 solar radii (Rs). We will compare the CME densities at 20 Rs with their corresponding ICME densities.

  8. Manufacture of ice cream with improved microbiological safety by using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Jun-Sang [Animal Products Processing Division, National Livestock Research Institute, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Min [Atomic Energy Policy Division, Ministry of Science and Technology, Seoul 110-760 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Myung-Gon [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Woosong University, Daejeon, 300-718 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    Children suffered from leukemia want to eat delicious dishes, such as cake and ice cream. However, it is very difficult to serve these foods to immune-compromised patients without application of any adequate sanitary measures. This study was conducted to evaluate application of irradiation to frozen ready-to-eat food, ice cream. Three ice creams with flavors of vanilla, chocolate and strawberry were manufactured and gamma irradiated at the absorbed doses of 1, 3, and 5 kGy at -70 deg. C. Total microflora and coliform bacteria were determined, and Listeria spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were also tested by the use of API 20E Kit. Aerobic bacteria, yeast/mold and coliforms were contaminated in the levels of 2.3 to 3.3, 2.3 to 2.7 and 1.7 to 2.4 log CFU/g, respectively. In samples irradiated at 5 kGy, the growth of any microorganisms could not be observed. Listeria spp. and E. coli were detected at non-irradiated samples, but S. spp. was not existed. D{sub 10} values of L. ivanovii and E. coli were 0.75 and 0.31 kGy, respectively, in ice cream. From these results, irradiation technology can reduce the risk by the food-borne pathogens of ice cream.

  9. Bacteriological quality of some dairy products (kariesh cheese and ice cream) in alexandria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahareem, Omar H; El-Shamy, Hoda A; Bakr, Wafaa M; Gomaa, Naglaa F

    2007-01-01

    The present study estimated the total viable bacterial density, total and faecal coliforms, and E. coli in Kariesh cheese and ice cream. The study included 160 ice cream and kariesh cheese samples (80 samples each). Ice cream samples were 47 packed (33 cup and 14 stick) and 33 open samples while kariesh cheese samples were 62 open, 18 packed samples (8 of known brand and 10 of unknown brand). Samples were collected from supermarkets, shops and street vendors. All samples were analyzed for enumeration of total viable heterotrophic bacteria using standard pour plate method, and for the determination of the total coliforms, fecal coliforms and E. coli using multiple tube dilution method. Ice cream samples, showed that the total bacterial count was >/=1.5x105 cfu/g in 26 (32.5%) samples, total coliforms were >/= 10 MPN/g in 36 (45.0%) samples, fecal coliforms were detected in 45 (56.3%) samples ,and E. coli was detected in 34 (42.5%). kariesh cheese samples, showed a total coliforms of >/= 10 MPN/g in 54 (67.5%) samples, while fecal coliforms were detected in 64 (80%) samples, and E. coli was detected in 60 (75%). It is recommended to use and implement immediate regulatory measures like good manufacturing practices as well as distribution and retail storage practices for ensuring microbiological safety of ice cream and kariesh cheese.

  10. Replacing sugar with S. rebaudiana extracts on the physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberry ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Aranda-Gonzalez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Ice cream is a product whose formulation requires considerable amounts of sugar. In addition to providing flavor, sugar contributes to the physicochemical characteristics of ice cream but its consumption in large quantities is related to chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. For this reason, the food industry seeks to formulate products with sweeteners that preserve the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the original product. Stevia rebaudiana is a plant that naturally contains glycosides with no calories and high sweetening capacity and it is considered safe for consumption. Therefore the aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of replacing sugar with different levels of extracts of S. rebaudiana Morita II and Criolla, on the physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberry ice cream. Using a 2x2 factorial experimental design, a total of 4 formulations were prepared with two levels of concentration of the aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana (5 or 8% and the variety of S. rebaudiana (Morita II or Criolla. Proximate composition, physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation were determined in processed products. The proximate analysis of strawberry ice cream varied significantly (P<0.05 depending of variety and level used on the formulation. The viscosities of all ice cream mixes were decreasing as the shear rate was increased, indicating a pseudoplastic behavior. The sensory analysis showed differences (P<0.05 among the formulations tested, however the score of all products were above the indifference point, suggesting that all of these formulations may have a commercial potential.

  11. PLC based automatic control of pasteurize mix in ice cream production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xudong; Liang, Kai

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the automatic control device of pasteurized mix in the ice cream production process.We design a scheme of control system using FBD program language and develop the programmer in the STEP 7-Micro/WIN software, check for any bugs before downloading into PLC .These developed devices will able to provide flexibility and accuracy to control the step of pasteurized mix. The operator just Input the duration and temperature of pasteurized mix through control panel. All the steps will finish automatically without any intervention in a preprogrammed sequence stored in programmable logic controller (PLC). With the help of this equipment we not only can control the quality of ice cream for various conditions, but also can simplify the production process. This control system is inexpensive and can be widely used in ice cream production industry.

  12. Cassava derivatives in ice cream formulations: effects on physicochemical, physical and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Fernandes, Daiana; Leonel, Magali; Del Bem, Marilia Sbragia; Mischan, Martha Maria; Garcia, Émerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, the effects of derivatives of cassava, maltodextrin and bagasse, on the physicochemical, physical and sensory properties of ice creams were investigated. The content of cassava maltodextrin increased significantly the content of carbohydrate and total soluble solids and decreased lipids content. The effect of cassava bagasse was more pronounced than the maltodextrin on physical and sensory parameters. Increased percentage of cassava bagasse in formulation led to decrease of overrun, melting and luminosity, but increased hardness and unfreezable water. Sensory attributes were mainly influenced by cassava bagasse inclusion. The results suggested the potential use of cassava derivatives in ice cream formulations. Ice creams with low percentage of cassava bagasse (1.5) and intermediate values of cassava maltodextrin (3.65%) had good nutritional, technological and sensorial acceptance.

  13. Evaluation of Listeria monocytogenes survival in ice cream mixes flavored with herbal tea using Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Ismet; Golec, Adem; Karaman, Safa; Sagdic, Osman; Kayacier, Ahmed

    2010-10-01

    In this study, the effects of the incorporation of some herbal teas at different concentrations into the ice cream mix on the population of Listeria monocytogenes were studied using Taguchi method. The ice cream mix samples flavored with herbal teas were prepared using green tea and sage at different concentrations. Afterward, fresh culture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated into the samples and the L. monocytogenes was counted at different storage periods. Taguchi method was used for experimental design and analysis. In addition, some physicochemical properties of samples were examined. Results suggested that there was some effect, although little, on the population of L. monocytogenes when herbal tea was incorporated into the ice cream mix. Additionally, the use of herbal tea caused a decrease in the pH values of the samples and significant changes in the color values.

  14. The potential application of rice bran wax oleogel to replace solid fat and enhance unsaturated fat content in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-09-01

    The development of structure in ice cream, characterized by its smooth texture and resistance to collapse during melting, depends, in part, on the presence of solid fat during the whipping and freezing steps. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of 10% rice bran wax (RBW) oleogel, comprised 90% high-oleic sunflower oil and 10% RBW, to replace solid fat in ice cream. A commercial blend of 80% saturated mono- and diglycerides and 20% polysorbate 80 was used as the emulsifier. Standard ice cream measurements, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the formation of structure in ice cream. RBW oleogel produced higher levels of overrun when compared to a liquid oil ice cream sample, creating a lighter sample with good texture and appearance. However, those results were not associated with higher meltdown resistance. Microscopy revealed larger aggregation of RBW oleogel fat droplets at the air cell interface and distortion of the shape of air cells and fat droplets. Although the RBW oleogel did not develop sufficient structure in ice cream to maintain shape during meltdown when a mono- and diglycerides and polysorbate 80 blend was used as the emulsifier, micro- and ultrastructure investigations suggested that RBW oleogel did induce formation of a fat globule network in ice cream, suggesting that further optimization could lead to an alternative to saturated fat sources for ice cream applications.

  15. Effects of locust bean gum and mono- and diglyceride concentrations on particle size and melting rates of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, S L; Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Tharp, B W; Harper, W J

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how varying concentrations of the stabilizer, locust bean gum (LBG), and different levels of the emulsifier, mono- and diglycerides (MDGs), influenced fat aggregation and melting characteristics of ice cream. Ice creams were made containing MDGs and LBG singly and in combination at concentrations ranging between 0.0% to 0.14% and 0.0% to 0.23%, respectively. Particle size analysis, conducted on both the mixes and ice cream, and melting rate testing on the ice cream were used to determine fat aggregation. No significant differences (P ice cream mixes. However, higher concentrations of both LBG and MDG in the ice creams resulted in values that were larger than the control. This study also found an increase in the particle size values when MDG levels were held constant and LBG amounts were increased in the ice cream. Ice creams with higher concentrations of MDG and LBG together had the greatest difference in the rate of melting than the control. The melting rate decreased with increasing LBG concentrations at constant MDG levels. These results illustrated that fat aggregation may not only be affected by emulsifiers, but that stabilizers may play a role in contributing to the destabilization of fat globules.

  16. Natural antioxidant ice cream acutely reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular function and physical performance in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguigni, Valerio; Manco, Melania; Sorge, Roberto; Gnessi, Lucio; Francomano, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of several diseases. Polyphenols have been shown to be beneficial against ROS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a natural antioxidant ice cream on oxidative stress, vascular function, and physical performance. In this controlled, single-blind, crossover study, 14 healthy individuals were randomized to consume 100 g of either antioxidant ice cream containing dark cocoa powder and hazelnut and green tea extracts or milk chocolate ice cream (control ice cream). Participants were studied at baseline and 2 h after ingesting ice cream. Serum polyphenols, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma [FRAP]), nitric oxide (NOx) bioavailability, markers of oxidative stress (determination of reactive oxygen metabolites [d-ROMs] and hydrogen peroxide [H2O2]), endothelium function (flow-mediated dilation [FMD] and reactive hyperemia index [RHI]), and exercise tolerance (stress test) were assessed, and the double product was measured. Serum polyphenols (P ice cream ingestion. No changes were found after control ice cream ingestion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a natural ice cream rich in polyphenols acutely improved vascular function and physical performance in healthy individuals through a reduction in oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of fat-reduced ice cream formulation employing inulin as fat replacer via response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintor, Aurora; Severiano-Pérez, Patricia; Totosaus, Alfonso

    2014-10-01

    The use of new ingredients like inulin for fat replacement is of wide application in the food industry. The aim of the present work was to reduce the fat content on ice cream formulations. It was possible to reduce up to 25% of butyric and vegetable fats with 3% of inulin, with good textural and sensory characteristics of the final product. The substitution of fat with inulin increased the ice cream mix viscosity, improved air incorporation, and produced ice cream with soft and homogeneous textures. Color characteristics were not affected by the replacement. Hedonic sensory analysis showed that optimized fat-reduced inulin ice cream was not perceived different to commercial vanilla ice cream.

  18. Effect of Chocobar Ice Cream Containing Bifidobacterium on Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Daryani, Hemasha; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Batra, Mehak; Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effect of chocobar ice cream containing bifidobacteria on salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. A double-blind, randomised controlled trial was conducted with 30 subjects (18 to 22 years of age) divided into 2 groups, test (chocobar ice cream with probiotics) and control (chocobar ice cream without probiotics). The subjects were instructed to eat the allotted chocobar ice cream once daily for 18 days. Saliva samples collected at intervals were cultured on Mitis Salivarius agar and Rogosa agar and examined for salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, respectively. The Mann-Whitney U-test, Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for statistical analysis. Postingestion in the test group, a statistically significant reduction (p ice cream containing probiotic bifidobacteria may reduce salivary levels of mutans streptococci in young adults.

  19. Research of Wheat Germ Foaming Capacity in Dairy Ice-Cream Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Martich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface activity of grain component in model systems and in the milk ice cream is investigated. It is found that increase of wheat germ comtent in model systems and mixtures leads to a corresponding decrease in surface tension in the presence of surface-active plant protein. The expediency of previous frying and shredding of plant material to improve its foaming ability in the milk mixtures is proved. The need of wheat germ hydration before its use to improve functional and technological properties in the ice cream is confirmed.

  20. The implementation of HACCP management system in a chocolate ice cream plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Lu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To guarantee the safety of chocolate ice cream production, the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP system was applied to the production process. The biological, chemical, and physical hazards that may exist in every step of chocolate ice cream production were identified. In addition, the critical control points were selected and the critical limits, monitoring, corrective measures, records, and verifications were established. The critical control points, which include pasteurization and freezing, were identified. Implementing the HACCP system in food manufacturing can effectively ensure food safety and quality, expand the market, and improve the manufacturers' management level.

  1. The implementation of HACCP management system in a chocolate ice cream plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junchao; Pua, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Chi-Te; Chang, Che-Lang; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2014-09-01

    To guarantee the safety of chocolate ice cream production, the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system was applied to the production process. The biological, chemical, and physical hazards that may exist in every step of chocolate ice cream production were identified. In addition, the critical control points were selected and the critical limits, monitoring, corrective measures, records, and verifications were established. The critical control points, which include pasteurization and freezing, were identified. Implementing the HACCP system in food manufacturing can effectively ensure food safety and quality, expand the market, and improve the manufacturers' management level. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Studies on Physical and Sensory Properties of Premium Vanilla Ice Cream Distributed in Korean Market

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the difference in physical and sensory properties of various premium ice creams. The physical properties of the various ice creams were compared by manufacturing brand. The water contents of the samples differed, with BR having the highest value at 60.5%, followed by NT and CS at 57.8% and 56.9%, respectively. The higher the water content, the lower Brix and milk fat contents in all samples. The density of the samples showed almost similar values in...

  3. 糯玉米冰淇淋的研制%Manufacture of Waxy Corn Ice Cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王纯彬

    2014-01-01

    Use waxy corn as the main raw material ,considering the effects on the ice cream's appearance and quality,adding 40 percents of corn juice would be fine.We can get the best ice cream after secondary homogeneous process.%以糯玉米为主要原料,通过玉米汁添加量对冰淇淋感官结构的影响及不同均质方法对冰淇淋质量的影响,确定玉米汁添加量40%;经二次均质的冰淇淋效果最好。

  4. Development and characterization of ice cream enriched with different formulations flour jabuticaba bark (Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Leopoldina Lamounier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to perform the physicochemical characterization of the flour from the bark of jabuticaba, as well as developing three ice cream formulations (enriched with 0, 5 and 10% of this flour and evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fruits were pulped, the peels were dehydrated, dried, crushed and sieved to obtain the flour that was analyzed for physicochemical levels. Then, three ice cream formulations were developed (with 0%, 5% and 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, considering the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The results showed that the flour from the bark of jabuticaba showed high ash and fiber. The ice creams showed differences (p < 0.05 for pH, titratable acidity, moisture and ash due to the incorporation of flour from the bark of jabuticaba. The only attribute that did not differ (p > 0.05 was soluble solid. The overrun was ecreasing with increasing addition of flour. In the sensory evaluation, only attributes that differ (p < 0.05 were flavor, texture and overall appearance of the formulation with 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, which represents that incorporation of 5% flour from the bark of jabuticaba did not affect the cceptability of ice creams. It can be concluded that the enrichment of blemish bark flour provides edible ice increase in nutritional value without affecting the sensory characteristics at the level of 5% added.

  5. Ice sheets on plastically-yielding beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Many fast flowing regions of ice sheets are underlain by a layer of water-saturated sediments, or till. The rheology of the till has been the subject of some controversy, with laboratory tests suggesting almost perfectly plastic behaviour (stress independent of strain rate), but many models adopting a pseudo-viscous description. In this work, we consider the behaviour of glaciers underlain by a plastic bed. The ice is treated as a viscous gravity current, on a bed that allows unconstrained slip above a critical yield stress. This simplified description allows rapid sliding, and aims to investigate 'worst-case' scenarios of possible ice-sheet disintegration. The plastic bed results in an approximate ice-sheet geometry that is primarily controlled by force balance, whilst ice velocity is determined from mass conservation (rather than the other way around, as standard models would hold). The stability of various states is considered, and particular attention is given to the pace at which transitions between unstable states can occur. Finally, we observe that the strength of basal tills depends strongly on pore pressure, and combine the model with a description of subglacial hydrology. Implications for the present-day ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica will be discussed. Funding: ERC Marie Curie FP7 Career Integration Grant.

  6. The Effect of Combination Carrot Juice (Daucus carota L. and Hunkwee Flour in Manufacturing Kefir Ice Cream on Physical and Chemical Quality of Kefir Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Mahdiana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the best combination of carrot juice (CJ and hunkwee flour (HF on manufacturing of kefir ice cream. The method of this research was experiment with Completely Randomized Design, 4 treatments and 4 replication, the treatments were without carrot juice + HF 5% (P0, CJ 1.5% + HF 3.5% (P1, CJ 3% + HF 2% (P2, CJ 4.5% + HF 0.5% (P3, the presentage based on Ice Cream Mix (ICM. The variables measured were antioxidant activity, viscosity, total solid and organoleptic (textur, taste and aroma. The data was analized by using Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA continued by Honestly Significance Difference (HSD test. The result of this research showed that the combination of carrot juice and hunkwee flour gave highly significant difference effect (P0.05 on aroma. Conclusion: the combination of carrot juice 1.5% + hunkwee flour 3.5% (P1 in kefir ice cream gave the best result.

  7. Optimization of the new formulation of ice cream with native Iranian seed gums (Lepidium perfoliatum and Lepidium sativum) using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari-Anpar, M; Soltani Tehrani, N; Aghajani, N; Khomeiri, M

    2017-01-01

    In this study, effect of Qodume shahri (Lepidium perfoliatum) and cress (Lepidium sativum) on rheological properties of ice cream were investigated. The gums were added to the ice cream formulation and different quality attributes including pH, acidity, melting characteristics, viscosity, overrun, texture analysis and sensory evaluation were determined. Results showed that ice cream formulations containing both the gums had improved overrun, melting rate, first dripping time, viscosity, hardness and adhesiveness. The gum concentrations beyond 0.2% level led to a negative effect on gumminess and chewiness of ice cream. Both the gums addition to improved quality attributes and textural properties of ice cream.

  8. The carbon footprint of ice cream and its mitigating options for Unilever in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Wanli

    2010-01-01

    Unilever is planning to expand its ice cream production based on current conditions in China. Produc-tion expansion means increasing demands of raw materials e.g. milk powders, and requirements of energy use for processing, transporting and storing. From

  9. Application of simplex-centroid mixture design to optimize stabilizer combinations for ice cream manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BahramParvar, Maryam; Tehrani, Mostafa Mazaheri; Razavi, Seyed M A; Koocheki, Arash

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to obtain the optimum formulation for stabilizers in ice cream that could contest with blends presented nowadays. Thus, different mixtures of three stabilizers, i.e. basil seed gum, carboxymethyl cellulose, and guar gum, at two concentrations (0.15 % & 0.35 %) were studied using mixture design methodology. The influence of these mixtures on some properties of ice cream and the regression models for them were also determined. Generally, high ratios of basil seed gum in mixture developed the apparent viscosity of ice cream mixes and decreased the melting rate. Increasing proportion of this stabilizer as well as guar gum in the mixtures at concentration of 0.15 % enhanced the overrun of samples. Based on the optimization criteria, the most excellent combination was 84.43 % basil seed gum and 15.57 % guar gum at concentration of 0.15 %. This research proved the capability of basil seed gum as a novel stabilizer in ice cream stabilization.

  10. Rheological characterization and sensory evaluation of a typical soft ice cream made with selected food hydrocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BahramParvar, M; Razavi, S M A; Khodaparast, M H H

    2010-02-01

    The effect of two novel hydrocolloids known as Balangu seed gum (BSG) and palmate-tuber salep (PTS) with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the rheological characteristics of a typical soft ice cream was studied. The power law model well described the flow behavior of mixes with a high correlation coefficient (r). The flow behavior index was in the range of 0.450-1.154, while the consistency coefficient varied from 0.051 to 6.822 Pa s(n). All mixes showed a pseudoplastic behavior except the mix containing 0.3% PTS, which was found to have a slightly dilatant characteristic. An increase in the concentration was accompanied by an increase in the pseudoplasticity and consistency coefficient. The effect of selected gums on some sensory properties of a soft ice cream such as viscosity, coldness, firmness, degree of smoothness (coarseness), liquefying rate, body and texture and total acceptance has also been investigated in this work. The correlation between the apparent viscosity and sensory attributes has been determined because of the importance of viscosity in the quality evaluation of an ice cream. Taking into account the commercial ice cream properties, a 0.4% BSG gum concentration may be recommended.

  11. Outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections linked to a pasteurized ice cream product served to hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietberg, K; Lloyd, J; Melius, B; Wyman, P; Treadwell, R; Olson, G; Kang, M-G; Duchin, J S

    2016-10-01

    Two cases of hospital-acquired listeriosis were linked to a commercially produced, pasteurized ice cream mix. Manufacturers should implement safety measures from the Food Safety Modernization Act to minimize the risk of Listeria contamination. Dietary guidelines for persons at high risk of listeriosis may need revision to recognize the potential risk from pasteurized products.

  12. Summertime, and the Choosin' Ain't Easy: An Ice Cream Counting Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreith, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    Utilizes the problem of determining the number of different ice cream cones and cups that can be made from a choice of 31 flavors to investigate the concepts of combinations and permutations. Provides a set of six related problems with their answers. (MDH)

  13. Determination of enterotoxigenic and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gücükoğlu, Ali; Çadirci, Özgür; Terzi, Göknur; Kevenk, T Onur; Alişarli, Mustafa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enterotoxigenic and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ice creams. After culture-based identification of isolates, the presence of 16S rRNA and nuc was confirmed by mPCR. S. aureus was identified in 18 of 56 fruity (32.1%), 4 of 32 vanilla (12.5%), and 1 of 12 chocolate (8.3%) ice creams. S. aureus was identified as 38 isolates in 23 ice cream samples by culture-based techniques, but only 35 isolates were confirmed by PCR as S. aureus. To determine the enterotoxigenic properties of PCR-confirmed S. aureus isolates, a toxin detection kit was used (SET RPLA®). Of the 12 enterotoxigenic S. aureus isolates, 9 SEB (75%), 1 SED (8.3%), 1 SEB+SED (8.3%), and 1 SEA+SEB+SED (8.3%) expressing isolates were found. The presence of enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sed) was identified in 13 (37.1%) out of 35 isolates by the mPCR technique. In the ice cream isolates, the sea, seb, and sed genes were detected: 1 sea (7.6%), 9 seb (69.2%), 1 sed (7.6%), 1 seb+sed (7.6%), and 1 sea+seb+sed (7.6%), respectively. The sec gene was not detected in any of these isolates. One of the 35 (2.8%) S. aureus strain was mecA positive.

  14. Does Hot Water Freeze Faster Than Cold? Or Why Mpemba's Ice Cream Is a Discrepant Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Bill

    1993-01-01

    A discrepant event is a happening contrary to our current beliefs. Discrepant events are said to be useful in clarifying concepts. This is one of the interesting features of current theories of constructivism. The story of Mpemba's ice cream is quite well known, but it is the educational aspects of the experiment that are of interest in this…

  15. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Yangılar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, possible eff ects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2 % are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity, chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour, mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre-rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fi bre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fi bre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fi bre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have signifi cant (p<0.05 effect on the chemical composition of ice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2 % of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists.

  16. Acceptability of Musa Balbisiana (Saba Banana Puree in Two Treatments in Making Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. De Castro Jr.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Musa Balbisiana or Saba is a variety of banana fruit that is nutritious and readily available in the market the whole year round. This experimental study aimed to determine the acceptability of the ice cream made from Saba banana puree in two treatments (treatment 1- cooked puree and treatment 2- uncooked puree. Data gathered were described and analyzed using a special Analysis of Variance. The sensory characteristics of the ice cream in two treatments were compared with one another based on the 9-point hedonic scale utilized by trained panelist in the education sector in secondary, tertiary and graduate school level that specialized in food related discipline such as Food Technology, Food Service Management, Technology and Livelihood Education- Food Trades and Hotel and Restaurant Management. Results indicated that in treatment 1( cooked puree the taste and texture of the ice cream were liked extremely however its color was rated liked very much, while in treatment 2 (uncooked puree the texture and color were rated liked moderately while its taste was rated liked very much. A comparison of the sensory characteristics between the two treatments revealed that there is a significant difference in terms of taste, texture and color and overall acceptability of the Saba banana ice cream. It is then recommended that in preparing Saba banana puree using treatment 1 (cooking method, the fruit should be subjected in numerous sieving process using a fine mesh siever or sifter to produce good quality puree texture.

  17. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the present study, possible effects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2%) are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity), chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour), mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre--rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fibre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fibre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fibre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have significant (peffect on the chemical composition of ice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2% of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists. PMID:27904363

  18. The carbon footprint of ice cream and its mitigating options for Unilever in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Wanli

    2010-01-01

    Unilever is planning to expand its ice cream production based on current conditions in China. Produc-tion expansion means increasing demands of raw materials e.g. milk powders, and requirements of energy use for processing, transporting and storing. From

  19. Helicobacter pylori in ice cream and its control using mastic gum essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagah Mohamed Saad

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: All isolates recovered from small scale ice cream samples reflexing the hygienic conditions under which samples were produced. Mastic gum essential oil exhibited a powerful anti-H. pylori effect recommending its addition to food matrix for therapeutic purposes or as a functional food. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(2.000: 132-139

  20. Summertime, and the Choosin' Ain't Easy: An Ice Cream Counting Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreith, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    Utilizes the problem of determining the number of different ice cream cones and cups that can be made from a choice of 31 flavors to investigate the concepts of combinations and permutations. Provides a set of six related problems with their answers. (MDH)

  1. Mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomez ice cream prepared with fat replacers and sugar substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Gebrim Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing shortening and sugar on the physical and chemical properties of mangaba ice cream and its acceptability were evaluated. Ice cream formulations were tested with the following fat replacers: Selecta Light, Litesse, and Dairy Lo and the following sugar substitutes: Lactitol and Splenda. All formulations were subjected to physical, chemical, and microbiological analyses and evaluated by acceptability tests. In the sensory analysis, it was observed a larger acceptance of the formulations containing Selecta Light (SL and the combination of Litesse, Lactiol, and Splenda (LLS. The largest reduction in total energetic value (50% was observed in the formulation LLS. The use of fat and/or sugar substitutes caused a reduction in the air incorporation (overrun and affected viscosity. The highest melting speed was observed in the formulation with Dairy-Lo, Lactitol, and Splenda. All formulations showed good levels of global acceptability and appearance. The substitution of shortening for fat replacers caused a reduction in air incorporation and changes in ice-cream viscosity. The low-fat mangaba ice-cream elaborated with Selecta Light was the best formulation in terms of viscosity and air incorporation when compared with the control. It also showed a good level of acceptability and low fat content.

  2. Formulation and characterization of nanoencapsulated curcumin using sodium caseinate and its incorporation in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deep Diyuti; Mann, Bimlesh; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Rajan; Bajaj, Rajesh; Minaxi

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, the preparation and characterization of a curcumin nanoemulsion with milk protein (sodium caseinate) and its incorporation into ice cream were undertaken. Among the different combinations, the most stable formulation was observed using milk fat (8%), medium chain triglycerides (2%), curcumin (0.24%) and sodium caseinate (6%) with a mean particle size of 333.8 ± 7.18 nm, a zeta potential of -44.1 ± 0.72 mV and an encapsulation efficiency of 96.9 ± 0.28%. The effect of different processing conditions (heating, pH and ionic strength) on the particle size distribution and zeta potential of the nanoemulsion was evaluated. During heat treatment, the particle size of the nanoemulsion was increased from 333.8 ± 7.18 to 351.1 ± 4.04 nm. The nanoemulsion was destabilized at pH 4.6 and the particle size increased above and below pH 5.0. However, there was a slight increase in the particle size with a change in the ionic concentration. The release kinetics data suggested that in simulated gastro-intestinal digestion, the nanoemulsion was stable against pepsin digestion (a 5.25% release of curcumin), while pancreatic action led to a 16.12% release of curcumin from the nanoemulsion. Finally, our formulation was successfully incorporated into ice cream and the sensory attributes were evaluated. No significant difference was observed in the scores of the sensory attributes between the control and ice cream prepared with a curcumin nanoemulsion. Moreover, the encapsulation efficiency of the curcumin incorporated into the ice cream was 93.7%, which indicates that it can withstand the processing conditions. The findings suggest that ice cream is a suitable dairy product for the delivery of lipophilic bioactive components (curcumin) which can be used for therapeutic purposes.

  3. Ice cream safety in the Dubrovnik area in the period 2006-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakov Zadre

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available From the epidemiological point of view, ice cream is a very risky foodstuff, which is illustrated by the fact that in 2006, 18.6% (520/2796 of samples from the entire Croatian market were microbiologically unsafe and, therefore, not in compliance with food safety standards. With regards to farreaching health-related, as well as economical and promotional consequences of an alimentary infection and intoxication in the peak tourist season, the aim of this paper was to monitor the microbiological safety of ice-cream from 9 ice-cream parlours in the Dubrovnik city area during three calendar years. During 2006, 13.58% (11/70 of samples were found unsafe. The following bacteria were detected in the samples, which is a sign of non-compliance with food safety standards: representatives of family Enterobacteriaceae in 8 samples (9.87%, Staphylococcus aureus in 3 samples (3.7% and aerobic mesophillic bacteria in 3 samples (3.7%. During 2007, 13.86% (14/87 of samples were not in compliance with food safety standards due to the presence of representatives of family Enterobacteriaceae in 13 samples (12.87% and aerobic mesophillic bacteria in 2 samples (1.98%. In 2008, 9.46% (7/67 of samples were not in compliance with food safety standards due to the presence of representatives of family Enterobacteriaceae in 6 samples (8.1%, aerobic mesophillic bacteria in 2 samples (2.7% and Staphylococcus aureus in 1 sample (1.35%. Neither Salmonella spp. nor Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from any sample. The results indicate an improvement of microbiological safety of ice-cream. Moreover, it is necessary to pay more attention to hygiene during the production, storage and handling of ice-cream in order to further reduce the number of negative samples in which the presence of representatives of family Enterobacteriaceae is recorded.

  4. Determination of HCME 3-D parameters using a full ice-cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae; Lee, Harim

    2016-05-01

    It is very essential to determine three dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, source location) of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) for space weather forecast. Several cone models (e.g., an elliptical cone model, an ice-cream cone model, an asymmetric cone model) have been examined to estimate these parameters. In this study, we investigate which cone type is close to a halo CME morphology using 26 CMEs: halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or STEREO-A or B) and as limb CMEs by the other ones. From cone shape parameters of these CMEs such as their front curvature, we find that near full ice-cream cone type CMEs are much closer to observations than shallow ice-cream cone type CMEs. Thus we develop a new cone model in which a full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. This model is carried out by the following steps: (1) construct a cone for given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3-D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (a geometrical triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model) based on multi-spacecraft data. We are developing a general ice-cream cone model whose front shape is a free parameter determined by observations.

  5. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, possible effects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2%) are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity), chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour), mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre--rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fibre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fibre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fibre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have significant (pice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2% of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists.

  6. Effects of calcium-fortified ice cream on markers of bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, L; van der Hee, R M; Berry, M; Watson, C; Miret, S; Wilkinson, J; Bradburn, M; Eastell, R

    2011-10-01

    Premenopausal women with low calcium intakes consumed calcium-fortified ice cream daily for 28 days. Bone markers, NTX, CTX and PTH decreased significantly by 7 days, with some evidence of a calcium dose-dependent effect. Bone marker responses were observed within 1 h of consuming ice cream. Body weight remained constant over 28 days. Dietary calcium is important for lifelong bone health. Milk is a good source of bioavailable calcium, but consumption has declined among young adults. The aims were to determine whether calcium-fortified ice cream, a palatable source of calcium, produces significant, sustainable changes in bone turnover markers and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in premenopausal women with calcium intake below recommended UK levels. Eighty women, ages 20-39 years (calcium intake ice cream containing 96, 244, 459 or 676 mg calcium daily for 28 days. Urinary NTX/Cr, serum CTX, PINP, 1,25D and PTH were measured (baseline, days 1, 7 and 28). Acute changes in CTX and PTH were measured over 5 h (n = 29 women). There were significant mean decreases by 7 days in NTX/Cr, CTX, PTH and 1,25D and increases in PINP (one sample t tests), with a significant dose-dependent effect on CTX analysis of covariance. Only CTX remained suppressed at 28 days. Serum CTX and PTH decreased within 1 h. Body weight did not change significantly between baseline and 28 days. Daily consumption of calcium-fortified ice cream by premenopausal women may significantly reduce levels of the bone resorption marker serum CTX, without stimulating weight gain. The ice cream could be incorporated into the diet to replace low-calcium snacks and thus help individuals with habitually low calcium intakes to meet recommended intakes. The 244 mg calcium preparation would provide more than a quarter of the UK daily recommended nutrient intake for premenopausal women.

  7. Effects of milk fat, cocoa butter, or selected fat replacers on flavor volatiles of chocolate ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, W M; Marshall, R T; Grün, I U; Ellersieck, M R

    2001-01-01

    Selected volatile compounds of chocolate ice creams containing 0.6, 4.0, 6.0, or 9.0% milk fat or containing 2.5% milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of three fat replacers (Simplesse, Dairy Lo, or Oatrim) were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using headspace solid-phase microextraction. The headspace concentration of most of the selected volatile compounds increased with decreasing milk fat concentration. Fat replacers generally increased the concentration of volatiles found in the headspace compared with milk fat or cocoa butter. Few differences in flavor volatiles were found between the ice cream containing milk fat and the ice cream containing cocoa butter. Among the selected volatiles, the concentration of 2,5-dimethyl-3(2-methyl propyl) pyrazine was the most highly correlated (negatively) with the concentration of milk fat, and it best discriminated among ice creams containing milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of the fat replacers.

  8. Development of a fermented ice-cream as influenced by in situ exopolysaccharide production: Rheological, molecular, microstructural and sensory characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dertli, Enes; Toker, Omer S; Durak, M Zeki; Yilmaz, Mustafa T; Tatlısu, Nevruz Berna; Sagdic, Osman; Cankurt, Hasan

    2016-01-20

    This study aimed to investigate the role of in situ exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by EPS(+)Streptococcus thermophilus strains on physicochemical, rheological, molecular, microstructural and sensory properties of ice cream in order to develop a fermented and consequently functional ice-cream in which no stabilizers would be required in ice-cream production. For this purpose, the effect of EPS producing strains (control, strain 1, strain 2 and mixture) and fermentation conditions (fermentation temperature; 32, 37 and 42 °C and time; 2, 3 and 4h) on pH, S. thermophilus count, EPS amount, consistency coefficient (K), and apparent viscosity (η50) were investigated and optimized using single and multiple response optimization tools of response surface methodology. Optimization analyses indicated that functional ice-cream should be fermented with strain 1 or strain mixture at 40-42 °C for 4h in order to produce the most viscous ice-cream with maximum EPS content. Optimization analysis results also revealed that strain specific conditions appeared to be more effective factor on in situ EPS production amount, K and η50 parameters than did fermentation temperature and time. The rheological analysis of the ice-cream produced by EPS(+) strains revealed its high viscous and pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid behavior, which demonstrates potential of S. thermophilus EPS as thickening and gelling agent in dairy industry. FTIR analysis proved that the EPS in ice-cream corresponded to a typical EPS, as revealed by the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amide groups with additional α-glycosidic linkages. SEM studies demonstrated that it had a web-like compact microstructure with pores in ice-cream, revealing its application possibility in dairy products to improve their rheological properties.

  9. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M H; Awad, R A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory quality attributes.The results indicated that substitution of SMP with HBF significantly increased total solids (TS), fat and crude fiber, while crude protein and ash significantly decreased in ice cream mixes. BBG exhibited the same manner of control. Specific gravity was gradually increased with adding HBFand BBG in the mixes and therefore the overrun percent was significantly changed in the resultant ice cream. Adding HBF in ice cream formula led to significant decrease in acidity with higher freezing point and the product showed higher ability to meltdown. BBG treatment showed the same trend of control. Values of flow time and viscosity significantly increased with increasing HBF in the ice cream mixes, but these values significantly decreased in BBG mix. The time required to freeze ice cream mixes was decreased with increasing the ratio of HBF but, increased in BBG treatment. The substitution of SMP with 1 and 2 % HBF significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced sensory attributes of ice cream samples. While, BBG treatment achieved mild score and acceptability.

  10. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and doc...

  11. Assessing the effects of different prebiotic dietary oligosaccharides in sheep milk ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Vieira, A H; Neto, R P C; Cappato, L P; Coimbra, P T; Moraes, J; Andrade, M M; Calado, V M A; Granato, D; Freitas, M Q; Tavares, M I B; Raices, R S L; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different prebiotic dietary oligosaccharides (inulin, fructo-oligosaccharide, galacto-oligossacaride, short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide, resistant starch, corn dietary oligosaccharide and polydextrose) in non-fat sheep milk ice cream processing through physical parameters, water mobility and thermal analysis. Overall, the fat replacement by dietary prebiotic oligosaccharides significantly decreased the melting time, melting temperature and the fraction and relaxation time for fat and bound water (T22) while increased the white intensity and glass transition temperature. The replacement of sheep milk fat by prebiotics in sheep milk ice cream constitutes an interesting option to enhance nutritional aspects and develop a functional food.

  12. Comparison of CME radial velocities from a flux rope model and an ice cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Moon, Y.; Na, H.

    2011-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest energy release process in the solar system and act as the primary driver of geomagnetic storms and other space weather phenomena on the Earth. So it is very important to infer their directions, velocities and three-dimensional structures. In this study, we choose two different models to infer radial velocities of halo CMEs since 2008 : (1) an ice cream cone model by Xue et al (2005) using SOHO/LASCO data, (2) a flux rope model by Thernisien et al. (2009) using the STEREO/SECCHI data. In addition, we use another flux rope model in which the separation angle of flux rope is zero, which is morphologically similar to the ice cream cone model. The comparison shows that the CME radial velocities from among each model have very good correlations (R>0.9). We will extending this comparison to other partial CMEs observed by STEREO and SOHO.

  13. 香菇冰淇淋的研制%Manufacture of Dried Mushroom Ice Cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王纯彬

    2014-01-01

    在传统冰淇淋的基础上,研制了香菇冰淇淋。既具有降温解署作用,又具有降血压、降血糖的保健功效。对预防癌症,抵抗流行性病毒及艾滋病毒的感染有一定的作用,是高血压和糖尿病患者较适宜的保健食品。%We developed a new kind of dried mushroom ice cream on the basis of traditional ice cream. It had many efficacies such as:keeping cool in hot days;lowering blood pressure and hypoglycemic. It even had effect on preventing cancer and pandemic virus. Thus, it was a suitable health food for hypertensive patients and diabetes patients.

  14. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of goat and cow milk ice cream made with vegetable fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chacón-Villalobos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the amount of goat and cow milk over the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ice cream flavored with vegetable fat. In Costa Rica in 2010, three inclusion percentages of milk (100% goat, 100% cow, and a mixture of both 50%: 50% were evaluated, as well as the inclusion of different flavors (strawberry, strawberry with topping, and vanilla on the overrun, texture, melting, color, and acceptance of ice cream with vegetable fat. No parameters depended on the type of milk (p>0.05, while overrun varied between batches (p<0.05. There was a flavor*milk interaction for melting rate, texture, and pH attributable to the addition of topping. There was a significant effect on the colorimetric measurement based on the variables of the CIE system L*, a* and C*, on flavor (p<0.05, and an interaction type of milk*flavor for parameters b* and °h (tint or hue was attributed to topping and colorants. Both vegetable fat and topping increased the content of total solids in the mixture; it was associated to a lower rate of aeration, a low melting time, and a more consistency. A cluster analysis for sensory liking, distinguished between three groups: group 1 (15.25%, which liked all products, group 2 (62.71% that moderately liked them all, and group 3 (22.03% who neither show like nor dislike. Groups 2 and 3 showed greater liking for products with topping. The results of the sensory panel as well as the physicochemical and instrumental characterizations show that the type of milk used to make ice cream is not a determining factor, so it is feasible to produce goat milk ice cream and obtain a quality product with good acceptance.

  15. Development of a Full Ice-cream Cone Model for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Harim

    2017-04-01

    It is essential to determine three-dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, and source location) of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for the space weather forecast. In this study, we investigate which cone type represents a halo CME morphology using 29 CMEs (12 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) halo CMEs and 17 Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation COR2 halo CMEs) from 2010 December to 2011 June. These CMEs are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or one of STEREO A and B) and limb ones by the other spacecraft (One of STEREO A and B or SOHO). From cone shape parameters of these CMEs, such as their front curvature, we find that the CME observational structures are much closer to a full ice-cream cone type than a shallow ice-cream cone type. Thus, we develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths to estimate the three-dimensional parameters of the halo CMEs. This model is constructed by carrying out the following steps: (1) construct a cone for a given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (i.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model).

  16. Effect of calcium chloride addition on ice cream structure and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, F F; Resende, J V; Abreu, L R; Goff, H D

    2008-06-01

    The influence of calcium fortification by the addition of calcium chloride on quality parameters of ice cream based on physical properties was investigated, as was the effect of kappa-carrageenan at modifying the effects of this calcium fortification. Four ice cream mixes of conventional composition, with added kappa-carrageenan (0 or 0.025%) and added calcium chloride (0 or 4.4 g L(-1) = 40 mM of added Ca(2+)), were prepared. Modulated temperature-differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the effect of calcium chloride on the nucleation temperature, enthalpy of melting, and freezing point depression. The protein composition of 15.4% (wt/wt) reconstituted skim milk powder solutions with or without 4.4 g L(-1) added CaCl(2) and in the supernatant after ultracentrifugation was determined. Fat particle size distributions in ice cream were characterized by light scattering. Ice crystal sizes before and after temperature cycling were determined by cold-stage light microscopy. The results demonstrated that the addition of calcium chloride led to a substantial increase in ice crystal sizes and in fat partial coalescence, which were exacerbated by the addition of kappa-carrageenan. These results can be explained by the interaction between Ca(2+) ions and casein micelles, rather than any effects on freezing point depression. The calcium ions led to a more compact micelle, less serum beta-casein, and high fat destabilization, all of which would be expected to reduce macromolecular structure and volume occupancy in the unfrozen phase, which led to increased rates of ice recrystallization.

  17. Synbiotic yogurt-ice cream produced via incorporation of microencapsulated lactobacillus acidophilus (la-5) and fructooligosaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Abbas; Milani, Elnaz; Madadlou, Ashkan; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mokarram, Reza Rezaei; Salarbashi, Davoud

    2014-08-01

    Yogurt-ice cream is a nutritious product with a refreshing taste and durability profoundly longer than that of yogurt. The probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-5) cells either in free or encapsulated form were incorporated into yog-ice cream and their survivability were studied. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) as a prebiotic compound at three levels (0, 4 & 8 % w/w) was added to yogurt-ice cream mix and its effects on some chemical properties, overrun and firmness of product were evaluated. The higher the incorporated FOS concentration, the lower were the pH value and higher the total solid content of treatments. FOS incorporation (8 %) significantly increased the overrun of treatments and reduced their firmness. The viable counts of free probiotics decreased from ~9.55 to ~7.3 log cfu/g after 60 days of frozen storage while that of encapsulated cells merely decreased less than 1 log cycle. Encapsulation with alginate microbeads protected the probiotic cells against injuries in the freezing stage as well as, during frozen storage.

  18. Comparison of Asymmetric and Ice-cream Cone Models for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, H.; Moon, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) are major cause of the geomagnetic storms. To minimize the projection effect by coronagraph observation, several cone models have been suggested: an ice-cream cone model, an asymmetric cone model etc. These models allow us to determine the three dimensional parameters of HCMEs such as radial speed, angular width, and the angle between sky plane and central axis of the cone. In this study, we compare these parameters obtained from different models using 48 well-observed HCMEs from 2001 to 2002. And we obtain the root mean square error (RMS error) between measured projection speeds and calculated projection speeds for both cone models. As a result, we find that the radial speeds obtained from the models are well correlated with each other (R = 0.86), and the correlation coefficient of angular width is 0.6. The correlation coefficient of the angle between sky plane and central axis of the cone is 0.31, which is much smaller than expected. The reason may be due to the fact that the source locations of the asymmetric cone model are distributed near the center, while those of the ice-cream cone model are located in a wide range. The average RMS error of the asymmetric cone model (85.6km/s) is slightly smaller than that of the ice-cream cone model (87.8km/s).

  19. MANAGING THE COLD CHAIN: A CASE STUDY AT A SOUTH AFRICAN ICE CREAM COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Grobler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper documents the results of a supply chain management (SCM case study conducted at Centurion Ice Cream and Sweets CC, a producer of ice cream in the greater Gauteng area. The current SCM environment was first analyzed before the distribution function was identified as a prime candidate for further analysis. A Monte Carlo simulation was subsequently performed to investigate the effect of different distribution scenarios. The paper concludes with an investigation into information technology (IT as the enabler for improved supply chain performance.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel dokumenteer die resultate van ‘n voorsieningskanaalgevallestudie uitgevoer by Centurion Ice Cream and Sweets CC, ‘n roomysvervaardiger in die Gauteng-area. Die voorsieningskanaal is eers ontleed voordat die distribusiefunksie geïdentifiseer is as ‘n kandidaat vir verdere analise. ‘n Monte Carlo-simulasie uitgevoer om die effek van verskillende distribusiescenarios te ondersoek. Die artikel sluit af met ‘n ondersoek na inligtingstegnologie as katalisator vir verbeterde voorsieningskanaalprestasie.

  20. Whey protein phospholipid concentrate and delactosed permeate: Applications in caramel, ice cream, and cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M A; Burrington, K J; Hartel, R W

    2016-09-01

    Whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC) and delactosed permeate (DLP) are 2 coproducts of cheese whey processing that are currently underutilized. Past research has shown that WPPC and DLP can be used together as a functional dairy ingredient in foods such as ice cream, soup, and caramel. However, the scope of the research has been limited to a single WPPC supplier. The variability of the composition and functionality of WPPC was previously studied. The objective of this research was to expand on the previous study and examine the potential applications of WPPC and DLP blends in foods. In ice cream, WPPC was added as a natural emulsifier to replace synthetic emulsifiers. The WPPC decreased the amount of partially coalesced fat and increased the drip-through rate. In caramel, DLP and WPPC replaced sweetened condensed skim milk and lecithin. Cold flow increased significantly, and hardness and stickiness decreased. In cake, DLP and WPPC were added as a total replacement of eggs, with no change in yield, color, or texture. Overall, WPPC and DLP can be utilized as functional dairy ingredients at a lower cost in ice cream and cake but not in chewy caramel.

  1. Detection of microbial concentration in ice-cream using the impedance technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, M; Lanzoni, M; Pompei, A; Lazzarini, R; Matteuzzi, D; Riccò, B

    2008-06-15

    The detection of microbial concentration, essential for safe and high quality food products, is traditionally made with the plate count technique, that is reliable, but also slow and not easily realized in the automatic form, as required for direct use in industrial machines. To this purpose, the method based on impedance measurements represents an attractive alternative since it can produce results in about 10h, instead of the 24-48h needed by standard plate counts and can be easily realized in automatic form. In this paper such a method has been experimentally studied in the case of ice-cream products. In particular, all main ice-cream compositions of real interest have been considered and no nutrient media has been used to dilute the samples. A measurement set-up has been realized using benchtop instruments for impedance measurements on samples whose bacteria concentration was independently measured by means of standard plate counts. The obtained results clearly indicate that impedance measurement represents a feasible and reliable technique to detect total microbial concentration in ice-cream, suitable to be implemented as an embedded system for industrial machines.

  2. A novel method for the determination of synthetic colors in ice cream samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Meenakshi; Khanna, Subhash K; Das, Mukul

    2004-01-01

    A simple method has been developed for the extraction, separation, and determination of synthetic colors in ice cream samples. The process involves the breakdown of emulsion by neutral detergents (Triton X-100 and Tween 20) followed by extraction with petroleum ether for removal of fat. The aqueous colored solution obtained is treated with 5% acetic acid, and the uptake of color is carried out by a wool-dyeing technique. The color is eluted from the wool with 5% ammonia solution, the solution is evaporated to dryness, and the residue is dissolved in 60% ethanol for paper chromatography using trisodium citrate-ammonia-water (2 + 5 + 95, w/v/v) as the mobile phase. The colored spots from the paper chromatogram are cut and eluted with 60% ethanol, and the absorbance is measured at the respective lambda maximum corresponding to the Rf value of the appropriate standard. The recoveries of 6 colors, including sunset yellow FCF (SSYFCF), tartrazine, carmoisine, ponceau 4R, brilliant blue FCF (BBFCF), and fast green FCF from spiked samples with either detergent were found to be >90%. However, recoveries of erythrosine were 21 and 65% with Triton X-100 and Tween 20, respectively. Indigo carmine could not be recovered at all because of its fugitive property in 5% ammonia solution, which is used to strip the color from the wool. The sensitivity of the method with the use of Tween 20 is 1 ppm (1 microg/g) for the colors in spiked ice cream samples. With this method, we analyzed samples of 20 branded colored ice cream. The results showed the presence of tartrazine (8.4-43.3 ppm), SSYFCF (23.5-117.6 ppm), carmoisine (traces-53.2 ppm), erythrosine (3.5 ppm), and BBFCF (4.1 ppm) in the ice cream samples. Apart from 2 samples of tuttifruity, all of the ice cream samples showed the presence of permitted synthetic colors below the permissible level of 100 ppm established by the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act of India.

  3. Avaliação do consumidor sobre sorvetes com xilitol Consumer evaluation of ice cream with xylitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Antun Maia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar, em primeiro lugar, a preferência dos consumidores pelas formulações de sorvetes (nata, morango e chocolate com sacarose contra formulações com xilitol, através de teste de comparação pareada com consumidores. A aceitabilidade dos sorvetes formulados com xilitol foi pesquisada considerando-se os seguintes atributos: aspecto geral, cor, consistência, doçura e sabor, além de procurar conhecer hábitos de consumo dos consumidores de sorvete e suas intenções de consumo. Os sorvetes adoçados com sacarose foram preferidos em comparação aos adoçados com xilitol, sendo que o sorvete de chocolate apresentou menor diferença sensorial, seguido do sorvete de morango e do de nata. A aceitabilidade dos sorvetes contendo xilitol foi considerada alta, obtendo para o aspecto geral dos sorvetes 91% para os sorvetes de morango, 88% para o sorvete de chocolate e 67% para o sorvete de nata, aceitabilidade esta considerada entre boa e ótima. Essa ótima aceitabilidade refletiu nos resultados da pesquisa de intenção de consumo, na qual o consumidor se mostrou bastante receptivo ao levar para sua casa qualquer um dos sabores de sorvete, principalmente o de chocolate, sabor esse preferido pelos consumidores consultados. Os resultados confirmam o potencial para comercialização dos sorvetes adoçados com xilitol, como mais uma opção para diabéticos e obesos.The aim of this study was to evaluate, firstly, consumer preference for ice cream formulations (cream, strawberry and chocolate sweetened with sucrose against formulations with xylitol, through paired comparison tests with consumers. The acceptability of the ice creams formulated with xylitol was also evaluated, considering the following attributes: overall aspect, colour, consistency, sweetness and flavour, in addition to observing consumer habits with respect to ice cream consumption and their purchase intention. The ice creams sweetened with sucrose

  4. Frequent ice cream consumption is associated with reduced striatal response to receipt of an ice cream–based milkshake123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Background: Weight gain leads to reduced reward-region responsivity to energy-dense food receipt, and consumption of an energy-dense diet compared with an isocaloric, low-energy-density diet leads to reduced dopamine receptors. Furthermore, phasic dopamine signaling to palatable food receipt decreases after repeated intake of that food, which collectively suggests that frequent intake of an energy-dense food may reduce striatal response to receipt of that food. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that frequent ice cream consumption would be associated with reduced activation in reward-related brain regions (eg, striatum) in response to receipt of an ice cream–based milkshake and examined the influence of adipose tissue and the specificity of this relation. Design: Healthy-weight adolescents (n = 151) underwent fMRI during receipt of a milkshake and during receipt of a tasteless solution. Percentage body fat, reported food intake, and food craving and liking were assessed. Results: Milkshake receipt robustly activated the striatal regions, yet frequent ice cream consumption was associated with a reduced response to milkshake receipt in these reward-related brain regions. Percentage body fat, total energy intake, percentage of energy from fat and sugar, and intake of other energy-dense foods were not related to the neural response to milkshake receipt. Conclusions: Our results provide novel evidence that frequent consumption of ice cream, independent of body fat, is related to a reduction in reward-region responsivity in humans, paralleling the tolerance observed in drug addiction. Data also imply that intake of a particular energy-dense food results in attenuated reward-region responsivity specifically to that food, which suggests that sensory aspects of eating and reward learning may drive the specificity. PMID:22338036

  5. Avaliação sensorial de sorvetes à base de xilitol Sensory evaluation of ice creams prepared with xylitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Antun Maia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou relacionar o poder adoçante de solução de xilitol e sacarose, procurando saber se existe diferença de doçura entre sorvetes de nata, morango e chocolate adicionados destes dois adoçantes, em diferentes concentrações, assim como verificar a qualidade sensorial do produto quanto a aparência, cor, aroma, consistência e sabor. Houve diferenças significativas (p The aim of this study was to compare the sweetening power of xylitol and sucrose solutions, verifying differences in sweetness among cream, strawberry and chocolate flavoured ice creams sweetened with these two sweeteners, and also determining the sensory quality of the products with respect to appearance, colour, aroma, consistency and flavour. There were significant differences (p < 0.05 among all the formulations except between the strawberry formulations made with 100% sucrose and 50% xylitol. With respect to quality, the cream flavoured ice creams presented the greatest differences in quality among the three concentrations of sweeteners, since of the five attributes evaluated, significant differences (p < 0.05 were obtained for four of them (appearance, colour, consistency and flavour. The strawberry ice creams were the most uniform with respect to quality, only presenting significant differences (p < 0.05 for consistency. The chocolate ice creams were intermediate, presenting significant differences (p < 0.05 for consistency and flavour.

  6. Short communication: low-fat ice cream flavor not modified by high hydrostatic pressure treatment of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, J M; Lim, S-Y; Powers, J R; Ross, C F; Clark, S

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine flavor binding of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-treated whey protein concentrate (WPC) in a real food system. Fresh Washington State University (WSU, Pullman) WPC, produced by ultrafiltration of separated Cheddar cheese whey, was treated at 300 MPa for 15 min. Commercial WPC 35 powder was reconstituted to equivalent total solids as WSU WPC (8.23%). Six batches of low-fat ice cream were produced: A) HHP-treated WSU WPC without diacetyl; B) and E) WSU WPC with 2 mg/L of diacetyl added before HHP; C) WSU WPC with 2 mg/L of diacetyl added after HHP; D) untreated WSU WPC with 2 mg/L of diacetyl; and F) untreated commercial WPC 35 with 2 mg/L of diacetyl. The solution of WSU WPC or commercial WPC 35 contributed 10% to the mix formulation. Ice creams were produced by using standard ice cream ingredients and processes. Low-fat ice creams containing HHP-treated WSU WPC and untreated WSU WPC were analyzed using headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography. Sensory evaluation by balanced reference duo-trio test was carried out using 50 untrained panelists in 2 sessions on 2 different days. The headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography analysis revealed that ice cream containing HHP-treated WSU WPC had almost 3 times the concentration of diacetyl compared with ice cream containing untreated WSU WPC at d 1 of storage. However, diacetyl was not detected in ice creams after 14 d of storage. Eighty percent of panelists were able to distinguish between low-fat ice creams containing untreated WSU WPC with and without diacetyl, confirming panelists' ability to detect diacetyl. However, panelists were not able to distinguish between low-fat ice creams containing untreated and HHP-treated WSU WPC with diacetyl. These results show that WPC diacetyl-binding properties were not enhanced by 300-MPa HHP treatment for 15 min, indicating that HHP may not be suitable for such applications.

  7. A customer value analysis of Taiwan ice cream market: a means-end chain approach across consumption situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Kwang; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Chiu, Fei-Rung

    2015-01-01

    In the highly competitive market, it is increasingly hard for ice cream stores to develop creative marketing strategies to retain existing customers and attract new ones. This study applies the means-end chain approach to identify the customer value, consequences, and attributes of ice cream and to suggest useful information for ice cream sellers to develop differential marketing strategies across various consumption situations (i.e. on a date, gathering with friends, craving for ice cream). This study conducted one-on-one in-depth interviews with participants. The interview content was subsequently analyzed and coded to produce an implication matrix and a hierarchical value map, which was further used to determine customers' value perceptions. The results indicate the terminal values of the highest strength comprised economy, pleasure, and efficiency. Pleasure was emphasized among consumers who were on a date or gathering with friends, whereas satisfaction was emphasized among consumers who craved ice cream. Based on the results, the study also provides suggestions to the industry and future researchers.

  8. The performance of probiotic fermented sheep milk and ice cream sheep milk in inhibiting enamel mineral loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelman, P; Frazão, J V; Vieira, T I; Balthazar, C F; Andrade, M M; Alexandria, A K; Cruz, A G; Fonseca-Gonçalves, A; Maia, L C

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effects of two different sheep milk-based food matrices - fermented sheep milk and ice cream - with added probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei 431) on dental enamel subjected to an in vitro highly cariogenic challenge. Sixty enamel blocks were selected and randomly allocated into five treatment groups (n=12): conventional fermented sheep milk (CFSM), probiotic fermented sheep milk (PFSM), conventional sheep milk ice cream (CSMIC), probiotic sheep milk ice cream (PSMIC) and control using deionized water. The blocks were subjected to highly cariogenic pH cycling and the products were applied (5min), in a blinded way, once a day to simulate a daily use for 8 consecutive days. A microhardness test was performed before and after the treatment to estimate the percentage of microhardness surface loss (% SML). Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was performed to confirm the mineral loss. All groups had lost microhardness after the experiment. However, CFSM and PFSM exhibited the most positive findings when compared to the control in both ice creams. Scanning electron microscopy showed less mineral loss in CFSM and PFSM compared with CSMIC, PSMIC and control after the cariogenic challenge. Overall, fermented milk decreased mineral loss from enamel subjected to a highly cariogenic challenge, regardless of the presence of probiotics in their composition, which had a higher efficacy compared to ice cream. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Coconut and sunflower oil ratios in ice cream influence subsequent food selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G; Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Norton, J E; Halford, J C G

    2016-10-01

    The effect of coconut oil (CO, containing mainly medium chain triglycerides - MCTs) and sunflower oil (SO, containing mainly long chain triglycerides - LCTs) used as fat source (10% fat ice cream) in different ratios (25% CO and 75% SO - 25CO:75SO, 50% CO and 50% SO - 50CO:50SO, 75% CO and 25% SO - 75CO:25SO) was investigated to assess differences in appetite and ad-libitum (evening and snack) food intake using a single blind design. 36 healthy female participants consumed a fixed portion (150g) of ice cream 45min before an ad-libitum dinner and snacks. Appetite sensations were tracked across the day. Participants ate significantly less fat after 75CO:25SO than 25CO:75SO (p=0.007) and there was also a trend for lower fat intake in this condition as compared to 50CO:50SO (p=0.068). High fat savoury snack intake significantly decreased after 75CO:25SO in comparison with both 25CO:75SO (p=0.038) and 50CO:50SO (p=0.008). Calorie intake from snacks was also found to be significantly lower after 25CO:75SO and 50CO:50SO than 75CO:25SO (p=0.021 and 0.030 respectively). There was no effect of condition on appetite or desire ratings over the day. Eating a standard portion of ice cream containing different ratios of MCTs and LCTs can modestly influence acute food selection and intake, with MCTs manifesting their effect earlier and LCTs later due to differences in the absorption and metabolism of these lipids. However, the differences evident in the present study were small, and require further research before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  10. Toxigenic genes, spoilage potential, and antimicrobial resistance of Bacillus cereus group strains from ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seza; Eyi, Ayla; Küçüksarı, Rümeysa

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus spp. can be recovered from almost every environment. It is also found readily in foods, where it may cause food spoilage and/or food poisoning due to its toxigenic and pathogenic nature, and extracellular enzymes. In this study, 29 Bacillus cereus group strains from ice cream were examined for the presence of following virulence genes hblC, nheA, cytK and ces genes, and tested for a range of the extracellular enzymes, and antimicrobial susceptibility. The strains were found to produce extracellular enzymes: proteolytic and lipolytic activity, gelatin hydrolysis and lecithinase production (100%), DNase production (93.1%) and amylase activity (93.1%). Of 29 strains examined, 24 (82.8%) showed hemolytic activity on blood agar. Beta-lactamase enzyme was only produced by 20.7% of B. cereus group. Among 29 B. cereus group from ice cream, nheA was the most common virulence gene detected in 44.8% of the strains, followed by hblC gene with 17.2%. Four (13.8%) of the 29 strains were positive for both hblC gene and nheA gene. Contrarily, cytK and ces genes were not detected in any of the strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility of ice cream isolates was tested to 14 different antimicrobial agents using the disc diffusion method. We detected resistance to penicillin and ampicillin with the same rate of 89.7%. Thirty-one percent of the strains were multiresistant to three or more antibiotics. This study emphasizes that the presence of natural isolates of Bacillus spp. harboring one or more enterotoxin genes, producing extracellular enzymes which may cause spoilage and acquiring antibiotic resistance might hold crucial importance in the food safety and quality.

  11. Upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders in the makers of Maraş pounded ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Bakan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Upper Extremity Cumulative Trauma Disorders(UE-CTD are among the major health problems affectingthe workers. The aim of this study was to investigateUE-CTD in the makers of Maras pounded ice cream(MMPICMethods: This study was conducted among 50 volunteerswho work as a MMPIC and 50 control in our downtownarea. During face-to-face conversion, the participantsfilled out a survey inquiring about age, duration ofwork (in years in job, daily working time, occupation withanother job, health history, and medication usage. Thesubjects were questioned regarding the musculoskeletalcomplaints within the last six months and upper bodyphysical examination was performed in all participants.Results: The study group was composed of males.The mean age of study group and control group were31.78±6.58 and 30.74±5.99 years (p=0.411, respectively.The mean duration of work in pounded ice creambusiness and the mean duration of work in control were11.64± 6.26 years and 10.68±5.48 years (p=0.417, respectively.The mean daily working time in the studygroup and in control group were 10.64±1.82 hours and11.12±1.62 hours (p= 0.168, respectively. Musculoskeletalcomplaints of the upper extremity were found in 52%of the study group, and 28% of the control group. Musculoskeletaldisease of upper extremity was found in 28% ofthe study group and in 12% of the control group. Upperextremity musculoskeletal system complaints and illnesswere difference statistically between the two groups (p=0.014; p= 0.046, respectively.Conclusion: UE-CTD was seen in the makers of poundedice cream and its prevalence was similar to the otherlaborers work in the areas needing repetitive arm andhand motion.Key words: Makers of Maras pounded ice cream, cumulativetrauma disorders, upper extremity problems

  12. Comparison of dry medium culture plates for mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junghyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2013-12-01

    This study was performed to compare the performance of Sanita-Kun dry medium culture plate with those of traditional culture medium and Petrifilm dry medium culture plate for the enumeration of the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were comparatively evaluated in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet using Sanita-Kun aerobic count (SAC), Petrifilm aerobic count (PAC), and traditional plate count agar (PCA) media. According to the results, all methods showed high correlations of 0.989~1.000 and no significant differences were observed for enumerating the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in the tested food products. SAC method was easier to perform and count colonies efficiently as compared to the PCA and PAC methods. Therefore, we concluded that the SAC method offers an acceptable alternative to the PCA and PAC methods for counting the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

  13. Modeling of the effect of freezer conditions on the hardness of ice cream using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Ochi, H; Habara, K; Taketsuka, M; Saito, H; Ichihashi, N; Iwatsuki, K

    2009-12-01

    The effect of conventional continuous freezer parameters [mix flow (L/h), overrun (%), drawing temperature ( degrees C), cylinder pressure (kPa), and dasher speed (rpm)] on the hardness of ice cream under varying measured temperatures (-5, -10, and -15 degrees C) was investigated systematically using response surface methodology (central composite face-centered design), and the relationships were expressed as statistical models. The range (maximum and minimum values) of each freezer parameter was set according to the actual capability of the conventional freezer and applicability to the manufacturing process. Hardness was measured using a penetrometer. These models showed that overrun and drawing temperature had significant effects on hardness. The models can be used to optimize freezer conditions to make ice cream of the least possible hardness under the highest overrun (120%) and a drawing temperature of approximately -5.5 degrees C (slightly warmer than the lowest drawing temperature of -6.5 degrees C) within the range of this study. With reference to the structural elements of the ice cream, we suggest that the volume of overrun and ice crystal content, ice crystal size, and fat globule destabilization affect the hardness of ice cream. In addition, the combination of a simple instrumental parameter and response surface methodology allows us to show the relation between freezer conditions and one of the most important properties-hardness-visually and quantitatively on the practical level.

  14. SOME ASPECTS REGARDING THE DEGREE OF CONSERVATION OF THE CREAM PACKAED IN PLASTIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Rebenciuc

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prolongation of the product shelf life is directly influenced by the quality of the relation established between thepacking method, package and product. In this situation, the package properties play a primary role in ensuring theprotection and preservation function. This paper’s purpose is to present and analyze cream and types of plastic foodpackage, in relation with the food product; plastic food package still being the most used for the packaging of diaryproducts.The cream packagings have been tested specifically: white polypropylene packagings and coloured sealingends as well. The security of food stuff packaging materials is based on the insurance of the fact that while coming intocontact with food, the unsafe chemical substances do not migrate into it. The substance quantity limit that can betransmitted to product must be determined and limited at a level that will not cause any changes in food stuff. Initiallyanalyses on the product as well as on the package have been made. Then, analyses at 7 day- intervals during a month ofstorage have been made.

  15. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Hung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids and oxidative stability of ice cream supplemented with olein fraction of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rahman; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad

    2017-02-07

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) has been regarded as good source of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids with cardiac, hepatic, hypotensive, antiallergic and antidiabetic role. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in chia oil can be enhanced by fractionation. Olein/low melting fraction of chia oil has higher concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore, main objective of current investigation was determination of various concentration effect of olein fraction of chia oil on omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of ice cream. Ice cream samples were prepared by partially replacing the milk fat with olein fraction of chia oil at 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations (T1, T2, T3 and T4), respectively. Ice cream prepared from 100% milk fat was kept as control. Ice cream samples stored at -18 °C for 60 days were analysed at 0, 30 and 60 days of the storage period. Fatty acid profile, total phenolic contents, total flavonoids, free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidine value and sensory characteristics of ice cream samples was studied. Concentration of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in T4 was 13.24, 0.58, 0.42 and 0.31%, respectively. Total phenolic contents of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were recorded 0.12, 1.65, 3.17, 5.19 and 7.48 mg GAE/mL, respectively. Total flavonoid content of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were found 0.08, 0.64, 1.87, 3.16 and 4.29 mg Quercetin Equivalent/mL. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 was noted 5.61, 17.43, 36.84, 51.17 and 74.91%, respectively. After 60 days of storage period, the highest peroxide value of 1.84 (MeqO2/kg) was observed in T4, which was much less than allowable limit of 10 (MeqO2/kg). Flavour score was non-significant after 30 days of storage period. Supplementation of ice cream with olein fraction of chia oil enhanced the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids and improved

  17. The effect of food and ice cream on the adsorption capacity of paracetamol to high surface activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle Riis; Christophersen, Anne Bolette

    2003-01-01

    The effect of added food mixture (as if food was present in the stomach of an intoxicated patient) or 4 different types of ice cream (added as a flavouring and lubricating agent) on the adsorption of paracetamol (acetaminophen) to 2 formulations of activated charcoal was determined in vitro......, and paracetamol were mixed with either food mixture or ice cream followed by one hr incubation. The maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated charcoal was calculated using Langmuirs adsorption isotherm. Paracetamol concentration was analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography. In the presence...... of food, the paracetamol adsorption capacity of the 2 activated charcoals was reduced by max. 19% (Pcream was mixed with the charcoal...

  18. Rheological and thermophysical properties of model compounds for ice-cream with reduced fat and sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Šubarić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of hydrocolloid carrageenan, native tapioca starch and powdered whey on viscosity and thermophysical properties of model ice-cream mixtures with reduced content of sugar and fat. Measurements were performed immediately after mixture preparation and after two months of storage at -18 °C. Results showed that rheological properties of model ice-cream mixtures with reduced content of sugar and fat can be improved by addition of starch and whey, particularly at low temperatures (0 and -5 °C. Improvement of properties at low temperatures is particularly important for before mentioned group of products, as well as the fact that raw materials used in the recipes are cost effective and have high nutritive value. Two-month storage at -18 °C resulted in increase of rheological parameters of all investigated samples. Freeze and thaw temperatures of model mixtures were not changed significantly after two months of storage. On the other hand, enthalpies of freezing and thawing have after storage in the most cases decreased.

  19. 丹贝冰淇淋的研制%Development of tempeh ice cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘道东; 吴菊清; 董明盛; 江汉湖

    2001-01-01

    利用正交试验探讨了丹贝粉、奶粉、人造奶油及瓜儿胶的添加量对丹贝冰淇淋膨胀率及感官质量的影响。结果显示,它们对丹贝冰淇淋的膨胀率和感官质量均有显著性的影响。当丹贝粉、奶粉、人造奶油及瓜儿胶的添加量分别为9.0%、5.0%、5.0%和0.2%时,冰淇淋的膨胀率和感官质量均达到最佳。%In the present study,effects of Tempeh powder,milk powder,butter,and guar gum on swell rate and sensory organ quality of Tempeh ice cream were investigated by orthogonal test method.Results showed that the swell rate and sensory organ quality of Tempeh ice cream were significantly effected by the above factors.The best swell rate and sensory organ quality were obtained when the contents of Tempeh powder,milk powder,butter,and guar gum were 9.0%,5.0%,5.0% and 0.2% respectively.

  20. A hybrid flow shop model for an ice cream production scheduling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma Ribas Vila

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Taula normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} In this paper we address the scheduling problem that comes from an ice cream manufacturing company. This production system can be modelled as a three stage nowait hybrid flow shop with batch dependent setup costs. To contribute reducing the gap between theory and practice we have considered the real constraints and the criteria used by planners. The problem considered has been formulated as a mixed integer programming. Further, two competitive heuristic procedures have been developed and one of them will be proposed to schedule in the ice cream factory.

  1. Effect of different sweetener blends and fat types on ice cream properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elieste da Silva Junior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of processed foods requires the understanding of the phenomena that dictate the ingredient interactions normally used in food formulations, as well as the effects of the numerous operations involved in the processing of the final product. In ice creams, sugars are responsible for taste, but they also affect the freezing behavior and viscosity of processed mixes. Components such as fats influence mechanical properties, melting resistance, and palatability of final products. The objective was to study the technological effects of different sugars and fats on the structure of ice cream formulations. Fructose syrup was used as a substitute for glucose syrup in blends with sucrose, and palm fat was employed as an alternative to hydrogenated vegetable fat. The analysis of variance showed significant differences in chemical compositions. Hygroscopicity of fructose syrup increased the solids content in the formulations. Melting rate and overrun were higher in products added with this sugar. Palm fat caused changes in melting ranges of formulations, and higher melting rate was observed in the combination of palm fat and fructose syrup.

  2. The Effects of the Use of Different Stabilizer on Some Quality Criteria in Industrial Produced Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Simsek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available cream in industrial ice cream production which is increased the consumer demand day by day due to the hygienic process, high quality conscious and understanding on the consumer demand. In this research, a simple vanillin ice cream formulation was chosen. Six different samples were produced according to the industrial process with different stabilizer at the same rate on the condition that the stabilize of the other components. The average total pH, partial melting period, whole melting period and viscosity were found between 6,31 and 6,39, 36,63 and 75,63 minute, 53,47 and 129,93 minute, 104,56 and 883,31 cp respectively. The average total sensory values were found between 2,8 and 3,86 from the above 5 point.

  3. Recovery of biogas as a source of renewable energy from ice-cream production residues and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Burak; Orok, Murat; Hot, Elif; Erkişi, Selin; Albükrek, Metin; Onay, Turgut T

    2013-01-01

    Proper management of waste streams and residues from agro-industry is very important to prevent environmental pollution. In particular, the anaerobic co-digestion process can be used as an important tool for safe disposal and energy recovery from agro-industry waste streams and residues. The primary objective of this laboratory-scale study was to determine whether it was possible to recover energy (biogas) from ice-cream production residues and wastewater, through a mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process. A high methane yield of 0.338 L CH4/gCOD(removed) could be achieved from anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater alone, with almost 70% of methane in biogas, while anaerobic digestion of ice-cream production residue alone did not seem feasible. When wastewater and ice-cream production residue were anaerobically co-digested at a ratio of 9:1 by weight, the highest methane yield of 0.131 L CH4/gCOD(removed) was observed. Buffering capacity seemed to be imperative in energy recovery from these substrates in the anaerobic digestion process.

  4. Enamel erosion caused by the effervescent acid powder in Tiritón ice cream: An in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Beltrán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to visualize the erosive effect on human dental enamel of effervescent acid powder in the Tiritón ice cream (Savory, Nestle, Vevey, Switzerland. The erosive potential of Tiritón ice cream was determined in in vitro conditions by submitting 5 enamel pieces from 3 healthy first molars. The samples were submitted to the mixture of saliva from a girl without cavity incidence and the effervescent powder in the Tiritón ice cream, at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 seconds, then the results were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and measurement of pH. All specimens showed pH 3.0. SEM showed increasing degrees of erosion with longer periods of exposure. The Tiritón ice cream generates a much larger acid solution than necessary for the onset of the dissolution of enamel which subsequently causes susceptibility to dental cavities and erosion, higher than reported for other candies. The images obtained by SEM made possible to visualize clearly the erosive effect produced by the effervescent acid powder in periods of exposure of less than a minute.

  5. Characterization and evaluation of sensory acceptability of ice creams incorporated with beta-carotene encapsulated in solid lipid microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gobbi de LIMA

    Full Text Available Abstract The feasibility of incorporating beta-carotene-loaded solid lipid microparticles (BCSLM into vanilla ice creams was investigated, through the physico-chemical characterization and evaluation of sensory acceptability of the products products. The BCSLM were produced with palm stearin as the lipid phase, hydrolyzed soy protein isolate as the surfactant, and xanthan gum as the thickener. The results showed similar values of proximate composition, total soluble solids, pH, and overrun for all formulations. On the other hand, colorimetric evaluations showed that the ice cream produced with partial substitution of artificial additives by BCSLM containing alpha-tocopherol presented a more intense color, while in the product with non-encapsulated beta-carotene, a fast degradation of carotenoid was confirmed, highlighting the importance of the encapsulation techniques. The results of the sensorial analysis of the products were highly satisfactory and showed that the panelists preferred the ice creams produced with BCSLM containing alpha-tocopherol and with partial substitution of artificial additives by BCSLM containing alpha-tocopherol, confirming the feasibility of incorporating BCSLM into ice creams to reduce the application of artificial dyes to the product.

  6. Hielo salado y helado casero - Salt ice and homemade ice-cream

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Bagnoli; Rosa, M. Herrera

    2016-01-01

    A popular comic is used to introduce this experiment. This sympathetic way reflection on a physical fact well known to practical level and fairly used, but whose physical fundamentals are not always understood: introducing salt in ice is reduced the temperature of the mixture, and the ice melts.

  7. Frozen yogurt and ice cream were less healthy than yogurt, and adding toppings reduced their nutrition value: evidence from 1999-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Jiang, Ning

    2017-06-01

    It was hypothesized that frozen yogurt and ice cream would be less healthy than yogurt. We examined daily energy and nutrient intake from yogurt, frozen yogurt, and ice cream among US adults. In-person 24-hour dietary recall data (n=6453) came from the 1999-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Regression analyses were performed to examine the differences in energy/nutrient intake from frozen yogurt and ice cream (with/without toppings) in comparison to yogurt. Approximately 5.3%, 0.9%, and 14.3% of US adults consumed yogurt, frozen yogurt, and ice cream on any given day, respectively. Among frozen yogurt and ice cream consumers, 29.7% and 14.8% added toppings to their consumption, respectively. Compared with yogurt, frozen yogurt consumption with and without toppings was associated with increased daily energy intake by 214.6 and 97.9kj, respectively; whereas ice cream consumption with and without toppings was associated with increased daily energy intake by 427.2 and 343.5kj, respectively. Compared with yogurt, frozen yogurt consumption was associated with a decreased intake of most vitamins/minerals under examination, but increased intake of sugar, total/saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, and iron. Adding toppings to frozen yogurt further increased total and saturated fat intake. Compared with yogurt, ice cream consumption was associated with a decreased intake of multiple micronutrients, but increased intake of sugar, total/saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, vitamins A and E, and iron. Adding toppings to ice cream further increased sugar intake. In conclusion, frozen yogurt and ice cream were less healthy than yogurt, and adding toppings made them even less desirable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth and Survival of Some Probiotic Strains in Simulated Ice Cream Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayouni, A.; Ehsani, M. R.; Azizi, A.; Razavi, S. H.; Yarmand, M. S.

    A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experiment was applied in triplicates to evaluate the survival of four probiotic strains in simulated ice cream conditions. The growth and survival rate of these probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum) in varying amount of sucrose (10, 15, 20 and 25%), oxygen scavenging components (0.05% L-cysteine and 0.05% L-ascorbate) and temperatures (4 and -20°C) during different periods of time (1, 2 and 3 months) were evaluated in MRS-broth medium. Optical density at 580 nm was used to measure growth. Lactobacilli strains proved to be highly resistant in comparison with Biffidobacteria strains. The viable cell number of Lactobacillus casei in different sucrose concentrations, different oxidoreduction potentials and refrigeration temperature was 1x1010, 2x108 and 5x107 cfu mL-1, respectively. Growth and survival rate of Lactobacillus casei showed to be the highest.

  9. Experimental design and multicriteria decision making methods for the optimization of ice cream composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Rojas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to optimize the sensorial and technological features of ice cream. The experimental work was performed in two stages: 1 optimization of lactose enzymatic hydrolysis, and 2 optimization of the process and product. For the first stage a complete factorial design was developed, optimized using both response surface and the steepest ascent method. In the second stage a mixture design was performed, combining the process variables. The product with the best sensorial acceptance, high yield and low cost was selected. The acceptance of the product was developed by an untrained taster’s panel. As a main result the sensorial and technological features of the final product were improved, establishing the optimum parameters for its elaboration.

  10. Infectious Dose of Listeria monocytogenes in Outbreak Linked to Ice Cream, United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillot, Régis; Klontz, Karl C; Chen, Yi; Burall, Laurel S; Macarisin, Dumitru; Doyle, Matthew; Bally, Kären M; Strain, Errol; Datta, Atin R; Hammack, Thomas S; Van Doren, Jane M

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between the number of ingested Listeria monocytogenes cells in food and the likelihood of developing listeriosis is not well understood. Data from an outbreak of listeriosis linked to milkshakes made from ice cream produced in 1 factory showed that contaminated products were distributed widely to the public without any reported cases, except for 4 cases of severe illness in persons who were highly susceptible. The ingestion of high doses of L. monocytogenes by these patients infected through milkshakes was unlikely if possible additional contamination associated with the preparation of the milkshake is ruled out. This outbreak illustrated that the vast majority of the population did not become ill after ingesting a low level of L. monocytogenes but raises the question of listeriosis cases in highly susceptible persons after distribution of low-level contaminated products that did not support the growth of this pathogen.

  11. Cryogenic Ice Cream Days at CERN | 21-22 September 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    With the LHC being the world’s largest superconducting installation, it’s not surprising that CERN is a world leader in cryogenic safety. On 21 and 22 September, over 100 experts in cryogenic safety will be coming to CERN to take part in CERN’s first Cryogenic Safety Seminar, which aims to stimulate collaboration and further the state of the art in this increasingly important field.   Come and learn more about the vital role played by CERN, and as the summer days start to fade, enjoy a taste of the deliciously light ice cream that results from rapid freezing with liquid nitrogen. *Building 500 lobby, 12:00-14:00 21 and 22 September*

  12. A 4-D dataset for validation of crystal growth in a complex three-phase material, ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, P.; Karagadde, S.; Guo, E.; Bent, J.; Hazekamp, J.; Kingsley, M.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Lee, P. D.

    2015-06-01

    Four dimensional (4D, or 3D plus time) X-ray tomographic imaging of phase changes in materials is quickly becoming an accepted tool for quantifying the development of microstructures to both inform and validate models. However, most of the systems studied have been relatively simple binary compositions with only two phases. In this study we present a quantitative dataset of the phase evolution in a complex three-phase material, ice cream. The microstructure of ice cream is an important parameter in terms of sensorial perception, and therefore quantification and modelling of the evolution of the microstructure with time and temperature is key to understanding its fabrication and storage. The microstructure consists of three phases, air cells, ice crystals, and unfrozen matrix. We perform in situ synchrotron X-ray imaging of ice cream samples using in-line phase contrast tomography, housed within a purpose built cold-stage (-40 to +20oC) with finely controlled variation in specimen temperature. The size and distribution of ice crystals and air cells during programmed temperature cycling are determined using 3D quantification. The microstructural evolution of three-phase materials has many other important applications ranging from biological to structural and functional material, hence this dataset can act as a validation case for numerical investigations on faceted and non-faceted crystal growth in a range of materials.

  13. Modeling of the effect of freezer conditions on the principal constituent parameters of ice cream by using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Ochi, H; Taketsuka, M; Saito, H; Sakurai, K; Ichihashi, N; Iwatsuki, K; Kokubo, S

    2008-05-01

    A systematic analysis was carried out by using response surface methodology to create a quantitative model of the synergistic effects of conditions in a continuous freezer [mix flow rate (L/h), overrun (%), cylinder pressure (kPa), drawing temperature ( degrees C), and dasher speed (rpm)] on the principal constituent parameters of ice cream [rate of fat destabilization (%), mean air cell diameter (mum), and mean ice crystal diameter (mum)]. A central composite face-centered design was used for this study. Thirty-one combinations of the 5 above-mentioned freezer conditions were designed (including replicates at the center point), and ice cream samples were manufactured and examined in a continuous freezer under the selected conditions. The responses were the 3 variables given above. A quadratic model was constructed, with the freezer conditions as the independent variables and the ice cream characteristics as the dependent variables. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) were greater than 0.9 for all 3 responses, but Q(2), the index used here for the capability of the model for predicting future observed values of the responses, was negative for both the mean ice crystal diameter and the mean air cell diameter. Therefore, pruned models were constructed by removing terms that had contributed little to the prediction in the original model and by refitting the regression model. It was demonstrated that these pruned models provided good fits to the data in terms of R(2), Q(2), and ANOVA. The effects of freezer conditions were expressed quantitatively in terms of the 3 responses. The drawing temperature ( degrees C) was found to have a greater effect on ice cream characteristics than any of the other factors.

  14. Effect of biopolymers on structure and ice recrystallization in dynamically frozen ice cream model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regand, A; Goff, H D

    2002-11-01

    Ice crystal growth and microstructure of sugarsolutions prepared with stabilizers (carboxymethyl cellulose [CMC], xanthan gum, locust bean gum [LBG], and gelatin) with or without milk solids-nonfat (MSNF) after freezing in a scraped surface heat exchanger and temperature cycling (5 cycles from -6 degrees C to -20 degrees C) were studied. Ice crystal growth was calculated from brightfield microscopic images acquired from samples before and after cycling. Freeze-substitution and low-temperature embedding (LR-Gold resin) were sample preparation techniques utilized for structure analyses by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Differential staining for carbohydrates and proteins allowed the identification of stabilizer gel-like structures in LBG, gelatin, and gelatin/MSNF solutions. In the absence of milk proteins, xanthan and LBG were the most effective at retarding recrystallization, while in their presence, only xanthan had an effect. Cryo-gelation of the LBG was observed but is not the only mechanism of stabilizer action. Thermodynamic incompatibility between biopolymers was observed to promote localized high concentrations of milk proteins located at the ice crystal interface, probably exerting a water-holding action that significantly enhanced the stabilizer effect. Qualitatively, solution heterogeneity (phase separation) was directly proportional to ice crystal growth inhibition. It is suggested that water-holding by stabilizer and proteins, and in some cases steric hindrance induced by a stabilizer gel-like network, caused a reduction in the kinetics of the ice recrystallization phenomena and promoted mechanisms of melt-regrow instead of melt-diffuse-grow recrystallization, thus resulting in the preservation of the ice crystal size and in a small span of the ice crystal size distribution.

  15. VIABILITAS Lactobacillus acidophilus SNP 2 DALAM KAPSUL DAN APLIKASINYA DALAM ES KRIM Viability of Encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus SNP 2 in Ice Cream

    OpenAIRE

    Banyuaji, Andhini; Rahayu, Endang S.; Utami, Tyas

    2012-01-01

    Due to the health benefit reasons, probiotics have been incorporated into a range of dairy products, including yogurt, cheese, and ice cream. However, the viability of probiotics can decrease during ice cream processing. The reduction of viable probiotics after consumption may also be due to the stomach acid and the presence of bile salt. This research studied the encapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus SNP 2 probiotic bacteria using extrusion and emulsion tech­ niques, and their effect on...

  16. 7 CFR 1000.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1000.16 Section 1000.16... Definitions § 1000.16 Fluid cream product. Fluid cream product means cream (other than plastic cream or frozen cream), including sterilized cream, or a mixture of cream and milk or skim milk containing 9 percent...

  17. [Isolation of coagulase-positive staphylococci from cheese and ice-cream samples sold in Ankara and some biochemical properties of the isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baştepe, S; Köşker, O

    1981-01-01

    Coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from different kinds of cheese and ice-cream sold in Ankara and some biochemical properties of these isolates were determined. 55 cheese, 52 ice-cream (107 samples) were examined for the presence of coagulase-positive staphylococci. Baird Parker Medium was used and 26 samples constituting of 13 cheese and 13 ice-cream were found to be contaminated with coagulase-positive staphylococci and ratio of the contaminated samples to the total was calculated as 24.3%. Highest count was determined to be 176, 166/g in Izmir Tulum Cheese, whereas none of the other tulum cheese samples yielded this bacteria. In general, coagulase-positive staphylococci of cheese samples were higher than ice-cream samples. Among the ice-cream samples highest coagulase-positive staphylococci count was obtained in nutty ice-cream. From the 26 contaminated samples 164 coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated. Results indicate that an important number of the coagulase forming isolates were also phosphatase positive, forming pigment and haemolysin, able to utilize mannitol. No relation could be observed between the coagulase formation and ability to produce lysin.

  18. Comparative Study of Probiotic Ice Cream and Probiotic Drink on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Levels in 6-12 Years Age Group Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Reddy, K M Parveen; Kumar, N H Praveen; Nara, Asha; Ashwin, Devasya; Buddiga, Vinutna

    2015-09-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common health problems in the world. Probiotics are one the various preventive methods to reduce dental caries. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of probiotic ice cream and drink on salivary Streptococcus mutans levels in children of 6-12 years age group. A three phase study was carried out in children (n = 50) of 6-12 years age with zero decayed missing filled teeth (dmft)/DMFT. They were randomly divided into two equal groups. Saliva samples were collected before the consumptions of probiotic ice cream and probiotic drink. Colony count obtained was recorded as baseline data. For both groups probiotic ice cream and drink was given randomly for 7 days and a washout period of 90 days were given and then the saliva samples were collected and colony counting was done. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's paired t-test and multiple comparisons by Tukey's honest significant difference test which showed, there is a significant reduction in salivary S. mutans level in both groups after 7 days period. However, after washout period only probiotic ice cream showed reduction whereas drink did not. Also, there was no significant difference between probiotic ice cream and drink. Probiotic organisms definitely have a role in reducing the salivary S. mutans level and ice cream would be a better choice than drink. However, the prolonged use of the agents and their effects on caries is still to be determined.

  19. Extraction and characterization of gelatin from two edible Sudanese insects and its applications in ice cream making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam; Fadul, Hadia

    2015-07-01

    Three methods were used for extraction of gelatin from two insects, melon bug (Coridius viduatus) and sorghum bug (Agonoscelis versicoloratus versicoloratus). Extraction of insect gelatin using hot water gave higher yield reached up to 3.0%, followed by mild acid extraction which gave 1.5% and distilled water extraction which gave only 1.0%, respectively. The obtained gelatins were characterized by FTIR and the spectra of insect's gelatin seem to be similar when compared with commercial gelatin. Amide II bands of gelatins from melon and sorghum bug appeared around at 1542-1537 cm(-1). Slight differences in the amino acid composition of gelatin extracted from the two insects were observed. Ice cream was made by using 0.5% insect's gelatin and compared with that made using 0.5% commercial gelatin as stabilizing agent. The properties of the obtained ice cream produced using insects gelatin were significantly different when compared with that made using commercial gelatin.

  20. Prevalence and Level of Listeria monocytogenes in Ice Cream Linked to a Listeriosis Outbreak in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y I; Burall, Laurel S; Macarisin, Dumitru; Pouillot, Régis; Strain, Errol; DE Jesus, Antonio J; Laasri, Anna; Wang, Hua; Ali, Laila; Tatavarthy, Aparna; Zhang, Guodong; Hu, Lijun; Day, James; Kang, Jihun; Sahu, Surasri; Srinivasan, Devayani; Klontz, Karl; Parish, Mickey; Evans, Peter S; Brown, Eric W; Hammack, Thomas S; Zink, Donald L; Datta, Atin R

    2016-11-01

    A most-probable-number (MPN) method was used to enumerate Listeria monocytogenes in 2,320 commercial ice cream scoops manufactured on a production line that was implicated in a 2015 listeriosis outbreak in the United States. The analyzed samples were collected from seven lots produced in November 2014, December 2014, January 2015, and March 2015. L. monocytogenes was detected in 99% (2,307 of 2,320) of the tested samples (lower limit of detection, 0.03 MPN/g), 92% of which were contaminated at ice cream products linked to a listeriosis outbreak provided a unique data set for further understanding the risk associated with L. monocytogenes contamination for highly susceptible populations.

  1. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Ting; Liu, Chi-Te; Peng, I-Chen; Hsu, Chin; Yu, Roch-Chui; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2015-09-01

    To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Monakhova, Yulia B.; Rolf Godelmann; Claudia Andlauer; Thomas Kuballa; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA), imitation products can be easily dete...

  3. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia B. Monakhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA, imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R2 0.75–0.95 and 17 compounds in ice cream (R2 0.83–0.99 (e.g., fatty acids and esters were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes.

  4. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Godelmann, Rolf; Andlauer, Claudia; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA), imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat) was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta) was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R (2) 0.75-0.95) and 17 compounds in ice cream (R (2) 0.83-0.99) (e.g., fatty acids and esters) were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes.

  5. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B.; Godelmann, Rolf; Andlauer, Claudia; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA), imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat) was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta) was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R 2 0.75–0.95) and 17 compounds in ice cream (R 2 0.83–0.99) (e.g., fatty acids and esters) were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes. PMID:26904597

  6. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of milk and ice cream in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanda, Olusegun; Oguntubo, Adenike; Adejumo, Oloyede; Ikeorah, John; Akpan, Iyang

    2007-07-01

    A survey was undertaken to determine the aflatoxin M(1) contamination of milk and some locally produced dairy products in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples of human and cow milk, yoghurt, "wara", ice cream and "nono" were collected randomly within the local governments and analysed for aflatoxin M(1) using the two-dimensional TLC. Aflatoxin M(1) contamination in the range of 2.04-4.00 microg l(-1) was noticed only in milk and ice cream. In particular, samples of human milk, cow milk and ice cream recorded high scores of 4.0 microg l(-1), 2.04 microg l(-1) and 2.23 microg l(-1), respectively in Abeokuta local governments and a score of 4.0 microg l(-1) for cow milk in Odeda local government. This indicates a high level contamination in the local governments since the weighted mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk for African diet is 0.002 microg l(-1). Therefore the concentration of AFB1 in feeds which is transformed to AFM1 in milk should be reduced by good manufacturing and good storage practices. Furthermore, there is need for stringent quality control during processing and distribution of these products.

  7. Short-term effect of ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 on the number of salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, Esber; Kuscu, Ozgur Onder; Selvi Kuvvetli, Senem; Kavaloglu Cildir, Sule; Sandalli, Nuket; Twetman, Svante

    2008-06-01

    Probiotic bacteria are thought to reduce the risk of some infectious diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine whether or not short-term consumption of ice-cream containing bifidobacteria can affect the salivary levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in young adults. A double-blind, randomized crossover study was performed and 24 healthy subjects (mean age 20 years) were followed over 4 periods. During periods 2 and 4 (10 days each), they ingested 100 ml (53 g) ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 once daily or a control ice-cream without viable bacteria. Periods 1 and 3 were run-in and washout periods, respectively. Salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were enumerated with chair-side kits at baseline and immediately after the intervention period. A statistically significant reduction (pice-cream. A decline of high mutans streptococci counts was also seen after intake of the control ice-cream, but the difference compared to baseline was not statistically significant. The salivary lactobacilli levels were unaltered after both regimes. Daily consumtion of ice-cream containing probiotic bifidobacteria may reduce the salivary levels of mutans streptococci in young adults.

  8. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH.

  9. The Effect of Vapor and Nanosil on Microbial Contamination in Ice Cream Making Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Jahed Khaniki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to compare the effect of vapor and nanosil on microbial contamination of traditional ice cream equipments. Methods: In this study, microbial load of equipments has been measured at first. Then, vapor and nanosil has been contacted with internal surfaces of the equipments for 5, 15 and 30 minutes. After each disinfection action, samples has been taken and cultured in controlled condition. The results have been entered into SPSS software and using two-way annova and Tukey statistical analysis. Finally, the effects of two disinfectants on microbial contamination removal have been compared. Results: In this study, vapor resulted in the highest removal rate of total microbial load including: Coliforms and E.coli at lowest contact time (5 minutes. Also, the results showed that the removal rate of microbial load increase with the increase of contact time with nanosil (2 and 6%. Statistical analysis showed that there are significant differences between removal rate at 5 and 15 minutes (P≤0.01 and at 5 and 30 minutes (P≤0.006. There are no significant difference between 15 and 30 minutes (P≤0.21 with nanosil 2 and 6%. Conclusion: Both disinfectants have have excellent ability to remove total microbial load microbial load, moreover vapor needs lesser time for removal than nanosil (2 and 6%.

  10. Outbreak of verocytotoxin-producing E. coli O145 and O26 infections associated with the consumption of ice cream produced at a farm, Belgium, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schrijver, K; Buvens, G; Possé, B; Van den Branden, D; Oosterlynck, O; De Zutter, L; Eilers, K; Piérard, D; Dierick, K; Van Damme-Lombaerts, R; Lauwers, C; Jacobs, R

    2008-02-14

    In October 2007, an outbreak of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O145 and E. coli O26 occurred among consumers of ice cream produced and sold in September 2007 at a farm in the province of Antwerp (Belgium). The ice cream was consumed at two birthday parties and also eaten at the farm. Five children, aged between two and 11 years, developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), and seven other co-exposed persons contracted severe diarrhoea. In three of the five HUS cases VTEC O145 infections were laboratory confirmed, one in association with VTEC O26. Identical isolates of E. coli O145 and O26 were detected with PCR and PFGE in faecal samples of patients and in ice cream leftovers from one of the birthday parties, in faecal samples taken from calves, and in samples of soiled straw from the farm at which the ice cream was produced. Ice cream was made from pasteurised milk and most likely contaminated by one of food handlers.

  11. Physicochemical, bioactive, and sensory properties of persimmon-based ice cream: technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution to determine optimum concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Safa; Toker, Ömer Said; Yüksel, Ferhat; Çam, Mustafa; Kayacier, Ahmed; Dogan, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, persimmon puree was incorporated into the ice cream mix at different concentrations (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40%) and some physicochemical (dry matter, ash, protein, pH, sugar, fat, mineral, color, and viscosity), textural (hardness, stickiness, and work of penetration), bioactive (antiradical activity and total phenolic content), and sensory properties of samples were investigated. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach was used for the determination of optimum persimmon puree concentration based on the sensory and bioactive characteristics of final products. Increase in persimmon puree resulted in a decrease in the dry matter, ash, fat, protein contents, and viscosity of ice cream mix. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose were determined to be major sugars in the ice cream samples including persimmon and increase in persimmon puree concentration increased the fructose and glucose content. Better melting properties and textural characteristics were observed for the samples with the addition of persimmon. Magnesium, K, and Ca were determined to be major minerals in the samples and only K concentration increased with the increase in persimmon content. Bioactive properties of ice cream samples improved and, in general, acetone-water extracts showed higher bioactivity compared with ones obtained using methanol-water extracts. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach showed that the most preferred sample was the ice cream containing 24% persimmon puree.

  12. Effect of milk fat, cocoa butter, and whey protein fat replacers on the sensory properties of lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prindiville, E A; Marshall, R T; Heymann, H

    2000-10-01

    Lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice creams were made with 2.5% of milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of two whey protein-based fat replacers, Dairy Lo or Simplesse. Polydextrose was added as required so that all formulations contained the same amount of total solids. Ice cream was stored at a control temperature of-30 degrees C. Hardness, viscosity, and melting rate were measured by physical methods. Trained panelists conducted descriptive sensory analyses of the samples at 0, 6, and 12 wk. Attribute ratings were analyzed by analysis o variance with least significant difference mean separation and orthogonal contrasting. Data were also analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance with canonical variate analysis. Consumer acceptance (n = 50) did not differ among the fresh ice creams (wk 0). Ice cream containing milk fat had less intense cocoa flavor and was more resistant to textural changes over time compared with the other ice creams. Simplesse was more similar to milk fat than was Dairy Lo in its effect on brown color, cocoa flavor, cocoa character, and textural stability but was less similar in terms of thickness and mouthcoating.

  13. Salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli modulations in young children on consumption of probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Richa Polka; Damle, Satyawan Gangaram; Chawla, Amrita

    2011-11-01

    To compare the levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in saliva of school children, before and after consumption of probiotic and control ice-cream. A double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial was carried out in forty, 12-14 year-old children, with no clinically detectable caries. The selected children were randomized equally into two groups I and II. Following an initial run-in period of 1 week, children in group I and II were given ice-creams 'A' and 'B', respectively, for 10 days. Being a cross-over study, the ice-creams were interchanged in the two groups after a 2-week wash-out period. Saliva samples at baseline and follow-up were assessed using Dentocult SM and Dentocult LB kits. On statistical evaluation, it was seen that probiotic ice-cream brought about a statistically significant reduction (p-value = 0.003) in salivary mutans streptococci levels with no significant effect on lactobacilli levels. In conclusion, probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 ATCC27536 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 can reduce the levels of certain caries-associated micro-organisms in saliva.

  14. Short communication: Effect of whey protein addition and transglutaminase treatment on the physical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh, Erfan; Goudarzi, Mostafa; Jooyandeh, Hossein

    2017-07-01

    The effects of whey protein addition and transglutaminase treatment, alone and in combination, on the physical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ice cream were investigated. Adding whey protein with or without enzyme treatment decreased melting rate, overrun, and hardness of the reduced-fat ice cream; however, the enzyme-treated sample had a higher melting rate and overrun and softer texture. Whey protein-fortified samples showed higher melting resistance, but lower overrun and firmer texture compared with the enzyme-treated sample without added whey protein. Whey protein addition with or without transglutaminase treatment caused an increase in apparent viscosity and a decrease in flow index of the reduced-fat ice cream; nevertheless, the flow behavior of full-fat sample was most similar to the enzyme-treated reduced-fat sample with no added whey protein. Descriptive sensory analyses showed that neither whey protein addition nor transglutaminase treatment significantly influenced the flavor and odor of reduced-fat ice cream, but they both noticeably improved the color and texture of the final product. The results of this study suggest that whey protein addition with transglutaminase treatment improves the physical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ice cream more favorably than does whey protein addition or transglutaminase treatment alone. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Formulation Optimization of Tremella fuciformis Ice Cream%银耳冰淇淋生产工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文敬; 徐旭; 张艳荣

    2012-01-01

    研究银耳进行软化处理后用于冰淇淋生产的具体工艺。以冰淇淋膨胀率、抗融性及产品感官品质为评价指标,考察银耳、全脂奶粉、明胶、单甘酯用量及银耳软化处理方法对银耳冰淇淋品质的影响,并对其生产工艺进行优化。结果表明:银耳采用高压蒸煮处理35min,银耳绵软、柔嫩,呈溶胶状态;银耳、单甘酯、明胶、全脂奶粉的最佳用量分别为5%、0.4%、0.2%、8%。按此条件生产的银耳冰淇淋组织状态均匀细致,口感柔滑细腻,具有理想的膨胀率及较好的抗融性。%Tremella fuciformis was softened and used to develop Tremella fuciformis ice cream.The effects of Tremella fuciformis with different softening treatments,whole milk powder,gelatin and monoglyceride on the overrun,melting resistance and sensory quality of ice cream were investigated.These parameters were optimized using an orthogonal array design.After 35 min of high pressure cooking,Tremella fuciformis became soft and tender,like a sol.The optimal addition amounts of Tremella fuciformis,monoglyceride,gelatin and whole milk powder were separately 5%,0.4%,0.2% and 8%.The ice cream produced under these conditions exhibited a homogeneous and exquisite texture,a gentle and smooth taste,a desired taste and a good melting resistance.

  16. Exame microbiológico de sorvetes não pasteurizados Microbiological examination of non pasteurized ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Pasetto Falcão

    1983-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se exame microbiológico em 24 amostras de sorvetes não pasteurizados, todos preparados de maneira não industrial e à base de leite (creme, nata, chocolate, fabricados por 12 sorveterias diferentes da cidade de Araraquara, SP. Colheram-se duas amostras de cada sorveteria com intervalo de 15 dias entre as colheitas. Realizaram-se as seguintes provas: contagem de bactérias aeróbicas ou facultativas mesófilas e psicrófilas e de Staphylococcus aureus; determinação do Número Mais Provável (NMP de coliformes totais e fecais e da presença de Salmonella. As técnicas utilizadas foram aquelas convencionalmente usadas para tais determinações. Não foi encontrada Salmonella em nenhuma das amostras e de cerca de 16,6% delas isolou-se Staphylococcus aureus. Em proporções variáveis verificou-se a presença de microrgarnismos deteriorantes e daqueles indicadores de poluição de origem fecal.A microbiological examination was made on 24 samples of non pasteurized, non industrial ice cream, all made with milk collected from 12 different ice cream shops in Araraquara, SP, Brazil. For the study, two samples were collected 15 days apart, from each store. The following" tests were made using ice-cream samples: presence or absence of Salmonella; counts of mesophilic and psichrophilic bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus and verification of the Most Probable Number (MPN of enteric organisms (faecal coliforms and other coliforms. The techniques used were the conventional ones used in such calculations. All samples were negative for Salmonella while about 16.6% showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. There were deteriorative microorganisms and faecal coliforms present in varying proportions.

  17. Analysis of buccolingual dimensional changes of the extraction socket using the "ice cream cone" flapless grafting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan-Chu, Jocelyn H P; Tuminelli, Frank J; Kurtz, Kenneth S; Tarnow, Dennis P

    2014-01-01

    The socket or ridge preservation approach known as the "ice cream cone" technique was used in type 2 sockets in this retrospective analysis of 11 extraction sites. A type 2 extraction socket is defined as having the presence of facial soft tissue with a partial or complete dehiscence of the buccal bone plate. All teeth were extracted atraumatically without flap elevation. A resorbable collagen membrane was contoured into an ice cream cone- shape, placed into the socket defect, and grafted with human freeze-dried bone allograft. Buccolingual dimensional changes were measured manually with a digital caliper sensitive to 0.01 mm on pre- and posttreatment casts using an acrylic template and a three-dimensional (3D) digital scanner, as well as radiographically with pre- and post-cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. All implants were placed 6 months after socket preservation and achieved primary stability with a minimum torque value of 35 Ncm with a mean buccal-lingual dimensional loss of 1.32 mm. The dimensional change of the ridge from pre- to postextraction reflective of the healed grafted site ranged from a loss of 0.46 to 2.25 mm with a mean of 1.28 mm (CBCT), 0.31 to 2.71 mm with a mean of 1.36 mm (digital calipers), and 0.21 to 2.80 mm with a mean of 1.32 mm (3D digital scanner). All 11 implants were immobile and clinically osseointegrated. The so-called ice cream cone technique allows for the reconstruction of a buccal plate dehiscence to enable the placement of an implant; however, the ridge dimension was diminished by 1.32 mm compared with the width of the extraction socket prior to tooth removal.

  18. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85 ± 0.48a, 8.8 ± 0.24b and 7.1 ± 0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94 ± 3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75 ± 2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P > 0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1 ± 0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78 ± 2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits.

  19. FORMATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC MECHANISM OF ICE CREAM MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISE TAKING INTO ACCOUNT SEASONALITY OF PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

                   The article is devoted to research organization - economic mechanism of enterprises producing ice cream. In a market economy the formation of organizational and economic mechanism of development is one of the urgent issues for managers because it is able to provide management efficiency and competitiveness, and it provides subject to determine  availability and special optimal mechanism of development for every enterprise. The formation of organization - economic development me...

  20. Study on the antimicrobial activity of Ethanol Extract of Propolisagainst enterotoxigenic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in lab prepared Ice-cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A El-Bassiony

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of propolis against enterotoxigenic strain of MRSA which inoculated into lab prepared ice cream. EEP was added to ice cream in 3 concentrations (150, 300 and 600 mg/L. The prepared ice cream was divided into 2 groups, one stored at freezer temp. at (-5˚C, while the other was kept in deep freezer temp. at (-20˚C. MRSA could not be counted from the 4th, 2nd and 1st week of storage at freezer temp, while at deep freezer temp. MRSA could not be enumerated from the 3rd, 1st week and 3rd day of storage in portions contained 150, 300 and 600mg/L EEP, respectively. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000: 155-159

  1. Response surface optimization of low-fat ice cream production by using resistant starch and maltodextrin as a fat replacing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari-Anpar, Mojtaba; Khomeiri, Morteza; Ghafouri-Oskuei, Hamed; Aghajani, Narjes

    2017-04-01

    In this research, maltodextrin (0, 1 and 2% w/w) and resistant starch (0, 1 and 2% w/w) were used in the formulation of low-fat ice cream (4% fat) and their effects on the physicochemical and sensory properties were investigated. The optimum levels of maltodextrin and resistant starch were determined by response surface methodology. Increment of maltodextrin and resistant starch increased acidity, viscosity, melting rate, time of dripping and overrun but decreased melting rate of ice cream. Results showed that the incorporation of maltodextrin and resistant starch at 0 and 2% w/w respectively, resulted into ice cream with suitable viscosity, melting rate, first dripping time, overrun and acidity.

  2. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists.

  3. Production and evaluation of mineral and nutrient contents, chemical composition, and sensory properties of ice creams fortified with laboratory-prepared peach fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Background In the coming years, a nutraceutical food may provide both physical and mental benefits that are commonly attributed to the active components of the food. Objective In this study, we determined the nutrient and mineral contents, sensory properties, and physical and chemical characteristics of ice creams manufactured using peach fibre at different concentrations (1 and 2%). Method A total of five experimental groups were formed: two types (from peach peel and pulp) of flour, two fibre concentrations (1 and 2%), and a control group without fibres. Results Flour obtained from peach pulp and peel was found to have a significant (pice cream samples, especially the rates of Ca, K, Mg, and P, which increased in the samples depending on the content of peach fibre. Sensory ratings and acceptability of ice creams decreased significantly with increasing peach peel fibre, whereas ice creams made with C (control) and B1 (ice creams made from 1% peach pulp fibre) was the highest scored by the panellists. Conclusions Peach fibre concentrates might be used as a good source of nutraceutical ingredients. PMID:27814781

  4. Microbial Quality and Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Isolated from Traditional Ice Cream in Hamadan City, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Foodborne diseases are one of the most major public health concerns in the world. Ice cream flavors, especially the traditional ones, have a high potential for the transmission of the pathogenic bacteria. Objectives The aim of the current study is to investigate the microbiological status and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from traditional ice cream. Methods A total of 114 traditional ice creams were randomly collected from retail stores in Hamadan, Iran. Samples were investigated for the total bacteria count (TBC and contamination with the coliform, Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella as well as the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results The count of Enterobacteriaceae (89.47%, mold and yeast (50%, coliform (40.35% and TBC (28.07% of samples was higher than Iran’s standard. Salmonella was not found in all samples. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was confirmed in 50% and 37.72% of samples, respectively. Collected Escherichia coli had the highest antibiotic resistance to ampicillin 67.44%, nalidixic acid 39.53% and co-amoxyclav 37.21%. Staphylococcus aureus showed a higher antibiotic resistance to penicillin (82.46% of isolates and oxacillin (38% of isolates. Conclusions The results showed high contamination levels of traditional ice cream with spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms as well as considerable resistance of isolated Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to common antibiotics. Therefore, good hygienic practice during processing and personal hygiene should be considered to improve the quality of ice cream. In addition, it is necessary that the regulatory authorities carry out more control on the production centers of traditional ice cream.

  5. Application on the HACCP management system in ice-cream production%HACCP管理体系在冰淇淋生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟铮铮

    2012-01-01

    The application of HACCP(hazard analysis critical control point)quality control system in ice-cream production covers the analysis of production hazard and determination of key control points.In order to provide reference to the later application of HACCP system in ice-cream processing,suggestions were made here.%根据HACCP原理,分析了冰淇淋生产中的安全问题,确定了关键控制点和相应的纠偏措施,以期为HACCP在冷饮企业生产中的应用提供参考和借鉴。

  6. Isolation and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica in ice cream at different pH values, stored at -18°c

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The presence of Yersinia enterocolitica was investigated in 203 samples of industrial (123) and non-industrial ice cream (80). Two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from non-industrial ice cream, which suggests the possibility of post-manufacturing contamination. One strain was typed as B:1A, O: 3,50,51; lis Xz, while the other one was biotyped as: B:1A but not serologically typed. Survival of Y. enterocolitica was investigated by inoculating nine samples of industrially manufactured ic...

  7. Effect of Probiotic Containing Ice-cream on Salivary Mutans Streptococci (SMS) Levels in Children of 6-12 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Double Blind Study with Six-months Follow Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Devasya; Ke, Vijayaprasad; Taranath, Mahanthesh; Ramagoni, Naveen Kumar; Nara, Asha; Sarpangala, Mythri

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the caries risk based on the salivary levels of streptococcus mutans in children of 6-12 years of age group before and after consuming probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5. A double blind, placebo controlled trial was carried out in 60 children aged between 6 to 12 years with zero decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT). They were randomly divided into two equal groups. Saliva sample were collected before the consumption of ice-cream and Streptococcus mutans count was calculated and recorded as baseline data. For the next seven days both the groups were given ice creams marked as A and B. Saliva samples were collected after ice-cream consumption at the end of study period and also after a washout period of 30 days and again after six months. Samples were inoculated and colonies were counted. On statistical evaluation by students paired t-test, probiotic ice-cream brought significant reduction in the Streptococcus mutans count after seven days of ice-cream ingestion (pice-cream consumption. After six months of the study period in both the groups the salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans was similar to the baseline. Probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 can cause reduction in caries causative organism. The dosage of the probiotic organisms for the long term or synergetic effect on the oral health are still needed to be explored.

  8. Caracterização reológica de sorvetes Rheological characterization of ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Helena Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do comportamento reológico é de grande importância no processamento, manuseio, controle de qualidade e desenvolvimento de produtos alimentícios. A literatura relata que a maioria dos alimentos apresenta comportamento não newtoniano, em que a sua viscosidade pode variar com o tempo e com as condições de escoamento. Neste trabalho foi realizada a caracterização reológica de cinco diferentes tipos de sorvetes. As amostras nos sabores creme, creme light, limão, iogurte e soja banana foram fornecidas pela empresa Amoratto Sorvetes Artesanais, localizada na cidade de Florianópolis/SC. Os dados reológicos foram obtidos através de um reômetro com geometria de cilindros concêntricos. Os ensaios foram realizados em três diferentes temperaturas (-2, 0 e 2 °C e os resultados experimentais foram ajustados pelos modelos de Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley e Lei da Potência. As diferentes amostras apresentaram comportamento não newtoniano nas três temperaturas. Os parâmetros reológicos (K e n foram obtidos através do ajuste dos modelos e o da Lei da Potência mostrou o melhor ajuste aos resultados, com coeficientes de correlação (r iguais a 0,99 para quatro das cinco amostras, nas três diferentes temperaturas.The knowledge of rheological behavior is an important part of processing, handling, quality control and development of food products. Literature shows that most foodstuffs present non-Newtonian behavior, where their viscosity may vary with time, as well as with flow conditions. The rheological characterization of five different kinds of ice cream was carried out in this work. The samples studied were vanilla flavor, light vanilla flavor, lemon, yoghurt and banana soy, supplied by Amoratto Sorvetes Artesanais, located in Florianópolis/SC, Brazil. The rheological data were obtained using a rotational viscosimeter with concentric cylinder geometry. The trials were carried out at three different temperatures (-2, 0

  9. [A case of anaphylaxis due to rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream with pollen food allergy syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitabayashi, Taeru; Sato, Sayuri; Adachi, Mitsuru

    2013-05-01

    We experienced a 10-year-old boy who had anaphylaxis after eating rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream. The patient felt a sense of discomfort in his throat when eating apple, peach, loquat, Japanese pear, and kiwi fruit. Therefore, we measured specific IgE antibodies to allergen components by ImmunoCAP ISAC. Consequently, the patient gave positive results for all PR-10 proteins from birch, alder, hazel, apple, peach, peanut, hazelnut, and soybean, so we diagnosed him with Pollen Food Allergy Syndrome (PFAS) induced by cross reactivity with pollens of birch family and fruits of rose family. When we conducted the skin prick test as is for red rose syrup because of the belief that anaphylaxis was caused by the rose ingredient contained in rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream, the patient gave a strong positive result. However, the results were negative for rose essence and Food Red No. 2 contained. Subsequently, it was found that red rose syrup contained apple juice. Therefore, we conducted the prick-prick test for apple, and the patient was confirmed to be strongly positive to apple. We thus identified apple as the cause of anaphylaxis. Since there is no legal obligation of labeling specific raw materials when directly selling manufactured and processed food products to general consumers, it is possible for general consumers to mistakenly take them in without knowing the containment of allergic substances. It is believed that the labeling method should be improved in the future.

  10. 无糖冰淇淋的研制%Study on the Producing of Sugar-Free Ice Cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳淑珍

    2011-01-01

    Introduces the process of sugar-free ice cream by using maltitol,acesulfame potassium,sucralose, aspartame and the other materials. The optimal formula of sweetening agents is obtained through orthogonal test. The optimal formula is: sucralose 0.003%, maltitol 8%, aspartame 0.018%, acesulfame potassium 0.007%. Application of the sweetener made ice cream recipe organization delicate, smooth and taste delicious, sweet pure mild.%以麦芽糖醇、乙酰磺胺酸钾(安赛蜜)、三氯蔗糖(蔗糖素)、天门冬酰苯丙氨酸甲酯(阿斯巴甜)配以其他原料研制无糖冰淇淋.通过正交试验,确定添加上述四种甜味剂制成的无糖冰淇淋的最佳搭配配方为:三氯蔗糖0.003%、麦芽糖醇8%、阿斯巴甜0.018%、安赛蜜0.007%.应用该甜味剂配方制作的无糖冰淇淋组织细腻幼滑,滋味协调,甜味纯正温和.

  11. Synbiotic Amazonian palm berry (açai, Euterpe oleracea Mart.) ice cream improved Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG survival to simulated gastrointestinal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mayra Garcia Maia; Ooki, Gabriela Namur; Vieira, Antônio Diogo Silva; Bedani, Raquel; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2017-02-22

    The effect of açai pulp ice cream and of its supplementation with inulin (I), whey protein concentrate (WC), and/or whey protein isolate (WI) on the viability and resistance to simulated gastrointestinal stress of the probiotic Lactobacillus (Lb.) rhamnosus GG strain throughout storage at -18 °C for up to 112 days was evaluated and morphological changes during stress were monitored. Lb. rhamnosus GG viability was stable in all formulations for up to 112 days of storage, preserving populations around 9 log CFU g(-1). Compared to the fresh culture, Lb. rhamnosus GG showed higher survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions when incorporated into açai ice cream, indicating that the presence of the food matrix contributed to the microorganism survival. A reduction of at least 5 log cycles of Lb. rhamnosus GG was observed in all formulations after the gastrointestinal simulation in all storage periods assessed. The addition of I, WC, and/or WI did not show any significant effect on the probiotic survival under simulated gastrointestinal stress (p ice cream. Thus, the açai pulp ice cream was shown to be a suitable matrix for Lb. rhamnosus GG, improving its survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

  12. 液氮冻结应用于冰淇淋工业化生产%Industrial Application of Liquid Nitrogen Freezing Technology in Production of Ice Cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余保宁

    2011-01-01

    论文阐述了传统冰淇淋生产中存在的问题和可用于冰淇淋工业化生产的液氮快速冻结设备.分析了液氮冻结技术及其设备结构,液氮冻结在冰淇淋生产中体现的优越性.通过开发液氮冻结设备和技术,使液氮应用于冰淇淋工业化生产成为现实,从而提高冰淇淋产品质量和生产效率,降低生产过程的能耗及成本,并有助于生态环保.%The paper discussed the problems in traditional manufacture and production of ice cream. Liquid nitrogen freezing technology was then introduced, including the equipments and the advantage of this technology in ice cream production. Developments in the technology and equipments of liquid nitrogen freezing make it possible to use liquid nitrogen in the industrial production of ice cream. It can improve the quality of ice cream products, enhance the productivity, reduce the productive energy consumption and benefit to environmental protection.

  13. Detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay combining propidium monoazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuexia Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR allows rapid detection of Salmonella in frozen dairy products, but it might cause a false positive detection result because it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. In this study, Salmonella-free frozen ice cream was initially inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at −18°C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified using TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicated that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in frozen ice cream for at least 20 days, and could produce fluorescence signal for real-time PCR as well. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA was combined with real-time PCR. PMA treatment can effectively prevent PCR amplification from heat-killed Salmonella cells in frozen ice cream. The PMA real-time PCR assay can selectively detect viable Salmonella at as low as 103 CFU/mL. Combining 18 hours of pre-enrichment with the assay allows for the detection of viable Salmonella at 100 CFU/mL and avoiding the false-positive result of dead cells. The PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative specifically for detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream. However, when the PMA real-time PCR assay was evaluated in ice cream subjected to frozen storage, it obviously underestimated the contamination situation of viable Salmonella, which might lead to a false negative result. According to this result, the use of enrichment prior to PMA real-time PCR analysis remains as the more appropriate approach.

  14. Detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay combining propidium monoazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuexia; Yang, Ming; Liu, Shuchun; Chen, Wanyi; Suo, Biao

    2015-09-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid detection of Salmonella in frozen dairy products, but it might cause a false positive detection result because it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. In this study, Salmonella-free frozen ice cream was initially inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at -18°C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified using TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicated that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in frozen ice cream for at least 20 days, and could produce fluorescence signal for real-time PCR as well. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA) was combined with real-time PCR. PMA treatment can effectively prevent PCR amplification from heat-killed Salmonella cells in frozen ice cream. The PMA real-time PCR assay can selectively detect viable Salmonella at as low as 10(3) CFU/mL. Combining 18 hours of pre-enrichment with the assay allows for the detection of viable Salmonella at 10(0) CFU/mL and avoiding the false-positive result of dead cells. The PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative specifically for detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream. However, when the PMA real-time PCR assay was evaluated in ice cream subjected to frozen storage, it obviously underestimated the contamination situation of viable Salmonella, which might lead to a false negative result. According to this result, the use of enrichment prior to PMA real-time PCR analysis remains as the more appropriate approach. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Ice Cream Sandwich 快跑!首批国产Android4.0真机实测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DenXCC

    2012-01-01

    几个月前我们还在以系统版本是否为Android 3.x来衡量这是不是一台真正的Android平板.由于谷歌在Android 3.x上采用的限制开源策略,只有几家国际品牌商发布了数款措载俗称蜂巢(Honeycomb)的平板.糟糕的应用兼容性事实上并未为蜂巢带来好评,不久后,谷歌就发布了代号Ice Cream Sandwich(冰激凌三明治)的Android 4.0,并将平板与手机都统一到了这一新系统下.

  16. Ice Cream Sandwich快跑!首批国产Android 4.0真机实测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    几个月前,我们还在以系统版本是否为Android 3.x来衡量这是不是一台真正的Android平板。由于谷歌在Android 3.x上采用的限制开源策略.只有几家国际品牌商发布了数款搭载俗称蜂巢(Honeycomb)的平板。糟糕的应用兼容性事实上并未为蜂巢带来好评,不久后.谷歌就发布了代号Ice Cream Sandwich(冰激凌三明治)的Android 4.0.并将平板与手机都统一到了这一新系统下。

  17. Reconstruction After Hemipelvectomy With the Ice-Cream Cone Prosthesis: What Are the Short-term Clinical Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Ruiz, Irene; Ortiz-Cruz, Eduardo José; Peleteiro-Pensado, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Reconstruction after internal hemipelvectomy resection likely provides better function than hindquarter amputation. However, many reconstruction methods have been used, complications with these approaches are common, and function often is poor; because of these issues, it seems important to investigate alternative implants and surgical techniques. The purposes of this study were (1) to identify the frequency of surgical site complications and infection associated with the use of the Ice-Cream Cone prosthesis for reconstruction after hemipelvectomy for oncological indications; (2) to evaluate the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) outcomes scores in a small group of patients treated with this implant in the short term; and (3) to quantify the surgical margins and frequency of local recurrence in the short term in this group of patients. Between 2008 and 2013, one center performed a total of 27 internal hemipelvectomies for oncological indications. Of those, 23 (85%) were treated with reconstruction. Our general indications for reconstruction were patients whose pelvic stability was affected by the resection and whose general condition was sufficiently strong to tolerate the reconstructive procedure. Of those patients undergoing reconstruction, 14 (61%) were treated with an Ice-Cream Cone-style implant (Coned(®); Stanmore Worldwide Ltd, Elstree, UK; and Socincer(®) custom-made implant for the pelvis, Gijón, Spain), whereas nine others were treated with other implants or allografts. The indications during this time for using the Ice-Cream Cone implant were pelvic tumors affecting the periacetabular area without iliac wing involvement. Of those 14, 10 were available for followup at a minimum of 2 years (median, 3 years; range, 2-5 years) unless a study endpoint (wound complication, infection, or local recurrence) was observed earlier. Study endpoints were ascertained by chart review performed by one of the authors. Surgical site complications occurred in five

  18. Development and Optimization of a Sweet Corn Ice Cream%甜玉米冰淇淋的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王研; 张艳荣

    2011-01-01

    Sweet corn was mainly used as raw material to formulate a novel ice cream. Based on a comprehensive consideration of sensory quality evaluation, swelling rate and melting rate, the optimal formulation was determined using orthogonal array design method as follows: sweet corn juice 60%, white sugar 10%, full fat milk power 8%, dextrin 2%, starch syrup 2%, glycerin monostearate 0.1%, cellulose sodium carboxymethyl (CMC) 0.3% and gelatin 0.2%. The resulting ice cream products showed uniform texture, smooth and exquisite taste, strong corn flavor, desired swelling rate and good freeze-thaw stability.%以甜玉米为主要原料生产甜玉米冰淇淋。通过感官品质评定和膨胀率的测定,采用正交试验法筛选甜玉米冰淇淋最佳配方。结果表明当甜玉米原汁60%、绵白糖10%、全脂奶粉8%、糊精2%、淀粉糖浆2%、单甘酯0.1%、羧甲基纤维素纳(CMC)0.3%、明胶0.2%时,生产的冰淇淋产品组织状态均匀,口感柔滑细腻,具有理想的膨胀率及较好的抗融性,玉米香气浓郁。

  19. THE STUDY OF BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF MILK MIXES, MILK AND FRUIT AND BERRY ICE CREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polishchuk G. E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological features of milk mixes and ice were studied during the principal process stages, which enabled to detect the highest risk points for bacterial contamination. Compared to known information, the impact was established of vegetable raw chemical composition and preliminary treatment on the presence and activity of certain groups of germs in higher water content mixes and ice. The microbiological features of higher water content milk mixes and ice were studied. The study purported to survey the bacterial contamination of milk mixes and ice of various chemical composition throughout the whole production cycle. Microbiological features were studied of typical composition milk mixes and ice stabilized with wheat flour and modern stabilization system. Comparative evaluation of microbiological features was conducted for new types of milk ices with apple puree and wheat germs. We analyzed the stage of development, stability, and die-off for various groups of germs at certain process stages. The initial raw materials as well as equipment, especially during freezing, were detected to be the worst sources of bacterial contamination. The necessity was proved to ensure thermal processing of cereals prior to adding them to the mix, before it is sent for pasteurization and freezing. The results of our study can be used to develop operational procedures for production of new types of ice, with due consideration for all specific conditions for prior treatment of vegetable raw and for sanitary state of facilities for production, sales, and consumption of finished product.

  20. A viscoelastic-plastic constitutive model with Mohr-Coulomb yielding criterion for sea ice dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new viscoelastic-plastic (VEP) constitutive model for sea ice dynamics was developed based on continuum mechanics. This model consists of four components: Kelvin-Vogit viscoelastic model, Mohr-Coulomb yielding criterion, associated normality flow rule for plastic rehololgy, and hydrostatic pressure. The numerical simulations for ice motion in an idealized rectangular basin were made using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, and compared with the analytical solution as well as those based on the modified viscous plastic(VP) model and static ice jam theory. These simulations show that the new VEP modelcan simulate ice dynamics accurately. The new constitutive model was further applied to simulate ice dynamics of the Bohai Sea and compared with the traditional VP, and modified VP models. The results of the VEP model are compared better with the satellite remote images, and the simulated ice conditions in the JZ20-2 oil platform area were more reasonable.

  1. Soft, fortified ice-cream for head and neck cancer patients: a useful first step in nutritional and swallowing difficulties associated with multi-modal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidade, Aaron; Martinelli, Katrina; Andreou, Zenon; Kothari, Prasad

    2012-04-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer have complex swallowing and nutritional concerns. Most patients are malnourished, and treatment modalities within the aerodigestive tract have profound effects on future swallowing and nutrition. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the introduction of fortified soft ice-cream to post-operative head and neck cancer patients would increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. Using a questionnaire study, an ice-cream machine that produces fortified soft ice-cream was introduced onto our ward, and 30 patients were asked to fill out questionnaires based on their experience in addition to their oral-feeding regime. Results indicate that overall patient satisfaction and compliance with oral-feeding regimes increased: 77% felt that the taste was excellent and also felt that it was easy to eat; 60% felt that it eased the symptoms associated with their symptoms, in particular its cold temperature. We conclude from the results that the inability of patients undergoing multi-modal treatment for upper aerodigestive tract cancer to enjoy normal foods and its effects on their quality of life is underestimated. Providing a food to that is palatable, familiar and acceptable as it is safe and nutritionally sound can increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. The ice-cream was safe to use in the early post-operative period, especially soothing in patients undergoing upper aerodigestive radiotherapy and high in protein and calorific content. Our practice may have wider benefits, including patients with oral and oropharyngeal infections, the elderly and patients with neurological dysphagia resulting from stroke.

  2. Usefulness of the ice-cream cone pattern in computed tomography for prediction of angiomyolipoma in patients with a small renal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Ho; Yun, Bu Hyeon; Jung, Seung Il; Hwang, In Sang; Hwang, Eu Chang; Kang, Taek Won; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung; Kim, Jin Woong

    2013-08-01

    A morphologic contour method for assessing an exophytic renal mass as benign versus malignant on the basis of the shape of the interface with the renal parenchyma was recently developed. We investigated the usefulness of this morphologic contour method for predicting angiomyolipoma (AML) in patients who underwent partial nephrectomy for small renal masses (SRMs). From January 2004 to March 2013, among 197 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy for suspicious renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the medical records of 153 patients with tumors (AML or RCC) ≤3 cm in diameter were retrospectively reviewed. Patient characteristics including age, gender, type of surgery, size and location of tumor, pathologic results, and specific findings of the imaging study ("ice-cream cone" shape) were compared between the AML and RCC groups. AML was diagnosed in 18 patients and RCC was diagnosed in 135 patients. Gender (p=0.001), tumor size (p=0.032), and presence of the ice-cream cone shape (p=0.001) showed statistically significant differences between the AML group and the RCC group. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, female gender (odds ratio [OR], 5.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45 to 18.57; p=0.011), tumor size (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.92; p=0.034), and presence of the ice-cream cone shape (OR, 18.12; 95% CI, 4.97 to 66.06; p=0.001) were predictors of AML. This study confirmed a high incidence of AML in females. Also, the ice-cream cone shape and small tumor size were significant predictors of AML in SRMs. These finding could be beneficial for counseling patients with SRMs.

  3. 螺旋藻在冰淇淋中的应用研究%Study on the addition of spirulina platensis in ice cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹立民; 吕朋

    2001-01-01

    螺旋藻添加于冰淇淋中,除赋予产品独特的风味和清新的色泽外,还能显著地提高混合料液的粘度以及冰淇淋的膨胀率和抗融化性能。较适宜的工艺条件为:添加量为0.5%;采用85℃,20s的高温短时杀菌;一级均质压力为40MPa,二级均质压力为5MPa;料液老化时间为4h。%Spirulina platensis powder(Spp) was added into ice cream and its effects were studied. The results showed that the addition of Spp could give ice cream not only desirable color and flavor, but also significant increase in its mixing viscosity, expansion ratio and anti-fusibility. To achieve the best quality, the ice cream mix should contain 0. 5 % of Spp, sterilized under 85 ℃ for 20s, homogenized twice at the pressure of 40 MPa,5 MPa,respectively,and then stabilized under 3 ~ 5 ℃ for 4 hours.

  4. Comparative evaluation of direct plating and most probable number for enumeration of low levels of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated ice cream products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Pouillot, Régis; S Burall, Laurel; Strain, Errol A; Van Doren, Jane M; De Jesus, Antonio J; Laasri, Anna; Wang, Hua; Ali, Laila; Tatavarthy, Aparna; Zhang, Guodong; Hu, Lijun; Day, James; Sheth, Ishani; Kang, Jihun; Sahu, Surasri; Srinivasan, Devayani; Brown, Eric W; Parish, Mickey; Zink, Donald L; Datta, Atin R; Hammack, Thomas S; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2017-01-16

    A precise and accurate method for enumeration of low level of Listeria monocytogenes in foods is critical to a variety of studies. In this study, paired comparison of most probable number (MPN) and direct plating enumeration of L. monocytogenes was conducted on a total of 1730 outbreak-associated ice cream samples that were naturally contaminated with low level of L. monocytogenes. MPN was performed on all 1730 samples. Direct plating was performed on all samples using the RAPID'L.mono (RLM) agar (1600 samples) and agar Listeria Ottaviani and Agosti (ALOA; 130 samples). Probabilistic analysis with Bayesian inference model was used to compare paired direct plating and MPN estimates of L. monocytogenes in ice cream samples because assumptions implicit in ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regression analyses were not met for such a comparison. The probabilistic analysis revealed good agreement between the MPN and direct plating estimates, and this agreement showed that the MPN schemes and direct plating schemes using ALOA or RLM evaluated in the present study were suitable for enumerating low levels of L. monocytogenes in these ice cream samples. The statistical analysis further revealed that OLS linear regression analyses of direct plating and MPN data did introduce bias that incorrectly characterized systematic differences between estimates from the two methods.

  5. How Small Businesses Market Their Products during the Different Phases of the Product Life Cycle: The Case of Swedish Ice Cream Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Hallberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish ice cream market of today is dominated by a few major market leaders, which makes it a challenge for small firms to make themselves visible and survive on a long-term basis. The aim of this article is to investigate and understand how small firms in the ice cream business market their products, based on the marketing mix and the portfolio matrix, during the different phases of the product life cycle. The combination of the two models for strategic planning enables the marketing manager to conduct a more complete analysis of existing products and their place on the market and in the product life cycle. Eight CEOs of small-scale ice cream companies were interviewed. This study found that the marketing activities and strategies of large companies cannot be transferred to and implemented in small-scale businesses. Different marketing theories are developed for big businesses that have many employees and expert knowledge, which small companies do not possess. They also have less resources and knowledge to invest in expensive marketing activities in the marketing mix, and therefore the marketing mix models need to incorporate more of inexpensive marketing.

  6. Growth of GaAs “nano ice cream cones” by dual wavelength pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamp, C. T.; Jesser, W. A.; Shivaram, B. S.

    2007-05-01

    Harmonic generation crystals inherently offer the possibility of using multiple wavelengths of light in a single laser pulse. In the present experiment, the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) wavelengths from an Nd:YAG laser are focused together on GaAs and GaSb targets for ablation. Incident energy densities up to about 45 J/cm 2 at 10 Hz with substrate temperatures between 25 and 600 °C for durations of about 60 s have been used in an ambient gas pressure of about 10 -6 Torr. The ablated material was collected on electron-transparent amorphous carbon films for TEM analysis. Apart from a high density of isolated nanocrystals, the most common morphology observed consists of a crystalline GaAs cone-like structure in contact with a sphere of liquid Ga, resembling an "ice cream cone", typically 50-100 nm in length. For all of the heterostuctures of this type, the liquid/solid/vacuum triple junction is found to correspond to the widest point on the cone. These heterostructures likely form by preferential evaporation of As from molten GaAs drops ablated from the target. The resulting morphology minimizes the interfacial and surface energies of the liquid Ga and solid GaAs.

  7. Effectiveness of prerequisites and the HACCP plan in the control of microbial contamination in ice cream and cheese companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, Eva; Amorós, José Antonio; Escriche, Isabel

    2013-03-01

    In food safety, implementation of prerequisites and application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) guarantee the control of processes, and microbiological criteria permit validation of their effectiveness. With these aims in mind, this article presents the results obtained by the official control carried out by the Valencian administration in ice cream and cheese companies, located in the Xativa/Ontinyente area (Valencian region, Spain) in the period between 2005 and 2010. The audits of Good Hygienic Practices (GHP) and HACCP show that "Structure & Design" followed by "Hygiene & Cleaning" and "Traceability" were the evaluated items with most nonconformities. Pathogenic microorganisms were not found in any of the final products analyzed. Microorganism indicators of unhygienic conditions were present in 100% of the analyses; however, 87.98% of them had low levels, which did not exceed the microbiological criteria. These results highlight the general good effectiveness of the safety management systems implemented and emphasize that companies and official control must continue working in order to guarantee the consumers' welfare.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF PROBIOTIC POTENTIAL OF LACTOBACILLUS SP. ISOLATED FROM CHEESE AND PREPARATION OF PROBIOTIC ICE-CREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Liladhar Shivram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic microorganisms are naturally present in milk and fermented milk products such as different kinds of cheese, yogurt, butter etc. The aim of the present study was isolation and taxonomic determination of lactic acid bacteria (LAB from cheese (wild type. Lactobacillus sp. was isolated from indigenous cheese sample, identified and characterized on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics at genus level. The pure isolated Lactobacillus was assessed for various probiotic properties such as tolerance to acidic pH, bile salt, antibiotic susceptibility, antibacterial activity and hemolytic activity. They showed better tolerance to pH 2 and pH 3 and 2 % bile salt; resistant to antibiotics viz. chloramphenicol, oxacillin and vancomycin. It was found active against test bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium and found to be non-hemolytic when compared to the positive control strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Probiotic ice-cream was prepared, its safety and keeping quality was determined by significant total bacterial count, coliform count and the presence of yeast and moulds.

  9. Mapa de preferência de sorvetes ricos em fibras Preference map of high-fiber ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Lopes de Sales

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Quatro amostras de sorvete foram preparadas adicionando-se diferentes concentrações de granola e Frutooligossacarídeo (FOS. Foi avaliado o teor de fibras segundo método AOAC. A avaliação da aceitabilidade sensorial foi realizada por 78 consumidores, com idade entre 15 e 25 anos. Estes avaliaram a aceitação global das formulações, utilizando a escala hedônica de nove pontos, em uma única seção, de forma monádica. O experimento foi estruturado segundo delineamento em blocos inteiramente casualizados. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância, ao teste de médias de Tuckey e à metodologia do Mapa de Preferência interno para análise dos componentes principais. As amostras controle e as adicionadas de FOS tiveram melhor aceitação. A amostra contendo somente FOS foi a que mais se aproximou do produto tradicional, não diferindo significativamente quanto à aceitação global. A granola distinguiu-se estatisticamente do produto tradicional. O teor de fibras analisado foi superior ao fornecido pelo fabricante da granola. As concentrações de fibras nos sorvetes variaram de 0,9 a 5,45 g.100 g-1 de sorvete, com a maior concentração de fibras provenientes do FOS. Esse resultado permite concluir que o FOS é um ingrediente promissor no desenvolvimento de produtos ricos em fibras.Four samples of ice cream were prepared with four different concentrations of granola and fructooligosaccharide (FOS. The concentration of fiber was evaluated using the AOAC method. The acceptance evaluation was conducted by 78 consumers between 15 and 25 years of age. The consumers evaluated the global acceptance of the formulations through the structured 9-point hedonic scale, in a single section, in a monadic form. The experiment was structured by a Randomized Complete Block Design. The results were submitted to the analysis of variance, Tukey test, and to the preference mapping technique for principal component analysis. The control samples

  10. SIMULATION OF PLASTIC ICE-CREAM SPOON FOR PREVENTION OF FAILURE

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In Past, Mold Design process was time-consuming as well as hectic. At first, Manual Drawing and then 2D software were used; after which patterns were made. But the results were not convincing most of the times. Thus the design to market time increased immensely and also project cost required was on a higher side. Due to the technological advancements, the process of Mold Design has fastened and also the results are convincing. With the help of 3D software, Parametric Designs can be created, w...

  11. Characterization of major betalain pigments -gomphrenin, betanin and isobetanin from Basella rubra L. fruit and evaluation of efficacy as a natural colourant in product (ice cream) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Sravan; Manoj, P; Shetty, N P; Prakash, Maya; Giridhar, P

    2015-08-01

    Basella rubra L. (Basellaceae) commonly known as Malabar spinach is a leafy vegetable which accumulates pigments in its fruits. To find out the feasibility of utilizing pigment rich extracts of its fruit as natural food colourant, fruits at different stages were analysed for pigment profiling, carbohydrate content, physical dimensions and weight. Total betalains content increased rapidly from early (green) through intermediate (half-done red-violet) to matured stage (red-violet). Maximum pigment content was observed in ripened fruits (143.76 mg/100 g fresh weight). The major betalain pigment characterized was gomphrenin I in ripened fruits (26.06 mg), followed by intermediate fruits (2.15 mg) and least in early fruits (0.23 mg) in 100 g of fresh deseeded fruits. Total carbohydrates content and the chroma values (redness) were also increased during ontogeny of B. rubra fruits. The textural characters of developing fruits showed the smoothness of green fruits with lower rupture force (0.16 N/s) than ripe ones (0.38 N/s). The pigment-rich fruit extract was used as natural colourant in ice-cream, to evaluate its effect on physicochemical properties and acceptability of the product. After six months of storage at -20 °C, 86.63 % colour was retained in ice-cream. The ice-cream had good overall sensorial quality and was liked by consumers indicating that addition of B. rubra fruit extract did not alter the sensory quality of the product. The colour values also indicate that there was no significant decrease of this pigment-rich extracts of fruits for its incorporation in food products.

  12. 大米糖浆在低脂冰淇淋中的应用研究%Processing low fat ice cream with rice syrup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贝惠玲; 杜淑霞; 徐丽

    2012-01-01

    The processing technology and formula of low fat ice cream was studied in the paper. The optimum processing conditions and formula were determined through mono factor as well as orthogonal experiments. The experiment results showed that the optimum conditions and formula were as follows: substitute 6% rice syrup (solid content) for butter; emulsifying-thickener formula: 0.2% monoglyceride ester, 0.1% guar gum, 0.08% xanthan gum and 0.1% CMC-Na; aging temperature is 0-2℃ with 6-8 h. The low fat ice cream obtained had good delatation and melting-resistance. The sensory evaluation score close to high fat ice cream.%通过单因素及正交试验确定了制作低脂冰淇淋较佳配方及工艺,试验结果表明,以6%大米糖浆(固形物计)替代奶油;添加的乳化增稠剂:单甘酯0.2%、瓜尔豆胶0.1%、黄原胶0.08%、羧甲基纤维素钠0.1%;采用的老化工艺:温度0~2℃,时间6~8h。制得的低脂冰淇淋膨胀率、抗融性好,感官评分接近高脂冰淇淋。

  13. 马铃薯蛋白在冰淇淋生产中的应用%Application of Potato Protein in Ice Cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚佳; 徐旭; 魏春光; 王大为

    2012-01-01

    用马铃薯浓缩蛋白代替部分奶粉及乳化剂,生产新型低脂高蛋白营养冰淇淋。以感官评分、膨胀率、融化率为考核指标,通过单因素试验及正交试验确定马铃薯蛋白冰淇淋的最佳配方。结果表明,最佳配方为奶粉6%、绵白糖8%、羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC-Na)0.2%、淀粉糖浆2%、马铃薯浓缩蛋白50%、单甘酯0.3%、明胶0.2%、麦芽糊精4%,由此制得的冰淇淋组织状态均匀细腻,口感柔滑,风味独特,具有较好的抗融性及理想的膨胀率。%Based on sensory score,overrun and melting rate,the formulation of a new low-fat high-protein ice cream with partial substitution of milk powder by potato protein concentrate was optimized by one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods.It was found that the optimal ice cream formula was milk powder 6%,soft sugar 8%,sodium carboxymethylcellulose(CMC-Na) 0.2%,starch syrup 2%,potato protein concentrate 50%,monostearin 0.3%,gelatin 0.2%,and dextrin 4%.The ice cream obtained presented homogenous and exquisite texture,gentle smooth taste,unique flavor,excellent melting resistance and desired overrun.

  14. The Preparation of Ice Cream Milk Slurry by UHT%超高温杀菌冰淇淋奶浆的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任璐; 于鹏; 刘振民; 姜雪; 蔡涛; 王辉; 肖杨

    2016-01-01

    研究以鲜牛奶、稀奶油和甜味剂为主要原料,采用低温浓缩和超高温杀菌制成冰淇淋奶浆的加工工艺。通过感官评定、正交试验和乳化稳定剂选择试验确定最佳配方,乳脂肪5.5%,乳蛋白4.0%,蔗糖12.8%,果糖3.2%、复配乳化稳定剂0.6%(单,双甘油脂肪酸酯30%、微晶纤维素35%、山梨醇酐单硬脂肪酸酯15%、刺槐豆胶12%、卡拉胶8%)。按照该配方和工艺所生产的冰淇淋奶浆黏度适中,无明显分层现象;且冰淇淋制品奶香味纯正,甜度适中,口感细腻,膨胀率高,硬度中等,抗融性好,无明显冰晶感。%The paper discusses raw milk, cream and sweetener as the main raw material into ice cream milk slurry using low temperature concentration process and ultra high temperature sterilization. According to the sense organ evaluation, the orthogonal design and stability test, the best formula was obtained by using 5.5%milk fat,4.0%milk protein, 12.8%sucrose, 3.2%fructose, 0.6%compound emulsion stabilizer (30%single, double glycerin fatty acid ester, 35%microcrystalline cellulose, 15%sorbitan mono fatty acid ester,12%lo-cust bean gum,8 % carrageenan). According to the formulation and process, Ice cream slurry had moderate viscosity, no obvious stratification, And ice cream had pure milk fragrance, smooth taste, good sweetness, high expansion ratio, medium hardness, good melting resistance, no obvious sense of ice.

  15. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects in microbiology, physical and chemical and sensory aspects of ice cream; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante nos aspectos microbiologicos, fisico-quimicos e sensoriais de sorvetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir Dias

    2015-06-01

    The ice cream is defined as an emulsion of fats and proteins or a mixture of water and sugar, other ingredients may be added provided since they do not affect the product. It is considered a food of high nutritional value, providing lipids, carbohydrates, protein, calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals and vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, C, D, E and K), and it is considered one of the most important products and higher interest to the dairy industry due to great demand by the consumers. The diseases related to food consumption are considered one of the most significant problems. Several outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of ice cream have been reported in recent decades in Asia, Europe and America. It is believed that the ice cream, as a frozen food, presents no risk to the population health. However, it is considered an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms due to its composition, pH close to neutrality and long storage period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, sensory and physicochemical aspects of ice cream. The ice cream samples were irradiated with gamma rays (60Co) with the doses of LOkGy, 2.0kGy, 3.0kGy and 4.0kGy. The samples intended for the inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229) and Salmonella abaetetuba (ATCC 35640) have been irradiated with doses of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0kGy. It can be concluded that the dose of 3.0kGy was adequate to reduce most of the studied microorganisms to undetected levels. The use of gamma radiation affected the texture and the parameters of the colorimetric analyses of the ice cream. The results of the sensorial analyses showed that the better accepted dose was 3.0kGy. (author)

  16. Commercial nonindustrial production of pastries and ice cream in Naples, Italy: results from the inspection of 34 food businesses during a 2-year surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tanucci Nannini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Ice cream and cream-based pastries are an excellent media for the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. Foods that are prepared without due respect to the rules of food hygiene can carry microorganisms and/or toxins and could be responsible of toxinfections. The main objective of this study was to obtain an overall picture of the hygiene/sanitation conditions found in businesses that produce hand-made pastries and/or ice cream in Naples, Italy.

    Methods: We inspected 34 businesses to assess the following aspects: hygiene/sanitation conditions of the work area and equipment, implementation of good food hygiene principles, evaluation of HACCP plans, licensing/authorization, quality control and sampling protocols, as well as systems for ensuring food traceability. In 28 of the businesses, samples (environment, foods, workers were collected for microbiological analysis.

    Results: Sanctions were issued for nonconformities in 8 businesses (23.5%, and 25 businesses (73.5% received warnings with orders to correct minor nonconformities (inadequate documentation of compliance with current regulations, incorrect implementation of the quality-control protocol within specified time periods. Microbiological analyses revealed irregularities in 24/28 businesses (85.7%, and 138 of the 280 samples collected displayed contamination levels exceeding the limits adopted for this study (49.3%. In particular, 80% of the surfaces sampled and 23.8% of the hand swabs collected were shown to be contaminated. All food samples collected met the process-hygiene and food-safety standards prescribed by the European Community. Results obtained were statistically significant (p < 0.05.

    Conclusions: Our experience of food safety surveillance system indicates that Neapolitan food business operators involved in the production of hand-made ice cream or pastries do not

  17. Enrichment dynamics of Listeria monocytogenes and the associated microbiome from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottesen, Andrea; Ramachandran, Padmini; Reed, Elizabeth; White, James R; Hasan, Nur; Subramanian, Poorani; Ryan, Gina; Jarvis, Karen; Grim, Christopher; Daquiqan, Ninalynn; Hanes, Darcy; Allard, Marc; Colwell, Rita; Brown, Eric; Chen, Yi

    2016-11-16

    Microbiota that co-enrich during efforts to recover pathogens from foodborne outbreaks interfere with efficient detection and recovery. Here, dynamics of co-enriching microbiota during recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from naturally contaminated ice cream samples linked to an outbreak are described for three different initial enrichment formulations used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Enrichment cultures were analyzed using DNA extraction and sequencing from samples taken every 4 h throughout 48 h of enrichment. Resphera Insight and CosmosID analysis tools were employed for high-resolution profiling of 16S rRNA amplicons and whole genome shotgun data, respectively. During enrichment, other bacterial taxa were identified, including Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Streptococcus spp. Surprisingly, incidence of L. monocytogenes was proportionally greater at hour 0 than when tested 4, 8, and 12 h later with all three enrichment schemes. The corresponding increase in Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus spp.indicated these taxa co-enriched in competition with L. monocytogenes during early enrichment hours. L. monocytogenes became dominant after 24 h in all three enrichments. DNA sequences obtained from shotgun metagenomic data of Listeria monocytogenes at 48 h were assembled to produce a consensus draft genome which appeared to have a similar tracking utility to pure culture isolates of L. monocytogenes. All three methods performed equally well for enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes. The observation of potential competitive exclusion of L. mono by Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus in early enrichment hours provided novel information that may be used to further optimize enrichment formulations. Application of Resphera Insight for high-resolution analysis of 16S amplicon sequences accurately identified L. monocytogenes

  18. Recovery and Growth Potential of Listeria monocytogenes in Temperature Abused Milkshakes Prepared from Naturally Contaminated Ice Cream Linked to a Listeriosis Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Allard, Emma; Wooten, Anna; Hur, Minji; Sheth, Ishani; Laasri, Anna; Hammack, Thomas S; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate) that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 h. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average population level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.14 log CFU/g. Milkshake flavors did not significantly affect these parameters. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes in milkshakes with initial contamination levels ≤ 3 CFU/g (9.50 h) was significantly longer (P 3 CFU/g (8.60 h). The results highlight the value of using samples that are contaminated with very low levels of L. monocytogenes for recovery and growth evaluations. The behavior of L. monocytogenes populations in milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to the listeriosis outbreak should be taken into account when performing risk based analysis using this outbreak as a case study.

  19. Novel and successful free comments method for sensory characterization of chocolate ice cream: A comparative study between pivot profile and comment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fernando G A; Esmerino, Erick A; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Ferraz, Juliana P; da Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2016-05-01

    Rapid sensory profiling methods have gained space in the sensory evaluation field. Techniques using direct analysis of the terms generated by consumers are considered easy to perform, without specific training requirements, thus improving knowledge about consumer perceptions on various products. This study aimed to determine the sensory profile of different commercial samples of chocolate ice cream, labeled as conventional and light or diet, using the "comment analysis" and "pivot profile" methods, based on consumers' perceptions. In the comment analysis task, consumers responded to 2 separate open questions describing the sensory attributes they liked or disliked in each sample. In the pivot profile method, samples were served in pairs (consisting of a coded sample and pivot), and consumers indicated the higher and lower intensity attributes in the target sample compared with the pivot. We observed that both methods were able to characterize the different chocolate ice cream samples using consumer perception, with high correlation results and configurational similarity (regression vector coefficient=0.917) between them. However, it is worth emphasizing that comment analysis is performed intuitively by consumers, whereas the pivot profile method showed high analytical and discriminative power even using consumers, proving to be a promising technique for routine application when classical descriptive methods cannot be used.

  20. Recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes in temperature abused milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi eChen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 hours. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.15 log CFU/g. Milkshake flavors did not significantly affect these parameters. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes in milkshakes with initial contamination levels ≤ 3 CFU/g (9.50 h was significantly longer (P 3 CFU/g (8.60 h. The results highlight the value of using samples that are contaminated with very low levels of L. monocytogenes for recovery and growth evaluations. The behavior of L. monocytogenes populations in milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to the listeriosis outbreak should be taken into account when performing risk based analysis using this outbreak as a case-study.

  1. Application of Purple Sweet Potato Anthocyanins in Ice Cream%紫甘薯花青素在冰淇淋中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金鑫

    2014-01-01

    对紫甘薯花青素在冰淇淋中的应用进行研究。通过正交实验确定了紫甘薯花青素添加量,并对其在冰淇淋中的功能特性进行了评价。结果表明,紫甘薯花青素最佳添加量为20 mg/100 g,其超氧阴离子清除率和羟基自由基清除率分别为66%和87%,显著高于同浓度抗坏血酸,具有优良的抗氧化特性。%Application of purple sweet potato anthocyanins in ice cream was studied. The purple sweet potato anthocyanins content was determized by orthogonal experiment, and the functional features in ice cream was evaluated. The results indicated that purple sweet potato anthocyanins additive amount was 20 mg/100 g , Removing rate of superoxide anion radical was 66%, and elimination ratio of hydroxyl radicals was 87%, which were significantly higher than ascorbic acid, possessing a superior antioxidant property.

  2. Preparation on the low-fat ice cream of pumpkin%南瓜低脂冰淇淋的生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马川兰; 崔惠玲

    2012-01-01

    Fresh mellow pumpkin was chosen as the raw material of producing low-fat ice cream, while part milk fat was replaced by artificial butter. At the same time, with the sensory quality and expansion rate as evaluation targets, the best formula of the healthy low- fat ice cream was obtained by the orthogonal experiment method: which was the whole milk powder 12%, the pumpkin pulp 20%, CMC 0.15%, xanthan gum 0.10%, artificial butter 3.5%, the white sugar 13%.%选取新鲜成熟南瓜为原料,以人造奶油代替部分乳脂,依据感官质量及膨胀率作为评价指标,通过正交实验获得南瓜保健冰淇淋的最佳配方为:全脂乳粉12%,南瓜浆20%,CMC0.15%,黄原胶0.10%,人造奶油3.5%,白砂糖13%。

  3. KARAKTERISTIK ES KRIM HASIL MODIFIKASI DENGAN FORMULASI BUBUR TIMUN SURI (Cucumis melo L. DAN SARI KEDELAI [Characteristics of Modified Ice Cream Formulated with Cucumis melo L. Puree and Soybean Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksilia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to observe the physical and chemical characteristics of ice cream made with various formulations of Cucumis melo L. puree and soybean milk. The experiment was designed using Factorial Randomized Block Design with two treatments and each combination was replicated three times. The factors investigated were formulations of Cucumis melo L. puree (10, 12.5 and 15 % and soybean milk (40, 50 and 60%. The ice cream’s viscosity, overrun and melting time were determined, where as protein, fat and potassium content were analyzed. The results showed that the interaction of Cucumis melo L. puree and soybean milk formulation had significant effect on viscosity and overrun. Modified ice cream made with 12.5% Cucumis melo L. puree and 40% soybean milk was the best formula for producing modified ice cream. The resulted ice cream had viscosity of 1.03 cP, overrun 53.93% and melting time 23,58 minutes, while the protein, fat and potassium content were 5.18%, 70% and 1083.33 mg/L, respectively.

  4. Penciclovir Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penciclovir comes as a cream. It is usually used externally every 2 hours while you are awake for 4 days. Follow the directions on your ... Clean and dry the area before applying the cream to avoid spreading the infection. Rub the cream ...

  5. PeoplePersonality: Chris Clarke - a physicist who studies ice cream Teaching Anecdotes: Annie Jump Cannon Obituary: György Marx 1927-2002 Starting Out: What Katie did next: part 3 Opinions: What is really important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Featuring relationships, personalities, interactions, environments and reputations involved in physics and education PERSONALITY (156) Chris Clarke - a physicist who studies ice cream TEACHING ANECDOTES (157) Annie Jump Cannon OBITUARY (158) György Marx 1927-2002 Steven Chapman STARTING OUT (159) What Katie did next: part 3 Katie Pennicott OPINIONS (160) What is really important? Kerry Parker

  6. Virulence profiling and quantification of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O145:H28 and O26:H11 isolated during an ice cream-related hemolytic uremic syndrome outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvens, Glenn; Possé, Björn; De Schrijver, Koen; De Zutter, Lieven; Lauwers, Sabine; Piérard, Denis

    2011-03-01

    In September-October 2007, a mixed-serotype outbreak of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O145:H28 and O26:H11 occurred in the province of Antwerp, Belgium. Five girls aged between 2 and 11 years developed hemolytic uremic syndrome, and seven other coexposed persons with bloody diarrhea were identified. Laboratory confirmation of O145:H28 infection was obtained for three hemolytic uremic syndrome patients, one of whom was coinfected with O26:H11. The epidemiological and laboratory investigations revealed ice cream as the most likely source of the outbreak. The ice cream was produced at a local dairy farm using pasteurized milk. VTEC of both serotypes with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were isolated from patients, ice cream, and environmental samples. Quantitative analysis of the ice cream indicated concentrations of 2.4 and 0.03 CFU/g for VTEC O145 and O26, respectively. Virulence typing revealed that the repertoire of virulence genes carried by the O145:H28 outbreak strain was comparable to that of O157 VTEC and more exhaustive as compared to the O26:H11 outbreak strain and nonrelated clinical strains belonging to these serotypes. Taken together, these data suggest that O145:H28 played the most important role in this outbreak.

  7. Phenotypic plasticity of southern ocean diatoms: key to success in the sea ice habitat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Sackett

    Full Text Available Diatoms are the primary source of nutrition and energy for the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Microalgae, including diatoms, synthesise biological macromolecules such as lipids, proteins and carbohydrates for growth, reproduction and acclimation to prevailing environmental conditions. Here we show that three key species of Southern Ocean diatom (Fragilariopsis cylindrus, Chaetoceros simplex and Pseudo-nitzschia subcurvata exhibited phenotypic plasticity in response to salinity and temperature regimes experienced during the seasonal formation and decay of sea ice. The degree of phenotypic plasticity, in terms of changes in macromolecular composition, was highly species-specific and consistent with each species' known distribution and abundance throughout sea ice, meltwater and pelagic habitats, suggesting that phenotypic plasticity may have been selected for by the extreme variability of the polar marine environment. We argue that changes in diatom macromolecular composition and shifts in species dominance in response to a changing climate have the potential to alter nutrient and energy fluxes throughout the Southern Ocean ecosystem.

  8. Application research on preparation of fat-mimetics by extruding corn starch starch with enzyme in ice cream%玉米淀粉基脂肪模拟物在冰淇淋中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭艳莉; 肖志刚; 王利民; 郑广钊; 严棣

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the problems of various diseases on humans caused by long-term eating high-fat food, solution plan was put forward combined with the application of fat-mimetics in food. The application of fat-mimetics in ice cream showed that with the increase of fat substitution rate the index such as hardness, flexibility, cohesive-ness, gumminess and chewiness in ice cream sample increased gradually, expansion rate of ice cream decreased gradually, ant melting property in ice cream increased gradually. When fat substitution rate was 0%, G" (viscous modulus) of ice cream was bigger than G' . When fat substitution rate was 25% , 50% and 75%, G" of ice cream sample was bigger than G (elastic modulus) in low frequency area, while was smaller in high frequency area. When fat substitution rate was 100% , G' of ice cream was bigger than G" in frenquency range. There was a significant dependence between viscoelastic and frenquency in ice cream added fat-mimetics. With the increasement of frenquency, viscous and elastic both increased, as well as the development of fat substitution rate. The order of sensory evaluatin index of ice cream by principal component analysis was mouth melt>soapy feeling>-fatty sense>milk powder taste>ropiness sense. The order of five ice cream samples by fuzzymathematics analysis was M1 > M2 > M3> M4> M5.%针对人类长期食用高脂肪类食品而引起的各种疾病的问题,文章结合脂肪模拟物在食品中的应用,提出解决方案.利用加酶挤压的方法制备脂肪模拟物,将玉米淀粉基脂肪模拟物应用到冰淇淋中可知,随着冰淇淋中脂肪替代率的增加,不同冰淇淋样品的硬度、弹性、黏聚性、黏合性、咀嚼性逐渐增加,膨胀率越来越低,冰淇淋的抗融化性逐渐增强,脂肪替代率为0%的全脂冰淇淋的G″(黏性模量)大于G ′(弹性模量),脂肪替代率为25%,50%,75%的冰淇淋样品在低频率区域G″大于G ′,在高频率区域内G″大于G

  9. Sensorial evaluation of ice-cream elaborated with goat milk/ Avaliação sensorial de sorvetes elaborados com leite de cabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honório Domingos Benedet

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate sensory and economically formulations obtained from of goat powder milk, vegetable fat and strawberry aroma. At least of twenty seven formulations listed in an experimental design, were choiced three best formulations, that they also were elaborated in triplicate to the powder goat milk and pasteurized goat milk. Finally it was choiced the best formulation. The final and the best ice-cream had the following formulation: 80 g of vegetable fat, 0.80 L of goat milk (powder – reconstituted or pasteurized milk and 0.12 g of strawberry aroma. These formulations shown Acceptability Index (AI of 87.1 % to ice-cream elaborated with powder milk and 84.3 % to pasteurized milk. Considering just the last and the best AI formulation, it were realized the cost analysis of ice-creams. The price icecream with powder goat milk was equally to R$ 3.15 per liter, while with pasteurized milk was price per liter was equally to 2.68 per liter.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar sensorial e economicamente formulações de sorvetes obtidos a partir do uso de leite de cabra em pó ou pasteurizado, gordura vegetal hidrogenada e aroma de morango. De vinte e sete formulações inicialmente previstas em um delineamento experimental, utilizando leite de cabra em pó, foram escolhidas as três melhores formulações. Estas três formulações foram avaliadas sensorialmente em três repetições utilizando leite de cabra em pó e três repetições utilizando o leite de cabra pasteurizado. Tanto para o leite em pó quanto para o pasteurizado as formulações escolhidas pelos julgadores foram as elaboradas com as seguintes variáveis: 80 g de gordura vegetal hidrogenada, 0,80 litros de leite de cabra (pó – reconstituído ou pasteurizado e 0,12 g de aroma de morango. Estas formulações apresentaram Índice de aceitabilidade de 87,1 % para o sorvete elaborado com leite de cabra em pó e 84,3 % para o leite de cabra pasteurizado

  10. Scaling properties of Arctic sea ice deformation in high-resolution viscous-plastic sea ice models and satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Nils; Losch, Martin; Menemenlis, Dimitris

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice models with the traditional viscous-plastic (VP) rheology and very high grid resolution can resolve leads and deformation rates that are localised along Linear Kinematic Features (LKF). In a 1-km pan-Arctic sea ice-ocean simulation, the small scale sea-ice deformations in the Central Arctic are evaluated with a scaling analysis in relation to satellite observations of the Envisat Geophysical Processor System (EGPS). A new coupled scaling analysis for data on Eulerian grids determines the spatial and the temporal scaling as well as the coupling between temporal and spatial scales. The spatial scaling of the modelled sea ice deformation implies multi-fractality. The spatial scaling is also coupled to temporal scales and varies realistically by region and season. The agreement of the spatial scaling and its coupling to temporal scales with satellite observations and models with the modern elasto-brittle rheology challenges previous results with VP models at coarse resolution where no such scaling was found. The temporal scaling analysis, however, shows that the VP model does not fully resolve the intermittency of sea ice deformation that is observed in satellite data.

  11. Assessing the genome level diversity of Listeria monocytogenes from contaminated ice cream and environmental samples linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Luo, Yan; Curry, Phillip; Timme, Ruth; Melka, David; Doyle, Matthew; Parish, Mickey; Hammack, Thomas S.; Allard, Marc W.; Brown, Eric W.; Strain, Errol A.

    2017-01-01

    A listeriosis outbreak in the United States implicated contaminated ice cream produced by one company, which operated 3 facilities. We performed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis on Listeria monocytogenes from food, environmental and clinical sources, identifying two clusters and a single branch, belonging to PCR serogroup IIb and genetic lineage I. WGS Cluster I, representing one outbreak strain, contained 82 food and environmental isolates from Facility I and 4 clinical isolates. These isolates differed by up to 29 SNPs, exhibited 9 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence type (ST) 5 of clonal complex 5 (CC5). WGS Cluster II contained 51 food and environmental isolates from Facility II, 4 food isolates from Facility I and 5 clinical isolates. Among them the isolates from Facility II and clinical isolates formed a clade and represented another outbreak strain. Isolates in this clade differed by up to 29 SNPs, exhibited 3 PFGE profiles and ST5. The only isolate collected from Facility III belonged to singleton ST489, which was in a single branch separate from Clusters I and II, and was not associated with the outbreak. WGS analyses clustered together outbreak-associated isolates exhibiting multiple PFGE profiles, while differentiating them from epidemiologically unrelated isolates that exhibited outbreak PFGE profiles. The complete genome of a Cluster I isolate allowed the identification and analyses of putative prophages, revealing that Cluster I isolates differed by the gain or loss of three putative prophages, causing the banding pattern differences among all 3 AscI-PFGE profiles observed in Cluster I isolates. WGS data suggested that certain ice cream varieties and/or production lines might have contamination sources unique to them. The SNP-based analysis was able to distinguish CC5 as a group from non-CC5 isolates and differentiate among CC5 isolates from

  12. Assessing the genome level diversity of Listeria monocytogenes from contaminated ice cream and environmental samples linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Luo, Yan; Curry, Phillip; Timme, Ruth; Melka, David; Doyle, Matthew; Parish, Mickey; Hammack, Thomas S; Allard, Marc W; Brown, Eric W; Strain, Errol A

    2017-01-01

    A listeriosis outbreak in the United States implicated contaminated ice cream produced by one company, which operated 3 facilities. We performed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis on Listeria monocytogenes from food, environmental and clinical sources, identifying two clusters and a single branch, belonging to PCR serogroup IIb and genetic lineage I. WGS Cluster I, representing one outbreak strain, contained 82 food and environmental isolates from Facility I and 4 clinical isolates. These isolates differed by up to 29 SNPs, exhibited 9 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence type (ST) 5 of clonal complex 5 (CC5). WGS Cluster II contained 51 food and environmental isolates from Facility II, 4 food isolates from Facility I and 5 clinical isolates. Among them the isolates from Facility II and clinical isolates formed a clade and represented another outbreak strain. Isolates in this clade differed by up to 29 SNPs, exhibited 3 PFGE profiles and ST5. The only isolate collected from Facility III belonged to singleton ST489, which was in a single branch separate from Clusters I and II, and was not associated with the outbreak. WGS analyses clustered together outbreak-associated isolates exhibiting multiple PFGE profiles, while differentiating them from epidemiologically unrelated isolates that exhibited outbreak PFGE profiles. The complete genome of a Cluster I isolate allowed the identification and analyses of putative prophages, revealing that Cluster I isolates differed by the gain or loss of three putative prophages, causing the banding pattern differences among all 3 AscI-PFGE profiles observed in Cluster I isolates. WGS data suggested that certain ice cream varieties and/or production lines might have contamination sources unique to them. The SNP-based analysis was able to distinguish CC5 as a group from non-CC5 isolates and differentiate among CC5 isolates from

  13. 马铃薯淀粉在冰淇淋生产中的应用%Application of Potato Starch in Ice Cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋春春; 张薇; 魏春光; 王大为

    2012-01-01

    Potato starch was used as a partial substitute for gelatin and sodium carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC-Na) to produce ice cream. Its effect on overrun, melting rate and sensory quality was investigated. Using one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods, the optimal formulation of ice cream was determined as follows: 4% potato starch, 0.1% CMC-Na, 0.3% monoglyceride and no gelatin. The final product was homogeneous, tasted smooth and delicate and had desired overrun and melting resistance.%用马铃薯淀粉取代明胶和羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC-Na)生产冰淇淋。以冰淇淋的膨胀率、融化率和感官评分为考察指标,研究马铃薯淀粉对冰淇淋品质的影响。通过单因素试验及正交试验确定马铃薯淀粉在冰淇淋生产中最佳用量。结果表明:当马铃薯淀粉添加量4%、CMC—Na添加量0.1%、单甘酯添加量0.3%、不添加明胶时,生产的冰淇淋组织状态均匀一致,口感柔滑细腻,具有理想的膨胀率和适当的抗融性。

  14. Unexpectedly increased anorexigenic postprandial responses of PYY and GLP-1 to fast ice cream consumption in adult patients with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, A E; Bini, S; Grugni, G; Agosti, F; De Col, A; Mallone, M; Cella, S G; Sartorio, A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of eating rate on the release of anorexigenic gut peptides in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a neurogenetic disorder clinically characterized by hyperphagia and excessive obesity, has not been investigated so far. Postprandial PYY and GLP-1 levels to fast (5 min) and slow (30 min) ice cream consumption were measured in PWS adult patients and age-matched patients with simple obesity and normal-weighted subjects. Visual analog scales (VASs) were used to evaluate the subjective feelings of hunger and satiety. Fast ice cream consumption stimulated GLP-1 release in normal subjects, a greater increase being observed with slow feeding. Fast or slow feeding did not change circulating levels of GLP-1 in obese patients, while, unexpectedly, fast feeding (but not slow feeding) stimulated GLP-1 release in PWS patients. Plasma PYY concentrations increased in all groups, irrespective of the eating rate. Slow feeding was more effective in stimulating PYY release in normal subjects, while fast feeding was more effective in PWS patients. Slow feeding evoked a lower hunger and higher satiety compared with fast feeding in normal subjects, this finding being not evident in obese patients. Unexpectedly, fast feeding evoked a lower hunger and higher satiety in PWS patients in comparison with slow feeding. Fast feeding leads to higher concentrations of anorexigenic gut peptides and favours satiety in PWS adult patients, this pattern being not evident in age-matched patients with simple obesity, thus suggesting the existence of a different pathophysiological substrate in these two clinical conditions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Advances of cell injury mechanism by freezing stress during processing of probiotic ice cream%冰淇淋中益生菌冷冻胁迫致菌体损伤机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 郑义; 朱金锦; 刘心怡; 杨贞耐

    2015-01-01

    冰淇淋是优良的益生菌载体,但其加工中的老化、凝冻和硬化等阶段性降温至冷冻的过程,会造成益生菌生理损伤,导致益生菌活力下降,功能性变差。近年,有关冰淇淋中冷冻胁迫致益生菌的损伤,冰淇淋中益生菌活性的保护,以及组学技术推动下的菌株损伤相关代谢研究取得了一定进展,为研究影响冰淇淋中益生菌存活能力、菌体细胞膜特性及代谢酶活性,明确冰淇淋基质中益生菌冷冻胁迫损伤的分子机制,建立冰淇淋加工和贮藏过程中益生菌的保护策略提供了可能,也为未来改善益生菌冰淇淋的功效和品质提供科学依据。%Ice cream is a favorable probiotic carrier. However, the viability and functions of probiotic strains tend to be lowered in ice cream processing, including aging, freezing and hardening. Recently, progress of researches about the probiotics injury, protection and their metabolic changes in ice cream based on omics techniques have been made, which provides the possibility to specify survival ability, membrane properties, and key molecules of metabolic enzyme activities of probiotics in ice cream. These studies also facilitate to uncover the molecular mechanism of cell injury caused by freezing stress during the processing of probiotic ice cream and establish protective strategies for probiotics during processing and storage of ice cream, and provide a scientific basis for the improvement of functionality and quality of such product.

  16. 薄荷酸奶冰淇淋的研制%Study on the Production of Ice Cream by using Mint Yogurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘畅

    2011-01-01

    为研制具有一定保健功能的冰淇淋制品,以薄荷和酸奶为原料,采用正交试验的方法,探讨薄荷酸奶冰淇淋的最佳工艺配方。试验结果表明:薄荷酸奶的最佳发酵条件是薄荷与牛奶的比例为5:5、加糖量12%、接种量2.5%、发酵4h;酸奶的用量为35%时。冰淇淋的口感较好。%The technology for production of ice eream was investigated by using fermented mint yogurt in the paper. The author developed a unique style of healthy and functional new ice cream product. The best formula was obtained through several groups of experiments. This product has a special quality with particular flavor, an ideal expansivity rate and anti-melting character.

  17. From IDs to Ice Cream to "I, Claudius": Security Is in the Cards at Cleveland Hill Union Free School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Cheryl

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of plastic identity badges with photographs and barcodes issued to all administrators, teachers, staff members, and students in grades 6-12 at the Cleveland Hill Union Free School District in Cheektowaga, New York. (PKP)

  18. From IDs to Ice Cream to "I, Claudius": Security Is in the Cards at Cleveland Hill Union Free School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Cheryl

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of plastic identity badges with photographs and barcodes issued to all administrators, teachers, staff members, and students in grades 6-12 at the Cleveland Hill Union Free School District in Cheektowaga, New York. (PKP)

  19. A modified global Newton solver for viscous-plastic sea ice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlmann, C.; Richter, T.

    2017-08-01

    We present and analyze a modified Newton solver, the so called operator-related damped Jacobian method, with a line search globalization for the solution of the strongly nonlinear momentum equation in a viscous-plastic (VP) sea ice model.Due to large variations in the viscosities, the resulting nonlinear problem is very difficult to solve. The development of fast, robust and converging solvers is subject to present research. There are mainly three approaches for solving the nonlinear momentum equation of the VP model, a fixed-point method denoted as Picard solver, an inexact Newton method and a subcycling procedure based on an elastic-viscous-plastic model approximation. All methods tend to have problems on fine meshes by sharp structures in the solution. Convergence rates deteriorate such that either too many iterations are required to reach sufficient accuracy or convergence is not obtained at all.To improve robustness globalization and acceleration approaches, which increase the area of fast convergence, are needed. We develop an implicit scheme with improved convergence properties by combining an inexact Newton method with a Picard solver. We derive the full Jacobian of the viscous-plastic sea ice momentum equation and show that the Jacobian is a positive definite matrix, guaranteeing global convergence of a properly damped Newton iteration. We compare our modified Newton solver with line search damping to an inexact Newton method with established globalization and acceleration techniques. We present a test case that shows improved robustness of our new approach, in particular on fine meshes.

  20. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving cream. (a) Identification. Surgeon's gloving cream is an ointment intended to be used to lubricate the...

  1. High glycemic load diet, milk and ice cream consumption are related to acne vulgaris in Malaysian young adults: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Noor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of dietary factors in the pathophysiology of acne vulgaris is highly controversial. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the association between dietary factors and acne vulgaris among Malaysian young adults. Methods A case–control study was conducted among 44 acne vulgaris patients and 44 controls aged 18 to 30 years from October 2010 to January 2011. Comprehensive acne severity scale (CASS was used to determine acne severity. A questionnaire comprising items enquiring into the respondent’s family history and dietary patterns was distributed. Subjects were asked to record their food intake on two weekdays and one day on a weekend in a three day food diary. Anthropometric measurements including body weight, height and body fat percentage were taken. Acne severity was assessed by a dermatologist. Results Cases had a significantly higher dietary glycemic load (175 ± 35 compared to controls (122 ± 28 (p  0.05. Conclusions Glycemic load diet and frequencies of milk and ice cream intake were positively associated with acne vulgaris.

  2. The Development of the Coix Seed Red Bean Ice Cream%薏米红豆冰淇淋的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳霞; 张月

    2015-01-01

    Defatted milk powder,margarine,white granulated sugar as raw materials, matched with coix seed juice and honey in red bean,based on the basic formula,the optimal formula was determined by single factors and orthogonal tests. The results were as follows:when coix seed juice to 20%,sucrose 12%, skimmed milk powder 12%, margarine 3%, emulsification stabilizers 0.6%,system of organization coix seed red bean ice cream smooth exquisite and rich nutrition ,the taste was unique.%以脱脂奶粉、人造奶油、蔗糖为原料,配以薏米浆与蜜红豆,在基础配方一定的基础上,通过单因素试验和正交试验确定最佳配比.试验结果表明,当薏米浆为20%、蔗糖12%,脱脂乳粉12%、人造奶油3%、乳化稳定剂0.6%时,制得的薏米红豆冰淇淋组织细腻滑润、营养丰富、口味独特.

  3. High glycemic load diet, milk and ice cream consumption are related to acne vulgaris in Malaysian young adults: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Noor Hasnani; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Azizan, Noor Zalmy

    2012-08-16

    The role of dietary factors in the pathophysiology of acne vulgaris is highly controversial. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the association between dietary factors and acne vulgaris among Malaysian young adults. A case-control study was conducted among 44 acne vulgaris patients and 44 controls aged 18 to 30 years from October 2010 to January 2011. Comprehensive acne severity scale (CASS) was used to determine acne severity. A questionnaire comprising items enquiring into the respondent's family history and dietary patterns was distributed. Subjects were asked to record their food intake on two weekdays and one day on a weekend in a three day food diary. Anthropometric measurements including body weight, height and body fat percentage were taken. Acne severity was assessed by a dermatologist. Cases had a significantly higher dietary glycemic load (175 ± 35) compared to controls (122 ± 28) (p  0.05). Glycemic load diet and frequencies of milk and ice cream intake were positively associated with acne vulgaris.

  4. DRUCKER-PRAGER YIELD CRITERIA IN VISCOELASTIC-PLASTIC CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR THE STUDY OF SEA ICE DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gang; JI Shun-ying; LV He-xiang; YUE Qian-jin

    2006-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of sea ice drifting and ridging at meso-small scale, the Drucker-Prager (D-P) yield criteria was introduced into the Viscoelastic-Plastic (VEP) constitutive model for the study of sea ice dynamics. In this model, the Kelvin-Vogit viscoelastic model was adopted in the elastic stage, and the associated normal flow rule was used in the plastic stage. Using the VEP model, the sea ice ridging process was simulated in an idealized rectangular basin, and the simulation results show that the simulated ice ridge thickness is consistent with the analytical solution. Moreover, the VEP model with the D-P yield criteria was also applied for the sea ice simulation of Bohai Sea, and the ice thickness, concentration, velocity, and ice stress were obtained in 48 h. The simulated thickness distributions agree well with the satellite images. The singular problem in the Mohr-Coulomb (M-C) yield criteria was overcome by the D-P yield criteria, and the computational efficiency was also improved. In the numerical simulations described above, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics was applied.

  5. A Hot Knife Through Ice-Cream: Earthflow Response to Channel Incision (Or Channel Response to Earthflows?), Eel River Canyon, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, B. H.; Roering, J. J.; McKean, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Abundant glacier-like earthflow features are recognized as a primary erosional process in the highly erodable Franciscan Melange of the Eel River Basin, CA. Despite their prominence in this "melting ice-cream" topography, many questions regarding their effects on the long term sediment flux from this rapidly eroding basin remain unresolved. For example, does an earthflow's basal shear zone propagate vertically downwards with vertical river incision? What controls the upslope and lateral extent of individual earthflows? How does the erosive power of a river influence the rate of earthflow movement, or conversely do earthflow toe deposits regulate the rate of river incision? Here we present preliminary findings derived from study of 200km2 of lidar data (1m resolution) covering hillslopes adjacent to 30km of the Eel River. Lidar allows detailed analysis of the interaction between earthflows and the drainage network, and we document how inferred changes in local base level are propagated throughout adjacent hillslopes via earthflow movement. The most active earthflows (determined by field surveying and analysis of aerial photos rectified using lidar- generated digital topography) coincide with locally steep sections of channel, while downstream of the most active flows we frequently observe less-active or dormant earthflows. This observation supports the idea that the locations of the most active earthflows coincide with headward propagating knickpoints in the channel. The rate of earthflow movement appears to slow when an earthflow exhausts the upslope area of easily mobilized sediment. Earthflow toes can protrude directly into the channel, causing the channel to narrow and steepen, and even undercut the opposite bank. Large resistant boulders (>2m diameter) transported by the earthflow accumulate in the streambed and appear to both act as a check on further channel incision and earthflow movement. In contrast, areas adjacent to active earthflows exhibit smooth

  6. Tracing to the source of Staphylococccus aureus isolates from ice cream%金黄色葡萄球菌污染冰淇淋的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严峻; 徐丹戈; 方叶珍; 龚璞; 朱敏; 包芳珍

    2008-01-01

    0bjective To investigate the contamination of Staphylococccus aureus isolates in icecream by phenotypic typing and molecular typing. Methods The Staphylococccus aureus isolates were separated from ice cream, filler, cutter, salvers and material. The separated isolates were characterized by drug-resistance, staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEA-E), SE (A-E, G-J) genes and pulsed. field gelelectrophoresis (PFGE) types. Result Two Staphylococccus aureus isolates were separated. one from icecream, another from cutter. Their characteristics of drug-resistance, staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEA-E), SE(A-E, G-J) genes and PFGE type were the same. Conclusion The two Staphylococccus aureus isolates were the same clone. The contaminated Staphylococccus aureus isolates could be traced to the contaminated cutters.%目的 通过冰淇淋及其各种原料和生产线样本分离、培养金黄色葡萄球菌,分析分离株的分子分型和表型特征,对金黄色葡萄球菌污染冰淇淋进行调查.方法 采集冰淇淋及其各种原料和生产线投料口、切片机出口、成品托盘等样本,用国标方法分离、培养、鉴定金黄色葡萄球菌,VITEK32生化验证,Mini-Vidas检测分离株肠毒素(多克隆肠毒素SEA-SEE),PCR检测分离株肠毒素基因(肠毒素SEA-SE:J基因),VITEK32测定分离菌株抗生素的耐药性,脉冲凝胶电泳(PFGE)分析菌株间的基因指纹图谱特征.结果 分别从冰淇淋和切片机出口分离到2株金黄色葡萄球菌.它们都含有肠毒素(多克隆肠毒素SEA-SEE),都有SEC、SED、SEG、SEH、SEI和SEJ肠毒素基因,耐药谱相同,脉冲凝胶电泳(PFGE)的指纹图谱相同.结论 污染冰淇淋和切片机出口的金黄色葡萄球菌是同一克隆株,切片机出口的污染导致冰淇淋污染.

  7. High performance liquid chromatography for pigments determination in ice cream%高效液相色谱测定雪糕中色素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国华; 孙磊龙; 杨志华

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立雪糕中8种人工合成色素(柠檬黄、日落黄、胭脂红、苋菜红、诱惑红、赤藓红、靛蓝、亮蓝)在可见光区变换波长的高效液相色谱测定方法.方法 样品经正己烷去除油脂,再用乙醇-氨水提取,提取液挥干后用水定容,然后过滤膜后进高效液相色谱(HPLC)分析,波长选择各色素在可见光区最大吸收波长.结果 8种人工合成色素在1.0 mg/L ~ 50 mg,/L范围内线性良好,相关系数(r)都在0.999以上,方法加标回收率为90.8% ~99.1%,相对标准偏差RSD(%)在1.2% ~ 4.0%.结论 该方法步骤简单,操作方便,结果精密度良好,准确度可靠.%Objective To develop high-performance liquid chromatographic method with transform wavelength in the visible region of ice cream to detect the 8 kinds of synthetic pigments (tartrazine,sunset yellow,ponceau 4R,amaranth,allura red,erythrosine,indigotine,brilliant blue).Methods Samples was defatted with hexane,then extracted with ethanol-ammonia water,evaporated to dryness for constant volume,then filtered and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),the wavelength selection of each pigment was based on the maximum absorption wavelength in the visible region.Results Eight kinds of synthetic pigments exhibited a good linearity in the range of 1.0 mg/L ~ 50 mg/L with correlation coefficient (r) above 0.999,the recovery of the method was from 90.8% to 99.1%,the relative standard deviation RSD (%) was from 1.2% to 4.0%.Conclusion The method is simple,easy to operate,precise,accuracy and reliable.

  8. Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese and ice cream produced in the State of Paraná, Brazil Ocorrência de Listeria monocytogenes em queijos e sorvetes produzidos no Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Moscalewski Abrahão

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in Brazilian ice cream and in some soft and semi-soft cheeses produced and sold in the State of Paraná, Brazil was evaluated. Ninety samples of cheese and sixty samples of ice creams were analyzed following the guidelines outlined by the official institutes, AOAC and FDA. In the ice cream samples no isolation of Listeria spp. was found. The percentage of these ninety samples of cheeses positive for Listeria spp. was 12.20%. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in six (6.70% of the same samples. The presence of Listeria innocua was five (5.50% in the samples analyzed was also observed. According to the results of the work it is possible to presume that there is a potential health risk to the brazilian population, heightened by aging and the increase in immunodepressed. These results indicate the need for the implementation of monitoring of these microorganisms as much by producers as by health inspectors. The results also show that the VIP (visual immunoprecipitation assay is a viable triage method of contaminated samples for the liberation of products for commercialization, as it is quick, reliable and does not require additional equipment other than that normally found in production labs, while presenting reliable results.A ocorrência de Listeria monocytogenes em sorvetes e alguns tipos de queijos macios e semi-macios produzidos e vendidos no Estado do Paraná Brasil foram avaliados. Noventa amostras de queijo e sessenta amostras de sorvete foram analisadas seguindo os protocolos da AOAC e FDA. Nas amostras de sorvete, não ocorreu o isolamento de Listeria spp. Foi detectada Listeria spp em 12,20% de amostras de queijo, das quais 6 (6,70% foram positivas para Listeria monocytogenes. Foi também observada a presença de Listeria innocua em 5 amostras (5,50% das mesmas amostras. Pelos resultados deste trabalho pode-se pressupor que existe um risco potencial à saúde da população brasileira com o

  9. 大豆低聚糖保健功能在羊奶冰淇淋中的应用%Health Function of Soybean Oligosaccharides Its Application in Goat milk Health Ice Cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马岩; 单秀峰

    2015-01-01

    以鲜羊奶与大豆低聚糖 (SBOS) 等为主要原料研制低聚糖羊奶保健冰淇淋,以冰淇淋的膨胀率与融化率为指标,并结合对其色泽、质地、组织状态和风味的考察,对老化时间、鲜羊奶用量、大豆低聚糖用量、复合乳化剂用量和复合稳定剂用量等主要因素进行了比较研究.通过单因素试验与正交试验得到最佳工艺条件: 鲜羊奶50%、白砂糖10%、大豆低聚糖10%、复合乳化剂 (单甘脂:蔗糖酯=1:1) 0.4%、复合稳定剂 (CMC:明胶=1:1) 0.35%和老化时间4h,此条件下,最终产品膨胀率95.14%,融化率38.83%,且各项品质良好.%Technical process and prescription for health ice-cream using fresh goat milk and soybean oligosaccharides ( SBOS) as main auxiliary material were explored. By measuring expansion rate and melting rate of ice cream , both quality of product (color, texture, flavor and tissue state) and cost had also been considered, different ageing time, goat milk, SBOS, emulsifiers and stabilizers were compared and studied. Single factor test and orthogonal experiment showed that optimum conditions: fresh goat milk 50%, sugar 10%, SBOS 10%, emulsifiers ( monoglyceride:sucrose ester=1:1) 0.4%, stabilizers ( CMC:gelatin=1:1) 0.35%, ageing time 4h. Under this condition, expansion and melting rate of final product were 95.14%, 38.83%. And quality of SBOS goat milk ice cream product was perfect.

  10. Influence on quality of ice cream by adding glycosylation of whey protein%添加糖基化乳清蛋白对冰淇淋品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙迪; 李春; 刘宁

    2013-01-01

    We made glycosylation complexes of WPI-Pectin and WPI-Sodium alginate by conjugating whey protein isolation to pection and sodium alginate by means of Maillard reaction. And we determined dieir solubility, heat stability and emulsifying properties to study the effect of glycosylation complexes on the quality of ice cream. The results showed mat the glycolysation reaction can improve the solubility, heat stability and emulsifying properties of WPI. The glycosylation complexes had good solubility in acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. It was indicated that the viscosity of ice cream syrup, overrun and the melting resistance were enhanced with the appropriate addition of glycosylation complexes. It was also confirmed that not only could the addition of glycosylation complexes improve quality of ice cream products, but also had good sensory acceptability.%通过美拉德反应将果胶和褐藻酸钠分别与乳清分离蛋白结合,形成糖基化复合物,对其溶解性、热稳定性和乳化性进行了初步研究,并进一步讨论了糖基化复合物对冰淇淋品质的影响.结果表明,美拉德反应可以较好的改善乳清蛋白的热稳定性和乳化性,并且形成的糖基化复合物在酸性、中性和弱碱性条件下均具有较好的溶解性;在冰淇淋应用方面,适量的添加糖基化复合物,可以增加冰淇淋浆料的黏度、产品的膨胀率和抗融性;实验还证实添加的糖基化复合物在改进产品的品质的同时,也具有较好的感官接受性.

  11. Job submission and management through web services the experience with the CREAM service

    CERN Document Server

    Aiftimiei, C; Bertocco, S; Fina, S D; Ronco, S D; Dorigo, A; Gianelle, A; Marzolla, M; Mazzucato, M; Sgaravatto, M; Verlato, M; Zangrando, L; Corvo, M; Miccio, V; Sciabà, A; Cesini, D; Dongiovanni, D; Grandi, C

    2008-01-01

    Modern Grid middleware is built around components providing basic functionality, such as data storage, authentication, security, job management, resource monitoring and reservation. In this paper we describe the Computing Resource Execution and Management (CREAM) service. CREAM provides a Web service-based job execution and management capability for Grid systems; in particular, it is being used within the gLite middleware. CREAM exposes a Web service interface allowing conforming clients to submit and manage computational jobs to a Local Resource Management System. We developed a special component, called ICE (Interface to CREAM Environment) to integrate CREAM in gLite. ICE transfers job submissions and cancellations from the Workload Management System, allowing users to manage CREAM jobs from the gLite User Interface. This paper describes some recent studies aimed at assessing the performance and reliability of CREAM and ICE; those tests have been performed as part of the acceptance tests for integration of ...

  12. 绿豆淀粉抗老化技术及在冰淇淋中的应用%An Enzymatic Method for Inhibiting Retrogradation of Mung Bean Starch and Its Application in Ice Cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新华; 岳小靖

    2012-01-01

    为抑制绿豆淀粉在冰淇淋贮藏期间老化而产生的淀粉味感,以绿豆淀粉为原料,经过α-淀粉酶酶解处理,通过正交试验研究不同酶解条件对绿豆淀粉抗老化性质的影响。结果表明:用α-淀粉酶处理绿豆淀粉,使其适度的水解,保持了绿豆特有的口感风味,且保水力较大,糊化性好,老化度明显低于未经过α-淀粉酶处理的绿豆淀粉。酶解最佳工艺为pH6.5、酶解温度70℃、添加0.0008%的α-淀粉酶、酶解8min。在绿豆冰淇淋制作中添加不同量的酶解绿豆浆、CMC-Na、明胶、单甘酯对绿豆冰淇淋膨化率及融化率和口感有不同的影响,酶解豆浆、CMC-Na、明胶、单甘酯的添加量分别为60%、0.1%、0.1%、0.15%时,绿豆冰淇淋的风味口感明显改善。%The retrogradation of mung bean starch in ice cream during frozen storage leads to an unpleasant starchy taste.In this study,mung bean starch was treated withα-amylase and the effects of various hydrolysis conditions on retrogradation properties of mung bean starch were investigated using orthogonal array design method.After proper treatment with α-amylase,the unique taste of mung bean was still maintained,and mung bean starch showed high water-holding capacity,good gelatinization properties and significantly lower retrogradation degree compared with native mung bean starch.The optimal hydrolysis conditions were pH 6.5,α-amylase dosage 0.0008% and 70 ℃ for a hydrolysis duration of 8 min.Different levels of enzymatic hydrolysate of mung bean starch,CMC-Na,gelatin,glycerin monostearate(GMS) were added together for manufacturing ice cream and these ingredients were found to have different effects on the swelling rate,melting resistance and taste of ice cream.Ice cream with enzymatic hydrolysate of mung bean starch,CMC-Na,gelatin and GMS added at 60%,0.1%,0.1% and 0.15%,respectively showed notably improved taste.

  13. Mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomez ice cream prepared with fat replacers and sugar substitutes Sorvete de mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomez preparado com substitutos de gordura e açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Gebrim Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing shortening and sugar on the physical and chemical properties of mangaba ice cream and its acceptability were evaluated. Ice cream formulations were tested with the following fat replacers: Selecta Light, Litesse, and Dairy Lo and the following sugar substitutes: Lactitol and Splenda. All formulations were subjected to physical, chemical, and microbiological analyses and evaluated by acceptability tests. In the sensory analysis, it was observed a larger acceptance of the formulations containing Selecta Light (SL and the combination of Litesse, Lactiol, and Splenda (LLS. The largest reduction in total energetic value (50% was observed in the formulation LLS. The use of fat and/or sugar substitutes caused a reduction in the air incorporation (overrun and affected viscosity. The highest melting speed was observed in the formulation with Dairy-Lo, Lactitol, and Splenda. All formulations showed good levels of global acceptability and appearance. The substitution of shortening for fat replacers caused a reduction in air incorporation and changes in ice-cream viscosity. The low-fat mangaba ice-cream elaborated with Selecta Light was the best formulation in terms of viscosity and air incorporation when compared with the control. It also showed a good level of acceptability and low fat content.O efeito da substituição de gordura vegetal hidrogenada e sacarose nas propriedades físicas, químicas e aceitabilidade de sorvete com mangaba foi avaliado. As formulações de sorvete foram testadas com os substitutos de gordura: Selecta Light, Litesse e Dairy-Lo e os substitutos de sacarose: Lactitol e Splenda. As formulações foram submetidas às análises físicas, químicas, microbiológicas e teste de aceitação. Verificou-se no teste sensorial uma maior aceitação das formulações elaboradas com Selecta Light (SL e combinação de Litesse, Lactitol e Splenda (LLS. A maior redução do valor energético (50% foi observada na

  14. The Effect of the SPI on the Quality Characteristics and Rheological Properties of Ice Cream%大豆分离蛋白对冰淇淋品质及流变学特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The influence of soy protein isolate (SPI) on the quality characteristics and rheological properties of ice cream was discussed in the present work. SPI were added at levels of 0%-6%, the viscoelastic properties, overrun value, hardness, melting characteristics, and microstructure of ice cream mixture were evaluated. The results showed that viscosity and hardness were increased significantly with the SPI increasing, and overrun and melting rate were increased then decreased with the increasing of SPI. It has little effect on quality index with a ratio of less than 4% of SPI. The size of bubbles were increased with the increase of SPI.%  0%~6%大豆分离蛋白添加到冰淇淋中,通过研究冰淇淋的混料黏度、膨胀率、融化率、硬度,以及流变学特性与微观结构,探讨分析大豆分离蛋白添加量对冰淇淋品质及流变学特性的影响。结果表明:冰淇淋中添加大豆分离蛋白后,其黏度、硬度均随大豆分离蛋白添加量的增加而显著上升;膨胀率及融化率随大豆分离蛋白添加量的增加先上升后下降;在添加量小于4%时,对各项指标影响较小。添加大豆分离蛋白后,冰淇淋中气泡变大。

  15. Study on Effects of Emulsifier and Stabilizer on Quality of Soft Ice Cream%乳化剂和稳定剂对软冰淇淋品质影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梅森; 何唯平

    2007-01-01

    本文对乳化剂和稳定剂对软冰淇淋品质的影响进行了研究.重点考察了软冰淇淋的硬度、抗溶性以及膨化率三个指标,研究结果表明,乳化剂的影响变化具有双重性,1.2%用量是最佳比例;稳定剂对抗溶性的影响具有正相关性,随着稳定剂用量增加,抗溶性提高;但是稳定剂对膨化率的影响呈现双重性,0.8%的用量为最佳比例,用量小于0.8%或者多于0.8%均减低膨化率.%The effects of emulsifier(molecular distilled monoglycefide)and stabilizer(guar gum) on the quality of soft ice cream were studied. The rigidity, melting resistance property and overrun of soft ice cream were also studied as significant indices. The results from the variation of these indices showed that there is a dualistic effect of emulsifier. It was found that 1.2% of emulsifier was the optimum dosage. The influence of stabilizer on melting resistance property is a positive correlation, but there is also a dualisitic effect of stabilizer on overrun. The stabilizer gives the optimum effect on overrun when the optimum dosage of stabilizer is 0.8%, while higher or lower than 0.8% will result in a reduction of the overrun.

  16. 脱脂豆粉酶法改性的条件优化及产物在冰淇淋中的应用%Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted soybean powder and the application of hydrolysates in ice cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱镭; 那治国; 张娜; 刘婷; 马永强; 石彦国

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to modificate defatted soybean powder by neutral protease with response surface methodology (RSM),and then to use it in ice cream as the milk powder replacers. The overrun,texture and melting rate of the soybean ice cream was determined and the date was compared with traditional ice cream. The results indicated that the optimum enzymatic modification conditions as followings: temperature was 73.86℃,time was 4.37h, enzyme/substrate was 5784.97U/g,substrate concentration was 6.44% and with the condition the optimal replacement was 15%. The overrun and melting rate of the soybean ice cream was good, the texture property of the soybean ice cream was similar to traditional ice cream.%采用中性蛋白酶对脱脂大豆粉进行酶法改性,应用响应面分析法对改性条件进行优化.然后用改性后的豆粉替代配方中部分乳粉生产出新型大豆冰淇淋,井以大豆冰淇淋的膨胀率、质构特性和融化率为指标与普通冰淇淋进行品质比较,确定最适替代量。,结果表明,酶最佳改性条件为:酶解温度为73.86℃、时间为4.37h、酶用量5784.97U/g底物、底物浓度为6.44%。替代率15%时生产出的大豆冰淇淋,与普通冰淇淋相比性质类似,既满足了产品的营养全面性,又降低了投料成本。

  17. Formulación de un helado dietético sabor arándano con características prebióticas Formulation of a diet blueberry ice-cream with prebiotic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Barrionuevo

    2011-03-01

    características nutricionales y sensoriales.Introduction:The inulin is a prebiotic which has nutritional and technological properties, and it can be added to products like ice-creams. The aim of this work was to formulate a diet blueberry ice-cream (low in calories, carbohydrates and lipids with prebiotic characteristics, to evaluate it sensorially and analyze its physico-chemical composition. Materials and Methods:The ingredients used were inulin powder, skimmed milk powder; additives; dehydrated egg white and scalded and processed blueberries. The fruits were scalded in 20, 40 and 60 %, in order to define the percentage to be utilized, using the preference test (Newel and Mac Farlane. The ice- cream was mixed, pasteurized (63ºC; 30 minutes, cooled (4°C; 4,5 minutes, matured (4ºC; 2 hours beaten and frozen in an icy machine (-6ºC; 50 minutes. Then it was packed and stored (-16ºC; 12hours. The chosen ice-cream was evaluated sensorially through acceptability. Chemical analysis of humidity, proteins, carbohydrates, total dietary fiber, ashes, calcium, sodium, phosphorus and physic: overrun were carried out. The label was designed in accordance with the CAA (Argentine Food Code. Results:Acceptability was expressed in percentage and determinations in terms of average standard deviation. The favorite fruit concentration was 40%. Acceptability 86%. Attractive and purple color. Sweet- acid taste and aroma, blueberry like. Creamy texture, without ice crystals. Firm consistency, slow melting and spongy body. Humidity 68,13; protein 8,4; carbohydrates 10,51; total dietary fiber 12,51; insoluble 5,82; soluble 6,69; ashes 0,45 g %; calcium 148,56; sodium 133,96 and phosphorus 167,50 mg %; overrun 71% respectively. It was labelled "low- calorie diet food"; "0 % fat"; "without sugar additives" and "high amount of alimentary fiber". Conclusion:The Diet Blueberry Ice-Cream (low in calories, carbohydrates and lipids with inulin has been feasible, presenting good sensorial and

  18. The Applications and Establishment of Soleris System in Ice Cream Coliform Bacteria Detection%Soleris检测技术在冰淇淋中大肠菌群检测的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆红; 吕新; 贾培培; 郭慧媛

    2014-01-01

    The detection of coliforms acounts in ice cream by traditional GB4789.3-2010 method is not only cumbersome and time-consuming, but also unable to meet the modern needs of awful testing work in large food companies. In this study, we introduced the Soleris real-time photoelectric microbial detection technology into the rapid detection of coliforms. Based on the GB Plate method, a standard curve of Soleris method for coliforms detection was prepared and veriifed, standard curve of the coliforms detection of ice cream was:Log CFU=9.5175-0.854×DT (R2=0.9717). All Soleris test results were in agreement with the reference plating procedures within the range of ±0.5. RSD value of repetitive veriifcation test were within the range of 0.443%, 0.501%. Compared to traditional method, the release time of ifnished products was shortened for 13 to 62 hours. In brief, with short time and high sensitivity compared to traditional method, the Soleris method greatly improves the efifciency of coliform detection and becomes a promising method for microbe detection in ice-cream products.%冰淇淋中大肠菌群的传统检测方法繁琐且费时费力,不能适应现代化大型食品企业检测工作的需求。本研究将Soleris实时光电微生物检测技术引入到大肠菌群的快速检测中,得到了冰淇淋中大肠菌群检测标准曲线LogCFU=9.5175-0.854×DT(R2=0.9717);并用国标平板法对标准曲线进行了验证,结果表明Soleris法测得的结果与平板计数结果偏差在±0.5范围以内,具有较好的一致性,重复性验证结果RSD值在0.443%~0.501%之间。而与平板计数法相比,Soleris法具有快速的优点,可使冰淇淋产品放行时间缩短13~62h。本研究建立的大肠菌群Soleris检测法具有检测时间短、灵敏度高的优势,为冰淇淋产品的微生物检测提供了一种新的方法。

  19. ENSAYO Y FUNCIONALIDAD DE UN SUSTITUYENTE DE SÓLIDOS NO GRASOS LÁCTEOS EN UNA MEZCLA PARA HELADO ESSAY AND FUNCTIONALITY OF A NON FAT MILK SOLIDS SUBSTITUTE IN AN ICE CREAM MIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francy Nataly López Barón

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objeto ensayar y evaluar la influencia de dos formulaciones de sólidos no grasos lácteos (F1 y F2, sobre las características fisicoquímicas de mezclas de helado. Mediante criterios bromatológicos (contenido de proteína se seleccionó la formulación F1, ya que una prueba sensorial que se aplicó simultáneamente, no aportó diferencias entre ambas formulaciones. Posteriormente se usaron tres niveles de la mezcla escogida, sustituyendo 20% (T2, el 40% (T3 y el 60% (T4, de los sólidos no grasos lácteos de la formulación, a los cuales se les realizaron pruebas de calidad física, química y sensorial, comparándolos contra una mezcla testigo sin sustitución (T1. El valor de viscosidad de los tratamientos, varió en un intervalo 398,7 cP a 1108,6 cP a una temperatura de 4 °C, siendo este aumento directamente proporcional al porcentaje de sustitución. Los valores de acidez titulable de la mezcla oscilaron entre 0,17% a 0,12% con un valor más alto (P This study was designed to test and evaluate the influence of two non fat milk solids formulations F1 and F2 on the physicochemical characteristics of ice cream mixes. By bromatological analysis (protein content, formulation F1 was selected, since a sensory test that was applied simultaneously, did not provide differences between the two formulations. Later, three levels of the chosen mixture were used, replacing 20% (T2, 40% (T3 and 60% (T4 of the non fat milk solids in the formulation, to which physical, chemical and sensorial quality tests were conducted and were compared against a control mixture without replacement (T1. The viscosity value of the treatments differ between 398.7 cP to 1108.6 cP at 4 °C, being this increase directly proportional to the percentage of substitution. The ice cream values for acidity were in a range of 0.17% to 0.12% with a highest value (P <0.05 for T1. Treatment T3 presented the following results: pH 6.84; P 542.2 mg/kg; Ca 717.2 mg

  20. Avaliação sensorial de sorvete formulado com produto de soro ácido de leite bovino Ice-cream sensory evaluation formulated with product of acid bovine milk serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O soro de leite bovino é um subproduto da fabricação do queijo ou da caseína, existente na forma ácida ou doce. Constituído basicamente de água, proteínas, lactose e minerais, quando concentrado, implica na obtenção de vários ingredientes protéicos de alta funcionalidade e valor nutricional. Entretanto, a concentração do soro tem sido realizada apenas ao soro doce, sendo o soro ácido, devido às suas características, geralmente tratado como resíduo. Neste contexto, este artigo apresenta os resultados obtidos com a introdução de produto de soro ácido de leite na formulação de sorvete, em sistema modelo, verificando a percepção dos provadores para diferentes percentuais de substituição do leite desnatado. As amostras de sorvete foram preparadas com composição de mistura: 2,5% de gordura látea, 18,3% de sacarose, 2,3% de gema de ovo em pó e 0,3% de estabilizante-emulsificante e essência de baunilha. O sorvete padrão (P foi formulado com 10,09% de leite desnatado em pó. Quatro outras misturas foram preparadas com o produto de soro ácido em pó (SAP, substituindo o leite desnatado, em níveis 100, 80, 60 e 30%. A avaliação do efeito provocado no sorvete, devido à substituição do leite desnatado por SAP, foi efetuada por ensaio sensorial direcionado à percepção do gosto doce. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa (pWhey, by-product of cheese or casein production, is classified in sweet or acid whey. Composed by water, proteins, lactose and minerals, when concentrated it produces proteins ingredients with high functionality and nutritional value. However, whey protein manufacturing has been applied only to sweet whey. Acid whey has been generally dumped down as dairy waste. This paper shows results obtained from acid whey product addition in ice cream formulation, in model system, ascertaining by sensory evaluation the panelists acceptance for five different milk substitutions levels. Ice cream

  1. Cultivo hidropônico de tomate cereja utilizando-se efluente tratado de uma indústria de sorvete Hydroponic production of cherry tomatoes using treated effluent of ice cream industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M. M. Malheiros

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de doses de efluente oriundo de indústria de sorvete, na cultura do tomate cereja em relação ao consumo hídrico e no desenvolvimento vegetativo em sistema hidropônico. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos pelo uso de doses de efluente (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% com complementação de nutrientes e com o uso de 100% de efluente sem complementação nutriente. O aumento das doses de efluente na solução nutritiva proporcionou redução linear no consumo hídrico. O efluente com 25% proporcionou a melhor produtividade. A adição de até 50% de efluente de sorvete à solução nutritiva permitiu o cultivo de tomate cereja sem redução na produtividade, com melhor eficiência do uso da água na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea, produção de frutos e máxima substituição de minerais solúveis na solução nutritiva.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ice cream raw effluent doses on consumption and vegetative development of cherry tomato under hydroponic system. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of 5 different levels of effluent (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% complemented with the amount of nutrient recommended for growing tomatoes and 100% of effluent without nutrient complementation. Increasing doses of effluent provided linear reduction in water consumption.Addition of effluent in proportion of 25% provided best production results. Addition up to 50% ice cream effluent to nutrient solution allowed growth of cherry tomato without yield reduction providing better efficiency of water use in terms of dry weight of shoots and fruit production as well as maximum substitution of soluble mineral fertilizers in nutrient solution.

  2. Comparative study of sea ice dynamics simulations with a Maxwell elasto-brittle rheology and the elastic-viscous-plastic rheology in NEMO-LIM3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulier, Jonathan; Dansereau, Véronique; Fichefet, Thierry; Legat, Vincent; Weiss, Jérôme

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice is a highly dynamical environment characterized by a dense mesh of fractures or leads, constantly opening and closing over short time scales. This characteristic geomorphology is linked to the existence of linear kinematic features, which consist of quasi-linear patterns emerging from the observed strain rate field of sea ice. Standard rheologies used in most state-of-the-art sea ice models, like the well-known elastic-viscous-plastic rheology, are thought to misrepresent those linear kinematic features and the observed statistical distribution of deformation rates. Dedicated rheologies built to catch the processes known to be at the origin of the formation of leads are developed but still need evaluations on the global scale. One of them, based on a Maxwell elasto-brittle formulation, is being integrated in the NEMO-LIM3 global ocean-sea ice model (www.nemo-ocean.eu; www.elic.ucl.ac.be/lim). In the present study, we compare the results of the sea ice model LIM3 obtained with two different rheologies: the elastic-viscous-plastic rheology commonly used in LIM3 and a Maxwell elasto-brittle rheology. This comparison is focused on the statistical characteristics of the simulated deformation rate and on the ability of the model to reproduce the existence of leads within the ice pack. The impact of the lead representation on fluxes between ice, atmosphere and ocean is also assessed.

  3. Study on Low Fat No Sugar and Adding Prebiotics Ice Cream%添加复合益生元的低脂无糖冰淇淋的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军飞

    2011-01-01

    采用甜蜜素、阿斯巴甜、低聚果糖代替蔗糖,采用聚葡萄糖代替部分脂肪,制成低脂无糖冰淇淋,达到预防心血管等疾病的特殊生理功效。通过单因素试验对不同影响因素进行了考察,运用正交试验找出最佳应用配方,结果表明,最佳配方如下:甜蜜素0.03%,阿斯巴甜0.012%,聚葡萄糖2%,低聚果糖0.21%。%Low fat no sugar ice cream was prepared by replacing fat with polydextrose and replacing sucrose with molasses, aspartame and fructo oligosaccharide. We studied the different influencing factors during the process through single factor tests, then the orthogonal experiments were used to find the most suitable formula. The results indicated the optimal formula were: molasses 0.03%, aspartame 0.012%, fructo oligosaccharide 2% and polydextrose 0.21%.

  4. Preparation of Yog-Ice Cream with Active Lactobacillus and Wheat Seedling Juice%活性乳酸菌小麦苗汁酸奶冰淇淋的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦宇知

    2011-01-01

    The technology for production of yog-ice cream with active Lactobacillus and wheat seedling juice was investigated.Results show that expansivity and rate of melting of products could achieve 90.42%~91.25% and 2.99%~3.08% respectively and amount of Lactobacillus alive could be in high level by using mixed fermentation with Bifidobacterium,Lac.bulgaricus and Str.thermophilus and using mixed stabilizer including flaxseed gum as well as 8%~10% of wheat seedling juice.%研究了活性乳酸菌小麦苗汁酸奶冰淇淋的生产工艺。结果表明,选用嗜菌、保菌和双歧杆菌混和发酵,加入8%~10%的麦苗汁,选用包括亚麻仔胶在内的复合稳定剂能使得成品风味口感俱佳,膨胀率达90.42%~91.25%,融化率为2.99%~3.08%,活菌数在3个月中保持较高水平。

  5. 高效液相色谱法同时测定冰淇淋中的10种合成色素%Simultaneous Determination of Ten Synthetic Colours in Ice-cream by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍艳敏; 王骏; 张卉; 祝建华; 刘艳明; 王艳丽; 宿书芳

    2011-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 synthetic colours such as indigotin, new red, brilliant blue, tatrazine, sunset yellow, amaranth, ponceau 4R, carmoisine, allura red and erythrosine in ice-cream. The optimal extraction conditions and HPLC chromatographic conditions were confirmed by investigating the extracting solvent, mobile phase type and maximum absorption wavelength. The sample was extracted with methanol water solution, and the extract diluted with water was separated on a Symmetry C18 (25 cm ×4. 6 mm × 5 μm)column using methanol - 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate as mobile phase by gradient elution. The target compounds were confirmed by diode-array detection and quantified by the external standard method. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves of 10 synthetic colours showed good linearities in the range of 0. 5 - 10. 0 mg/L, with their correlative coefficients more than 0. 997. The mean recoveries at 3 spiked levels of 2, 10, 50 mg/kg ranged from 76% to 108% with RSDs of 0. 56% - 2. 8%. The detection limits were in the range of 0. 2 - 1.0 mg/kg. The method was simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate, and was suitable for the determination of 10 synthetic colours in ice-cream.%建立了一种同时测定冰淇淋中靛蓝、新红、亮蓝、柠檬黄、日落黄、苋菜红、胭脂红、偶氮玉红、诱惑红、赤藓红10种合成色素的高效液相色谱分析方法.对提取试剂、流动相条件、最大吸收波长进行了研究,确定了最佳提取方法及色谱条件.待测样品经甲醇-水提取,加水稀释后上机分析,采用Symmetry C18柱(25 cm×4.6 mm×5μm),以甲醇-20 mmol/L醋酸铵为流动相,在最佳梯度洗脱条件下对10种合成色素进行分离,二极管阵列检测器检测,外标法定量.结果表明,各组分在0.5~10.0 mg/L范围内呈良好线性,相关系数(r)均大于0.997,在2、10、50 mg/kg3个加标水

  6. Physico-chemical Characteristics of Matri-Skim Milk Blend Ice Cream%山黧豆--脱脂乳混合冰淇淋的物理化学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salim-ur-Rehman; Sarfraz Hussain; Atif Randhawa; Muhammad Saeed-ud-Din

    2004-01-01

    Matri(Lathyrus sativus) milk blend was prepared by blending matri flour with skim milk powder and diluted with water at the ratio of 1:10. In four blends, the matri flour and Skim milk powder ratios were T1=12.5:87.5, T2=25:75, T3=37.5:62.5 and T4=50:50. Each 100g of solids (matri flour + skim milk powder) were used for 1000 mi blend. The blend was homogenized,pasteurized and used for ice cream preparation. Overrun, protein, Lactose, pH decreased while acidity increased during storage.Sensory characteristics showed that treatment T3 was ranked best among them.%山黧豆(Lathyrus sativus种植山黧豆属)和乳混合物是由山黧豆粉与脱脂乳粉混合,按1:10加入水稀释而成.在四个配方组中,山黧豆粉与脱脂乳粉比例分别是:T1=12.5:87.5,T2=25:75,T3=37.5:62.5和T4=50:50.每100g固体(山黧豆粉+脱脂乳粉)混合成1000ml混合物.混合物经均质、消毒,用作冰淇淋原料.在保存期间,当酸度增加时,膨胀率、蛋白质含量、乳糖含量和pH值会下降.在4个配方组中,感观品质最好的是T3组.

  7. 21 CFR 131.149 - Dry cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dry cream. 131.149 Section 131.149 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.149 Dry cream. (a) Description. Dry cream is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized milk or cream or...

  8. 21 CFR 131.155 - Light cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Light cream. 131.155 Section 131.155 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.155 Light cream. (a) Description. Light cream is cream which contains not less than 18 percent but less than 30 percent milkfat....

  9. 21 CFR 131.150 - Heavy cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heavy cream. 131.150 Section 131.150 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.150 Heavy cream. (a) Description. Heavy cream is cream which contains not less than 36 percent milkfat. It is pasteurized or...

  10. Genótipos melhorados de mamão (Carica papaya L.: avaliação tecnológica dos frutos na forma de sorvete Improved genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L.: technological evaluation as ice-cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia R.R. Santana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação tecnológica na forma de sorvete, de frutos de cinco genótipos selecionados de mamão (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047, provenientes do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Estes genótipos foram identificados em estudos anteriores por apresentarem cor atraente, sabor agradável e valores elevados de sólidos solúveis (ºBrix. As amostras de sorvete foram submetidas à avaliação sensorial para os atributos aparência, cor, aroma, sabor e textura, através de testes afetivos, utilizando-se escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Realizou-se determinações de pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis (ºBrix, "ratio", ácido ascórbico, sólidos totais, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos, açúcares totais, redutores e não-redutores. Os resultados das avaliações sensoriais e físico-químicas foram analisados através de ANOVA e teste de Tukey. Os sorvetes demonstraram elevada aceitação, obtendo médias correspondentes ao conceito "gostei moderadamente" para todos os atributos avaliados. Os genótipos CMF020 e CMF031 destacaram-se alcançando média correspondente ao termo da escala hedônica "gostei muito" para o atributo sabor. Os provadores não indicaram prevalência entre os produtos quanto à aparência, cor e textura; portanto, os genótipos pouco atraentes como fruto de mesa, poderão ser aproveitados na indústria para elaboração de sorvete. Além disso, podem ser considerados como uma sobremesa valiosa e nutritiva, pois apresentaram níveis satisfatórios de carboidratos e razoáveis de vitamina C e proteínas. O estudo demonstrou que o sorvete de mamão é uma excelente alternativa para o aproveitamento da fruta.The objective of the present work was to evaluate as an alternative of consumption the ice-cream of five selective papaya genotypes (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047 obtained from the Active

  11. Treatment of scabies, permethrin 5% cream vs. crotamiton 10% cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhasan, Abolfazl; Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Scabies is one of the three most common skin disorders in children, along with tinea and pyoderma. The treatment of choice is still controversial. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of permethrin 5% cream vs. crotamiton 10% cream in the treatment of scabies. In total, 350 patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups. The first group received permethrin 5% cream on two occasions with a one-week interval, while the second group received topical crotamiton 10% cream and were told to apply this twice daily for five consecutive days. The treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and the treatment was repeated if treatment failure was found at the 2-week follow-up. Two applications of permethrin 5 % cream provided a cure rate of 70% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 85% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with single applications of crotamiton 10% cream was effective in 45% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 65% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. Two applications of permethrin 5% cream was as effective as single applications of crotamiton 10% cream at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, permethrin 5 % cream was superior to crotamiton 10% cream at the 4-week follow up.

  12. I scream ice cream - screaming females

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Contém: 1. O descolar do plano do design - a colagem plana no cubismo sintético. 2. A obra cartazística de Barbara Kruger. O movimento da tipografia iluminada na language art. 4. Os paineis electrónicos de Jenny Holzer

  13. Ice-Creams and Wedge Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Eyal; Pinchasi, Rom

    2011-01-01

    We show that for every compact convex set $S$ in the plane and every $0 < \\alpha < \\pi$, there exist a point $O$ and two supporting lines to $S$ passing through $O$ and touching $S$ at two \\emph{single points} $X$ and $Y$, respectively, such that $|OX|=|OY|$ and the angle between the two lines has measure $\\alpha$. As a consequence, we provide a simplified proof to the following result by Carmi, Katz, Lotker, and Ros\\'en \\cite{CKLR10}. Given a set of $\\frac{\\pi}{3}$-directional antennas (that is, antennas each of which can communicate along a wedge of angle $\\frac{\\pi}{3}$), one can always assign a direction to each antenna such that the resulting communication graph is connected, where two antennas can communicate if and only if each lies in the wedge assigned to the other. In fact we obtain a much stronger and optimal result (see Theorem \\ref{theorem:main}) saying in particular that one can chose the directions of the antennas so that the communication graph has diameter $\\le 4$.

  14. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality of the cream used shall meet the requirements of cream acceptable for the manufacture of U.S. Grade AA...

  15. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sour cream. 131.160 Section 131.160 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.160 Sour cream. (a) Description. Sour cream results from the souring, by lactic acid producing bacteria, of pasteurized...

  16. Assessment of Physical Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Polysiloxane Polyalkyl Polyether Copolymer-Based Creams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to investigate the changes on physical stability (color, creaming, liquefaction, pH, conductivity, centrifugation, viscosity and rheological parameters by non-ionic surfactant polysiloxane polyalkyl polyether copolymer based creams following inclusion of plant extract containing phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity of the plant extract alone and after addition in the cream was assessed using the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Physical stability was assessed by submitting the creams to storage at 8°C, 25°C, 40°C, and at 40°C with 70% RH (relative humidity for a period of two months. Physical characteristics of polysiloxane polyalkyl polyether copolymer based creams, that is, color, creaming, liquefaction, centrifugation and pH were noted at various intervals for 2 months. The viscosities and rheological behavior of creams were determined using a rotational rheometer. Data were analyzed by using Brookfield Software Rheocalc version (2.6 with IPC Paste and Power Law (PL math models. Cream with plant extract showed pseudo plastic behaviour with decreasing on viscosity. The Acacia nilotica (AN extract alone and the cream containing this extract showed great antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Power Law and IPC analysis were found to fit all the rheograms.

  17. Ivermectin cream for rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Rosacea is a chronic facial skin disease that mainly occurs in people aged over 30 years. It is common, with an estimated incidence of 1·7 per 1,000 person-years in general practice in the UK.(1,2) Rosacea can cause embarrassment, anxiety, low self-esteem and lack of confidence.(3) A new topical treatment has become available for the treatment of one of the clinical subtypes of rosacea. Ivermectin 10mg/g (1%) cream (Soolantra-Galderma) has received marketing authorisation for the treatment of inflammatory lesions of papulopustular rosacea in adults.(4) Here we review the safety and effectiveness of ivermectin cream in the treatment of rosacea and assess how it compares with standard therapies.

  18. Isolation and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica in ice cream at different pH values, stored at -18°c Isolamento e sobrevivência de Yersinia enterocolitica em sorvetes de distintos pH, armazenados a -18°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma B. Barbini de Pederiva

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Yersinia enterocolitica was investigated in 203 samples of industrial (123 and non-industrial ice cream (80. Two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from non-industrial ice cream, which suggests the possibility of post-manufacturing contamination. One strain was typed as B:1A, O: 3,50,51; lis Xz, while the other one was biotyped as: B:1A but not serologically typed. Survival of Y. enterocolitica was investigated by inoculating nine samples of industrially manufactured ice cream to contain 20 CFU/ml of Y. enterocolitica and stored at -18°C for 480 days. The inoculated samples were classified into three different groups according to their pH (Group 1: pH 4-5; Group 2: pH 5-6 and Group 3: pH 6-7. Viability was determined by a combination of direct plating and enrichment. In Group 1, Y. enterocolitica was not detected after 150 days of storage, while in Groups 2 and 3, this microorganism was isolated until day 480 of storage. These findings suggest that the survival time of Y. enterocolitica in ice cream stored at -18°C is significantly (p Neste estudo pesquisou-se a presença de Yersinia enterocolitica em 203 amostras de sorvetes, sendo 123 de fabricação industrial e 80 de fabricação artesanal. Isolaram-se 2 cepas a partir de sorvetes artesanais, uma das quais foi caracterizada como B:1A, O:3,50, 51; lis Xz e a outra se tipificou como Y. enterocolitica B:1A mas não se tipificou sorologicamente, o que sugere uma contaminação pós processo. Em 9 dos sorvetes de fabricação industrial de distintos pH, estudou-se a sobrevivência desse microrganismo, inoculando-os com 20 UFC/ml de Y. enterocolitica, quando armazenados durante 480 dias a -18°C. Esses sorvetes, segundo seu pH, agruparam-se em: Grupo 1: pH: 4-5, Grupo 2: pH 5-6 e Grupo 3: pH: 6-7. Determinou-se a viabilidade pelas curvas de morte usando semeadura direta e enriquecimento. Nos sorvetes do grupo 1, Y. enterocolitica só foi detectada até o 150° dia de

  19. The Coffee and Cream Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes how Newton's Law of Cooling and the Method of Mixtures are used to solve the basic dilemma of whether to add the cool cream to the hot coffee or to let the black coffee cool down first and then add the cream. (ZWH)

  20. Contact dermatitis to Hirudoid cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecegueiro, M; Brandão, M; Pinto, J; Conçalo, S

    1987-11-01

    31 patients allergic to Hirudoid cream were patch tested with the ingredients. 29 were allergic to the cream base and 16 to one or more components. The most common allergens were myristyl alcohol, cetostearyl alcohol and parabens. 14 patients reacted only to the base. The results are discussed.

  1. 21 CFR 524.450 - Clotrimazole cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clotrimazole cream. 524.450 Section 524.450 Food... Clotrimazole cream. (a) Specifications. Each gram of cream contains 10 milligrams of clotrimazole. (b) Sponsor. See 000859 in § 510.600(c). (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Apply 1/4-inch ribbon of cream...

  2. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cream cheese. 133.133 Section 133.133 Food and... Products § 133.133 Cream cheese. (a) Description. (1) Cream cheese is the soft, uncured cheese prepared by..., nonfat milk, or cream, as defined in § 133.3, used alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes....

  3. Determinação simultânea de açúcares e polióis por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE-IR em sorvetes de baixas calorias ("diet"/ "light" Simultaneous determination of sugars and polyols in low calorie ice creams (diet/light by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice I. Druzian

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Um método simples e rápido para a preparação da amostra e quantificação simultânea de açúcares e polióis em sorvetes "diet"/"light" por CLAE-IR foi investigado. Os açúcares frutose, glicose, lactose, maltose, sacarose, juntamente com glicerol e sorbitol foram separados. Diferentes variáveis foram testadas na preparação da amostra e nas condições cromatográficas para a separação dos componentes. A melhor condição para a separação dos analitos da matriz foi obtida através de duas extrações consecutivas com água : etanol (1:8 v/v, seguida de 1:4 v/v. Para a separação cromatográfica em uma coluna CLC-NH2 , a fase móvel foi composta de acetonitrila: água (77,5:22,5 v/v na vazão de 1mL/min, a 30 ºC. O tempo de corrida foi menor do que 20 min. Amostras de sorvetes "diet"/"light" de 3 diferentes marcas, com sabores de morango, chocolate, flocos e baunilha, recolhidas em Campinas-SP, apresentaram valores de açúcares totais entre 9-15%. Somente os sorvetes com sabor morango apresentaram frutose (0,1-0,5%, e somente aqueles sorvetes com sabor de flocos mostraram a presença de sacarose em maiores quantidades. Os maiores valores de açúcares foram encontrados para lactose, independente da marca ou sabor testados (3,5-10%. As quantidades de sorbitol variaram de 3-4%. A mesma análise foi realizada com sorvete normal (controle que apresentou valor de açúcares totais de aproximadamente 29%, sendo que destes 16,8%, foi sacarose. Não foram detectados polióis. Na amostra de sorvete controle foi realizado teste de recuperação de sorbitol (99,3%. Os valores encontrados foram comparados com os valores permitidos pela legislação.A simple fast method for sample preparation and the simultaneous quantification of sugars and polyols in diet/light ice creams, using HPLC-RI, was investigated. The sugars fructose, glucose, lactose, maltose and sucrose, together with glycerol and sorbitol, were separated. Different variables were

  4. RHEOLOGIC BEHAVIOR OF PASTRY CREAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia Vizireanu; Aurelia Ionescu; Daniela Istrati; Felicia Dima

    2012-01-01

    The increased social and economic importance of ready–made food production, together with the complexity of production technology, processing, handling and acceptance of these fragile and perishable products requires extensive knowledge of their physical properties. Viscoelastic properties play an important role in the handling and quality attributes of creams.Our study was to investigate the rheological properties of different confectionary creams, by scanning the field of shear rates at con...

  5. Quality of handmade milk cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Mikaelle de Paiva Soares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality and food safety are important issues nowadays. In this context, the present work aimed to evaluate the microbiological and physico-chemical of handmade milk creams, known as cream of the backlands. Thus, samples of creams of the hinterland acquired thirty merchants of Rio Grande do Norte. These samples were subjected to microbiological analysis: standard plate count of mesophilic aerobic micro-organisms, Staphylococcus aureus and determination of the most probable number (MPN of total and fecal coliforms, and physicochemical analysis of titratable acidity content fat and moisture. It was found that all samples were outside the legal standards in mesophilic count, where the values were greater than 105 CFU / g. A percentage of 90% of the creams milk showed high counts of S. aureus above those permitted by legislation (maximum 102 CFU / g. The acidity was above the allowed 90% of creams evaluated. Thus, the cream produced by hand showed low microbiological and physicalchemical, so its consumption may cause health risks to the consumer.

  6. Cream cheese products: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanokphat Phadungath

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cream cheese is a soft fresh acid-coagulated cheese product, which is acidified by mesophilic lactic acid starter culture, i.e. Lactococcus and Leuconostoc. Cream cheese products are categorized into two main types based on the different fat content in the initial mix and the final composition. These are double-cream cheese with at least 9-11% fat content in the initial mix, and single-cream cheese with 4.5-5% fat content in initial mix. Cream cheese was first made by using the cooked-curd method, which was developed in the early twenties, and the cold-pack and hot-pack methods were developed, and are still used at present. The products with high quality should have a uniform white to light cream color with a lightly lactic acid and cultured diacetyl flavor and aroma. The texture of the products should be smooth without lumps, grittiness, or any indication of cracking and wheying off, and with the ability to spread at room temperature.

  7. RHEOLOGIC BEHAVIOR OF PASTRY CREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Vizireanu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The increased social and economic importance of ready–made food production, together with the complexity of production technology, processing, handling and acceptance of these fragile and perishable products requires extensive knowledge of their physical properties. Viscoelastic properties play an important role in the handling and quality attributes of creams.Our study was to investigate the rheological properties of different confectionary creams, by scanning the field of shear rates at constant temperature and frequency, angular frequency scanning at small deformations and quantification of rheological changes during application of deformation voltages. The creams tested were made in the laboratory using specific concentrates as fine powders, marketed by the company “Dr. Oetker” compared with similar creams based on traditional recipes and techniques. Following the researches conducted we could conclude that both traditional creams and the instant ones are semi fluid food products with pseudoplastic and thixotropic shear flow behavior, with structural viscosity. Instant and traditional creams behaved as physical gels with links susceptible to destruction, when subjected to deformation forces.

  8. 高效液相色谱法同时检测酸性乳饮料及冰淇淋中安赛蜜、苯甲酸、山梨酸和糖精钠含量%Determination of acesulfame, benzoic acid, sorbic and sodium saccharin in acidic milk drink and ice cream by high performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁凤琴; 王佳; 牛爱华; 苏美玲; 梁轶; 常建军; 宋晓东

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立酸性乳饮料及冰淇淋中安赛蜜、苯甲酸、山梨酸、糖精钠含量的高效液相色谱分析方法。方法样品去除蛋白后,用甲醇提取,提取液用高压液相色谱仪进行检测。结果安赛蜜、苯甲酸、山梨酸、糖精钠在0~100μg/kg 范围内,浓度与峰面积有良好的线性关系,相关系数大于0.999,检出限分别为2.87、0.96、0.97和2.69 mg/kg;样品的加标平均回收率分别为95.59%~104.52%、93.21%~108.05%、97.75%~107.98%和97.48%~103.67%,相对标准偏差均小于10%。结论本方法适用于酸性乳饮料及冰淇淋中安赛蜜、苯甲酸、山梨酸、糖精钠含量同时测定的需要。%Objective To establish a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for deter-mination of the content of acesulfame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium saccharin in acidic milk and ice cream. Methods The samples were extracted with methanol after precipitating the protein, and their contents were measured by HPLC. Results There was a good linear relationship between the concentration and peak area of acesulfame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and saccharin sodium in the range of 0~100μg/kg , the correla-tion coefficient is greater than 0.999. The detection limit were 2.87, 0.96, 0.97, and 2.69 mg/kg, and the reco-veries were 95.59%~104.52%, 93.21%~108.05%, 97.75%~107.98%, and 97.48~103.67%, respectively, with the relative standard deviation less than 10%. Conclusion This method is suitable for the requirement of de-termination of the content of acesulfame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid and saccharin sodium in acidic milk drinks and ice cream.

  9. 白砂糖、复合稳定剂对发酵型益生菌冰淇淋产品品质的影响%The Effect of Sugar and Composite Emulsifying Stabilizer on Products Quality of Fermented Probiotic Ice Cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌恩其木格; 秦倩; 葛克山; 冷小京

    2014-01-01

    The experiments researched the effect of fermented probiotics ice cream ingredients (such as sugar and composite emulsifying stabilizer) on the products sensory properties (smooth, mouth melting, sweet, fermented flavor, the ratio of sour and sweet, coop up and hardness) and physical properties (overrun, melting resistance and viscosity) of products. The viability of starter (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus) and probiotics (bifidobacterium BB12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La14) were detected during the 90 days cold storage. Results showed that the best additive amount of sugar was 13%, and the best additive amount of composite emulsifying stabilizer was 0.3%~0.45% in fermented probiotics ice cream. The additive amount optimization of sugar and composite emulsifying stabilizer provided a theoretical and technical support for enterprises in the future producing such products.%本研究以发酵型益生菌冰淇淋感官指标(细腻度、口融性、发酵味、酸甜比、勺取性与硬度),物理指标(膨胀率、抗融性与黏度)以及发酵剂与益生菌存活率作为指标,对发酵型冰淇淋主要配料中的白砂糖、复合乳化稳定剂的添加量进行了单因素试验,对两种配料的最优添加量进行了优化。结果表明,发酵型益生菌冰淇淋的配料中白砂糖的最优添加量为13%,复合乳化稳定剂的最优添加量为0.3%~0.45%。白砂糖、复合乳化稳定剂的添加量经过了优化,为企业今后生产该类产品提供了一定的理论、技术支持。

  10. Alternative method for assessing coking coal plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzuy Nguyen; Susan Woodhouse; Merrick Mahoney [University of Adelaide (Australia). BHP Billiton Newcastle Technology Centre

    2008-07-15

    Traditional plasticity measurements for coal have a number of limitations associated with the reproducibility of the tests and their use in predicting coking behaviour. This report reviews alternative rheological methods for characterising the plastic behaviour of coking coals. It reviews the application of more fundamental rheological measurements to the coal system as well as reviewing applications of rheology to other physical systems. These systems may act as potential models for the application of fundamental rheological measurements to cokemaking. The systems considered were polymer melts, coal ash melts, lava, bread making and ice cream. These systems were chosen because they exhibit some physically equivalent processes to the processes occurring during cokemaking, eg, the generation of bubbles within a softened system that then resolidifies. A number of recommendations were made; the steady and oscillatory shear squeeze flow techniques be further investigated to determine if the measured rheology characteristics are related to transformations within the coke oven and the characteristics of resultant coke; modification of Gieseler plastometers for more fundamental rheology measurements not be attempted.

  11. 21 CFR 131.157 - Light whipping cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Light whipping cream. 131.157 Section 131.157 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.157 Light whipping cream. (a) Description. Light whipping cream is cream which contains not less than 30 percent...

  12. Touch Glaciem : The Touch Screen for Soft Ice Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Sunnegårdh, Sandra; Svensson, Thea

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese company Ocean Power manufactures and exports soft ice cream machines to companies worldwide. Their machines have high functionality and robust design that enables a low-cost manufacturing. All machines have a control panel where settings of the machine and the ice cream can be ranged. The control panel is at present designed in accordance with an old indigenous design tradition. With increasing international influence and contact, the need of functionality and design is changing. ...

  13. 21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tolnaftate cream. 524.2350 Section 524.2350 Food... Tolnaftate cream. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 1 percent tolnaftate (2-naphthyl-N-methyl-N-(3-tolyl) thionocarbamate) in an anhydrous cream base. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter....

  14. 21 CFR 524.2483 - Triamcinolone cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Triamcinolone cream. 524.2483 Section 524.2483 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Triamcinolone cream. (a) Specifications. The vanishing cream contains 0.1 percent triamcinolone acetonide....

  15. 7 CFR 58.322 - Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream. 58.322 Section 58.322 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....322 Cream. Cream separated at an approved plant and used for the manufacture of butter shall have...

  16. 21 CFR 524.520 - Cuprimyxin cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cuprimyxin cream. 524.520 Section 524.520 Food and... cream. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 0.5 percent cuprimyxin (6-methoxy-1-phenazinol 5, 10-dioxide, cupric complex) in an aqueous cream base. (b) Sponsor. See No. 063238 in § 510.600(c) of...

  17. 反相液相色谱法测定膏状香精中邻苯二甲酸酯类%Determination of phthalate plasticizers in cream essence by reverse phase liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高兴海; 陈湘来

    2012-01-01

    Four phthalate acid esters in cream essence,such as dimethyl phthalate(DMP),diethyl phthalate (DEP),dibutyl phthalate(DBP) and benzyl butyl phthalate(BBP),were determined by reverse phase liquid chromatography. The conditions for extraction were researched. Orthogonal design experiment was carried out to optimize the 3 dominant factors (hexane volume, ultrasonic time,water temperature) affecting extraction recovery. The optimum conditions for solid phase extraction were determined as follows hexane volume 10mL, ultrasonic time 25min,water temperature 15~C. Results showed that the recoveries of the four phthalates were 90%N94%.There was a good linear relationship between peak area and concentration of 4 phthalate esters in range of 0.5-20mg/L.%采用反相液相色谱法研究了膏状香精中邻苯二甲酸二甲酯(DMP)、邻苯二甲酸二乙酯(DEP)、邻苯二甲酸二正丁基酯(DBP)、邻苯二甲酸丁基苄基酯(BBP)4种邻苯二甲酸酯的萃取条件。利用正交实验对影响萃取总量的3个主要因素(正己烷用量、超声时间、水浴温度)进行了优化,确定了萃取的最佳条件:正己烷用量10mL,超声时间25min,水浴温度15℃。结果表明,该分析条件下,样品猪骨膏、牛肉膏的加标回收率为90%~94%。用乙腈-水等梯度洗脱(75∶25),4种PAEs分离较好,在0.5-20mg/L之间,色谱峰面积与4种邻苯二甲酸酯的浓度呈现良好的线性关系。

  18. The Coffee and Cream Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Brandon; Feldman, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Many coffee drinkers take cream with their coffee and often wonder whether to add the cream earlier or later. With the objective of keeping their coffee as hot as possible over a moderate time period (10-15 minutes), this is a question that most of them can never answer definitively. We investigated this problem empirically using hot and cold water, with special emphasis on the calorimetry of the mixture. Assuming a coffee:cream (hot:cold) ratio of 3:1, we began with two identical styrofoam coffee cups containing hot water and then added cold water at t = 200 s in one cup and t = 700 s in the other cup. Using two Vernier temperature probes to simultaneously track the temperature change during the cool-down period of the water in both cups over δt = 1000 s, we obtained a real-time graphical account of which process achieved the higher temperature over this time period. In addition, the effect of evaporation was explored by comparing trials with and without a lid on the coffee cup. The application of Newton's Law of Cooling, as compared to the graphical temperature data acquired, will leave no doubt as to the best strategy for adding cool cream to hot coffee.

  19. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acidified sour cream. 131.162 Section 131.162 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.162 Acidified sour cream. (a) Description. Acidified sour cream results from the souring of pasteurized...

  20. Comparison of lidocaine/tetracaine cream and lidocaine/prilocaine cream for local anaesthesia during laser treatment of acne keloidalis nuchae and tattoo removal: results of two randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greveling, K; Prens, E P; Ten Bosch, N; van Doorn, M B

    2017-01-01

    Pain is a common adverse effect of dermatological laser procedures. Currently, no standard topical anaesthetic cream exists for deeper dermal laser procedures. To compare the efficacy of lidocaine/tetracaine cream and lidocaine/prilocaine cream in reducing self-reported pain during deeper dermal laser treatment of acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN) and tattoos. We conducted two randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials with intrapatient, split-lesion designs: study A included patients with AKN (n = 15); study B included patients with black tattoos (n = 15). The primary end point was the patients' self-reported pain on a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS). Secondary objectives were the percentage of patients with adequate pain relief, willingness to pay €25 for the cream that provided the best pain relief and safety of the creams. In both studies, VAS scores were lower for lidocaine/prilocaine cream, with a mean VAS difference in study A of 1·9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·0-2·8] and in study B of 0·6 (95% CI -0·7 to 1·9). In study A, adequate pain relief was achieved in 13% (n = 2) with lidocaine/tetracaine cream vs. 73% (n = 11) with lidocaine/prilocaine cream (P = 0·004), and in study B in 53% (n = 8) vs. 80% (n = 12), respectively (P = 0·289). In study A, 47% (n = 7) were willing to pay an additional €25 vs. 73% (n = 11) in study B. No serious adverse events occurred. Lidocaine/prilocaine cream under plastic occlusion is the preferred topical anaesthetic during painful laser procedures targeting dermal chromophores. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  2. 7 CFR 58.321 - Cream storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream storage tanks. 58.321 Section 58.321 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....321 Cream storage tanks. Cream storage tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.128(d). Cream...

  3. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133... Cheese and Related Products § 133.134 Cream cheese with other foods. (a) Description. Cream cheese with other foods is the class of foods prepared by mixing, with or without the aid of heat, cream cheese...

  4. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  5. Total Mercury content of skin toning creams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... hair sets and rinses, hair straighteners, hair colour- ing, and other ... sold under the presumption of being antiseptic, although the ..... lightening creams and dental amalgam fill- ings. ... (1981). Comparison of mercury levels in.

  6. The Use of Creams in Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, May-Lin; Frost, Else; Bergmansen, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: At the Danish wards for radiotherapy there are different rules regarding the intervals that have to pass from the moment the patients applies moisturizer until they can be treated. This is due to the fact that it is unclear whether the cream can cause bolus effect, thereby...... causing the dose to move towards the skin. This would increase the damages to the patient’s skin during the radiotherapy. There is no evidence on the use of moisturizers. Materials and Methods: We have carried out an experimental trial testing whether creams cause bolus effect. We used two pieces of pork...... which we each divided into three squares in order to test our three preparations: Decubal Original Clinic Cream, Panthenol cream and Panthetonol ointment. All scans were carried out using a 64 slice Philips Brilliance Big Bore CT scanner. Conclusions: According to our results of the ml. measurements we...

  7. Does alprostadil cream hit the spot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Alprostadil, a prostaglandin, has been marketed for many years as a urethral stick and an intracavernous injection for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.(1) It is now available in the form of a cream (Vitaros-Takeda). Adverts for the product declare: "Sex with no pills, pellets or needles. Spot on." In this article, we consider the evidence for alprostadil cream, and its place in the management of erectile dysfunction.

  8. Ice Cream Seminars for Graduate Students: Imparting Chemical Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garritano, Jeremy R.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides information on a chemical information literacy program designed primarily for new graduate students. The full implementation of this program is discussed, including defining its purpose, topics covered, content presented, methods of marketing, and evaluation. The result is a series of voluntary seminars given biweekly…

  9. Ice Cream Sandwich原生支持触控笔

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Android4.05单原生支持触控笔,而且还支持压力感应和分辨输入媒介,如手指、触控笔甚至橡皮擦!其实Android装置跟触控笔早就有携手合作的例子了,如HTC Flyer和Samsung Galaxy Note就是很大程度上为了触控笔而设,不过它们所用的Android版本本身就不会原生支持的。

  10. I Like Chocolate Ice Cream: A Lesson in Thinking Civics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterson, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    In curricula that encourages philosophy as having an integral role in educational programs, students get the opportunity to wonder and speculate, in a natural state surrounded by questions. A. K. Salmon notes that when thinking becomes a part of a young child's routine, the child becomes more open and responsive to situations that require thinking…

  11. Bundled-Up Babies & Dangerous Ice Cream: Correlation Puzzlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenholley, Kathleen H.

    2013-01-01

    The Borough of Manhattan Community College (BMCC) in New York City is fourth among all community colleges in awarding degrees to minority students and in awarding degrees to African Americans. The BMCC student body is approximately 37 percent Hispanic, 33 percent black, 15 percent white, and 15 percent Asian. In addition, a significant proportion…

  12. I Like Chocolate Ice Cream: A Lesson in Thinking Civics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterson, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    In curricula that encourages philosophy as having an integral role in educational programs, students get the opportunity to wonder and speculate, in a natural state surrounded by questions. A. K. Salmon notes that when thinking becomes a part of a young child's routine, the child becomes more open and responsive to situations that require thinking…

  13. Ice Cream Seminars for Graduate Students: Imparting Chemical Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garritano, Jeremy R.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides information on a chemical information literacy program designed primarily for new graduate students. The full implementation of this program is discussed, including defining its purpose, topics covered, content presented, methods of marketing, and evaluation. The result is a series of voluntary seminars given biweekly…

  14. Bundled-Up Babies & Dangerous Ice Cream: Correlation Puzzlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenholley, Kathleen H.

    2013-01-01

    The Borough of Manhattan Community College (BMCC) in New York City is fourth among all community colleges in awarding degrees to minority students and in awarding degrees to African Americans. The BMCC student body is approximately 37 percent Hispanic, 33 percent black, 15 percent white, and 15 percent Asian. In addition, a significant proportion…

  15. "Tastes Like ICE CREAM!": Writing Portraits in New Journalese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Lynn Z.

    The purpose of a semester course for journalism and creative writing students at Washington University was to help students, through reading and writing portraits in "new journalese," become capable critics of new journalistic writing. Students first were introduced to the techniques of new journalism in Tom Wolfe's book on new journalism and in…

  16. Skin treatment with bepanthen cream versus no cream during radiotherapy. A randomized controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loekkevik, E. [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Oncology; Skovlund, E. [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Oncology]|[Oslo Univ. (Norway). Section of Medical Statistics; Reitan, J.B. [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Oncology]|[Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oslo (Norway). Radiation Medicine Dept.; Hannisdal, E. [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Oncology; Tanum, G. [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Oncology

    1996-12-31

    In several radiotherapy departments, dexpanthenol cream (Bepanthen `Roche`) has been used extensively to ameliorate acute radiotherapy skin reactions. The evidence base for this practice is obscure as no randomized trials have been performed. In the present clinical prospective study of 86 patients we have compared Bepanthen cream with no topical ointment at all. The cream was applied on randomly selected parts of treatment fields in laryngeal and breast cancer patients, and so each patient acted as his own control. Seven patients were widthdrawn from analysis. Scoring of skin reactions in 16 laryngeal and 63 breast cancer patients was performed without knowledge of which are that had been given cream or not. Endpoints were a modified skin reaction grading according to EORTC/RTOG, and itching/apin in treated fields. The study did not indicate any clinically important benefits of using Bepanthen cream for ameliorating radiogenic skin reactions under the conditions applied. (orig.).

  17. Skin treatment with bepanthen cream versus no cream during radiotherapy--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løkkevik, E; Skovlund, E; Reitan, J B; Hannisdal, E; Tanum, G

    1996-01-01

    In several radiotherapy departments, dexpanthenol cream (Bepanthen 'Roche') has been used extensively to ameliorate acute radiotherapy skin reactions. The evidence base for this practice is obscure as no randomized trials have been performed. In the present clinical prospective study of 86 patients we have compared Bepanthen cream with no topical ointment at all. The cream was applied on randomly selected parts of treatment fields in laryngeal and breast cancer patients, and so each patient acted as his own control. Seven patients were withdrawn from analysis. Scoring of skin reactions in 16 laryngeal and 63 breast cancer patients was performed without knowledge of which area that had been given cream or not. Endpoints were a modified skin reaction grading according to EORTC/RTOG, and itching/pain in treated fields. The study did not indicate any clinically important benefits of using Bepanthen cream for ameliorating radiogenic skin reactions under the conditions applied.

  18. Skin Cancer Cream Linked to 5 Dog Deaths:

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163145.html Skin Cancer Cream Linked to 5 Dog Deaths: FDA Even ingesting ... have died from exposure to a skin cancer cream prescribed for people, according to the U.S. Food ...

  19. Release and antimicrobial activity of silver sulphadiazine from different creams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saene, J.J.M.; Trooster, J.F.G.; Meulenhoff, A.M.C.; Lerk, C.F.; Bult, A.

    1987-01-01

    The release and antimicrobial activity of silver sulphadiazine from five different creams were studied: unguentum emulsilicans aquosum, unguentum hydrophy. licum non ionogenicum, paraffin cream (15 per cent), a homemade preparation and a commercially available preparation (Flamazine). A diffusion ce

  20. Modelling sea ice dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Jens; Kleine, Eckhard

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice remains one of the frontiers of ocean modelling and is of vital importance for the correct forecasts of the northern oceans. At large scale, it is commonly considered a continuous medium whose dynamics is modelled in terms of continuum mechanics. Its specifics are a matter of constitutive behaviour which may be characterised as rigid-plastic. The new developed sea ice dynamic module bases on general principles and follows a systematic approach to the problem. Both drift field and stress field are modelled by a variational property. Rigidity is treated by Lagrangian relaxation. Thus one is led to a sensible numerical method. Modelling fast ice remains to be a challenge. It is understood that ridging and the formation of grounded ice keels plays a role in the process. The ice dynamic model includes a parameterisation of the stress associated with grounded ice keels. Shear against the grounded bottom contact might lead to plastic deformation and the loss of integrity. The numerical scheme involves a potentially large system of linear equations which is solved by pre-conditioned iteration. The entire algorithm consists of several components which result from decomposing the problem. The algorithm has been implemented and tested in practice.

  1. Microbiological Contamination of Cosmetic Creams in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshtvarz, M. (Msc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Transmission of pathogens by cosmetics is one of the major health complications. Direct contact with contaminated non-standard cosmetics can have irreparable side effects for the consumers. Thus, the evaluation of microbial contamination in cosmetic products is important. The aim of this study was to assess the microbiological contamination of one of frequently used cream. Material and Methods: In the present study, 135 samples of a special moisturizing cream were randomly selected from pharmacies in Tehran. The microbial contamination assessment, sampling and culturing method were based on the protocol (No.3978 of Iranian Institute of Standard and Industrial Research. Results: sixty-two (46% out of 135 samples were contaminated. The highest and lowest contaminations observed were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the high contamination rate of cosmetic creams, we recommend extremely monitoring and controlling these products by health centers. Keywords: Cosmetics, Microbial Contamination, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

  2. Calibration of the CREAM-I calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Y S; Bagliesi, M G; Bigongiari, G; Ganel, O; Han, J H; Jeon, J A; Kim, K C; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinin, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Nam, S; Park, I H; Park, N H; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Wu, J; Yang, J; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) calorimeter is designed to measure the spectra of cosmic-ray particles over the energy range from ~10^11 eV to ~10^15 eV. Its first flight as part of the CREAM-I balloon-borne payload in Antarctica during the 2004/05 season resulted in a recordbreaking 42 days of exposure. Calorimeter calibration using various beam test data will be discussed in an attempt to assess the uncertainties of the energy measurements.

  3. 78 FR 50420 - Determination That LIDEX (fluocinonide) Cream and LIDEX-E (fluocinonide) Cream and Nine Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That LIDEX (fluocinonide) Cream and LIDEX-E (fluocinonide) Cream and Nine Other Drug Products Were Not Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or... NDA 016908 LIDEX (fluocinonide) Cream; Topical, Medicis Pharmaceutical Corp., 7720 0.05%,....

  4. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known...... as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events would add to our knowledge of the climatic system and – hopefully – enable better forecasts. Likewise, to forecast possible future sea level rise it is crucial to correctly model the large ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica. This project is divided into two parts...

  5. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  6. Develop a New De-freckle Cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new de-freckle cream was developed based on the formation principle.Vitamin C and β-CD were used as its component.Both of sense organ and physics-chemical indexes are ideal.The clinical test had showed a good effect on the sufferers.

  7. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  8. Determination of ultraviolet filter activity on coconut oil cosmetic cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyati, Eni

    2017-08-01

    A research on determination of ultraviolet (UV) filter activity of cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material has been done. The cream was made by mixing the oil phase (coconut oil, stearic acid, lanolin and cetyl alcohol) at 70°C and the water phase (glycerin, aquadest and triethanolamine) at 70°C, while stirring until reached a temperature of 35°C. It was made also a cream with inorganic sunscreen TiO2 and organic sunscreen benzophenone-3 as a comparison. To study the UV filter activity, each cream was determined the UV absorption using UV spectrophotometer. The results show that cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material absorbs UV rays in the region of UV-C, whereas the cream with TiO2 absorbs the UV rays from UV-C to UV-A and cream with benzophenone-3 absorbs the UV rays from UV-B to UV-A region. This means that, the cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material has an activity as UV-C filter. If this cream is expected to have an activity as a sunscreen, it must be added an inorganic or organic sunscreen or a mixture of both as an active materials.

  9. Comparação entre os métodos rápidos SimplateR TPC- CI e PetrifilmR AC e os métodos convencionais de contagem em placas para a enumeração de aeróbios mesófilos em sorvetes Comparasion of SimplateR test and Petrifilm with plate count agar method for detection and enumeration of bacteria in ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Souza Sant'ana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A contagem de aeróbios mesófilos ou contagem padrão em placas em um produto alimentício reflete a qualidade da matéria-prima, bem como as condições de processamento, manuseio e estocagem. O método de contagem em placas tradicionais requer 48h de incubação para a posterior leitura dos resultados. Comparou-se dois métodos que parecem ser uma boa alternativa para a contagem padrão em placas: SimplateR TPC-CI e PetrifilmR AC. Também avaliou-se a capacidade inibitória do 2, 3, 5 cloreto de trifeniltetrazólio quando adicionado ao Agar Plate Count. Este corante é incolor na forma oxidada e vermelho quando reduzido pelos microrganismos, devido à formação de formazano. O coe-ficiente de correlação obtido, através de estudos conduzidos com 60 amostras de sorvetes, entre 0,866-0,979 indicou uma equivalente sensibilidade dos métodos testados. Somente a contagem padrão em placas com TTC diferiu signicativamente da contagem padrão em placas.The mesophilic aerobic plate count or standard plate count (SPC of fresh food product reflects conditions of raw product quality, processing, handling and storage. Current standard methods require a 48h incubation period to obtain the results. Two rapid alterantive methods: SimplateTM TPC-CI and PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC Plate were compared to standard methods. Also, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of 2, 3, 5 triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC when added to Plate Count Agar. This dye is colorless in the oxidized form and red when reduced by microorganisms, due to the formation of formazan. Sixty ice cream samples were used in this study to obtain correlation coefficients, which ranged from 0.866-0.979, indicating equivalent sensitivities to existing methods. Only plate count with TTC differed significantly from the standard plate count.

  10. From CREAM to ISS-CREAM: A Next Step in the Direct Measurement of Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelaszek, David; Iss-Cream Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) Experiment has carried out six successful ?ights around the continent of Antarctica for a total exposure of over 160 days. The CREAM Data Acquisition (CDAQ) software system, utilized on all six balloon missions, is a crucial component of the CREAM instrument that facilitates data-taking, monitoring, commanding and calibration of the entire apparatus. Currently, a CREAM payload is being developed for integration on the International Space Station (ISS) in the spring of 2015. The shift from a balloon-borne experiment to a space mission required numerous hardware modifications and introduces a new command and data handling environment. New operational considerations are also needed to accommodate a multi-year mission. These hardware, environmental and operational modifications must be accommodated in CDAQ. The nature of these modifications and how they are reflected in the CDAQ software are discussed here. This work was supported by NASA Headquarters under the NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship Program-Grant NNX12AL57H, NASA Grant NNX11AC52G and their predecessors.

  11. The effect of vaginal cream containing ginger in users of clotrimazole vaginal cream on vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanian, Sheida; Khalili, Sima; Lorigooini, Zahra; Malekpour, Afsaneh; Heidari-Soureshjani, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most common infections of the genital tract in women that causes many complications. Therefore, we examined the clinical effect of ginger cream along with clotrimazole compared to vaginal clotrimazole alone in this study. This double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 67 women admitted to the Gynecology Clinic of Hajar Hospital with vaginal candidiasis. The patients were divided randomly into two groups of 33 and 34 people. The diagnosis was made according to clinical symptoms, wet smear, and culture. Ginger-clotrimazole vaginal cream 1% and clotrimazole vaginal cream 1% were administered to groups 1 and 2, respectively, once a day for 7 days and therapeutic effects and symptoms were evaluated in readmission. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 22, t-test and Chi-square. The mean value of variables itching (P > 0.05), burning (P > 0.05), and cheesy secretion (P cream containing ginger and clotrimazole 1% was more effective and may be more useful than the clotrimazole to treat vaginal candidiasis.

  12. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  13. Ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Ice cores from Antarctica, from Greenland, and from a number of smaller glaciers around the world yield a wealth of information on past climates and environments. Ice cores offer unique records on past temperatures, atmospheric composition (including greenhouse gases), volcanism, solar activity......, dustiness, and biomass burning, among others. In Antarctica, ice cores extend back more than 800,000 years before present (Jouzel et al. 2007), whereas. Greenland ice cores cover the last 130,000 years...

  14. Ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Ice cores from Antarctica, from Greenland, and from a number of smaller glaciers around the world yield a wealth of information on past climates and environments. Ice cores offer unique records on past temperatures, atmospheric composition (including greenhouse gases), volcanism, solar activity......, dustiness, and biomass burning, among others. In Antarctica, ice cores extend back more than 800,000 years before present (Jouzel et al. 2007), whereas. Greenland ice cores cover the last 130,000 years...

  15. Mercury poisoning associated with a Mexican beauty cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, M M; Smolinski, M S; Maroufi, A; Hasty, B W; Gilliss, D L; Boulanger, L L; Balluz, L S; Dutton, R J

    2000-07-01

    To describe demographic characteristics, patterns of use, and symptoms associated with mercury poisoning among persons who used a Mexican beauty cream containing mercurous chloride and to estimate the prevalence of cream use in Texas near the Mexico border. Case series and cross-sectional survey. Border communities of Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. Persons who used the cream and contacted a health department in response to announcements about the cream and households that participated in the Survey of Health and Environmental Conditions in Texas Border Counties and Colonias, 1997. Urine mercury concentrations, self-reported symptoms, and prevalence of cream use among households. Of 330 cream users who contacted their health department, 96% were women, and 95% were Hispanic. The mean urine mercury concentration was 146.7 microg/L (reference range : 0-20 microg/L). In 5% of 2,194 randomly selected Texas households near the Mexico border, at least 1 person had used "Crema de Belleza-Manning" (Laboratorios Vida Natural, S.A., Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico) in the previous year. Most cream users had increased urine mercury concentrations. Cream use was common in Texas near the Mexico border. Physicians should consider toxicity in patients with neurologic symptoms of unclear cause and use public health departments when investigating unusual illnesses.

  16. 7 CFR 1030.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1030.16 Section 1030.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  17. 7 CFR 1001.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1001.16 Section 1001.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1001.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  18. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  19. 7 CFR 1126.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1126.16 Section 1126.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1126.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  20. 7 CFR 1033.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1033.16 Section 1033.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1033.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  1. 7 CFR 1007.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1007.16 Section 1007.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1007.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  2. 7 CFR 1131.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1131.16 Section 1131.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1131.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  3. 7 CFR 1006.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1006.16 Section 1006.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1006.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  4. 7 CFR 1005.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1005.16 Section 1005.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  5. 21 CFR 524.981a - Fluocinolone acetonide cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fluocinolone acetonide cream. 524.981a Section 524.981a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Fluocinolone acetonide cream. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 0.025 percent fluocinolone acetonide....

  6. 7 CFR 1124.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1124.16 Section 1124.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  7. 7 CFR 1032.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1032.16 Section 1032.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1032.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  8. Studying of consumer features of the enriched soured cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Zharykbasova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the technology and performance quality of a new type of cream-enriched products of plant origin. Dietary fiber contained in a new form of sour cream cleanses the body of toxic elements, increases the immunity of a person.

  9. Cream Soda. The rhythm of everyday life

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this work I will focus my attention on a specific manga, Cream Soda by Adachi Mitsuru (1996). As suggested by Eco (1999), I will analyze this single work keeping in mind that it belongs to a medium and some genre practiced through this medium, but focusing my attention on the specific syntax of the speech of Adachi. This means that in this work I won’t talk about manga in general or in itself, at least, not in the foreground and in the first instance, but I will consider Adachi’s specific ...

  10. Crystallization mechanisms in cream during ripening and initial butter churning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldo, Patrizia; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Wiking, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The temperature treatment of cream is the time-consuming step in butter production. A better understanding of the mechanisms leading to partial coalescence, such as fat crystallization during ripening and churning of the cream, will contribute to optimization of the production process. In this study, ripening and churning of cream were performed in a rheometer cell and the mechanisms of cream crystallization during churning of the cream, including the effect of ripening time, were investigated to understand how churning time and partial coalescence are affected. Crystallization mechanisms were studied as function of time by differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance and by X-ray scattering. Microstructure formation was investigated by small deformation rheology and static light scattering. The study demonstrated that viscosity measurements can be used to detect phase inversion of the emulsion during churning of the cream in a rheometer cell. Longer ripening time (e.g., 5h vs. 0 h) resulted in larger butter grains (91 vs. 52 µm), higher viscosity (5.3 vs. 1.3 Pa · s), and solid fat content (41 vs. 13%). Both ripening and churning time had an effect on the thermal behavior of the cream. Despite the increase in solid fat content, no further changes in crystal polymorphism and in melting behavior were observed after 1h of ripening and after churning. The churning time significantly decreased after 0.5h of ripening, from 22.9 min for the cream where no ripening was applied to 16.23 min. Therefore, the crystallization state that promotes partial coalescence (i.e., aggregation of butter grains) is obtained within the first hour of cream ripening at 10 °C. The present study adds knowledge on the fundamental processes of crystallization and polymorphism of milk fat occurring during ripening and churning of cream. In addition, the dairy industry will benefit from these insights on the optimization of butter manufacturing.

  11. Ice shedding from overhead electrical lines by mechanical breaking : a ductile model for viscoplastic behaviour of atmospheric ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskandarian, M.

    2005-07-01

    The mechanical characteristics of power line components need improvement in order to avoid power failures during severe ice storms. Atmospheric icing of overhead power lines creates electrical and mechanical problems in the transmission network. The successful development of anti-icing and de-icing techniques requires good knowledge of the adherence and bulk strength characteristics of atmospheric ice. This study presented a model for viscoplastic behaviour of porous atmospheric ice in the ductile region. The model was then modified to consider the effects of cracking activities to predict the material behaviour in transition and brittle regions. The following general methodologies were followed in this research for describing the ductile behaviour of porous atmospheric ice: instantaneous elastic strain; delayed viscoelastic strain; and, permanent plastic strain. The scientific contributions of this study include a classification of atmospheric ice structure on power lines on the basis of its grain shape and c-axis orientation. This thesis also presented 3 computer codes in Maple Mathematical Program for determining the elastic moduli of various types of freshwater ice; a poroelastic model for modifying the elastic moduli of porous atmospheric ice; a cap-model plasticity for various types of porous atmospheric ice; new freshwater ice yield envelopes in ductile regions that take porosity into account by means of an elliptical moving cap; and a newly developed user-defined material subroutine for viscoplastic behaviour of atmospheric ice in ductile region including the poroelastic, viscoelastic, and cap-model plasticity.

  12. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  13. The treatment of melasma by silymarin cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaei Tagreed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melasma is an acquired increased pigmentation of the skin characterized by symmetrical and confluent grey-brown patches usually on the areas of the face exposed to the sun. Silymarin strongly prevents photocarcinogenesis, and significantly prevented melanin production. The objectives of this study were the assessment of safety and efficacy of topical Silymain (SM cream in a double-blind placebo controlled study for treatment of melasma patients. Methods Experimentally on 24 Albino rabbits were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. [A] No treatment, [B] received placebo, [C] treated with SM cream (0.1, & [D] treated by SM (0.2, were applied topically before UV sun light exposure for 30 days, assessed clinically & tissue pathology. Clinically on 96 adults diagnosed with melasma randomized to three equal groups to receive one of the tested drugs applied twice daily for 4 weeks, evaluated by the response; lesion size, melasma area and severity index score, Physician global assessment, and subjective assessment. Results The Clinical and histopathology observations were reduced significantly in SM groups. Clinically; all patients showed significant excellent pigment improvement & lesion size reduction with SM treatments from the 1st week. All patients were fully satisfied 100%. No side effects were observed. Conclusions Silymarin showed tremendous improvement of melasma in a dose-dependent manner, and was effective in prevention of skin damage caused by U.V. sunlight. It is a safe new candidate effective treatment for melasma. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12612000602820

  14. The treatment of melasma by silymarin cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Melasma is an acquired increased pigmentation of the skin characterized by symmetrical and confluent grey-brown patches usually on the areas of the face exposed to the sun. Silymarin strongly prevents photocarcinogenesis, and significantly prevented melanin production. The objectives of this study were the assessment of safety and efficacy of topical Silymain (SM) cream in a double-blind placebo controlled study for treatment of melasma patients. Methods Experimentally on 24 Albino rabbits were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. [A] No treatment, [B] received placebo, [C] treated with SM cream (0.1), & [D] treated by SM (0.2), were applied topically before UV sun light exposure for 30 days, assessed clinically & tissue pathology. Clinically on 96 adults diagnosed with melasma randomized to three equal groups to receive one of the tested drugs applied twice daily for 4 weeks, evaluated by the response; lesion size, melasma area and severity index score, Physician global assessment, and subjective assessment. Results The Clinical and histopathology observations were reduced significantly in SM groups. Clinically; all patients showed significant excellent pigment improvement & lesion size reduction with SM treatments from the 1st week. All patients were fully satisfied 100%. No side effects were observed. Conclusions Silymarin showed tremendous improvement of melasma in a dose-dependent manner, and was effective in prevention of skin damage caused by U.V. sunlight. It is a safe new candidate effective treatment for melasma. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12612000602820 PMID:23031632

  15. CICE, The Los Alamos Sea Ice Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-12

    The Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) is the result of an effort to develop a computationally efficient sea ice component for a fully coupled atmosphere–land–ocean–ice global climate model. It was originally designed to be compatible with the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), an ocean circulation model developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use on massively parallel computers. CICE has several interacting components: a vertical thermodynamic model that computes local growth rates of snow and ice due to vertical conductive, radiative and turbulent fluxes, along with snowfall; an elastic-viscous-plastic model of ice dynamics, which predicts the velocity field of the ice pack based on a model of the material strength of the ice; an incremental remapping transport model that describes horizontal advection of the areal concentration, ice and snow volume and other state variables; and a ridging parameterization that transfers ice among thickness categories based on energetic balances and rates of strain. It also includes a biogeochemical model that describes evolution of the ice ecosystem. The CICE sea ice model is used for climate research as one component of complex global earth system models that include atmosphere, land, ocean and biogeochemistry components. It is also used for operational sea ice forecasting in the polar regions and in numerical weather prediction models.

  16. Skin protection creams in medical settings: successful or evil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, Emmanuelle; Macarenko, Elena; Denooz, Raphaël; Charlier, Corinne; Piérard, Gérald E

    2008-07-25

    Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection creams are commonly employed, but some fail to afford protection against a variety of xenobiotics. In this study, two skin protection creams were assayed comparatively looking for a protective effect if any against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in medical settings. Corneosurfametry and corneoxenometry are two in vitro bioessays which were selected for their good reproducibility, sensitivity and ease of use. A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test followed by the Dunn test was realized to compare series of data obtained. Significant differences in efficacy were obtained between the two assayed skin protection creams. One of the two tested creams showed a real protective effect against mild irritants, but the other tested cream presented an irritant potential in its application with mild irritants. The differences observed for the two tested skin protection creams were probably due to their galenic composition and their possible interactions with the offending products. As a result, the present in vitro bioassays showed contrasted effects of the creams corresponding to either a protective or an irritant effect on human stratum corneum.

  17. Skin protection creams in medical settings: successful or evil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlier Corinne

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection creams are commonly employed, but some fail to afford protection against a variety of xenobiotics. In this study, two skin protection creams were assayed comparatively looking for a protective effect if any against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in medical settings. Methods Corneosurfametry and corneoxenometry are two in vitro bioessays which were selected for their good reproducibility, sensitivity and ease of use. A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test followed by the Dunn test was realized to compare series of data obtained. Results Significant differences in efficacy were obtained between the two assayed skin protection creams. One of the two tested creams showed a real protective effect against mild irritants, but the other tested cream presented an irritant potential in its application with mild irritants. Conclusion The differences observed for the two tested skin protection creams were probably due to their galenic composition and their possible interactions with the offending products. As a result, the present in vitro bioassays showed contrasted effects of the creams corresponding to either a protective or an irritant effect on human stratum corneum.

  18. Influence of liposomal drug entrapment on the performance of corticosteroid creams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao G

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin blanching and clinical efficacy of a liposomally entrapped Triamcinolone acetonide (TRMA cream was compared with that of the conventional TRMA cream in healthy human volunteers and eczema patients respectively. Both the creams showed equal efficacy in eczema patients. A significant reduction in the skin blanching response with the liposomal TRMA cream as compared to the conventional TRMA cream suggests a decrease in the systemic absorption of the corticosteroid with the former.

  19. Processing effects on physicochemical properties of creams formulated with modified milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, J C; Duncan, S E; Eigel, W N; Waterman, K M

    2005-04-01

    Type of thermal process [high temperature, short time pasteurization (HTST) or ultra-high temperature pasteurization (UHT)] and homogenization sequence (before or after pasteurization) were examined for influence on the physicochemical properties of natural cream (20% milk fat) and creams formulated with 20% low-melt, fractionated butteroil emulsified with skim milk, or buttermilk and butter-derived aqueous phase. Homogenization sequence influenced physicochemical makeup of the creams. Creams homogenized before pasteurization contained more milk fat surface material, higher phospholipid levels, and less protein at the milk fat interface than creams homogenized after pasteurization. Phosphodiesterase I activity was higher (relative to protein on lipid globule surface) when cream was homogenized before pasteurization. Creams formulated with skim milk and modified milk fat had relatively more phospholipid adsorbed at the milk fat interface. Ultra-high-temperature-pasteurized natural and reformulated creams were higher in viscosity at all shear rates investigated compared with HTST-pasteurized creams. High-temperature, short time-pasteurized natural cream was more viscous than HTST-pasteurized reformulated creams at most shear rates investigated. High-temperature, short time-pasteurized creams had better emulsion stability than UHT-pasteurized creams. Cream formulated with buttermilk had creaming stability most comparable to natural cream, and cream formulated with skim milk and modified butteroil was least stable to creaming. Most creams feathered in a pH range of 5.00 to 5.20, indicating that they were moderately stable to slightly unstable emulsions. All processing sequences yielded creams within sensory specifications with the exception of treatments homogenized before UHT pasteurization and skim milk formulations homogenized after UHT pasteurization.

  20. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  1. Mixing sweet cream buttermilk with whole milk to produce cream cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrami Masoud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Buttermilk is an important by-product of the manufacture of butter. Sweet-cream buttermilk (SCBM is similar in composition to skim milk, except for its high phospholipid and milk fat globular membrane protein content. The main objective of this investigation was to produce optimum quality cream cheese by replacing whole milk with different proportions of SCBM (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50%. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05 between the chemical and organoleptic properties of the samples. As the percentage of SCBM increased, the chemical composition of total solids, fat, protein, fat in dry matter (FDM and ash of cheese milk decreased significantly, leading to a softer, moister curd. Samples prepared with more than 25% SCBM were not acceptable to the taste panel. The cream cheeses prepared using 25% and 30% SCBM had the highest yields. Total solids and FDM were strong predictors of cheese yield (r2 ≈ 0.589. The results also showed that the best range for replacement using SCBM is 20–25%.

  2. Plastic bronchitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics...

  3. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  4. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  5. Dry ice blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, Jeffrey M.

    1992-04-01

    As legal and societal pressures against the use of hazardous waste generating materials has increased, so has the motivation to find safe, effective, and permanent replacements. Dry ice blasting is a technology which uses CO2 pellets as a blasting medium. The use of CO2 for cleaning and stripping operations offers potential for significant environmental, safety, and productivity improvements over grit blasting, plastic media blasting, and chemical solvent cleaning. Because CO2 pellets break up and sublime upon impact, there is no expended media to dispose of. Unlike grit or plastic media blasting which produce large quantities of expended media, the only waste produced by CO2 blasting is the material removed. The quantity of hazardous waste produced, and thus the cost of hazardous waste disposal is significantly reduced.

  6. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  7. Next Generation TRD for CREAM Using Gas Straw Tubes and Foam Radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinin, A.; Ahn, H.S.; Fedin, O.; Ganel, O.; Han, J.H.; Kim, C.H.; Kim, K.C.; Lee, M.H.; Lutz, L.; Seo, E.S.; Walpole, P.; Wu, J.; Yoo, J.H.; Yoon, Y.S.; Zinn, S.Y.

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment is designed to investigate the source, propagation and acceleration mechanism of high energy cosmic-ray nuclei, by directly measuring their energy and charge. Incorporating a transition radiation detector (TRD) provides an energy measurement complementary to the calorimeter, as well as additional track reconstruction capability. The next generation CREAM TRD is designed with 4 mm straw tubes to greatly improve tracking over the previous 20 mm tube design, thereby enhancing charge identification in the silicon charge detector (SCD). Plastic foam provides a weight-efficient radiator that doubles as a mechanical support for the straw layers. This design provides a compact, robust, reliable, low density detector to measure incident nucleus energy for 3 < Z < 30 nuclei in the Lorentz gamma factor range of 102-105. This paper discusses the new TRD design and the low power front end electronics used to achieve the large dynamic range required. Beam test results of a prototype TRD are also reported.

  8. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  9. Anti-Pruritic Efficacy of Itch Relief Lotion and Cream in Patients With Atopic History: Comparison With Hydrocortisone Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirwas, Matthew J; Barkovic, Sylvia

    2017-03-01

    Objective: To evaluate the speed of onset and duration of relief of two ceramide-containing formulations with 1% pramoxine hydroxide (CeraVe® Itch Relief Lotion and Cream,Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC, Irvine, CA) in patients with atopic history, including those with active flare and the comparative efficacy of CeraVe Itch Relief Cream to hydrocortisone 1% cream and night-time itch relief with continued use. Two double-blind, split-body, randomized studies in 66 male and female subjects, ages 11+ years, with history of atopic dermatitis (AD). Itch severity was assessed on a 10-point scale (where 0=none and 7-9=severe). Study one: single applications of ceramide-containing lotion or cream incorporating 1% pramoxine hydrochloride applied to opposite sides of the body. Study two (part 1): single application of ceramide-containing cream or hydrocortisone 1% cream. Study two (part 2): ceramide-containing pramoxine cream applied up to 4 times in a 24-hour period, over the course of 6 days. Itch relief assessed at baseline, 2, and 5 minutes, 1 (2 in study two), 4, and 8 hours post-application. Efficacy and aesthetic attributes were assessed at the same timepoints. Clinical evaluation of performance and mildness of the ceramide-containing 1% pramoxine hydrochloride cream at day 6 (study two, part 2). Study one: Relief of itching was rapid and long-lasting with significant reductions in severity after 2 minutes, and continued improvement over the 8 hour test period (P less than .001 versus baseline at all timepoints). Mean itch severity scores reduced progressively from 6 (moderate) at baseline to 1-2 (mild) after 8 hours, with all patients experiencing relief from itching. Rapid and long-lasting relief to dry, itchy, irritated skin was confirmed through patient self-assessment. Both lotion and cream formulations were non-greasy, absorbed quickly and easily, and were non-irritating. Study two: Ceramide-containing cream incorporating 1% pramoxine hydrochloride

  10. Levels of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and total phthalate esters in milk, cream, butter and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, M; Read, W A; Castle, L; Gilbert, J

    1994-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and total phthalate ester plasticizer levels were determined in milk, cream, butter and cheese samples from a variety of sources from three European countries (UK, Norway and Spain). Samples of milk (from Norway) obtained at various stages during collection, transportation and packaging operations showed no apparent trends in phthalate contamination with total phthalate levels (expressed as DEHP equivalents) in the raw milk of between 0.12 and 0.28 mg/kg. On processing the DEHP was concentrated in the cream at levels up to 1.93 mg/kg, whereas low fat milk contained from cheese, butter and other fatty products varied considerably in their levels of contamination, the highest being cheese samples containing 17 mg/kg of DEHP and 114 mg/kg total phthalate. However, the majority of samples contained 0.6-3.0 mg/kg DEHP and 4-20 mg/kg total phthalate. UK cream samples contained levels of 0.2-2.7 mg/kg DEHP and 1.8-19.0 mg/kg total phthalate. The level found in these products was too high to have resulted solely from milk by concentration in the fat phase and must therefore have arisen in other ways.

  11. Clinical Observation on Treating 2 % Hydroquinone Cream with Chloasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENBin; BIZhigang

    2005-01-01

    Hydroquinone exerts rather good discoloring effects in treatment of some pigmetary dermatosis. 2% hydroquinone cream developed by department of preparation in our hospital was applied in our department to treat pigmetary dermatosis like chloasma. The summary was as followed:

  12. Studies on cleaning validation for a cream and ointment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The worst case product of the line chosen was a cream containing three practically insoluble ingredients: .... products. The validation process involved three consecutive batches of the worst-case product. The facility ..... Approach.

  13. Moisturizing effect of stable cream containing Crocus sativus extracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akhtar, Naveed; Khan, Haji Muhammad-Shoaib; Ashraf, Shoaib; Mohammad, Imran Shair; Saqib, Najam-us; Bashir, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    .... These formulations (Creams) were applied on the cheeks of human volunteers for 8week period. To evaluate any effect produced by these formulations different skin parameters were monitored every week...

  14. Tetracaine gel vs EMLA cream for percutaneous anaesthesia in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømsing, Janne; Henneberg, S W; Walther-Larsen, S

    1999-01-01

    We have evaluated the anaesthetic effect of tetracaine gel 1 g, applied for 45 min, compared with EMLA cream 2 g, applied for 60 min, in a randomized, double-blind study in 60 children aged 3-15 yr. Venous cannulation was performed 15 min after removal of the EMLA cream (n = 20) and tetracaine gel...... no pain compared with only 10% in the EMLA group. Only minor adverse effects were observed. We conclude that tetracaine gel provided effective, rapid, long-lasting and safe local anaesthesia, and was significantly better than EMLA cream in reducing pain during venous cannulation in children using...... (n = 20). Cannulation was performed up to 215 min after removal of the tetracaine gel in another 20 patients. Significantly lower pain scores were recorded by the children treated with tetracaine gel compared with EMLA cream (P

  15. Repellent Action of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seed Oil Cream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    potential of neem seed oil cream as mosquito repellent particularly at higher ... In the present study, neem Seed oil extracted from Azadirachta indica plant .... repellency was in two phases, first to determine the repellency properties of.

  16. Trace elements content in cheese, cream and butter

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Bilandžić; Marija Sedak; Maja Đokić; Đurđica Božić; Božica Solomun Kolanović; Ivana Varenina

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements were determined in five types of cheese, cream and butter using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. In cheese samples trace elements were measured as follows (mg/kg): Al 0.01-3.93, Co

  17. Tetracaine gel vs EMLA cream for percutaneous anaesthesia in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømsing, Janne; Henneberg, S W; Walther-Larsen, S

    1999-01-01

    We have evaluated the anaesthetic effect of tetracaine gel 1 g, applied for 45 min, compared with EMLA cream 2 g, applied for 60 min, in a randomized, double-blind study in 60 children aged 3-15 yr. Venous cannulation was performed 15 min after removal of the EMLA cream (n = 20) and tetracaine gel...... (n = 20). Cannulation was performed up to 215 min after removal of the tetracaine gel in another 20 patients. Significantly lower pain scores were recorded by the children treated with tetracaine gel compared with EMLA cream (P ... no pain compared with only 10% in the EMLA group. Only minor adverse effects were observed. We conclude that tetracaine gel provided effective, rapid, long-lasting and safe local anaesthesia, and was significantly better than EMLA cream in reducing pain during venous cannulation in children using...

  18. Stress and deformation characteristics of sea ice in a high resolution numerical sea ice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heorton, Harry; Feltham, Daniel; Tsamados, Michel

    2017-04-01

    The drift and deformation of sea ice floating on the polar oceans is due to the applied wind and ocean currents. The deformations of sea ice over ocean basin length scales have observable patterns; cracks and leads in satellite images and within the velocity fields generated from floe tracking. In a climate sea ice model the deformation of sea ice over ocean basin length scales is modelled using a rheology that represents the relationship between stresses and deformation within the sea ice cover. Here we investigate the link between observable deformation characteristics and the underlying internal sea ice stresses and force balance using the Los Alamos numerical sea ice climate model. In order to mimic laboratory experiments on the deformation of small cubes of sea ice we have developed an idealised square domain that tests the model response at spatial resolutions of up to 500m. We use the Elastic Anisotropic Plastic and Elastic Viscous Plastic rheologies, comparing their stability over varying resolutions and time scales. Sea ice within the domain is forced by idealised winds in order to compare the confinement of wind stresses and internal sea ice stresses. We document the characteristic deformation patterns of convergent, divergent and rotating stress states.

  19. Preferred crystallographic orientation in the ice I ← II transformation and the flow of ice II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K.; Wenk, H.-R.; Durham, W.B.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    The preferred crystallographic orientation developed during the ice I ← II transformation and during the plastic flow of ice II was measured in polycrystalline deuterium oxide (D2O) specimens using low-temperature neutron diffraction. Samples partially transformed from ice I to II under a non-hydrostatic stress developed a preferred crystallographic orientation in the ice II. Samples of pure ice II transformed from ice I under a hydrostatic stress and then when compressed axially, developed a strong preferred orientation of compression axes parallel to (1010). A match to the observed preferred orientation using the viscoplastic self-consistent theory was obtained only when (1010) [0001] was taken as the predominant slip system in ice II.

  20. Skin protection creams in medical settings: successful or evil?

    OpenAIRE

    Charlier Corinne; Denooz Raphaël; Macarenko Elena; Xhauflaire-Uhoda Emmanuelle; Piérard Gérald E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection creams are commonly employed, but some fail to afford protection against a variety of xenobiotics. In this study, two skin protection creams were assayed comparatively looking for a protective effect if any against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in medical setting...

  1. Skin protection creams in medical settings: successful or evil?

    OpenAIRE

    Charlier Corinne; Denooz Raphaël; Macarenko Elena; Xhauflaire-Uhoda Emmanuelle; Piérard Gérald E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection creams are commonly employed, but some fail to afford protection against a variety of xenobiotics. In this study, two skin protection creams were assayed comparatively looking for a protective effect if any against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in medical setting...

  2. Interstellar Ices

    CERN Document Server

    Boogert, A C A

    2003-01-01

    Currently ~36 different absorption bands have been detected in the infrared spectra of cold, dense interstellar and circumstellar environments. These are attributed to the vibrational transitions of ~17 different molecules frozen on dust grains. We review identification issues and summarize the techniques required to extract information on the physical and chemical evolution of these ices. Both laboratory simulations and line of sight studies are essential. Examples are given for ice bands observed toward high mass protostars, fields stars and recent work on ices in disks surrounding low mass protostars. A number of clear trends have emerged in recent years. One prominent ice component consists of an intimate mixture between H2O, CH3OH and CO2 molecules. Apparently a stable balance exists between low temperature hydrogenation and oxidation reactions on grain surfaces. In contrast, an equally prominent ice component, consisting almost entirely of CO, must have accreted directly from the gas phase. Thermal proc...

  3. Sensory characterization of virgin olive oil-based cosmetic creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Maria Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucia; Roascio, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    The influence of olive oil concentration and sensory profile on the odor of virgin olive oil-based cosmetic creams was studied. Four olive oils were selected on the basis of different intensities of positive and defective odor attributes: two extra virgin olive oils, one virgin olive oil, and one ordinary virgin olive oil. Thirty cosmetic creams were prepared, by both cold and hot processing methods, using each of the above oils at concentrations of 3%, 5%, and 10%, in addition to mineral oil controls. A trained sensory panel evaluated the fruitiness and defectiveness intensities in the odor of creams, using unstructured 10-cm scales ranging from "none at all" to "much." The fruity and defective attributes perceived in the odor of creams were significantly influenced by the sensory profile of the starting olive oil, oil concentration, and preparation method. Overall, these findings suggest that virgin olive oils of only slightly fruity odor may be conveniently used for the preparation of cold-processed cosmetic creams, whereas ordinary virgin olive oils appear to be suitable for the preparation of cosmetic creams only by hot processing of the emulsion at a low oil concentration.

  4. Development and characterization of rosin-based polymer and its application as a cream base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanorkar, V T; Gawande, R S; Gogte, B B; Dorle, A K

    2002-01-01

    The literature contains many references to the wide range of uses of rosin-based polymers, but little has appeared in the area of rosin-based polymers used as cream bases. Various rosin polymers based on glycerol, sorbitol, and pentaerythritol were prepared and screened for efficacy as cream bases. Among these polymers, polymer 2 (glycerol-based) is reported in the present study as it produced creams with a better stability and release profile as compared to other creams. The creams were formulated employing polymer 2 (P2) and Tween 60 as surfactants. The stability of the prepared creams, as well as the diclofenac diethylammonium release pattern, was investigated using particle size analysis, conductivity, relative dielectric constant, spreadability, and irritation potential measurement, and was compared with that of creams containing Tween 60 (RT) prepared in the laboratory. The release of the drug, diclofenac diethylammonium, was measured after eight hours and compared with a standard cream (RT) and a marketed cream (RM).

  5. Comparative characterisation of green tea and black tea cream: physicochemical and phytochemical nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaorong; Chen, Zhongzheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wei; Tang, Hao; Deng, Baibiao; Deng, Jian; Li, Bin

    2015-04-15

    Tea cream is prevalent in various types of tea, yet a comparison of the mechanism of creaming in different teas remains uncertain. Here, we compared physicochemical characteristics, phytochemical composition, and simulated digestive profiles of green tea and black tea cream, looking to exploit their concentration and structure based mechanisms and in vitro bioaccessibility. Green tea cream particles were roughly one order of magnitude larger than those of black tea in size. Moreover, creaming concentrations of catechins, proteins and methylxanthines of green tea were dramatically higher than black tea. As major creaming components, gallated catechins, theaflavins, thearubigins, theabrownines, proteins and methylxanthines also exhibited high creaming affinities. Green tea cream particles, which were completely destroyed by simulated digestion, had few impacts on digestive recoveries of catechins and methylxanthines. In comparison, black tea cream particles were more stable under mimicking digestion, and clarification remarkably decreased the in vitro bioaccessibility of catechins and methylxanthines.

  6. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  7. Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Randomised Pilot Study on the Efficacy of Milking Cream and a Homeopathic Complex Topical Cream on Diaper Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Pellow

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diaper dermatitis (DD is an acute inflammation of the skin in the diaper area and is the most common cutaneous disease among infants and children. Calendula officinalis, Atropa belladonna and Sulphuricum acidum are homeopathic remedies which have been purported to be beneficial in wound healing and conditions affecting the skin, however, to date, no research has been conducted on the use of these remedies for DD. The aim of this seven-day, double-blind, controlled pilot study was to assess the efficacy of milking cream and a homeopathic complex cream as topical treatments for DD. Forty children between the ages of three to 24 months with DD were recruited. The homeopathic complex cream (n= 20 or unmedicated milking cream (n = 20 was applied after every nappy change for seven days. Efficacy on the severity of symptoms and the percentage of area affected was assessed by means of the 4-Point Grading Scale and the Modified Lund and Browder Charts respectively, on days 1, 2, 4 and 7. The results revealed that both groups showed statistically-significant improvements on rash severity and the percentage of area affected between consecutive visits, as well as over the entire research study period. Trends indicated that the treatment group had a faster resolution of symptoms and outperformed the control in certain affected body regions. Preliminary findings suggest that both milking cream and the homeopathic complex cream may be effective alternative treatment options for DD, and further investigation is warranted.

  9. Calorie reduction of chocolate ganache through substitution of whipped cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate has been around for 3,000 years and is loved by many people for as long as its history. However, chocolate is classified as a high calorie food due to the high fat and sugar contents. These contents have negative effects on health, such as obesity, so some people have concerns about chocolate. Nevertheless, it has attracted more attention recently due to functional ingredients such as polyphenols and flavonoids of cacao, which is a main component of chocolate. This study was conducted to reduce the fat content in chocolate, which is the biggest disadvantage of chocolate. We investigated the physicochemical properties of different kinds of chocolate ganache made of whipped cream, milk, vegetable cream, and coconut milk. The whipped cream chocolate ganache was considered as the control group. The added ingredients affected moisture, crude fat, sugar contents, hardness, and influenced every result of the tests performed. The whipped cream chocolate ganache with the lowest moisture and highest fat contents showed the same result (the lowest moisture contents and highest fat contents; p < 0.05 and resulted in average hardness. The vegetable cream chocolate ganache showed similar results to that of the whipped cream’s result above, except in the category of hardness. The vegetable cream chocolate ganache showed a high circumference, height, and hardness. Milk chocolate, with the highest moisture and lowest fat content, showed identical results with the whipped cream’s result. In circumference, height and hardness, milk chocolate ganache showed the highest circumference (p < 0.05, a low height, and a similar value to whipped cream, but coconut milk also showed low values of circumferences and hardness. Overall, the whipped cream chocolate ganache was the most preferred chocolate in the sensory test, but the coconut milk chocolate ganache was the softest chocolate among the cream replacements. Because of its low caloric content and

  10. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  11. Archimedean Ice

    CERN Document Server

    Eloranta, Kari

    2009-01-01

    The striking boundary dependency (the Arctic Circle phenomenon) exhibited in the ice model on the square lattice extends to other planar set-ups. We present these findings for the triangular and the Kagome lattices. Critical connectivity results guarantee that ice configurations can be generated using the simplest and most efficient local actions. Height functions are utilized throughout the analysis. At the end there is a surprise in store: on the remaining Archimedean lattice for which the ice model can be defined, the 3.4.6.4. lattice, the long range behavior is completely different from the other cases.

  12. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  13. Plastic zonnecellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggen, Marjolein

    1998-01-01

    De zonnecel van de toekomst is in de maak. Onderzoekers van uiteenlopend pluimage werken eendrachtig aan een plastic zonnecel. De basis is technisch gelegd met een optimale, door invallend licht veroorzaakte, vorming van ladingdragers binnen een composiet van polymeren en buckyballs. Nu is het zaak

  14. Kinetic Friction Coefficient of Ice,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    For the hardest ice tested (xi = 0.33 described by Rabinowicz (1965), where To is inter- mm, H, = 1525 kPa), the calculated values of a preted as...material with a low elastic pressures. The frictional force was measured at modulus ( Rabinowicz 1965). It has been observed the application point of...tion 10, pp. 8-16. Barnes, P. and D. Tabor (1966) Plastic flow and Rabinowicz , E. (1965) Friction and Wear of Mate- pressure melting in the deformation

  15. A randomized controlled pilot study comparing aqueous cream with a beeswax and herbal oil cream in the provision of relief from postburn pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Peter A; Wright, Kay; Webster, Anne; Steer, Matthew; Rudd, Michael; Doubrovsky, Anna; Gardner, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Postburn itch is reported to affect up to 87% of the burn population. Although treatments for postburn itch are multimodal, they remain consistently ineffective. However, recent anecdotal evidence from several outpatients at a tertiary referral hospital suggests that a cream combining beeswax and several herbal oils may be effective in the minimization of postburn itch. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of beeswax and herbal oil cream against the standard treatment of aqueous cream in the provision of relief from the symptoms of postburn itch. A randomized controlled trial compared two groups using a visual analog scale, frequency of cream application, itch recurrence after cream application, use of antipruritic medications, and sleep disturbance to determine the effect of itch severity and duration. Fifty-two participants were enrolled in the study (84% male) with a mean age of 35 years (SD = 16) and mean burn TBSA of 7.2% (SD = 7.7). Study results found that the beeswax and herbal oil cream reduce itch after application more frequently than aqueous cream (P = .001). In addition, when managed with beeswax and herbal oil cream, participants found that their itch recurred later (P ≤ .001) and their use of antipruritic medications was lower (P = .023). Findings of this study suggest beeswax and herbal oil cream to be more effective in the minimization of postburn itch than aqueous cream. Given this, a larger study examining the efficacy of beeswax and herbal oil cream appears warranted.

  16. Uncertainty in Ice Crystal Orientation Distributions in Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Michael; Waddington, Edwin

    2016-04-01

    Crystal-orientation fabrics in polar ice sheets have a strong influence on ice flow due to the plastic anisotropy of ice. Crystal orientations evolve primarily in response to applied strain, but are also affected by temperature, impurities, interactions with neighbors, and other factors. While the evolution of each ice crystal is physically deterministic, in limited samples, such as those from ice-core thin sections, measured samples are stochastic due to sampling error. Even in continuum representations from models, crystal orientation distribution functions (ODFs) can be treated as stochastic due to uncertainties in how they developed. Here, we present results on the statistics of crystal orientation fabrics. We show a first-order estimate of the sampling distribution of fabric eigenvalues and fabric eigenvectors from ice-core thin sections. We also analyze uncertainty in electron backscatter diffraction measurements. In addition to sampling error, the strain histories of fabrics are generally poorly constrained, and may have varied in unknown ways through time. Nearby layers in ice sheets can also experience different strain histories due to inherent variabilities such as transient flow, or differences in impurities. This means that the continuum ODF itself can be treated as stochastic, because it depends on an effectively-stochastic unknown strain-history. To explore this, we analyze the effects of strain and vorticity variability on the evolution of the continuum ice-crystal ODF. We recast Jeffery's equation for the evolution of the ODF as a stochastic differential equation, with vorticity and strain perturbed by Gaussian processes. From this, we run a Monte-Carlo ensemble to determine likely bounds of true continuum ODF variability in response to random perturbations of strain and vorticity.

  17. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  18. Comparative trial of Aloe vera/olive oil combination cream versus phenytoin cream in the treatment of chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Y; Izadi, M; Sayyadi, N; Rezaee, R; Jonaidi-Jafari, N; Beiraghdar, F; Zamani, A; Sahebkar, A

    2015-10-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant that has been traditionally used to accelerate wound healing. Olive oil is also a natural product that may contribute to wound healing owing to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of an Aloe vera-olive oil (AVO) combination cream on the healing process of chronic wounds. In this randomised, double-blind, comparator-controlled, parallel-group trial, patients with chronic wounds were treated with either AVO cream or phenytoin cream as the standard treatment for a period of 30 days. Wound healing was evaluated using Bates-Jensen assessment tool and the severity of pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). After initial assessment, 60 patients with chronic wounds (41 with pressure ulcer, 13 with diabetic wounds and 6 with venous ulcers), were recruited and randomised into 2 groups of 30. After 30 days of treatment, significant improvements in the wound size, depth, and edges; necrotic tissue type and amount; exudate type and amount; colour of wound surroundings; and peripheral tissue oedema score were observed in the AVO cream group (p<0.001). The total score of wound healing showed significant improvement with both AVO (p<0.001) and phenytoin (p<0.01) creams, although AVO was more efficacious (p<0.001). Likewise, although both treatments reduced the initial VAS score, the efficacy of AVO was significantly greater (p<0.001). AVO cream significantly accelerates biological healing of chronic wounds and helps to reduce pain severity with a higher efficacy compared with phenytoin cream.

  19. Mercury Levels in Locally Manufactured Mexican Skin-Lightening Creams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz O. Leal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is considered one of the most toxic elements for plants and animals. Nevertheless, in the Middle East, Asia and Latin America, whitening creams containing mercury are being manufactured and purchased, despite their obvious health risks. Due to the mass distribution of these products, this can be considered a global public health issue. In Mexico, these products are widely available in pharmacies, beauty aid and health stores. They are used for their skin lightening effects. The aim of this work was to analyze the mercury content in some cosmetic whitening creams using the cold vapor technique coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS. A total of 16 skin-lightening creams from the local market were investigated. No warning information was noted on the packaging. In 10 of the samples, no mercury was detected. The mercury content in six of the samples varied between 878 and 36,000 ppm, despite the fact that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA has determined that the limit for mercury in creams should be less than 1 ppm. Skin creams containing mercury are still available and commonly used in Mexico and many developing countries, and their contents are poorly controlled.

  20. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies.

  1. Stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps: role of glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagitani, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids, fatty acid potassium soaps, glycerol and water are essential ingredients in the production of stable cream soaps. In this study, the behavior of these components in solution was investigated to elucidate the stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps. It was determined that the cream soaps were a dispersion of 1:1 acid soap (1:1 molar ratio of potassium soap/fatty acid) crystals in the lamellar gel phase, which has confirmed from the phase behavior diagrams and small angle X-ray scattering data. Glycerol was crucial ingredient in the formation of the lamellar gel phase. The cleansing process of the cream soaps was also evaluated using the same diagrams. The structure of the continuous phase in cream soaps changed from lamellar gel to a micellar aqueous solution upon the addition of water. This structural change during the washing process is important in producing the foaming activity of acid soaps to wash away dirt or excess fats from the skin surface.

  2. Ice-Shelf Flexure and Tidal Forcing of Bindschadler Ice Stream, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan T.; Parizek, Bryron R.; Alley, Richard B.; Brunt, Kelly M.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar

    2014-01-01

    Viscoelastic models of ice-shelf flexure and ice-stream velocity perturbations are combined into a single efficient flowline model to study tidal forcing of grounded ice. The magnitude and timing of icestream response to tidally driven changes in hydrostatic pressure and/or basal drag are found to depend significantly on bed rheology, with only a perfectly plastic bed allowing instantaneous velocity response at the grounding line. The model can reasonably reproduce GPS observations near the grounding zone of Bindschadler Ice Stream (formerly Ice Stream D) on semidiurnal time scales; however, other forcings such as tidally driven ice-shelf slope transverse to the flowline and flexurally driven till deformation must also be considered if diurnal motion is to be matched

  3. Plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  4. Effects of Zingiber cassumunar(Plai cream) in the treatment of delayed onset muscle soreness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nuttaset Manimmanakorn; Apiwan Manimmanakorn; Disaphon Boobphachart; Worrawut Thuwakum; Wiroon Laupattarakasem; Michael J Hamlin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effects ofZingiber cassumunar (Plai cream) in either 7% or 14%concentration on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). METHODS: Seventy-ifve untrained healthy volunteers (28 males and 47 females), performed 4 sets of 25 eccentric repetitions of the dominant quadriceps muscle on an isokinetic dynamometry machine. Participants were then randomized into 3 groups: 14% Plai cream, 7% Plai cream and placebo cream. Two grams of the cream (strips of 5-cm long) were gently rubbed into the quadriceps muscles for 5 min immediately folowing the exercise and every 8 h thereafter for 7 d in al groups. Muscle soreness, muscle strength, jump height, thigh circumference and creatine kinase were measured before and after eccentric exercise. RESULTS:Compared to the placebo cream the 14% Plai cream substantialy reduced muscle soreness over the 7 d by –82% (95% CI = –155% to –6%,P = 0.03), but had similar muscle soreness effects to 7% Plai cream (–34%, –96% to 27%,P = 0.2). Compared to the placebo cream the 7% Plai cream resulted in a smal non-signiifcant reduction in muscle soreness levels over the folowing 7 d (–40%,–116% to 36%,P = 0.3). Compared to placebo cream there was little effect of Plai cream (7% or 14%) on muscle strength, jump height, thigh circumference or creatine kinase concentration. CONCLUSION:Using 14% Plai cream over a 7-day period substantialy reduced muscle soreness symptoms compared to 7% Plai cream or a placebo cream. The authors suggest that the administration of 14% Plai cream is a useful alternative in the management of DOMS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Thai Clinical Trial Registry TCTR20140215001.

  5. Effects of Zingiber cassumunar (Plai cream) in the treatment of delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimmanakorn, Nuttaset; Manimmanakorn, Apiwan; Boobphachart, Disaphon; Thuwakum, Worrawut; Laupattarakasem, Wiroon; Hamlin, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of Zingiber cassumunar (Plai cream) in either 7% or 14% concentration on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Seventy-five untrained healthy volunteers (28 males and 47 females), performed 4 sets of 25 eccentric repetitions of the dominant quadriceps muscle on an isokinetic dynamometry machine. Participants were then randomized into 3 groups: 14% Plai cream, 7% Plai cream and placebo cream. Two grams of the cream (strips of 5-cm long) were gently rubbed into the quadriceps muscles for 5 min immediately following the exercise and every 8 h thereafter for 7 d in all groups. Muscle soreness, muscle strength, jump height, thigh circumference and creatine kinase were measured before and after eccentric exercise. Compared to the placebo cream the 14% Plai cream substantially reduced muscle soreness over the 7 d by -82% (95% CI = -155% to -6%, P = 0.03), but had similar muscle soreness effects to 7% Plai cream (-34%, -96% to 27%, P = 0.2). Compared to the placebo cream the 7% Plai cream resulted in a small non-significant reduction in muscle soreness levels over the following 7 d (-40%, -116% to 36%, P = 0.3). Compared to placebo cream there was little effect of Plai cream (7% or 14%) on muscle strength, jump height, thigh circumference or creatine kinase concentration. Using 14% Plai cream over a 7-day period substantially reduced muscle soreness symptoms compared to 7% Plai cream or a placebo cream. The authors suggest that the administration of 14% Plai cream is a useful alternative in the management of DOMS. Thai Clinical Trial Registry TCTR20140215001.

  6. Elemental Spectra from the CREAM-I Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, H S; Bagliesi, M G; Beatty, J J; Bigongiari, G; Boyle, P; Childers, J T; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; Duvernois, M A; Ganel, O; Han, J H; Jeon, J A; Kim, K C; Lee, J K; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinine, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Minnick, S; Mognet, S I; Nam, S; Nutter, S; Park, I H; Park, N H; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Swordy, S; Wakely, S; Wu, J; Yang, J; Yoon, Y S; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) is a balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the composition and energy spectra of cosmic rays of charge Z = 1 to 26 up to an energy of ~ 10^15 eV. CREAM had two successful flights on long-duration balloons (LDB) launched from Mc- Murdo Station, Antarctica, in December 2004 and December 2005. CREAM-I achieves a substantial measurement redundancy by employing multiple detector systems, namely a Timing Charge Detector and a Silicon Charge Detector (SCD) for particle identification, and a Transition Radiation Detector and a sampling tungsten/scintillating-fiber ionization calorimeter (CAL) for energy measurement. In this paper, preliminary energy spectra of various elements measured with CAL/SCD during the first 42-day flight are presented.

  7. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. [Discussing of influence mechanism of Chinese herbal monomer on physical stability of cream].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hui-Fu; Nie, He-Yun; Wang, Sen; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Li, Rong-Miao

    2014-10-01

    This study left flavonoids and alkaloids Chinese herbal monomer with common parent nucleus as cream base carriages drug respectively, cream base were prepared with stable span 60-tween 80 emulsification system. The near-infrared stability analysis technology was performed to quantitatively characterize the physical stability of cream. Base on the theory of gel network structure, theory of emulsification, theory of solubility parameter and theory of double layer, the influence mechanism of Chinese herbal monomer on physical stability of cream was discussed. The results showed that tetrahydropalmatine, matrine and naringenin had similar solubility parameter value with cream base material, creams prepared with those Chinese herbal monomer have higher Zeta potential value and stronger physical stability, and that those creams had similar microstructure information with cream base. However, a larger solubility parameter difference exists between baicalin, baicalein, berberine, palmatine and cream base material. Creams prepared with those Chinese herbal monomers had lower Zeta potential value and poorer physical stability, and that those creams had great different microstructure information with cream base.

  9. 21 CFR 1210.26 - Permits for raw milk or cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permits for raw milk or cream. 1210.26 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.26 Permits for raw milk or cream. Except as provided in § 1210.27, permits to ship or transport raw milk or cream into the United States will be granted...

  10. 21 CFR 1210.25 - Permits for pasteurized milk or cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permits for pasteurized milk or cream. 1210.25... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.25 Permits for pasteurized milk or cream. Permits to ship or transport pasteurized milk or cream into the United States will be granted only...

  11. 21 CFR 131.25 - Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whipped cream products containing flavoring or... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM General Provisions § 131.25 Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening. The unqualified name “whipped cream” should not be applied...

  12. A spongy icing model for aircraft icing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xin; Bai Junqiang; Hua Jun; Wang Kun; Zhang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Researches have indicated that impinging droplets can be entrapped as liquid in the ice matrix and the temperature of accreting ice surface is below the freezing point. When liquid entrapment by ice matrix happens, this kind of ice is called spongy ice. A new spongy icing model for the ice accretion problem on airfoil or aircraft has been developed to account for entrapped liquid within accreted ice and to improve the determination of the surface temperature when enter-ing clouds with supercooled droplets. Different with conventional icing model, this model identifies icing conditions in four regimes:rime, spongy without water film, spongy with water film and glaze. By using the Eulerian method based on two-phase flow theory, the impinging droplet flow was investigated numerically. The accuracy of the Eulerian method for computing the water collection efficiency was assessed, and icing shapes and surface temperature distributions predicted with this spongy icing model agree with experimental results well.

  13. A spongy icing model for aircraft icing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Researches have indicated that impinging droplets can be entrapped as liquid in the ice matrix and the temperature of accreting ice surface is below the freezing point. When liquid entrapment by ice matrix happens, this kind of ice is called spongy ice. A new spongy icing model for the ice accretion problem on airfoil or aircraft has been developed to account for entrapped liquid within accreted ice and to improve the determination of the surface temperature when entering clouds with supercooled droplets. Different with conventional icing model, this model identifies icing conditions in four regimes: rime, spongy without water film, spongy with water film and glaze. By using the Eulerian method based on two-phase flow theory, the impinging droplet flow was investigated numerically. The accuracy of the Eulerian method for computing the water collection efficiency was assessed, and icing shapes and surface temperature distributions predicted with this spongy icing model agree with experimental results well.

  14. Performance of CREAM Calorimeter Results of Beam Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, H S; Beatty, J J; Bigongiari, G; Castellina, A; Childers, J T; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; Duvernois, M A; Ganel, O; Han, J H; Hyun, H J; Kang, T G; Kim, H J; Kim, K C; Kim, M Y; Kim, T; Kim, Y J; Lee, J K; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinine, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Mognet, S I; Nam, S W; Nutter, S; Park, N H; Park, H; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Syed, S; Song, C; Swordy, S; Wu, J; Yang, J; Zhang, H Q; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y

    2005-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM), a balloon-borne experiment, is under preparation for a flight in Antarctica at the end of 2004. CREAM is planned to measure the energy spectrum and composition of cosmic rays directly at energies between 1 TeV and 1000 TeV. Incident particle energies will be measured by a transition radiation detector and a sampling calorimeter. The calorimeter was constructed at the University of Maryland and tested at CERN in 2003. Performance of the calorimeter during the beam tests is reported.

  15. An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis traced to cream cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Tai Goh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper describes the epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations conducted during an outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis in Singapore.Methods: A case-control study was undertaken to identify the vehicle of transmission. Microbiological testing was performed on faecal, food and environmental samples. Isolates of Salmonella were further characterized by phage typing and ribotyping.Results: There were 216 gastroenteritis cases reported from 20 November to 4 December 2007. The causative agent was identified as Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis for 14 out of 20 cases tested. The vehicle of transmission was traced to cream cakes produced by a bakery and sold at its retail outlets (P < 0.001, OR = 143.00, 95% Cl = 27.23–759.10. More than two-thirds of the 40 Salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized cases, food samples and asymptomatic food handlers were of phage type 1; the others reacted but did not conform to any phage type. The phage types correlated well with their unique antibiograms. The ribotype patterns of 22 selected isolates tested were highly similar, indicating genetic relatedness. The dendrogram of the strains from the outbreak showed distinct clustering and correlation compared to the non-outbreak strains, confirming a common source of infection.Discussion: The cream cakes were likely contaminated by one of the ingredients used in the icing. Cross-contamination down the production line and subsequent storage of cakes at ambient temperatures for a prolonged period before consumption could have resulted in the outbreak.

  16. Comparison of crotamiton 10% cream (Eurax) and permethrin 5% cream (Elimite) for the treatment of scabies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, D; Meinking, T L; Chen, J A; Sanchez, R

    1990-03-01

    Permethrin 5% cream (Elimite) was approved as a treatment for scabies by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in September 1989. In a double-blinded, randomized study, it was compared with crotamiton 10% cream (Eurax) for the treatment of scabies in children 2 months to 5 years of age. Two weeks after a single overnight treatment, 14 (30%) of 47 children were cured with permethrin 5% cream, in contrast to only 6 of 47 (13%) of subjects treated with Eurax. Four weeks after treatment the figures were 89% and 60% cured for the two agents, respectively. In 10 of the 19 patients whose treatment failed, the condition became worse after therapy. The difference in efficacy in favor of permethrin was significant (P = 0.002). That agent also demonstrated greater effectiveness in reducing pruritus and secondary bacterial infections. Elimite offers a safe, efficacious, and cosmetically elegant alternative to Eurax in the treatment of scabies in children.

  17. Use of ice storage equipment in the food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, H. de

    1984-01-01

    The manufacture of foods in its widest sense demands a 'balanced supply of cooling'. Whenever 'cold requirement' occurs in different ways during production, the ice storage equipment in particular for 'cooling supplies'. The cooling performance (amount of cold from horizontal tubes and slabs or from horizontal pipes given off to the water flowing past) that can be expected from modern ice storage equipment, is made clear numerically. The way the storage vessel is constructed and its design have particular influence on the energy-saving quality (stirring mechanism with high performance at low pump capacity). Optimisation results for a plate evaporator design combined with a heat exchange system are presented. These include running cost savings of up to 18% in a yoghurt factory, a maltery and an ice cream factory. By means of this heat pump compound, environmental energy can be used in cold storage.

  18. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-03-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  19. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TOPICAL EMLA CREAM AS LOCAL ANAESTHETIC IN VENEPUNCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodicherla Siva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The efficacy of a topical anaesthetic formulation, EMLA 5% cream (Eutectic Mixture of Local Anaesthetics in obtunding the pain produced by intravenous cannulation was determined in our study. This study aims at evaluating the eff icacy of EMLA cream in producing dermal analgesia for venous cannulation and the effect of timing of application of EMLA cream prior to cannulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Amongst 60 patients, EMLA cream was applied for 60 minutes in 20 patients, 30 minutes in another 20 and in the remaining 20 no cream or placebo was applied. RESULTS Pain was assessed in all the groups by a 4-point rank score. It was found that patients with EMLA cream had lower pain scores and decreased haemodynamic stress response to venous cannulation when compared to the control group. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION Maximum analgesia was observed in patients who had EMLA cream applied for 60 minutes. No significant side effects were seen with this formulation

  20. Listeria monocytogenes and other contaminants in fresh cheese and cream from Zagreb city area domestic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Markov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine whether the cream cheese and cream that are produced in the traditional manner at home and are free to sale on Zagreb markets, meet microbiological requirements for foodstuffs (OG 46/94, 20/01, 40/01. Particular attention is given to research of bacteria Listeria monocytogenes presence in these foods, because of its exceptional hazards to human health. It was found that a majority of 64 (53 % from a total of 120 studied dairy products samples were contaminated with microbial pathogens, of which 16 % are waste in the cream cheese, and 37 % in cream samples. 39 samples of cheese and 50 samples of cream did not fulfil the conditions prescribed by the Croatian Guidelines, primarily due to the contamination with yeasts and moulds. In 10 cheese and cream samples where L. monocytogenes is proven by classical microbiological methods, PCR method confirmed L. monocytogenes in only one cream sample.

  1. Retention and migration of alprostadil cream applied topically to the glans meatus for erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, J; Beihn, R M

    2005-01-01

    Retention and migration of a specially designed alprostadil transdermal cream was assessed after single-dose administration to the glans meatus of the penis. Seven men were enrolled in this two-way crossover study. Three subjects self-administered the radio-labeled alprostadil transdermal cream (approximately 100 mg of cream containing 300 microg alprostadil) by inserting the tip of the dispenser into the meatus. In three others, the dose was administered by dispensing the cream dropwise into the metal opening without touching the penis (the preferred and directed method). Retention and migration of the cream mass was measured in the penis with a gamma scintillation camera. The alprostadil transdermal cream was retained in the fossa navicularis at or near 99% in five of six subjects regardless of the method of dosing, thus indicating that the cream formulation performed as designed. A mild, transient burning sensation in the penis was the most common adverse event.

  2. Functional characterization of protein stabilized emulsions: creaming stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornberg, E.

    1978-01-01

    Protein stabilized emulsions have been prepared in a recirculating emulsification system, where flow velocity, power and energy input have been controlled and measured. Three different types of emulsifying equipment have been used, namely a turbo-mixer, an ultrasonic device and a valve homogenizer. The protein systems studied were a soybean protein isolate, a whey protein concentrate (WPC) and a sodium caseinate, and the emulsions obtained were characterized in terms of creaming stability. It was found that although the power and energy consumption during emulsification were the same, the creaming stabilities differed as a function of the emulsifying apparatus used, increased power and energy input contributed in general to an improved creaming stability up to a certain limit, whereupon it leveled off. The emulsifying efficiency of the turbo-mixer is poorest in terms of creaming stability of the emulsions formed, whereas the ultrasonic device most generally is the best choice of equipment at lower power input. At an increase of power consumption the valve homogenizer is an equally good alternative, or even better.

  3. Status and Plan of the ISS-CREAM Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot-Clemente, Nicolas; Iss-Cream Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) project began as a balloon-borne experiment, which was flown successfully for 161 days in six flights over Antarctica. It was subsequently reconfigured for implementation on the International Space Station (ISS) to provide an order of magnitude increase in the exposure time with no atmospheric overburden. The ISS-CREAM instrument is configured of four subsystems: four layers of silicon charge detector (SCD) for charge measurements, top and bottom counting detectors (TCD/BCD) for electron/proton separation, a calorimeter (CAL) for energy measurements, and a boronated scintillator detector (BSD) for additional electron/proton distinction. CREAM is designed to investigate cosmic-ray origin, acceleration, and propagation by directly measuring individual particles with energy between 1012-1015eV and determining cosmic ray composition from protons to iron. The hardware was successfully tested, and remote monitoring and control capabilities were verified. It is scheduled for launch in 2016. The status and plan of the ISS-CREAM experiment will be presented.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis from oleyl alcohol in Elidel cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd

    2006-01-01

    We report an atopic dermatitis patient with recurrent hand dermatitis who developed a severe allergic contact dermatitis from the use of Elidel cream. Diagnostic patch tests showed an isolated contact allergy to the emulsifier oleyl alcohol present in the product. Pimecrolimus appeared to have had...

  5. Instant foam physics. Formation and stability of aerosol whipped cream.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    The formation and stability of aerosol whipped cream, as an example of an instant foam, were studied from a physical point of view. Instant foam production out of an aerosol can is based on the principle that a soluble gas (laughing gas) is dissolved under elevated pressure (5-10 bar) in the product

  6. Treating infants for umbilical granuloma with topical clobetasol propionate cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Nielsen, Tove; Mølgaard, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    , such as suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, as we did not investigate this. However, the risk of meaningful systemic side effects may be considered negligible, as only a small amount of cream, of between 2-5 mg per application, was applied to a very small surface area. This article is protected...

  7. How to Use Vaginal Tablets, Suppositories, and Creams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using Vaginal Tablets, Suppositories, and CreamsIt is best to use these products just before your bedtime. Lying down will reduce leakage of the ... the applicator from the tube.For tablets or suppositories: Remove the medication from the wrapper and place ...

  8. Relating sensory and chemical properties of sour cream to consumer acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, L; Miracle, R E; Leksrisompong, P; Drake, M A

    2013-09-01

    Sour cream is a widely popular acidified dairy product. Volatile compounds and organic acids and their specific contributions to flavor or acceptance have not been established, nor has a comprehensive study been conducted to characterize drivers of liking for sour cream. The objective of this study was to characterize chemical and sensory properties of sour cream and to determine the drivers of liking for sour cream. Descriptive sensory and instrumental analyses followed by consumer testing were conducted. Flavor and texture attributes of 32 (22 full-fat, 6 reduced-fat, and 4 fat-free) commercial sour creams were evaluated by a trained descriptive sensory panel. Percent solids, percent fat, pH, titratable acidity, and colorimetric measurements were conducted to characterize physical properties of sour creams. Organic acids were evaluated by HPLC and volatile aroma active compounds were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with gas chromatography-olfactometry. Consumer acceptance testing (n=201) was conducted on selected sour creams, followed by external preference mapping. Full-fat sour creams were characterized by the lack of surface gloss and chalky textural attributes, whereas reduced-fat and fat-free samples displayed high intensities of these attributes. Full-fat sour creams were higher in cooked/milky and milk fat flavors than the reduced-fat and fat-free samples. Reduced-fat and fat-free sour creams were characterized by cardboard, acetaldehyde/green, and potato flavors, bitter taste, and astringency. Lactic acid was the prominent organic acid in all sour creams, followed by acetic and citric acids. High aroma-impact volatile compounds in sour creams were 2,3-butanedione, acetic acid, butyric acid, octanal, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 1-octene-3-one, and acetaldehyde. Positive drivers of liking for sour cream were milk fat, cooked/milky and sweet aromatic flavors, opacity, color intensity, and adhesiveness. This comprehensive study established

  9. Sea-ice deformation in a coupled ocean-sea-ice model and in satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreen, Gunnar; Kwok, Ron; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Nguyen, An T.

    2017-07-01

    A realistic representation of sea-ice deformation in models is important for accurate simulation of the sea-ice mass balance. Simulated sea-ice deformation from numerical simulations with 4.5, 9, and 18 km horizontal grid spacing and a viscous-plastic (VP) sea-ice rheology are compared with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite observations (RGPS, RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System) for the time period 1996-2008. All three simulations can reproduce the large-scale ice deformation patterns, but small-scale sea-ice deformations and linear kinematic features (LKFs) are not adequately reproduced. The mean sea-ice total deformation rate is about 40 % lower in all model solutions than in the satellite observations, especially in the seasonal sea-ice zone. A decrease in model grid spacing, however, produces a higher density and more localized ice deformation features. The 4.5 km simulation produces some linear kinematic features, but not with the right frequency. The dependence on length scale and probability density functions (PDFs) of absolute divergence and shear for all three model solutions show a power-law scaling behavior similar to RGPS observations, contrary to what was found in some previous studies. Overall, the 4.5 km simulation produces the most realistic divergence, vorticity, and shear when compared with RGPS data. This study provides an evaluation of high and coarse-resolution viscous-plastic sea-ice simulations based on spatial distribution, time series, and power-law scaling metrics.

  10. The use of natural blueberry dye producing butter cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creamy сream - finishing semi-finished product in the manufacture of pastry products. Tinting cream mass in different shades of color can improve the aesthetic appearance of the product appearance and make it more attractive. Natural blueberry anthocyanin dye has antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-sclerotic, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, P-vitamin activity. The influence of the content of blueberry dye to change the chromaticity characteristics, organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters, shape keeping capacity, antioxidant activity of the samples of butter cream after manufacture and during storage. Based on the analysis of the results to give a butter cream pleasant pink color can be recommended dosage blueberry dye - 2.5 g / kg, with anthocyanin dye in this case is used as an antioxidant and as its use in the recommended amounts increases the antioxidant activity of 12.5 mg / 100 g (62.8% (relative to unstained samples cream. Pastry with a creamy semi-finished product, colored with natural blueberry dye, demand on the food market of confectionery products, and they can be recommended as the first baby food, people with lowered immunity, the elderly and mass consumption, as products contain vitamin E - 30 mg / 100 g of product (satisfaction of the daily requirement for vitamin makes - 75% and a significant amount of antioxidants. The facts make it possible to expand the range of competitive confectionery functionality diversify colors shades of cream, to improve its taste and aroma properties, enhance the nutritional value and shelf life due to the large amount of co-antioxidants.

  11. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R.J. MORRIS, Sean M. ROGERS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most species evolve within fluctuating environments, and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity. One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes. Yet, not all plasticity is adaptive. Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution, much less is known about maladaptive plasticity. However, maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments. This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity, two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation, genetic compensation and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation, plastic compensation. Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity. In particular, plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence. We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change [Current Zoology 59 (4: 526–536, 2013].

  12. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  13. Comparison of fumaric acid 5% cream versus triamcinolone 0.1% cream in the treatment of hand eczema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Jowkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hand eczema is a common distressing skin problem. It is an immune reaction to haptens. Thus, substances that inhibit Immune system can be effective in the treatment of hand eczema. In this study, topical fumaric acid 5% cream is compared with topical steroid in the treatment of hand eczema. Patients with hand eczema were randomly divided into two groups. One group received fumaric acid 5% in a cream base, and the other received triamcinolone 0.1% in the same cream base. Both groups used creams twice daily for one month. Patients were checked for erythema, excoriation, population and lichenification, EASI score, and pruritus before and after treatment. In both groups, the mean of all signs of the disease and EASI score decreased after one month of treatment. There was no significant difference between the two treatments in decreasing erythema, but excoriation, population, lichenification, EASI score and itching were all decreased more in triamcinolone 0.1 % group. Although fumaric acid can inhibit the immune system; it was less effective for the treatment of all signs of hand eczema except erythema in comparison to triamcinolone. These results may be justified for two reasons: low penetration of topical fumaric acid through the skin or a low concentration used in this study.

  14. Comparison of fumaric acid 5% cream versus triamcinolone 0.1% cream in the treatment of hand eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowkar, Farideh; Saki, Nasrin; Mokhtarpour, Akbar; Saki, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Hand eczema is a common distressing skin problem. It is an immune reaction to haptens. Thus, substances that inhibit Immune system can be effective in the treatment of hand eczema. In this study, topical fumaric acid 5% cream is compared with topical steroid in the treatment of hand eczema. Patients with hand eczema were randomly divided into two groups. One group received fumaric acid 5% in a cream base, and the other received triamcinolone 0.1% in the same cream base. Both groups used creams twice daily for one month. Patients were checked for erythema, excoriation, population and lichenification, EASI score, and pruritus before and after treatment. In both groups, the mean of all signs of the disease and EASI score decreased after one month of treatment. There was no significant difference between the two treatments in decreasing erythema, but excoriation, population, lichenification, EASI score and itching were all decreased more in triamcinolone 0.1 % group. Although fumaric acid can inhibit the immune system; it was less effective for the treatment of all signs of hand eczema except erythema in comparison to triamcinolone. These results may be justified for two reasons: low penetration of topical fumaric acid through the skin or a low concentration used in this study.

  15. Cream Soda. The rhythm of everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work I will focus my attention on a specific manga, Cream Soda by Adachi Mitsuru (1996. As suggested by Eco (1999, I will analyze this single work keeping in mind that it belongs to a medium and some genre practiced through this medium, but focusing my attention on the specific syntax of the speech of Adachi. This means that in this work I won’t talk about manga in general or in itself, at least, not in the foreground and in the first instance, but I will consider Adachi’s specific execution of the art of manga. This work will start from the analysis of single panels, and their relationship with each other inside the page layout, following the critical path indicated by Thierry Groensteen (1999, and will be then accompanied by the analysis of images and texts contained inside those panels, with special regard to their relationship with each other and with images and texts contained in other panels, following the lead of Barbieri (1995 and Pellitteri (1998.

    The analysis of the elements that this text brings together to create a coherent narrative, and those elements it will not, will show that to properly understand Adachi’s manga the reader must recognize the fictional nature of what he is reading and his function as co-author of the story. Obviously this reflection is based on a first level or narrative interpretation of the text because it is starting from this basic layer that all the other layers can be explored. This is also the reason why this work provides a punctual examination of the single panels.

    The analysis here proposed will also demonstrate that, despite many panels open up to different levels of readings, the activation of the second or third level of reading is not a given. It will also become evident, though, that if one stops at a first level reading, the most obvious one, the text in question isn’t really fulfilled according to its author’s expectations: the reader’s high engagement

  16. River Ice Data Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    edge in the field of ice engineering expands. For example, ice concentration and freezeup stage are not considered by the survey respondents to...im- pacts both freezeup and breakup jam formation Table 2. Ice parameters currently monitored, by Divisions (as of 1995). Ice parameters currently...V V V V Date of ice in V V V V Ice concentration V V V V Freezeup stage V V V V V Note: Southwestern Division does not currently monitor ice

  17. Antifreeze and cryoprotective activities of ice-binding collagen peptides from pig skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Zhao, Ying; Zhu, Yu Bing; Xu, Fei; Yu, Jing Song; Yuan, Min

    2016-03-01

    A novel "hyperactive" ice-binding peptide from porcine collagen was prepared by alkaline protease hydrolysis and a series of column chromatography separations, and then its antifreeze and cryoprotective properties were reported. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the thermal hysteresis (TH) of ice-binding collagen peptides was closely related to their concentration and crystal fraction. Collagen hydrolysates with maximal TH were obtained by hydrolysis at pH 8.0, DH 15.0%, and 5% alkaline protease at 55°C. After purification by column chromatography, the AP-3 ice-binding collagen peptide (GLLGPLGPRGLL) with 1162.8Da molecular weights exhibited the highest TH (5.28°C), which can be classified as "hyperactive". Recrystallisation and melt-resistance of ice cream were improved by AP-3 ice-binding collagen peptide at 0.2% (w/v) in a similar manner to natural antifreeze proteins. Moreover, the addition of AP-3 collagen peptides in ice cream greatly elevated the glass transition temperature (Tg) to -17.64°C.

  18. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  19. Effectiveness of Aloe Vera gel compared with 1% silver sulphadiazine cream as burn wound dressing in second degree burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Muhammad Naveed; Ahmed, Naheed

    2013-02-01

    To assess the efficacy of Aloe Vera gel compared with 1% silver sulfadiazine cream as a burn dressing for the treatment of superficial and partial thickness burns. This Interventional Comparative study was carried out at the Burn unit and Plastic surgery department, Nishtar Hospital Multan, Pakistan from July 2008 to December 2010. A total of 50 patients with superficial and partial thickness burns were divided into two equal groups randomly by consecutive sampling method, one group was dressed with Aloe Vera gel while the other was treated with 1% silversulphadiazine cream, and the results regarding duration of wound epithelialization, pain relief and cost of treatment were compared. In patients treated with Aloe Vera gel, healing of burn wounds were remarkably early than those patients treated with 1% silver sulfadiazine. All the patients of Aloe Vera group were relieved of pain earlier than those patients who were treated with SSD. Thermal burns patients dressed with Aloe Vera gel showed advantage compared to those dressed with SSD regarding early wound epithelialization, earlier pain relief and cost-effectiveness.

  20. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...