WorldWideScience

Sample records for plastic film soaks

  1. Paper-Thin Plastic Film Soaks Up Sun to Create Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A non-crystallized silicon known as amorphous silicon is the semiconductor material most frequently chosen for deposition, because it is a strong absorber of light. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, amorphous silicon absorbs solar radiation 40 times more efficiently than single-crystal silicon, and a thin film only about 1-micrometer (one one-millionth of a meter) thick containing amorphous silicon can absorb 90 percent of the usable light energy shining on it. Peak efficiency and significant reduction in the use of semiconductor and thin film materials translate directly into time and money savings for manufacturers. Thanks in part to NASA, thin film solar cells derived from amorphous silicon are gaining more and more attention in a market that has otherwise been dominated by mono- and poly-crystalline silicon cells for years. At Glenn Research Center, the Photovoltaic & Space Environments Branch conducts research focused on developing this type of thin film solar cell for space applications. Placing solar cells on thin film materials provides NASA with an attractively priced solution to fabricating other types of solar cells, given that thin film solar cells require significantly less semiconductor material to generate power. Using the super-lightweight solar materials also affords NASA the opportunity to cut down on payload weight during vehicle launches, as well as the weight of spacecraft being sent into orbit.

  2. Stability of thin films of microcrystalline silicon under light soaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xiao-yan; Wang Yan; XUE Jun-ming; ZHAO Shu-wen; REN Hui-zhi; ZHAO Ying; LI Yang-xian; GENG Xin-hua

    2006-01-01

    Silicon thin films with different crystalline ratio(Xc) have been deposited by varying silane content(SC) of reactive gases in the RF-PECVD process.The effects of silane content on performance of the materials and the relationship between microstructure and opto-electronic properties were studied by means of Raman measurements,photoconductivity(σph),and dark conductivity(σd),followed by the measurements of light absorption coefficient(α),the product of quantum efficiency,mobility and lifetime (ημτ),before,during and after light soaking,respectively.The results indicate that the microcrystalline silicon near the transition region is suitable to prepare microcrystalline silicon of device grade,and that the amorphous region of the material is responsible to the light induced degradation.

  3. Tunable plasticity in amorphous silicon carbide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yusuke; Kim, Namjun; King, Sean W; Bielefeld, Jeff; Stebbins, Jonathan F; Dauskardt, Reinhold H

    2013-08-28

    Plasticity plays a crucial role in the mechanical behavior of engineering materials. For instance, energy dissipation during plastic deformation is vital to the sufficient fracture resistance of engineering materials. Thus, the lack of plasticity in brittle hybrid organic-inorganic glasses (hybrid glasses) often results in a low fracture resistance and has been a significant challenge for their integration and applications. Here, we demonstrate that hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide films, a class of hybrid glasses, can exhibit a plasticity that is even tunable by controlling their molecular structure and thereby leads to an increased and adjustable fracture resistance in the films. We decouple the plasticity contribution from the fracture resistance of the films by estimating the "work-of-fracture" using a mean-field approach, which provides some insight into a potential connection between the onset of plasticity in the films and the well-known rigidity percolation threshold.

  4. Incipient plasticity in metallic thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, W. A.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Minor, A. M.; Shan, Z.; Asif, S. A. Syed; Warren, O. L.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have compared the incipient plastic behaviors of Al and Al-Mg thin films during indentation under load control and displacement control. In Al-Mg, solute pinning limits the ability of dislocations to propagate into the crystal and thus substantially affects the appearance of plastic inst

  5. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic...

  6. Mechanical characterization of commercial biodegradable plastic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstrom, Joseph R.

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable plastic that is relatively new compared to other plastics in use throughout industry. The material is produced by the polymerization of lactic acid which is produced by the fermentation of starches derived from renewable feedstocks such as corn. Polylactic acid can be manufactured to fit a wide variety of applications. This study details the mechanical and morphological properties of selected commercially available PLA film products. Testing was conducted at Iowa State University and in conjunction with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) BioPreferred ProgramRTM. Results acquired by Iowa State were compared to a similar study performed by the Cortec Corporation in 2006. The PLA films tested at Iowa State were acquired in 2009 and 2010. In addition to these two studies at ISU, the films that were acquired in 2009 were aged for a year in a controlled environment and then re-tested to determine effects of time (ageing) on the mechanical properties. All films displayed anisotropic properties which were confirmed by inspection of the films with polarized light. The mechanical testing of the films followed American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Mechanical characteristics included: tensile strength (ASTM D882), elongation of material at failure (ASTM D882), impact resistance (ASTM D1922), and tear resistance (ASTM D4272). The observed values amongst all the films ranged as followed: tensile strength 33.65--8.54 MPa; elongation at failure 1,665.1%--47.2%; tear resistance 3.61--0.46 N; and puncture resistance 2.22--0.28 J. There were significant differences between the observed data for a number of films and the reported data published by the Cortec Corp. In addition, there were significant differences between the newly acquired material from 2009 and 2010, as well as the newly acquired materials in 2009 and the aged 2009 materials, suggesting that ageing and manufacturing date had an effect on

  7. Open fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) flat plate collector (FPC) and spray network systems for augmenting the evaporation rate of tannery effluent (soak liquor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srithar, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai 625 015 (India); Mani, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2007-12-15

    Presently, tanneries in Tamilnadu, India are required to segregate the effluent of soaking and pickling sections from other wastewater streams and send it to shallow solar pans for evaporation to avoid land pollution. A large area of solar pans is required for evaporating the water in the effluent at salt concentration in the range of 4-5%. An experimental study has been made by using fibre reinforced plastic flat plate collector (FRP-FPC) and spray system in a pilot plant with a capacity to handle 5000 l per day, which increases the evaporation rate. After increasing the salt concentration level to near saturation limit, the concentrated liquid was sent to conventional solar pans for its continued evaporation and recovery of salt. In this improved system, the rate of evaporation was found to be 30-40% more than that in the conventional solar pans. The performance is compared with the theoretically simulated performance. (author)

  8. Degradation studies on plasticized PVC films submited to gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinhas Glória Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly (vinyl chloride, PVC, is a rigid polymer and for several of its applications must be compounded with plasticizing agents. The plasticizers minimize the dipolar interactions, which exist between the polymer's chains, promoting their mobility. In this work we studied the properties of PVC/plasticizer systems submitted to different doses of gamma radiation. We have used four commercial plasticizers amongt them di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate, DEHP, which is present in a great number of commercial applications. The PVC/plasticizer systems have been studied as films made by the solvent evaporation technique. Irradiated and non-irradiated films have been characterized by viscosimetric analysis, mechanical essays and infrared spectroscopy. The results have shown that the rigid, non plasticized, PVC film presented the greatest degradation index, while among the plasticized films the one which presented the larger degradation index due to chain scission was the DEHP plasticized PVC.

  9. Influence of thickness on properties of plasticized oat starch films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melicia Cintia Galdeano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thickness (between 80 and 120 µm on apparent opacity, water vapor permeability and mechanical properties (tensile and puncture of oat starch films plasticized with glycerol, sorbitol, glycerol:sorbitol mixture, urea and sucrose. Films were stored under 11, 57, 76 and 90% relative humidity (RH to study the mechanical properties. It was observed that the higher the thickness, the higher was the opacity values. Films without the plasticizer were more opaque in comparison with the plasticized ones. Glycerol:sorbitol films presented increased elongation with increasing thickness at all RH. Puncture force showed a strong dependence on the film thickness, except for the films plasticized with sucrose. In general, thickness did not affect the water permeability.

  10. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance study of low-temperature water dynamics in a water-soaked perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer Nafion film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun Hee; Lee, Kyu Won; Lee, Cheol Eui

    2017-01-01

    We have employed proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in order to study the low-temperature water dynamics in a water-soaked perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer Nafion (NR-211) film. According to the recent models, Nafion may comprise water strongly bound to the sulfonic acid group, hydration water, and condensed water species. In this work, three separate NMR peaks from the water species revealing distinct behaviors were identified. A significant portion of the "bound" water remained unfrozen down to 200 K, whereas a slow-to-fast motional limit transition was observed at TM=220 K from the relaxation measurements.

  11. PENGARUH PLASTICIZER PADA KARAKTERISTIK EDIBLE FILM DARI PEKTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kompiang Wirawan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available EFFECT OF PLASTICIzER ON THE PECTINIC EDIBLE FILM CHARACTERISTICS. The peel of Balinese Citrus contains high concentration of pectin which can be further processed to be edible films. The edible films can be utilized as a food coating which protects the food from any external mass transports such as humid, oxygen, and soluble material and can be served as a carrier to improve the mechanical-handing properties of the food. Edible films made of organic polymers tend to be brittle and thus addition of a plasticizer is required during the process. The work studies the effect of the type and the concentration of plasticizers on the tensile strength, the elongation of break, and the water vapor permeabilty of the edible film. Sorbitol and glycerol were used as plasticizers. Albedo from the citrus was hydrolized with hydrochloride acid 0.1 N to get pectinate substance. Pectin was then dissolved in water dan mixed with the plasticizers and CaCl2.2H2O solution. The concentrations of the plasticizers were 0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 mL/mL of solution. The results showed that increasing the concentration of plasticizers will decrease the tensile strength, but increase the elongation and film permeability. Sorbitol-plasticized films are more brittle, however exhibited higher tensile strength and water vapor permeability than of glycerol-plasticized film. The results suggested that glycerol is better plasticizer than sorbitol.  Kulit jeruk bali banyak mengandung pektin yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku edible film. Edible film bisa digunakan untuk melapisi bahan makanan, melindungi makanan dari transfer massa eksternal seperti kelembaban, oksigen, dan zat terlarut, serta dapat digunakan sebagai carrier untuk meningkatkan penanganan mekanik produk makanan. Film yang terbuat dari bahan polimer organik ini cenderung rapuh sehingga diperlukan penambahan plasticizer. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh kadar dan jenis

  12. Films from Glyoxal-Crosslinked Spruce Galactoglucomannans Plasticized with Sorbitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi S. Mikkonen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Films were prepared from a renewable and biodegradable forest biorefinery product, spruce O-acetyl-galactoglucomannans (GGMs, crosslinked with glyoxal. For the first time, cohesive and self-standing films were obtained from GGM without the addition of polyol plasticizer. In addition, glyoxal-crosslinked films were prepared using sorbitol at 10, 20, 30, and 40% (wt.-% of GGM. Glyoxal clearly strengthened the GGM matrix, as detected by tensile testing and dynamic mechanical analysis. The elongation at break of films slightly increased, and Young's modulus decreased with increasing sorbitol content. Interestingly, the tensile strength of films was constant with the increased plasticizer content. The effect of sorbitol on water sorption and water vapor permeability (WVP depended on relative humidity (RH. At low RH, the addition of sorbitol significantly decreased the WVP of films. The glyoxal-crosslinked GGM films containing 20% sorbitol exhibited the lowest oxygen permeability (OP and WVP of the studied films and showed satisfactory mechanical performance.

  13. Pixels Intensity Evolution to Describe the Plastic Films Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Briñez-De León

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes an approach for mechanical behavior description in the plastic film deformation using techniques for the images analysis, which are based on the intensities evolution of fixed pixels applied to an images sequence acquired through polarizing optical assembly implemented around the platform of the plastic film deformation. The pixels intensities evolution graphs, and mechanical behavior graphic of the deformation has dynamic behaviors zones which could be associated together.

  14. Size effect in plastically deformed passivated thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HWANG; Keh-Chih

    2009-01-01

    The flow theory of mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity theory (MSG) developed by Qiu et al. (2003) is extended for incompressible material. The MSG flow theory is used to predict the increase of plastic work hardening for plane strain tension of surface-passivated Cu thin film. The theoretical predictions agree well with experiments for suitably chosen material parameters.

  15. Kinetics of both defects and electron and hole diffusion lengths during light-soaking in a-Si:H films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, A.S.; Kosarev, A.I.; Vinogradov, A.J. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Roca i Cabarrocas, P. [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des interfaces et des Couches Minces

    1996-12-31

    Light induced degradation of electronic properties observed in amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) remains a serious impediment to the achievement of stable high efficiency p-i-n solar cells. Concomitant studies of kinetics of defects N{sub D}(t), photoconductivity {sigma}{sub ph}(t), electron and hole diffusion lengths L{sub e}(t), L{sub h}(t) during light soaking have been carried out. The data have been fitted by stretched exponential expressions and characteristic parameters of kinetics have been determined. Correlation between the kinetics is discussed. In contrast to N{sub d}(t), {sigma}{sub ph}(t) and L{sub e}(t), the hole diffusion length L{sub h}(t) was observed to remain constant during initial time ({approximately}10{sup 3}s) and then decreased with characteristic time {approximately}10{sup 4}s.

  16. Plastic film materials for dosimetry of very large absorbed doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Abdel-Rahim, F.

    1985-01-01

    Most plastic films have limited response ranges for dosimetry because of radiation-induced brittleness, degradation, or saturation of the signal used for analysis (e.g. spectrophotometry) at high doses. There are, however, a few types of thin plastic films showing linearity of response even up...... to doses as high as 2 × 106 Gy (200 Mrad) without severe loss of mechanical properties. Among many candidate film types tested, those showing such resistance to radiation damage and continued response at such high doses are polyethylene terephthalate, high-density polyethylene, dyed polyvinylchloride...

  17. 温湿处理环境对木塑复合材弯曲性能的影响%Effect of temperature and soaking environment on the bending resistance of wood-plastic composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 董丽君; 贺磊; 孙慧宇; 徐波

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different environment conditions on the property of wood-plastic composites was considered before utilization. In this paper the bending property changes of wood-plastic composite under high/low temperature and soaking environment were discussed, the results will give some references to the production and application of wood-plastic products.%木塑复合材在使用时应考虑不同的环境条件对材料性能的影响,本文研究了不同密度的聚丙烯基木塑复合材经高/低温和浸水处理后材料的弯曲性能的变化情况,为木塑产品的生产和应用提供依据。

  18. Correlation between plastic films properties and flexographic prints quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Izdebska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a preliminary study of the correlation between films properties and flexographic print quality defined as the optical density of full tone. It is also an attempt to answer the question whether traditional plastic films can be replaced by biodegradable and compostable films as printing substrates and as materials for packaging. Four kinds of films were used in the experiments – two plastic films (PP and PET and two biodegradable films (PLA and cellulose. The permeability to water vapour and oxygen, as well as the tensile strength and elongation at break of the material were investigated for all samples. The measurements of the contact angle with water, diiodomethane and printing ink were also conducted for these films, and their surface free energy was determined. All samples were printed on laboratory equipment by a flexographic technique using water-based inks and the optical density of copies was measured. It has been found that the print quality was determined by the type of film used. Furthermore, the correlation between optical density and wettability defined as the contact angle between film and water or printing ink turned out to be significant. Other important parameter is surface free energy, albeit to a little lesser extent. The barrier and mechanical properties of the material have an even weaker impact on optical density. In addition, it is possible to choose the biodegradable film with properties corresponding to conventional, commonly used films which enable high quality prints.

  19. "Green" films from renewable resources: properties of epoxidized soybean oil plasticized ethyl cellulose films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Peng, Xinwen; Zhong, Linxin; Cao, Xuefei; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xueming; Liu, Shijie; Sun, Runcang

    2014-03-15

    Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), which is a biomass-derived resource, was first used as a novel plasticizer for ethyl cellulose (EC) film preparation. Surface morphologies, mechanical performances, thermal properties, oxygen and water vapor permeabilities of plasticized EC films were detected in detail to evaluate the plasticizing effect of ESO and explore the plastication mechanisms. Results showed that ESO was an effective plasticizer that outstripped conventional plasticizers, i.e. dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and triethyl citrate (TEC) in producing high-quality films. Especially, at plasticizer concentrations of 15-25%, ESO-EC films had preferable mechanical properties and better thermal stability, as well as non-flammability. In addition, the water vapor permeability of ESO-EC films was lower than that of traditional plasticized films. Their oxygen permeability was also remained in a low level. These outstanding performances were related to the relatively high molecular weight, hydrophobicity, chemical structure of ESO, and the intermolecular interactions between ESO and EC chains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gelatin films plasticized with a simulated biodiesel coproduct stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the possibility of substituting an unrefined biodiesel coproduct stream (BCS for refined glycerol as a polymer plasticizer we have prepared cast gelatin films plasticized with a simulated BCS, i.e., mixtures of glycerol and some of the typical components found in BCS (methyl linoleate, methyl oleate, linoleic acid, and oleic acid. We measured the tensile properties as a function of plasticizer composition, and analyzed the specific effect of each individual component on tensile properties. We found that it is the unrecovered alkyl esters that largely determine the tensile properties, and that BCS can be successfully used to plasticize cast gelatin films as long as the BCS contains 11 parts by weight, or less, of unrecovered alkyl esters per 100 parts glycerol.

  1. Discrete dislocation plasticity analysis of the wedge indentation of films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balint, D. S.; Deshpande, V. S.; Needleman, A.; Van der Giessen, E.

    2006-01-01

    The plane strain indentation of single crystal films on a rigid substrate by a rigid wedge indenter is analyzed using discrete dislocation plasticity. The crystals have three slip systems at +/- 35.3 degrees and 90 degrees with respect to the indentation direction. The analyses are carried out for

  2. Plastic film materials for dosimetry of very large absorbed doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Abdel-Rahim, F.

    1985-01-01

    of the polyhalostyrenes have essentially rate-independent and moderately temperature-dependent responses to such large doses of ionizing radiation. While radiation-induced optical absorption in the ultraviolet for polystyrene is unstable following irradiation, thus leading to an intrinsic low-intensity rate dependence......Most plastic films have limited response ranges for dosimetry because of radiation-induced brittleness, degradation, or saturation of the signal used for analysis (e.g. spectrophotometry) at high doses. There are, however, a few types of thin plastic films showing linearity of response even up...... to doses as high as 2 × 106 Gy (200 Mrad) without severe loss of mechanical properties. Among many candidate film types tested, those showing such resistance to radiation damage and continued response at such high doses are polyethylene terephthalate, high-density polyethylene, dyed polyvinylchloride...

  3. Effect of aging on the microstructure of plasticized cornstarch films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana M.S.M. Thiré

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging of cornstarch films prepared by casting was investigated. Water and glycerol-plasticized cornstarch films were stored at 50% relative humidity over a period of 330 days. Aging was followed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM. XRD spectra indicated development of B-type crystallinity even for fresh films and that the crystallinity index increased from 0.06 to 0.28 as a function of storage time. AFM images of 270-day-old films revealed that the general morphology and the overall roughness have not changed due to aging. AFM phase contrast images at higher magnification showed an increasing number of ordered domains at the surface of these films, which may be attributed to recrystallization of amylose. No morphological change was observed at least at the surface of the granular region, which is enriched in amylopectin.

  4. Effect of Activated Plastic Films on Inactivation of Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Soriano Cuadrado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, low density polyethylene films were activated by co-extrusion with zinc oxide, zinc acetate or potassium sorbate. Films were also surface-activated with tyrosol singly or in combination with lactic acid or p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Activated films were tested on Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The combinations showing greatest inhibition zones and broadest inhibitory spectrum were the films activated with tyrosol plus p-hydroxybenzoic acid. A small delay in growth of Listeria innocua was observed on seabream packed in ZnO-activated films during refrigerated storage for 7 days. When films activated with 2.5% tyrosol or with 1.5% tyrosol plus 0.5 p-hydroxybenzoic acid were used for vacuum packaging of smoked salmon and smoked tuna challenged with cocktails of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes strains, the combination of tyrosol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid improved inactivation of both pathogens during chill storage compared to films singly activated with tyrosol. The best results were obtained in smoked salmon, since no viable pathogens were detected after 7 days of chill storage for the activated film. Results from the study highlight the potential of plastic films surface-activated with tyrosol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in the control of foodborne pathogens in smoked seafood.

  5. Long-Term Physical Stability of Plasticized Hemicellulose Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna L. Heikkinen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oat spelt arabinoxylan (OsAX and spruce galactoglucomannan (GGM are hemicelluloses that can be extracted in large quantities from side-streams of the agriculture and forest industries. They both form self-standing films, making them potential future packaging materials. This systematic study focuses on the effect of long-term storage on the physical stability of hemicellulose-based films. OsAX and GGM films were plasticized with 40% (w/w of the polysaccharide of glycerol, sorbitol, or their blends, and their stability was followed for four months. Ageing especially affected the glycerol-containing films, in which the tensile strength and Young’s modulus increased and elongation at break decreased. Although the mechanical properties were altered, storage did not affect crystallinity of the films. Oxygen gas permeability (OP and water vapor permeability (WVP properties were monitored in OsAX films. Interestingly WVP decreased during storage; more than a 40% decrease was seen when plasticizer blends contained 50% or more glycerol. In contrast, there were no drastic changes in the OP during storage; all the OPs obtained were between 3.7 and 8.9 [cm3 µm/ (m2 d kPa].

  6. Plasticizing Effects of Polyamines in Protein-Based Films

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    Mohammed Sabbah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Zeta potential and nanoparticle size were determined on film forming solutions of native and heat-denatured proteins of bitter vetch as a function of pH and of different concentrations of the polyamines spermidine and spermine, both in the absence and presence of the plasticizer glycerol. Our results showed that both polyamines decreased the negative zeta potential of all samples under pH 8.0 as a consequence of their ionic interaction with proteins. At the same time, they enhanced the dimension of nanoparticles under pH 8.0 as a result of macromolecular aggregations. By using native protein solutions, handleable films were obtained only from samples containing either a minimum of 33 mM glycerol or 4 mM spermidine, or both compounds together at lower glycerol concentrations. However, 2 mM spermidine was sufficient to obtain handleable film by using heat-treated samples without glycerol. Conversely, brittle materials were obtained by spermine alone, thus indicating that only spermidine was able to act as an ionic plasticizer. Lastly, both polyamines, mainly spermine, were found able to act as “glycerol-like” plasticizers at concentrations higher than 5 mM under experimental conditions at which their amino groups are undissociated. Our findings open new perspectives in obtaining protein-based films by using aliphatic polycations as components.

  7. Effect of plasticizer on moisture sorption isotherm of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata) starch film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatmiko, Tri Hadi; Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Prasetyo, Dwi Joko; Rosyida, Vita Taufika

    2016-02-01

    The effect of plasticizer type (glycerol, sorbitol) and plasticizer concentrations (30, 35, 40, 45% w/w polymer) on the moisture sorption isotherm characteristics of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch films were investigated. Moisture affinity of sugar palm starch films was influenced by the plasticizer type and plasticizer concentration. The affinity of the glycerol plasticized film is stronger than that of sorbitol plasticized film. Sugar palm starch film with a higher concentration of glycerol absorbs more moisture with higher initial absorption rate than that of with sorbitol. Films with higher plasticizer concentration of glycerol and sorbitol show higher equilibrium moisture contents at the given relative humidity. The moisture sorption isotherm characteristic of sugar palm starch films can be described very well with the semi empirical 4 parameter Peleg's model.

  8. Physicochemical properties of sugar palm starch film: Effect of concentration and plasticizer type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, D. J.; Apriyana, W.; Jatmiko, T. H.; Hernawan; Hayati, S. N.; Rosyida, V. T.; Pranoto, Y.; Poeloengasih, C. D.

    2017-07-01

    In order to find the best formula for capsule shell production, this present work dealt with exploring physicochemical properties of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch film as a function of different kinds and various concentrations of plasticizers. The films were prepared by casting method at different formula: starch 9-11%, glycerol or sorbitol 35-45% and polyethylene-glycol 400 (PEG 400) 5-9%. Appearance, thickness, retraction ratio, moisture content, swelling behavior and solubility of the film in water were analyzed. Both glycerol and sorbitol are compatible with starch matrix. On the contrary, PEG 400 did not form a film with suitable characteristics. The result reveals that glycerol- and sorbitol-plasticized films appeared translucent, homogenous, smooth and slightly brown in all formulas. Different type and concentration of plasticizers altered the physicochemical of film in different ways. The sorbitol-plasticized film had lower moisture content (≤ 10%) than that of glycerol-plasticized film (≥ 18%). In contrast, film plasticized with sorbitol showed higher solubility in water (28-35%) than glycerol-plasticized film (22-28%). As the concentration of both plasticizers increased, there was an increasing tendency on thickness and solubility in water. Conversely, retraction ratio and swelling degree decreased when both plasticizers concentration increased. In conclusion, the sorbitol-plasticized film showed a potency to be developed as hard capsule material.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of HPMC/PVP Blend Films Plasticized with Sorbitol

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    H. Somashekarappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this present work is to investigate the effect of plasticizers like Sorbitol on microstructural and mechanical properties of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC and Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP blend films. The pure blend and plasticized blend films were prepared by solution casting method and investigated using wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS method. WAXS analysis confirms that the plasticizers can enter into macromolecular blend structure and destroy the crystallinity of the films. FTIR spectra show that there are a shift and decrease in the intensity of the peaks confirming the interaction of plasticizer with the blend. Mechanical properties like tensile strength and Young’s Modulus decrease up to 0.6% of Sorbitol content in the films. Percentage of elongation at break increases suggesting that the plasticized films are more flexible than pure blend films. These films are suitable to be used as environmental friendly and biodegradable packaging films.

  10. Effect of Plasticizers on Properties of Rice Straw Fiber Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hong-rui; Chen Hai-tao; Liu Shuang; Dun Guo-qiang; Zhang Ying

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the properties of rice straw fiber film, one factor contrast test method was employed. Plasticizer type was chosen as input variable, dry tension strength and elongation, wet tension strength and elongation, bursting strength and tearing strength were chosen as indexes. The results showed that there were significant differences among the means of dry tension strength, dry elongation and bursting strength of different plasticizers; there were not significant differences among the means of wet tension strength, wet elongation and tearing strength of different plasticizers; for dry tension strength and elongation, glycerol had a significant difference with sorbitol and PEG, no significant difference was observed between sorbitol and PEG, dry tension strength added glycerol had been reduced 6.8% compared with that added sorbitol, reduced 9.5% compared with that added PEG; elongation had been improved 6.1% and 9.4%, respectively; for bursting strength, sorbitol had a significant difference with glycerol and PEG, no significant difference was observed between glycerol and PEG; bursting strength added glycerol and added PEG had been improved 6.9% and 5.6%, respectively compared with that of the added sorbitol. The results provided a theoretical reference for further improving the straw fiber film manufacturing process.

  11. Physical stability and moisture sorption of aqueous chitosan-amylose starch films plasticized with polyols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera, Mirna Fernández; Karjalainen, Milja; Airaksinen, Sari

    2004-01-01

    The short-term stability and the water sorption of films prepared from binary mixtures of chitosan and native amylose maize starch (Hylon VII) were evaluated using free films. The aqueous polymer solutions of the free films contained 2% (w/w) film formers, glycerol, or erythritol as a plasticizer...... in the crystallinity of the films are evident within a 3-month period of storage, and the changes in the solid state are dependent on the plasticizer and storage conditions. When stored at ambient conditions for 3 months, the aqueous chitosan-amylose starch films plasticized with erythritol exhibited a partly...

  12. [Reducing nutrients loss by plastic film covering chemical fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huo-jun; Wei, Ze-bin; Wu, Qi-tang; Zeng, Shu-cai

    2010-03-01

    With the low utilization rate of fertilizers by crop and the growing amount of fertilizer usage,the agricultural non-point source pollution in China is becoming more and more serious. The field experiments planting corns were conducted, in which the applied chemical fertilizers were recovered with plastic film to realize the separation of fertilizers from rain water. In the experiments, the influences of different fertilizing treatments on the growing and production of sweet corn were observed. The fertilizer utilization rate and the nutrient contents in surface run-off water with and without the film covering were also determined. Results showed that, with only 70% of the normal amount of fertilizers,the sweet corn could already get high yield under the experimental soil conditions. Soil analysis after corn crops showed that the amounts of available N, P and K in the soil increased obviously with the film-covering, and the decreasing order was: 100% fertilizers with film-covering > 70% fertilizers with film-covering > 100% fertilizers, 70% fertilizers > no fertilizer. The average utilization coefficients of fertilizers by the crop were 42%-87%, 0%-3%, 5%-15% respectively for N, P and K. It was higher with film-covering than that without covering, especially for the high fertilization treatment. Analysis of water samples collected for eight run-off events showed that, without film-covering, N, P and K average concentrations in the runoff waters with fertilizations were 27.72, 2.70 and 7.07 mg x L(-1), respectively. And they were reduced respectively by 39.54%, 28.05%, 43.74% with the film-covering. This can give significant benefits to the decrease of agricultural non-point source pollution and water eutrophication.

  13. Analysis of Phthalate Esters in Air, Soil and Plants in Plastic Film Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The phthalate esters such as DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP in air, soil and plant samples in plastic film greenhouse were clean up with fine silica gel column and determined with HPLC. It was found that the concentrations of PEs in air and soil samples in plastic film greenhouse are much higher than those of contrast samples. But concentrations of PEs in plants in plastic film greenhouse are not remarkably affected by the pollution of air and soil.

  14. Strength of anisotropic wood and synthetic materials. [plywood, laminated wood plastics, glass fiber reinforced plastics, polymeric film, and natural wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using general formulas for determining the strength of different anisotropic materials is considered, and theoretical formulas are applied and confirmed by results of tests on various nonmetallic materials. Data are cited on the strength of wood, plywood, laminated wood plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics and directed polymer films.

  15. Physical evaluation of biodegradable films of calcium alginate plasticized with polyols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Santana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different polyols as plasticizers of alginate films on their physical attributes like moisture content, soluble mass in water, water uptake, water vapor permeability, opacity and mechanical properties were determined and the results discussed based on scanning electron microscopy observations and glass transition temperature. The alginate films were obtained by casting, using three different gramatures. Calcium crosslinked and non-reticulated films were considered. The films plasticized with glycerol and xylitol were more hygroscopic than the films with mannitol. The lowest water vapor permeability values were found for films plasticized with mannitol, at all studied thicknesses. The films plasticized with glycerol and xylitol showed very similar functional attributes regarding their application as food wrappings. The Ca2+ crosslinked mannitol films showed the highest tensile strength at rupture (>140 MPa.

  16. A physicochemical study of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata) starch films plasticized by glycerol and sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Pranoto, Yudi; Hayati, Septi Nur; Hernawan, Rosyida, Vita T.; Prasetyo, Dwi J.; Jatmiko, Tri H.; Apriyana, Wuri; Suwanto, Andri

    2016-02-01

    The present work explores the physicochemical characteristics of sugar palm starch film for a potential hard capsule purpose. Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch films were plasticized with glycerol or sorbitol in various concentrations (30% up to 50% w/w starch). Their effects on physicochemical properties of the films were investigated. The results showed that sugar palm starch was successfully developed as the main material of film using casting method. Incorporation of both glycerol or sorbitol affected the properties of films in different ways. It was found that thickness and solubility increased as plasticizer concentration increased, whereas retraction ratio, swelling degree and swelling thickness decreased with the increased plasticizer concentration.

  17. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF SUBSTRATE LOCAL PLASTIC DEFORMATION INDUCED BY CRACKED THIN HARD FILM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Youli; Ro(z)niatowski K; Kurzydlowski K; Huang Yuanlin; Xu Binshi

    2004-01-01

    It has been postulated that, with tensile loading conditions, micro-cracks on thin hard film act as stress concentrators enhancing plastic deformation of the substrate material in their vicinity. Under favorable conditions the localized plastic flow near the cracks may turn into macroscopic plastic strain thus affects the plasticity behaviors of the substrate. This phenomenon is analyzed quantitatively with finite element method with special attention focused on the analysis and discussion of the effects of plastic work hardening rate, film thickness and crack depth on maximum plastic strain, critical loading stress and the size of the local plastic deformation zone. Results show that micro-cracks on thin hard film have unnegligible effects on the plasticity behaviors of the substrate material under tensile loading.

  18. Effect of plasticizer on surface of free films prepared from aqueous solutions of salts of cationic polymers with different plasticizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajdik, János; Fehér, Máté; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2007-06-01

    Acquisition of a more detailed understanding of all technological processes is currently a relevant tendency in pharmaceutical technology and hence in industry. A knowledge of film formation from dispersion of polymers is very important during the coating of solid dosage forms. This process and the structure of the film can be influenced by different additives. In the present study, taste-masking films were prepared from aqueous citric acid solutions of a cationic polymer (Eudragit ® E PO) with various hydrophilic plasticizers (glycerol, propylene glycol and different poly(ethylene glycols)). The mechanical properties, film thickness, wetting properties and surface free energy of the free films were studied. The aim was to evaluate the properties of surface of free films to predict the arrangement of macromolecules in films formed from aqueous solutions of salts of cationic polymers. A high molecular weight of the plasticizer decreased the work of deformation. The surface free energy and the polarity were highest for the film without plasticizer; the hydrophilic additives decreased these parameters. The direction of the change in polarity (a hydrophilic component caused a decrease in the polarity) was unexpected. It can be explained by the change in orientation of the macromolecules, a hydrophobic surface being formed. Examination of the mechanical properties and film thickness can furnish additional results towards a knowledge of film formation by this not frequently applied type of polymer from aqueous solution.

  19. Uptake of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate of vegetables from plastic film greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaowei; Du, Qizhen

    2011-11-09

    Uptake of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) of nine vegetables including potherb mustard, bok choy, celery, spinach, cabbage, leaf of tube, lettuce, garlic, and edible amaranth in plastic film greenhouses with different plastic films, film thickness, greenhouse age, and greenhouse height was studied. The results showed that the higher the DEHP content of film, the thicker the film, the lower the height of the greenhouse, and the younger the age of the greenhouse were, the higher the DEHP concentration of vegetables was. The results afford significant information for production of safe vegetables with low level DEHP contamination.

  20. ‘White revolution’ to ‘white pollution’—agricultural plastic film mulch in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, E. K.; He, W. Q.; Yan, C. R.

    2014-09-01

    Plastic film mulching has played an important role in Chinese agriculture due to its soil warming and moisture conservation effects. With the help of plastic film mulch technology, grain and cash crop yields have increased by 20-35% and 20-60%, respectively. The area of plastic film coverage in China reached approximately 20 million hectares, and the amount of plastic film used reached 1.25 million tons in 2011. While producing huge benefits, plastic film mulch technology has also brought on a series of pollution hazards. Large amounts of residual plastic film have detrimental effects on soil structure, water and nutrient transport and crop growth, thereby disrupting the agricultural environment and reducing crop production. To control pollution, the Chinese government urgently needs to elevate plastic film standards. Meanwhile, research and development of biodegradable mulch film and multi-functional mulch recovery machinery will help promote effective control and management of residual mulch pollution.

  1. EFFECT OF PLASTICIZERS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE FILM FROM JANENG STARCH – CHITOSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narlis Juandi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the development of edible and biodegradable films has increased because it is every day more evident that non degradable are doing much damage to the environment. In this research, edible films were based on blends of janeng starch in different proportions, added of palm oil or glycerol, which were used as plasticizers. The objective was to study the effect of two different plasticizers, palm oil and glycerol of edible film from janeng starch–chitosan on the mechanical properties and FTIR spectra. Increasing concentration of glycerol as plasticizer resulted tend to increased tensile strength and elongation at break. The tensile strength and elongation at break values for palm oil is higher than glycerol as plasticizer at the same concentration. FTIR spectra show the process of making edible film from janeng starch–chitosan with palm oil or glycerol as plasticizers are physically mixing in the presence of hydrogen interactions between chains.

  2. Influence of colorant and film thickness on thermal aging characteristics of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuterio, Giselle Lou D.; Pajarito, Bryan B.; Domingo, Carla Marie C.; Lim, Anna Patricia G.

    2016-05-01

    Functional, lightweight, strong and cheap plastic bags incorporated with pro-oxidants undergo accelerated degradation under exposure to heat and oxygen. This work investigated the effect of colorant and film thickness on thermal aging characteristics of commercial oxo-biodegradable plastic bag films at 70 °C. Degradation is monitored through changes in infrared absorption, weight, and tensile properties of thermally aged films. The presence of carbonyl band in infrared spectrum after 672 h of thermal aging supports the degradation behavior of exposed films. Results show that incorporation of colorant and increasing thickness exhibit low maximum weight uptake. Titanium dioxide as white colorant in films lowers the susceptibility of films to oxygen uptake but enhances physical degradation. Higher amount of pro-oxidant loading also contributes to faster degradation. Opaque films are characterized by low tensile strength and high elastic modulus. Decreasing the thickness contributes to lower tensile strength of films. Thermally aged films with colorant and low thickness promote enhanced degradation.

  3. Effect of plasticizer on drug crystallinity of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose matrix film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Brajabihari; Parihar, Aditi Singh; Mallick, Subrata

    2014-06-01

    Effect of different hydrophilic plasticizers on drug crystallinity of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) matrix film was studied. HPMC films containing telmisartan using different plasticizers were prepared by casting method. Drug crystallinity in the films was examined using polarized light microscopy (PLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray diffractometry (XRD) to describe their phase behavior/solid state miscibility/crystal growth and drug-polymer-plasticizer interaction. HPMC and plasticizer were compatible with the drug and no phase separation was observed upon solvent evaporation. Plasticized-HPMC contributed a major role in the significant inhibition of crystal growth of the drug in the film. The triethanolamine film produced a relatively smooth surface in comparison to the other films in the submicron level. The films have not shown any significant changes even after exposure to stress (40°C/75% RH, 6 w). Triethanolamine as plasticizer brought about amorphization of telmisartan to the maximum extent in the film which is technologically more advantageous than the others owing to its anticipated better bioavailability.

  4. The Effects of plasticizers and palmitic acid toward the properties of the carrageenan Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heru Wibowo, Atmanto; Listiyawati, Oktaviana; Purnawan, Candra

    2016-02-01

    Varied plasticizers and palmitic acid additive have been added in the carrageenan film. The film was made by mixing of the carrageenan and plasticizers (glycerol, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol) with composition of 92:3, 90:6, 87:9, 84:12, 81:15(%w/w) and in the presence of palmitic acid as additive with 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% of total weight. Casting method was used for the film molding and drying at 60oC with the oven for 12 hours. To investigate the effects of plasticizers and additive, some mechanical tests on film were performed. The test result concludes that plasticizers in the film decreased the tensile strength and increased the elongation break of the carrageenan film. The additive of palmitic acid decreased the tensile strength of the carrageenan film and also decreased the-the water absorbance of the film. The highest tensile strength of films made was with the formulation of carrageenan: PEG with composition of 92:3 (% w/w). The highest elongation break of the film was for carrageenan:PVA with the composition of 81: 15 (%w/w) and carrageenan:palmitic acid:PEG with the composition of 92: 3: 1 (%w/w). The lowest water absorption of the film was achieved for carrageenan:PVA:palmitic acid with the composition of 87: 3: 5 (%w/w).

  5. Adhesion of an Amylolytic Arthrobacter sp. to Starch-Containing Plastic Films

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Cells of the amylolytic bacterium KB-1 (thought to be an Arthrobacter sp.) adhered (∼70%) to the surface of plastic films composed of starch-poly (methylacrylate) graft copolymer (starch-PMA), but did not adhere (

  6. Effects of UV-absorbing plastic films on greenhouse whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutwiwa, Urbanus N; Borgemeister, Christian; von Elsner, Burkhard; Tantau, Hans-Juergen

    2005-08-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the effects of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing plastic films on the orientation and distribution behavior of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood). In field experiments, small tunnels were constructed and covered with either an UV-transmitting (Thermilux) or UV-absorbing (K-Rose) plastic film. Results show that significantly more whiteflies were recorded in the tunnels with high compared with those with low UV intensities. Moreover, whitefly penetration and dispersion were less inside the UV-deficient tunnels. These results suggest that the type of plastic film used for greenhouse covers may have a significant influence on both the initial immigration and distribution of T. vaporariorum into greenhouses. The possibilities of using UV-absorbing plastic films for whitefly integrated pest management in greenhouses are discussed.

  7. Effect of plasticizer type and concentration on physical properties of biodegradable films based on sugar palm (arenga pinnata) starch for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M; Jawaid, M; Ishak, M R; Sahari, J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, sugar palm starch (SPS) films were developed using glycerol (G), sorbitol (S) or their combination (GS) as plasticizers at the ratio of 15, 30 and 45 (wt)% using casting technique. The addition of plasticizers to SPS film-forming solutions helped to overcome the brittle and fragile nature of unplasticized SPS films. Increased plasticizer concentration resulted to an increase in film thickness, moisture content and solubility. On the contrary, density and water absorption of plasticized films decreased with increasing plasticizer concentration. Raising the plasticizer content from 15 to 45 % showed less effect on the moisture content and water absorption of S-plasticized films. Films containing glycerol and glycerol-sorbitol plasticizer (G, and GS) demonstrated higher moisture content, solubility and water absorption capacity compared to S-plasticized films. The results obtained in this study showed that plasticizer type and concentration significantly improves film properties and enhances their suitability for food packaging applications.

  8. LIGHT SOAKING STUDIES ON METALSEMICONDUCTOR CONTACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. MONISHA CHAKRABORTY

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to obtain contact resistivity of metal-semiconductor (M-Scontact, based on the values of ideality factor and barrier height which are obtained from Current–voltage (I-Vcharacteristics of the M-S contact. I-V characteristics are recorded in dark condition and after light soaking at anillumination level of 100mWcm-2, for duration of three hours. Thin films of Cd1-xZnxTe of 1μm and 100nm thickness are the semiconductor materials fabricated on nickel coated glass substrates and plain glass substrates respectively for ‘x’ varying from 0.0567 to 0.2210. Nickel, Aluminium, Indium, Silver and Copper are the top contact points deposited on these films. The present paper has dealt with the estimation of optimum top metallic contact and optimum ‘x’ in Cd1-xZnxTe thin films with respect to light soaking studies.

  9. Effect of plasticizers on properties of pregelatinised starch acetate (Amprac 01) free films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacucina, Giulia; Di Martino, Piera; Piombetti, Martina; Colombo, Angela; Roversi, Francesco; Palmieri, Giovanni F

    2006-04-26

    Film coating is a technique widely used in the pharmaceutical field to improve and modify technological and release characteristics of capsules, tablets and granules. In this paper physical and mechanical properties of free films of Amprac 01, obtained by the solvent cast method, were studied in order to investigate the film forming ability of this modified starch and the effects of the addition of different plasticizers. A morphological microscopical analysis (SEM) was performed to study surface properties of the films, while thermal analysis (DSC) was carried out to investigate the influence of different types of plasticizers on the glass transition temperature of the polymer. Then a mechanical characterization permitted to evaluate important parameters such as film crack resistance and deformation at break. Extensional creep/relaxation tests were also performed to investigate the viscoelastic characteristics. As clearly demonstrated by the T(g) values, the residual water present in the films acted as plasticizers, making possible the formation of free films characterised by good macroscopical and mechanical properties. Except glycerol, the kind and amount of the other tested plasticizers did not markedly improve the mechanical and crack resistance of the films.

  10. TECHNICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ECO-COMPATIBLE PLASTIC FILMS FOR SOIL SOLARIZATION: FOUR YEARS OF EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Margiotta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil solarization relies on solar radiation being converted to heat for the killing of soilborne pathogens. On one hand, this technique can be considered as an environmentally-friendly way to manage soilborne pests, as an alternative of methyl bromide phased-out in 2005, than using chemicals. On the other hand, high employment of traditional plastic sheets in agriculture causes the production of enormous quantities of waste, whose inappropriate management might have negative effects on the environment. In order to determine a reduction of the charge of plastic waste and to facilitate the waste disposal, one of the most interesting approaches, from an environmental point of view, lies in the location of innovatory plastic films such as co-extruded ultrathin films, which are able to reduce the plastic quantity to be managed, and biodegradable laminates, which after a first usage, will spontaneously start up a degradation process that avoids their collection and their consequent disposal. Beside the ecological proprieties of these innovative films, it is necessary to study their technical and agronomical behavior in order to determine their efficiency and the possibility to be used in place of the traditional plastic films. This paper represents a review of the researches carrier out by the Technical Economics Department of the University of Basilicata (Italy in the last years (1999, 2000, 2002 and 2003 on the technical performances of some innovative plastic films used for soil solarization.

  11. Switching of the electrical conductivity of plasticized PVC films under uniaxial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, D. V.; Apresyan, L. A.; Vlasova, T. V.; Kryshtob, V. I.

    2011-11-01

    The jumplike switching of the electrical conductivity in wide-band-gap polymer (antistatic plasticized polyvinylchloride) films under uniaxial pressure is studied. In various plasticized PVC materials, the uniaxial pressure inducing a conductivity jump by four orders of magnitude or higher changes from several to several hundreds of bars, and this effect is retained at a film thickness of several hundred microns, which is two orders of magnitude larger than the critical film thicknesses known for other wide-band-gap polymers. In addition to the earlier interpretation of the conductivity anomalies in plasticized PVC, we proposed a phenomenological electron-molecular dynamic nanotrap model, in which local charge transfer is provided by mobile molecule segments in a plasticized polymer.

  12. Direct writing patterns for electroless plated copper thin film on plastic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ying-Chih; Kao, Zhen-Kai

    2012-10-24

    A simple and efficient method is developed to create conductive copper thin films on polymer surfaces. Instead of regular palladium colloid inks, micropatterns of silver nitrate inks, which serve as an activating agent for copper plating, were printed and dried on flexible plastic substrates. The printed plastic sheets were then immersed in an electroless copper plating bath at 55 °C for 2 min to create copper thin films on the printed patterns. The prepared copper films have an electrical conductivity as high as 83% of bulk copper and show good adhesion on PET or PI substrates.

  13. Plasticization effect of triacetin on structure and properties of starch ester film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Li, Xiaoxi; Huang, Chen; Chen, Ling; Li, Lin

    2013-05-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the plasticizing effect of triacetin on the structure and properties of starch ester film and further establish the structure-property relationships. The presence of triacetin resulted in multiple structure changes of the film. The mobility of macromolecular chain was increased to form scattered crystallite during the film formation process. The amorphous region was enlarged to contain more triacetin squeezed from crystalline region. The plasticization of triacetin and restriction of crystallite oppositely influenced the mobility of macromolecular chains in different regions. The thermal stability of triacetin changed along with its fluctuant interaction with macromolecules. Comparatively, the enhanced ether bond and the restriction from crystalline regions on the mobility of the amorphous chain consequently improved the thermal stability of the film matrix. The interaction between triacetin and starch ester was essential to film forming but unexpectedly lowered the triacetin stability.

  14. Alternative plasticizers for the production of thermo-compressed agar films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana M M; Souza, Hiléia K S; Liu, LinShu; Gonçalves, Maria P

    2015-05-01

    Agar films were produced by thermo-compression using choline chloride (ChCl) as a plasticizer with urea. The three solid components were mixed together with the salt and urea (minor components) added to agar (main component) according to a fixed mass ratio of, respectively, 1.16:1:5. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) with three parameters, 2(3), was used to evaluate the effects of temperature (X1; °C), time (X2; min) and applied load (X3; kN) of heat-pressing on the maximum tensile strength (TS) of the films (Y; MPa). Mixtures of urea and agar prepared at a mass ratio of 1:5 did not form homogeneous films suggesting the important plasticizing role of the salt. Heat-pressing the mixtures at more draconian conditions led to much darker and opaque films, with better mechanical resistance (higher values of TS). The most resistant film (∼ 15 MPa) was obtained at 140°C, 20 min and 176 kN. Selected films, including the optimal, showed similar water sorption profiles and close values of water vapor permeability (∼ 2.5-3.7 × 10(-9)gm(-1)s(-1)Pa(-1)). The fracture behavior and mechanical properties of the films were greatly affected by additional water plasticization when the films were stored at different conditions of relative humidity.

  15. Methods of Cold Soaking, Foam Plastics Enrichment and Inductive Coupling Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry%冷浸取--泡塑富集-电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法测定化探样品中的超痕量金铂钯研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵慧英; 袁蕙霞; 郭玉翠

    2015-01-01

    建立了冷浸--泡沫塑料富集,采用 ICP-AES 测定地球化学勘探样品中超痕量金、铂、钯的方法,并试验了冷浸取、泡沫塑料富集时各种因素的影响;确定了采用氯化钠、盐酸和高锰酸钾冷浸取分解试样,以泡沫塑料富集、灰化,残渣用王水溶解,用电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法测定的条件。该方法检出限分别为:Au 0.039ng/g,Pt 0.040ng/g,Pd 0.058ng/g;回收率为95.6%~102.5%之间;测量精密度( RSD%)为:Au 4.85%,Pt 5.76%,Pd 6.45%。采用该方法测定了国家一级地球化学标准物质中的痕量 Au,Pt,Pd,测定值与标准值符合规范要求。%In this paper, we set up the enrichment of cold soaking foam plastics by adopting the method of ICP-AES to test the ultra-trace of gold, platinum and palladium from the geochemical exploration sample and studied all kinds of effective factors in cold soaking foam plastics enrichment. And we confirmed the requirements of using sodi-um chloride, hydrochloric acid and potassium permanganate cold soak-ing to decompose the sample, using foam plastics to enrich and ash, aqua regia to dissolve residue, and measuring by inductive coupling Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. The detection limits of this method are as follows: detection limit: Au 0.039ng/g, Pt 0.040ng/g, Pd 0.058ng/g; recovery rate: between 95.9% and 102.2%; relative stan-dard deviation (RSD%): Au 4.85%,Pt 5.76%,Pd 6.45%.We tested the trace amount of Au, Pt and Pd in the country-level geochemistry stan-dard substance. The measured value is consistent with the normalized value.

  16. Investigation of conductivity switching upon action of monoaxial pressure on plasticized PVC films

    CERN Document Server

    Vlasov, D V; Krystob, V I; Vlasova, T V

    2010-01-01

    The effect of conductivity switching of wideband polymers -plasticized PVC films under the influence of mono axial pressure is experimentally investigated. For various plasticizers the value of monoaxial pressure, causing jumps of conductivity on four and more orders, changes from units to hundreds bars, and the effect remains at a thickness of films of an order of hundreds micron, that is on two orders more than critical thickness for others wideband polymers. In addition to the reasons stated earlier on the interpretation of anomalies of plastic compounds conductivity, the phenomenological electron-molecular model of dynamic traps is considered, in which local transfer of charges is carried out by mobile segments of the plasticized polymer molecules.

  17. Structure-property relation in HPMC polymer films plasticized with Sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Y.; Somashekarappa, H.; Mahadevaiah, Somashekar, R.

    2013-06-01

    A correlation study on physical and mechanical properties of Hydroxy propyl-methylcellulose (HPMC) polymer films plasticized with different weight ratio of Sorbitol, prepared using solution casting method, was carried out using wide angle X-ray technique and universal testing machine. It is found that the crystallanity decreases as the concentration of Sorbitol increases up to a certain concentration and there afterwards increases. Measured Physical Properties like tensile strength decreases and elongation (%) increases indicating increase in the flexibility of the films. These observations confirm the correlation between microstructal parameters and mechanical properties of films. These films are suitable for packaging food products.

  18. Experiment and optimal design of a collection device for a residual plastic film baler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi NIU,Xuegeng CHEN,Chao JI,Jie WU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is imperative to carry out research on residual plastic film collection technology to solve the serious problem of farmland pollution. The residual plastic film baler was designed as a package for film strip collection, cleaning and baling. The collection device is a core component of the baler. Response surface analysis was used in this study to optimize the structure and working parameters for improving the collection efficiency of residual film and the impurity of film package. The results show that the factors affecting the collection rate of residual film and the impurity of the film package are the speed ratio (k between the trash removal roller and eccentric collection mechanism, the number (z and the mounting angle (θ of spring teeth in the same revolution plane. For the collection rate, the importance of the three factors are in the order, k>z>θ. Meanwhile, for the impurity, the importance of three factors are in the order, z>k>θ. When the speed ratio, the mounting angle and the number of spring teeth was set at 1.6º, 45º, and 8º, respectively, the collection rate of residual film was 88.9% and the impurity of residual film package was 14.2% for the baler.

  19. Aging properties of films of plasticized vital wheat gluten cast from acidic and basic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarrieta, Idoia; Cho, Sung-Woo; Gällstedt, Mikael; Sarasua, Jose-Ramon; Johansson, Eva; Hedenqvist, Mikael S

    2006-05-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms behind the undesired aging of films based on vital wheat gluten plasticized with glycerol, films cast from water/ethanol solutions were investigated. The effect of pH was studied by casting from solutions at pH 4 and pH 11. The films were aged for 120 days at 50% relative humidity and 23 degrees C, and the tensile properties and oxygen and water vapor permeabilities were measured as a function of aging time. The changes in the protein structure were determined by infrared spectroscopy and size-exclusion and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and the film structure was revealed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The pH 11 film was mechanically more stable with time than the pH 4 film, the latter being initially very ductile but turning brittle toward the end of the aging period. The protein solubility and infrared spectroscopy measurements indicated that the protein structure of the pH 4 film was initially significantly less polymerized/aggregated than that of the pH 11 film. The polymerization of the pH 4 film increased during storage but it did not reach the degree of aggregation of the pH 11 film. Reverse-phase chromatography indicated that the pH 11 films were to some extent deamidated and that this increased with aging. At the same time a large fraction of the aged pH 11 film was unaffected by reducing agents, suggesting that a time-induced isopeptide cross-linking had occurred. This isopeptide formation did not, however, change the overall degree of aggregation and consequently the mechanical properties of the film. During aging, the pH 4 films lost more mass than the pH 11 films mainly due to migration of glycerol but also due to some loss of volatile mass. Scanning electron and optical microscopy showed that the pH 11 film was more uniform in thickness and that the film structure was more homogeneous than that of the pH 4 film. The oxygen permeability was also lower for the pH 11 film. The

  20. Critical material attributes (CMAs) of strip films loaded with poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles: I. Impact of plasticizer on film properties and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Scott M; Patel, Hardik V; Li, Meng; Bilgili, Ecevit; Davé, Rajesh N

    2016-09-20

    Recent studies have demonstrated polymer films to be a promising platform for delivery of poorly water-soluble drug particles. However, the impact of critical material attributes, for example plasticizer, on the properties of and drug release from such films has yet to be investigated. In response, this study focuses on the impact of plasticizer and plasticizer concentration on properties and dissolution rate of polymer films loaded with poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles. Glycerin, triacetin, and polyethylene glycol were selected as film plasticizers. Griseofulvin was used as a model Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II drug and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose was used as a film-forming polymer. Griseofulvin nanoparticles were prepared via wet stirred media milling in aqueous suspension. A depression in film glass transition temperature was observed with increasing plasticizer concentration, along with a decrease in film tensile strength and an increase in film elongation, as is typical of plasticizers. However, the type and amount of plasticizer necessary to produce strong yet flexible films had no significant impact on the dissolution rate of the films, suggesting that film mechanical properties can be effectively manipulated with minimal impact on drug release. Griseofulvin nanoparticles were successfully recovered upon redispersion in water regardless of plasticizer or content, even after up to 6months' storage at 40°C and 75% relative humidity, which contributed to similar consistency in dissolution rate after 6months' storage for all films. Good content uniformity (<4% R.S.D. for very small film sample size) was also maintained across all film formulations.

  1. Thin plastic radiochromic dye films as ionizing radiation dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenfil-Burgos, A. E.; Uribe, R. M.; de la Piedad, A.; McLaughlin, W. L.; Miller, A.

    Radiochromic dye films were fabricated by casting polyvinyl butyral (PVB) in weakly acidic solution with the leucocyanide of pararosaniline. Calibrated films of 10-25 μm thickness were useful over a response range of about 10 3-10 5 Gy, by applying spectrophotometric analysis at the wavelength of the maximum of the radiation-induced absorption band (550 nm). The effects of temperature, pressure, and humidity during curing of the films pointed to the need for carefully controlling these parameters. For casting films at the high altitude of Mexico City (≈ 2500 meters), the optimum conditions are 45-75% r.h. and 20-25° C for a drying period of 72 to 92 hours, when the solvent is a mixture of ethanol and 2-methoxyethanol. The response of films fabricated in this way were compared with those of commercially available PVB and Nylon films. The effects of temperature, humidity, and period of storage on the response of these films were studied in the range from -5 to 60° C and from 11.8 to 96.6% r.h. for up to four months between irradiation and spectral analysis, and within nominal experimental uncertainty (≈ 10%), we found that all the radiochromic films studied can be stored for extended periods under steady-state conditions in the temperature range from -5 to 30° C and from 11.8-75.6% r.h. without correction factors for instability, but under extreme conditions of moisture at elevated temperatures the radiochromic image showed a fading effect on storage.

  2. Oxidized potato starch based thermoplastic films : Effect of combination of hydrophilic and amphiphilic plasticizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Bilal Khan; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2016-01-01

    Different combinations of hydrophilic (glycerol and water) and amphiphilic (isoleucine) plasticizers were studied in the production of thermoplastic starch (TPS) powders and films from oxidized potato starch. All powder samples had an irregular and shrivelled morphology. In all mixtures containing i

  3. Light Trapping in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Plastic Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the search for sustainable energy sources, solar energy can fulfil a large part of the growing demand. The biggest threshold for large-scale solar energy harvesting is the solar panel price. For drastic cost reductions, roll-to-roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells using plastic subst

  4. Rapid and simple colorimetric assay for detecting the enzymatic degradation of biodegradable plastic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Yukiko; Watanabe, Takashi; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2013-01-01

    We developed a rapid and simple method for evaluating the degradation of solid biodegradable plastics (BPs). Dye-containing BP films were used as substrates and the release of dye caused by the degradation of BPs was confirmed by a color change in the enzyme solution after a reaction time of 24 h.

  5. Conductive plastic film electrodes for Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treatment : A proof of principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.; Haan, S.W.H. de; Boxtel, L.B.J. van; Hatt, V.; Wouters, P.C.; Coronel, P.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treatment of food needs to be performed prior to packaging, either hygienic or aseptic packaging is necessary. New techniques for PEF treatment after packaging can be considered when plastic conductive (film) electrodes can be integrated within the package, so th

  6. Light Trapping in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Plastic Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the search for sustainable energy sources, solar energy can fulfil a large part of the growing demand. The biggest threshold for large-scale solar energy harvesting is the solar panel price. For drastic cost reductions, roll-to-roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells using plastic

  7. Size effects in single crystal thin films : nonlocal crystal plasticity simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yefimov, S; van der Giessen, E

    2005-01-01

    Stress relaxation in single crystalline thin films on substrates subjected to thermal loading is studied using a recently proposed nonlocal continuum crystal plasticity theory. The theory is founded on a statistical-mechanics description of the collective behaviour of dislocations in multiple slip,

  8. Conductive plastic film electrodes for Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treatment : A proof of principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.; Haan, S.W.H. de; Boxtel, L.B.J. van; Hatt, V.; Wouters, P.C.; Coronel, P.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treatment of food needs to be performed prior to packaging, either hygienic or aseptic packaging is necessary. New techniques for PEF treatment after packaging can be considered when plastic conductive (film) electrodes can be integrated within the package, so

  9. Light Trapping in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Plastic Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325844208

    2013-01-01

    In the search for sustainable energy sources, solar energy can fulfil a large part of the growing demand. The biggest threshold for large-scale solar energy harvesting is the solar panel price. For drastic cost reductions, roll-to-roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells using plastic subst

  10. Effect of Plasticizer Type and Concentration on Tensile, Thermal and Barrier Properties of Biodegradable Films Based on Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed L. Sanyang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of starch based films as a potential alternative choice to petroleum derived plastics is imperative for environmental waste management. This study presents a new biopolymer (sugar palm starch for the preparation of biodegradable packaging films using a solution casting technique. The effect of different plasticizer types (glycerol (G, sorbitol (S and glycerol-sorbitol (GS combination with varying concentrations (0, 15, 30 and 45, w/w% on the tensile, thermal and barrier properties of sugar palm starch (SPS films was evaluated. Regardless of plasticizer types, the tensile strength of plasticized SPS films decreased, whereas their elongation at break (E% increased as the plasticizer concentrations were raised. However, the E% for G and GS-plasticized films significantly decreased at a higher plasticizer concentration (45% w/w due to the anti-plasticization effect of plasticizers. Change in plasticizer concentration showed an insignificant effect on the thermal properties of S-plasticized films. The glass transition temperature of SPS films slightly decreased as the plasticizer concentration increased from 15% to 45%. The plasticized films exhibited increased water vapor permeability values from 4.855 × 10−10 to 8.70 × 10−10 g·m−1·s−1·Pa−1, irrespective of plasticizer types. Overall, the current study manifested that plasticized sugar palm starch can be regarded as a promising biopolymer for biodegradable films.

  11. Degradation of biodegradable plastic mulch films in soil environment by phylloplane fungi isolated from gramineous plants

    OpenAIRE

    Koitabashi, Motoo; Noguchi, Masako T; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Suzuki, Ken; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Tsushima, Seiya; Kitamoto, Hiroko K.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the biodegradation of biodegradable plastic (BP) mulch films, 1227 fungal strains were isolated from plant surface (phylloplane) and evaluated for BP-degrading ability. Among them, B47-9 a strain isolated from the leaf surface of barley showed the strongest ability to degrade poly-(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) and poly-(butylene succinate) (PBS) films. The strain grew on the surface of soil-mounted BP films, produced breaks along the direction of hyphal growth ind...

  12. Polyamines as new cationic plasticizers for pectin-based edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marilena; Di Pierro, Prospero; Regalado-Gonzales, Carlos; Mariniello, Loredana; Giosafatto, C Valeria L; Porta, Raffaele

    2016-11-20

    Zeta potential and particle size were determined on pectin aqueous solutions as a function of pH and the effects of calcium ions, putrescine and spermidine on pectin film forming solutions and derived films were studied. Ca(2+) and polyamines were found to differently influence pectin zeta potential as well as thickness and mechanical and barrier properties of pectin films prepared at pH 7.5 either in the presence or absence of the plasticizer glycerol. In particular, Ca(2+) was found to increase film tensile strength and elongation at break only in the presence of glycerol and did not affect film thickness and permeability to both water vapor and CO2. Conversely, increasing polyamine concentrations progressively reduced film tensile strength and markedly enhanced film thickness, elongation at break and permeability to water vapor and CO2, both in the presence and absence of glycerol. Our findings indicate that polyamines give rise to a structural organization of the heteropolysaccharide different from that determined by calcium ions, previously described as "egg box" model, and suggest their possible application as plasticizers to produce pectin-based "bioplastics" with different features.

  13. Physicochemical and morphological properties of plasticized poly(vinyl alcohol)-agar biodegradable films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera-Santana, T J; Freile-Pelegrín, Y; Azamar-Barrios, J A

    2014-08-01

    The effects of the addition of glycerol (GLY) on the physicochemical and morphological properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-agar films were reported. PVA-agar films were prepared by solution cast method, and the addition of GLY in PVA-agar films altered the optical properties, resulting in a decrease in opacity values and in the color difference (ΔE) of the films. Structural characterization using Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the presence of GLY altered the intensity of the bands (from 1200 to 800cm(-1)) and crystallinity. The characterization of the thermal properties indicated that an increase in the agar content produces a decrease in the melting temperature and augments the heat of fusion. Similar tendencies were observed in plasticized films, but at different magnification. The formulation that demonstrated the lowest mechanical properties contained 25wt.% agar, whereas the formulation that contained 75wt.% agar demonstrated a significant improvement. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and surface morphology analysis demonstrated that the structure of PVA-agar films is reorganized upon GLY addition. The physicochemical properties of PVA-agar films using GLY as a plasticizer provide information for the application of this formulation as packaging material for specific food applications.

  14. Thin-Film Coated Plastic Wrap for Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yu Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antimicrobial property and food package capability of polymethylpentene (PMP substrate with silicon oxdie (SiOx and organic silicon (SiCxHy stacked layers deposited by an inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition system were investigated. The experimental results show that the stacked pair number of SiOx/SiCxHy on PMP is limited to three pairs, beyond which the films will crack and cause package failure. The three-pair SiOx/SiCxHy on PMP shows a low water vapor transmission rate of 0.57 g/m2/day and a high water contact angle of 102°. Three-pair thin-film coated PMP demonstrates no microbe adhesion and exhibits antibacterial properties within 24 h. Food shelf life testing performed at 28 °C and 80% humidity reports that the three-pair thin-film coated PMP can enhance the food shelf-life to 120 h. The results indicate that the silicon-based thin film may be a promising material for antibacterial food packaging applications to extend the shelf-life of food products.

  15. Thin-Film Coated Plastic Wrap for Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Yu; Liu, Ting-Xuan; Hsu, Chia-Hsun; Cho, Yun-Shao; Xu, Zhi-Jia; Liao, Shu-Chuan; Zeng, Bo-Han; Jiang, Yeu-Long; Lien, Shui-Yang

    2017-07-18

    In this study, the antimicrobial property and food package capability of polymethylpentene (PMP) substrate with silicon oxdie (SiOx) and organic silicon (SiCxHy) stacked layers deposited by an inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition system were investigated. The experimental results show that the stacked pair number of SiOx/SiCxHy on PMP is limited to three pairs, beyond which the films will crack and cause package failure. The three-pair SiOx/SiCxHy on PMP shows a low water vapor transmission rate of 0.57 g/m²/day and a high water contact angle of 102°. Three-pair thin-film coated PMP demonstrates no microbe adhesion and exhibits antibacterial properties within 24 h. Food shelf life testing performed at 28 °C and 80% humidity reports that the three-pair thin-film coated PMP can enhance the food shelf-life to 120 h. The results indicate that the silicon-based thin film may be a promising material for antibacterial food packaging applications to extend the shelf-life of food products.

  16. Buckling patterns of thin films on compliant substrates: the effect of plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Jie; Chen Xi, E-mail: xichen@columbia.edu [Columbia Nanomechanics Research Center, Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2011-02-02

    Most previous studies on spontaneous buckling pattern formations in thin films on compliant substrates were limited to elastic deformation, where the herringbone mode is the most often observed under equi-biaxial compression. In practice, plastic deformation is often encountered in ductile metal and polymer films. The effect of plasticity on buckling patterns is explored in this paper using extensive finite element simulations, where the film is assumed to be elastic-perfectly plastic. It is found that upon equi-biaxial compression, depending on the competition among the yield strain, critical buckling strain and applied strain, three new types of patterns may emerge: the plastic diamond-like pattern, the elastoplastic square lattice pattern and the elastoplastic sharp herringbone pattern, and their characteristics are compared with the elastic herringbone mode. Moreover, unique features including the asymmetry in crests and troughs, the sharp saw-like undulation profile and varying wavelengths with applied strain are observed for some types of the new patterns. The study may find its potential applications in the design of stretchable electronics, fabrication of micro/nanofluid channels or channel networks, and morphogenesis of tissues and plants, among others.

  17. Fabrication of superhydrophobic film by microcellular plastic foaming method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen Xiu; Li, Ya Nan; Xia, Lin; Ma, Zhen Guo; Xin, Zhen Xiang; Kim, Jin Kuk

    2014-08-01

    To solve the complicated manufacturing operation and the usage of toxic solvent problems, a simple and novel method to fabricate superhydrophobic film by surface foaming method was introduced in this paper. The superhydrophobic property of the foamed material was obtained at a contact angle >150° and a rolling angle about 8°. The foamed material can instantly generate its superhydrophobicity via peeling process. The effects of blowing agent content, foaming time and peeling rate on the foam structure and superhydrophobicity were studied.

  18. Degradation of biodegradable plastic mulch films in soil environment by phylloplane fungi isolated from gramineous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koitabashi, Motoo; Noguchi, Masako T; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Suzuki, Ken; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Tsushima, Seiya; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2012-08-02

    To improve the biodegradation of biodegradable plastic (BP) mulch films, 1227 fungal strains were isolated from plant surface (phylloplane) and evaluated for BP-degrading ability. Among them, B47-9 a strain isolated from the leaf surface of barley showed the strongest ability to degrade poly-(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) and poly-(butylene succinate) (PBS) films. The strain grew on the surface of soil-mounted BP films, produced breaks along the direction of hyphal growth indicated that it secreted a BP-degrading enzyme, and has directly contributing to accelerating the degradation of film. Treatment with the culture filtrate decomposed 91.2 wt%, 23.7 wt%, and 14.6 wt% of PBSA, PBS, and commercially available BP polymer blended mulch film, respectively, on unsterlized soil within 6 days. The PCR-DGGE analysis of the transition of soil microbial community during film degradation revealed that the process was accompanied with drastic changes in the population of soil fungi and Acantamoeba spp., as well as the growth of inoculated strain B47-9. It has a potential for application in the development of an effective method for accelerating degradation of used plastics under actual field conditions.

  19. Utilization of starch films plasticized with urea as fertilizer for improvement of plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychter, Piotr; Kot, Marta; Bajer, Krzysztof; Rogacz, Diana; Šišková, Alena; Kapuśniak, Janusz

    2016-02-10

    The utilization of starch films, obtained by extrusion of potato starch with urea as plasticizer, for the fertilization of plants has been undertaken. Release rate of urea from the starch films was conducted in water conditions. The molecular weight distribution, surface erosion and weight loss of the starch samples have been determined. The evaluation of efficiency of urea as a fertilizer in the process of release from the starch films was performed under laboratory conditions based on the plant growth test proposed by OECD 208 Guideline and the PN-ISO International Standard using oat and common radish. Although among extruded starch-based films, those that contain the highest amount of fertilizer hold the most promise for a delayed release system, the time of release of fertilizer from obtained films in undertaken study was not satisfactory. All the same, in the present study effort has been made to utilize extruded samples as a fertilizer for agriculture or horticulture purposes. Urea-plasticized starch was successfully used as a fertilizer. Plant growth assessment, including determination of such parameters as fresh and dry matter of plants and their visual evaluation, has proved the stimulating effect of using extruded films on the growth and development of cultivated plants.

  20. Effect of interfibrillar PVA bridging on water stability and mechanical properties of TEMPO/NaClO2 oxidized cellulosic nanofibril films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakalahti, Minna; Salminen, Arto; Seppälä, Jukka; Tammelin, Tekla; Hänninen, Tuomas

    2015-08-01

    TEMPO/NaClO2 oxidized cellulosic nanofibrils (TCNF) were covalently bonded with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to render water stable films. Pure TCNF films and TCNF-PVA films in dry state showed similar humidity dependent behavior in the elastic region. However, in wet films PVA had a significant effect on stability and mechanical characteristics of the films. When soaked in water, pure TCNF films exhibited strong swelling behavior and poor wet strength, whereas covalently bridged TCNF-PVA composite films remained intact and could easily be handled even after 24h of soaking. Wet tensile strength of the films was considerably enhanced with only 10 wt% PVA addition. At 25% PVA concentration wet tensile strengths were decreased and films were more yielding. This behavior is attributed to the ability of PVA to reinforce and plasticize TCNF-based films. The developed approach is a simple and straightforward method to produce TCNF films that are stable in wet conditions.

  1. Efficient coating of transparent and conductive carbon nanotube thin films on plastic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, M H Andrew; Hartadi, Lysia T; Tan Huiwen; Poa, C H Patrick [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore)], E-mail: patrick-poa@imre.a-star.edu.sg

    2008-05-21

    Optically transparent and electrically conductive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) thin films were fabricated at room temperature using a dip-coating technique. The film transparency and sheet resistance can be easily tailored by controlling the number of coatings. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) was used as an adhesion promoter and, together with surfactant Triton X-100, greatly improved the SWNTs coating. Only five coats were required to obtain a sheet resistance of 2.05 {omega}{open_square} and film transparency of 84 %T. The dip-coated film after post-deposition treatment with nitric acid has a sheet resistance as low as 130 {omega}{open_square} at 69 %T. This technique is suitable for large-scale SWNT coating at room temperature and can be used on different types of substrates such as glass and plastics. This paper will discuss the role of the adhesion promoter and surfactant in the coating process.

  2. Effect of plasticizer type and concentration on physical properties of biodegradable films based on sugar palm (arenga pinnata) starch for food packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sanyang, M. L.; Sapuan, S. M.; Jawaid, M.; M. R. Ishak; J. Sahari

    2015-01-01

    In this study, sugar palm starch (SPS) films were developed using glycerol (G), sorbitol (S) or their combination (GS) as plasticizers at the ratio of 15, 30 and 45 (wt)% using casting technique. The addition of plasticizers to SPS film-forming solutions helped to overcome the brittle and fragile nature of unplasticized SPS films. Increased plasticizer concentration resulted to an increase in film thickness, moisture content and solubility. On the contrary, density and water...

  3. Distribution of phthalate esters in agricultural soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kankan; Ma, Dong; Wu, Juan; Chai, Chao; Shi, Yanxi

    2016-12-01

    The content of phthalate esters (PAEs) was investigated in 36 vegetable fields with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China. Soils at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 20-40 cm were collected, and 16 PAEs were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PAEs were detected in all the analyzed samples. The total contents of the 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.374 to 18.810 mg/kg, with an average of 6.470 mg/kg. Among the four areas of Shandong Peninsula, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the highest Σ16PAE in the soil was observed in Weifang district (9.786 mg/kg), which is famous for large-scale vegetable production. Despite the significant differences among the Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions in soils with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula were comparable. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate, and di(4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate were present in all the samples, whereas di-n-hexyl phthalate was detected only in Qingdao (∼1%) and dicyclohexyl phthalate was observed only in Weifang (5.7-8.2%) in low proportions. The ratios of dimethyl phthalate, DEP, and di-n-butyl phthalate, which exceeded allowable concentrations, were 63.9-100% at different soil depths, indicating high PAE pollution. The concentration of butyl benzyl phthalate detected only in Weifang exceeded the recommended allowable soil concentration. Overall, the high PAE content in the soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula is an issue of concern because of the large amounts of plastic film used.

  4. Thermoplastic starch plasticized with alginate-glycerol mixtures: Melt-processing evaluation and film properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Olivia V; Ninago, Mario D; Lencina, M M Soledad; García, María A; Andreucetti, Noemí A; Ciolino, Andrés E; Villar, Marcelo A

    2015-08-01

    Corn starch melt-processing in the presence of a commonly used plasticizer mixture (water/glycerol) and a non-conventional alternative (alginate/glycerol) was evaluated. All assayed formulations were successfully processed by melt-mixing and injected in circular probes. It was determined that all samples presented a typical viscoelastic behavior, observing a decrease in storage and loss modulus with water and alginate concentration, which facilitated samples processability. Concerning to thermal stability, it was not affected neither for water nor alginate presence. From injected probes, flexible films were obtained by thermo-compression. Films with the highest assayed water content presented a sticky appearance, whereas those containing alginate were non-tacky. Plasticizing action of water and alginate was evidenced by the occurrence of homogeneous fracture surfaces, without the presence of unmelted starch granules. Besides, the shift of glass transition temperature to lower values also corroborated the plasticizing effect of both additives. In conclusion, obtained results demonstrated the well-plasticizing action of sodium alginate on starch matrix, turning this additive into a promissory alternative to replace water during melt-processing of thermoplastic corn-starch.

  5. Physical and biological treatments of polyethylene-rice starch plastic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naggar, Manal M.A., E-mail: mmelnaggar@yahoo.com [Microbiology Lab., National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria (Egypt); Farag, Magdy Gh. [Development Plastic Center, Victoria, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2010-04-15

    This study aimed to produce an industrial applicable thermo-stable {alpha}-amylase from marine Bacillus amyloliquefaciens which isolated and selected according to its significant enzyme production. The effect of different pH values and temperatures on the bacterial growth and the enzyme production was estimated using an experimental statistical design; maximum amylase production and bacterial growth was obtained at pH 7.0 and 50 deg. C. Some biodegradable polyethylene rice starch plastic films (PERS-P) were manufactured using 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% starch concentrations. The biodegradability (reduction in the plastic elongation%) was tested using the exposure to UV radiation at {lambda}{sub 300-400nm} (intensity of about 1000 W/m{sup 2}) and the produced B. amyloliquefaciens thermo-stable {alpha}-amylase. A significant reduction in the elongation% of these biodegradable plastics was observed in both cases especially on testing the 10% PERS-P; they showed a reduction of 26% and 20%, respectively, compared to the untreated plastic films (180 {+-} 5).

  6. Identification of fatty foods with contamination possibilities by plasticizers when stored in PVC film packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Duval Barros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Poly-(vinyl chloride (PVC requires the addition of plasticizers - additives that give flexibility and malleability for its processing into flexible film. The most used ones are: di-(2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA and di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP. Toxic effects of DEHP have been observed by several authors. Phthalates are being replaced by alternative substances in PVC flexible products, because of their possible toxicological effects. DEHA is a substitute for phthalates widely used as a plasticizer in PVC materials for involving food. Some authors have shown that the exposure to DEHA also induces toxicity. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify which fatty foods carry the possibility of contamination by DEHP and DEHA. Eighteen different foods with at least 3% (m/m fat and the possibility of being wrapped in plastic film were determined. This study suggested that all foods were subject to contamination by DEHP and DEHA in those conditions - in decreasing consumption order of 96 to 22% in the convenience sample. New guidelines on the limits of DEHA and DEHP established by the Brazilian legislation, as additives in PVC film for packaging fatty food, are still relevant to ensure human health.

  7. A Sustainable Performance Assessment Framework for Plastic Film Supply Chain Management from a Chinese Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuping Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Academics’ and practitioners’ interest in sustainable supply chain management has received great concern in recent years. The application of biaxially-oriented polypropylene (BOPP plastic film has had a significant influence on the economic, environmental and social performance of supply chain management. However, research on the integration of these three sustainable dimensions is still rare in this field. In this paper, we identify sustainability criteria based on a triple bottom line approach (economic benefit, environmental protection and social responsibility from the supply chain perspective, develop a hybrid multi-criteria decision making framework to evaluate the criteria and select alternatives and apply the proposed approach to a real case study at a focal BOPP plastic film company in China. In the framework, a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP is used to determine the performance criteria weights and a fuzzy technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS is applied to rank the alternatives. The case study finds that the economic dimension was the most important aspect with environmental second and social third. The results also verify the effectiveness of the proposed framework. This paper develops an effective and systematic approach for decision makers to conduct evaluations and select optimal alternatives for focal plastic film companies.

  8. High-rate deposition of nano-crystalline silicon thin films on plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marins, E.; Guduru, V.; Cerqueira, F.; Alpuim, P. [Centro de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, 4800-058 Guimaraes, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Ribeiro, M. [Centro de Nanotecnologia e Materiais Tecnicos, Funcionais e Inteligentes (CeNTI), 4760-034 Vila Nova de Famalicao (Portugal); Bouattour, A. [Institut fuer Physikalische Elektronik (ipe), Universitaet Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) is commonly used in the bottom cell of tandem solar cells. With an indirect bandgap, nc-Si:H requires thicker ({proportional_to}1 {mu}m) films for efficient light harvesting than amorphous Si (a-Si:H) does. Therefore, thin-film high deposition rates are crucial for further cost reduction of highly efficient a-Si:H based photovoltaic technology. Plastic substrates allow for further cost reduction by enabling roll-to-roll inline deposition. In this work, high nc-Si:H deposition rates on plastic were achieved at low substrate temperature (150 C) by standard Radio-frequency (13.56 MHz) Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. Focus was on the influence of deposition pressure, inter-electrode distance (1.2 cm) and high power coupled to the plasma, on the hydrogen-to-silane dilution ratios (HD) necessary to achieve the amorphous-to-nanocrystalline phase transition and on the resulting film deposition rate. For each pressure and rf-power, there is a value of HD for which the films start to exhibit a certain amount of crystalline fraction. For constant rf-power, this value increases with pressure. Within the parameter range studied the deposition rate was highest (0.38 nm/s) for nc-Si:H films deposited at 6 Torr, 700 mW/cm{sup 2} using HD of 98.5%. Decreasing the pressure to 3 Torr (1.5 Torr) and rf-power to 350 mW/cm{sup 2} using HD - 98.5% deposition rate is 0.12 nm/s (0.076 nm/s). Raman crystalline fraction of these films is 72, 62 and 53% for the 6, 3 and 1.5 Torr films, respectively (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Isolation of Native Soil Microorganisms with Potential for Breaking Down Biodegradable Plastic Mulch Films Used in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Fungi native to agricultural soils that colonized commercially available biodegradable mulch (BDM) films were isolated and assessed for potential to degrade plastics. Typically, when formulations of plastics are known and a source of the feedstock is available, powdered plastic can be suspended in agar-based media and degradation determined by visualization of clearing zones. However, this approach poorly mimics in situ degradation of BDMs. First, BDMs are not dispersed as small particles thr...

  10. Isolation of Native Soil Microorganisms with Potential for Breaking Down Biodegradable Plastic Mulch Films Used in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bailes, Graham; Lind, Margaret; Ely, Andrew; Powell, Marianne; Moore-Kucera, Jennifer; Miles, Carol; Inglis, Debra; Brodhagen, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Fungi native to agricultural soils that colonized commercially available biodegradable mulch (BDM) films were isolated and assessed for potential to degrade plastics. Typically, when formulations of plastics are known and a source of the feedstock is available, powdered plastic can be suspended in agar-based media and degradation determined by visualization of clearing zones. However, this approach poorly mimics in situ degradation of BDMs. First, BDMs are not dispersed as small particles thr...

  11. A novel biobased plasticizer of epoxidized cardanol glycidylether: Synthesis and application in soft poly(vinyl chloride) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel plasticizer derived from cardanol, epoxied cardanol glycidyl ether (ECGE), was synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Effects of the ECGE combined with dioctyl phthalate (DOP), a commercial plasticizer, in soft poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films were studied. Dynamic mechanical a...

  12. Morphology and thermal properties of PLA films plasticized with aliphatic oligoesters; Morfologia e propriedades termicas de filmes de PLA plastificados com oligoesteres alifaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inacio, Erika M.; Dias, Marcos L., E-mail: erika.minacio@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Maria Celiana P. [Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The addition of plasticizers to poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is one of the known ways of changing its ductility, making possible the modification of its mechanical and thermal properties. In this work, it was synthesized two biodegradable aliphatic oligoesters: oligo(trimethylene sebacate) (OST) and oligo(trimethylene malonate) (OMT), and these oligomers were used as plasticizer in cast films of commercial film grade PLA at concentrations of 1, 5 and 10 wt% of each plasticizer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the morphology and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was also used aiming the evaluation of the thermal properties of these films. The PLA films containing no plasticizer showed an amorphous behavior, and the addition of PMT on the PLA films acted, simultaneously, decreasing the Tg, and rising the material's crystallinity. In contrast, the increased addition of OST to the PLA films did not change the Tg, and equally, did not have a significant changes in the material's crystallinity. Therefore, it was possible to observe the effect of the concentration of oligomers on the crystallinity of the films as well as the no plasticizer effect of the OST. (author)

  13. Development of flexible plasmonic plastic sensor using nanograting textured laminating film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sudha; Mohapatra, Saswat; Moirangthem, Rakesh S.

    2017-02-01

    The work presented in this paper describes the development of a cost-effective, flexible plasmonic plastic sensor using gold-coated nanograting nanoimprinted on a laminating plastic. The fabrication of plasmonic plastic sensor involved the transfer of nanograting pattern from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer stamp to laminating plastic via thermal nanoimprint lithography, and subsequent gold film deposition. Gold-coated nanograting sample acted as a plasmonic chip, which exhibited surface plasmon resonance (SPR) mode in reflectance spectra under the white light illumination. The theoretical calculation was performed to study and analyze the excited SPR mode on the plasmonic chip. Further, the bulk refractive index sensitivity was demonstrated with respect to changing surrounding dielectric medium giving a value about 800  ±  27 nm/RIU (refractive index unit). In addition, the surface binding sensitivity upon adsorption of bovine serum albumin protein on the sensor surface was approximately 4.605 nm/(ng/mm2).We believe that our proposed low-cost plastic based plasmonic sensing device could be a potential candidate for the label-free and high-throughput screening of biological molecules.

  14. Nonlinear response and two stable electroconducting states in transparent plasticized PVC films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, D. V.; Apresyan, L. A.; Vlasova, T. V.; Kryshtob, V. I.

    2010-10-01

    The electric conductivity of transparent plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films with thicknesses about 30-50 μm has been studied in electric fields with strengths significantly below the breakdown level. It is established that the PVC films exhibit spontaneous reversible transitions between two stable states—with high and relatively low conductivities, in which the bulk resistivity amounts to ˜103 and 106 Ω m, respectively. Relaxation current-voltage characteristics have been measured in a continuous regime, which allowed the Debye relaxation processes to be taken into consideration and effects related to the nonlinearity and transitions between indicated states to be separated. A regime with deterministic switching between the two conducting states has been observed. A simple qualitative model that describes the anomalous character of conductivity in polymer films is proposed.

  15. Highly Uniform Thin-Film Transistors Printed on Flexible Plastic Films with Morphology-Controlled Carbon Nanotube Network Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Hideaki; Ihara, Kazuki; Saito, Takeshi; Endoh, Hiroyuki; Nihey, Fumiyuki

    2012-05-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) transistor arrays were fabricated on plastic films by printing. All the device elements were directly patterned by maskless printing without any additional patterning process, and minimum materials were used. During fabrication, the morphology of the CNT random network was controlled by an adsorption mechanism on the surface to be printed, which resulted in excellent and uniform electrical properties. The field-effect mobility was further improved by post-treatment to modify the morphology of the CNT network. These results are promising for realizing printed electronics integrated with CNT transistors.

  16. Atomic-scale analysis of plastic deformation in thin-film forms of electronic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolluri, Kedarnath

    Nanometer-scale-thick films of metals and semiconductor heterostructures are used increasingly in modern technologies, from microelectronics to various areas of nanofabrication. Processing of such ultrathin-film materials generates structural defects, including voids and cracks, and may induce structural transformations. Furthermore, the mechanical behavior of these small-volume structures is very different from that of bulk materials. Improvement of the reliability, functionality, and performance of nano-scale devices requires a fundamental understanding of the atomistic mechanisms that govern the thin-film response to mechanical loading in order to establish links between the films' structural evolution and their mechanical behavior. Toward this end, a significant part of this study is focused on the analysis of atomic-scale mechanisms of plastic deformation in freestanding, ultrathin films of face-centered cubic (fcc) copper (Cu) that are subjected to biaxial tensile strain. The analysis is based on large-scale molecular-dynamics simulations. Elementary mechanisms of dislocation nucleation are studied and several problems involving the structural evolution of the thin films due to the glide of and interactions between dislocations are addressed. These problems include void nucleation, martensitic transformation, and the role of stacking faults in facilitating dislocation depletion in ultrathin films and other small-volume structures of fcc metals. Void nucleation is analyzed as a mechanism of strain relaxation in Cu thin films. The glide of multiple dislocations causes shearing of atomic planes and leads to formation of surface pits, while vacancies are generated due to the glide motion of jogged dislocations. Coalescence of vacancy clusters with surface pits leads to formation of voids. In addition, the phase transformation of fcc Cu films to hexagonal-close packed (hcp) ones is studied. The resulting martensite phase nucleates at the film's free surface and

  17. The effect of glycerol from biodiesel production waste as a plasticizer on physical character edible film of chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosyid, Fajar Abdul; Triastuti, Rr. Juni; Andriyono, Sapto

    2017-02-01

    Chitosan edible film is a thin layer of clear packaging made from chitosan edible and biodegradable. Edible chitosan films are stiffer and less elastic, so it should be added plasticizer glycerol. One source of glycerol is inexpensive and easily obtained is crude glycerol from biodiesel production. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of various concentrations of crude glycerol plasticizer on the physical characteristics of chitosan edible film and determine the best concentration of crude glycerol plasticizer. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments and four replications. The Edible film using the g chitosan and some plasticizers concentration of crude glycerol (0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1 mL) and a control treatment that used 0.4 mL of pure glycerol was made. The results showed that the use of crude glycerol plasticizer had effect to the physical character of chitosan edible film. Increasing concentrations of crude glycerol plasticizer exhibits the lowers value of the thickness and tensile strength, however, can increase the value of percent elongation. The best concentration of this research is the treatment of B (0.2 ml crude glycerol) which resulted in 0.55 mm thickness, the tensile strength of 95.38 kgf/cm2 and a percent elongation of 2.13%.

  18. Flexibility of the Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Conductive Film Deposited Onto the Plastic Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Kai Lu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we utilize the RF magnetron sputtering system to deposit the indium tin oxide (ITO conductive transparent film with low resistivity and high light transmittance to the polyethylene tetephthalate (PET plastic substrate and measure the film’s bending property and reliability at different tensile/compressive strain bending curvatures as well as the flexibility after cycling bending. The results show that the critical curvatures corresponded to the significant increase in the resistance of the 150 nm-thick ITO film deposited onto the PET substrate under tensile and compressive stress areO 14.1 mm and 5.4 mm, respectively. By observing the film’s surface crack and morphology, we can further discover that the critical curvature of the crack generated when the film is bent is quite consistent with the critical curvature at which the conductivity property degrades, and the film can withstand a higher compressive strain bending. In addition, the resistance and adhesion behavior of the film almost is unchanged after cycling bent for 1000 times with the curvature below the critical curvature.

  19. Observing phthalate leaching from plasticized polymer films at the molecular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxian; Chen, Zhan

    2014-05-06

    Phthalates, the most widely used plasticizers in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), have been extensively studied. In this paper, a highly sensitive, easy, and effective method was developed to examine short-term phthalate leaching from PVC/phthalate films at the molecular level using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG). Combining SFG and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), surface and bulk molecular structures of PVC/phthalate films were also comprehensively evaluated during the phthalate leaching process under various environments. The leaching processes of two phthalates, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), from the PVC/phthalate films with various weight ratios were studied. Oxygen plasma was applied to treat the PVC/phthalate film surfaces to verify its efficacy on preventing/reducing phthalate leaching from PVC. Our results show that DBP is more stable than DEP in PVC/phthalate films. Even so, DBP molecules were still found to very slowly leach to the environment from PVC at 30 °C, at a rate much slower than DEP. Also, the bulk DBP content substantially influences the DBP leaching. Higher DBP bulk concentration yields less stable DBP molecules in the PVC matrix, allowing molecules to leach from the polymer film more easily. Additionally, DBP leaching is very sensitive to temperature changes; higher temperature can strongly enhance the leaching process. For most cases, the oxygen plasma treatment can effectively prevent phthalate leaching from PVC films (e.g., for samples with low bulk concentrations of DBP-5 and 30 wt %). It is also capable of reducing phthalate leaching from high DBP bulk concentration PVC samples (e.g., 70 wt % DBP in PVC/DBP mixture). This research develops a highly sensitive method to detect chemicals at the molecular level as well as provides surface and bulk molecular structural changes. The method developed here is general and can be applied to detect small amounts of chemical

  20. Isolation of native soil microorganisms with potential for breaking down biodegradable plastic mulch films used in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, Graham; Lind, Margaret; Ely, Andrew; Powell, Marianne; Moore-Kucera, Jennifer; Miles, Carol; Inglis, Debra; Brodhagen, Marion

    2013-05-10

    Fungi native to agricultural soils that colonized commercially available biodegradable mulch (BDM) films were isolated and assessed for potential to degrade plastics. Typically, when formulations of plastics are known and a source of the feedstock is available, powdered plastic can be suspended in agar-based media and degradation determined by visualization of clearing zones. However, this approach poorly mimics in situ degradation of BDMs. First, BDMs are not dispersed as small particles throughout the soil matrix. Secondly, BDMs are not sold commercially as pure polymers, but rather as films containing additives (e.g. fillers, plasticizers and dyes) that may affect microbial growth. The procedures described herein were used for isolates acquired from soil-buried mulch films. Fungal isolates acquired from excavated BDMs were tested individually for growth on pieces of new, disinfested BDMs laid atop defined medium containing no carbon source except agar. Isolates that grew on BDMs were further tested in liquid medium where BDMs were the sole added carbon source. After approximately ten weeks, fungal colonization and BDM degradation were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Isolates were identified via analysis of ribosomal RNA gene sequences. This report describes methods for fungal isolation, but bacteria also were isolated using these methods by substituting media appropriate for bacteria. Our methodology should prove useful for studies investigating breakdown of intact plastic films or products for which plastic feedstocks are either unknown or not available. However our approach does not provide a quantitative method for comparing rates of BDM degradation.

  1. Broadband terahertz transmission within the symmetrical plastic film coated parallel-plate waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Liang, Huawei; Zhang, Min; Su, Hong

    2014-09-10

    We report on the broadband terahertz (THz) transmission within a symmetrical plastic film coated parallel-plate waveguide. We theoretically study the antiresonant reflecting mechanism of the waveguide, and we find that the broadband THz wave can transmit in this waveguide with ultralow loss. The loss of the TM mode in this waveguide can be 4 orders of magnitude lower than the uncoated parallel-plate waveguide. The transmission bandwidth of this waveguide is up to 5.12 THz. We further show the mode field distributions which explain the loss mechanism.

  2. Properties of plasticized composite films prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose and birch wood xylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Blomfeldt, Thomas O. J.; Hedenqvist, Mikael S.

    2012-01-01

    Xylans, an important sub-class of hemicelluloses, represent a largely untapped resource for new renewable materials derived from biomass. As with other carbohydrates, nanocellulose reinforcement of xylans is interesting as a route to new bio-materials. With this in mind, birch wood xylan was comb......Xylans, an important sub-class of hemicelluloses, represent a largely untapped resource for new renewable materials derived from biomass. As with other carbohydrates, nanocellulose reinforcement of xylans is interesting as a route to new bio-materials. With this in mind, birch wood xylan...... was combined with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and films were cast with and without glycerol, sorbitol or methoxypolyethylene glycol (MPEG) as plasticizers. Microscopy revealed some NFC agglomeration in the composite films as well as a layered nanocellulose structure. Equilibrium moisture content...

  3. ANALISA FAKTOR PENYEBAB KEGAGALAN MESIN GRINDER PADA PROSES PRODUKSI PLASTIC FILM DI PT. MUTIARA HEXAGON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Hidayat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bila suatu mesin memiliki tingkat kegagalan yang tinggi, maka perlu dilakukan analisis mengenai  penyebab  –  penyebab  kegagalan  tersebut  hingga  ke  akar  permasalahannya sehingga dapat menentukan tindakan yang sesuai untuk meningkatkan kinerja suatu mesin. PT. Mutiara Hexagon merupakan sebuah perusahaan yang bergerak dibidang industri pembuatan plastik  kemasan.  Dalam  line  pembuatan lembaran film  diperlukan mesin  CPP  (Cast  Poly Propylene Machine dan mesin grinder dalam prosesnya. Pada penelitian yang dilakukan di PT. Mutiara Hexagon, terdapat beberapa kegagalan yang terjadi pada mesin grinder pada proses produksi plastic film, sehingga menyebabkan seluruh line pada divisi film mengalami downtime. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk melakukan analisa mengenai faktor penyebab kegagalan mesin grinder, penulis melakukan observasi secara langsung dan melihat proses produksi plastic film.Penulis menggunakan metode Failure Effect and Mode Analysis (FMEA dan Fault Tree Analysis (FTA. Penerapan analisis Failure Effect and  Mode Analysis (FMEA dapat menentukan sejauh mana tingkat kegagalan terjadi. Dari hasil analisis FMEA kemudian dapat dilanjutkan dengan menggunakan Fault Tree Analysis (FTA guna mengetahui lebih lanjut penyebab-penyebab dasar suatu kegagalan.Dari hasil perhitungan nilai Risk Priority Number (RPN pada tiap-tiap kegagalan yang terjadi  diantaranya yang  paling  tinggi  adalah kegagalan mesin  grinder rusak  dengan nilai kegagalannya mencapai 120. Kemudian dianalisa penyebab kegagalan tersebut dengan menggunakan metode FTA di dapatkan minimal cut sets yaitu: as grinder patah, katup hisap blower terbuka terlalu besar, kegagalan pada motor blower, baut pada dudukan pisau patah, pisau tumpul dan human error. Berdasarkan nilai probabilitas masing-masing cut set didapatkan nilai probabilitas kegagalan grinder periode 1 Juni 2012 -1 Juni 2013 mencapai 60%.

  4. Preparation of plastic and biopolymer multilayer films by plasma source ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gye Hwa; Lee, Yeon Hee; Lee, Jin Sil; Kim, Young Soo; Choi, Won Seok; Park, Hyun Jin

    2002-07-31

    The plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique was used to improve the adhesion between linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and biopolymer. LLDPE was treated with the PSII using O(2) or CF(4) gas to modify its surface. After modification, chitosan or corn zein was used for coating on LLDPE. Wettability of the LLDPE surface was evaluated with a contact angle meter by the sessile drop method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the LLDPE surface. Before and after treatment, in the case of LLDPE treated with O(2) PSII, oxygen-containing functional groups were formed on the implanted surface. In the CF(4) PSII treated LLDPE, it was observed that the fluorine concentration on the surface of LLDPE remarkably increased and hydrophobic groups were formed by chemical reaction. Bilayer films coated with chitosan or corn zein showed 10 times lower oxygen permeability. Tensile strength of multilayer films was decreased a little compared with that of LLDPE. The plastic and biopolymer multilayer films have potential for food packaging application because of their O(2) gas barrier property and easy recyclability of the multilayer film.

  5. Physical, barrier and antioxidant properties of a novel plasticized edible film from quince seed mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouki, Mohammad; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Koocheki, Arash

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential of quince seed mucilage (QSM) as a new source for preparation of edible films and determined the physical, mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, microstructural and thermal properties. QSM films were prepared by incorporation of three levels of glycerol (25-50%, w/w). As glycerol concentration increased, water vapor permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability (O2P), elongation at break (EB), water solubility and moisture content of QSM films increased while, tensile strength (TS), density and surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly. The measurement of color values showed that by the increasing of the glycerol concentration in polymer matrix, the b and L values increased while ΔE value decreased. Microscopic views indicated smooth and uniform surface morphology without obvious cracks, breaks, or openings on the surfaces after the incorporation of glycerol as a plasticizer. The results of the present study suggest that QSM as a new antioxidant edible film with interesting specifications can potentially be used for packaging of a wide range of food products.

  6. Fully transparent flexible tin-doped zinc oxide thin film transistors fabricated on plastic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dedong; Zhang, Yi; Cong, Yingying; Yu, Wen; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we have successfully fabricated bottom gate fully transparent tin-doped zinc oxide thin film transistors (TZO TFTs) fabricated on flexible plastic substrate at low temperature by RF magnetron sputtering. The effect of O2/Ar gas flow ratio during channel deposition on the electrical properties of TZO TFTs was investigated, and we found that the O2/Ar gas flow ratio have a great influence on the electrical properties. TZO TFTs on flexible substrate has very nice electrical characteristics with a low off-state current (Ioff) of 3 pA, a high on/off current ratio of 2 × 107, a high saturation mobility (μsat) of 66.7 cm2/V•s, a steep subthreshold slope (SS) of 333 mV/decade and a threshold voltage (Vth) of 1.2 V. Root-Mean-Square (RMS) roughness of TZO thin film is about 0.52 nm. The transmittance of TZO thin film is about 98%. These results highlight that the excellent device performance can be realized in TZO film and TZO TFT can be a promising candidate for flexible displays.

  7. Starch/polyester films: simultaneous optimisation of the properties for the production of biodegradable plastic bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Olivato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blends of starch/polyester have been of great interest in the development of biodegradable packaging. A method based on multiple responses optimisation (Desirability was used to evaluate the properties of tensile strength, perforation force, elongation and seal strength of cassava starch/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT blown films produced via a one-step reactive extrusion using tartaric acid (TA as a compatibiliser. Maximum results for all the properties were set as more desirable, with an optimal formulation being obtained which contained (55:45 starch/PBAT (88.2 wt. (%, glycerol (11.0 wt. (% and TA (0.8 wt. (%. Biodegradable plastic bags were produced using the film with this formulation, and analysed according to the standard method of the Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (ABNT. The bags exhibited a 45% failure rate in free-falling dart impact tests, a 10% of failure rate in dynamic load tests and no failure in static load tests. These results meet the specifications set by the standard. Thus, the biodegradable plastic bags fabricated with an optimised formulation could be useful as an alternative to those made from non-biodegradable materials if the nominal capacity declared for this material is considered.

  8. Waxes and plastic film in relation to the shelf life of yellow passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Wagner Ferreira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The high perishability of the yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa reduces its postharvest conservation and availability, mainly for in natura consumption. These losses of quality and commercial value occur due to the high respiration and loss of water. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of a modified atmosphere - wax emulsions and plastic film - on the shelf life of the yellow passion fruit. Plastic film (Cryovac D-955, 15 mum thickness reduced fresh weight loss and fruit wilting, kept higher fruit and rind weight and higher pulp osmotic potential over the storage period. However, it was not efficient in the control of rottenness. Sparcitrus wax (22-23% polyethylene/maleyc resin caused injury to the fruit, high fruit weight losses and wilting and resulted in lower pulp osmotic potential; this wax lead to a higher concentration of acid and a lower relation of soluble solids/acidity. Among the tested waxes, Fruit Wax (18-21% carnauba wax was the best, promoting reduced weight loss, wilting and rottenness.

  9. The Optimum Sowing Time for Plastic-film Corn and the Application of Two Related Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Rui-xiang; WANG Xin-huan; LIU Rong-quan; LU Cui-ling; L(U) Yong-lai; LI Hua; ZHANG Li; LU Xiu-zhi; YU Shu-ping; WU Xiu-yan

    2002-01-01

    There are two main theories, the "temperature-raising" theory and the "precipitation-based regulation" theory, which guide the optimum sowing time of the plastic-film corn. The former was applied in the humid or semi-humid ecotope and on irrigated or half-shaded land in the arid and semi-arid ecotopes,while the latter was suitable for the dry-farming land in the semi-arid ecotope. The results of experiments and investigations for many years showed that the corn output was increased by 69.2% when the former theory was applied to guide the optimum sowing time for plastic-film corn in the semi-humid ecotope, and by 60.0%when the latter theory was applied in the semi-arid ecotope. In the semi-arid ecotope, however, the output was increased only by 15.7% when the former theory was applied, and even dropped by 14.4% when the latter theory was applied.

  10. Spatiotemporal development of soaked protein crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Ryuta; Shimizu, Yusuke; Saiga, Rino; Ueno, Go; Nakamura, Yuki; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2014-07-01

    Crystal soaking is widely performed in biological crystallography. This paper reports time-resolved X-ray crystallographic and microtomographic analyses of tetragonal crystals of chicken egg-white lysozyme soaked in mother liquor containing potassium hexachloroplatinate. The microtomographic analysis showed that X-ray attenuation spread from the superficial layer of the crystal and then to the crystal core. The crystallographic analyses indicated that platinum sites can be classified into two groups from the temporal development of the electron densities. A soaking process consisting of binding-rate-driven and equilibrium-driven layers is proposed to describe these results. This study suggests that the composition of chemical and structural species resulting from the soaking process varies depending on the position in the crystal.

  11. Soil contamination by phthalate esters in Chinese intensive vegetable production systems with different modes of use of plastic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Ma, Wenting; Christie, Peter; Li, Zhengao

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in intensively managed suburban vegetable soils in Nanjing, east China, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAE concentrations in the soils ranged widely from 0.15 to 9.68 mg kg(-1) with a median value of 1.70 mg kg(-1), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were the most abundant phthalate esters. Soil PAE concentrations depended on the mode of use of plastic film in which PAEs were incorporated as plasticizing agents and both the plastic film and poultry manure appeared to be important sources of soil PAEs. Vegetables in rotation with flooded rice led to lower concentrations of PAEs in soil. The results indicate that agricultural plastic film can be an important source of soil PAE contamination and further research is required to fully elucidate the mechanisms of PAE contamination of intensive agricultural soils with different use modes of use of plastic film.

  12. The effect of light soaking on crystalline silicon surface passivation by atomic layer deposited Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Baochen; Stangl, Rolf; Mueller, Thomas; Lin, Fen; Bhatia, Charanjit S.; Hoex, Bram

    2013-01-01

    The effect of light soaking of crystalline silicon wafer lifetime samples surface passivated by thermal atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 is investigated in this paper. Contrary to other passivation materials used in solar cell applications (i.e., SiO2, SiNx), using thermal ALD Al2O3, an increase in effective carrier lifetime after light soaking under standard testing conditions is observed for both p-type (˜45%) and n-type (˜60%) FZ c-Si lifetime samples. After light soaking and storing the samples in a dark and dry environment, the effective lifetime decreases again and practically returns to the value before light soaking. The rate of lifetime decrease after light soaking is significantly slower than the rate of lifetime increase by light soaking. To investigate the underlying mechanism, corona charge experiments are carried out on p-type c-Si samples before and after light soaking. The results indicate that the negative fixed charge density Qf present in the Al2O3 films increases due to the light soaking, which results in an improved field-effect passivation. Numerical calculations also confirm that the improved field-effect passivation is the main contributor for the increased effective lifetime after light soaking. To further understand the light soaking phenomenon, a kinetic model—a charge trapping/de-trapping model—is proposed to explain the time dependent behavior of the lifetime increase/decrease observed under/after light soaking. The trap model fits the experimental results very well. The observed light enhanced passivation for ALD Al2O3 passivated c-Si is of technological relevance, because solar cell devices operate under illumination, thus an increase in solar cell efficiency due to light soaking can be expected.

  13. TYMPANOPLASTY: BLOOD-SOAKED GELFOAM VERSES ANTIBIOTIC-SOAKED GELFOAM AS EAR CANAL PACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Khandelwal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE The objective of our study is to compare the result of blood-soaked gelfoam with antibiotic-soaked gelfoam on graft stickiness in tympanoplasty. STUDY DESIGN A prospective randomized case control study was performed to compare the outcome of our patient who underwent surgery by using blood-soaked gelfoam and gelfoam soaked in antibiotic ear drops. METHOD Patients having central perforation were divided into two groups using random tables. After complete investigations, they underwent tympanoplasty. Temporalis fascia graft was used and placed by underlay technique. Middle ear was not packed with gelfoam. After placing the graft, gelfoam was placed around the freshened perforation margins to hold the graft. These gelfoam pieces were either antibiotic soaked or fresh blood soaked. RESULT A total of 55 patients were enrolled in the study. Graft stickiness at 4 week was 93.10% for blood-soaked group, whereas it was 84.81% for antibiotic-soaked group. Total success rate at 6 months was 94.5%. CONCLUSION Blood-soaked gelfoam packing of external meatus around the perforation margins gives good results in tympanoplasty.

  14. Effects of No-tillage Combined with Reused Plastic Film Mulching on Maize Yield and Irrigation Water Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SU Yong-zhong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of reused plastic film mulching and no-tillage on maize yield and irriga-tion water productivity(IWP in the marginal oasis in the middle of Hexi Corridor region of northwestern China. The aim is to provide an alternative tillage and cultivation pattern for reducing plastic film pollution, saving cost and increasing income, and improving resource use efficiency. The field experiment was carried out in three soils with different textures and fertility levels. Three treatments for each soil were set up:(1 conventional tillage,winter irrigation, and new plastic mulching cultivation(NM;(2 no tillage, less winter irrigation and reused plastic mulching cultivation (RM;(3 no tillage, less winter irrigation and reused plastic mulching combined with straw mulching (RMS. The results showed that the average daily soil temperature in the two reused plastic mulching treatment(RM and RMS during maize sowing and elongation stage was lower 0.6~1.0℃(5 cm depth and 0.5~0.8℃(15 cm depth than that in the NM. This result suggested that no tillage and reused plastic mulching cultivation still had the effect of increasing soil temperature. Maize grain yield in the RM was reduced by 4.4%~10.6% compared with the conventional cultivation(NM, while the net income increased due to saving in plastic film and tillage ex-penses. There was no significant difference in maize grain yield between the RMS and NM treatment, but the net income in the RMS was in-creased by 12.5%~17.1% than that in the NM. Compared with the NM, the two reused plastic film mulching treatments (RM and RMS decreased the volume of winter irrigation, but maize IWP increased. Soil texture and fertility level affected significantly maize nitrogen uptake and IWP. In the arid oases with the shortage of water resources, cultivation practices of conservation tillage with recycle of plastic film is an ideal option for saving cost and increasing income

  15. Specific migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) from plasticized PVC film: results from an enforcement campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Breindahl, T.

    1998-01-01

    Units. Initially, all films were screened for the migration into isooctane (exposed 2 h at 40 degrees C) of DEHA and other potentially present low molecular weight plasticizers using full scanning mass spectrometry. Films showing a substantial migration of DEHA were further tested with olive oil...... according to the declared field of application (exposed for 10 days at 40 degrees C). In 47 of the 49 films the migrate contained a substantial amount of DEHA. In 46 films the migration exceeded the specific migration limit of 3 mg/dm(2) after use of the relevant reduction factor given in legislation....... However, because of the general uncertainty of the analytical method and because the variation in the thickness of the films was calculated to be I mg/dm(2), the action limit in this campaign was 4 mg/cm(2). A migration higher than this action limit was found in 42 films (89% of the samples...

  16. Effects of drip irrigation under plastic film with saline water on cotton growth and yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Jin, M.; He, Y.; Zhou, J.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    To study the influence of different irrigation system for drip irrigation under plastic film with saline water on cotton growth and yields, field experiments at key irrigation experiment station of water resources management division in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China were set up consist of different irrigation ratio (5250, 4500, 3750, 3000m3/hm2), different irrigation times (24, 12 and 8 times) and different rotation irrigation modes. The results show that: with the larger irrigation ratio, the cotton growth and yields was also better, and the significant influence on cotton growth and yields for irrigation ratio is between 3750-4500 m3/hm2. When the irrigation ratio is smaller (3000m3/hm2), cotton growth and yields for irrigation times of 8 times are higher, When the irrigation ratio is bigger (4500m3/hm2), cotton growth for irrigation times of 12 times are better and its cotton yields are higher correspondingly. According to the growth of cotton, yields and water productivity, the suitable irrigation system of cotton is the irrigation ratio of 4500-3750 m3/ hm2 and the irrigation times of 18 times for drip irrigation under plastic film with saline water. For different rotation drip irrigation experiments with saline water and fresh water, the cotton yields and irrigation water productivity is higher under the disposal of SF (rotation irrigation in first 6 times with saline water irrigation and then 6 times with fresh water irrigation) compared to FS (rotation irrigation in first 6 times with fresh water and then 6 times with saline water) and SSFA (rotation irrigation with twice saline water and once fresh water) compared to SFA (alternative irrigation with saline water and fresh water). Compared to the different alternate irrigation experiments, the cotton yields and water productivity for pure saline water irrigation is higher. In addition, the trend is the larger the irrigation ratio and the higher the yields. It maybe dues to the low

  17. Light Trapping in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Plastic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    In the search for sustainable energy sources, solar energy can fulfil a large part of the growing demand. The biggest threshold for large-scale solar energy harvesting is the solar panel price. For drastic cost reductions, roll-to-roll fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells using plastic substrates can be a solution. In this thesis, we investigate the possibilities of depositing thin film solar cells directly onto cheap plastic substrates. Micro-textured glass and sheets, which have a wide range of applications, such as in green house, lighting etc, are applied in these solar cells for light trapping. Thin silicon films can be produced by decomposing silane gas, using a plasma process. In these types of processes, the temperature of the growing surface has a large influence on the quality of the grown films. Because plastic substrates limit the maximum tolerable substrate temperature, new methods have to be developed to produce device-grade silicon layers. At low temperature, polysilanes can form in the plasma, eventually forming dust particles, which can deteriorate device performance. By studying the spatially resolved optical emission from the plasma between the electrodes, we can identify whether we have a dusty plasma. Furthermore, we found an explanation for the temperature dependence of dust formation; Monitoring the formation of polysilanes as a function of temperature using a mass-spectrometer, we observed that the polymerization rate is indeed influenced by the substrate temperature. For solar cell substrate material, our choice was polycarbonate (PC), because of its low cost, its excellent transparency and its relatively high glass transition temperature of 130-140°C. At 130°C we searched for deposition recipes for device quality silicon, using a very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical deposition process. By diluting the feedstock silane with hydrogen gas, the silicon quality can be improved for amorphous silicon (a-Si), until we reach the

  18. Thermal Soak Analysis of Earth Entry Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Parul; Sepka, Steven A.; Aliaga, Jose F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle project is developing an integrated tool called Multi Mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry Descent and Landing that will provide key technology solutions including mass sizing, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and thermal and structural analysis for any given sample return mission. Thermal soak analysis and temperature predictions of various components including the payload container of the entry vehicle are part of the solution that this tool will offer to mission designers. The present paper focuses on the thermal soak analysis of an entry vehicle design based on the Mars Sample Return entry vehicle geometry and discusses a technical approach to develop parametric models for thermal soak analysis that will be integrated into the tool.

  19. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on ham steak by tea bioactive compounds incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodnar Dan C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumer demands for better quality and safety of food products have given rise to the development and implementation of edible films. The use of antimicrobial films can be a promising tool for controlling L. monocytogenes on ready to eat products. The aim of this study was to develop effective antimicrobial films incorporating bioactive compounds from green and black teas into chitosan, for controlling L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on vacuum-packaged ham steak. The effectiveness of these antimicrobial films was evaluated at room temperature (20°C for 10 days and at refrigerated temperature (4°C for 8 weeks. Results The HPLC results clearly show that relative concentrations of catechins and caffeine in green tea ranked EGCG>EGC>CAF>ECG>EC>C while in black tea extracts ranked CAF>EGCG>ECG>EGC>EC>C. The chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating green tea and black tea extracts shows specific markers identified by FTIR. Incorporating natural extracts into chitosan showed that the growth of L monocytogenes ATCC 19115 was inhibited. The efficacy of antimicrobial effect of tea extracts incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film was dose dependent. However, chitosan-coated films without addition of tea extracts did not inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating 4% Green tea extract was the most effective antimicrobial, reducing the initial counts from 3.2 to 2.65 log CFU/cm2 during room temperature storage and from 3.2 to 1–1.5 log CFU/cm2 during refrigerated storage. Conclusions Incorporation of tea extracts into the chitosan-coated films considerably enhanced their effectiveness against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. 4% Green tea incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film had a better antilisterial effect than 2% green tea or 2% and 4% black tea. Data from this study would provide new formulation options for developing antimicrobial packaging films using tea

  20. Flexible aluminum-doped zinc-oxide thin-film transistor fabricated on plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dedong; Chen, Zhuofa; Zhao, Nannan; Wang, Wei; Huang, Fuqing; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2014-03-01

    We have studied processing and characteristics of flexible Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide thin-film transistors (AZO TFTs) fabricated on plastic substrates using radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. To improve the performance of flexible AZO TFT, we studied effects of device structures on characteristics of the aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin film transistors. The electrical properties of top-gate type and bottom-gate type AZO TFTs were investigated, respectively. The top-gate type AZO TFTs shows a threshold voltage of 1.4 V, a Ion/Ioff current ratio of 1.0×107, a field effect mobility of 28.2 cm2/ V•s, a subthreshold swing of 0.19 V/decade. And the bottom-gate type AZO TFTs shows a threshold voltage of 1.7 V, a Ion/Ioff ratio of 1.0×107, a field effect mobility of 209 cm2/ V•s, a subthreshold swing of 0.16 V/decade, and the off current of less than 10-11A at room temperature. Both TFTs show low threshold voltage, high Ion/Ioff ratio and high field effect mobility. By comparison, the bottom-gate type AZO TFTs shows better characteristics. The flexible AZO-TFT is a very promising low-cost optoelectronic device for the next generation of invisible and flexible electronics due to flexible, transparency, high mobility, and low-temperature processing.

  1. Fabrication of highly crystalline oxide thin films on plastics: Sol–gel transfer technique involving high temperature process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromitsu Kozuka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Si(100 substrates were coated with a polyimide (PI–polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP mixture film, and an alkoxide-derived TiO2 gel film was deposited on it by spin-coating. The gel films were fired under various conditions with final annealing at 600–1000 °C. The PI–PVP layer was completely decomposed at such high temperatures while the TiO2 films survived on Si(100 substrates without any damages. When the final annealing temperature was raised, the crystalline phase changed from anatase to rutile, and the crystallite size and the refractive index of the films tended to increase. The TiO2 films thus fired on Si(100 substrates were transferred to polycarbonate (PC substrates by melting the surface of the plastic substrate either in a near-infrared image furnace or on a hot plate under a load. Cycles of deposition and firing were found to be effective in achieving successful transfer even for the films finally annealed at 1000 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses on the film/Si(100 interface suggested that the residual carbon or carbides at the interface could be a possible factor, but not a necessary and decisive factor that allows the film transfer.

  2. Transferability and Adhesion of Sol-Gel-Derived Crystalline TiO2 Thin Films to Different Types of Plastic Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Natsumi; Takahashi, Mitsuru; Uchiyama, Hiroaki; Kozuka, Hiromitsu

    2017-01-31

    Anatase thin films were prepared on various plastic substrates by our recently developed sol-gel transfer technique. Polycarbonate (PC), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyether ether ketone (PEEK), and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) were employed as plastic substrates. A Si(100) substrate was first coated with a polyimide (PI)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) mixture layer, and an alkoxide-derived titania gel film was deposited on it by spin-coating. The resulting titania gel film was heated to 600 °C, during which the PI/PVP layer decomposed and the gel film was converted into a 60 nm thick anatase film. The anatase film was then transferred from the Si(100) substrate to the plastic substrate. This was achieved by heating the plastic/anatase/Si(100) stack in a near-infrared image furnace to 120-350 °C, depending on the type of plastic substrate, under unidirectional pressure. The anatase film cracked during transfer to PE, PP, PEEK, and PVDC substrates but did not crack during transfer to PC, PMMA, and PET substrates. The fraction of the total film area that was successfully transferred was assessed with the aid of image analysis. This fraction tended to be large for plastics with C═O and C-O groups and small for those without these groups. The film/substrate adhesion assessed by cross-cut tape tests also tended to be high for plastics with C═O and C-O groups and low for those without these groups. The adhesion to plastics without C═O or C-O groups could be enhanced and their transfer area fraction increased by oxidizing the native plastic surface by ultraviolet-ozone treatment prior to transfer.

  3. Antimicrobial, Rheological, and Thermal Properties of Plasticized Polylactide Films Incorporated with Essential Oils to Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Jasim; Hiremath, Nikhil; Jacob, Harsha

    2016-02-01

    Polylactide (PLA) is the most mature biobased and biodegradable polymer. Due to its inherent brittleness, the polymer cannot be used as a packaging material without plasticizer. An attempt was made to develop antimicrobial plasticized PLA film by incorporating polyethylene glycol (PEG) and 3 essential oils (EO), namely cinnamon, garlic, and clove by solvent casting method. Physical, thermal, and rheological properties of those films were evaluated for practical applications whereas the antimicrobial properties were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter jejuni-pathogens related to poultry industry. Both PEG and EOs led to the formation of flexible PLA/PEG/EO films with significant drop in the glass transition temperature (Tg ), and mechanical property. Time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle was employed to melt rheology of EO-based films at selected temperature, and rheological moduli superimposed well in an extended frequency range. Among EOs, cinnamon and clove oil-based films (PLA/PEG/CIN and PLA/PEG/CLO) exhibited a complete zone of inhibition against C. jejuni at the maximum concentration (1.6 mL per 2 g PLA/PEG blend) whereas the garlic oil-based film (PLA/PEG/GAR) had the lowest activity. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Effects of mechanical tensile properties of plastic film on plastic recycling method%农田地膜拉伸性能变化对缠绕式回收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳喜; 王学农; 张丽; 喻晨; 蒋永新; 张海春; 刘旋峰; 乔园园; 王祥金

    2015-01-01

    农田长期覆膜种植产生的大量地膜对农田土壤质量、作物生长及环境造成严重的影响,为解决这一问题,于 2014年3月至2014年10月在新疆库尔勒尉犁县达西村开展大田试验,对比不同厚度、不同时间及不同位置地膜拉伸性能的变化规律,并针对0.01 mm地膜进行缠绕式回收试验.结果表明:地膜铺放后的30~60 d期间,由于受到风和紫外线照射等因素,拉伸强度有明显的下降,下降幅度较大;当地膜回收的时候,0.01 mm地膜最大拉伸力在近株端和远株端分别为1.52 N和1.305 N,是0.008 mm地膜的1.4倍和1.22倍.显然0.01 mm地膜的拉伸性能较0.008 mm拉伸性能有了一定的提升,这对地膜回收有一定的积极作用,但是经过理论计算及田间试验0.01 mm地膜的拉伸性能还是不足以采用简单缠绕的方式进行回收.本研究揭示了地膜拉伸性能在不同时间、不同厚度及不同位置受到紫外线等影响的变化规律,为地膜回收机的研制提供了理论依据.%Plastic mulching technology has brought huge economic benefits, while the residual plastic film produced series of serious problems such as pollution on land. A large number of plastic recycling is becoming urgent and important task in our country. A large amount and long term of used plastic film on soil has caused great serious influence on the high quality of farmland planting, crop growth, the rural ecological environment and new rural construction, which has attracted more and more attention. Now, the research on the recovery mechanism is limited to equipment of plastic film enwinding recycling, and there are few studies on the variation rule of the tensile properties of used plastic film and the impact. During our practical research work, performance such as unstable recycling capability, low film recovery rate and work parts deformation often appears in the used plastic film recycling. To address these problems, we carried out some

  5. Plasticizing effect of choline chloride/urea eutectic-based ionic liquid on physicochemical properties of agarose films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Adlie Shamsuri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Agarose films were formed with the addition of 30 to 70 wt% choline chloride/urea eutectic-based ionic liquid (ChCl/Urea. The ChCl/Urea was prepared through complexation at a 1:2 mole ratio. The films were prepared by dissolving ChCl/Urea in distilled water followed by dispersion of the agarose at 95 °C. The solution was gelled at room temperature, and the formed gel was dried in an oven overnight at 70 °C. Mechanical testing indicated that the agarose film containing 60 wt% ChCl/Urea had higher tensile extension and tensile strain at break compared to the pristine agarose film. The addition of ChCl/Urea also reduced the glass transition temperature (Tg of agarose films. Cross-section SEM images of the agarose films showed that surface roughness disappeared with the incorporation of ChCl/Urea. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between agarose and ChCl/Urea. XRD patterns demonstrated that an amorphous phase was obtained when ChCl/Urea was added. Agarose films containing more ChCl/Urea exhibited higher transparency, as measured by a UV-Vis spectrometer. In summary, the physicochemical properties of agarose films were evidently affected by the incorporation of the ChCl/Urea as a plasticizing agent.

  6. Specific migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) from plasticized PVC film: results from an enforcement campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Breindahl, T.

    1998-01-01

    , olive oil, followed by clean-up using size exclusion chromatography and final determination of di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) by combined capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the initial screening, the samples were exposed to the alternative food simulant, isooctane, and DEHA...... Units. Initially, all films were screened for the migration into isooctane (exposed 2 h at 40 degrees C) of DEHA and other potentially present low molecular weight plasticizers using full scanning mass spectrometry. Films showing a substantial migration of DEHA were further tested with olive oil...

  7. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar: Let’s WRAP (Wrap Recycling Action Program): Best Practices to Boost Plastic Film Recycling in Your Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a webinar page for the Sustainable Management of Materials (SMM) Web Academy webinar titled Let’s WRAP (Wrap Recycling Action Program): Best Practices to Boost Plastic Film Recycling in Your Community

  8. Aqueous Ammonia soaking of digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    , their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. In the present study, Aqueous Ammonia Soaking was successfully applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full......-scale anaerobic digester to enhance their methane productivity. Soaking in six different reagent concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 32%) was applied for 3 days at 22°C. An overall methane yield increase from 85% to 110% was achieved compared to controls (digested manure fibers where AAS...... was not applied). The difference in reagent concentration at the range of 5-25% w/w in ammonia did not affect that much the overall methane yield resulting to an increase of 104-110% compared to the non AAS-treated fibers. Thus, an ammonia concentration as low as 5% is adequate for achieving the same increase...

  9. Effects of reduced-rate methyl bromide applications under conventional and virtually impermeable plastic film in perennial crop field nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Bradley D; Gerik, James S; Schneider, Sally M

    2010-08-01

    Producers of perennial crop nursery stock in California use preplant soil fumigation to meet state phytosanitary requirements. Although methyl bromide (MB) has been phased out in many agricultural industries, it is still the preferred treatment in the perennial nursery industry and is used under Critical Use Exemptions and Quarantine/Preshipment provisions of the Montreal Protocol. The present research was conducted to evaluate reduced-rate MB applications sealed with conventional and low-permeability plastic films compared with the primary alternative material. Reduced rates (100-260 kg ha(-1)) of MB applied in combination with chloropicrin (Pic) and sealed with a low-permeability plastic film provided weed and nematode control similar to the industry standard rate of 392 kg ha(-1) MB:Pic (98:2) sealed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) film. However, the primary alternative chemical, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), tended to provide slightly lower pest control even on sites with relatively low plant parasitic nematode, soil-borne pathogen and weed pest pressure. If California regulations change to allow the use of low-permeability films in broadcast fumigant applications, the results of this research suggest that reduced rates of MB in perennial crop nurseries could serve as a bridge strategy until more technically, economically and environmentally acceptable alternatives are developed. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effect of plasticizer type and amount on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-beeswax edible film properties and postharvest quality of coated plums (cv. Angeleno).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Tarazaga, Maria Ll; Sothornvit, Rungsinee; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2008-10-22

    The effect of the composition of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-beeswax (BW) edible coatings on stand-alone film properties and on postharvest quality of coated 'Angeleno' plums was studied. Glycerol (G) and mannitol (M) were tested as plasticizers at two different plasticizer/HPMC ratios (100:1 and 300:1 molar basis). BW content was 20 or 40% (dry basis). An increase in G content increased film flexibility and vapor permeability (WVP), whereas an increase in M content enhanced film brittleness without affecting WVP. An increase in BW content reduced film flexibility and reduced WVP of only G-plasticized films. Coatings reduced plum softening and bleeding, but were not effective in reducing plum weight loss. At low plasticizer content, coatings reduced texture loss effectively. Low BW also lowered plum bleeding. Plasticizer type affected only ethanol and acetaldehyde contents without affecting the remaining quality parameters. Therefore, HPMC-BW coatings have the potential to extend the shelf life of plums. However, this effect depends on coating composition. Differences between coating and film performance indicate that data from stand-alone films may be used as a preliminary screening, but coating performance should be analyzed on coated fruit.

  11. Determination of structural and mechanical properties, diffractometry, and thermal analysis of chitosan and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC films plasticized with sorbitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Rotta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the structural, mechanical, diffractometric, and thermal parameters of chitosan-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC films plasticized with sorbitol were studied. Solutions of HPMC (2% w/v in water and chitosan (2% w/v in 2% acetic acid solution were prepared. The concentration of sorbitol used was 10% (w/w to both polymers. This solutions were mixed at different proportions (100/0; 70/30; 50/50; 30/70, and 0/100 of chitosan and HPMC, respectively, and 20 mL was cast in Petri dishes for further analysis of dried films. The miscibility of polymers was assessed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results obtained indicate that the films are not fully miscible at a dry state despite the weak hydrogen bonding between the polymer functional groups.

  12. Evaluation of retail fresh meat packagings covered with stretch films of plasticized PVC and non-PVC alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Togeskov, P.; Hallas, J.

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics and performance of several non-PVC stretch films were compared to those of plasticized PVC. Initially the main polymer components Of the film were identified by infrared spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry. The differences between films in mechanical properties,...... (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) through a prolonged shelf-life test. No differences in meat quality during normal shelf-life were seen as a function of the film used....... to legislation. The potential for specific migration was investigated by solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography. Twenty-four components were identified, of which 11 could be compared to relevant migration limits based on evaluations of the EU Scientific Committee for Food. The release of solvents...... was estimated by direct thermal desorption at 100degreesC. Four films of different composition were used in a storage experiment with fresh beef. The meat quality was followed by measurements of colour, microbiological quality (total colony forming units and lactic acid bacteria) and lipid oxidation...

  13. The development of thermal nanoprobe methods as a means of characterizing and mapping plasticizer incorporation into ethylcellulose films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jin; Levina, Marina; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R; Round, Andrew N; Reading, Mike; Craig, Duncan Q M

    2012-08-01

    The phase composition and distribution of ethylcellulose (EC) films containing varying amounts of the plasticizer fractionated coconut oil (FCO) were studied using a novel combination of thermal and mapping approaches. The thermal and thermomechanical properties of films containing up to 30% FCO were characterized using modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Film surfaces were mapped using atomic force microscopy (AFM; topographic and pulsed force modes) and the composition of specific regions identified using nanothermal probes. Clear evidence of distinct conjugate phases was obtained for the 20-30% FCO/EC film systems. We suggest a model whereby the composition of the distinct phases may be estimated via consideration of the glass transition temperatures observed using DSC and DMA. By combining pulsed force AFM and nano-thermal analysis we demonstrate that it is possible to map the two separated phases. In particular, the use of thermal probes allowed identification of the distinct regions via localized thermomechanical analysis, whereby nanoscale probe penetration is measured as a function of temperature. The study has indicated that by using thermal and imaging techniques in conjunction it is possible to both identify and map distinct regions in binary films.

  14. Effect of cellulose nanocrystals and gelatin in corn starch plasticized films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J S; dos Reis, K C; Menezes, E G T; Pereira, F V; Pereira, J

    2015-01-22

    Cellulose at the nanoparticle scale has been studied as a reinforcement for biodegradable matrices to improve film properties. The goal has been to investigate the properties of starch/gelatin/cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) films. Eleven treatments were considered using RCCD (rotatable central composite design), in addition to four control treatments. For each assay, the following dependent variables were measured: water vapor permeability (WVP), thickness, opacity and mechanical properties. The microstructure and thermal properties of the films were also assessed. Increases in gelatin and CNC concentrations lead to increases in film thickness, strength and elongation at break. The films containing only gelatin in their matrix displayed better results than the starch films, and the addition of CNC had a positive effect on the assessed response variables. The films exhibited homogeneous and cohesive structures, indicating strong interactions between the filler and matrix. Films with low levels of gelatin and CNC presented the maximum degradation temperature.

  15. GREENHOUSE PLASTIC FILMS CAPABLE OF MODIFYING THE SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOLAR RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of innovative covering films for protected cultivation capable of modifying the spectral distribution of the transmitted radiation and thus the vegetative activity. Two photoselective films, three photoluminescent films and one low-density polyethylene film were used as greenhouse coverings for cherry trees and peach trees, grown in pots. The photoselective films were characterised by a reduction of the R/FR ratio in comparison to the natural solar radiation. Tree growth parameters, such as the apical shoot of cherry trees and the shoot of peach trees, were monitored. Different responses to vegetative activities were observed under the films, depending on the species, with a higher shoots growth rate in the peach with respect to the cherry. The photoselective film characterised by the lowest R/FR ratio significantly enhanced the growth of cherry and peach trees in comparison to the trees cultivated under the other greenhouse films

  16. Reel Plastic Magic; A History of Films and Filmmaking in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardish, Laurence

    This topical history of American films begins with an explanation of how movies work and describes the earlier American films from the nickelodeons through D.W. Griffith. The development of the studios and the major American films of the 1920's through the 1950's is treated largely in terms of important stars, like Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin,…

  17. Design and Test of a Collecting Machine for the Plastic Film Residue%一种残膜检拾机的设计和试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫志鹏

    2015-01-01

    针对残膜对土地的带来的污染,人工检拾农田残留地膜劳动强度大、费时费力,检拾后的耕地需多次翻耕、松土等问题,设计了一种一次能完成捡膜、集膜、清膜及松土整地等作业工序的残膜检拾机械,并对该检拾机械进行了检拾作业研究,实验,对推广小型简易残膜检拾机械有着重要意义。%Aiming at the pollution of plastic film residue, the working intensity of collecting plastic films by hand is great and time-consuming, and the land is then need to be plowed and loosed repeatedly, a collecting machine for the plastic film resi-due which can collect plastic film residue and loosen the soil once for all is designed in this paper. The collecting work of this machine is researched and tested;the results show that it has great significance to generalize the small and simple machine for collecting plastic film residue.

  18. Effect of oil lamination between plasticized starch layers on film properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiak, Ewelina; Debeaufort, Frédéric; Lenart, Andrzej

    2016-03-15

    To reduce the hygroscopic character of biodegradable starch-based films, rapeseed oil was incorporated by lamination (starch-oil-starch 3-layers technique). The lipid lamination followed by starch solution casting step induced an emulsion type structure of dried films. Composite films are more opalescent and glossier than fatty free starch films. For all the films, structure is heterogeneous in the cross-section only. Adding fat induced a twice decrease of the tensile strength. Thermal gravimetry analysis did not show differences between films with and without oil. Lipid reduced the moisture absorption particularly at higher RH as well as the surface swelling index, when water droplet contact occurred. Addition of lipids always decreases the contact angle for all liquid tested, except for water. Surface affinity of films for liquids less polar that water increased with rapeseed oil addition. The addition of rapeseed oil significantly reduces water vapour and oxygen permeability.

  19. Flexible nickel-doped zinc oxide thin-film transistors fabricated on plastic substrates at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lingling; Han, Dedong; Chen, Zhuofa; Cong, Yingying; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Nannan; Dong, Junchen; Zhao, Feilong; Liu, Lifeng; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2015-04-01

    High-performance nickel (Ni)-doped zinc oxide thin-film transistors (NZO TFTs) have been successfully fabricated on transparent flexible plastic substrates at a low temperature. The effect of different oxygen partial pressures during channel deposition on the electrical properties of NZO TFTs was studied to improve the device performance. We found that the oxygen partial pressure during channel deposition has a significant influence on the performance of NZO TFTs. Finally, it was demonstrated that a NZO film with 100% Ar sputtering gas during channel deposition exhibited the best electrical properties, with a drain current on/off ratio of 108, a positive threshold voltage of 2.59 V, a subthreshold swing of 233 mV/decade, and a saturation mobility of 118.9 cm2·V-1·s-1. The results show that Ni-doped ZnO is a promising candidate for flexible fully transparent displays.

  20. Effects of straw and plastic film mulching on greenhouse gas emissions in Loess Plateau, China: A field study of 2 consecutive wheat-maize rotation cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haixin; Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Afeng; Chen, Jing; Cheng, Gong; Sun, Benhua; Pi, Xiaomin; Dyck, Miles; Si, Bingcheng; Zhao, Ying; Feng, Hao

    2017-02-01

    Mulching practices have long been used to modify the soil temperature and moisture conditions and thus potentially improve crop production in dryland agriculture, but few studies have focused on mulching effects on soil gaseous emissions. We monitored annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the regime of straw and plastic film mulching using a closed chamber method on a typical winter-wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Xiaoyan 22) and summer-maize (Zea mays L. cv Qinlong 11) rotation field over two-year period in the Loess Plateau, northwestern China. The following four field treatments were included: T1 (control, no mulching), T2 (4000kgha(-1) wheat straw mulching, covering 100% of soil surface), T3 (half plastic film mulching, covering 50% of soil surface), and T4 (complete plastic film mulching, covering 100% of soil surface). Compared with the control, straw mulching decreased soil temperature and increased soil moisture, whereas plastic film mulching increased both soil temperature and moisture. Accordingly, straw mulching increased annual crop yields over both cycles, while plastic film mulching significantly enhanced annual crop yield over cycle 2. Compared to the no-mulching treatment, all mulching treatments increased soil CO2 emission over both cycles, and straw mulching increased soil CH4 absorption over both cycles, but patterns of soil N2O emissions under straw or film mulching are not consistent. Overall, compared to T1, annual GHG intensity was significantly decreased by 106%, 24% and 26% under T2, T3 and T4 over cycle 1, respectively; and by 20%, 51% and 29% under T2, T3 and T4 over cycle 2, respectively. Considering the additional cost and environmental issues associated with plastic film mulching, the application of straw mulching might achieve a balance between food security and GHG emissions in the Chinese Loess Plateau. However, further research is required to investigate the perennial influence of different mulching applications.

  1. Migration from plasticized films into foods. 1. Migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate from PVC films during home-use and microwave cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Startin, J R; Sharman, M; Rose, M D; Parker, I; Mercer, A J; Castle, L; Gilbert, J

    1987-01-01

    Migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) into a diverse range of foods arising from the domestic use of plasticized PVC films has been determined using a stable isotope dilution GC/MS procedure. Aspects of home use reported in this study include the wrapping and covering of foods such as cheese, cooked meats, sandwiches, cakes, fresh fruit and vegetables; the use of films during food preparation such as marinading; covering during microwave reheating of previously prepared foods, and covering during microwave cooking. Contact between film and foods was for differing temperatures and times, representative of the range of conditions likely to be experienced in practice in the home. Migration increased with both the length of contact time and temperature of exposure, with the highest levels observed where there was a direct contact between the film and food, and where the latter had a high fat content on the contact surface. Highest levels of migration were observed for cheese, cooked meats, cakes and for microwave-cooked foods, whilst lower levels were observed for wrapping of unfilled sandwiches, fruit and vegetables (except avocado), and for food preparation including microwave reheating where there was covering of the food in a container but little or no direct contact.

  2. Aqueous Ammonia soaking of digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. Thus......-scale anaerobic digester to enhance their methane productivity. Soaking in six different reagent concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 32%) was applied for 3 days at 22°C. An overall methane yield increase from 85% to 110% was achieved compared to controls (digested manure fibers where AAS...... in methane yield as the highest concentrations tested; it is anticipated that this will result to an even lower cost for recovery and recycling of ammonia in full-scale. Moreover, the effect of 1, 3, and 5 days AAS treatment on methane production from digested fibers was investigated with 5 and 25% w...

  3. Chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol) films containing ZnO nanoparticles and plasticizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentini, Denice S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Smania, Arthur [Microbiology and Parasitology Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laranjeira, Mauro C.M., E-mail: mauro@qmc.ufsc.br [Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Chemistry Department, QUITECH, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

    2010-05-10

    In this study ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by the Pechini method from a polyester by reacting citric acid with ethylene glycol in which the metal ions are dissolved, and incorporated into blend films of chitosan (CS) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with different concentrations of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate, Tween 80 (T80). These films were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling degree, degradation of films in Hank's solution and the mechanical properties. Besides these characterizations, the antibacterial activity of the films was tested, and the films containing ZnO nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity toward the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus. The observed antibacterial activity in the composite films prepared in this work suggests that they may be used as hydrophilic wound and burn dressings.

  4. Plasticity and Interfacial Dislocation Mechanisms in Epitaxial and Polycrystalline Al Films Constrained by Substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Stresses in epitaxial and textured Al films were determined by substrate-curvature measurements. It was found that in both cases the flow stresses increase with decreasing film thickness. The flow stresses in the epitaxial Al films are in agreement with a dislocation-based model, while the same model strongly underestimates the flow stresses of textured Al films. In-situ transmission electron microscopy studies indicate that dislocations channeling through epitaxial Al films on single-crystalline (0001) α-AI2O3 substrates frequently deposit dislocation segments adjacent to the interface. Furthermore, the AI/α-AI2O3 interface acted as a dislocation source. In this case, the interface is between two crystalline lattices. In contrast, the interface of textured Al films on oxidized silicon substrates is between the crystalline Al and the amorphous SiOx interlayer. It is speculated that the different nature of the interfaces changes dislocation mechanisms and thus influences the flow stresses.

  5. THE EFFECT OF PLASTICIZER CONTENT AND DISACCHARIDE TYPE ON THE MECHANICAL, BARRIER AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BOVINE GELATIN-BASED FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO GUERRERO1

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gelatins are regarded as alternative raw materials to prepare films for food packaging. However, the improvement of their mechanical and water barrier properties is necessary in order to obtain useful materials in service conditions. To improve these functional properties, two strategies have been carried out in this work. First, glycerol was added as plasticizer to increase the flexibility of the films. Second, lactose or sucrose was added to react with gelatin and increase water resistance of gelatin-based films. Commercial gelatin, glycerol and lactose or sucrose were employed in this work and processing of the films was carried out by solution casting. All gelatin films obtained were transparent and flexible. Moreover, the hydrophobic character of the films was increased and the film solubility was decreased by the addition of glycerol and disaccharides. As was observed via FTIR, the changes were due to the interactions between gelatin and glycerol and Maillard reaction between gelatin and disaccharides.

  6. Discussion on the Harm of Plastic Film and Its Recycling Measures%地膜危害及其回收利用措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永波

    2015-01-01

    介绍台安县的地膜使用及回收现状,探讨残留地膜对土壤理化性质、作物生长发育及环境的不利影响,根据台安县的生产实际,论述促进残膜回收的主要措施,为确保农业高产稳产提供有益借鉴。%The article introduces the application of plastic film and its recycling status in Tai'an county, discusses the harmful influence of residual plastic film to soil properties, crops growth and environment, and expounds main measures of promoting the recycling of residual plastic film based on the practice in Tai’an county, provides a beneficial reference for assuring stable and high yield for agri-culture.

  7. 册亨县水稻覆膜直播栽培试验%Experiment of Plastic Film Mulching Cultivation by Direct Seeding of Rice in Ceheng County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄如泽

    2014-01-01

    册亨县水稻覆膜直播栽培试验研究结果表明,地膜覆盖直播栽培能耐干旱、没有杂草、病虫害少,只是开始时用工较多,但整体上分析,覆膜直播比旱育稀植移栽的效果好。%The results of experiment of plastic film mulching cultivation by direct seeding of rice in Ceheng County showed that plastic film mulching cultivation by direct seeding had drought tolerance,no weeds,fewer pests and diseases,just the employment was more at the beginning,but on the whole,plastic film mulching cultivation by direct seeding had better effect than dry nursery and sparse planting transplant.

  8. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN PLASTICIZER TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN MEKANIK EDIBLE FILM PATI JAGUNG

    OpenAIRE

    Adiansyah; Bastian, Februadi

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRAK AGROKOMPLEKS 2008 Edible film adalah lapisan tipis dan kontinyu yang dibuat dari bahan yang dapat dimakan, diletakkan diantara komponen makanan (film) yang berfungsi sebagai penghambat terhadap transfer massa (uap air, oksigen dan zat terlarut) dan sebagai carrier bahan makanan atau aditif. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dalam dua tahap yaitu ekstraksi pati jagung. Pada tahap ini akan diperoleh pati jagung sebagai bahan dasar edible film. Parameter yang diukur pada pati jagung yaitu...

  9. EVALUASI KARAKTERISTIK FISIK EDIBLE FILM DARI GELATIN KULIT KAMBING BLIGON YANG MENGGUNAKAN GLISEROL SEBAGAI PLASTICIZER

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Muhammad Irfan; Triatmojo, Suharjono; Erwanto, Yuny; Fudholi, Achmad

    2013-01-01

    Bahan baku dalam pembuatan edible film dari golongan pati telah banyak digunakan, sedangkan golongan protein yang berasal dari ternak masih jarang digunakan. Gelatin merupakan salah satu jenis bahan yang digunakan dalam pembuatan edible film dari golongan protein asal ternak. Bahan ini diketahui memiliki sifat-sifat yang baik dan berpotensi untuk digunakan sebagai bahan baku dalam pembuatan edible film (Klahorst, 1999). Gelatin pada dasarnya adalah sebuah produk hidrokoloid yang merupa...

  10. Highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator on plastic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi-Il; Son, Jung Hwan; Hwang, Geon-Tae; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Ryu, Jungho; Koo, Min; Choi, Insung; Lee, Seung Hyun; Byun, Myunghwan; Wang, Zhong Lin; Lee, Keon Jae

    2014-04-23

    A highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator is demonstrated using a laser lift-off (LLO) process. The PZT thin film nanogenerator harvests the highest output performance of ∼200 V and ∼150 μA·cm(-2) from regular bending motions. Furthermore, power sources generated from a PZT thin film nanogenerator, driven by slight human finger bending motions, successfully operate over 100 LEDs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Occurrence and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in vegetables and soils of suburban plastic film greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Gangcai; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Manyun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are suspected of having adverse effects on human health and have been frequently detected in soils and vegetables. The present study investigated their occurrence and composition in plastic film greenhouse soil-vegetable systems and assessed their potential health risks to farmers exposed to these widespread pollutants. Six priority control phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), were determined in 44 plastic film greenhouse vegetables and corresponding soils. Total PAEs ranged from 0.51 to 7.16mgkg(-1) in vegetables and 0.40 to 6.20mgkg(-1) in soils with average concentrations of 2.56 and 2.23mgkg(-1), respectively. DnBP, DEHP and DnOP contributed more than 90% of the total PAEs in both vegetables and soils but the proportions of DnBP and DnOP in vegetables were significantly (p3.00mgkg(-1) but were greenhouses. Health risks were mainly by exposure through vegetable consumption and soil ingestion.

  12. Characterizations of plasticized polymeric film coatings for preparing multiple-unit floating drug delivery systems (muFDDSs with controlled-release characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Feng Hung

    Full Text Available Effervescent multiple-unit floating drug delivery systems (muFDDSs consisting of drug (lorsartan- and effervescent (sodium bicarbonate-containing pellets were characterized in this study. The mechanical properties (stress and strain at rupture, Young's modulus, and toughness of these plasticized polymeric films of acrylic (Eudragit RS, RL, and NE and cellulosic materials (ethyl cellulose (EC, and Surelease were examined by a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Results demonstrated that polymeric films prepared from Surelease and EC were brittle with less elongation compared to acrylic films. Eudragit NE films were very flexible in both the dry and wet states. Because plasticizer leached from polymeric films during exposure to the aqueous medium, plasticization of wet Eudragit RS and RL films with 15% triethyl citrate (TEC or diethyl phthalate (DEP resulted in less elongation. DEP might be the plasticizer of choice among the plasticizers examined in this study for Eudragit RL to provide muFDDSs with a short time for all pellets to float (TPF and a longer period of floating. Eudragit RL and RS at a 1∶1 ratio plasticized with 15% DEP were optimally selected as the coating membrane for the floating system. Although the release of losartan from the pellets was still too fast as a result of losartan being freely soluble in water, muFDDSs coated with Eudragit RL and RS at a 1∶1 ratio might have potential use for the sustained release of water-insoluble or the un-ionized form of drugs from gastroretentive drug delivery systems.

  13. Plastic-film mulching and urea types affect soil CO2 emissions and grain yield in spring maize on the Loess Plateau, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiaofei Liu; Yu Chen; Weiwei Li; Yang Liu; Juan Han; Xiaoxia Wen; Yuncheng Liao

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year field experiment was conducted on maize (Zea mays L.) to explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emissions and increase grain yield. Treatments established were: (1) no mulching with urea, (2) no mulching with controlled release fertiliser (CRF), (3) transparent plastic-film mulching (PMt) with urea, (4) PMt with CRF, (5) black plastic-film mulching (PMb) with urea, and (6) PMb with CRF. During the early growth stages, soil CO2 emissions were noted as PMt > PMb > no mulching, and...

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on thermophysical properties of plasticized starch and starch surfactant films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Krystyna; Watzeels, Nick; Rahier, Hubert

    2014-06-01

    In this work the influence of gamma irradiation on the thermomechanical properties of the films formed in potato starch-glycerol and potato starch-glycerol-surfactant systems were examined by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, DMA, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC, and the results were correlated to the amount of the volatile fraction in the films.

  15. Two hardening mechanisms in single crystal thin films studied by discrete dislocation plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicola, L; Van der Giessen, E; Needleman, A

    2005-01-01

    thermal stress in single crystal thin films on a rigid substrate are used to study size effects. The relation between the residual stress and the dislocation structure in the films after cooling is analyzed using dislocation dynamics. A boundary layer characterized by a high stress gradient and a hi

  16. Quality changes of 'Sanguinello' oranges wrapped with different plastic films under simulated marketing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aquino, S; Malinconico, M; Avella, M; Di Lorenzo, M L; Mura; Palma, A

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and eating quality of citrus fruit changes slowly after harvest, and quality alteration is mainly due to shrinkage, loss of firmness, excessive weight loss and decay rather than a reduction of nutritional value and taste features. Film wrapping may be a suitable means to reduce transpiration and preserve market quality provided film permeability to gases does not lead to: 1) a reduction of in-package O2 partial pressure at a point that would induce anaerobic respiration; 2) an increase of CO2 concentration to toxic levels. This experiment was carried out to study quality changes of 'Sanguinello' oranges treated or not treated with 500 mg/L imazalil (IMZ) and wrapped with continuous, macro- or micro-perforated polyolefinic films. Wrapped and no-wrapped fruit were stored at 20 degrees C and 60% RH for 20 or 30 days. In-package gas composition of the macro-perforated film showed no significant difference compared to air composition, while in-package partial pressure of CO2 and O2 ranged between 4 (continuous film) and 9.8 kPa (micro-perforated films), and 14.8 (continuous film) and 5 kPa (micro-perforated films), respectively. After 30 days of storage weight loss in fruit wrapped with the macro-perforated film was (4.3%) slightly lowerthan un-packed fruit (5%), while in all other packages weight loss never exceeded 0.7%.Quality changes were quite stable over storage in all treatments, although slight but significantly lower levels of total soluble solids and ascorbic acid were detected in micro-perforated films with the lowest degree of perforation. However, the sensory analysis denoted a remarkable decrease of firmness in un-wrapped or wrapped fruit with macro-perforated film, while a moderate build-up of off-flavour, which reduced the eating quality, developed in micro-perforated films. Decay ranged between 6 and 12% in not treated fruit, with the lowest incidence detected in un-wrapped fruit, whereas differences among the different films were not

  17. Enhancing the release of the antioxidant tocopherol from polypropylene films by incorporating the natural plasticizers lecithin, olive oil, or sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Ares Pernas, Ana; Castro López, María del Mar; López Vilariño, José Manuel; González Rodríguez, María Victoria

    2013-12-01

    In this work, natural plasticizers-modified polypropylenes intended for food active packaging were developed. Sunflower oil, olive oil, and soy lecithin, without any known harmful effects or toxicity, were employed as natural plasticizers, also implementing the attractiveness of using synthetic plastics on active packaging developments. Their incorporation during the extrusion of polypropylene was tried as a means to obtain polymers with improved diffusion paths, allowing differences in antioxidant release rates for active packaging materials. Thermal and rheological characterization of the films showed that blending natural plasticizers do not significantly modify their thermal properties; however, small variations of viscoelastic properties were observed. Furthermore, the resulting release of tocopherol was highly dependent on the polymer formulation. Furthermore, it was clearly time-controlled by using those natural plasticizers, especially olive oil. Antioxidant activity results also showed that packaged foods are protected against oxidative degradation over time, resulting from the improved release of the antioxidants.

  18. Increased concentration of hyaluronan in tears after soaking contact lenses in Biotrue multipurpose solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Catherine A; Rah, Marjorie J; Reindel, William T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to determine 1) the concentration of hyaluronan (HA) in the tear films of contact lens (CL) wearers versus non-CL wearers and 2) whether HA sorbed from Biotrue, an HA-containing multipurpose solution (MPS), onto senofilcon A lenses affects the concentration of HA in tears after 2 hours of wear. Patients and methods Tears of habitual CL wearers and non-CL wearers were collected on Schirmer strips at baseline and after 2 hours of wear of senofilcon A CLs that had first been either rinsed with Sensitive Eyes Saline or soaked in Biotrue MPS for 14 hours. HA concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and adjusted for sample volumes. Results No difference in baseline concentrations of HA in tears was found between CL wearers and non-CL wearers (P=0.07), nor between males and females (P=0.06). However, age was significantly negatively associated with HA concentration (Peyes that had worn CLs soaked in Biotrue MPS when compared to baseline (P=0.01) or to saline-rinsed control (P=0.03). Conclusion 1) In this study population, no difference in baseline concentration of HA was observed between CL wearers and non-CL wearers, and 2) after 2 hours of wear of senofilcon A lenses that were soaked in Biotrue MPS, HA concentrations in the tear films of CL wearers increased. PMID:27784983

  19. Tracer aroma compound transfer from a solid and complex-flavored food matrix packed in treated papers or plastic packaging film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury-Brun, Cécile; Lequin, Sonia; Chalier, Pascale; Desobry, Stéphane; Voilley, Andrée

    2007-02-21

    The objective of this work was to study the transfer of four aroma compounds (ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, cis-3-hexenol, and benzaldehyde) from a solid and complex-flavored food matrix (sponge cake) toward and through packaging films placed in indirect contact during storage in accelerated aging conditions (38 degrees C and 86% relative humidity gradient). The efficiency of treated papers relative to that of standard paper and plastic as barrier was tested. Before storage, aroma compound volatility in the sponge cake was measured, and similar values were found between aroma compounds, due to the fat content of the sponge cake. Whatever the aroma compound, permeability values during storage were similar for the same packaging film. The plastic film was the highest barrier, whereas calendering and coating treatments applied to treated papers decreased effectively their permeability. An opposite trend was observed for aroma compound sorption into packaging films during storage.

  20. Application of plastic trash sorting technology in separating waste plastic mulch films from impurities%塑料垃圾分选技术在废旧地膜与杂质分离中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石鑫; 牛长河; 乔园园; 张海春; 王学农

    2016-01-01

    Plastic film mulching technique has been using widely in China because of it’s notable features such as raising temperature,inhibiting weed growth,promoting crop maturity and increasing production. A large number of used plastic mulch films which have not be recycled and accumulated in the soil year after year and results serious waste plastic mulch film pollution. Recycled waste plastic mulch films twined each other with other impurities and makes the mulch film utilization becomes difficult. Some recycled waste plastic mulch films has been stacked or burned on field ridge freely which leads secondary pollution.Thus, the waste plastic mulch film pollution problems should be cracked from it’s beginning.Agricultural waste plastic mulch film and impurities separation technology is key links during mechanized mulch films recycling and reusing. Waste plastic mulch film as a valuable renewable resource and be important part of plastic production which comes from waste plastic mulch film by separation process. Effective recycling and reusing of waste plastic mulch film can improve economic benefits and even what’s more is that it can decrease the secondary pollution probability which caused by improper waste plastic mulch film handling. Some documents shows that the thickness of plastic mulch film used in foreign countries is generally above 0.12mm which keep the tensile strength of plastic mulch film be good enough and promote the rolling recycling machine development.Waste plastic mulch film is clean and complete which recycled by rolling recycling machine and it can be reused directly.At present, there is no relevant report about technology and equipment for waste plastic mulch film separation at abroad.The thickness of the plastic mulch film used generally in China between 0.004-0.008mm which leads the tensile strength not good enough after harvesting season and can not be recycled by rolling way. The only way which can recycling waste plastic mulch film by

  1. 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin emissions following simulated drip irrigation to raised beds under plastic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, D J; Luo, L; Xuan, R; Yates, S R

    2010-08-01

    Using laboratory soil chambers a nonscaled representation of an agricultural raised bed was constructed. For a sandy loam soil, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) were applied at 5 cm depth with an excess of water (simulated drip irrigation). Application was made under both high density polyethylene (HDPE) and virtually impermeable film (VIF) covering the soil bed (the furrow was left uncovered). Soil gas distribution of the fumigants, together with emissions into the headspace above the bed, sidewall and furrow were determined over time. Total emissions from the HDPE treatment were cis 1,3-D 28%, trans 1,3-D 24%, and CP 8%. Due to its lower permeability, the values for VIF were 13%, 7%, and 1.5%, respectively. With HDPE, the majority (86-93%) of the emissions occurred from the bed, while for VIF the majority (92-99%) of the emissions was from the furrow. Compared to a range of literature values for shank injection, the use of drip application appears to offer a benefit in reducing 1,3-D and CP emissions. However, the most meaningful comparison is with our previous data for simulated shank injection where the same soil was covered (completely) with the same plastic films (1). In this comparison, only 1,3-D emissions under HDPE were lower with drip application; 1,3-D emissions under VIF and CP emissions under both films were greater with the drip application.

  2. Effect of cellulose reinforcement on the properties of organic acid modified starch microparticles/plasticized starch bio-composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teacă, Carmen-Alice; Bodîrlău, Ruxanda; Spiridon, Iuliana

    2013-03-01

    The present paper describes the preparation and characterization of polysaccharides-based bio-composite films obtained by the incorporation of 10, 20 and 30 wt% birch cellulose (BC) within a glycerol plasticized matrix constituted by the corn starch (S) and chemical modified starch microparticles (MS). The obtained materials (coded as MS/S, respectively MS/S/BC) were further characterized. FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to evidence structural and crystallinity changes in starch based films. Morphological, thermal, mechanical, and water resistance properties were also investigated. Addition of cellulose alongside modified starch microparticles determined a slightly improvement of the starch-based films water resistance. Some reduction of water uptake for any given time was observed mainly for samples containing 30% BC. Some compatibility occurred between MS and BC fillers, as evidenced by mechanical properties. Tensile strength increased from 5.9 to 15.1 MPa when BC content varied from 0 to 30%, while elongation at break decreased significantly.

  3. 奶茶杯内膜中增塑剂含量的检测分析%Determination of the Three Plasticizer Release into Some Fat-soluble Analog Solution from Tea Milk-Tea Cup of Internal Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海燕

    2014-01-01

    The high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of 3 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in Milk-Tea cup of internal film,including di-butyl phthalate (DBP),di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) 3 kinds of plasticizers to lipophilic simulations of liquid ( milk, vegetable oil, isooctane ) .The results showed that, tea cups lining materials through lipid soluble analog fluid after soaking with DEP and DBP detection, DOP not detected, DBP detectable quantities in the EU directive 2007/19/EC in a prescribed range, DEP detection was much greater than that of British farming fishing Ministry of food provisions daily tolerance.%采用高效液相色谱法测定奶茶杯内膜材料中的邻苯二甲酸(2-乙基己基)酯(DEHP)、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)、邻苯二甲酸二辛脂(DOP)3种增塑剂向脂溶性模拟液(牛奶、植物油、异辛烷)中的迁移溶出量。结果表明,奶茶杯内膜材料经过脂溶性模拟液浸泡后有DEHP和DBP的检出,DOP未检出,DBP检出量在欧盟指令2007/19/EC的规定范围内,DEHP检出量远大于英国农渔食品部规定的的每日耐受量。

  4. Colored light-quality selective plastic films affect anthocyanin content, enzyme activities, and the expression of flavonoid genes in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lixiang; Zhang, Yuchao; Yang, Xiaofang; Xiao, Jinping; Zhang, Huiqin; Zhang, Zuofa; Wang, Yuezhi; Jiang, Guihua

    2016-09-15

    The influence of colored light-quality selective plastic films (red, yellow, green, blue, and white) on the content of anthocyanin, the activities of the related enzymes and the transcripts of the flavonoid gene was studied in developing strawberry fruit. The results indicated that colored films had highly significant effects on the total anthocyanin content (TAC) and proportions of individual anthocyanins. Compared with the white control film, the red and yellow films led to the significant increase of TAC, while the green and blue films caused a decrease of TAC. Colored film treatments also significantly affected the related enzyme activity and the expression of structural genes and transcription factor genes, which suggested that the enhancement of TAC by the red and yellow films might have resulted from the activation of related enzymes and transcription factor genes in the flavonoid pathway. Treatment with red and yellow light-quality selective plastic films might be useful as a supplemental cultivation practice for enhancing the anthocyanin content in developing strawberry fruit.

  5. Preparation of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Xylan Blending Films with 1,2,3,4-Butane Tetracarboxylic Acid as a New Plasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cun-dian Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Miscible, biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/xylan blending films were firstly prepared in the range of the PVA/xylan weight ratio from 1 : 2 to 3 : 1 by casting method using 1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA as a new plasticizer. The properties of blending films as functions of PVA/xylan weight ratio and BTCA amount were discussed. XRD and FT-IR were applied to characterize the blending films. Experimental results indicated that tensile strength (TS and elongation at break (EAB of blending films decreased along with the decrease of the PVA/xylan weight ratio. Both of TS and EAB firstly increased and then decreased as the amount of BTCA was increased. More importantly, blending films were biodegraded almost by 41% with an addition of 10% BTCA in blending films within 30 days in soil. For all hydroxyl functionalized polymers (xylan and PVA, their molecular interactions and miscibility with BTCA endowed blending films with the biocompatibility and biodegradability. Therefore, these blending films are environmentally friendly materials which could be applied as biodegradable plastics for food packaging and agricultural applications.

  6. Studies on solar flat plate collector evaporation systems for tannery effluent (soak liquor)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SRITHAR K.; MANIA.

    2006-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer analysis of an incompressible, laminar boundary layer over solar flat plate collector evaporation systems for tannery effluent (soak liquor) is investigated. The goveming equations are solved for various liquid to air velocity ratios. Profiles of velocity, temperature and concentration as well as their gradients are presented. The heat transfer and mass transfer coefficients thus obtained are used to evaluate mass of water evaporated for an inclined fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP)solar flat plate collector (FPC) with and without cover. Comparison of these results with the experimental performance shows encouraging trend of good agreement between them.

  7. 马铃薯大棚套黑膜覆盖栽培技术%Planting Potato Using Black Plastic Film Mulching in an Anti-fogging Agricultural Plastic Film Covered Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林长治

    2013-01-01

    Potato has become a main crop in winter cropping system in Changle, but due to differences in cultivation, management and variation in annual climate conditions, potato yield and quality vary to a large extent. Planting potato using black plastic film mulching combined with drip irrigation under the mulching for fertigation in an anti-fogging agricultural plastic film covered tunnel provides potato a stable entironments for growth, and thereby increasing yield and quality of potato. Also by using this technique, potato could be marketed more than a month earlier. Therefore, the profit could be increased for potato farmers.%马铃薯已成为长乐市冬季农业生产的主要作物,但由于栽培技术与管理水平差异,年际气候变化较大,产量和品质也大不相同。马铃薯大棚套黑膜覆盖栽培技术通过构建温室大棚覆盖塑料无滴膜,起垄播种后覆盖黑色地膜,膜下铺设灌溉和施肥用的滴灌带等方法,为马铃薯生长发育提供了一个相对稳定的生态环境,可有效地提高马铃薯的产量和品质,且比露地栽培提早一个多月上市,稳定增加农户种植效益。

  8. Water Vapor Permeation of Metal Oxide/Polymer Coated Plastic Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Yukihiro; Oya, Toshiyuki; Kuwahara, Mitsuru; Ito, Katsuya

    Barrier performance to water vapor permeation of ceramic coated layers deposited on flexible polymer films is of great interest to food packaging, medical device packaging and flat panel display industries. In this study, a new type film in which a ceramic layer is deposited on a polymer coated film was proposed for lower water vapor permeation. It is important how to control interfacial properties between each layer and film for good barrier performance. Several kinds of polymer coated materials were prepared for changing surface free energy of the films before and after depositing the ceramic layer. The ceramic layer, which is composed of mixed material of SiO2 and Al2O3, was adopted under the same conditions. The following results were obtained; 1) Water vapor permeation is not related to the surface energy of polymer coated films, 2) After depositing the ceramic layer, however, a strong correlation is observed between the water vapor permeation and surface free energy. 3) The phenomenon is considered that the polarity of the polymer layers plays a key role in changing the structure of ceramic coated layers.

  9. Filme plástico perfurado em túneis baixos cultivados com alface Perforated plastic film for low tunnels cultivated with lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. B. A. Monteiro

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as condições micrometeorológicas no interior de túneis baixos cultivados com alface, através da perfuração do filme plástico, técnica utilizada para melhorar a ventilação no interior dos túneis, porém ainda pouco conhecida. Assim, foram testados túneis sem e com cultura de alface, com 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% de área de filme perfurada e, também, um canteiro sem túnel, durante a primavera. As variáveis meteorológicas utilizadas para a avaliação dos tratamentos foram temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, verificando-se que, quanto maior o percentual de perfuração, menor a elevação da temperatura no interior do ambiente protegido e maior a perda de umidade para o ambiente exterior. A produção obtida nos ambientes protegidos foi maior e de melhor qualidade.The present work was carried out with the objective to evaluate the micrometeorological conditions inside low tunnels cultivated with lettuce. A technique used to improve the ventilation inside the tunnels is the perforation of the plastic film, though still not very well known. Therefore, tunnels were tested without and with lettuce crop, with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% of perforated film area and in soil without tunnel, during spring. The meteorological variables used for the evaluation of the treatments were temperature and relative humidity of air. It was verified that the elevation of the temperature inside the protected atmosphere was inversely related to percentage of perforation contrary to the humidity loss for the external atmosphere. The production obtained under protected conditions was higher and of better quality.

  10. Natural moisturizing factors (NMF) in the stratum corneum (SC). I. Effects of lipid extraction and soaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marisa; Visscher, Marty; Laruffa, Angela; Wickett, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Natural moisturizing factor (NMF) is essential for appropriate stratum corneum hydration, barrier homeostasis, desquamation, and plasticity. It is formed from filaggrin proteolysis to small, hygroscopic molecules including amino acids. We hypothesized that common lipid extraction and soaking in water would alter the level of NMF in the upper SC and its biophysical properties. A novel method of measuring and quantifying the amino acid components of NMF is presented. Adhesive tapes were used to collect samples of the stratum corneum (SC) and were extracted with 6mM perchloric acid for analysis by reverse-phase HPLC. HPLC results were standardized to the amount of protein removed by the tapes. An increase in NMF was found with increased SC depth. Also, the combination of extraction and soaking was found to increase NMF loss relative to control or to extraction or soaking alone. Our results indicate that common skin care practices significantly influence the water binding materials in the upper SC. The findings have implications for the evaluation and formulation of skin care products.

  11. Plastic-film Mulching in Different Periods for Lanzhou Lily Production and Soil Temperature and Humidity Influence%不同时期覆膜对兰州百合产量及土壤温湿度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐学军; 魏桂琴

    2012-01-01

    在兰州百合种植区进行秋覆膜、顶凌覆膜和不覆膜3种栽培模式试验,结果表明,在兰州百合生长的每一个生育期,株高、茎粗、叶长、叶宽、根重均是秋覆膜(A)〉顶凌覆膜(B)〉不覆膜(CK);0~20cm土壤含水量、土壤温度不同生育时期秋覆膜、顶凌覆膜均高于传统不覆膜栽培;百合鳞茎产量秋覆膜栽培较传统不覆膜栽培高21.2%,顶凌覆膜栽培较传统不覆膜栽培高4.5%。%In autumn plastic-film mulching,plastic-film mulching topling and no plastic-film mulching three cultivation patterns test in Lanzhou lily growing areas,the experimental results show that the growth in Lanzhou lily every growth period,the plant height,stem diameter,leaf length,leaf width and weight of root,of all is an.autumn plastic-film mulching〉b.topling〉CK.No plastic-film mulching;0-20 cm soil moisture,soil temperature of plastic-film mulching topling and autumn plastic-film mulching are higher than the traditional non-plastic-film mulching cultivation in different growth periods.Lily bulb production with autumn plastic-film mulching with a more traditional cultivation no coated high 21.2%,plastic-film mulching top ling with a more traditional cultivation no laminating high 4.5%.

  12. 不同地膜覆盖方式在果树生产中的应用%Application of Different Plastic Film Mulching in Fruit Tree Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红波; 陶增姣; 李海东; 辛燕; 路瑾瑾; 祝秋平; 郑禾

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the application of different plastic film mulching methods in the production of fruit trees,in the paper, the author applied the application of different plastic film mulching (ordinary plastic film, non-woven cloth and cloth) is used as the material. The result showed that the ordinary plastic film mulching short-term cost savings, but to the pollution of the environment larger; non-woven cloth pollution automatic degradation, but actual service life is short;gardening cloth durable, long term saving production cost, the best overall performance.%本研究旨在探讨不同地膜覆盖方式在果树生产上的应用。以不同地膜覆盖(普通塑料地膜、无纺布地布和园艺地布)为材料,在果树生产上进行应用。结果表明:普通塑料地膜覆盖短期节约成本,但对环境污染较大;无纺布地布无污染可自动降解,但实际使用寿命较短;园艺地布经久耐用,长期来看节约生产成本,综合表现最好。

  13. Nano-Floating Gate Memory Devices Composed of ZnO Thin-Film Transistors on Flexible Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Byoungjun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nano-floating gate memory devices were fabricated on a flexible plastic substrate by a low-temperature fabrication process. The memory characteristics of ZnO-based thin-film transistors with Al nanoparticles embedded in the gate oxides were investigated in this study. Their electron mobility was found to be 0.18 cm2/V·s and their on/off ratio was in the range of 104–105. The threshold voltages of the programmed and erased states were negligibly changed up to 103 cycles. The flexibility, memory properties, and low-temperature fabrication of the nano-floating gate memory devices described herein suggest that they have potential applications for future flexible integrated electronics.

  14. Flexible photodiodes constructed with CdTe nanoparticle thin films and single ZnO nanowires on plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kiyeol; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2011-10-14

    We construct a flexible pn heterostructured photodiode using a CdTe nanoparticle thin film and a single ZnO nanowire (NW) on a plastic substrate. The photocurrent characteristics of the flexible photodiode are examined under illumination with 325 nm wavelength light and the photocurrent efficiencies at bias voltages of ± 2.5 V are estimated to be 8.0 and 2.1 µA W(-1) under forward and reverse bias conditions, respectively. The photocurrent generation of the pn heterostructured photodiode is dominantly associated with the transport of the photogenerated charge carriers in the single ZnO NW. Furthermore, the operations of our flexible photodiode are investigated in the upwardly and downwardly bent states, as well as in the flat state.

  15. Biocompatibility of acrylic resin after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Hendrijatini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acrylic resin as basic material for denture will stay on oral mucosa for a very long time. The polymerization of acrylic resin can be performed by conventional method and microwave, both produce different residual monomer at different toxicity. Acrylic resin can absorb solution, porous and possibly absorb disinfectantt as well, that may have toxic reaction with the tissue. Sodium Hypochlorite as removable denture disinfectant can be expected to be biocompatible to human body. The problem is how biocompatible acrylic resin which has been processed by conventional method and microwave method after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite solution. Purpose: The aim of this study was to understand in vitro biocompatibility of acrylic resin which has polimerated by conventional method and microwave after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite using tissue culture. Methods: Four groups of acrylic resin plate were produced, the first group was acrylic resin plate with microwave polymeration and soaked in sodium hypochlorite, the second group was acrylic resin plate with microwave polymeration but not soaked, the thirdwas one with conventional method and soaked and the last group was one with conventional method but not soaked, and in 1 control group. Each group consists of 7 plates. Biocompatibility test was performed in-vitro on each material using fibroblast tissue culture (BHK-21 cell-line. Result: The percentage between living cells and dead cells from materials which was given acrylic plate was wounted. The data was analyzed statistically with T test. Conclusion: The average value of living cells is higher in acrylic resin poimerization using microwave method compared to conventional method, in both soaked and non soaked (by sodium hypochlorite group. This means that sodium hypochlorite 0.5% was biocompatible to the mouth mucosa as removable denture disinfectant for 10 minutes soaking and washing afterwards.

  16. Post-annealing-free, room temperature processed nanocrystalline indium tin oxide thin films for plastic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyoung Jang, Jin; Jong Lee, You; Jang, YunSung; Yun, JangWon; Yi, Seungjun; Hong, MunPyo

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we confirm that bombardment by high energy negative oxygen ions (NOIs) is the key origin of electro-optical property degradations in indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films formed by conventional plasma sputtering processes. To minimize the bombardment effect of NOIs, which are generated on the surface of the ITO targets and accelerated by the cathode sheath potential on the magnetron sputter gun (MSG), we introduce a magnetic field shielded sputtering (MFSS) system composed of a permanent magnetic array between the MSG and the substrate holder to block the arrival of energetic NOIs. The MFSS processed ITO thin films reveal a novel nanocrystal imbedded polymorphous structure, and present not only superior electro-optical characteristics but also higher gas diffusion barrier properties. To the best of our knowledge, no gas diffusion barrier composed of a single inorganic thin film formed by conventional plasma sputtering processes achieves such a low moisture permeability.

  17. 机械活化醋酸酯淀粉的制备及其生物降解塑料膜性能%Preparation of mechanical activated starch acetate and performance research of the biodegradable plastic films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈渊; 黄祖强; 谢祖芳; 朱万仁; 伍念荣

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve properties of starch-based biodegradable plastic films, the mechanical activated starch acetate (MASA) was synthesized from mechanical activated maize starch (MAS) with activation time for 1.0 h. At the same time, the biodegradable plastic films were produced by thermal gelatinization of starch suspensions blending MASA with degree of substitution and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). By Fourier transform infrared spectrogram (FTIR),differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the microstructure, particle shape,thermal stability were studied. The mechanical properties and biodegrade ability of the MASA/PVA were investigated by comparing with those of native starch acetate (SA). The results indicated that the microstmcture and particle shape changed greatly and thermal property of MASA increased compared with those of MAS and native starch. The properties of MASA/PVA were better than those of SA/PVA, and the tensile strength of the MASA/PVA with MASA (DS=0.1) was 3.56 MPa, the breaking elongation was 146.22% before soaking in water, and the absorption of water was 134.79% after 24 h. Hot water resistance properties was good, and the rate of biodegradation was 45.90% in the soil after 20 days. The mechanical activation pretreatment effectively improved the properties of biodegradable plastic films.%为了有效提高淀粉基生物降解塑料的性能,本试验对机械活化1.0 h的玉米淀粉(MAS)进行酯化改性,制备了机械活化醋酸酯淀粉(MASA)及机械活化醋酸酯淀粉/聚乙烯醇的牛物降解塑料膜(MASA/PVA),用傅立叶红外光谱仪(FTIR)、差示扫描量热仪(DSC)、扫描电镜(SEM)分别对MASA的结构、热稳定性、形貌等进行测试和表征,并与原醋酸酯淀粉/聚乙烯醇生物降解塑料膜(SA/PVA)对比研究了塑料膜的力学性能和生物降解性能.结果表明,机械活化淀粉经酯化改性后,结构和形貌都有很大的改变,热性能提

  18. 绿豆覆膜栽培效应研究%The Effect of Plastic Film Mulching on Mung Bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪英; 卢成达; 张泽燕; 张耀文

    2014-01-01

    在绿豆鼓粒期,选取晴朗无云天气,对不同覆膜方式处理下的绿豆进行光合指标采集,结合成熟期与绿豆产量有关的表型性状,研究不同地膜覆盖方式对绿豆产量的影响。结果表明:地膜覆盖能增温、保湿、保持养分、增加光效。用140 cm渗水地膜覆盖处理的绿豆持绿度高,叶片叶绿素含量明显高于露地平播(对照),净光合速率高,干物质积累时间长,绿豆产量有明显增加。140 cm渗水地膜覆盖绿豆产量2691 kg/hm2,较露地平播和窄幅地膜处理分别增加了20.9%和6.3%。%In order to study the effect of plastic film mulching dealt with different way on mung bean yield, the author chose the cloudless fine weather to measure the photosynthetic indexes in the seed filling period of mung bean, and measured the phenotypic traits relating to mung bean yield in the mature period. The results showed that the plastic film mulching could increase soil temperature, retain moisture, keep nutrient, and increase photosynthetic efficiency, the mung bean had higher green degree, net photosynthetic rate, and its chorophyll content was significantly higher than no-covered (contrast), so its photosynthetic matter accumulation time was long, the yield had obviously increased. The mung bean yield was 2691 kg/hm2 with 140 cm water-osmosis plastic membrane covered, which increased by 20.9%to no-covered and 6.3%to narrow membrane treatment.

  19. Water vapor permeability, mechanical, optical and sensorial properties of plasticized guar gumedible films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible films were prepared by casting method using guar gum and glycerol in different ratios. The concentration of guar gum was 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% whereas glycerol concentration was 20, 30 and 40% (w/v). The water vapor permeability (WVP), mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation), thic...

  20. Diamondlike carbon deposition on plastic films by plasma source ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, T; Shinohara, M; Takagi, T

    2002-01-01

    Application of pulsed high negative voltage (approx 10 mu s pulse width, 300-900 pulses per second) to a substrate is found to induce discharge, thereby increasing ion current with an inductively coupled plasma source. This plasma source ion beam implantation (PSII) technique is investigated for the pretreatment and deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin layer on polyethylene terepthalate (PET) film. Pretreatment of PET with N sub 2 and Ar plasma is expected to provide added barrier effects when coupled with DLC deposition, with possible application to fabrication of PET beverage bottles. PSII treatment using N sub 2 and Ar in separate stages is found to change the color of the PET film, effectively increasing near-ultraviolet absorption. The effects of this pretreatment on the chemical bonding of C, H, and O are examined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). DLC thin film was successfully deposited on the PET film. The surface of the DLC thin layer is observed to be smooth by scanning electron mic...

  1. Utilização de diferentes filmes plásticos como cobertura de abrigos para cultivo protegido = Use of different greenhouses plastic film as cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Weselli de Sá Andrade

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente projeto foi desenvolvido na Faculdade de Engenharia – Unesp, Campus de Ilha Solteira, no município de Ilha Solteira, Estado de São Paulo. Estudou-se o comportamento do ambiente em duas condições de ambiente protegido, com cobertura plástica do solo e em solo nu. Avaliaram-se as médias, por quinquídio, dos valores médios,máximos e mínimos diários de temperatura e umidade relativa do ar. As médias, por quinquídio, dos: valores médios diários de déficit de saturação de vapor d’água; dos totais diários de densidade de fluxo de radiação; das transmitâncias à radiação, em cada abrigo e asregressões lineares para estimativa dos totais diários de radiação no interior dos abrigos, em função do total diário de radiação em campo aberto. O ambiente protegido reduziu em relação ao campo aberto a densidade de fluxo de radiação solar, com maior intensidade, no abrigo coberto com filme plástico térmico difusor de luz. O maior efeito dos abrigos ocorreu sobre as temperaturas máximas, tendo maiores valores a estufa coberta com filme de polietileno convencional. Não ocorreram diferenças para umidade relativa do ar entre as estufas. O mulching plástico preto aumentou a temperatura do solo a 6 e 12 cm de profundidade.This project was developed in the Faculty of Engineering - Unesp, Campus of Ilha Solteira, in the municipality of Ilha Solteira – São Paulo State. We studied the environmental behavior under two conditions of protected environment, with plastic covering the soil and bare soil. It was evaluated the quinquidial averages, averages values, maximum and minimum daily temperature and relative humidity; quinquidial averages of the daily average values of deficiency of saturation of water vapor; the density of total daily flow of radiation; from transmission to radiation in each shelter and the linear regressions to estimate the total daily radiation inside the shelter, according to the daily total

  2. Effect of different types of plastic packaging films on the moisture and aflatoxin contents of pistachio nuts during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerardekani, Ahmad; Karim, Roselina

    2013-04-01

    Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the popular tree nuts in the world. Proper selection of packaging materials is necessary to prevent absorption of moisture and aflatoxin formation which will influence the overall product quality and safety. This research is undertaken to study the effect of different type of flexible packaging films on the moisture and aflatoxin contents of whole pistachio nuts during storage at ambient temperature (22-28 °C) and relative humidity of 85-100%. Five types of plastic films tested were low density polyethylene (LDPE) which serves as the control, food-grade polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon (LDPE/PA), polyamide/polypropylene (PA/PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The moisture content and aflatoxin content of pistachio nuts were measured using oven drying method and HPLC, respectively. Sample were analysed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 months during the storage period. Results showed that there was an increase in moisture content with the increase in storage time of pistachio nuts. The increase in moisture content was associated with the aflatoxin level of pistachio nuts during storage time. All the packaging materials except LDPE delayed the moisture absorption and aflatoxin formation of the product. The most suitable packaging materials for maintaining the quality and safety of pistachio nuts is PET films followed by nylon, PA/PP and PVC. The shelf-life of pistachio can be extended from 2 months (Control) to 5 months when PET is used as the packaging material.

  3. Current Situation ,Problems and Solutions of Plastic Film Utility in Gansu Province%甘肃省农膜利用现状和存在问题及解决途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯海

    2012-01-01

      甘肃是一个地膜覆盖栽培大省,地膜已经覆盖不同农作区及不同作物,随着地膜应用量和使用年限不断增加,农用地膜大量残留于土壤中,地膜降解速度缓慢,加上残膜的回收利用率低,土壤中残膜不断增加,造成土壤污染,导致农作物产量下降,耕地质量变劣。通过对甘肃省农用地膜利用现状分析,指出残膜对农业生态环境和农作物产生的危害,提出了农田残膜回收的对策和措施。%  Gansu is a major province of plastic film mulching area ,where the different farming areas and crops had been covered with plastic film .With the increasing amount and years of plastic film applications ,a large number of agricultural plastic film remained in the soil ,while slow degradation and low utilization rate of plastic film caused the increasing of residual plastic film ,as a result ,soil was polluted and crop yield decreased .The harm of residual plastic film for agro-ecological environment and crops were pointed out ,and the countermeas-ures and advice of recycling residual plastic film were proposed through the analysis of utilization status of plas-tic film in Gansu province .

  4. Medium scale carbon nanotube thin film integrated circuits on flexible plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A; Cao, Qing; Alam, Muhammad; Pimparkar, Ninad

    2015-02-03

    The present invention provides device components geometries and fabrication strategies for enhancing the electronic performance of electronic devices based on thin films of randomly oriented or partially aligned semiconducting nanotubes. In certain aspects, devices and methods of the present invention incorporate a patterned layer of randomly oriented or partially aligned carbon nanotubes, such as one or more interconnected SWNT networks, providing a semiconductor channel exhibiting improved electronic properties relative to conventional nanotubes-based electronic systems.

  5. 残膜回收机械化技术在和静县的示范推广应用%Demonstration and application of plastic film recovery mechanization technology in Hejing County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉亚平

    2013-01-01

      残膜对农业生产和生态环境造成了严重的污染,实施机械化回收残膜技术,减少“白色污染”,提出了残膜回收机在作业中存在的问题及措施建议。%  Plastic film for agricultural production and ecological environment caused serious pollution, the implemen-tation of mechanized recycling plastic film technology to reduce "white pollution", plastic film recycling machine existing problems in the job and measures recommended.

  6. Determination of Three Kinds of Bisphenois in Soak Water of Plastic Materials for Drinking Water Supply System by Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry%输配水材料浸泡水中3种双酚类化合物的固相萃取-液相色谱-质谱测定法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海婧; 胡小键; 林少彬

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立输配水材料浸泡水中双酚F(bisphenol F,BPF)、双酚A(bisphenol A,BPA)和四溴双酚A(2,2',6,6'-tetrabromobisphenol A,TBBPA)三种双酚类化合物的测定方法.方法 将30件输配水材料样品在室温避光条件下超纯水浸泡(24±1)h后,取200 ml浸泡水于C18固相萃取柱进行净化浓缩,采用液相-色谱-质谱(LC-MS-MS)法测定双酚F、双酚A和四溴双酚A的浓度.结果 双酚F、双酚A和四溴双酚A分别在0.027~333、0.032~333、0.006~333μg/L的线性范围内,所得回归方程均呈较好的线性关系(r≥0.999),检出限分别为8、10、2 ng/L,定量下限分别为27、32、6 ng/L.该方法所得的平均回收率为77.4%~ 117.0%,RSD为3.9%~17.0%.结论 该方法灵敏度高,选择性强,适用于输配水材料浸泡水中双酚类化合物双酚F、双酚A和四溴双酚A的测定.%Objective To develop a method for the determination of bisphenol F.bisphenol A and tetrabromobisphenol A in soak water of the materials for drinking water supply system.Methods A total of 30 materials for drinking water supply system were leached at room temperature for (24±1) hours.200 ml soak water were preconcentrated on C18 solid phase extraction cartridge,and bisphenol F.bisphenol A and tetrabromobisphenol A were quantitatively analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS)method.Results The calibration curves of bisphenol F.bisphenol A and tetrabromobisphenol A showed a good linearity in the range of 0.027-333,0.032-333 and 0.006-333 μg/L respectively,and the correlation coefficients were more than 0.999.The limits of quantification (LOQ)of bisphenol F.bisphenol A and tetrabromobisphenol A were 27,32 and 6 μg/L respectively.The spiked recoveries ranged from 77.4% to 117.0% with the relative standard deviations of 3.9%-17.0%.Conclusion The method is sensitive,accurate,and applicable to the determination of bisphenol F.bisphenol A and tetrabromobisphenol A in soak water of

  7. Comparison of surface emissions and subsurface distribution of cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin in sandy field beds covered with four different plastic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Li-Tse; Thomas, John E; Allen, L Hartwell; Vu, Joseph C; Dickson, Donald W

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a field study at a Florida field site on surface emissions and subsurface distribution of cis-and trans-1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) in raised beds injected with Telone C35 with four replications. A total of 16 beds were applied with Telone C35 by chisel injection and covered with four different plastic films, 4 beds for each film. Each bed was installed with five 20-cm long soil pore air probes and a surface air collection pan at arbitrarily locations along the length of each bed for sampling soil pore air and surface air, respectively, for analysis of the three biologically active compounds, cis- and trans-1,3-D and CP. We found that average concentrations of the three compounds at 20-cm depth among the beds covered with four different plastic films generally were not statistically different. Among the four beds covered with the same plastic film, average concentrations of the three compounds were statistically different only in the four metallic PE covered beds at 5 and 24 hours after injection. Volatilization rates of the three compounds among the beds covered with four different plastic films, with the exception of CP at 48 hours after injection, were not statistically different. It appeared that initial upward diffusion and volatilization flux were influenced by solar radiation. Initial subsurface concentrations of the three compounds and volatilization flux, especially cis-1,3-D, were greater in the beds on the east side of the field than that in the beds on the west side of the field. Whether or not difference in initial subsurface concentrations of the compounds between east side beds and west side beds may influence fumigant efficacy remains to be determined.

  8. Design of Width Automatic Control System of Triple Extrusion Plastic Film%三层共挤农膜幅宽自动控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗汇静; 任益芳; 宋吉江; 徐秀美

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the level of automation of large blow molding equipment, and to manufacture the production of Large width plastic film, the hreadth automatic control system of triple extrusion plastic film has been designed. The system uses a master-slave MCU control, mainly consisted of the ultrasonic distance measurement device and fan control devices. Ultrasonic sensors are used to measure the distance from the ultrasonic probe to the plastic bubble film. And the MCU is used to calculate the width of plastic film by programming. Then, by comparing the width reached by the MCU with the standard width, it controls the fan speed. By adjusting the speed of into fan and exhaust fan, achieve the purpose of controlling the width of plastic film. Using the method of ultrasonic cycle reflection measures the ultrasonic distance. Using humanoid intelligent control algorithm adjusts the fan speed. There are many control modes, for Plastic film of 10~ 20m in width. It achieves real-time control and precise width control. The test results show that the system control precision is high.%为提高大型吹塑设备自动化水平,实现大型幅宽农膜生产制备,设计了三层共挤农膜幅宽自动控制系统;该系统采用主从单片机控制,主要由超声波测距装置和风机控制装置组成;用超声波传感器测出超声探头至泡膜的距离,通过单片机编程算出农膜幅宽,和标准幅宽比较,去控制风机转速;通过调节进风机和排风机的转速,达到控制农膜幅宽的目的;超声波测距采用超声波循环反射测量法,风机调速采用仿人智能控制算法,将控制分为多个模态,以实现l0~20m农膜幅宽的实时控制和精确控制;试验结果表明,控制精度较高.

  9. The rate sensitivity and plastic deformation of nanocrystalline tantalum films at nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yongli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanoindentation creep and loading rate change tests were employed to examine the rate sensitivity (m and hardness of nanocrystalline tetragonal Ta films. Experimental results suggested that the m increased with the decrease of feature scale, such as grain size and indent depth. The magnitude of m is much less than the corresponding grain boundary (GB sliding deformation with m of 0.5. Hardness softening behavior was observed for smaller grain size, which supports the GB sliding mechanism. The rate-controlling deformation was interpreted by the GB-mediated processes involving atomic diffusion and the generation of dislocation at GB.

  10. Radiochromic Plastic Films for Accurate Measurement of Radiation Absorbed Dose and Dose Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W. L.; Miller, Arne; Fidan, S.

    1977-01-01

    in polymeric solutions can be cast into flexible free-standing thin films of uniform thickness and reproducible response to ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. The increase in optical density versus energy deposited by radiation is linear over a wide range of doses and is for practical purposes independent...... of many polymeric systems in industrial radiation processing. The result is that errors due to energy dependence of response of the radiation sensor are effectively reduced, since the spectral sensitivity of the dose meter matches that of the polymer of interest, over a wide range of photon and electron...

  11. Progress in the development of gas-impregnated lapped plastic film insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, E B; McNerney, A J; Muller, A C; Rigby, S J

    1977-01-01

    A flexible superconducting power transmission cable is under development. The electrical insulation consists of lapped polymeric film tapes impregnated with supercritical helium. Ways of satisfying the many constraints on the material were described. Although the cable is intended for low-temperature operation good electrical and mechanical characteristics are needed at room-temperature. Results are given for both small-sample tests and a model cable fabricated commercially. The results are compared with those obtained by other workers and the design of the next test cable is given.

  12. Effect of compound plasticizer on zein films%复合增塑剂对玉米醇溶蛋白膜性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立娜; 李桂娟; 李娜娜; 秦立福; 康海杨

    2012-01-01

    以木糖醇和甘油为复合增塑剂制备出木糖醇/甘油/玉米醇溶蛋白膜.通过TGA、扫描电镜、红外光谱及电子织物强力机研究玉米醇溶蛋白膜的热性能、微观结构及力学性能.结果表明:在160℃之前膜性能稳定,与纯玉米醇溶蛋白膜相比,添加复合增塑剂后玉米醇溶蛋白膜表面产生了多孔结构,随木糖醇含量增加孔洞结构有增大的趋势,抗拉强度略有下降,伸长率有所提高.%Xylitol/glycerol/zein film were produced with xylitol/glyc-erol as a compound plasticizer. Microstructure,mechanical properties and thermal stability of xylitol/glycerol/zein film were studied. The thermal properties of xylitol/zein film were stable below 160℃,there was holes in zein film which contained xylitol and glycerol. the tensile strength of xylitol/glycerot/zein film is lower than the tensile strength of pure zein film, but the elongation at break of the xylitol/ glycerol/zein film was higher than the elongation at break of pure zein film.

  13. STUDY CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN HYDROPHILIC AUXILIARIES ON THE PROPERTIES OF THE PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE POROUS FILMS Part II-HYGIENIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂU MÎNDRU Tudorel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to obtain certain PVC films with improved hygienic properties, with applications both in the artificial leather industry and in other domains. This was done by introducing certain hydrophilic auxiliaries with free chemical functions into the chemical structure of the PVC films, such as: collagen hydrolysates (CH, hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (HTPDMS and nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE. The use of these hydrophilic auxiliaries combined with the action of the high frequency electric fields (H.F.E.F. allows the attainment of cellular structures where the walls of the cells obtained from the expanding process display an enhanced humidity absorption. The collagen hydrolysates used to obtain the plasticized PVC porous films was obtained by electrolytic hydrolysis starting from Chamois leather powder waste resulting from buffing operation, according to a methodology described in a previous paper. The first part of this study was concerned with the influence of the addition of hydrophilic agents upon the moisture sorption of the plasticized PVC porous films. In this paper, there was investigated the water vapour and air permeability as well as the water vapour absorption of the porous films expanded in the H.F.E.F. in correlation with the nature and the recipe variant of the hydrophilic auxiliaries. The results highlighted the fact that the use of certain combinations of hydrophilic agents led to obtaining materials with adequate hygienic properties.

  14. Increased concentration of hyaluronan in tears after soaking contact lenses in Biotrue multipurpose solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheuer CA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Catherine A Scheuer, Marjorie J Rah, William T Reindel Vision Care, Bausch & Lomb Incorporated, Rochester, NY, USA Purpose: This study was conducted to determine 1 the concentration of hyaluronan (HA in the tear films of contact lens (CL wearers versus non-CL wearers and 2 whether HA sorbed from Biotrue, an HA-containing multipurpose solution (MPS, onto senofilcon A lenses affects the concentration of HA in tears after 2 hours of wear.Patients and methods: Tears of habitual CL wearers and non-CL wearers were collected on Schirmer strips at baseline and after 2 hours of wear of senofilcon A CLs that had first been either rinsed with Sensitive Eyes Saline or soaked in Biotrue MPS for 14 hours. HA concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and adjusted for sample volumes.Results: No difference in baseline concentrations of HA in tears was found between CL wearers and non-CL wearers (P=0.07, nor between males and females (P=0.06. However, age was significantly negatively associated with HA concentration (P<0.01, and mostly, CL wear contributed to a significant association (P<0.01. Among saline-rinsed CL wearers, no change in HA concentration in tears was observed after 2 hours of wear (P=0.38. By contrast, a significant increase in HA concentration was observed in the tears from eyes that had worn CLs soaked in Biotrue MPS when compared to baseline (P=0.01 or to saline-rinsed control (P=0.03.Conclusion: 1 In this study population, no difference in baseline concentration of HA was observed between CL wearers and non-CL wearers, and 2 after 2 hours of wear of senofilcon A lenses that were soaked in Biotrue MPS, HA concentrations in the tear films of CL wearers increased. Keywords: contact lens, dry eye, hyaluronan, MPS

  15. Recent developments of ion beam induced luminescence: radiation hardness study of thin film plastic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Alberto

    2005-10-01

    Ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) measurements have been performed on thin film scintillators based on polyvinyltoluene (PVT) and 6FDA-DAD and BPDA-3F polyimides with H+ (1.85 MeV) and He+ (1.8-2.2 MeV) ion beams. The radiation hardness of the undoped polymers has been verified to depend mainly on the deposited energy density, polyimides exhibiting a higher resistance with respect to PVT. In PVT a new fluorescence band, attributed to the radical precursors of the network crosslinking, has been observed. The efficiency of doped polymers degradates with a higher rate, depending on the dye intrinsic lability. At high radiation fluences, the relative efficiency to NE102 of doped polyimides scintillators increases owing to the intrinsic host improved resistance.

  16. Drying Mechanisms in Plasticized Latex Films: Role of Horizontal Drying Fronts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divry, V; Gromer, A; Nassar, M; Lambour, C; Collin, D; Holl, Y

    2016-07-14

    This article presents studies on the drying kinetics of latexes with particles made progressively softer by adding increasing amounts of a plasticizer, in relation to speeds of horizontal drying fronts and particle deformation mechanisms. Global drying rates were measured by gravimetry, and speeds of the horizontal fronts were recorded using a video camera and image processing. Particle deformation mechanisms were inferred using the deformation map established by Routh and Russel (RR). This required precise measurements of the rheological properties of the polymers using a piezorheometer. The results show that latexes with softer particles dry slowly, but in our systems, this is not due to skin formation. A correlation between global drying rates and speeds of horizontal fronts could be established and interpreted in terms of the evolution of mass transfer coefficients of water in different areas of the drying system. The speeds of the horizontal drying fronts were compared with the RR model. A remarkable qualitative agreement of the curve shapes was observed; however, the fit could not be considered good. These results call for further research efforts in modeling and simulation.

  17. Effects of plastic-film mulching and nitrogen application on forage-oriented maize in the agriculture-animal husbandry ecotone in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong DU; Xiuju BIAN; Weihong ZHANG; Fucun YANG; Lifeng ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    To counter the actual problems of forage shortage and low quality existing in the agriculture-animal husbandry ecotone in North China,a research was conducted to study the effects of plastic-film mulching and nitrogen application on the production of forageoriented maize with the aim of producing water-saving forage with high-yield and good quality.Field experiments combined with laboratory experimental estimation and analysis was adopted.Plastic-film mulching increased the dry biomass of forage-oriented maize by 23.8% with effectively improving the maize's nitrogen absorption so that the apparent utilization ratio and output-input ratio of nitrogen were enhanced.The content of crude protein in maize plant was increased and thus,forage nutritive quality was improved.Plastic-film mulching remodeled the maize field water consumption scheduling pattern and increased the water use efficiency by over 10%.Nitrogen application to forage-oriented maize co-improved the biomass and the nutritive quality with the nutritive matter (percentage and yield) several times of the biomass.Nitrogen application increased maize biomass production by 36.1%-39.5% and it increased the contents of crude protein and crude fat in maize plant by 109% and 145%,respectively.The yields of the two nutritive matters increased by 160% and 210%.Nitrogen application at the were considered as the most proper rates to guarantee high yield and good quality of forage-oriented maize and were the rates to keep the available nitrogen balanced in the soil.Plastic-film mulching and nitrogen fertilizer application to forage-oriented maize was an effective way of producing forage with high yield and good quality,relieving the shortage of animal forage and acceleratingecological recovery and economic development in this ecotone in North China.

  18. Spring maize yield, soil water use and water use efficiency under plastic film and straw mulches in the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Liu, Wenzhao; Xue, Qingwu

    2016-12-01

    To compare the soil water balance, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring maize under different mulching types in the Loess Plateau, a 7-year field experiment was conducted in the Changwu region of the Loess Plateau. Three treatments were used in this experiment: straw mulch (SM), plastic film mulch (PM) and conventional covering without mulch (CK). Results show that the soil water change of dryland spring maize was as deep as 300 cm depth and hence 300 cm is recommended as the minimum depth when measure the soil water in this region. Water use (ET) did not differ significantly among the treatments. However, grain yield was significantly higher in PM compared with CK. WUE was significantly higher in PM than in CK for most years of the experiment. Although ET tended to be higher in PM than in the other treatments (without significance), the evaporation of water in the fallow period also decreased. Thus, PM is sustainable with respect to soil water balance. The 7-year experiment and the supplemental experiment thus confirmed that straw mulching at the seedling stage may lead to yield reduction and this effect can be mitigated by delaying the straw application to three-leaf stage.

  19. [Effect of controlled release fertilizer on nitrous oxide emission from paddy field under plastic film mulching cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Lü, Shi-Hua; Ma, Jing; Xu, Hua; Yuan, Jiang; Dong, Yu-Jiao

    2014-03-01

    A field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of controlled release fertilizer on N2O emission in paddy field under plastic film mulching cultivation (PM) with water-saving irrigation. Results showed that in the rice growing season, cumulative N2O emissions from the plots applied with urea (PM+U) and with controlled release fertilizer (PM+CRF) were (38.2 +/- 4.4) and (21.5 +/- 5.2) mg N x m(-2), respectively. The N2O emission factors were 0.25% and 0.14% in the treatments PM+U and PM+CRF, respectively. The controlled release fertilizer decreased the total N2O emission by 43.6% compared with urea, of which 49.6% was reduced before the drying period. It also reduced the peak of N2O emission by 52.6%. However, it did not affect soil microbial biomass N and soil NH(4+)-N content at any rice growing stage, and grain yield either. No significant correlation was observed between N2O flux and soil Eh or soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm.

  20. Yield Potential of Soil Water and Its Sustainability for Dryland Spring Maize with Plastic Film Mulch on the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Liu, Wenzhao

    2016-04-01

    Plastic film mulch(PM) is an agronomic measure widely used in the dryland spring maize production system on the Loess Plateau of China. The measure can greatly increase yield of dryland maize due to its significant effects on soil water conservation. Few researches have been done to investigate how the yield potential is impacted by PM. The yield-water use (ET) boundary equation raised by French and Schultz provides a simple approach to calculate crop water limited yield potential and gives a benchmark for farmers in managing their crops. However, method used in building the equation is somewhat arbitrary and has no strict principle, which leads to the uncertainty of equation when it is applied. Though using PM can increase crop yield, it increases soil temperature, promotes crop growth and increases the water transpired by crop, which further leads to high water consumption as compared with crops without PM. This means that PM may lead to the overuse of soil water and hence is unsustainable in a long run. This research is mainly focused on the yield potential and sustainability of PMing for spring maize on the Loess Plateau. A principle that may be utilized by any other researchers was proposed based on French & Schultz's boundary equation and on part of quantile regression theory. We used a data set built by collecting the experimental data from published papers and analyzed the water-limited yield potential of spring maize on the Loess Plateau. Moreover, maize yield and soil water dynamics under PM were investigated by a long-term site field experiment. Results show that on the Loess Plateau, the water limited yield potential can be calculated using the boundary equation y = 60.5×(x - 50), with a platform yield of 15954 kghm-2 after the water use exceeds 314 mm. Without PMing, the water limited yield potential can be estimated by the boundary equation y = 47.5×(x - 62.3) , with a platform yield of 12840 kghm-2 when the water use exceeds 325 mm, which

  1. Plastic-film mulching and urea types affect soil CO2 emissions and grain yield in spring maize on the Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaofei; Chen, Yu; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Yang; Han, Juan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liao, Yuncheng

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year field experiment was conducted on maize (Zea mays L.) to explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emissions and increase grain yield. Treatments established were: (1) no mulching with urea, (2) no mulching with controlled release fertiliser (CRF), (3) transparent plastic-film mulching (PMt) with urea, (4) PMt with CRF, (5) black plastic-film mulching (PMb) with urea, and (6) PMb with CRF. During the early growth stages, soil CO2 emissions were noted as PMt > PMb > no mulching, and this order was reversed in the late growth stages. This trend was the result of topsoil temperature dynamics. There were no significant correlations noted between soil CO2 emissions and soil temperature and moisture. Cumulative soil CO2 emissions were higher for the PMt than for the PMb, and grain yield was higher for the PMb treatments than for the PMt or no mulching treatments. The CRF produced higher grain yield and inhibited soil CO2 emissions. Soil CO2 emissions per unit grain yield were lower for the BC treatment than for the other treatments. In conclusion, the use of black plastic-film mulching and controlled release fertiliser not only increased maize yield, but also reduced soil CO2 emissions.

  2. Plastic-film mulching and urea types affect soil CO2 emissions and grain yield in spring maize on the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaofei; Chen, Yu; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Yang; Han, Juan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liao, Yuncheng

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year field experiment was conducted on maize (Zea mays L.) to explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emissions and increase grain yield. Treatments established were: (1) no mulching with urea, (2) no mulching with controlled release fertiliser (CRF), (3) transparent plastic-film mulching (PMt) with urea, (4) PMt with CRF, (5) black plastic-film mulching (PMb) with urea, and (6) PMb with CRF. During the early growth stages, soil CO2 emissions were noted as PMt > PMb > no mulching, and this order was reversed in the late growth stages. This trend was the result of topsoil temperature dynamics. There were no significant correlations noted between soil CO2 emissions and soil temperature and moisture. Cumulative soil CO2 emissions were higher for the PMt than for the PMb, and grain yield was higher for the PMb treatments than for the PMt or no mulching treatments. The CRF produced higher grain yield and inhibited soil CO2 emissions. Soil CO2 emissions per unit grain yield were lower for the BC treatment than for the other treatments. In conclusion, the use of black plastic-film mulching and controlled release fertiliser not only increased maize yield, but also reduced soil CO2 emissions. PMID:27329934

  3. Guidelines for bath PUVA, bathing suit PUVA and soak PUVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish B Pai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of these guidelines is to encourage dermatologists to use bath psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA, bathing suit PUVA and soak PUVA in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris and other conditions. Methods: Evidence was collected using searches of the PubMed, MEDLINE and COCHRANE databases using the keywords “bath PUVA,” “soak PUVA,” “bathing suit PUVA” and “turban PUVA.” Only publications in English were reviewed. Results: One hundred and thirty-eight studies were evaluated, 57 of which fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. Conclusions: Both bath PUVA and bathing suit PUVA are very effective and safe treatments for generalized stable plaque psoriasis (strength of recommendation, A. Soak PUVA is very effective in the treatment of both palmoplantar psoriasis and chronic palmoplantar eczema (strength of recommendation, A.

  4. 我国残膜回收机研究现状及建议%Present Situation of Research on Plastic Film Residue Collector in China and Some Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明洋; 马少辉

    2014-01-01

    Plastic film covers are important in the Chinese agricultural production .The coverage area has reached over ten millions hectares .Plastic film covers application greatly improves the production of crops , With the increase of plastic film application amounts , the residue of mulching plastic film in the field become more and more .These residual film has caused serious white pollution on cultivated land and villages .In order to recover the remnant film better and reduce the white pollution .This paper describes the present situation of plastic film residue collector in China and the working prin -ciple of several typical plastic film residue collector .At last put forward some suggestions on the future development of plastic film residue collector .%地膜已成为我国农业生产中广泛应用的物质材料之一,我国应用地膜技术的土地多达1000万 hm2多。地膜的应用大大提高了农作物的产量,但是随着废膜越来越多的残留,对耕地、村庄造成了严重的白色污染。为此,阐述了我国残膜回收机研究的现状和几种典型残膜回收机的工作原理,并对未来残膜回收机的发展提出了建议。

  5. Reliable solution processed planar perovskite hybrid solar cells with large-area uniformity by chloroform soaking and spin rinsing induced surface precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann-Cherng Chern

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A solvent soaking and rinsing method, in which the solvent was allowed to soak all over the surface followed by a spinning for solvent draining, was found to produce perovskite layers with high uniformity on a centimeter scale and with much improved reliability. Besides the enhanced crystallinity and surface morphology due to the rinsing induced surface precipitation that constrains the grain growth underneath in the precursor films, large-area uniformity with film thickness determined exclusively by the rotational speed of rinsing spinning for solvent draining was observed. With chloroform as rinsing solvent, highly uniform and mirror-like perovskite layers of area as large as 8 cm × 8 cm were produced and highly uniform planar perovskite solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 10.6 ± 0.2% as well as much prolonged lifetime were obtained. The high uniformity and reliability observed with this solvent soaking and rinsing method were ascribed to the low viscosity of chloroform as well as its feasibility of mixing with the solvent used in the precursor solution. Moreover, since the surface precipitation forms before the solvent draining, this solvent soaking and rinsing method may be adapted to spinless process and be compatible with large-area and continuous production. With the large-area uniformity and reliability for the resultant perovskite layers, this chloroform soaking and rinsing approach may thus be promising for the mass production and commercialization of large-area perovskite solar cells.

  6. A photochemical approach designed to improve the coating of nanoscale silver films onto food plastic wrappings intended to control bacterial hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustatea, Gabriel [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Vidal, Loïc [Institut de Sciences des Matériaux de Mulhouse, CNRS UMR 7361 (France); Calinescu, Ioan [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Dobre, Alina; Ionescu, Mariana [National Research and Development Institute for Food Bioresources – IBA Bucharest (Romania); Balan, Lavinia, E-mail: lavinia.balan@uha.fr [Institut de Sciences des Matériaux de Mulhouse, CNRS UMR 7361 (France)

    2015-01-15

    Plasmonic silver film was directly generated on a variety of substrates through a facile and environmentally friendly method, which involves a UV-photoreduction process without any reducing or stabilizing agent and requiring no thermal step. Top-coated films of unprotected silver nanoparticles (3–11 nm) were generated from hydroalcoholic AgNO{sub 3} solution and directly on glass substrates or food packaging plastic wraps, low density polyethylene film, and polyvinyl chloride. The natural antibacterial activity of the material was evaluated. The correlation between silver migration and antimicrobial activity of silver-functionalized substrates against pure strains of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) was demonstrated. By way of illustration, food plastic wraps top-coated in this way exhibited a high antibacterial activity. The metal nanoparticle film obtained in this way was characterized and the influence of several parameters (fluence, exposure, silver nitrate concentration, and nature of the free radicals generator) on their formation was studied. Moreover, by shaping the actinic beam with an appropriate device, it is very easy to pattern the brown yellow silver nanofilm or to print messages in plain text.

  7. Effect of plastic film mulching on the grain filling and hormonal changes of maize under different irrigation conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available Plastic film mulching (PM is widely utilized for maize production in China. However, the effect of PM on the grain yield of crops has not been established, and the biochemical mechanism underlying the increase or decrease in grain yield under PM is not yet understood. Grain filling markedly affects the grain yield. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of PM on maize grain filling under different irrigation levels and the relationship of such effects with hormonal changes. In the present study, PM was compared with traditional nonmulching management (TN under 220 mm, 270 mm and 320 mm irrigation amount, and the grain filling characters of the grains located in various parts of the ear and the hormonal changes in the grains were measured. The results indicated that at 220 mm irrigation, PM significantly increased the grain filling rate of the middle and basal grains and decreased the grain filling rate of the upper grains. At 270 mm irrigation, the PM significantly increased the grain filling rate of the all grains. At 320 mm irrigation, the PM only significantly increased the grain filling rate of the upper grains. The IAA, Z+ZR and ABA content in the grains was positively correlated with the grain weight and grain-filling rates; however, the ETH evolution rate of the grains was negatively correlated with the grain weight and grain-filling rates. These results show that the effect of PM on maize grain filling is related to the irrigation amount and that the grain position on the ear and the grain filling of the upper grains was more sensitive to PM and irrigation than were the other grains. In addition, the PM and irrigation regulated the balance of hormones rather than the content of individual hormones to affect the maize grain filling.

  8. [Effects of plastic film mulching and rain harvesting modes on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, yield and water use efficiency of dryland maize].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shang-Zhong; Fan, Ting-Lu; Wang, Yong; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Lei; Tang, Xiao-Ming; Dang, Yi; Zhao, Hui

    2014-02-01

    The differences on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, yield and water use efficiency of dryland maize were compared among full plastic film mulching on double ridges and planting in catchment furrows (FFDRF), half plastic film mulching on double ridges and planting in catchment furrows (HFDRF), plastic film mulching on ridge and planting in film-side (FS), and flat planting with no plastic film mulching (NM) under field conditions in dry highland of Loess Plateau in 2007-2012. The results showed that fluorescence yield (Fo), the maximum fluorescence yield (Fm), light-adapted fluorescence yield when PS II reaction centers were totally open (F), light-adapted fluorescence yield when PS II reaction centers closed (Fm'), the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm), the actual photochemical efficiency of PS II in the light (Phi PS II), the relative electron transport rate (ETR), photochemical quenching (qP) and non-photochemical quenching (qN) in maize leaves of FFDRF were higher than that of control (NM), and the value of 1-qP was lower than that of control, at 13:00, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters values of FFDRF was significantly higher than control, which were increased by 5.3%, 56.8%, 10.7%, 36.3%, 23.6%, 56.7%, 64.4%, 45.5%, 23.6% and -55.6%, respectively, compared with the control. Yield and water use efficiency of FFDRF were the highest in every year no matter dry year, normal year, humid year and hail disaster year. Average yield and water use efficiency of FFDRF were 12,650 kg x hm(-2) and 40.4 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2) during 2007-2012, increased by 57.8% and 61.6% compared with the control, respectively, and also significantly higher compared with HFDRF and PS. Therefore, it was concluded that FFDRF had significantly increased the efficiency of light energy conversion and improved the production capacity of dryland maize.

  9. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  10. Migration of di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate and acetyltributyl citrate plasticizers from food-grade PVC film into sweetened sesame paste (halawa tehineh): kinetic and penetration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Antonios E; Zygoura, Panagiota; Karatapanis, Andreas; Georgantelis, Dimitris; Kontominas, Michael G

    2007-04-01

    Food-grade polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cling-film containing 5.3% (w/w) di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and 3.0% (w/w) acetyltributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticizers was used to wrap halawa tehineh (halva) samples. Samples were split into two groups and stored at 25+/-1 degrees C. One group was analyzed for DEHA and ATBC content at intervals between 0.5 and 240h of contact (kinetic study) and a second group was cut into slices (1.5mm thick) after 240h of halva/PVC contact and was analyzed for DEHA and ATBC content (penetration study). Determination of both plasticizers was performed using a direct gas chromatographic (GC) method after extraction of DEHA from halva samples. DEHA readily migrated into halva samples: the equilibrium amount of DEHA in halva (3.31mg/dm(2) film or 81.4mg/kg halva) corresponding to a loss of 54.7% (w/w) DEHA from PVC film. This value is slightly higher than the limit of 3mg/dm(2) of film surface set by the European Union for DEHA. The equilibrium amount of ATBC in halva was 1.46mg/dm(2) (36.1mg/kg) corresponding to a loss of 42.7% ATBC from PVC film. With regard to the penetration of both placticizers into halva samples, migration of DEHA was detectable up to the 7th slice beneath the surface of halva (total depth 10.5mm) while the migration of ATBC was detectable up to the 5th slice (total depth 7.5mm).

  11. Solvent-assisted microstructural evolution and enhanced performance of porous ZnO films for plastic dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Hitomi; Hagiwara, Manabu; Fujihara, Shinobu

    2017-02-01

    A low-temperature process for fabricating porous ZnO films on plastic, indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene naphthalate substrates is developed for their use in dye-sensitized solar cells. A special attention is paid to modification of microscopic morphologies for enhancing interparticle connection. ZnO films having two kinds of macroscopic morphologies (flower-like particles and densely packed nanoparticles) are fabricated at temperatures below the heatproof temperature of the substrate, and subsequently immersed in mixed solvents composed of water and ethanol at 90 °C. The immersion leads to the growth of constituting ZnO particles and also the evolution of interparticle connection, depending on solvent compositions. The cell performance is largely improved especially in a short-circuit current density and a power conversion efficiency. The immersion effect is more remarkable for the cell using the densely packed ZnO film, with a 62% increase in the current density and an 84% increase in the conversion efficiency. In consequence, our plastic N719-sensitized ZnO cell shows the conversion efficiency as high as 4.1%.

  12. Printed highly conductive Cu films with strong adhesion enabled by low-energy photonic sintering on low-Tg flexible plastic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinzhou; Shao, Shuangshuang; Chen, Zheng; Cui, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Copper (Cu) films and circuits were fabricated by screen-printing Cu nanoink on low-Tg (glass transition temperature) flexible plastic substrates (PEN and PET) instead of widely used high-Tg polyimide (PI) substrate. Photonic sintering of printed Cu films was carried out using intensive pulsed light (IPL). Low resistivities of 28 μΩ · cm on PEN and 44 μΩ · cm on PET were obtained without damaging the substrates. The sintered Cu films exhibited strong adhesion to PEN and PET substrates, with measured adhesion strength of 5B by the ASTM D3359 international standard, whereas the top part of the copper film on the PI substrate was stripped off during the adhesion test. The sintered Cu films also showed excellent stability in harsh conditions and mechanical flexibility in rolling tests. The underlying mechanisms of the high conductivity and strong adhesion on PEN and PET substrates with low-energy IPL sintering were investigated. Simple circuits and radio frequency identification antennas were made by screen-printing Cu nanoink and IPL sintering, demonstrating the technique’s feasibility for practical applications.

  13. Design and test of clamping finger-chain type device for recycling agricultural plastic film%夹指链式残膜回收装置的设计及试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段文献; 王吉奎; 李阳; 龚贺贺; 牛海龙; 罗威; 毕新胜

    2016-01-01

    The domestic equipment for recycling agricultural plastic film has the problems of low recovery rate of plastic film, wrapping the film collecting parts by plastics, or difficulty of separating the straw and soil from the film. In addition, film removing for the current methods is poor and high impurity content of recovered plastic film can’t be recycled. In order to solve these problems, the clamping finger-chain type device for recycling agricultural plastic film was designed. The designed device mainly consisted of film collecting device, film removing device, transmission system, side film shoveling, tie rod, transverse beam, residual film box, etc. The film collecting device mainly included film collecting frame, upper film collecting sprocket, under film collecting sprocket, film collecting chain, clamping finger, film cutting saw disk, supporting chain roller, tightening devices, etc. The film removing device mainly included film removing rotation shaft, film removing blade, driving sprocket, film removing bracket, bearing chock, etc. The film collecting device was driven by the ground wheel through the film collecting transmission system and the film removing device was driven by the tractor power output shaft through the film removing transmission. Through the design and mechanical analysis of the clamping finger-chain, the structure size parameters of it were determined, which contained the spacing between two clamping finger-chains was 220 mm, and its working angle was 40°, the effective length of clamping fingerL was 135 mm, and the angle between clamping finger and outer link was 20°. The tension mechanism could make the clamping finger-chain be always in a state of tension in the process of operation. The specification parameters of the selected spring were determined by analysis of the tensioning mechanism. Through the structure size design and motion analysis of film removing device, the film removing blade size was determined, and the length

  14. Flexible a-Si:H/nc-Si:H tandem thin film silicon solar cells on plastic substrates with i-layers made by hot-wire CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongbo; Werf, C.H.M. van der; Rath, J.K. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Science, SID - Physics of Devices, Utrecht (Netherlands); Borreman, A. [Helianthos b.v., Arnhem (Netherlands); Schropp, Ruud E.I.

    2008-08-15

    In this letter we report the result of an a-Si:H/nc-Si:H tandem thin film silicon solar mini-module fabricated on plastic foil containing intrinsic silicon layers made by hot-wire CVD (efficiency 7.4%, monolithically series-connected, aperture area 25 cm{sup 2}). We used the Helianthos cell transfer process. The cells were first deposited on a temporary aluminum foil carrier, which allows the use of the optimal processing temperatures, and then transferred to a plastic foil. This letter reports the characteristics of the flexible solar cells obtained in this manner, and compares the results with those obtained on reference glass substrates. The research focus for implementation of the hot-wire CVD technique for the roll-to-roll process is also discussed. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Development and experiment of combined operation machine for cotton straw chopping and plastic film collecting%棉秆粉碎还田与残膜回收联合作业机研制与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凯; 王吉奎; 李斌; 蒋蓓; 丁双双; 李天文

    2013-01-01

    According to the problems of plastic film without distinction as straw, the plastic film recovery rate is low, the effect is poor in removing the collected film, and plastic films are easy to wind in cotton straw chopping and a plastic film collecting combined machine in Xinjiang province, the 4JM-1500 straw chopping and plastic film collecting machine has been designed. It consists of a traction device, straw chopping device, straw conveying device, floating gear-rake institution and chain rake device, film removing device, driven system, plastic film box, and rack and wheel, etc. It can realize straw chopper returning, the straw separation with plastic film, and the plastic film recycling with one operation. This machine combining the hammer device of cotton straw chopping and scraper conveyor device, the machine could separate cotton straws and plastic film, and collect the plastic film by the floating gear-rake institution and chain rake device. It also has a good effect for ground profile modeling and improving the plastic film recovery ratio. It can remove the collected film though the air force device in the operating process, which can prevent the plastic film winding with the film stripping device and affect the work. The structure and working principle of the machine, and the parameters of working parts, and main structures were determined through the main components designed. Knife shaft speed n 3=1800~2200 r/min, straw conveying speed n1=120~150 r/min, plastic film conveying chains speed n2=60~90 r/min, film removing wind speed v 1=6.2~10.5 m/s and the working width was 1500 mm. It effectively decreased the labor cost and enhanced the plastic film collecting efficiency. Field trials demonstrated that the separation ratio of cotton straws and plastic film was 97%, the plastic film collecting ratio was 88.6%, and the film removing ratio was 89.4%under the conditions of machine operating speed of 5-5.5 km/h and straw conveying speed of 1.8m/s, which could

  16. Warmer and Wetter Soil Stimulates Assimilation More than Respiration in Rainfed Agricultural Ecosystem on the China Loess Plateau: The Role of Partial Plastic Film Mulching Tillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Daozhi; Hao, Weiping; Mei, Xurong; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Qi; Caylor, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Effects of agricultural practices on ecosystem carbon storage have acquired widespread concern due to its alleviation of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Recently, combining of furrow-ridge with plastic film mulching in spring maize ecosystem was widely applied to boost crop water productivity in the semiarid regions of China. However, there is still limited information about the potentials for increased ecosystem carbon storage of this tillage method. The objective of this study was to quantify and contrast net carbon dioxide exchange, biomass accumulation and carbon budgets of maize (Zea maize L.) fields under the traditional non-mulching with flat tillage (CK) and partial plastic film mulching with furrow-ridge tillage (MFR) on the China Loess Plateau. Half-hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of both treatments were synchronously measured with two eddy covariance systems during the growing seasons of 2011 through 2013. At same time green leaf area index (GLAI) and biomass were also measured biweekly. Compared with CK, the warmer and wetter (+1.3°C and +4.3%) top soil at MFR accelerated the rates of biomass accumulation, promoted greater green leaf area and thus shortened the growing seasons by an average value of 10.4 days for three years. MFR stimulated assimilation more than respiration during whole growing season, resulting in a higher carbon sequestration in terms of NEE of -79 gC/m2 than CK. However, after considering carbon in harvested grain (or aboveground biomass), there is a slight higher carbon sink (or a stronger carbon source) in MFR due to its greater difference of aboveground biomass than that of grain between both treatments. These results demonstrate that partial plastic film mulched furrow-ridge tillage with aboveground biomass exclusive of grain returned to the soil is an effective way to enhance simultaneously carbon sequestration and grain yield of maize in the semiarid regions.

  17. 水溶性塑料薄膜对斑马鱼的急性毒性%Acute Toxicity of Water-soluble Plastic Film on Zebra Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高世荣; 潘力军

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究水溶性塑料薄膜对斑马鱼的毒性,为其安全使用提供依据。方法 以具有代表性的水生动物斑马鱼为试验材科,采用静态法在室内测定水溶性塑料薄膜对斑马鱼的急性毒性并对其进行安全评价。结果 斑马鱼的24、48和96 h半数致死浓度(LC50)分别为2.75%、2.20%和2.20%。结论 水溶性塑料薄膜对斑马鱼有较强的毒性,应加强对其使用的管理。该研究为其安全使用提供了科学依据。%[Objective] To study the toxicity of water-soluble plastic film on zebra fish, provide the basis for its safe use. [Methods]The zebra fish what was the representative aquatic animal was used as the experimental materials, the acute toxicity of water-soluble plastic film on zebra fish was tested by static method in indoor environment, and the safety evaluation was conducted. [Results]24 h, 48 h and 96 h C50 of zebra fish was 2. 75% , 2. 20% and 2. 20% , respectively. [ Conclusion] The water-soluble plastic film has strong toxicity to zebra fish, and the management of its use should be strengthened. This research has provided the scientific basis for safety use.

  18. 增塑剂对玉米醇溶蛋白膜阻隔性能影响%Effect of plasticizers on the barrier property of zein film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁亚楠; 崔和平; 任洪武; 郭兴凤

    2012-01-01

      Zein has good film forming property,but the film is brittle,there need add different plasticizers to improve the properties,but the addition of plasticizers will affect the barrier properties. This topic researches the moisture resistance and oil–resisting of zein film plasticized with glycerin, polyethylene glycol(PEG)400,monoglyceride and prepared in different ethanol aqueous solution. The results show that the water vapor permeability is minimum and through oil rate is largest when ethanol concentration is 80%,glycerin concentration is 0.3 g/g zein,PEG–400 concentration is 0.2 g/gzein, monoglyceride concentration is 0.3 g/gzein.%  玉米醇溶蛋白具有较好成膜性,但其形成膜较脆,需通过添加不同增塑剂加以改善;但添加增塑剂会使膜阻隔性能受到影响.该实验以甘油、聚乙二醇(PEG)400、单甘油酯为增塑剂,研究在不同乙醇浓度时制备玉米醇溶蛋白(zein)膜阻湿性及阻油性;结果表明,当乙醇浓度为80%、甘油添加量为0.3 g/g zein,PEG–400添加量为0.2 g/g zein,单甘油酯添加量为0.3 g/g zein时,膜的水蒸汽透过率最小,透油率最大.

  19. Warmer and Wetter Soil Stimulates Assimilation More than Respiration in Rainfed Agricultural Ecosystem on the China Loess Plateau: The Role of Partial Plastic Film Mulching Tillage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daozhi Gong

    Full Text Available Effects of agricultural practices on ecosystem carbon storage have acquired widespread concern due to its alleviation of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Recently, combining of furrow-ridge with plastic film mulching in spring maize ecosystem was widely applied to boost crop water productivity in the semiarid regions of China. However, there is still limited information about the potentials for increased ecosystem carbon storage of this tillage method. The objective of this study was to quantify and contrast net carbon dioxide exchange, biomass accumulation and carbon budgets of maize (Zea maize L. fields under the traditional non-mulching with flat tillage (CK and partial plastic film mulching with furrow-ridge tillage (MFR on the China Loess Plateau. Half-hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE of both treatments were synchronously measured with two eddy covariance systems during the growing seasons of 2011 through 2013. At same time green leaf area index (GLAI and biomass were also measured biweekly. Compared with CK, the warmer and wetter (+1.3°C and +4.3% top soil at MFR accelerated the rates of biomass accumulation, promoted greater green leaf area and thus shortened the growing seasons by an average value of 10.4 days for three years. MFR stimulated assimilation more than respiration during whole growing season, resulting in a higher carbon sequestration in terms of NEE of -79 gC/m2 than CK. However, after considering carbon in harvested grain (or aboveground biomass, there is a slight higher carbon sink (or a stronger carbon source in MFR due to its greater difference of aboveground biomass than that of grain between both treatments. These results demonstrate that partial plastic film mulched furrow-ridge tillage with aboveground biomass exclusive of grain returned to the soil is an effective way to enhance simultaneously carbon sequestration and grain yield of maize in the semiarid regions.

  20. 玉米全膜双垄沟残膜回收机作业性能优化与试验%Optimization and experiment of operating performance of collector for corn whole plastic film mulching on double ridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴飞; 赵武云; 张锋伟; 吴正文; 宋学锋; 吴一非

    2016-01-01

    The corn seeding patterns with whole plastic-film mulching on double ridges in the dry land is the new technology for rainwater harvesting and soil moisture conservation and drought resistance in northwest arid area of China. Market demand of this new technology is very large, and hence, until December 2015 the promotion cultivation area of corn seeding patterns with whole plastic-film mulching on double ridges had reached 8.02×105 hm2 in Gansu Province. However, with the input quantity of plastic film and application area increasing, the problem was not allowed to ignore that the large amount of plastic film was residual in the fields after harvesting the corn, which caused serious field soil pollution and environmental pollution. Therefore, to promote the mechanization of residual film recycling had become an inevitable trend. Meanwhile, the first-generation collector for corn whole plastic film mulching on double ridges was designed by our research team. In order to improve the work performance of the collector for corn whole plastic film mulching on double ridges, the film-stubble distribution characteristics and the mechanization recycling process of residual plastic film were investigated, and through the analysis of the related operation mechanism of key components (loosening residual plastic film device, and collecting residual plastic film mechanism) and the process of collecting plastic film mechanism, the related parameters were determined, which were the parameters affecting the leakage rate of residual plastic film and the wrapping rate of residual plastic film. So in order to reduce the frequency of field experiment, based on field experiment and four-factor three-level Box-Behnken experimental design method, the mathematical models between the key parameters and the leakage rate of residual plastic film and the wrapping rate of residual plastic film were established, the regression equations of the 4 factors were fitted through the Design Expert 8

  1. Flexography-Printed In2 O3 Semiconductor Layers for High-Mobility Thin-Film Transistors on Flexible Plastic Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppäniemi, Jaakko; Huttunen, Olli-Heikki; Majumdar, Himadri; Alastalo, Ari

    2015-11-25

    Industrially scalable and roll-to-roll-compatible fabrication methods are utilized to fabricate high-mobility (≈8 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) ) nanocrystalline In2 O3 thin-film transistors (TFTs) on an flexible plastic substrate. Flexographic printing of multiple thin In2 O3 semiconductor layers from precursor-solution is performed on a Al2 O3 gate dielectric obtained via atomic layer deposition. A low-temperature post-contact-annealing step allows control of the TFT device turn-on voltage to ≈0 V for enhancement-mode operation.

  2. 地膜覆盖云杉播种苗越冬试验%Test on Qinghai Spruce Seedlings Overwinter with Plastic Film Mulching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩英

    2012-01-01

    Using mulch, straw and branches in Qinghai spruce seedlings overwintering seedlings of different cover design treatment, test results show that the over winter effect plastic film cover was best, survival rate was 98.2%.%利用地膜、麦草和树枝对青海云杉越冬苗进行不同覆盖物设计处理试验,结果表明地膜覆盖越冬效果最好,成活率达98.2%。

  3. 榆树市农田废膜捡拾机选型及推广对策%Countermeasure Study of Selection and Promotion of Farmland Waste Plastic Film Collecting Machine in Yushu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏; 蒋福娟; 郭玉红; 王晓峰

    2015-01-01

    地膜覆盖栽培技术可明显提高土地产出能力和农作物产量,但废膜的年积月累却带来了严重的环境污染和土地损伤。推广废膜捡拾机械化技术可有效防治农田“白色污染”。为此,还须政府给予政策扶持,大力推广适用的废膜回收机械,特别是要重视废膜回收的再利用。%Plastic film mulching cultivation technology can significantly improve the capacity of land production and crop yield. However,the accumulation of wasted plastic film brings about serious consequences such as environment pollution and soil damage. Promoting the technology of wasted plastic film picking mechanization can effectively prevent 'White Pollution' in farmland. Therefore,the government should make supporting policies to promote proper wasted plastic film collecting machines, especially attach importance to the recycling of wasted plastic film.

  4. Stress relaxation in tempered glass caused by heat soak testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jens; Hilcken, Jonas; Aronen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Heat soak testing of tempered glass is a thermal process required after the tempering process itself to bring glasses of commercial soda-lime-silica-glass to failure that are contaminated with nickel sulphide inclusions, diameter 50 mm to 500 mm typically. Thus, the tests avoid a so-called "spont......Heat soak testing of tempered glass is a thermal process required after the tempering process itself to bring glasses of commercial soda-lime-silica-glass to failure that are contaminated with nickel sulphide inclusions, diameter 50 mm to 500 mm typically. Thus, the tests avoid a so...... of commercial soda-lime-silica glass, it causes stress relaxation in tempered glass and the fracture pattern of the glass changes accordingly, especially thin glasses are affected. Based on the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Model, this paper comprises the theoretical background of the stress...

  5. Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method for a thin film flow of a pseudo plastic fluid draining down or lifting up on a cylindrical surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Kamran M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the pseudo plastic model is used to obtain the solution for the steady thin film flow on the outer surface of long vertical cylinder for lifting and drainage problems. The non-linear governing equations subject to appropriate boundary conditions are solved analytically for velocity profiles by a modified homotopy perturbation method called the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic method. Expressions for the velocity profile, volume flux, average velocity, shear stress on the cylinder, normal stress differences, force to hold the vertical cylindrical surface in position, have been derived for both the problems. For the non-Newtonian parameter β=0, we retrieve Newtonian cases for both the problems. We also plotted and discussed the affect of the Stokes number St, the non-Newtonian parameter β and the thickness δ of the fluid film on the fluid velocities.

  6. 21 CFR 133.136 - Washed curd and soaked curd cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd and soaked curd cheese. 133.136... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.136 Washed curd and soaked curd cheese. (a) Description. (1) Washed curd, soaked curd cheese is the food prepared by the procedure set forth in paragraph (a)(3)...

  7. Attractors and soak times in artisanal fi shing with traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Figueiredo Sebastiani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Traps are used by artisanal fishers as fishing gear in places where other fishing modalities are impeded or limited. The advantage of this type of fishing modality is the possibility of keeping fish alive and in the case of capturing species of low commercial value or size below the permitted minimum this fishing gear allows the release of such specimens back to nature, resulting in a sustainability aspect to the use of this fishing gear. This study aims to evaluate the effects of different attractors and times of submersion on the efficiency of the traps used. Sardines, shrimps and trash fish were employed as attractors. To evaluate the soak time, two periods were tested: 24 and 96 hours. The sardines, used as the attractor, resulted in a production of 1,296.4 ± 397.4g, significantly superior (p <0.05 to other attractors. In relation to the soak time, the period of 24 hours resulted in an average production of 1,719.2 ± 866.0g, significantly (p <0.05 superior to the period of 96 hours. The results led to the conclusion that to optimize this capture by fishing gear, sardines should be used as the attractor, together with a soak time of 24 hours.

  8. A Study of Recycling and Reuse of Residual Agricultural Plastic Film in Ningxia%宁夏农田残膜回收与再利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣标

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the residual plastic films in the farmlands are increasing continuously with the increase of film-mulching planting area and resulting in "white pollution" in the farmlands. Research on the recycling and reuse of the farmland plastic films is an effective way to solve the "white pollution" problem. Based on the field research and literature study the basic situation of the farmland plastic film recycling and reuse is better known and the problems currently existing in the work of the plastic film recycling and reuse in Ningxia are summarized. Learning from the advanced experiences from both domestic and abroad, it is suggested that the following measures should be adopted: publicity should be strengthened to create an atmosphere; production should be carried out according to the quality standards; researches and selection should be conducted actively to identify the machine models which are suitable for local area; financial subsidy policy should be strengthened; a scheduling and an examination should be conducted for the work and so on. An long-term effectively oper-ating mechanism and a set of mechanized residual plastic film recycling and re-use equipment and processing technology which would be appropriate for application in Ningxia are made out.%近年来,覆膜种植面积不断增大,农田里残留的各种地膜数量不断增加,造成了农田的“白色污染”。研究农田残膜的回收和再利用是解决“白色污染”问题的有效途径。通过实地调研和文献研究,了解宁夏地区农田残膜回收和再利用工作的基本情况,总结出宁夏农田残膜回收和再利工作中存在的问题。借鉴国内外先进经验,提出:加强宣传,营造氛围;以质量标准规范生产;积极进行研发和选型工作,确定适宜机型;强化财政补贴政策;制定规划、纳入考核项目等农田残膜回收与再利用的方法。并探索确定适宜宁夏应用的残膜机

  9. Persistence, distribution, and emission of Telone C35 injected into a Florida sandy soil as affected by moisture, organic matter, and plastic film cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J E; Ou, L T; Allen, L H; McCormack, L A; Vu, J C; Dickson, D W

    2004-05-01

    With the phase-out of methyl bromide scheduled for 2005, alternative fumigants are being sought. This study of Telone C35, a mixture of (Z)- and (E)-1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) with chloropicirin (CP), focuses on its emissions, distribution, and persistence in Florida sandy soil in microplots with different soil-water and organic matter carbon (C) content with and without two different plastic film mulches. The addition of CP did not affect the physical behavior of the isomers of 1,3-D. Slower subsurface dispersion and longer residence time of the mixed fumigant occurred at higher water content. An increase in the percent organic carbon in the soil led to a more rapid decrease for chloropicirin than for 1,3-dichloropene isomers. The use of a virtually impermeable film (VIF) for soil cover provided a more even distribution and longer persistence under all the conditions studied in comparison to polyethylene (PE) film cover or no cover. The conditions of near field capacity water content, low organic matter, and a virtually impermeable film cover yielded optimum conditions for the distribution, emission control, and persistence of Telone C35 in a Florida sandy soil.

  10. Research on Mechanization Technology of Plastic Film Mulching%地膜覆盖机械化技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙杰

    2016-01-01

    介绍地膜覆盖机的分类、结构组成及性能,分别论述各类地膜覆盖机械的工作原理及特点,阐述地膜覆盖机的使用、调试、维护要点,为地膜覆盖机械的选用及维护提供技术借鉴。%In this paper, it introduced the classification, structural composition and performance of plastic mulching machine, dis-cussed separately the working principle of every kind of plastic mulching machine, expounded the main points of application, debugging and maintaining of plastic mulching machine, providing technical references for the selection and maintaining of plastic mulching ma-chine.

  11. Printing Technologies and Environmentally-friendly Measures of Plastic Flexible Packaging Film%塑料软包装薄膜的印刷技术及环保措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄树贵; 龚伟兵

    2011-01-01

    The printing and compounding technologies of plastic flexible packaging film were introduced.The environmentally-friendly measures in plastic flexible packaging film were expounded from the aspects of printing ink, raw material, waste material treatment, etc. The development direction of the plastic flexible packaging film was also predicted.%介绍了塑料软包装薄膜的印刷和复合工艺,从油墨、塑料原料及废弃物处理等方面阐述了塑料软包装薄膜印刷工业中采取的环保措施,并指出了塑料软包装薄质印刷工业的发展方向.

  12. Effect of Die Head Temperature at Compounding Stage on the Degradation of Linear Low Density Polyethylene/Plastic Film Waste Blends after Accelerated Weathering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Al-Salem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated weathering test was performed on blends of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE and plastic film waste constituting the following percentages of polyolefin polymers (wt.%: LLDPE (46%, low density polyethylene (LDPE, 51%, high density polyethylene (HDPE, 1%, and polypropylene (PP, 2%. Compounded blends were evaluated for their mechanical and physical (optical properties. The impact of photodegradation on the formulated blends was studied, and loss of mechanical integrity was apparent with respect to both the exposure duration to weathering and waste content. The effect of processing conditions, namely, the die head temperature (DHT of the blown-film assembly used, was investigated in this work. It was witnessed that surpassing the melting point of the blends constituting polymers did not always result in a synergistic behaviour between polymers. This was suspected to be due to the loss of amorphous region that polyolefin polymers get subjected to with UV exposure under weathering conditions and the effect of the plastic waste constituents. The total change in colour (ΔE did not change with respect to DHT or waste content due to rapid change degradation on the material’s surface. Haze (% and light transmission (% decreased with the increase in waste content which was attributed to lack of miscibility between constituting polymers.

  13. Plasticized Polymer Interlayer for Low-Temperature Fabrication of a High-Quality Silver Nanowire-Based Flexible Transparent and Conductive Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Wonhee; Kang, Hong Suk; Choi, Jaeho; Lee, Hongkyung; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2017-04-18

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs) are one of the most promising materials to replace commercially available indium tin oxide in flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs); however, there are still numerous problems originating from poor AgNW junction formation and improper AgNW embedment into transparent substrates. To mitigate these problems, high-temperature processes have been adopted; however, unwanted substrate deformation prevents the use of these processes for the formation of flexible TCFs. In this work, we present a novel poly(methyl methacrylate) interlayer plasticized by dibutyl phthalate for low-temperature fabrication of AgNW-based TCFs, which does not cause any substrate deformation. By exploiting the viscoelastic properties of the plasticized interlayer near the lowered glass-transition temperature, a monolithic junction of AgNWs on the interlayer and embedment of the interconnected AgNWs into the interlayer are achieved in a single-step pressing. The resulting AgNW-TCFs are highly transparent (~92% at a wavelength of 550 nm), highly conductive (<90 Ω/sq), and environmentally and mechanically robust. Therefore, the plasticized interlayer provides a simple and effective route to fabricate high-quality AgNW-based TCFs.

  14. Solarização do solo com filmes plásticos com e sem aditivo estabilizador de luz ultravioleta Soil solarization with plastic films with and without UV light stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito C. Barros

    2004-06-01

    menor nos tratamentos com plástico contendo aditivo. A viabilidade de P. aphanidermatum foi reduzida em todos os tratamentos solarizados, independente do plástico utilizado. Houve aumento no pH, na saturação por bases (V% e nos teores de NH4+ (190%, Mn (94,6% e Mg2+ (18%, dos solos solarizados. Também as plantas de alface colhidas nessas parcelas apresentaram maiores teores de Zn (43%, Mg2+ (12% e K+ (4%. Em Mogi das Cruzes foram observados aumentos nos teores de Mn (236% e Cu (18% nos solos solarizados e nas plantas colhidas nesses tratamentos (aumento de 99% para Mn e de 27% para Cu. A incidência da podridão de esclerotínia foi reduzida de 27,7% na testemunha para índices inferiores a 1% nas parcelas solarizadas com os diferentes filmes plásticos. O plástico sem aditivo estabilizador de luz ultravioleta partiu-se durante ambos os experimentos, após 60 e 90 dias de exposição ao ambiente, sendo considerado inadequado para a solarização, mas não houve diferença entre os plásticos para nenhum atributo avaliado.Three plastic films [low-density polyethylene (LDPE plastic films, 100 mm thick, produced by Nortène Plásticos Ltda] were evaluated in their adequacy for soil solarization:. a LDPE with UV light stabilizer additive, based on hindered amine; b LDPE with half load of the same additive, c without additive, and d a control treatment without plastic mulch. Two experiments were set up from January to February 2000, in Mogi das Cruzes and Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. After solarization, a lettuce crop was grown in both experiments. Chemical analyses were performed in soil samples and in the harvested lettuce heads of all plots. Weed infestation and the fresh weight of the harvested lettuce heads were assessed. In Piracicaba the soils were analyzed for microbiological properties and the viability of Pythium aphanidermatum was evaluated. In Mogi das Cruzes incidence of lettuce drop, caused by Sclerotinia minor, was assessed. The mean soil

  15. SMS-1500型秸秆粉碎与残膜回收机的设计%Design of SMS-1500 type straw chopping and plastic film residue collecting machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王吉奎; 付威; 王卫兵; 李斌

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of plastic film residue collection after cotton harvesting, a machine combining chopping field cotton straw with collecting plastic film residue was designed. The whole structure and working mechanism of the machine were introduced, the main operation components of the machine were designed and finally the structure parameters were determined. The processes of straw chopping and plastic film collection were analyzed and the conditions to chop straw of disk-saw blade were achieved. Experiment results indicated that under the condition of the operation speed of 5-5.5 km/h, the length of chopped straw was less than 20 cm, the plastic film residue collection rate of the machine was more than 90%. Plastic film residue and straw could be effectively separated after the operation, and the plastic film residue was uncovered with small amount of damage. The machine has advantages of high operation efficiency, low energy consumption and stacking in bulk of the collected plastic film residue and can be used to collect the plastic film residue after cotton harvesting.%为解决棉花收获后的残膜回收问题,设计了一种用于收获后棉秸秆切碎还田和残膜回收的联合作业机具,介绍整机的结构和工作原理,对主要工作部件做了设计,确定秸秆粉碎和残膜回收装置的结构参数,分析秸秆切碎和残膜回收过程,得出圆盘锯片切碎秸秆的条件.试验结果表明:在作业速度为5~5.5 km/h时,秸秆切碎长度小于20 cm,残膜回收率大干90%,作业后膜、杆分离,残膜自下而上揭起,残膜破损小.该机作业效率高,能耗小,回收的残膜集中堆放,可用于棉花收获后的残膜回收.

  16. Electrochemical deposition of molybdenum sulfide thin films on conductive plastic substrates as platinum-free flexible counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chao-Kuang; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo, E-mail: jack_hsieh@mail.mcut.edu.tw

    2015-06-01

    In this study, pulsed electrochemical deposition (pulsed ECD) was used to deposit molybdenum sulfide (MoS{sub x}) thin films on indium tin oxide/polyethylene naphthalate (ITO/PEN) substrates as flexible counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The surface morphologies and elemental distributions of the prepared MoS{sub x} thin films were examined using field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The chemical states and crystallinities of the prepared MoS{sub x} thin films were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The optical transmission (T (%)) properties of the prepared MoS{sub x} samples were determined by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Tafel-polarization measurements were performed to analyze the electrochemical properties and catalytic activities of the thin films for redox reactions. The FE-SEM results showed that the MoS{sub x} thin films were deposited uniformly on the ITO/PEN flexible substrates via the pulsed ECD method. The CV and Tafel-polarization curve measurements demonstrated that the deposited MoS{sub x} thin films exhibited excellent performances for the reduction of triiodide ions. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSSC produced with the pulsed ECD MoS{sub x} thin-film CE was examined by a solar simulator. In combination with a dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with the MoS{sub x} flexible CE showed a PCE of 4.39% under an illumination of AM 1.5 (100 mW cm{sup −2}). Thus, we report that the MoS{sub x} thin films are active catalysts for triiodide reduction. The MoS{sub x} thin films are prepared at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and in a simple and rapid manner. This is an important practical contribution to the production of flexible low-cost thin-film CEs based on plastic substrates. The MoS{sub x

  17. Influência da adição de plastificante do processo de reticulação na morfologia, absorção de aguá e propriedades mecânicas de filmes de alginato de sódio Influence of plasticizer addition and crosslinking process on morohology, water absoption and mechanical properties of sodium alginate films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Margarete Furuyama Lima

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sorbitol and formaldehyde on the morphology, water absorption and mechanical properties of sodium alginate films were analyzed. The morphology of the films indicated the presence of small aggregates in the surface of uncrosslinked films, which disappeared with the crosslinking process. The water uptake and percentage of elongation increased with the addition of sorbitol in uncrosslinked films. At the same time, a decrease in tensile strength and Young's modulus occurred. The swelling ratio and water uptake of crosslinked alginate/sorbitol films decreased with an increase in sorbitol content suggesting an enhanced crosslinking density due to the presence of plasticizer.

  18. 全膜覆盖双垄集雨沟播种植马铃薯的效益分析%Output Value of Potato in Whole Plastic-film Mulching on Double Ridges and Planting in Catchment Furrows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭忠富; 冯荔; 陈玢

    2012-01-01

    在降雨量400mm左右的原州区开城镇寇庄村,对晋薯7号进行了不同覆膜方式的研究。测定了0-20cm土层地温和0-100cm土壤含水量,以探索全膜覆盖双垄沟播栽培技术对土壤温度和含水量的影响。结果表明:在马铃薯生长的每一个时期,不同土壤深度的地温和有效积温总体表现为:秋季全膜双垄沟播栽培〉顶凌全膜双垄沟播栽培〉播期全膜双垄沟播栽培〉秋季半膜栽培〉顸凌半膜栽培〉播期半膜栽培;不同处理土壤含水量是秋季覆膜栽培〉顶凌覆膜栽培〉播期覆膜栽培,全膜覆盖栽培〉半膜覆盖栽培。播期半膜栽培马铃薯667m2产量为1436.9kg,而秋季全膜覆盖双垄沟播栽培667m2产量达到1762.7kg,增产效果非常显著。%In Kouzhuang Village, Kaicheng Town, Yuanzhou District, where annual rainfall is only about 400 mm, the potato cv. Jinshu 7 was planted under various mulching methods, and soil temperature in 0 - 20 cm and soil moisture in 1 - 100 cm were measured in order to understand the effects of the technique, whole plastic-film mulching on double ridges and planting in catchment furrows, on soil temperature and soil water content. The soil temperature and effective accumulated temperature in various potato growth stage showed the trend: whole plastic-film mulching on double ridges in autumn and planting in catchment furrows 〉 whole plastic-film mulching on double ridges in eady spring and planting in catchment furrows 〉 whole plastic-film mulching on double ridges just before planting and planting in catchment furrows 〉 half plastic-film mulching in autumn and planting in ridge 〉 half plastic-film mulching in early spring and planting in ridge〉 half plastic-film mulching just before planting and planting in ridge. Soil water content was mulching in autumn〉 mulching in early spring 〉 mulching just before planting, and whole plastic-film mulching 〉 half plastic-film

  19. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  20. Field evaluation of a new plastic film (vapor safe) to reduce fumigant emissions and improve distribution in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ruijun; Gao, Suduan; Ajwa, Husein; Sullivan, David; Wang, Dong; Hanson, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    Preplant soil fumigation is an important pest management practice in coastal California strawberry production regions. Potential atmospheric emissions of fumigants from field treatment, however, have drawn intensive environmental and human health concerns; increasingly stringent regulations on fumigant use have spurred research on low-emission application techniques. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of a new low-permeability film, commonly known as totally impermeable film (TIF), on fumigant emissions and on fumigant distribution in soil. A 50/50 mixture of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) was shank-applied at 314 kg ha in two location-separate field plots (0.4 ha each) in Ventura County, California, in fall 2009. One plot was surface-covered with standard polyethylene (PE) film, and the other was covered with TIF immediately after fumigant application. Data collection included emissions, soil-gas phase concentration profile, air concentration under the film, and soil residuals of the applied fumigants. Peak emission flux of 1,3-D and CP from the TIF field was substantially lower than from the PE field. Total through-film emission loss was 2% for 1,3-D and emission surge compared with the PE field, while CP emissions were fairly low in both fields. Higher concentrations and a more uniform distribution in the soil profile for 1,3-D and CP were observed under the TIF compared with the PE film, suggesting that the TIF may allow growers to achieve satisfactory pest control with lower fumigant rates. The surging 1,3-D emissions after film-cutting could result in high exposure risks to workers and bystanders and must be addressed with additional mitigation measures.

  1. Experimental research on retrieving machine for film residue with whole plastic film mulching on double ridges in arid land%旱地全膜双垄沟残膜回收机的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松林; 敬志臣; 韩正晟; 王波; 戴飞; 高爱民

    2015-01-01

    针对西北旱地全膜双垄沟残膜回收机回收率低的问题,采用正交试验法对残膜回收机的起膜齿齿数、搂膜耙齿齿径、起膜齿入土深度进行研究,并对试验结果进行方差分析,优化了关键部件参数,确定了残膜回收机最佳工作性能参数.即起膜齿齿数为4个,前、中、后搂膜耙齿齿径组合为10-8-6 mm,起膜齿入土深度为50 mm.重复试验结果表明:回收机残膜回收率为93.4%>75%,很好地满足了残膜回收的农艺要求.%Aimed at the problem of lower rate recycling of plastic film collector for whole mulching on double ridges in northwestern arid land,orthogonal test method was used for the study on number of cut-ting film teeth,diameter of collecting film teeth and buried depth of the cutting film teeth.The experimen-tal results were analyzed by variance analysis,and the key component parameters were optimized.The best working performance parameters of the collector were discovered as follows:the number of cutting film teeth was 4,the combination diameter of front,middle and back collecting film teeth was 10-8-6 mm,and the buried depth of the cutting film teeth was 50 mm.The results of replicated tests showed the rate of re-cycling of film was 9 3 .4%>7 5%,which well met the agronomic requirements.

  2. A light-stimulated synaptic transistor with synaptic plasticity and memory functions based on InGaZnOx-Al2O3 thin film structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. K.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, P.; Hu, S. G.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Lee, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a synaptic transistor based on the indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)-aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin film structure, which uses ultraviolet (UV) light pulses as the pre-synaptic stimulus, has been demonstrated. The synaptic transistor exhibits the behavior of synaptic plasticity like the paired-pulse facilitation. In addition, it also shows the brain's memory behaviors including the transition from short-term memory to long-term memory and the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve. The synapse-like behavior and memory behaviors of the transistor are due to the trapping and detrapping processes of the holes, which are generated by the UV pulses, at the IGZO/Al2O3 interface and/or in the Al2O3 layer.

  3. 含氧塑料薄膜在清洁能源电池中的应用%APPLICATION OF FLUORINE CONTAINING PLASTIC FILM IN CLEAN ENERGY BATTERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑会林

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride plastic film in clean energy battery applications was briefly reviewed. The application and production method of PVDF membrane used in lithium battery, perfluorinated sulfonic acid ion-exchange membrane used in fuel cells and wind power storage vanadium batteries were introduced respectively. The status of author's latest research results in related fields was also introduced.%简述了含氟塑料薄膜在清洁能源电池中的应用.分别论述了用于锂电池的PVDF隔离膜,以及用于燃料电池、风力发电蓄能电池钒电池的全氟磺酸离子膜的应用与制作方法.介绍了笔者在相关领域的最新研究成果.

  4. Electrochemical determination of bisphenol A in plastic bottled drinking water and canned beverages using a molecularly imprinted chitosan-graphene composite film modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peihong; Xu, Zhifeng; Kuang, Yunfei

    2014-08-15

    Herein, a novel electrochemical sensor based on an acetylene black paste electrode modified with molecularly imprinted chitosan-graphene composite film for sensitive and selective detection of bisphenol A (BPA) has been developed. Several important parameters controlling the performance of the sensor were investigated and optimised. The imprinted sensor offers a fast response and sensitive BPA quantification. Under the optimal conditions, a linear range from 8.0 nM to 1.0 μM and 1.0 to 20 μM for the detection of BPA was observed with the detection limit of 6.0 nM (S/N=3). Meanwhile, the fabricated sensor showed excellent specific recognition to template molecule among the structural similarities and coexistence substances. Furthermore, this imprinted electrochemical sensor was successfully employed to detect BPA in plastic bottled drinking water and canned beverages.

  5. Tannin contents and protein digestibility of black grams (Vigna mungo) after soaking and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-Ur-rehman; Shah, W H

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research was to ascertain the effects of soaking black grams (Cultivar AARI-5732) in different salt solutions at different temperatures and different time periods, and different methods of cooking on the tannin content and protein digestibility. Tannin content of black grams was reduced to various extents by soaking at 30 degrees and 100 degrees C for different time periods. However, soaking at 100 degrees C increased the rate of extraction and reduced the extraction time of tannins. Soaking black grams in water at 100 degrees C reduced tannins by 22.14% in 45 minutes whereas about 2.5 times more tannin was reduced after soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution with or without sodium chloride. Maximum improvement in protein digestibility was also observed after soaking black grams in sodium bicarbonate solution. Tannin contents were further reduced along with improvement in protein digestibility as a result of cooking.

  6. Conductive performances of solid polymer electrolyte films based on PVB/LiClO 4 plasticized by PEG 200, PEG 400 and PEG 600

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yawen; Wang, Jinwei; Tang, Jinwei; Liu, Yupeng; He, Yedong

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) films consisting of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) as host polymer, LiClO 4 as alkali salt at mole ratio of [O]:[Li] = 8, and different molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) including PEG 200, PEG 400, and PEG 600 as plasticizers are prepared by physical blending method. The dielectric relaxation and electrochemical impedance measurements reveal that the conductive performances are improved by adding PEG as plasticizers through the enhancement in the moving space for ions, and PEG 400 performs plasticizing effect superior to PEG 200 and PEG 600. Their conductivity is measured by using a sandwiched Pt/SPE/Pt cell model. SPE with 30% PEG 400 (wt%) of PVB exhibits the maximum conductivity at room temperature, and its conductivity increases linearly with temperatures from 303 to 333 K at two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of the other two SPEs containing 30% PEG 200 and 30% PEG 600, respectively. However, their conductivity does not increase linearly with the increase in heating temperatures until the temperature reaches around 333 K; the decrease in conductivity with heating from their maxima is attributed to the restriction of ion moving space because of the crosslinking reaction between hydroxyl and aldehyde groups. As observed from the XRD and the microscopy results, PEG 400 is more effective than others in enhancing the conductive performances of these SPEs through changing LiClO 4 from crystalline to amorphous state, increasing the flexibility of PVB, disturbing the short distance sequential order of PVB chains, and promoting the formation of 'pathway' for ions' movement.

  7. Effects of drying temperature and relative humidity on the mechanical properties of amaranth flour films plasticized with glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tapia-Blácido

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are made of biopolymers. In the casting technique, biofilms are obtained by the drying of a polymer suspension in the final stage of processing. The aim of the present paper was to analyze the effect of this drying process on the mechanical properties of films produced with amaranth flour. Variables considered include glycerol content (30, 35 and 40%, g/g dry flour and air-drying conditions (air temperatures of 30, 40 and 50ºC and relative humidities of 40, 55 and 70%. As amaranth flour films constitute a complex mixture of amylopectin and amylose as well as native protein and lipid, certain unexpected results were obtained. The toughest films were obtained at the lowest temperature and the lowest relative humidity (30ºC, 40%.

  8. Soaking Induced Changes in Chemical Composition, Glycemic Index and Starch Characteristics of Basmati Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Kale

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to determine the qualitative changes in basmati rice (Pusa Basmati 1121, PB1121 during soaking at 40 °C to 80 °C. Soaking temperature had significant effect (α = 0.01 on chemical composition, glycemic index and starch characteristics of rice. Starch content, apparent amylose content, crude protein content and crude fat content in un-soaked rice were found to be 73.24%, 27.26%, 8.79% and 2.56%, respectively, but differences in these traits were observed after soaking. Amylose to amylopectin ratio (Am/Ap decreased from 0.59 to 0.52 (soaked at 80 °C. Crude fibre and crude ash contents increased after soaking. The mineral composition (K, P, S, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in soaked rice was found to be 16.46% higher than un-soaked rice at the same degree of polishing. Glycemic index of un-soaked rice was found to be 58.41, but decreased to 54.31 after soaking at 80 °C. Pasting properties, scanning electron microscope images, and X-ray diffractograms suggested partial gelatinization of starch in the temperature range of 60 °C to 80 °C. Based on qualitative changes in rice (apparent amylose content, Am/Ap ratio and crystallinity rate, it was concluded that intermediate soaking temperatures (60 °C to 70 °C would be useful for soaking of PB1121.

  9. Crystalline-to-plastic phase transitions in molecularly thin n-dotriacontane films adsorbed on solid surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisternas, Edgardo; Corrales, T. P.; del Campo, V.;

    2009-01-01

    Crystalline-to-rotator phase transitions have been widely studied in bulk hydrocarbons, in particular in normal alkanes. But few studies of these transitions deal with molecularly thin films of pure n-alkanes on solid substrates. In this work, we were able to grow dotriacontane (n-C32H66) films...... identify with a solid-solid phase transition. At higher coverages, we observed additional steps in the ellipsometric signal that we identify with a solid-solid phase transition in multilayer islands (similar to 333 K) and with the transition to the rotator phase in bulk crystallites (similar to 337 K...

  10. Solution-processed flexible fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors fabricated on plastic film at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin-Suk; Jeon, Jun-Hyuck; Hwang, Young Hwan; Park, Hyungjin; Ryu, Minki; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Transparent flexible fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide (IZO:F) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were demonstrated using the spin-coating method of the metal fluoride precursor aqueous solution with annealing at 200°C for 2 hrs on polyethylene naphthalate films. The proposed thermal evolution mechanism of metal fluoride aqueous precursor solution examined by thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy can easily explain oxide formation. The chemical composition analysed by XPS confirms that the fluorine was doped in the thin films annealed below 250°C. In the IZO:F thin films, a doped fluorine atom substitutes for an oxygen atom generating a free electron or occupies an oxygen vacancy site eliminating an electron trap site. These dual roles of the doped fluorine can enhance the mobility and improve the gate bias stability of the TFTs. Therefore, the transparent flexible IZO:F TFT shows a high mobility of up to 4.1 cm(2)/V·s and stable characteristics under the various gate bias and temperature stresses.

  11. 弹齿链耙式播前残膜回收机的设计研究%Research on the Spring-tooth-chain-rake Incomplete Plastic Film Recycling Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫盼盼; 曹肆林; 罗昕; 胡斌; 李俊江; 营雨琨; 卢勇涛; 王敏

    2016-01-01

    With the popularization and application of mulching technology ,white pollution caused by plastic film is getting worse .In order to reduce pollution , does not affect seeding , emergence , design a new type of spring-tooth-chain-rake incomplete plastic film recycling machine before planting machine .It highlights the aircraft's overall structure , working principle, key components such as pick-up chain harrow , spring-tooth, taking off the membrane mechanism for design analysis.Field test showed that the aircraft pure-hour production rate is 0.85hm2/h,recovery of plastic film is 81%.The plastic film recycling can meet the technical requirements and the study results may help solve the problem of plastic film pollution .%随着地膜覆盖技术的推广应用,残膜带来的白色污染越来越严重. 为了减轻污染,不影响播种、出苗,研究设计了新型弹齿链耙式播前残膜回收机. 重点介绍了该机的总体结构、工作原理,以及捡拾链耙、弹齿、脱膜机构等关键部件的设计分析. 田间试验表明:该机生产率为0.85hm2/h,残膜回收率为81%,满足残膜回收的技术要求,研究成果有利于解决残膜污染问题.

  12. Effect of fisher's soak tactic on catch pattern in the Danish gillnet plaice fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savina, Esther; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Frandsen, Rikke Petri

    2017-01-01

    Soak duration in the gillnet fisheries can vary from a few hours to several days. The industry reports a variation of soak tactics between target species, but also between seasons for the same species. These are determined by the robustness of the target species and the catch of unwanted species...... of the unwanted dab and edible crab, respectively, for 12 h at day compared to the other soak tactics (12 h at night or 24 h). Gillnetters participating in the coastal summer fishery for plaice follow the theoretical optimal soak tactic. The commercially used 12 h deployment during day maximises the catch...

  13. A novel structured plastic substrate for light confinement in thin film silicon solar cells by a geometric optical effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, Piet; Hamers, E.A.G.; Rijn, C.J.M. van; Baggerman, J.; Holterman, H.J.; Swinkels, Gert-Jan; Schropp, R.E.I.; Rath, J.K.; Jong, M.M. de

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel method to achieve light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells. Unlike the commonly used surface textures, such as Asahi U-type TCO, that rely on light scattering phenomena, we employ embossed periodically arranged micro-pyramidal structures with feature sizes much larger than

  14. A novel structured plastic substrate for light confinement in thin film silicon solar cells by a geometric optical effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.M.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Sonneveld, P.J.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Holterman, H.J.; Baggerman, J.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Hamers, E.A.G.

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel method to achieve light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells. Unlike the commonly used surface textures, such as Asahi U-type TCO, that rely on light scattering phenomena, we employ embossed periodically arranged micro-pyramidal structures with feature sizes much larger than

  15. 基于多跳路由算法的地膜回收机械装置优化%Optimization of Plastic Film Recycling Mechanism Based on Multi Hop Routing Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴东林; 张玉华

    2016-01-01

    为了增强地膜回收机的通信能力,使其适应不同地膜密度的地块,提高地膜回收机的工作效率,实现多地膜回收机的协同控制,设计了一种新的基于多跳无线网络的地膜回收机和多回收机协同控制系统. 改进后的地膜回收机在起膜铲的轴上装有起膜阻力传感器,可以实时测试起膜阻力,调整起膜机的速度,实现速度的自适应调节. 为了适应不同的起膜机速度,在卷膜机上装有速度传感器,可以对卷膜速度进行控制,提高了起膜和卷膜的作业精度. 同时,设计了5 点的多跳通信网络,利用无线局域网络,实现了地膜机的协同控制. 最后对地膜回收机的性能进行了测试,通过测试发现:残膜机作业的回收率达到了90%以上,其作业时间较短,满足高效残膜回收机的设计需求,可以在其他农业现代化机械控制系统的设计过程中进行推广%In order to enhance the communication capacity of plastic recycling machine the adapt to different plastic film density plots , improve the work efficiency of the mulching film recovery machine , realize the coordinated control of multi-ple plastic film recycling machine , it designed a new multi hop wireless network of plastic recycling machine and re-cy cling machine based on coordination control system .The modified film recycling machine is equipped with a film re-sistance sensor on the shaft of the film ,which can be tested in real time .In order to be adaptive to the speed of the film , the film is equipped with a speed sensor , which can control the film speed and improve the operation accuracy of the film and film .A multi hop communication network with five points was designed , and the cooperative control of plastic film was realized by using wireless local area network .Finally the mulching film recovery machine performance was tested to find that plastic film machine operation recovery rate reached more than 90%, the operating time is

  16. Effect of Plasticizers on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Potato Starch- based Composite Films%增塑剂对马铃薯淀粉基复合膜物理机械性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾超; 王利强; 卢立新; 赵艺程

    2012-01-01

    Potato starch based composite films were prepared by casting using potato starch, pullulan, gelatin as film forming material, calcium chloride as cross-linking agent, and glycerol, sorbitol, and polyethylene glycol as plasticizer. The effects of three kinds of plasticizers on physical and mechanical properties of composite films were studied. The results showed that tensile strength and Young's modulus of the composite films decrease significantly with plasticizer contents; elongation increases significantly with glycerol and sorbitol contents; effect of polyethylene glycol on elongation is not obvious; water vapor permeability and water solubility of composite films increase with plasticizer contents; polyethylene glycol can reduce the light transmission rate of the composite films significantly.%以马铃薯淀粉、普鲁兰多糖、明胶为成膜物质,氯化钙为交联剂,甘油、山梨醇、聚乙二醇为增塑剂,采用流延法制备了马铃薯淀粉基复合膜,研究了3种增塑剂对复合膜物理机械性能的影响。结果表明:复合膜的抗拉强度和弹性模量均随增塑剂含量的增加而显著减小,断裂伸长率随甘油和山梨醇含量的增加而显著增加,聚乙二醇对其影响不显著;复合膜的水蒸气透过率和水溶性均随增塑剂含量的增加而增加;聚乙二醇能够显著降低复合膜的透光率。

  17. Soaking grapevine cuttings in water: a potential source of cross contamination by micro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen WAITE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine nurseries soak cuttings in water during propagation to compensate for dehydration and promote root initiation. However, trunk disease pathogens have been isolated from soaking water, indicating cross contamination. Cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv. Sunmuscat and V. berlandieri x V. rupestris rootstock cv. 140 Ruggeri were immersed in sterilized, deionised water for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 h. The soaking water was cultured (25°C for 3 days on non-specific and specific media for fungi and bacteria. The base of each cutting was debarked and trimmed and three 3 mm thick, contiguous, transverse slices of wood cultured at 25°C for 3 days. The soaking water for both cultivars became contaminated with microorganisms within the first hour. Numbers of fungi iso-lated from the wood slices soaked for one hour were significantly greater than those from non-soaked cuttings. The number of bacterial colonies growing from the wood slices increased after soaking for 2‒4 h in Sunmuscat. In a second experiment Shiraz cuttings were soaked for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h. The soaking water became contaminated within the first hour but only the bacterial count increased significantly over time. Microorganisms also established on the container surfaces within the first hour although there were no significant increases over 24 h. These results confirm that soaking cuttings is a potential cause of cross contamination and demonstrate contamination of cuttings occurs after relatively short periods of soaking. Avoiding exposing cuttings to water will reduce the transmission of trunk diseases in propagation.

  18. 新疆棉田地膜残留对棉花产量及土壤理化性质的影响%Effects of plastic film residue on cotton yield and soil physical and chemical properties in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董合干; 刘彤; 李勇冠; 刘华峰; 王栋

    2013-01-01

    Background:Xinjiang is currently one of China’s three largest cotton-planting regions. Cotton plantations account for more than half of the total agricultural area in Xinjiang. All cotton plantations in Xinjiang involve film mulching. However, this leaves behind plastic film residue, which has become a very serious problem. The average residual percentage is 24%, allowing plastic film residue to seriously harm soil quality and cotton yield. At present, because cotton yield has been improved, little attention has been paid to the hazards of plastic film residue. Purpose:The paper analyzed the effects of plastic film residue accumulation on soil quality and cotton yield by setting a density gradient. The paper studied the trends in and reasons for yield variation. Differences between cotton varieties with different root depths were compared. Method: On the basis of the complete survey of plastic film residue in the production area of short-staple cotton in northern Xinjiang, 6 density plastic film residue gradients were vetted based on the number of continuous years of film mulching: 0 (0 years), 250 kg/hm2 (13 years), 500 kg/hm2 (31 years), 1000 kg/hm2 (68 years), 1500 kg/hm2 (104 years), and 2000 kg/hm2 (141 years). The weight ratio of plastic film residues of 0-25, 25-100, and 100-200 cm2 was 1:1:1, and the films were mixed into the soil at a uniform depth of 0-40 cm. Cotton varieties included“Xinluzao 33”(deep root system) and“Xinluzao 13”(shallow root system). The area of each plot was 10 m2 and each gradient was evaluated three times. Yield-related traits and the physiochemical characteristics of the soil were studied. Conclusion:The density of plastic film residue can reach 1000 kg/hm2 after 68 years of continuous film mulching, and the cotton yield of“Xinluzao 33”and“Xinluzao 13”was found to decrease by 18.1% and 13.5%, respectively. The stand establishment rates decreased by 8.4% and 16.5%, respectively, and the degrees of precocity

  19. Filmes plásticos e ácido ascórbico na qualidade de araticum minimamente processado Plastic packaging film and ascorbic acid treatment on the quality of fresh cut araticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Soares Soares Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do ácido ascórbico e do tipo de filme plástico como embalagem na qualidade do araticum minimamente processado e mantido sob refrigeração. O ácido ascórbico não evitou o escurecimento do araticum minimamente processado. Independentemente do tipo de embalagem, a acidez titulável aumentou com o tempo. A embalagem de policloreto de vinila ou polietileno de baixa densidade promoveu uma significativa perda de massa se comparada com a a laminada a vácuo. A embalagem laminada a vácuo propiciou vida-de-prateleira mais longa ao produto, o qual permaneceu com aparência adequada e qualidade comercial até o sétimo dia do armazenamento. A vida-de-prateleira dos demais tratamentos alcançou somente três dias.This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of ascorbic acid and type of plastic packaging film on the quality of refrigerated fresh cut araticum. Ascorbic acid did not prevent fresh cut araticum from darkening. Regardless of the type of plastic packaging, the fruit titrable acidity increased with time. Packing with polyvynil chloride or with low density polyethylene promoted a significant mass loss compared to laminate vacuum packaging. Laminate vacuum packaging increased the shelf life of the product up 7 days, maintaining its commercial quality and appearance. The shelf life of the other treatments reached 3 days only.

  20. 作物地膜覆盖安全期概念和估算方法探讨%Concept and estimation of crop safety period of plastic film mulching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严昌荣; 何文清; 刘恩科; 林涛; Pasquale Mormile; 刘爽; 刘勤

    2015-01-01

    该研究首次提出作物地膜覆盖安全期的概念,将其定义为“某一作物在某一区域要求地膜覆盖的最佳天数,也就是地膜覆盖农田土面能保持膜面完整的日数”,在此日数之前地膜应该保持基本完整,维持增温保墒和防除杂草等功能,此日数之后,这些功能基本消失。明确作物地膜覆盖安全期有利于作物生产的高效管理,指导地膜生产者研发出满足农业生产需求和成本较低的地膜产品,协助农民根据覆盖作物种类和生产条件选择合适的农用地膜。在此基础上,该研究构建了基于地膜覆盖增温保墒和抑灭杂草等功能测定和农作物郁闭度测定的2种作物地膜覆盖安全期估算方法。第1种方法是通过对作物覆盖地膜条件下土壤温度和水分的连续监测,构建作物地膜覆盖与未覆盖农田土壤温度、水分和杂草控制的时序图,寻求二者的交汇或者重合点即地膜覆盖的增温保墒功能消失或者基本消失的时间节点,从覆盖到这个日期的天数分别属于某种作物地膜覆盖的温度安全期和水分安全期。第2种方法式是通过系统监测作物全生育期郁闭度和地膜覆盖功能参数,建立作物郁闭度与地膜覆盖主要功能的关系曲线,综合研判后确定地膜覆盖功能消失时作物郁闭度,计算作物地膜覆盖安全期。作物地膜覆盖安全期相关研究可为构建中国地膜覆盖技术适应性评价体系、探明地膜覆盖适宜区域的空间分异规律、以及生物降解地膜生产和应用提供技术支撑。%Plastic mulching film plays an important role in development of agriculture. However, a series of problems such as pollution of plastic film residue left in the field occur. It is required to make a reasonable assessment on film mulching and rationally utilize it. Based on its application, this study proposed a concept of crop safety period of plastic

  1. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.

    1990-01-01

    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  2. Soaking in tapes: the haptic voice of global Pentecostal pedagogy in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhardt, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Can a voice touch? This possibility is indeed what underlies ‘soaking in tapes’, a devotional practice performed in Anagkazo Bible and Ministry Training Center, a Pentecostal seminary based in Accra, Ghana. Soaking in tapes is a form of impartation, or grace transmission, homologous to the biblical

  3. Cotton’s Water Demand and Water-Saving Benefits under Drip Irrigation with Plastic Film Mulch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingyu YAN; Juyan LI

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to give suitable irrigation program according to the growth period and water requirement.A cotton field experiment with mulched drip irrigation was conducted at the National Field Observation and Research Station for Oasis Farmland Ecosystem in Aksu of Xinjiang in 2008.Water balance method was adopted to study the water requirement and water consumption law of cotton under mulched drip irrigation in Tarim Irrigated Area.Statistical analysis of experimental data of irrigation indicates that the relationship between yield of cotton and irrigation presents a quadratic parabola.We fit the model of cotton water production on the basis of field experimental data of cotton.And the analysis on water saving benefit of cotton under mulched drip irrigation was done.Results indicate that water requirements for the irrigated cotton are 543 mm in Tarim Irrigated Area.The water requirements of seedling stage is 252 mm,budding stage is 186 mm,bolling stage is 316 mm and wadding stage is 139 mm.the irrigation amount determines the spatial distribution of soil moisture and water consumption during cotton life cycle.However,water consumption at different growth stages was inconsistent with irrigation.Quantitatively,the water consumed by cotton decreases upon the increase of irrigation amount.From the perspective of water saving,the maximal water use efficiency can reach 3 091 m3/ha.But the highest cotton yield needs 3464 m3/ha irrigation water.In summary,compared to the conventional drip irrigation,a number of benefits in water saving and yield increase were observed when using plastic mulch.At the same amount of irrigation,the cotton yield with plastic mulch was 30.2% higher than conventional approaches,and the efficiency of water utilization increased by30.2%.While at the same yield level,29.3% water was saved by using plastic mulch,and the efficiency increased by 41.5%.

  4. 覆膜增温对沙枣树产胶的增产作用%Eeffect of temperature increase caused by plastic film mulching on the gum yield for Elaeagnus angustifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李银芳; 潘伯荣; 阿迪力·吾彼尔; 古丽努尔·沙比尔哈孜; 刘力

    2012-01-01

    沙枣树(Elaeagnus angustifolia)覆膜试验的结果表明,覆膜对沙枣树产胶的增产效果明显,成熟林覆膜后较裸地增产30.3%,单株年产量由86.7g/株增加到112.9g/株;过熟林覆膜后较裸地增产18.0%,单株年产量由76.0g/株增加到86.7g/株。增产是因为覆膜明显地提高了地温,成熟林覆膜后林地的增温效果是13.7%,而过熟林由于土壤过湿,林地的增温效果是2.2%。覆膜增温提高了树木的生理活性,表现在以促进林木速生期的生长速率方式提高了新枝生长量,并且成熟林的速生期还较过熟林长。从生长速率到出胶速率的最大值和最小值的天数及速率分析,覆膜较裸地大,并且成熟林大于过熟林,是生理活性增强出胶量大的主要原因。%Experimental results of Elaeagnus angustifolia with plastic film cover showed that mature forest with plastic film cover can increase gum yield 30.3% than that of uncovered forest;Gum yield of individuals can increase from 86.7g /individual to 1129g/ individual.Over-aged forest with plastic film cover can increase gum yield 18.0% than that of uncovered forest;Gum yield of individuals can increase from 76.0g/individual to 86.7g/individual.The effects of increasing temperature with plastic film for mature forest is 13.7% while the effects of increasing temperature with plastic film for over-aged forest is 13.7% because of the soil is too wet.Plastic film improved new branches growth by promoting growth rate in fast growing stage.Fast growing stage of mature forest is longer than fast growing stage of over-aged forest.

  5. Research of Soil Environment and Fertility of Potato Grow in Dry Land Mulching Degradable Plastic Film%降解地膜覆盖对土壤环境和旱地马铃薯生育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振华; 张丽芳; 康暄; 赵沛义; 何文清; 魏富所

    2011-01-01

    Experiments on plastic mulching were carried out in northern area of Yinshan Mountain in 2008 and 2009 to alleviate the pollution caused by mulching film residue and improve the water use efficiency in arid area. Research of different mulching treatments on soil temperature, soil moisture and the growth and development of potato were studied. The results showed that temperature of three degradable plastic films same as the ordinary plastic film. Water use efficiency of degradable film C was 73.25 and 63.05 in 2008 and 2009 respectively, were higher than the other two kinds of degradable film. From the point view of potato growth and development, emergence of three kinds of degradation film was significantly higher than ordinary film, but plant height and leaf number was significantly lower than ordinary film. There was no significant difference from different kinds of film. The insulation effect of degradation film was good, but water retention was relatively poor;, The main growth limiting factor of local crop was water from years of practice, so promotion of the degradable film in the arid zone had yet to be considered.%为减轻农田白色污染,提高旱作区农作物水分利用效率,在内蒙古阴山北麓进行了地膜覆盖模拟试验.研究不同覆膜处理对土壤温度、水分和旱地马铃薯生长发育的影响.不同覆膜处理土壤温度无显著差异.2008与2009年降解膜C水分利用效率分别为73.25与63.05,均高于其他2种降解膜.从马铃薯生长发育来看,3种降解膜处理出苗率均显著高于普通膜,株高和叶片数降解膜处理要显著低于普通膜,商品薯产量和数量不同膜处理无显著差异.降解膜保温效果良好,但保水性能相对较差;多年生产实践表明当地农作物生长发育主要限制因子为水分,所以降解膜在该干旱区的推广还有待考虑.

  6. Development of ionizing radiations dosimetry by plastic detectors and films of radiography; Desenvolvimento de dosimetria de radiacoes ionizantes por detectores plasticos e filmes de radiografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levit, Vladimir; Santos, Ari S.; Louzada, Ana R.; Silveira, Cristina M.; Vaniel, Ana P. [Pelotas Univ., RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Geociencias]. E-mail: vlevit@ufpel.tche.br; Fedorov, Dmitri [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: fedorov@nucleo.inpe.br

    2000-07-01

    This work shows the development of an automatic and computerized system for detection and analysis of the ionizing radiation trace in solid detectors and one of the signals of this irradiation in radiography films with the main goal of improve the ionizing radiation detection methods. On the development of this method it was used a calibration source of {sup 252}Cf, which is a radionuclide with alpha decay and spontaneous fission and, by this reason, irradiates {alpha} and {gamma} particles and nuclear fragments. Solid detectors of makrofol ware used for the nuclear fragments and radiography films ware used for the detection of {alpha} and {gamma} particles. Those signals images reveled of the {alpha} and {gamma} particles and of the nuclear fragments traces ware analysed on a microscopy and recorded on computers. The computer system developed allows to capture those images from the microscope as computer files, the identification of nuclear fragments traces and the {alpha} and {gamma} particles signals and the separation of the objects of interest to do the counting and analysis of the size and the shape of those traces.

  7. Increasing the efficiency of silicon heterojunction solar cells and modules by light soaking

    KAUST Repository

    Kobayashi, Eiji

    2017-06-24

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells use crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers as optical absorbers and employ bilayers of doped/intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) to form passivating contacts. Recently, we demonstrated that such solar cells increase their operating voltages and thus their conversion efficiencies during light exposure. We found that this performance increase is due to improved passivation of the a-Si:H/c-Si interface and is induced by injected charge carriers (either by light soaking or forward-voltage biasing of the device). Here, we discuss this counterintuitive behavior and establish that: (i) the performance increase is observed in solar cells as well as modules; (ii) this phenomenon requires the presence of doped a-Si:H films, but is independent from whether light is incident from the a-Si:H(p) or the a-Si:H(n) side; (iii) UV and blue photons do not play a role in this effect; (iv) the performance increase can be observed under illumination intensities as low as 20Wm (0.02-sun) and appears to be almost identical in strength when under 1-sun (1000Wm); (v) the underlying physical mechanism likely differs from annealing-induced surface passivation.

  8. Shrink film patterning by craft cutter: complete plastic chips with high resolution/high-aspect ratio channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Douglas; Dyer, David; Lew, Valerie; Khine, Michelle

    2010-09-21

    This paper presents a rapid, ultra-low-cost approach to fabricate microfluidic devices using a polyolefin shrink film and a digital craft cutter. The shrinking process (with a 95% reduction in area) results in relatively uniform and consistent microfluidic channels with smooth surfaces, vertical sidewalls, and high aspect ratio channels with lateral resolutions well beyond the tool used to cut them. The thermal bonding of the layers results in strongly bonded devices. Complex microfluidic designs are easily designed on the fly and protein assays are also readily integrated into the device. Full device characterization including channel consistency, optical properties, and bonding strength are assessed in this technical note.

  9. Diffusion and emissions of 1,3-dichloro propene in Florida sandy soil in microplots affected by soil moisture, organic matter, and plastic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John E; Allen, L Hartwell; McCormack, Leslie A; Vu, Joseph C; Dickson, Donald W; Ou, Li-Tse

    2004-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of soil moisture, organic matter amendment and plastic cover (a virtually impermeable film, VIF) on diffusion and emissions of (Z)- and (E)-1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in microplots of Florida sandy soil (Arredondo fine sand). Upward diffusion of the two isomers in the Arredondo soil without a plastic cover was greatly influenced by soil-water content and (Z)-1,3-D diffused faster than (E)-1,3-D. In less than 5 h after 1,3-D injection to 30 cm depth, (Z)- and (E)-1,3-D in air dry soil had diffused to a 10 cm depth, whereas diffusion for the two isomers was negligible in near-water-saturated soil, even 101 h after injection. The diffusion rate of (Z)- and (E)-1,3-D in near-field-capacity soil was between the rates in the two water regimes. Yard waste compost (YWC) amendment greatly reduced diffusion of (Z)- and (E)-1,3-D, even in air-dry soil. Although upward diffusion of (Z)- and (E)-1,3-D in soil with VIF cover was slightly less than in the corresponding bare soil; the cover promoted retention of vapors of the two isomers in soil pore air in the shallow subsurface. More (Z)-1,3-D vapor was found initially in soil pore air than (E)-1,3-D although the difference declined thereafter. As a result of rapid upward movement in air-dry bare soil, (Z)- and (E)-1,3-D were rapidly volatilized into the atmosphere, but emissions from the near-water-saturated soil were minimal. Virtually impermeable film and YWC amendment retarded emissions. This study indicated that adequate soil water in this sandy soil is needed to prevent rapid emissions, but excess soil water slows diffusion of (Z)- and (E)-1,3-D. Thus, management for optimum water in soil is critical for pesticidal efficacy and the environment.

  10. 残膜对番茄苗期和开花坐果期生长的影响%Effect of residual plastic film on growth of tomato at seedling and blooming and fruit-setting stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹小阳; 牛文全; 刘晶晶; 李元; 官雅辉; 梁博惠; 郭丽丽; 张明智

    2016-01-01

    残膜污染已成为危害农田生态系统的重要因子,不仅阻碍土壤水分和养分运移,而且影响作物生长。为探明残膜对不同生育期番茄生长的影响规律,采用小区试验方法,设置0 kg·hm-2、80 kg·hm-2、160 kg·hm-2、320 kg·hm-2、640 kg·hm-2和1280 kg·hm-2共6种不同残膜量水平,研究残膜量对番茄苗期和开花坐果期的根系特征、地上部生长和干物质积累的影响,并采用Logistic生长模型定量分析残膜对番茄养分积累始盛期、高峰期和盛末期的影响。结果表明,残膜阻碍了番茄苗期和开花坐果期根系的生长,根体积、根长密度和根干质量密度均随残膜量增加而降低;随着残膜量增加,苗期和开花坐果期的株高和茎粗均呈减小趋势,且株高和茎粗的增长速率逐渐降低。番茄养分积累的始盛期和高峰期随残膜量增加而提前,番茄追肥的最佳时期也应提前。在番茄苗期和开花坐果期,根系、茎秆、花和幼果的干物质量均随残膜量增加而减少,而叶片的干物质量呈递增趋势。残膜对番茄苗期根系、地上部生长和干物质积累的阻碍作用高于开花坐果期。由此可见,残膜对番茄苗期的危害强于开花坐果期,且干物质积累的始盛期和高峰期均随残膜量增加而提前,加强番茄苗期水肥管理和提前水肥施加时间是减轻残膜危害的有利措施。%Although plastic film mulching is critical for crop production, its widespread use has produced a great deal of residual plastic film and destroyed soil structure, damaged the physical structure of soil and seriously impeded the movement of soil water and solute as well as crop growth. In order to determine the negative effects of residual plastic film on growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculeutumMiller.) at seedling and blooming and fruit-setting stages, plot experiment was conducted with different amounts of residual

  11. Electroless plating of PVC plastic through new surface modification method applying a semi-IPN hydrogel film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ming-Qiu, E-mail: mqwang1514@163.com; Yan, Jun; Du, Shi-Guo; Li, Hong-Guang

    2013-07-15

    A novel palladium-free surface activation process for electroless nickel plating was developed. This method applied a semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (semi-IPN) hydrogel film to modify the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) surface by chemical bonds. The activation process involved the formation of semi-IPN hydrogel film on the PVC surface and the immobilization of catalyst for electroless plating linking to the pretreated substrate via N-Ni chemical bond. The hydrogel layer was used as the chemisorption sites for nickel ions, and the catalyst could initiate the subsequent electroless nickel plating onto the PVC surface. Finally, a Ni–P layer was deposited on the nickel-activated PVC substrate by electroless plating technique. The composition and morphology of nickel-plated PVC foils were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of SEM and XRD show that a compact and continuous Ni–P layer with amorphous nickel phase is formed on the PVC surface. EDS shows that the content of the nickel and the phosphorus in the deposits is 89.4 wt.% and 10.6 wt.%, respectively.

  12. Electroless plating of PVC plastic through new surface modification method applying a semi-IPN hydrogel film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Qiu; Yan, Jun; Du, Shi-Guo; Li, Hong-Guang

    2013-07-01

    A novel palladium-free surface activation process for electroless nickel plating was developed. This method applied a semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (semi-IPN) hydrogel film to modify the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) surface by chemical bonds. The activation process involved the formation of semi-IPN hydrogel film on the PVC surface and the immobilization of catalyst for electroless plating linking to the pretreated substrate via Nsbnd Ni chemical bond. The hydrogel layer was used as the chemisorption sites for nickel ions, and the catalyst could initiate the subsequent electroless nickel plating onto the PVC surface. Finally, a Ni-P layer was deposited on the nickel-activated PVC substrate by electroless plating technique. The composition and morphology of nickel-plated PVC foils were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of SEM and XRD show that a compact and continuous Ni-P layer with amorphous nickel phase is formed on the PVC surface. EDS shows that the content of the nickel and the phosphorus in the deposits is 89.4 wt.% and 10.6 wt.%, respectively.

  13. Treatment of osteomyelitis with antibiotic-soaked porous glass ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanabe, K; Okada, Y; Matsusue, Y; Iida, H; Nakamura, T

    1998-05-01

    We have developed a new drug delivery system using porous apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic (A-W GC) to treat osteomyelitis. A-W GC (porosity, 70% and 20% to 30%), or porous hydroxyapatite (HA) blocks (porosity 35% to 48%) used as controls, were soaked in mixtures of two antibiotics, isepamicin sulphate (ISP) and cefmetazole (CMZ) under high vacuum. We evaluated the release concentrations of the antibiotics from the blocks. The bactericidal concentration of ISP from A-W GC was maintained for more than 42 days, but that from HA decreased to below the detection limit after 28 days. The concentrations of CMZ from both materials were lower than those of ISP. An in vivo study using rabbit femora showed that an osseous concentration of ISP was maintained at eight weeks after implantation. Osteoconduction of the A-W GC block was good. Four patients with infected hip arthroplasties and one with osteomyelitis of the tibia have been treated with the new delivery system with excellent results.

  14. Efficient "light-soaking"-free inverted organic solar cells with aqueous solution processed low-temperature ZnO electron extraction layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhang, Chunfu; Chen, Dazheng; Wang, Zhizhe; Zhu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Jincheng; Lu, Xiaoli; Hao, Yue

    2013-12-26

    Low-temperature processes are unremittingly pursued in the fabrication of organic solar cells. The paper reports that the highly efficient and "light-soaking"-free inverted organic solar cell can be achieved by using ZnO thin films processed from the aqueous solution method at a low temperature. The inverted organic solar with an aqueous-processed ZnO thin film annealed at 150 °C shows an efficiency of 3.79%. Even when annealed at a temperature as low as 80 °C, the device still shows an efficiency of 3.71%. With the proper annealing temperature of 80 °C, the flexible device, which shows an efficiency of 3.56%, is fabricated on PET. This flexible device still keeps the efficiency above 3.40% after bent for 1000 times with a curvature radius of 50 mm. In contrast, a low annealing temperature leads to an inferior device performance when the ZnO thin film is processed from the widely used sol-gel method. The device with sol-gel processed ZnO annealed at 150 °C only shows a PCE of 1.3%. Furthermore, the device shows a strong "light-soaking" effect, which is not observed in the device containing an aqueous-processed ZnO thin film. Our results suggest that the adopted aqueous solution method is a more efficient low temperature technique, compared with the sol-gel method.

  15. Effects of Hull Scratching, Soaking, and Boiling on Antinutrients in Japanese Red Sword Bean (Canavalia gladiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Une, Satsuki; Nonaka, Koji; Akiyama, Junich

    2016-10-01

    The effects of hull processing, soaking, and boiling on the content or activity of antinutrients in the red sword bean (RSB; Canavalia gladiata) were investigated. RSB seeds were compared with kidney bean (KB; Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds that are starch based and often used as processed products in Japan. RSB seeds had higher weight, thicker hull, and higher protein content, but lower moisture content compared with KB seeds. Because of the strong and thick hull, the relative water absorption of untreated RSB seeds was very low after soaking. Seeds were soaked after dehulling, scratching, and roasting. The results showed that hull scratching was the optimal method for increasing water absorption during soaking compared with dehulling and roasting. After soaking, the water used for soaking was discarded, since it had a high content of polyphenols and bitter taste, and RSB seeds were boiled in fresh water for 20, 40, and 60 min. The results showed that polyphenol and tannin contents, antioxidant activity, and hemagglutinating activity, as well as maltase, sucrase, and trypsin inhibitor activities in scratched RSB seeds decreased significantly after boiling compared with those in raw seeds, whereas amylase inhibitor activity showed no significant change. Overall, it was concluded that the combination of hull scratching, soaking, and boiling in fresh water can reduce thermal-stable or sensitive antinutrients in RSB and thus, significantly improve its nutritional value. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Animated Drawing of Plastics Film Calender Simulating System%塑料薄膜压延仿真系统的动画实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峻; 黄庙由; 余海; 王锴

    2001-01-01

    本文介绍了塑料薄膜压延仿真系统的动画实现。运用图像制作软件PhotoShop5.0和图形处理软件CorelDraw8.0,按照与真实设备间的一定比例,绘制出压延联动生产线的轮廓外型,并利用Visual Basic和调用Windows API等方法实现仿真系统的动画功能,使压延仿真过程真实、直观,易于人机交流。%The animated drawing of plastics film calender simulation system is given in this paper.Based on a proper scale of real equipment,the outline drawing of the calender line was made by means of PhotoShop 5 and CorelDraw 8.0 softwares.The animated drawing of the simulation system was made by means of Visual Basic and Windows API,made the simulating realizable and abjective.

  17. Thin metal bilayer for surface plasmon resonance sensors in a multimode plastic optical fiber: the case of palladium and gold metal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, Nunzio; Zuppella, Paola; Bacco, Davide; Corso, Alain J.; Pelizzo, Maria G.; Pesavento, Maria; Zeni, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    A novel sensing platform based on thin metal bilayer for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in a D-shaped plastic optical fiber (POF) has been designed, implemented and tested. The experimental results are congruent with the numerical studies. This platform has been properly optimized to work in the 1.38 -1.42 refractive index range and it exhibits excellent sensitivity. This refractive index range is very interesting for bio-chemical applications, where the polymer layer are used as receptors (e.g. molecularly imprinted polymer) or to immobilize the bio-receptor on the metal surface. The proposed metallic bilayer is based on palladium and gold films and replaces the traditional gold by exhibiting higher performances. Furthermore, the deposition of the thin bilayer is a single process and no further manufacturing step is required. In fact, in this case the photoresist buffer layer between the POF core and the metal layer, usually required to increase the refractive index range, is no longer necessary.

  18. Water-Resistant and Transparent Plastic Films from Functionalizable Organic Polymers: Coordination Polymers as Templates for Solid-State [2+2]-Photopolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Mousumi; Biradha, Kumar

    2017-01-05

    An organic polymer containing cyclobutanes and amides as backbones and pyridyl groups as sidearms was synthesized by single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) [2+2]-photopolymerization in the coordination polymers (CPs) of diene. The diene molecule was photo-inactive in its crystals and formed a triply intertwined 1D-helical CP with Cd(NO3 )2 and Cu(NO3 )2 salts. The 1D-CP was transformed into a coordination polymer of organic polymers containing threefold interpenetrated 3D-networks of CdSO4 topology through a [2+2]-reaction in SCSC manner upon irradiation. The organic polymer was separated from its CPs and found to have an unusually high degree of polymerization for this type of reaction. Furthermore, the organic polymer was amenable for N-alkylation reactions such as methylation, propylation, and decylation. The formate salts of the organic polymer and the methylated polymer were shown to form plastic films with a combination of properties such as high transparency, tensile strengths, gas permeability, thermal stability, water-resistance, and resistance to other organic solvents. The methylated polymer was also able to capture chromate ions and anionic dyes from aqueous solutions.

  19. Phthalate esters contamination in soils and vegetables of plastic film greenhouses of suburb Nanjing, China and the potential human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting Ting; Wu, Long Hua; Chen, Like; Zhang, Hai Bo; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yong Ming

    2015-08-01

    The contamination of phthalate esters (PAEs) has become a potential threat to the environment and human health because they could be easily released as plasticizers from the daily supply products, especially in polyethylene films. Concentration levels of total six PAEs, nominated as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were investigated in soils and vegetables from four greenhouse areas in suburbs of Nanjing, East China. Total PAEs concentration ranged from 930 ± 840 to 2,450 ± 710 μg kg(-1) (dry weight (DW)) in soil and from 790 ± 630 to 3,010 ± 2,130 μg kg(-1) in vegetables. Higher concentrations of PAEs were found in soils except in Suo Shi (SS) area and in vegetables, especially in potherb mustard and purple tsai-tai samples. Risk assessment mainly based on the exposures of soil ingestion and daily vegetable intake indicated that bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the samples from Gu Li (GL) and Hu Shu (HS) exhibited the highest hazard to children less than 6-year old. Therefore, the human health risk of the PAEs contamination in soils and vegetables should greatly be of a concern, especially for their environmental estrogen analog effects.

  20. Study of Seed Germination by Soaking Methode of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of germination methods conduct to get information about seed viability based on germination rate, percentage of germination and vigority. Germination methods was studied to get the efficiency and effectivity of germination, easy to handle, low costs with high vigority. Sand and gunny sack methods  for germination, need extensive place  and 3-4 days germination period after planting. This research will study the alternative of germination method with soaking. This method can be accelerating  germination rate and effectively place usage without decreasing the quality of cacao seedling.The research was done at Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institue. This research consist of two experiment was arranged based on factorial completely random design. First experiment will observed to compared germination rate and the second experiment will observed seedling quality between soaking and wet gunny sack germination method.The results showed that length of radicel on soaking method longer than wet gunny sack method. Growth of radicel started from 2 hours after soaking, moreover length of radicel at 4 hours after soaking have significant different value with gunny sack method. On 24 hours after soaking have 3,69 mm and 0,681 mm on wet gunny sack treatment. Except lengt of hipocotyl, there is not different condition between seedling that out came  from soaking and wet gunny sack method. Length of hipocotyl on 36 hours after soaking have 9,15 cm and significant different between wet gunny sack germination method that have 5,40 cm. Keywords : seed germination, soaking method, Theobroma cacao L., cocoa seedlings

  1. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  2. 半干旱黄土高原地区春小麦地膜覆盖研究概述%Review of clear plastic film mulch on spring wheat in semi-arid loess plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小兰; 李世清; 王俊; 宋秋华

    2001-01-01

    The results of plastic film mulching experiments for spring wheatcarried out in the semi-arid areas on the loess plateau show that plastic film mulching can play a very important role in the aspect of increasing water and nutrient utilization efficiency and in increase of grain yield.Because plastic film mulching can activate soil nutrient by means of improving soil ecological and environmental conditions in the plowed layer,namely,improving water and heat status.But in recent years through production practice and scientific experiments,people increasingly find that irrational and long-term plastic film mulching during the whole growth period also cause serious problems:for example,during the early stage and medium stage of crop growth,the crops mulched by plastic film usually grow better than those no mulching plastic film,so during the whole growth stage of former situation more soil water will lose through transpiration,the evapotranspiration (evaporation+transpiration) loss of soil water will be much more serious than that no plastic film mulching,during the late growth period of crops if precipitation is little or no additional water is supplemented to irrigation,this will lead to serious water stress phenomena,and will significantly inhibit small spike differentiation,this finally will lead to decrease of harvest index and crop yields;in the meantime,the yield increase effect under plastic film mulching must be paid heavy cost such as exhaust soil fertility especially organic matter to some extent.Therefore,incorrect plastic film mulching method (for instance mulching plastic film during the whole growth period ) sometimes will not only has no significant yield increase effect,but also easily cause the loss of soil nutrient in particular the loss and accumulation of nitrate in the soil,decreasing the fertilizer utilization efficiency,deterioration of soil ecological condition,decline of soil fertility,and high crop yield will also not maintain sustainable

  3. Encapsulate-and-peel: fabricating carbon nanotube CMOS integrated circuits in a flexible ultra-thin plastic film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pingqi; Zhang, Qing

    2014-02-01

    Fabrication of single-walled carbon nanotube thin film (SWNT-TF) based integrated circuits (ICs) on soft substrates has been challenging due to several processing-related obstacles, such as printed/transferred SWNT-TF pattern and electrode alignment, electrical pad/channel material/dielectric layer flatness, adherence of the circuits onto the soft substrates etc. Here, we report a new approach that circumvents these challenges by encapsulating pre-formed SWNT-TF-ICs on hard substrates into polyimide (PI) and peeling them off to form flexible ICs on a large scale. The flexible SWNT-TF-ICs show promising performance comparable to those circuits formed on hard substrates. The flexible p- and n-type SWNT-TF transistors have an average mobility of around 60 cm2 V-1 s-1, a subthreshold slope as low as 150 mV dec-1, operating gate voltages less than 2 V, on/off ratios larger than 104 and a switching speed of several kilohertz. The post-transfer technique described here is not only a simple and cost-effective pathway to realize scalable flexible ICs, but also a feasible method to fabricate flexible displays, sensors and solar cells etc.

  4. Effects of Planting Density, Duration of Disclosing Plastic Film and Nitrogen Fertilization on the Growth Dynamics of Rapeseed under No-tillage Cultivation%不同密度·揭膜时间和施氮量对免耕油菜生育动态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志三; 艾复清; 张一帆

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to understend the optimized combination of planting density, duration of disclosing plastic film and nitrogen fertilization under no-tillage cultivation. [Method] Quadratic polynomial regression and saturated D-optimal design were employed to investigate the effects of planting density, duration of disclosing plastic film and nitrogen fertilization on the dynamics growth of rapeseed under no-tillage cultivation. [Result] Within the experimental range, the growth dynamics of no-tillage cultivated rapeseed assumed a rise-fall tend. For the effects to the growth dynamics of no-tillage cultivated rapeseed, nitrogen application amount was higher than planting density and duration of disclosing plastic film. The interaction effect between planting density and duration of disclosing plastic film was higher than that between nitrogen application amount and planting density, and between nitrogen application amount and duration of disclosing plastic film. [Conclusion] The optimized combination of these factors for dynamic growth of rapeseed under no-tillage cultivation was determined to be: planting density of per hectare 154 925 individuals, duration of disclosing plastic film of 110 d, nitrogen application amount of 315 kg/hm2.

  5. Nanoparticles from Degradation of Biodegradable Plastic Mulch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, Markus; Sintim, Henry; Bary, Andy; English, Marie; Schaefer, Sean

    2017-04-01

    Plastic mulch films are commonly used in crop production. They provide multiple benefits, including control of weeds and insects, increase of soil and air temperature, reduction of evaporation, and prevention of soil erosion. The use of plastic mulch film in agriculture has great potential to increase food production and security. Plastic mulch films must be retrieved and disposed after usage. Biodegradable plastic mulch films, who can be tilled into the soil after usage offer great benefits as alternative to conventional polyethylene plastic. However, it has to be shown that the degradation of these mulches is complete and no micro- and nanoparticles are released during degradation. We conducted a field experiment with biodegradable mulches and tested mulch degradation. Mulch was removed from the field after the growing season and composted to facilitate degradation. We found that micro- and nanoparticles were released during degradation of the mulch films in compost. This raises concerns about degradation in soils as well.

  6. Effects of Remnant Plastic Film in Soil on Growth and Yield of Cotton%残膜对棉花生长发育及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜益娟; 郑德明; 朱朝阳

    2001-01-01

    A series of tests consisting of micro- plot, pot- simulation and check- up in situ has been conducted to assess impacts of residual plastic film in soil on cotton germination and growth. It has been discovered that quantities of remnant plastic film in soil was negatively related to rate of cotton germination and quantities of harvest plants (r=- 0.737, r = - 0.740), respectively, showing that reductions of by 9.9% — 19.1% , 7.3% — 16.5% for rate of young seedling and harvest plants than that in soil without polluted remnant plastic film. The remnant plastic film resulted in reductions of cotton bolls by 0.8— 1.0 per 100, and of yield of cotton by 7.3% — 21.6% , respectively. It was also found that the angle of remnant plastic film against the polluted soil surface exhibited different degrees of risk to growth and development of cotton with an order of 180° > 30 ° > 60 ° > 90° .%通过棉田土壤残膜状况调查及残膜田间微区试验、盆栽模拟试验,研究了残膜对棉花生长发育及产量的影响。结果表明,土壤中残膜量与棉花出苗率、收获株数呈负相关( r=- 0.737,r=- 0.740),分别比无残膜污染的土壤低 9.9%— 19.1%、 7.3%— 16.5%,残膜使株铃数减少 0.8— 1.0个,导致棉花产量低 7.3%— 21.6%;残膜碎片在土壤中的状态对棉花生长发育的危害顺序为 180° >30° >60° >90°。

  7. Study on Transferring for PF_6 Plasticized PVC Paste Resin Film%[bmim]PF_6增塑PVC糊树脂膜迁移规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江炜; 刘江涛

    2012-01-01

    文章应用固相萃取、液相色谱联用技术,研究了[bmim]PF6增塑PVC糊树脂膜中的[bmim]PF6在水环境及低酒精含量模拟溶剂(15%乙醇-水溶液)中的迁移规律,同时研究了[bmim]PF6迁移对薄膜力学性能的影响。结果表明:时间和温度对[bmim]PF6向水环境中迁移均有加速效应,在中性条件下迁移量较小,在酸性和碱性条件下迁移量较大。[bmim]PF6在低酒精含量模拟溶剂中与浸泡在去离子水中的薄膜迁移量相比,迁移量明显降低。增塑剂迁出后PVC糊树脂膜的断裂伸长率降低,弹性模量、拉伸强度均升高,可望用于医疗制品的开。%Transfer of plasticizers in water and simulated solvent of low-alcohol were studied by using solid-phase-extraction and high-performance-liquid-chromatography.Effect of plasticizer transfer on mechanical properties of the film was studied.The result showed that the operating conditions such as temperature and macerating time had a great accelerated effect on it.There was smaller migration in the neutral conditions,however,the migrations were volume in acidic and alkaline conditions.Compared with in the water environment,the migration was reduced evidenced in the simulated solvent of low-alcohol.The tensile strength and elastic moduli hoisted;and their elongation at break were dropped obviously.After transferring,the tensile strength and elastic moduli of PVC paste resin films' were hoisted,and their elongation at break dropped obviously.

  8. Mechanical and water soaking properties of medium density fiberboard with wood fiber and soybean protein adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Yonghui; Zhong, Zhikai; Wang, Donghai; Ratto, Jo A; Sheng, Kuichuan; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2009-07-01

    Soybean protein is a renewable and abundant material that offers an alternative to formaldehyde-based resins. In this study, soybean protein was modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an adhesive for wood fiber medium density fiberboard (MDF) preparation. Second-order response surface regression models were used to study the effects and interactions of initial moisture content (IMC) of coated wood fiber, press time (PT) and temperature on mechanical and water soaking properties of MDF. Results showed that IMC of coated fiber was the dominant influencing factor. Mechanical and soaking properties improved as IMC increased and reached their highest point at an IMC of 35%. Press time and temperature also had a significant effect on mechanical and water soaking properties of MDF. Second-order regression results showed that there were strong relationships between mechanical and soaking properties of MDF and processing parameters. Properties of MDF made using soybean protein adhesive are similar to those of commercial board.

  9. Effect of Monascus aged vinegar on isoflavone conversion in soy germ by soaking treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Cheng; Wang, Jie; Wang, Zhi-Jiang; Li, Yan-Jie; Pang, Jie; Lin, He-Tong; Yin, Shou-Wei

    2015-11-01

    Soy germ rich in isoflavones has attracted much attention for health-promoting characteristics. An effective approach via Monascus aged vinegar soaking was adopted to enhance the aglycone amount. The profiles and interconversion of soy germ isoflavones via Monascus aged vinegar soaking were investigated, and the distribution in vinegars were also explored. The aglycones were dramatically increased by 40.76 times. Concomitantly, β-glycosides and malonylglycosides were significantly decreased. The proportion of aglycones presented a sharp increase with the endogenous β-glucosidase activity at the initial 4h incubation. There appeared to be correlations between β-glucosidase activity and the hydrolysis of conjugated isoflavones. The results demonstrated that the reactions of decarboxylation, de-esterification and de-glycosylation were involved in the Monascus aged vinegar soaking, supporting synergistic effects of enzymolysis by endogenous β-glucosidase from soy germ and acid hydrolysis of vinegars. Soaking by vinegar is a promising pathway for preparing aglycone-rich soy germ.

  10. Effects of residual plastic film mixed in soil on water infiltration, evaporation and its uncertainty analysis%残膜对土壤水分入渗和蒸发的影响及不确定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛文全; 邹小阳; 刘晶晶; 张明智; 吕望; 古君

    2016-01-01

    Pollution of residual plastic film, a continuous pollutant and difficult to degrade, is a major limiting factor for sustainable development of agriculture in northwest China. Residual plastic film can destroy homogeneity of soil texture and seriously impede the movement of soil water and solute, and thus greatly enhance the uncertainties in soil water movement. In order to reveal the negative effects of residual plastic film on soil water infiltration, evaporation and their uncertainties, soil column simulation experiments were conducted to observe the processes of soil water infiltration and evaporation with different amounts of residual plastic film in the Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid Area (108°02′E, 34°17′N), at Northwest A&F University, in Yangling, Shaanxi Province of China, from September to October, 2015. Six amounts of residual plastic film were designed including 0, 80, 160, 320, 640, 1 280 kg/hm2 with triplicate. During the experiment, the wetting front, the cumulative infiltration and the cumulative evaporation were investigated. Meanwhile, gravimetric soil moisture was measured after the evaporation process. To mimic the actual distribution characteristic of residual plastic film in field, fragile plastic film and soil samples were mixed evenly with a blender. During infiltration, when the wetting front arrived at 40 cm, irrigation water was cut off. Soil columns were covered with waterproof plastic film to reduce atmospheric evaporation. Soil columns stood for 12 h until the infiltration process completely stopped. In the consequent process of soil water evaporation, the columns were continuously heated by infrared lamps of 275 W from morning till night. Soil columns were weighed with an electronic balance at 9:00 a.m. every day to calculate mass change and standard daily evaporation. Furthermore, an evaporation pan that had the same diameter as soil column was used to measure daily evaporation from free water

  11. Plates soaking prior formation and its influence on positive active material phase composition and battery performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foudia, M.; Zerroual, L. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et Electrochimie du Solide (LEES), Universite Ferhat ABBAS Setif 19000 (Algeria); Matrakova, M. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems (CLEPS), Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2009-06-01

    In the present work, we studied the behaviour of 3BS and lead oxide paste as a function of soaking time in two sulfuric acid solutions respectively with 1.05 and 1.20 g cm{sup -3} specific gravity. The study was based on X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and chemical analysis. The results showed that during plates soaking, 3BS and PbO are converted to monobasic lead sulphate (1BS) and lead sulphate (PbSO{sub 4}). During plate formation in 1.05 s.g. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, these compounds are oxidized to PbO{sub 2}, the XRD patterns showed that the longer is the time of plates soaking prior formation the lower is {alpha}-PbO{sub 2} content in positive active material. On forming, PbSO{sub 4} crystals convert to {beta}-PbO{sub 2} whereas {alpha}-PbO{sub 2} is a result of 3BS oxidation. The capacity and cycle life of PAM decrease with soaking time, the concentration of the H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution during soaking exerts stronger influence than the duration of soaking. (author)

  12. Rapid change of AM fungal community in a rain-fed wheat field with short-term plastic film mulching practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjun; Mao, Lin; He, Xinhua; Cheng, Gang; Ma, Xiaojun; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2012-01-01

    Plastic film mulching (PFM) is a widely used agricultural practice in the temperate semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. However, how beneficial soil microbes, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in particular, respond to the PFM practice is not known. Here, a field experiment was performed to study the effects of a 3-month short-term PFM practice on AM fungi in plots planted with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Dingxi-2) in the Loess Plateau. AM colonization, spore density, wheat spike weight, and grain phosphorus (P) content were significantly increased in the PFM treatments, and these changes were mainly attributable to changes in soil properties such as available P and soil moisture. Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in PFM soils, but levels of AM fungal-related glomalin were similar between treatments. A total of nine AM fungal phylotypes were detected in root samples based on AM fungal SSU rDNA analyses, with six and five phylotypes in PFM and no-PFM plots, respectively. Although AM fungal phylotype richness was not statistically different between treatments, the community compositions were different, with four and three specific phylotypes in the PFM and no-PFM plots, respectively. A significant and rapid change in AM fungal, wheat, and soil variables following PFM suggested that the functioning of the AM symbiosis had been changed in the wheat field under PFM. Future studies are needed to investigate whether PFM applied over a longer term has a similar effect on the AM fungal community and their functioning in an agricultural ecosystem.

  13. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  14. 新疆阿瓦提县废旧地膜回收利用研究%Research on the Recovery and Utilization of Waste Plastic Mulching Film in Awat County, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳霞

    2014-01-01

    The overuse of plastic mulching film in Awat county caused a gradual process of deter-ioration of the local soil environment, greatly polluted the environmental sanitation in rural areas and hindered the improvement of agricultural machinery's operation quality. After analyzing the related data of plastic mulching film use, and the status of its' recovery and utilization in Awat county, presented the optimizing countermeasures from the following aspects: strengthening the propaganda of the harmfulness of "white pollution", promoting local peasants' ecological civiliza-tion consciousness; developing waste plastic recycling enterprises, broadening the recycling chan-nels; formulating preferential policies to increase the support for waste plastic recycling; controlling and reducing the plastic mulching film residuals from farming techniques; intensifying residual plastic recycling by combining manual and mechanical recycling.%阿瓦提县地膜的过量使用使当地土壤环境逐渐恶化,严重污染了农村环境,并影响了农机作业质量的提高。通过分析2011年阿瓦提县地膜使用相关数据及地膜回收利用情况,提出了阿瓦提县地膜回收利用的优化对策:加大对“白色污染”危害性的宣传,提升广大农民群众的生态文明意识;发展废旧地膜回收利用企业,拓宽回收渠道;制定优惠政策,加大支持力度,促进废旧地膜回收利用;从农艺上防治和减少地膜残留;采取人工和机械回收相结合的措施,加大残留地膜回收力度。

  15. Direct observation of UV-induced charge accumulation in inverted-type polymer solar cells with a TiOx layer: Microscopic elucidation of the light-soaking phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, D.; Kuwabara, T.; Takahashi, K.; Marumoto, K.

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism of light-soaking phenomenon in inverted-type organic solar cells (IOSCs) with a structure of indium-tin-oxide/TiOx/P3HT:PCBM/Au was studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Charge accumulation in the cell during UV-light irradiation was observed using ESR, which was clearly correlated with the light-soaking phenomenon. The origin of the charge accumulation is clarified as holes that are deeply trapped at p-type P3HT polymer-chain ends with bromine after hole transfer from the band excitation in the TiOx layer. The holes are considered to be electrostatically attracted to trapped electrons in the TiOx layer after the band excitation. These accumulated charges are the origin of the light-soaking phenomenon. Our results strongly suggest that passivation of the residual OH groups in the TiOx layer is needed to avoid the light-soaking phenomenon by preventing electron trappings, a step that is indispensable in the operation of highly stable IOSCs without UV-light irradiation based on a low-cost and low-temperature device fabrication process using flexible plastic substrates.

  16. 不同地膜覆盖栽培对黔辣2号主要经济性状的影响%Effect of Mulching Different Plastic Films on Economic Characters of Qianla 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余文中; 苏丹; 杨红; 刘崇政; 赖卫; 涂祥敏; 詹永发

    2011-01-01

    The main economic traits of Qianla 2 were studied through cultivation modes of mulching white plastic film and black plastic film to explore the effect of different mulching cultivation mode on pepper yield and raise the level of film mulching cultivation. The results show that compared with open field cultivation(CK), the fruit bearing period of different plastic films mulching cultivation gets longer,the fruits mature earlier for 6~10d, the growth period extend for 5~8 d, the plant height is 4. 24~5.96 cm taller, the number of branches is 1. 68~2.33 layers more, the fruits number per plant is 10. 17~13.42 more, the single dry fruit weight is 0.08~0. 13g heavier and the thousand seed weight is 0.05~0. lg heavier than CK. The yield and income are 34.55%, 23.64% and 1 142.38 Yuan/667 m2, 737.42 Yuan/667 m2 higher than CK when mulched with white and black plastic films respectively, and the economic benefits are significantly higher.%为了探索辣椒不同地膜覆盖栽培模式的增产效应,提高辣椒地膜覆盖栽培水平,对黔辣2号进行了白色、黑色地膜覆盖栽培时其主要经济性状的影响试验.结果表明:不同颜色地膜覆盖栽培辣椒比对照露地栽培辣椒挂果期长,果实成熟早,生育期延长5~8d,提前早熟6-10d,株高提高4.24~5.96 cm,分枝层数多1.68~2.33层,单株结果数多10.17~13.42个,单果干重增重0.08~0.13g,千粒重增重0.05~0.1g,白色地膜、黑色地膜覆盖栽培分别较露地栽培增产34.55%和23.64%,分别增收1142.38元/667m2和737.42元/667 M2,经济效益较明显.

  17. A preliminary study of the effects of plastic film-mulched raised beds on soil temperature and crop performance of early-sown short-season spring maize (Zea mays L. in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Dang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To identify a strategy for earlier sowing and harvesting of spring maize (Zea mays L. in an alternative maize–maize double cropping system, a 2-year field experiment was performed at Quzhou experimental station of China Agricultural University in 2014 and 2015. A short-season cultivar, Demeiya number 1 (KX7349, was used in the experiment. Soil temperature to 5 cm depth in the early crop growth stage, crop growth, crop yield, and water use of different treatments (plastic film-mulched raised bed (RF and flat field without plastic film mulching (CK in 2014; RF, plastic film-mulched flat field (FF, and CK in 2015 were measured or calculated and compared. Soil temperature in the film-mulched treatments was consistently higher than that in CK (1.6–3.5 °C in average during the early growth stage. Crops in plastic film-mulched treatments used 214 fewer growing-degree days (GDDs in 2014 and 262 fewer GDDs in 2015. In 2014, the RF treatment yielded 32.7% higher biomass than CK, although its 9.4% higher grain yield was not statistically significant. Also, RF used 17.9% less water and showed 33.1% higher water use efficiency (WUE than CK. In 2015, RF and FF showed 56.2% and 49.5% higher yield, 15.0% and 4.5% lower water use (ET, and 63.4% and 75.7% higher WUE, respectively, than CK. RF markedly increased soil temperature in the early crop season, accelerated crop growth, reduced ET, and greatly increased crop yield and WUE. Compared with FF, RF had no obvious effect on crop growth rate, although soil temperature during the period between sowing and stem elongation was slightly increased. However, RF resulted in lower ET and higher WUE than FF. Effects of RF on soil water dynamics as well as its cost-effectiveness remain topics for further study.

  18. Effects of Substrate Temperature on Structural and Optical Properties of Spray-Pyrolyzed Cu(Ga0.3In0.7)Se2 Thin Films on Polyimide Plastic Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, M. G.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z.; Taboada, P.

    2017-08-01

    Chalcopyrite copper indium gallium diselenide Cu(Ga0.3In0.7)Se2 films have been deposited on polyimide (PI) plastic substrate by chemical spray pyrolysis using different substrate temperatures in the range from 350°C to 395°C. The influence of substrate temperature on the structural and optical properties of the CIGS films was studied. High-resolution x-ray diffraction results revealed that the films exhibited chalcopyrite-type structure. The crystallite size of the films increased with increasing substrate temperature, as did their root-mean-square surface roughness. Optical transmission measurements by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer showed that the optical bandgap decreased from 1.28 eV to 1.16 eV as the substrate temperature was increased. This variation of the crystallite size and energy bandgap with substrate temperature makes such films a promising candidate for application in optoelectronic devices such as photoconductors and solar cells.

  19. 新疆兵团残膜回收政策机制的探讨与分析%Discussion and Analysis On Plastic Film Residue Recycling Policy Mechanisms in Xinjiang Crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 王鹏; 赵永满

    2014-01-01

    文章通过与新疆地方上残膜回收政策、措施对比分析,找出兵团地区残膜回收存在的问题,提出了关于扶持、激励及补贴等政策的建议,通过技术创新、回收再利用、监督及残膜回收考核等机制的建立,为残膜污染治理提供参考。%the paper found out the existing recycling problems through the recycling policies, measures and comparative analysis on plastic film residue recycling in Xinjiang Corps and raised the suggestions such as support, incentives and subsidies, as well as provide reference for plastic fill treatment after technical innovation, recycling and reusing, supervision and establishment of recycling check.

  20. 地膜覆盖对木薯生长发育和产量及淀粉含量的影响%Effects of Plastic Film Mulching on Development and Yield and Starch Content of Cassava

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦威旭; 韦民政; 覃维治; 陆柳英; 唐秀桦; 韦哲; 何虎冀; 甘秀芹; 韦本辉

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to explore cultivation techniques with less cost and high benefit for cassava.[Method] 2 planting patterns of plastic film mulching and no mulching (CK) were taken to plant cassava, the effects of plastic film mulching on growth of stem and leaf, yield components and starch content of cassava were studied.[Result] Plastic film mulching could improve the growth of stem and leaf of cassava at early and middle stage and increase the biomass of cassava.After plastic film mulching, the length and diameter of root tuber, number and weight of root tuber per plant and fresh root tuber yield per plot of cassava were increased by 17.79%, 14.61%, 14.28%, 76.14%, 76.09% resp.than that of CK.After plastic film mulching the starch content of cassava was decreased by 2% than that of CK, while the starch yield of cassava of the same area was increased by 65.35% than that of CK.[Conclusion] Plastic film mulching was the effective measurement of cultivation with less cost and high benefit for cassava, the yield increasing effect was realized through promoting stem and leaf growth of cassava at early and middle sate, improving root tuber diameter and root tuber weight per plant, and increasing the plumpness of root tuber.%[目的]探索木薯节本增效栽培技术.[方法]分别采用地膜覆盖与不覆膜(对照)2种方式种植木薯,研究地膜覆盖对木薯茎叶生长、产量构成因素及淀粉含量的影响.[结果]地膜覆盖可促进木薯前中期茎叶生长,增加木薯生物量;地膜和覆盖后,木薯的块根长度、块根直径、单株块根数、单株块根重和小区鲜块根产量分别较对照增加了17.79%、14.61%、14.28%、76.14%和76.09%;地膜覆盖后木薯的淀粉含量较对照降低2%,但相同面积木薯的淀粉产量较对照增加65.35%.[结论]地膜覆盖是木薯节本增效栽培的有效措施,其增产效应主要是通过促进木薯前中期茎叶生长、提高块根直径和

  1. Planting hole sealed by sand promoting growth of oil sunflower in saline-alkaline fields mulched with plastic film%沙封覆膜种植孔促进盐碱地油葵生长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜社妮; 白岗栓; 于健; 任志宏

    2014-01-01

    Oil sunflower is a pioneer crop growing in saline-alkaline soil. However, its germination rate and seedling growth can be inhibited when soil salinity is extremely high and thus its yields can be decreased. In order to improve germination rate and survival rate of oil sunflower, increase its yields and outputs, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of two planting hole sealing methods (sealed by soil and sealed by sand) on rhizosphere soil moisture and soil salinity in severe saline-alkaline soils of Hetao irrigation area, Inner Mongolia, China. Eight rhizosphere soil samples at depth of 0-40 cm were taken with 5 cm as a sampling layer from the plots of planting hole sealed by sand and planting hole sealed by soil at the sowing, germination and seedling stages of oil sunflower to determine the soil moisture and salinity. Meanwhile, soil moisture and soil salinity under the plastic film mulch and in open field between plastic film mulching were also detected. Germination rate, seedling survival rate, seedling growth, yields, and output from the plots of planting hole sealed by sand and planting hole sealed by soil were calculated. The results showed that the soil moisture at depth of 0-15 cm decreased but soil salinity increased from sowing stage to seedling stage, and significant or extremely significant differences were detected between different growth stages. In seedling germination and seedling stage, rhizosphere soil moisture at 0-10 cm depth in the treatment of planting hole sealed by sand decreased by 3.86%and 4.83%than that in the treatment of planting hole sealed by soil, decreased by 4.79%and 9.73%than that in the treatment of plastic film much, while the rhizosphere soil salinity at 0-15 cm depth in the treatment of planting hole sealed by sand decreased by 16.46%and 40.99%than that in the treatment of planting hole sealed by soil, decreased by 30.53% and 33.72% than that in the treatment of open field between plastic film mulch, and

  2. Improving the Compatibility of Donor Polymers in Efficient Ternary Organic Solar Cells via Post-Additive Soaking Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Fei; Xu, Weilong; Bi, Pengqing; Feng, Lin; Liu, Jianqiang; Hao, Xiaotao

    2017-01-11

    In dual-donor ternary organic solar cells, the compatibility between the donor polymers plays important roles to control the conformational change and govern the photophysical behavior in the blend films. Here, we apply a post-additive soaking (PAS) approach to reconstruct the morphology in a ternary organic photovoltaic BHJ of PTB7-Th: PCDTBT: PC71BM. The PAS-treated device has a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of about 8.7% in this ternary system. From the analyses of GIWAXS and GISAXS, the superior device performance is attributed to the favorable nanomorphology with optimum crystallinity of PTB7-Th and good intermixing of PCDTBT with PTB7-Th:PC71BM, leading to improved charge transport in the vertical direction. AFM and TRPL measurements clearly demonstrate PAS-treated film envisages a homogeneous distribution of smaller PC71BM aggregates to facilitate the exciton dissociation and carrier extraction at the interface. The increased PCE ascribed to not only the enhancement of absorption and nonradiative Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two donors (PCDTBT and PTB7-Th) but also the formation of a bicontinuous interpenetrating network of PC71BM.

  3. Innovation Chinese rice wine brewing technology by bi-acidification to exclude rice soaking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao Lu; Liu, Shuang Ping; Yu, Jian Shen; Yu, Yong Jian; Zhu, Sheng Hu; Zhou, Zhi Lei; Hu, Jian; Mao, Jian

    2017-04-01

    As a traditional fermented alcoholic beverage of China, Chinese rice wine (CRW) had a long history of more than 5000 years. Rice soaking process was the most crucial step during CRW brewing process, because rice soaking quality directly determined the quality of CRW. However, rice soaking water would cause the eutrophication of water bodies and waste of water. The longer time of rice soaking, the higher the content of biogenic amine, and it would have a huge impact on human health. An innovation brewing technology was carried out to exclude the rice soaking process and the Lactobacillus was added to make up for the total acid. Compared to the traditional brewing technology, the new technology saved water resources and reduced environmental pollution. The concentration of biogenic amine was also decreased by 27.16%, which improving the security of the CRW. The esters increased led to more soft-tasted CRW and less aging time; the quality of CRW would be improved with less alcohol.

  4. Nitrous oxide emissions from soils amended by cover-crops and under plastic film mulching: Fluxes, emission factors and yield-scaled emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gil Won; Das, Suvendu; Hwang, Hyun Young; Kim, Pil Joo

    2017-03-01

    Assessment of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission factor (EF) for N2O emission inventory from arable crops fertilized with different nitrogen sources are under increased scrutiny because of discrepancies between the default IPCC EFs and low EFs reported by many researchers. Mixing ratio of leguminous and non-leguminous cover crop residues incorporation and plastic film mulching (PFM) in upland soil has been recommended as a vital agronomic practice to enhance yield and soil quality. However, how these practices together affect N2O emissions, yield-scaled emissions and the EFs remain uncertain. Field experiments spanning two consecutive years were conducted to evaluate the effects of PFM on N2O emissions, yield-scaled emissions and the seasonal EFs in cover crop residues amended soil during maize cultivation. The mixture of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) seeds with 75% recommended dose (RD 140 kg ha-1) and 25% recommended dose (RD 90 kg ha-1), respectively, were broadcasted during the fallow period and 0, 25, 50 and 100% of the total aboveground harvested biomass that correspond to 0, 76, 152 and 304 kg N ha-1 were incorporated before maize transplanting. It was found that the mean seasonal EFs from cover crop residues amended soil under No-mulching (NM) and PFM were 1.13% (ranging from 0.81 to 1.23%) and 1.49% (ranging from 1.02 to 1.63%), respectively, which are comparable to the IPCC (2006) default EF (1%) for emission inventories of N2O from crop residues. The emission fluxes were greatly influenced by NH4+sbnd N, NO3--N, DOC and DON contents of soil. The cumulative N2O emissions markedly increased with the increase in cover crop residues application rates and it was more prominent under PFM than under NM. However, the yield-scaled emissions markedly decreased under PFM compared to NM due to the improved yield. With relatively low yield-scaled N2O emissions, 25% biomass mixing ratio of barley and hairy vetch (76 kg N ha-1) under PFM could be

  5. Shallow Analysis on the First Spring Soaking Rain Weather and Its Precipitation Enhancement Potential Forecast in Jinzhou Area in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the first spring soaking rain weather and its precipitation enhancement potential forecast in Jinzhou area in 2010. [Method] From the weather situation characteristics, main influence system, forecast service, artificial precipitation enhancement operation and so on, the first spring soaking rain weather process in Jinzhou area in 2010 was summarized comprehensively. [Result] The weather situation characteristics of soaking rain were that the high-altitude cold air wa...

  6. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Overnight Soaked Sweet Potato for Ethyl Alcohol Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Mishra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop an efficient method of production of ethyl alcohol by fermentation of sweet potato powder. The method emphasized on enhancement of "-amylase accessibility by overnight soaking of sweet potato powder and decreasing unwanted bacterial fermentation by utilizing simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The crystalline structure of starch limits the accessibility of "-amylase to starch during enzymatic hydrolysis and thus reduces hydrolysis rate. This might be the reason for longer hydrolysis time. Effect of overnight soaking in water on eight variety of sweet potato was investigated followed by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF. The result reflected the advantage of overnight soaking on "-amylase accessibility to starch, which favor higher hydrolysis rate. Implementing SSF, the fermentation process become efficient due to less free sugar at an instant and maximum efficiency of 96.7% was achieved in a 64.65% starch containing substrate.

  7. Osteoblast activity on anodized titania nanotubes: effect of simulated body fluid soaking time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Cem; Demirbilek, Murat; Calişkan, Nazli; Demirbilek, Melike Erol; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2012-06-01

    Early phase osseointegration is crucial for orthopedic implants. For the improvement of osseointegrative properties of orthopedic implants several surface modification methods such as acid etching, hydroxyapatite (HA) coating and sandblasting can be applied. In this article titanium implants were anodized to possess nanotubular titania structures on the surface. Titania nanotube structures with a 45-50 nm of average inner diameter were obtained and to enhance bioactivity, samples were soaked in 10X simulated body fluid (SBF) for apatite deposition on surface for different time periods (1, 2, 3, 5, 8 hours). Apatitic calcium phosphate deposited surfaces were analyzed with infrared spectrometry and wettability studies. Effect of soaking time on osteoblast cell was investigated by cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity tests and morphological evaluations. As a result, 3 hours of soaking time was found as the optimum time period (p anodized titanium implants however excess and/or uncontrolled HA coating of titania layer limits the bioactive potential of the implant.

  8. 纤维素膜降解性能及其在切分蔬菜保鲜中的应用研究%Application of Biodegradable Plastic Packaging Film on Preservation of Fresh-cut Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡云峰; 杨秋月; 宋慧颖; 郭红莲

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of cellulose membrane, and the application of cellulose membrane in fresh vegetables are mainly investigated through studying its permeability, moisture permeability, and preservation. The results show that: 1 ) Different microbial has different degradation rate to cellulose membranes; 2 ) Cellulose packaging film's degradation performance is the best that it can be depredated fully after three days by inoculating Penicillium; 3 ) Cellulose packaging film's permeability is better than plastic film, resulting in the poor effects of green color and anti- browning when preserving fresh vegetables; 4 ) Cellulose membrane has so strong water vapor permeability that it's water retention is worse than the plastic packaging film.%主要研究了纤维素膜的降解性能,并通过其透气性、透湿性和保鲜效果三方面的实验来研究纤维素膜在蔬菜保鲜中的应用.结果表明:1)不同微生物对纤维素膜的降解速度有很大差异;2)纤维素保鲜包装膜降解性能好,采用接种青霉的方法,3天后膜达到全部降解;3)纤维素保鲜包装膜的透气性能优于塑料膜,导致保鲜蔬菜时护绿和防褐变效果差;4)纤维素保鲜包装膜的透湿性能较强,对包装的蔬菜保水性较塑料包装膜差.

  9. MICROSTRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL STUDY OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS SUBMITTED TO DISTINCT SOAKING TIMES DURING SOLUTION HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmir Martins Monteiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties for different aluminium alloys (1100, 3104 and 8011 hot rolled sheets that were subjected to a solution heat treatment with distinct soaking times, in order to promote microstructural and mechanical changes on these alloys with solute fractions slightly above the maximum solubility limit. Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM / Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy X-Ray (EDS, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and Hardness Tests were employed to observe the microstructural / compositional and mechanical evaluation. For the 1100 and 8011 alloys the more suitable soaking time occur between 1 and 2 hours, and for the 3104 alloy occurs between 2 and 3 hours.

  10. Soil Organic Carbon Balance and Nitrogen Cycling in Plastic Film Mulched Croplands in Rainfed Farming Systems%旱作地膜覆盖农田土壤有机碳平衡及氮循环特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小刚; 李凤民

    2015-01-01

    近10余年来随着应用面积的迅速增加,地膜覆盖对中国北方旱作农田生产力可持续性的影响受到越来越多的关注。文章对地膜覆盖栽培技术增产效果作了简要评述,重点综述了近年来关于地膜覆盖对农田土壤有机碳平衡和氮循环过程影响的研究进展。地膜覆盖沟垄栽培技术有效减轻了旱作农业区水热条件不足对粮食生产造成的限制,从而对提高耕地生产力发挥了重要作用。对大量文献分析发现,地膜覆盖沟垄栽培技术的增产效果具有明显的地域性,在中国北方半干旱区范围内,水热限制越强烈的地区增产效应越明显。地膜覆盖对农田土壤有机碳平衡和氮循环影响的研究还比较薄弱。目前的研究结果表明,地膜覆盖促进土壤有机碳矿化但同时增加作物根系有机碳输入,初步显示地膜覆盖对土壤有机碳含量的影响可能是中性的。地膜覆盖促进土壤有机氮矿化,提高氮素的有效性,增加作物对氮素的吸收,影响化肥氮的作物利用效率、淋溶和挥发损失,但并不明确是否增加反硝化作用。基于目前研究现状,文章提出了旱作地膜覆盖农田需要加强研究的主要领域:(1)土壤有机质稳定性及其增强机制研究;(2)农田养分管理的系统性研究;(3)在水热条件相对较好的旱作农业区,建议结合秸秆覆盖开展更多研究。%With the rapid increase in the application area, the effects of plastic film mulch on the sustainability and productivity of rainfed croplands received more and more attention from society. In this review, after briefly summarizing the yield increase effect of plastic film mulch cropping in semiarid rainfed areas, we focused on recent advances in the field of plastic film mulch effects on the soil organic carbon (SOC) balance and nitrogen (N) cycling. Plastic film mulch, especially when combined with a ridge

  11. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  12. Design of Control System of Mouth Sticking Machine for Plastic Film Weaved Bag%复膜塑编热合糊袋机控制系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁剑啸; 罗海军

    2012-01-01

    Operational principle of mouth sticking machine for plastic film weaved bag was introduced. Accord- ing to the production process and the requirement of control system of mouth sticking machine for plastic film weaved bag, the combination of Siemens SIMOTION D485 and SINAMICS S120 was applied to design hard- ware and software control implementation. Parts of the control program were introduced. The operation prac- tice showed the system can meet the control requirement of mouth sticking machine.%介绍了复膜塑编热合糊袋机的工作原理,根据复膜塑编热合糊袋机工艺要求,采用西门子的SIMO—T10ND435和SINAMICSS120组合,设计出了糊袋机整机控制的软硬件实现方法,并介绍了热合部分的控制程序。实际运行结果表明,该控制系统可较好地满足此类糊袋机的控制要求。

  13. Apple, carrot, and hibiscus edible films containing the plant antimicrobials carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens in sealed plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Libin; Olsen, Carl; McHugh, Tara; Friedman, Mendel; Jaroni, Divya; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde incorporated into apple, carrot, and hibiscus-based edible films against Salmonella Newport in bagged organic leafy greens. The leafy greens tested included organic Romaine and Iceberg lettuce, and mature and baby spinach. Each leafy green sample was washed, dip inoculated with S. Newport (10⁷ CFU/mL), and dried. Each sample was put into a Ziploc® bag. Edible films pieces were put into the Ziploc bag and mixed well. The bags were sealed and stored at 4 °C. Samples were taken at days 0, 3, and 7 for enumeration of survivors. On all leafy greens, 3% carvacrol films showed the best bactericidal effects against Salmonella. All 3 types of 3% carvacrol films reduced the Salmonella population by 5 log₁₀ CFU/g at day 0 and 1.5% carvacrol films reduced Salmonella by 1 to 4 log₁₀ CFU/g at day 7. The films with 3% cinnamaldehyde showed 0.5 to 3 log reductions on different leafy greens at day 7. The films with 0.5% and 1.5% cinnamaldehyde and 0.5% carvacrol also showed varied reductions on different types of leafy greens. Edible films were the most effective against Salmonella on Iceberg lettuce. This study demonstrates the potential of edible films incorporated with carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde to inactivate S. Newport on organic leafy greens.

  14. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (nano-ceramic coatings (TiO2, ZnO) on plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

  15. Determination of PAEs in Tomato Bagged with Plastic Film Bag by GC-MS%GCMS法测定番茄中的邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贝峰; 左一鸣; 王超; 聂梅

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the pollution levels of PAEs in Tomato bagged with plastic film bag , Tomato samples bagged with different plastic bags were chosen as subjects. By using GC-MS , 11 PAEs compounds in peel and pulp were determined. Results showed that 6 PAEs were detected in tomato peel bagged with single plastic bag , the contents were 0-2.70 mg/kg;4 PAEs were detected in pulp, which between 0-0.04 mg/kg. The contents of 5 PAEs in tomato peel bagged with paper-film composite bag were 0-5.17 mg/kg , while the 2 PAEs in pulp were 0-0.07 mg/kg. It was concluded that PAEs do exist in tomato bagged with plastic film bag ,which mainly enriched in the part of the tomato peel, with lower concentrations in the pulp.%为了解塑膜袋中的PAEs对番茄的污染程度。以套塑膜袋番茄为试材,采用GC-MS法测定番茄皮和番茄肉中的11种PAEs化合物。结果表明,套塑膜袋番茄皮中检出6种PAEs,浓度在0~2.70 mg/kg范围内;茄肉中含有4种PAEs,浓度在0~0.04 mg/kg之间。套纸膜复合袋番茄皮中检出5种PAEs,含量在0~5.17 mg/kg之间;茄肉中检出2种PAEs,浓度为0~0.07 mg/kg。可见塑膜袋中的PAEs对番茄有一定污染,主要富集于番茄皮部分,番茄肉中PAEs浓度较低。

  16. Low temperature transfer of well-tailored TiO2 nanotube array membrane for efficient plastic dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Nianqing; Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yan; Liu, Yanchun; Guo, Min; Li, Wenfang; Huang, Haitao

    2017-03-01

    Transferring semiconductor film onto plastic substrate for efficient flexible photovoltaic devices with good mechanical stability against shape wrench is always a big challenge. In this work, well-designed TiO2 nanotube array (TNTA) membrane is achieved by a combination of hot-water-soaking and TiCl4 post-treatment for efficient plastic DSSCs. In this engineered TiO2 architecture, the TiO2 particle decorated and nanowire capped TNTA hybrid structure provides not only enormous dye-loading amount and excellent light scattering/trapping effects for superior light harvesting efficiency, but also fast charge transport along the 1D aligned TNTA scaffold. More importantly, the thin and mesoporous TiO2 layer deposited on the bottom surface of TNTA makes it is possible to form mechanical interlocking between TNTA membrane and the adhesive layer to insure the excellent mechanical stability and efficient electron transfer from the TNTA membrane to the substrate. The plastic DSSCs based on the well-tailored TNTA membranes yield an exciting efficiency of 6.25% and at the same time maintain 90% of its initial efficiency after hundreds of bending cycles.

  17. 改性淀粉/PVA生物降解塑料膜的制备及表征%Preparation and characterization of biodegradable plastic film from modified starch/PVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董明; 郝艳玲; 范福海

    2013-01-01

    以氧化改性过后的马铃薯淀粉为原料,经过交联、增塑、增强后,采用流延的方法制备生物降解塑料膜,研究了改性淀粉、丙三醇、甲醛、尿素、聚乙烯醇、反应温度等因素对模力学性能的影响.结果表明,影响膜强度主要因素为丙三醇的含量,其次为甲醛、改性淀粉、尿素的量、反应时间及聚乙烯醇的量.最佳条件为:水100 mL,改性淀粉3.3g,尿素1.0g,聚乙烯醇1.2g,甲醛1.6 mL,丙三醇0.6 mL,反应时间110 min.在此条件下,制得膜的拉伸强度为20.05 MPa,断裂伸长率为65%.%We take oxidation modified potato starch as raw material, after the step of cross linking, plasti-cing and reinforcing, to prepare biodegradable plastic film by the method of continuation flow membrane. Effects of modified starch, glycerol, formaldehyde, urea, polyvinyl alcohol, reaction temperature, and other factors on capability of the plastic film were researched. The results shows that the main factor on effecting film strength is amount of glycerin, secondly, the amount of formaldehyde, modified starch, urea, the reaction time and the amount of polyvinyl alcohol. The optimum conditions were as follows; H2O 100 mL, modified starch 3.3 g, urea 1.0 g, polyvinyl alcohol 1.2 g, formaldehyde 1.6 mL, glycerol 0.6 mL, reaction time is 110 min. Under this condition, the tensile strength of this film is 20.05 MPa, and the elongation at break is 65%.

  18. Soaking pretreatment of corn stover for bioethanol production followed by anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhuang; Tian, Shen; Chen, Zebing; Li, Jia; Yang, Xiushan

    2012-08-01

    The production of ethanol and methane from corn stover (CS) was investigated in a biorefinery process. Initially, a novel soaking pretreatment (NaOH and aqueous-ammonia) for CS was developed to remove lignin, swell the biomass, and improve enzymatic digestibility. Based on the sugar yield during enzymatic hydrolysis, the optimal pretreatment conditions were 1 % NaOH+8 % NH(4)OH, 50°C, 48 h, with a solid-to-liquid ratio 1:10. The results demonstrated that soaking pretreatment removed 63.6 % lignin while reserving most of the carbohydrates. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the yields of glucose and xylose were 78.5 % and 69.3 %, respectively. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated CS using Pichia stipitis resulted in an ethanol concentration of 36.1 g/L, corresponding only to 63.3 % of the theoretical maximum. In order to simplify the process and reduce the capital cost, the liquid fraction of the pretreatment was used to re-soak new CS. For methane production, the re-soaked CS and the residues of SSF were anaerobically digested for 120 days. Fifteen grams CS were converted to 1.9 g of ethanol and 1337.3 mL of methane in the entire process.

  19. Povidone-iodine and hydrogen peroxide mixture soaked gauze pack: a novel hemostatic technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arakeri, G.; Brennan, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent oozing of blood is a common occurrence in maxillofacial surgery, and occasionally it hampers visibility and delays or even prevents continuation of the procedure. This report describes a novel method of controlling blood ooze using swabs soaked with povidone-iodine and hydrogen peroxide (

  20. Mobile soak pits improve spray team mobility, productivity and safety of PMI malaria control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David F; Brown, Annie S; Bouare, Sory Ibrahima; Belemvire, Allison; George, Kristen; Fornadel, Christen; Norris, Laura; Longhany, Rebecca; Chandonait, Peter J

    2016-09-15

    In the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI)-funded Africa Indoor Residual Spraying Project (AIRS), end-of-day clean-up operations require the safe disposal of wash water resulting from washing the exterior of spray tanks and spray operators' personal protective equipment. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) programs typically use soak pits - large, in-ground filters - to adsorb, filter and then safely degrade the traces of insecticide found in the wash water. Usually these soak pits are permanent installations serving 30 or more operators, located in a central area that is accessible to multiple spray teams at the end of their workday. However, in remote areas, it is often impractical for teams to return to a central soak pit location for cleanup. To increase operational efficiency and improve environmental compliance, the PMI AIRS Project developed and tested mobile soak pits (MSP) in the laboratory and in field applications in Madagascar, Mali, Senegal, and Ethiopia where the distance between villages can be substantial and the road conditions poor. Laboratory testing confirmed the ability of the easily-assembled MSP to reduce effluent concentrations of two insecticides (Actellic 300-CS and Ficam VC) used by the PMI AIRS Project, and to generate the minimal practicable environmental "footprint" in these remote areas. Field testing in the Mali 2014 IRS campaign demonstrated ease of installation and use, resulted in improved and more consistent standards of clean-up, decreased transportation requirements, improved spray team working conditions, and reduced potential for operator exposure to insecticide.

  1. FEM Simulation Of Stress-Strain Fields in the Blooms with Casting Defect During Soaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav KVÍČALA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Round continuously cast blooms heating strategy is crucial in prevention of internal cracks initiation and propagation. Especially vanadium microalloyed Cr-Mo based steels are very sensitive to internal crack occurrence. This paper deals with two heating strategies that were realized in soaking pit. Using FEM simulation it was proved that proper heating strategy is essential to reduce internal crack propagation.

  2. The Effect of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking Pretreatment on Methane Generation Using Different Lignocellulosic Biomasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    In the present study aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a pretreatment method for the anaerobic digestion of three lignocellulosic biomasses of different origin: one agricultural residue: sunflower straw, one perennial crop: grass and a hardwood: poplar sawdust.The methane productio...

  3. Restoration of a Terrestrialized Soak Lake of an Irish Raised Bog: Results of Field Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crushell, P.H.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Schouten, M.G.C.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Wirdum, G. van; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Soaks (areas of mesotrophic/minerotrophic vegetation within acid bog) add to the overall heterogeneity and biodiversity of raised bog landscapes due to the presence of flora and fauna communities not typically associated with acid bog systems. A field experiment was set up to investigate the

  4. Applying Peleg's equation to modelling the kinetics of solid hydration and migration during soybean soaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cecilia Quicazán

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Legume soaking is an important practice in food processing; the characteristics of beverages and tofu mainly depend on this operation regarding soybeans. Peleg’s equation has been used in this work to describe the kinetics of water absorption and solid loss during soaking at 20°C, 40°C and 80°C. The moisture content of grain and solids in the remaining water was measured for 10 hours. Variance analysis and principal components analysis showed high fitting of kinetics to Peleg's equation for predicting both transference phenomena. This work found that the value of k1 (rate depended on temperature according to a polynomial function while k2 (capacity did not, meaning that the value of equilibrium moisture content was independent of soaking temperature. k1 had the minimum value for the migration of solids to soaking water at 40°C; this was related to lost solids’ high speed and the microbial degradation of carbohydrates; the values obtained for k2, showed that it was possible to lose total soluble solids at 20°C, while further migration of insoluble compounds occurred at 80°C.

  5. Restoration of a Terrestrialized Soak Lake of an Irish Raised Bog: Results of Field Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crushell, P.H.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Schouten, M.G.C.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Wirdum, van G.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Soaks (areas of mesotrophic/minerotrophic vegetation within acid bog) add to the overall heterogeneity and biodiversity of raised bog landscapes due to the presence of flora and fauna communities not typically associated with acid bog systems. A field experiment was set up to investigate the potenti

  6. Effect of soaking on the nutritional quality of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. peel flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz dos Santos Siqueira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pequi peel comprises 76% of the whole fruit and it is discarded during consumption. Thus, pequi peel has been considered a solid residue, although it has potential for use in various applications. Limitations in the use of this material are mainly due to the lack of information of its nutritional composition, especially about the toxic or antinutritional factors. Soaking is often used to prepare complementary foods and has been reported to be beneficial for enhancing nutritive value. The effect of soaking on the nutritional quality of pequi peel flour was determined by measuring changes in chemical composition, antinutritional factors, total phenols and in vitro protein and starch digestibility. The results showed that 24 h of maceration increases the content of lipids (200%, protein (28.3% and dietary fibber (31%, while carbohydrate and ash content decreases. There were no haemagglutination activity or α-amylase inhibitors, but it was detected the presence of phytic acid (0.4 g 100 g-1. The soaking reduced 8.5% phenols and 19.0% tannins, 6.2% protein digestibility, and was also effective to eliminate trypsin inhibitors, and increase starch digestibility (24.2%. Soaking was efficient to improve nutritional characteristics of the pequi peel flour, opening up possibilities for its use in food formulations.

  7. Effect of soaking and phytase treatment on phytic acid, calcium, iron and zinc in rice fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, J.; Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hamer, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    With the aim to maximise phytic acid removal and minimise losses of dry matter and minerals (Ca, Fe, Zn) in rice, three products (whole kernels and flour milled from white and brown rice; and bran, all from the same batch of variety Kenjian 90-31) were soaked in demineralized water at 10 °C (SDW), N

  8. EFFECT OF SOAKING PROCESS IN WATER ON THE ACOUSTICAL QUALITY OF WOOD FOR TRADITIONAL MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Roohnia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The damping coefficient of the first mode in the longitudinal vibration of mulberry and walnut woods was characterized to find justifications for the water soaking of woods in traditional musical instrument industries in Iran. Visually clear and sound beams were prepared from Morus alba and Juglans regia, and the damping coefficient in the temporal field was evaluated before and after three continuous cycles of soaking of specimens in distilled water (24 hours, pH 7, and temperature 50 oC. Experiments were conducted with free longitudinal vibration using the free-free bar method in 360×20×20 (L×R×T dimensions. Soaking cycles homogenized and decreased the damping coefficient in both species. On the basis of such results, the suitability of water soaked specimens is discussed in traditional musical instrument industries in Iran, taking into the account the longitudinal sound velocity, modulus of elasticity, and density affecting the acoustic limits. These two series of testing specimens were suitable in resonators and xylophone bars for backs, sides, and ribs and not for top plates, unless as the outstanding piece, since they marginally meet the density, sound velocity and damping coefficient limits qualified for those applications.

  9. Introduction of Bottle Gourd DNA into Watermelon by Soaking Embryo for Resistance to Wilt Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to utilize wilt disease resistance of bottle gourd, total DNA of bottle gourd was introduced into watermelon through the method of soaking embryo. The DNA-introduced variant offsprings were cultured in contaminated soil to elect the wilt disease resistance for more than 3 generations. 2 high- resistant and 2 middle-resistant watermelon materials were obtained.

  10. 7 CFR 58.711 - Cheddar, colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements equivalent to U.S. Standard Grade for Bulk American Cheese for Manufacturing provided the quantity... stirred curd cheese. 58.711 Section 58.711 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese. Cheese, used in the manufacture of pasteurized...

  11. ADM1-based modeling of anaerobic digestion of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers present challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) and subsequent ammonia removal has been tested as a simple and cheap method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane potential and the biogas productivity of manure...

  12. Study of potential advantages of pre-soaking on the properties of pre-cast concrete made with recycled coarse aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Roldán, Z.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recycled aggregate (RA from construction and demolition waste is traditionally used for the manufacture of concrete for different applications. Due primarily to high water content required by RA, the quality of the concrete is determined by the amount of replacement RA. The aim of this study is to determine if RA pre-soaking enhances the properties of pre-cast concrete for street furniture, with low mechanical and structural requirements, in which 100% of the coarse fraction is replaced. The results of physical and mechanical tests performed on concrete specimens in which the RA was pre-soaked using five different methods applied are compared with a reference concrete sample and a concrete sample made with non-pre-soaked RA. The results show that non-pre-soaked RA offers improved physical-mechanical properties for pre-cast concrete, except for the workability; problems arising from poorer workability could be improved with the use of plasticizers, which can be easily included in the production process.El árido reciclado (AR procedente de residuos de construcción y demolición se utiliza tradicionalmente en la elaboración de hormigón para diferentes aplicaciones. Debido principalmente al mayor contenido en agua requerido por el AR, la calidad del hormigón está determinada por la cantidad de AR reemplazado. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar si el AR premojado mejora las propiedades del hormigón prefabricado para mobiliario urbano, con bajas exigencias mecánicas y estructurales, en el que se sustituye el 100% de la fracción gruesa. Los resultados de los ensayos físicos y mecánicos realizados sobre muestras de hormigón en las cuales el AR se ha premojado usando cinco métodos diferentes se han comparado con una muestra de hormigón de referencia y una muestra de hormigón fabricada con AR no premojado. Los resultados muestran que el AR no premojado proporciona propiedades físico-mecánicas mejoradas en el hormigón prefabricado

  13. Effect of Soaking and Roasting on the Physicochemical and Pasting Properties of Soybean Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Solange Ntso Agume

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of soaking and roasting on the physicochemical and pasting properties of soybean flour were evaluated. Soybean seeds were soaked overnight in tap water for 0–72 h, hand dehulled, dried, and part of the sample was roasted. Roasted and unroasted soy beans were milled into flour and analyzed. The results showed that the total carbohydrates (22.8–27.9 g/100 g, the ash content (3.5–3.6 g/100 g, and the total polyphenols (0.29–0.51 g/100g did not significantly change during both the soaking and roasting processes. However, the total proteins (35.8–46.0 g/100 g and lipid contents (21.4–29.5 g/100 g were significantly (p < 0.05 affected only by soaking, with a decrease in total protein and an increase in lipid contents. Phytate content (0.22–0.26 g/100 g decreased significantly (p < 0.05 only with roasting. The tannins (0.01–0.30 g/100 g and soluble proteins (4.0–29.0 g/100 g significantly (p < 0.05 diminished with both treatments. There was a significant increase in the least gelation concentration (20–30 g/100 mL, a decrease in the swelling power (1.3–2.0 mL/mL, and consequently, reduction in the viscosity (range peak viscosity 18–210 cP of the flour slurry after soaking and roasting. All these qualities—needed for producing nutritious flour for infants—highlighted the efficiency of these endogenous technologies.

  14. Plastic bronchitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics...

  15. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  16. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  17. Fabrication of high optical transparent and conductive SWNT based transparent conducting film on flexible plastic substrate using ozone as a redox dopant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ke; Liu, Lu-Qi; Gao, Yun; Qu, Mei-Zhen; Zhang, Zhong

    2010-11-01

    In the present work, single-wall carbon nanotubes-transparent conducting films (SWNTs-TCFs) were fabricated at room temperature on a flexible polycarbonate substrate using the ultrosonication-dip-coating technique. Ozone was employed to reduce the sheet resistance of conductive film. As a result, the sheet resistance of film was decreased drastically after 1.5 hr ozone (O3) treatment and could reach up to 170 omega/square at 80% T at 550 nm wavelength. In addition, aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) was further applied as an adhesion promoter in order to enhance the adhesion between the SWNTs films and the substrate. Experimental results show that ATPS can greatly improve the adhesion of SWNTs coating to the substrate without the loss of conductivity.

  18. Effects of Mulching Plastic Film with Different Colors on Biological Characters and Yield of Hot Pepper%不同颜色地膜覆盖栽培对朝天椒生物学性状及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖卫; 杨红; 刘崇政; 凃祥敏

    2014-01-01

    探索了白色、黑色、黑白相间地膜覆盖对朝天椒生物学性状及产量的影响。试验结果表明,地膜覆盖栽培比露地栽培的朝天椒挂果期长,且果实成熟早,产量相对较高。从总体表现来看,白色地膜覆盖栽培是最佳选择,较露地栽培辣椒株高、株幅、茎粗分别增加9.08、9.16、0.32 cm,单株挂果数增加50个,产量提高69.17 kg/667 m2,增产34.04%。%In the paper, we analyzed the effects of mulching white plastic film, black plastic film and black and white plastic film on biological characters and yield of hot pepper. The results showed that, compared with those planted in open field, the hot pepper covered with plastic films had longer fruit-setting period, earlier mature period and higher yield. On the whole, white plastic film was the best choice among the three film mulching treatment for hot pepper, and the plant height, plant width and stem diameter were increased by 9.08 cm, 9.16 cm and 0.32 cm than those of the hot pepper plants cultivated in open field, in addition, the fruit number per plant was increased by 50, and the yield was increased by 69.17 kg/667 m2, with the yield-increasing rate of 34.04%.

  19. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  20. 玉米根茬与地膜分离技术研究%Research on Maize Stubble and Plastic Film Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 张佳喜; 刘旋峰; 蒋永新; 张海春; 喻晨

    2015-01-01

    Corn is one of our important food crops, it contains rich nutrition.After maize harvest, and corn stubble and mulch need to be classified.Technology of corn plastic recycling was studied from the perspective of maize root crop and membrane separation in this article, aimed to improve the efficiency of corn plastic recycling.This article mainly divided into five parts: the first part, introduction, mainly introduced the technology of maize root crop and membrane separation at home and abroad.The second part, analyzed the necessity of maize root crop and membrane separation.The third part, the corn plastic recycling technology was introduced.The fourth part, some related suggestions on corn plastic recycling were put forward from the environmental point, the future development of plastic recycling was put forward.The fifth part, conclusion.%玉米是我国的主要粮食作物之一,内含丰富的营养,玉米丰收之后需要将玉米根茬和地膜进行分离。为此,从玉米根茬与地膜分离的技术角度出发,研究玉米地膜回收技术,旨在有效提高玉米地膜的回收效率。本研究主要介绍了国内外关于玉米根茬与地膜分离的技术,分析了玉米根茬与地膜分离的必要性,介绍了玉米地膜回收技术,并从环保角度提出了玉米地膜回收的相关建议及未来地膜回收的发展趋势。

  1. An 8b organic microprocessor on plastic foil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Veenendaal, E. van; Gelinck, G.H.; Genoe, J.; Dehaene, W.; Heremans, P.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a microprocessor made by organic thin-film transistors processed directly onto flexible plastic foil. This is a direct realization of a microprocessor by thin-film technology, i.e., without transfer, on plastic. It paves the way to equip mundane supports and objects with low-cost comput

  2. Effects of Durations of Disclosing Plastic Film on the Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco%不同揭膜时间对烤烟产质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茂建; 蔡寒玉; 李成杰; 李兰周; 范业晨; 李佛琳; 杨焕文

    2011-01-01

    为了综合评价丽江烟区地膜覆盖对烤烟生产的作用,采用灰色关联分析法研究了不覆盖地膜、移栽后20 d揭膜培土、移栽后35 d揭膜培土、移栽后50 d揭膜培土、全生育期盖膜共5个不同揭膜时间的处理对烟叶产量、均价、上等烟比例、总糖含量、烟碱含量、K2O含量、香气量、香气质、杂气、刺激性的综合影响.结果表明,移栽后35 d揭膜为最优处理,其烟叶产值量最优,烟叶内在化学成分协调,评吸得分高,品质好,其产量、均价、上等烟比例、总糖、烟碱、K2O、香气量、香气质、杂气、刺激性分别为167.25 kg/666.7m2,12.13元/kg,56.4%,38.36%,2.52%,2.13%,6,6,5.5,5.5.分析结果与生产实际表现一致.%Aim to evaluate effect of plastic film on the flue-cured tobacco in Lijiang, a field experiment were carried out that effects of different durations of disclosing plastic film with 5 treatments on tobacco leaf production, average price, the proportion of quality tobacco, the total sugar content, nicotine content , K2O content, aroma, fragrant qualities, mixed gas and irritating were studied by the way of using gray relational analysis, which included No Film, 20 days after transplanting removing film, 35 days after transplanting removing film, 50 days after transplanting removing film, whole field duration film. The results showed that 35 days after transplanting removing film was the best process which had a optimal tobacco leaf; more coordination in chemical quality; high score in smoking assessment and good quality. Its yield, average price, high grades proportion, total sugar, nicotine, K2O, volume of aroma, quality of aroma, offensive odor, irritation respectively fellow as 167.25 kg/666. 7m2, 12. 13 Yuan/kg, 56.4%, 38.36%, 2.52%, 2.13%, 6, 6, 5.5, 5.5. The analysis was consistent with the actual production.

  3. Characteristics of evaporation from perforated plastic film in drip irrigation under film mulching in arid areas%干旱区膜下滴灌条件下膜孔蒸发特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春霞; 王全九; 庄亮; 单鱼洋; 张明

    2011-01-01

    Plastic film mulching has been widely used in crop planting in arid areas, but due to the seeding holes and other factors, entire mulching can not be performed in the field, and this must affect the distribution of soil water and salt content. Evaporation was simulated with different holes opening ratio to study the dynamic distribution characteristics of wetness van and soil water and salt transfer with different holes opening ratio in evaporation process. The results indicated that vertical wetness distances were increasing with the elongation of evaporation time, and the increment was the biggest after a day of evaporation; The vertical wetness distances were depressed with holes opening ratio increasing at the end of evaporation. The soil water content was inducing with the extension of evaporation time, it was the most rapid in the top layer, but it increased in the bottom of soil profile; The soil salt content was increasing in top and bottom layers. At the end of evaporation the soil water content was reducing with hole opening ratio increasing at the same profile position, but the increased salt content accumulated at top layer was getting higher with hole opening ratio increasing, and the soil salt content of lower profile was moving along inclined below direction, and assembled in the wetness van. Therewas fine linear relationship between cumulative evaporation and evaporation time, and there was also powerful function relationship between cumulative evaporation increment and open holes ratio.%模拟不同覆膜开孔率下的蒸发试验,研究了蒸发过程中不同覆膜开孔率下土体湿润锋及水盐运移情况的动态分布特征.结果表明:随蒸发历时的延长垂直湿润距离增大,在蒸发1d后垂直湿润距离的增加量最大,蒸发结束时随覆膜开孔率的增大垂直湿润距离减小;随蒸发历时的延长土体剖面内的含水量在减小,表层减小最快,剖面底部边侧含水量有所增加;盐分则呈现

  4. A light-stimulated synaptic transistor with synaptic plasticity and memory functions based on InGaZnO{sub x}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. K.; Chen, T. P., E-mail: echentp@ntu.edu.sg; Liu, P.; Zhang, Q. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hu, S. G. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China); Liu, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China); Lee, P. S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-06-28

    In this work, a synaptic transistor based on the indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)–aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin film structure, which uses ultraviolet (UV) light pulses as the pre-synaptic stimulus, has been demonstrated. The synaptic transistor exhibits the behavior of synaptic plasticity like the paired-pulse facilitation. In addition, it also shows the brain's memory behaviors including the transition from short-term memory to long-term memory and the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve. The synapse-like behavior and memory behaviors of the transistor are due to the trapping and detrapping processes of the holes, which are generated by the UV pulses, at the IGZO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface and/or in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer.

  5. Effect of plastic film mulching on crop yield and nitrogen efficiency in semiarid areas.%半干旱地区地膜覆盖对作物产量和氮效率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世清; 李凤民; 宋秋华; 王俊

    2001-01-01

    The effect of plastic film mulching, water storage in soil profile before sowing, and nitrogen fertilization on crop yield and nitrogen efficiency was examined in this paper. The study site was on the cultivated lo,sial soil in semiarid areas with 415mm of annual rainfall and the test crop was spring wheat, Triticum aestivum. In order to study the effect of plastic film mulching, 4 levels of mulching were designed, including mulching of 0, 30 and 60 days after sowing and mulching over the whole growing period. The results showed that increase of soil water storage, plastic film mulching and nitrogen fertilization increased crop yield significantly(a< 0.01 ), and their effect followed in the order of nitrogen fertilization > increase of water storage>plastic film mulching. The effect of mulching on crop yield varied with water storage, nitrogen fertilization and mulching periods. When the water storage was low, there was no significant difference in crop yield between mulching and no mulching, although mulching increased crop yield slightly, and the nitrogen effi ciency was higher for no mulching and mulching 30 days. When the water storage was high, the difference between the yield of muching 60 days and no mulching was significant, but no difference in nitrogen efficiency was found for mulching 30 days, 60 days and over whole growing period. It was suggested that mulching over whole growing period was of less significance in practice.%在年降水量415mm的半干旱地区黄绵土上,以春小麦为供试作物进行大田试验,研究地膜覆盖进程(包括不覆膜、播种后覆膜30d、覆膜60d和全程覆膜)、底墒和施N对作物产量和N效率的影响.结果表明,增加底墒、地膜覆盖和施N均会显著增加作物产量和吸N量(α<0.01),其影响顺序为N肥>底墒>覆膜.覆膜对产量的效应因底、施N和覆膜进程而异.从平均看,在低底墒时,各种覆膜处理产量虽有增加,但与不

  6. An Experiment on Prevention of Fruit Green Return for Summer Orange with Fruit Bagging and Plastic Film Covering%果实套袋与树冠盖膜防止夏橙果实返绿试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢柱雄; 王宣英; 李全德; 廖延华

    2011-01-01

    An experiment on prevention of fruit green return for summer orange with fruit bagging and plastic film covering had been held. The results showed that, the effect on prevention of fruit green return for fruit bagging treatment was extremely remarkable. It would provide a reliable basis for further study of fruit bagging and effectively prevent summer orange fruit green returning.%对夏橙进行田间果实套袋与树冠盖膜防止夏橙果实返绿试验。结果表明,果实套袋处理防止果实返绿效果极其显著,为进一步研究果实套袋、有效防止夏橙果实返绿提供可靠依据。

  7. Color kinetics and acrylamide formation in NaCl soaked potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Bustos, Oscar; Mery, Domingo

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of color development in blanched and blanched-NaCl impregnated potato slices during frying by using the dynamic method and also to evaluate the effect of NaCl in reducing acrylamide formation in potato chips. The measurement of color was done......Cl solution of 0.02 g/l 5 min at 200 rpm of agitation. These samples were considered as NaCl soaked potato chips. Blanched and soaked slices were fried at 120, 140, 160 and 180 degrees C until reaching moisture contents of similar to 1.8% (total basis) for color evaluation. Acrylamide content was evaluated...... change in potato chips during frying were fitted to empirical relationships, with correlation coefficients greater than 90%. A first-order rate equation was used to model the kinetics of color change. In all cases, the Arrhenius activation energy decreases alongside with decreasing chip moisture content...

  8. Interpretation of Temperature Profiles during Soak Periods in Steam-stimulated Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Huiqing; Zhang Hongling; Wang Peixi

    2007-01-01

    To address the problems existing in testing steam injection profiles in a steam-stimulated well during steam injection and production periods, this paper proposes that the temperature profile in the completion interval could be tested during the soak period. A mathematical model for calculating the vertical distribution of temperature in a single layer reservoir is established based on the temperature characteristics of steam stimulated reservoirs, and the vertical distribution of temperature in a single layer reservoir could be obtained and heat loss could be calculated.The temperature, which is disturbed by thermal conduction in a multilayer reservoir, and heat loss could be derived based on the superposition principle of temperature potential. This paper establishes a multilayer testing temperature profile interpretation method and interprets the actual test temperature profile of Well Gao 3-7-66. The results indicate that the temperature profile in the soak period can reflect the thermal absorption conditions in various reservoir beds.

  9. Plastics for corrosion inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Goldade, Victor A; Makarevich, Anna V; Kestelman, Vladimir N

    2005-01-01

    The development of polymer composites containing inhibitors of metal corrosion is an important endeavour in modern materials science and technology. Corrosion inhibitors can be located in a polymer matrix in the solid, liquid or gaseous phase. This book details the thermodynamic principles for selecting these components, their compatibility and their effectiveness. The various mechanisms of metal protection – barrier, inhibiting and electromechanical – are considered, as are the conflicting requirements placed on the structure of the combined material. Two main classes of inhibited materials (structural and films/coatings) are described in detail. Examples are given of structural plastics used in friction units subjected to mechano-chemical wear and of polymer films/coatings for protecting metal objects against corrosion.

  10. Barrier properties of plastic films coated with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer by roll-to-toll atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvikorpi, Terhi, E-mail: Terhi.Hirvikorpi@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland); Laine, Risto, E-mail: Risto.Laine@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland); Vähä-Nissi, Mika, E-mail: Mika.Vaha-Nissi@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Kilpi, Väinö, E-mail: Vaino.Kilpi@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland); Salo, Erkki, E-mail: Erkki.Salo@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Li, Wei-Min, E-mail: Wei-Min.Li@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland); Lindfors, Sven, E-mail: Sven.Lindfors@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland); Vartiainen, Jari, E-mail: Jari.Vartiainen@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Kenttä, Eija, E-mail: Eija.Kentta@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Nikkola, Juha, E-mail: Juha.Nikkola@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Harlin, Ali, E-mail: Ali.Harlin@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Kostamo, Juhana, E-mail: Juhana.Kostamo@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland)

    2014-01-01

    Thin (30–40 nm) and highly uniform Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings have been deposited at relatively low temperature of 100 °C onto various polymeric materials employing the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique, both batch and roll-to-roll (R2R) mode. The applications for ALD have long been limited those feasible for batch processing. The work demonstrates that R2R ALD can deposit thin films with properties that are comparable to the film properties fabricated by in batch. This accelerates considerably the commercialization of many products, such as flexible, printed electronics, organic light-emitting diode lighting, third generation thin film photovoltaic devices, high energy density thin film batteries, smart textiles, organic sensors, organic/recyclable packaging materials, and flexible displays, to name a few. - Highlights: • Thin and uniform Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings have been deposited onto polymers materials. • Batch and roll-to-roll (R2R) atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been employed. • Deposition with either process improved the barrier properties. • Sensitivity of coated films to defects affects barrier obtained with R2R ALD.

  11. HYGROSCOPICITY OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE WITH PADOU FLOUR AND POLYPROPYLENE PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moise Emmanuel NZUDJOM SOUOP

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture of objects in wood-plastic composites which is a material already available in many developed countries seems almost unknown in Cameroon since the production factory of objects in wood-plastic composites does not exist up till here. Interested in the study of properties of wood-plastic composites throughconnection of simple plastic and wood, we have oriented our paper in the elaboration, realization and physical characterization of wood-plastic composites with Padou and polypropylene. An injection press available at NYANGONO PLASTIC factory (Yaounde-Cameroon was used to manufacture our wood- plastic composites.The following combinations were used: 1/3 Padou flour and 2/3 plastic; 1/4 Padou flour and 3/4 plastic; 1/5 Padou flour and 4/5 plastic. We found that the composite made of 1/5 Padou flour and 4/5 plastic reaches firstthe hygroscopic saturation point, flowed by the one containing 1/4 of wood and 3/4 of plastic and finally that containing 1/3 of wood and 2/3 of plastic. The moisture content of all the wood-plastic composite made was very low even in a soaked environment enabling us to conclude that these composites will be probably not attacked by fungus and insects.

  12. Effect of Ultra-high Pressure Processing on the Properties of Plastic Packaging Films%超高压对塑料包装薄膜性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭珍; 赵国华

    2011-01-01

    超高压灭菌被认为是国际上食品领域的高新技术,其作为一种新兴的保藏技术能够最大限度保持食品的营养成分和自然的感官特性.但研究表明,由于超高压处理过程中强大的机械力所致的处理体系体积的缩小和温度的升高,可能会对塑料包装薄膜的结构、透性等产生一定的影响,从而影响包装食品的货架期和质量.文中综述了超高压对食品塑料包装薄膜结构和理化特性等方面的影响.%Recently, ultra-high pressure processing has been introduced and suggested as a food preservation technology, and it could maintain the nutritional attributes and authentic sensory properties. However, some studies have shown that as a result of the strong mechanical force formed during the high-pressure treatment, the reducing of volume and increasing of temperature of the system may have impact on the structure and permeability of the plastic packaging films, and then affect the self-life and quality of the packaged food. In the light of published literatures,the effect of UHP on structure and physicochemical properties of plastic packaging films will be reviewed.

  13. 塑料表面载银微凝胶层层组装膜的制备及抗菌活性%Layer-by-layer Assembled Microgel Films Containing Silver Nanoparticles as Antimicrobial Coatings on Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰; 王旭; 叶开其; 裘令瑛; 沈家骢

    2011-01-01

    以载银聚烯丙基胺盐酸盐-葡聚糖微凝胶与聚苯乙烯磺酸钠为构筑基元,利用层层组装技术制备了一种可直接沉积在疏水的塑料基底表面的载银抗菌微凝胶膜.研究结果表明,该载银抗菌微凝胶膜具有很好的抗菌能力,并且其抗菌活性可以通过控制载银微凝胶膜的组装层数进行调控.这种沉积在塑料表面的载银抗菌微凝胶膜具有良好的稳定性和基底黏附力,能够保障其长效抗菌性.%Antimicrobial coatings on hydrophobic plastic surfaces were directly fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition of cross-linked poly( allylamine hydrochloride) and dextran microgels containing silver nanoparticles ( Ag@ PAH-D) with poly ( sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS). The as-prepared Ag@ PAH-D/PSS microgel films are effective in prohibiting the growth of Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial activity of the coatings can be easily controlled by tailoring the number of coating deposition cycles. The antimicrobial coatings of Ag@ PAH-D/PSS microgel films are stable and have satisfactory adhesion to the underlying plastic substrates,which guarantee the long-term application of the coatings.

  14. ACIDIC SOAKING AND STEAM BLANCHING RETAIN ANTHOCYANINS AND POLYPHENOLS IN PURPLE Dioscorea alata FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelis Imanningsih*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purple Dioscorea alata (DA tuber has health benefits due to its bioactive anthocyanins, which belong to polyphenolic group. Tuber is commonly made into flour to optimize its uses, however, the anthocyanins undergo significant degradation during processing because of the endogenous polyphenol oxidase activities. This research investigated factors that retain anthocyanins and polyphenols in the purple DA flour as well as its antioxidant capacity. The types of treatments during milling process should be taken into account; for instance, soaking in citric acid and blanching in order to preserve the bioactive compounds. To examine the inhibitory effects of acidic soaking and steam blanching on polyphenol oxidase activities, these experiments used four levels of citric acid (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1% and two levels of steam blanching time course (5 and 10 minutes. It was found that steam blanching for 5 or 10 minutes could reduce the activity of polyphenol oxidase, and consequently, retard the oxidation process and retain the polyphenolic compounds. Soaking the purple DA slices into a 1% citric acid solution followed by steam blanching for 10 min resulted in the highest total anthocyanins (104.36 mg/100 g, polyphenols (198.52 mg equivalent gallic acid/100 g, with an antioxidant capacity of 1.300 mg trolox equivalent/100 g. This study showed that the retention of bioactive compounds of DA tuber through soaking the tuber slices in solution containing inexpensive chemicals like citric acid at low concentrations, combined with 10 minutes of steam blanching resulted in flour containing total anthocyanins and phenolic as high as 44.51 and 62.58% of fresh tuber, respectively.

  15. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is con...

  16. Effect of Soaking and Roasting on the Physicochemical and Pasting Properties of Soybean Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agume, Aurelie Solange Ntso; Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Mbofung, Carl Moses F.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of soaking and roasting on the physicochemical and pasting properties of soybean flour were evaluated. Soybean seeds were soaked overnight in tap water for 0–72 h, hand dehulled, dried, and part of the sample was roasted. Roasted and unroasted soy beans were milled into flour and analyzed. The results showed that the total carbohydrates (22.8–27.9 g/100 g), the ash content (3.5–3.6 g/100 g), and the total polyphenols (0.29–0.51 g/100 g) did not significantly change during both the soaking and roasting processes. However, the total proteins (35.8–46.0 g/100 g) and lipid contents (21.4–29.5 g/100 g) were significantly (p Phytate content (0.22–0.26 g/100 g) decreased significantly (p < 0.05) only with roasting. The tannins (0.01–0.30 g/100 g) and soluble proteins (4.0–29.0 g/100 g) significantly (p < 0.05) diminished with both treatments. There was a significant increase in the least gelation concentration (20–30 g/100 mL), a decrease in the swelling power (1.3–2.0 mL/mL), and consequently, reduction in the viscosity (range peak viscosity 18–210 cP) of the flour slurry after soaking and roasting. All these qualities—needed for producing nutritious flour for infants—highlighted the efficiency of these endogenous technologies. PMID:28231091

  17. Electrochemical treatment of evaporated residue of soak liquor generated from leather industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boopathy, R.; Sekaran, G., E-mail: ganesansekaran@gmail.com

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Electrochemical treatment of evaporated residue of soak liquor (ERSL) generated in Tannery. • Copper coating on electrode surface and horizontal mounting of electrodes for ERSL treatment. • Electrochemical oxidation of organic pollutants under high saline condition. • The treated solution may be evaporated to dryness to get NaCl salt for hide/skin preservation. -- Abstract: The organic and suspended solids present in soak liquor, generated from leather industry, demands treatment. The soak liquor is being segregated and evaporated in solar evaporation pans/multiple effect evaporator due to non availability of viable technology for its treatment. The residue left behind in the pans/evaporator does not carry any reuse value and also faces disposal threat due to the presence of high concentration of sodium chloride, organic and bacterial impurities. In the present investigation, the aqueous evaporated residue of soak liquor (ERSL) was treated by electrochemical oxidation. Graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite systems were used in electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL. Among these, graphite/graphite system was found to be effective over SS304/graphite system. Hence, the optimised conditions for the electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL using graphite/graphite system was evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). The mass transport coefficient (k{sub m}) was calculated based on pseudo-first order rate kinetics for both the electrode systems (graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite). The thermodynamic properties illustrated the electrochemical oxidation was exothermic and non-spontaneous in nature. The calculated specific energy consumption at the optimum current density of 50 mA cm{sup −2} was 0.41 kWh m{sup −3} for the removal of COD and 2.57 kWh m{sup −3} for the removal of TKN.

  18. Analysis of water absorption of bean and chickpea during soaking using Peleg model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Shafaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peleg model was used to determine the instance moisture content of three varieties of bean (Talash, Sadri and Mahali Khomein and three varieties of chickpea (Desi, small Kabuli and large Kabuli during soaking. The experiments were carried out at three different temperatures (5, 25 and 45 °C in triplicate using distilled water. The moisture content versus time curves were plotted at different experimental temperatures, for six varieties. The results indicated that water absorption increased as the temperature increased. The obtained Peleg model constants were investigated relative to temperature. Activation and free activation energy, as well as entropy and enthalpy changes for the three studied varieties of both chickpea and bean were calculated at three temperatures using Peleg model constants and regression analysis. In the case of bean, the results showed a linear decrease in the coefficients k1 and k2. Furthermore for chickpea, the coefficient of k1 decreased linearly and the effect of temperature on the coefficient k2 was partial and decreasing. Likewise, the results indicated that the seeds enthalpy enhanced significantly as soaking temperature increased from 5 to 45 °C, the raising trend in entropy and released energy was not significant, however (P < 0.05. Maximum and minimum free activation energy in soaking process were observed in chickpea variety of Chico (301.28 kJ mol−1 and bean variety of Mahali Khomein (86.77 kJ mol−1, respectively. In addition, negative values of enthalpy changes of varieties demonstrated that the changes in moisture content during soaking process were associated with exothermic and energetically favorable transformation.

  19. To Enhance Performance of Light Soaking Process on ZnS/CuIn1-xGaxSe2 Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Hsiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ZnS/CuInGaSe2 heterojunction solar cell fabricated on Mo coated glass is studied. The crystallinity of the CIGS absorber layer is prepared by coevaporated method and the ZnS buffer layer with a band gap of 3.21 eV. The MoS2 phase was also found in the CuInGaSe2/Mo system form HRTEM. The light soaking effect of photoactive film for 10 min results in an increase in F.F. from 55.8 to 64%, but series resistivity from 7.4 to 3.8 Ω. The efficiency of the devices improved from 8.12 to 9.50%.

  20. 膜下微润带埋深对温室番茄土壤水盐运移的影响%Effect of tube depth of moistube-irrigation under plastic film mulching on soil water and salt transports of greenhouse tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子卓; 牛文全; 许建; 张珂萌

    2015-01-01

    In order to verify the effect of moistube-irrigation under plastic film mulching on water and salt transport in tomato in slight alkaline soils under greenhouse conditions, three buried depths (10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm) of moistubes of moistube-irrigation under plastic film mulching were designed and the effects of the moistube depths on water content and salinity of soils under (in tomato planting row) and between (between tomato rows) plastic films investigated. The results showed that the change trends in soil water content and salinity were consistent for different moistube depths under and between the plastic films. Under plastic film, soil water content increased initially and then decreased, whereas salinity decreased with time. Between plastic films, soil water content and salinity increased over time. The soil water content between plastic films was less than that under plastic film. With increasing soil depth, the difference in soil water content between under-film and between-films reduced. The difference of soil water content between under-film and between-films was maximal in surface soil. In 50-60 cm soil layer, water contents under plastic film and between plastic films were tend to be consistent. The deeper the moistube was, the higher the soil water content was. At fruiting stage of tomato, soil water contents were 23.31%, 24.46%and 22.42% for moistube depths of 20 cm, 15 cm and 10 cm, respectively. The difference in soil water content between under-film and between-films for 10 cm depth of moistube was less those for 15 cm and 20 cm depths of moistubes. Soil salinity under plastic film was less than that between plastic films, and with the increase of buried depth of moistube, the difference between under-film and between-films increased. In 0-40 cm layer under plastic film, soil was desalinated during the whole growth period of tomato, though the relative desalination rate decreased with increasing soil depth. Also in 0-40 cm soil layer, the nearer

  1. Conductive performances of solid polymer electrolyte films based on PVB/LiClO{sub 4} plasticized by PEG{sub 200,} PEG{sub 400} and PEG{sub 600}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yawen; Wang, Jinwei; Tang, Jinwei; Liu, Yupeng; He, Yedong [Beijing Key Laboratory for Corrosion, Erosion and Surface Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) films consisting of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) as host polymer, LiClO{sub 4} as alkali salt at mole ratio of [O]:[Li] = 8, and different molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) including PEG{sub 200}, PEG{sub 400}, and PEG{sub 600} as plasticizers are prepared by physical blending method. The dielectric relaxation and electrochemical impedance measurements reveal that the conductive performances are improved by adding PEG as plasticizers through the enhancement in the moving space for ions, and PEG{sub 400} performs plasticizing effect superior to PEG{sub 200} and PEG{sub 600}. Their conductivity is measured by using a sandwiched Pt/SPE/Pt cell model. SPE with 30% PEG{sub 400} (wt%) of PVB exhibits the maximum conductivity at room temperature, and its conductivity increases linearly with temperatures from 303 to 333 K at two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of the other two SPEs containing 30% PEG{sub 200} and 30% PEG{sub 600}, respectively. However, their conductivity does not increase linearly with the increase in heating temperatures until the temperature reaches around 333 K; the decrease in conductivity with heating from their maxima is attributed to the restriction of ion moving space because of the crosslinking reaction between hydroxyl and aldehyde groups. As observed from the XRD and the microscopy results, PEG{sub 400} is more effective than others in enhancing the conductive performances of these SPEs through changing LiClO{sub 4} from crystalline to amorphous state, increasing the flexibility of PVB, disturbing the short distance sequential order of PVB chains, and promoting the formation of 'pathway' for ions' movement. (author)

  2. 塑杯包装封口盖膜揭开力的测试方法%The Test Method for Opening Force on Sealing Cover Film of Plastic Cup Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅君; 王兴; 宋利君

    2014-01-01

    A common open force testing method of plastic cup sealing film was designed based on 10 kinds of plastic cup packagings of jelly and yogurt sample by Electronic universal tensile testing machine,the result betweens 3N to 70N.Finally,the method can be used by researcher in factory and research institute.%通过对10种市售果冻、酸奶塑杯包装类样品设计统一的杯体裁剪方法,对样品进行裁剪处理,利用电子万能拉力试验机进行盖膜揭开力的测试,测试结果集中在3~70N之间,最终建立了果冻、酸奶等盖膜封口形式的塑杯包装开口力的测试方法,为生产厂家、研究机构提供了一种测试盖膜揭开力的方法依据。

  3. Phyllosphere yeasts rapidly break down biodegradable plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Hiroko K; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Cao, Xiao-Hong; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Tago, Kanako; Kajiwara, Hideyuki; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Takashi; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Tsushima, Seiya

    2011-11-29

    The use of biodegradable plastics can reduce the accumulation of environmentally persistent plastic wastes. The rate of degradation of biodegradable plastics depends on environmental conditions and is highly variable. Techniques for achieving more consistent degradation are needed. However, only a few microorganisms involved in the degradation process have been isolated so far from the environment. Here, we show that Pseudozyma spp. yeasts, which are common in the phyllosphere and are easily isolated from plant surfaces, displayed strong degradation activity on films made from poly-butylene succinate or poly-butylene succinate-co-adipate. Strains of P. antarctica isolated from leaves and husks of paddy rice displayed strong degradation activity on these films at 30°C. The type strain, P. antarctica JCM 10317, and Pseudozyma spp. strains from phyllosphere secreted a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme with a molecular mass of about 22 kDa. Reliable source of biodegradable plastic-degrading microorganisms are now in our hands.

  4. Microbial diversity and dynamics of microbial communities during black-slop soaking of soybeans as determined by PCR-DGGE and molecular cloning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Y.Z.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Han, B.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Tempe is a traditional fermented food in Indonesia. The manufacture process is quite complex, which comprises two stages, preparatory soaking of soybeans and fungal solid state fermentation. Daily addition of previous soak water (back-slopping) during the soybean soaking step is considered to be

  5. Effects of plastic film and ridge-furrow cropping patterns on growth and yield of potato in semiarid areas%沟垄覆膜栽培对旱作马铃薯生长及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代海林; 秦舒浩; 张俊莲; 王蒂; 王春林; 陈龙

    2012-01-01

    以当地主栽品种“新大坪”为试验材料,研究了不同沟垄覆膜种植模式对旱作马铃薯生长和产量的影响.结果表明:沟垄覆膜种植能显著提高马铃薯根际的温度、株高、开展度、主根长以及相对生长率(RGR).与传统平畦不覆膜(T1)相比,平畦覆膜(T2)、全膜双垄沟播(T3)、全膜双垄垄播(T4)、半膜膜侧种植(T5)和半膜沟垄垄播(T6)种植分别增产36.29%、59.68%、60.49%、47.58%和45.97%,其中T3和T4的产量最高.沟垄覆膜种植有利于马铃薯产量性状的改善,提高了大薯率和中薯率总和,其中以全膜双垄垄播(T4)最为显著.在该区采用全膜双垄垄播(T4)最有利于马铃薯的生长及产量性状的提高.%"Xin Daping was used as test materials to study the effects of plastic film and ridge-furrow cropping patterns on growth and yield of potato. The results showed that the ground temperature,plant height,the crown width,length of vertical roots and relative growth rate (RGR) of potato increased significantly by ridge-furrow and film cropping patterns. Compared to the traditional flat stretch coating (Tl) ,the yield of the coated flat stretch (T2) ,the whole film double furrow sowing (T3) ,the whole film double ridge broadcast (T4) ,the semimembranosus film side planting (T5) and half-film ridge and furrow ridge sowing (T6) increased by 36.29% ,60.49% ,59.68% ,47.58% ,45.97% ,respectively . The yield increase of T4 and T3 was the highest. All the plastic mulched and ridge-furrow cropping patterns improved yield components of potato. Sum of big and middle tuber rates,tuber number per plant and tuber yield per plant under T4 and T3 were higher than that of the others,whereas green tuber rate,belt tuber rate under T4 and T3 were lower than that of the others. Therefore,the ridge-furrow and film cropping patterns,especially T4,were good cropping patterns for growth and high yield of potato in this area.

  6. Dry vs soaked wood: modulating the volatile extractible fraction of oak wood by heat treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Charlie J; Sok, Nicolas; Laroche, Jérémy; Gourrat, Karine; Prida, Andréi; Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Gougeon, Régis D

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the water content of wood on the concentrations of volatile compounds which can be extracted after heat treatments. Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME GC-MS) has been used to compare the concentrations of six aroma compounds (vanillin, furfural, eugenol, guaïacol and cis- and trans-whisky lactones) in hydroalcoholic extracts of heated oak wood samples either previously soaked in hot water or not. Except for eugenol, concentrations of extracted aromas appeared to be lower in soaked woods than in dry woods for temperatures up to 200 °C. If a delaying effect of water could explain such overall lower extracted concentrations from soaked woods, a PCA analysis revealed that for the longer duration (25 min of heat treatment), the adsorbed water could promote a higher impact of furfural, eugenol and both whisky lactones on the composition of hydroalcoholic extracts, suggesting that alternative mechanisms of thermal modifications of the wood macromolecular network could exist at high temperatures in presence of adsorbed water.

  7. Psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA soaks and UVB TL01 treatment for chronic hand dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Jensen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic eczematous hand dermatoses with and without contact allergies are complex diseases, which makes it a challenge to select the best treatment and obtain an optimal patient experience and a satisfactory treatment result. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the clinical effect and patient experience of local treatment with psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA soaks and TL01 phototherapy for severe chronic hand dermatoses, and also to evaluate the quality of life for the subgroup of patients with allergic contact dermatitis including Compositae allergy. A retrospective evaluation of results for 94 consecutive patients having received a total of 121 treatment courses with local PUVA soaks or TL01 phototherapy for one of the following diagnoses (n=number of treatment courses: psoriasis (n=19, hyperkeratotic hand eczema (n=27, Pustulosis Palmoplantaris (PPP (n=22, vesicular eczema (n=16, Compositae dermatitis (n=24, and allergic contact dermatitis (n=13. Moreover, semi-structured interviews with 6 selected patients having multiple contact allergies including Compositae allergy were used to evaluate quality of life. As a result, we found that PUVA soaks has good effect in patients with psoriasis and hyperkeratotic hand eczema and local phototherapy for chronic hand dermatoses is a useful treatment option in selected cases.

  8. Comparative study of epidural application of morphine versus gelfoam soaked in morphine for lumbar laminectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kundra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidural application of morphine has been used for postoperative analgesia following spine surgery but short duration of action of single application limits its widespread use. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty patients undergoing lumbar laminectomy were randomly allocated to two groups of 75 patients each. Anesthetic technique was standardized in both the groups. In Group I, at the completion of laminectomy, a 5 × 1-cm strip of gelfoam soaked in 5 mg morphine (1 mg/ml was contoured to be placed in the epidural space whereas, in group II, gelfoam soaked in saline was placed in the epidural space and 5 mg morphine (1mg/ml was instilled over the intact epidural space. Analgesic consumption for 48 hours, time-of first analgesic request, time of ambulation, time of discharge from post anesthesia care unit (PACU and hospital and adverse effects were recorded. The data was analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. Results: Mean analgesic consumption in 48 hours was significantly less in group I (8.47 ± 3.674 mg as compared to group II (24.80 ± 6.009 mg. Supplemental analgesia was requested at 30.03 ± 6.796 hours in Group I, vs 10.25 ± 2.243 in group II (P 0.01. Conclusion: Epidural application of morphine soaked in gelfoam is an effective method for prolonging the postoperative analgesia after spine surgery.

  9. Hydration kinetics and physical properties of split chickpea as affected by soaking temperature and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny, Saeed; Razavi, Seyed M A; Khodaei, Diako

    2015-12-01

    In this study, some physical properties (principal dimensions, mean diameters, sphericity, area, density and electrical conductivity) of split chickpea were measured as function of soaking time (up to 360 min) and temperature (25-65 °C). Initially, the water absorption rate was high and then it showed a progressive decrease at all temperatures, whereas solid loss exhibited a power function of temperature (P chickpea soaking. No significant difference (P chickpea at temperature of 25 °C. As temperature increased from 25 to 65 °C, the K1 value decreased from 0.04620 to 0.00945 g h(-1), whereas the K2 value increased from 0.08597 to 0.11320 g(-1). Plot for K1 exhibited a slope changes around 45 °C corresponding to gelatinization temperature of split chickpeas. The effect of temperature and time on physical properties of split chickpea during soaking was monitored by regression equations. It was concluded that physical properties of split chickpea affected by its water absorption especially at higher temperatures.

  10. Influence of Soaking Effects to the Shear Strength of the Colluviums on Mt. Da-Lum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shiou; CHEN Poshuo; HUANG Hanchen

    2007-01-01

    Landslide of colluviums often occurs during or after heavy rainfall because the huge quantity of precipitation induces the upsurge of groundwater table as well as the reduction of effective stress of soil stratum and the factor of safety from slope stability analysis. Moreover, the longer duration of heavy rainfall maintain the higher groundwater table, the shear strength parameters may be decline due to the soil being soaked for longer period of time. The campus of Huafan University is mostly covered by colluviums that located on Mt. Da-Lum, Shih-Tin Hsiang, Taipei County, Taiwan, China. Slope stability is one of the major concerned issues, for this reason, a slope monitoring test site has been established around the campus. According to the data collected, the magnitude of slope movement influenced by rainfall can be observed. In this study, the colluviums samples are collected from the campus of Huafan University and direct shear tests are performed to obtain the shear strength parameters of the remolded soil samples that soaked in the water for various periods of time, i.e. 0, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days respectively. From these tests, the change of the shear strength and slope stability of colluviums with respect to the soaking time of soil has been further understood.

  11. Influência da atmosfera modificada por filmes plásticos sobre a qualidade do mamão armazenado sob refrigeração Influence of a modified atmosphere by plastic film on the quality of papaya fruit stored in a refrigerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Konda de Azevedo Pinto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de embalagens constitui uma ferramenta importante no armazenamento de frutas. Neste trabalho foi avaliado o efeito dos filmes plásticos, Xtend® e PEBD, sobre a conservação do mamão. Frutos de mamoeiro "Golden", apresentando de 10 a 15% de coloração amarela na casca, após passarem por tratamentos térmicos e químicos, foram embalados individualmente e armazenados por 32 dias a 10 °C (90-95% UR. Frutos sem embalagem serviram de controle. Durante o período de armazenamento foram avaliadas as características de perda de massa, firmeza, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável, pH, a razão SST/AT e a quantidade relativa de CO2 no interior das embalagens. Os resultados mostraram que os frutos embalados com o filme Xtend® apresentaram menor acúmulo de CO2 do que os frutos embalados com PEBD. Entretanto, a perda de massa foi minimizada pelo filme de PEBD, evitando o enrugamento da superfície durante os 32 dias de estocagem a 10 °C. Os dois tipos de filmes suprimiram o aumento de SST nos frutos ao final da estocagem, minimizando também a concentração de ácidos orgânicos. Os frutos embalados com o filme Xtend® apresentaram os maiores valores da razão SST/AT devido ao menor conteúdo final de acidez e de sólidos solúveis totais.The use of plastic packaging is an important tool for storing fruit. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of plastic film, Xtend® and PEBD on preserving papaya. Papaya fruit cv "Golden", showing 10 to 15% of yellowish peel and also having had chemical and thermal treatments, were wrapped individually in film and stored for 32 days at 10 °C (90-95% UR. Fruit without packaging served as a control. Throughout the storage period, the characteristics of mass loss, firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, SST/AT ratio and the relative amount of CO2 inside the packaging were evaluated. Results showed that fruit wrapped in Xtend® film presented lower CO2 accumulation

  12. Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 不同地膜周年覆盖对冬小麦土壤水分及利用效率的影响%Effect of different plastic - film mulching in the whole growth period on soil moisture and water use efficiency of winter wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海迪; 海江波; 贾志宽; 韩清芳; 张保军; 任世春

    2011-01-01

    为了探明不同地膜覆盖对早地冬小麦土壤水分及其利用效率的影响,选用普通地膜、生物降解膜以及液体地膜在陕西渭北旱塬旱作农田进行周年覆盖集雨栽培定位试验,研究了不同地膜周年覆盖对冬小麦不同生育时期土壤水分总贮量和不同土壤深度水分动态变化及其利用效率的影响.结果表明、周年覆盖地膜可提高土壤含水量,有利于土壤水库的扩蓄增容,并且能显著提高冬小麦的产量和水分利用效率.普通地膜和生物降解膜覆盖处理在冬小麦不同生育期对0~200 cm的土壤贮水量有显著的提高作用,与液体地膜和不覆盖平播处理(CK)比较,差异显著(P<0.05);不同地膜周年覆盖处理的土壤水分空间变化规律相同,普通地膜和生物降解膜覆盖处理可有效提高土壤含水量,但液体地膜的集雨作用不明显;此外,普通地膜和生物降解膜两年的平均产量较对照(CK)分别提高了38.01%和36.28%,水分利用效率分别比对照提高19.85%、16.85%,且呈显著性差异(P<0.05).可见,周年覆盖生物降解膜与普通地膜具有良好的蓄水保墒效果,可以提高冬小麦产量.%With the purpose of investigating the dynamic effects of different kinds of plastic-film mulching on soil moisture and water use efficiency of winter wheat, plastic film, biodegradable film and liquid film were selected to conduct a locating experiment of rainfall harvesting in the whole growth period in Weibei dryland of Shaanxi. The results indicated that plastic-film mulching can increase the soil moisture, crop yield and water use efficiency, and it can also improve soil water storage. Treated with plastic film and biodegradable film covering, the moisture storage of 0 ~ 200 cm soil increased during full period of experiment, which showed a significant difference ( P < 0.05) compared with the liquid film covering treatment and no covering treatment (CK); treated with plastic

  14. Influência do armazenamento refrigerado em associação com atmosfera modificada por filmes plásticos na qualidade de mangas 'Tommy Atkins Influence of refrigerated storage associated with plastic film-modified atmosphere in quality of 'Tommy Atkins' mangoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaci Pereira de Sousa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a qualidade de mangas Tommy Atkins, embaladas em filmes plásticos e armazenadas sob condição refrigerada. Utilizaram-se frutos da safra 2000 obtidos na Fazenda Paulicéia Empreendimentos Ltda., situada no Pólo Agrícola Mossoró-Assu. Os frutos foram colhidos no estádio 2 (Brix 7 º e 75% verde e 25% vermelha e selecionados de acordo com o tipo 12 (12 frutos/caixa e tratados com fungicida para evitar podridões. No laboratório, os frutos foram submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos: 1 - frutos não embalados; 2 - frutos embalados individualmente em cloreto de polivinila (PVC; 3 - frutos embalados em sacola de polietileno de alta densidade (PEAD; 4 - frutos embalados em sacola de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD. Os frutos foram armazenados por 42 dias em condição controlada (11 ± 1°C; 85-90% UR. O armazenamento dos frutos sob condição controlada, associada à atmosfera modificada pelos filmes plásticos, reduziu-lhes a perda de matéria fresca e proporcionou-lhes a manutenção dos teores de sólidos solúveis totais, açúcares solúveis totais e acidez total titulável. A atmosfera modificada pelos filmes plásticos manteve mais regular as perdas na firmeza da polpa, possibilitando uma vida útil pós-colheita de 42 dias em ralação à testemunha. Até o final do armazenamento, o uso de PEAD promoveu o desenvolvimento da coloração da casca e da polpa dos frutos, porém o uso de PVC e PEBD reteve a coloração da casca.The quality of mangoes cv Tommy Atkins enclosed in plastic films and stored under refrigerated conditions were evaluated. Mangoes from the 2000 crop harvested at the Fazenda Paulicéia Empreendimentos Ltda., located in the Mossoró-Assu Agropole were used as experimental unity. The fruits were harvested in stage 2 ( 7º brix and 75% green, 25% red and selected for the type 12 (12 fruits/box, then treated with fungicide to prevent rots. The fruits were submited to the following treatments in the

  15. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  16. Low-voltage gallium-indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors based logic circuits on thin plastic foil: Building blocks for radio frequency identification application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tripathi, A.K.; Smits, E.C.P.; Putten, J.B.P.H. van der; Neer, M. van; Myny, K.; Nag, M.; Steudel, S.; Vicca, P.; O'Neill, K.; Veenendaal, E. van; Genoe, G.; Heremans, P.; Gelinck, G.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this work a technology to fabricate low-voltage amorphous gallium-indium-zinc oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) based integrated circuits on 25 µm foils is presented. High performance TFTs were fabricated at low processing temperatures (<150 °C) with field effect mobility around 17 cm2 /V s. The

  17. Effects of Plastic Film Mulching of Millet on Soil Moisture and Temperature in Semi-Arid Areas in South Ningxia of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The effects of film mulching of millet on soil water content were studied in semi-arid areas in the Loess Plateau of South Ningxia, China. Different mulching methods including water micro-collecting farming (WF), water micro-collecting farming in winter fallow (WW), hole seeding on film (HF), hole seeding on film in winter fallow (HW) were compared to determine the effects of mulching methods on soil water collecting and conservation during millet growth periods of 2003-2004, as well as the variation tendency of water content after rainfall, output of millet and water use efficiency (WUE). The experimental results in the two successive years indicated that water micro-collecting farming had a better function of collecting water after rainfall, and side infiltrated water was stored under the ridges and the top layer 0-40 cm soil water changes were great. WF had obvious role in water collection and preservation of soil moisture. It effectively improved the water supply capacity by about 19.05% in the end of growth seasons. The storage of HW and WW increased by 24.9 and 7.1 mm compared with CK, and output of yield were obviously increased. Film mulching increased the yield of millet and enhanced water use efficiency (WUE). During different growth periods, WF exhibited better water storage function with lower water consumption, and demonstrated optimal social and ecological benefits.

  18. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  19. Plastic zonnecellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggen, Marjolein

    1998-01-01

    De zonnecel van de toekomst is in de maak. Onderzoekers van uiteenlopend pluimage werken eendrachtig aan een plastic zonnecel. De basis is technisch gelegd met een optimale, door invallend licht veroorzaakte, vorming van ladingdragers binnen een composiet van polymeren en buckyballs. Nu is het zaak

  20. 增塑剂甘油对甘薯淀粉膜性能的影响研究%Effect of Glycerol Plasticizer on the Properties of Sweet Potato Starch -Based Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏飞; 孙圣麟; 王文涛; 侯汉学; 董海洲

    2015-01-01

    采用甘油作为增塑剂制备甘薯淀粉膜,研究了甘油/淀粉比对甘薯淀粉膜性能的影响。结果表明:加入甘油后,淀粉糊各特征点黏度值发生不同程度的变化;随着甘油量的增加,膜的断裂伸长率和水蒸气透过率呈递增的趋势,淀粉膜的热封性能逐步得到提高,抗拉强度呈递减的趋势;随着甘油的加入,膜的透光率增大;甘油分子与淀粉分子之间有较弱的作用,在2θ=14.8°处产生了一个新的峰;淀粉颗粒的分散和分布随着甘油的加入有明显改善,淀粉膜表面变得平整;紫外老化试验表明随着甘油量的增加,延缓了淀粉膜的老化作用。当甘油/淀粉比在0.3/1~0.4/1之间时,甘油和淀粉的相容性较好,甘油对淀粉有较好的塑化效果。%Sweet potato starch (SPS)-based films have been prepared with glycerol as plasticizer.The influ-ence of glycerol /starch of different ratios on the films properties has been studied in the paper.The results showed that the glycerol could significantly change SPS pasting characteristics.With the increase of glycerol content,the e-longation at break,as well as the water vapor permeability gradually increased,while the tensile strength gradually decreased.The films exhibited a better heat endurance with the increasing content of glycerol.The addition of glycer-ol could raise the light transmission of films.The glycerol and starch molecules had weaker interaction;a new peak was produced after the addition of glycerol,between the 2 theta,at 14.8°.The dispersion and distribution of the starch granules were improved significantly,and the surface of the films became smooth since adding glycerol.The retrogradation of the films was delayed by the increasing content of the glycerol.These results indicated that the glyc-erol has a good compatibility and rather better plasticizing effect with the starch matrix when the ratios of glycerol /starch

  1. Testing the effect of soak time on catch damage in a coastal gillnetter and the consequences on processed fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savina, Esther; Karlsen, Junita Diana; Frandsen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at testing how to improve catch quality aboard a coastal gillnetter by looking at an easily controllable parameter known to have an effect on the degree of fish damage, soak time, and investigating if the registered damages on whole fish have an effect on processed products...... such as fillets. Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) was captured with commercial gillnets soaked for 12 and 24 hours. Damages were assessed using semi-quantitative indices of individual fish condition gathered in a Catch-damage-index for onboard fish and a Processed fish-damage-index for whole, skinned and filleted...... plaice processed at a land-based factory. Cumulative link mixed modelling allowed the estimation of the size of effects. Damage in fish was significantly more likely for longer soak times but effects were comparable to those of fish length and between-sets, making a change in soak time not so substantial...

  2. Alternative soaking media for the FDA procedure in the detection of salmonella from tomatoes and spinach leaf using phage magnetoelastic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Hsuan; Hu, Jiajia; Wang, Fengen; Horikawa, Shin; Barbaree, James M.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2016-05-01

    Efforts were made to incorporate the phage Magnetoelastic (ME) biosensor in FDA's Spinach Soaking procedures according to FDA 2015 BAM method. Three soaking materials (Lactose broth, LB broth, and Peptone water) and various soaking times were investigated. Using merely 100 Salmonella cells spiked on the produce surfaces, the phage biosensors detected Salmonella within 5 hours when soaking tomatoes in LB broth as opposed to taking up to 24 hours. Salmonella was detected on spinach leaves within 7 hours. These phage ME biosensors provide a promising rapid detection platform using LB broth in FDA's soaking procedures while shortening the incubation period.

  3. Design and Test of the Rain-fed Potato Planter With Micro-ridge and Plastic Film Mulching%旱作马铃薯微垄覆膜侧播机的设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亚超; 贾立国; 陈伟; 政东红; 杜文亮; 樊明寿

    2016-01-01

    The technology of rain-fed potato planted by side planting with micro-ridge and plastic film mulching is an agronomic methods, when sowing that makes the use of a membrane with two ridge and a ridge with two row, but there isn’ t an agricultural machinery can finish the job at present.In order to improve its mechanization level, developed the rain-fed potato planter, which is mainly composed of frame, fertilizer application device, seeding device, walking de-vice, transmission device, sampling and shaping device, film laying device, film pressing device, soil covering device and so on.The field test showed that it could complete the agronomic methods’ multi-channel processes in one time, but also meet the requirements of mechanical design.%旱作马铃薯微垄覆膜侧播技术是采用一膜两垄、一垄两行来播种的农艺方法,目前尚没有与之配套的农机可以作业。为了提高其机械化水平,研制了旱作马铃薯微垄覆膜侧播机,其主要由机架、施肥装置、播种装置、行走装置、传动装置、取土整形装置、铺膜装置、压膜装置及覆土装置等组成。田间试验表明:该机具能够一次性完成农艺方法的多道工序,满足设计要求。

  4. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  5. Pretreatment of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa): effect of soaking and blanching on the quality of African yam bean seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminigo, Ebiokpo R; Metzger, Lloyd E

    2005-12-01

    The effect of pretreatment (soaking in sodium salts and blanching) on hydration coefficient (HC), chemical composition, texture, and color of African yam bean (AYB) was investigated. Soaking in water and in salt solutions increased the HC and about 90% of final HC values were attained at 12 and 4 hr of soaking for whole and dehulled beans, respectively. Protein content was slightly increased by soaking and blanching while ash and fat contents were reduced. Generally, a combination of dehulling and wet-processing reduced firmness of the beans more than soaking or blanching of the whole beans. Antioxidant activity was lowest (3260 TE(3)100 g) in cream-colored beans and highest (16,600 TE/100 g) in brown-colored beans. The tannin contents of unprocessed cream-colored beans and dehulled wet-processed marble variety were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The levels of tannins in the marble variety were reduced by blanching for 40 min (19.2%), soaking for 12 hr (16.0%), dehulling (72.0%), dehulling and blanching (88.8%). The whiteness of bean flours was increased significantly by dehulling, slightly by wet-processing of marble variety, and reduced significantly by wet-processing of cream-colored beans.

  6. Effect of heating cast kafirin films on their functional properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Byaruhanga, YB

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible films can be produced from kafirin but the diverse food product requirements necessitate modification of the films. To modify their functional properties, kafirin films were cast, with and without plasticizer, from glacial acetic acid (GAA...

  7. Formulations and processing of nanocrystalline TiO2 films for the different requirements of plastic, metal and glass dye solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardetto, Valerio; De Angelis, Gabriele; Vesce, Luigi; Caratto, Valentina; Mazzuca, Claudia; Gasiorowski, Jacek; Reale, Andrea; Di Carlo, Aldo; Brown, Thomas M

    2013-06-28

    We carried out a systematic study on the effect of nanocrystalline TiO2 paste formulations and temperature treatment on the performance of dye solar cells (DSCs) over a large temperature range, to provide useful information for the fabrication of both plastic and metal flexible devices. We compared conventional screen-printable and binder-free TiO2 pastes with a new formulation which includes hydroxylethyl cellulose (HEC), enabling the study of the effect of organic materials in the TiO2 layer in the whole 25-600 °C temperature range. Differently from the binder-free formulations where the device efficiency rose monotonically with temperature, the use of cellulose binders led to remarkably different trends depending on their pyrolysis and decomposition thresholds and solubility, especially at those temperatures compatible with plastic foils. Above 325 °C, where metal foil can be used as substrates, the efficiencies become similar to those of the binder-free paste due to effective binder decomposition and inter-nanoparticle bonding. Finally, we demonstrated, for the first time, that the simultaneous application of both temperature (110-150 °C) and pressure (100 MPa) can lead to a large improvement (33%) compared to the same mechanical compression method carried out at room temperature only.

  8. 浸种温度及时间对小根蒜种子发芽的影响%Effects of Soaking Temperature and Soaking Time on Germination of Allium macrostemon Bunge Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄云

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究浸种温度及时间对小根蒜(Allium macrostemon Bunge)种子发芽的影响,确定适合其发芽的温度和用水浸种的时间.[方法]采用普通培养皿发芽法.浸泡温度试验中小根蒜种子在8、14、22、26℃下用蒸馏水浸泡40 min;浸泡时间试验中小根蒜种子分别于22℃下用蒸馏水浸泡10、20、30、40、50、60min,不浸泡种子为对照(CK).[结果]影响小根蒜种子发芽的因素主要是温度.14℃有利于小根蒜种子发芽,低于或高于14℃均不利于其种发芽.浸种20 min以上都能提高小根蒜种子的发芽率,而浸种40 min的小根蒜种子发芽率是最高的.[结论]在14℃下用蒸馏水浸种40 min后小根蒜种子发芽速度最快.%[Objective] The purpose was to study the effects of soaking temperature and soaking time on germination of Allium macrostemon Bunge seeds, and confirm its suitable germination temperature and time. [Method] The common culture dish was used to culture Allium mac-rostemon Bunge seeds. They were soaked 40 min in distilled water under 8, 14, 22, and 26 ℃ in soaking temperature test, and soaked 20, 30, 40, SO, and 60 min under 22℃ in soaking time test, no soaking seeds were chose as control. [Method] The key factor of influencing germination of Allium macrostemon Bunge seeds was temperature. The temperature of 14℃ was in favor of Allium macrostemon Bunge seeds germination , while less than or more than 14℃ were not in favor. Soaking 20 min in distilled water could all improved Allium macrostemon Bunge seeds germination rate, and it was the highest when soaking time was 40 min. [Conclusion] Allium macrostemon Bunge seeds germination rate is the biggest when it is soaking 40 min in distilled water under 14℃.

  9. Polymerized rosin: novel film forming polymer for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulzele, S V; Satturwar, P M; Dorle, A K

    2002-12-05

    Polymerized rosin (PR) a novel film forming polymer is characterized and investigated in the present study for its application in drug delivery. Films were produced by a casting/solvent evaporation method from plasticizer free and plasticizer containing solutions. Films prepared from different formulations were studied for their mechanical (tensile strength, percent elongation and Young's modulus), water vapour transmission and moisture absorption characteristics. Neat PR films were slightly brittle and posed the problem of breaking during handling. Hydrophobic plasticizers, dibutyl sebacate and tributyl citrate, improved the mechanical properties of free films with both the plasticizers showing significant effects on film elongation. Release of diclofenac sodium (model drug) from coated pellets was sustained with high coating levels. Concentration of plasticizer was found to affect the release profile. PR films plasticized with hydrophobic plasticizers could therefore be used in coating processes for the design of oral sustained delivery dosage forms.

  10. Plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  11. 纠偏系统在双向拉伸塑料薄膜生产中的应用%Application of correction system in two-way stretch plastic film production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪明; 童帮毅; 赖福刚; 杨正昊; 马茗茗

    2014-01-01

    在双向拉伸塑料薄膜生产过程中,纠偏控制系统极大地降低了横拉脱夹、褶皱、破膜、波纹抖动等问题的概率,实现了薄膜的高速、高效生产。综合国内外纠偏控制系统的应用情况,分别从动力装置、工作原理和控制方式等三个方面展开了分析。结果表明电液压式动力装置兼有机电式动力装置高精度和气动液压式动力装置运行平稳的优点;相较于定单边纠偏模式和对比纠偏模式,定中心线纠偏模式具有更高的稳定性和工作效率;在实际应用中纠偏控制系统的控制方式应兼有自动和手动两种,自动控制方式运用于生产,而手动控制方式运用于静态测试。在双向拉伸塑料薄膜生产过程中,纠偏控制系统需针对不同的薄膜工艺、材质及生产速度选取最优应用方案。%The probabilities of transverse unclamping ,fold ,film breaking and corrugated jitter are de-creased significantly by the correction system in the two-way stretch plastic film production process , which improves film production with high speed and high efficiency .Synthesizing the foreign and inland application ,the correction system was analyzed from the aspects of power plant ,working principle and control method respectively .It shows that the electric hydraulic power plant has the high precision of electro-mechanical power plant and stable operation of pneumatic hydraulic power plant .The setting centerline mode is more stable and efficient than the setting one side mode and the contrast correction mode .The control mode of the correction system should be both automatic and manual in practical application ,using the automatic control method in production and the manual control mode in static testing .In the two-way stretch plastic film production process , the optimal correction system should meet the requirements of the different film technologies ,materials and pro-duction speeds .

  12. CARACTERIZACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DE PELÍCULAS BIODEGRADABLES A PARTIR DE ALMIDÓN MODIFICADO DE YUCA, AGENTE ANTIMICROBIANO Y PLASTIFICANTE CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE FILMES BIODEGRADÁVEIS A PARTIR DE AMIDO MODIFICADO DE MANDIOCA, AGENTE ANTIMICROBIANO E PLASTIFICANTE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BIODEGRADABLE FILMS MADE FROM MODIFIED CASSAVA STARCH, ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT AND PLASTICIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REINALDO VELASCO M

    2012-12-01

    propriedades microestruturais e mecânicas dos amidos termoplásticos, que são essenciais para a continuidade no estudo de filmes biodegradáveisIt was evaluated the morphological surface of thermoplastic starch (TPS obtained from three modified cassava starch varieties, plasticizer and an antimicrobial agent. The films was made by blown extrusion and extended over a slide and then was taken photomicrographs with 4x and 10x objectives. It was used High Resolution Optical Microscopy to image characterization. The technique showed the effect of plasticizer addition over the starch films microstructure, it was found some inhomogeneity; however was identified some smooth regions related to form and size of starch granule, plasticizer concentration and extrusion variables process like velocity screw and temperature profile. This research contributed to characterize microstructural properties and gave some insights about the mechanical behaviour of TPS films, needed to study and make biodegradable films.

  13. Mitomycin C-augmented trabeculectomy: subtenon injection versus soaked sponges: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakravan, Mohammad; Esfandiari, Hamed; Yazdani, Shahin; Douzandeh, Azadeh; Amouhashemi, Nassim; Yaseri, Mehdi; Pakravan, Parto

    2017-09-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of subtenon injection of mitomycin C (MMC) with that of conventional application of MMC-soaked sponges in trabeculectomy. In this multicentre randomised clinical trial, 80 consecutive open-angle glaucoma cases were randomised into two groups; group 1 received a subtenon injection of 0.1 mL of 0.01% MMC, while group 2 received 0.02% MMC-soaked sponges. Primary outcome measure was intraocular pressure (IOP), and secondary outcome measures were endothelial cell count (ECC) changes and bleb morphology according to the Indiana Bleb Appearance Grading Scale. Outcome measures were compared at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Complete and qualified success was defined as IOP within 6-15 mm Hg without and with medications at month 6, respectively. Mean preoperative IOP was 21.8±5.1 in group 1, which reduced to 10.3±3.7 mm Hg at final visit (p<0.001). Corresponding values for group 2 were 21.8±5 and 10.8±3.5 mm Hg respectively (p<0.001). Complete success was 82.5% in both groups, and qualified success was 0 and 2.5% in groups 1 and 2, respectively. (p=0.316) The blebs tended to be more diffuse, less vascularised and shallower in group 1, at month 6 (p=0.45,<0.001 and <0.007 respectively). ECCs did not change significantly at final visit (p=0.813). Subtenon injection of MMC is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional soaked sponge method. This method produces more favourable bleb morphology after trabeculectomy. NCT02385370, Post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Impact of the Soak and the Malt on the Physicochemical Properties of the Sorghum Starches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claver, Irakoze Pierre; Zhang, Haihua; Li, Qin; Zhu, Kexue; Zhou, Huiming

    2010-01-01

    Starches were isolated from soaked and malted sorghum and studied to understand their physicochemical and functional properties. The swelling power (SP) and the water solubility index (WSI) of both starches were nearly similar at temperatures below 50 °C, but at more than 50 °C, the starch isolated from malted sorghum showed lower SP and high WSI than those isolated from raw and soaked sorghum. The pasting properties of starches determined by rapid visco-analyzer (RVA) showed that malted sorghum starch had a lower viscosity peak value (86 BU/RVU) than raw sorghum starch (454 BU/RVU). For both sorghum, X-ray diffractograms exhibited an A-type diffraction pattern, typical of cereal starches and the relative degrees of crystallinity ranged from 9.62 to 15.50%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that raw sorghum starch showed an endotherm with a peak temperature (Tp) at 78.06 °C and gelatinization enthalpies of 2.83 J/g whereas five-day malted sorghum starch had a Tp at 47.22 °C and gelatinization enthalpies of 2.06 J/g. Storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) of all starch suspensions increased steeply to a maximum at 70 °C and then decreased with continuous heating. The structural analysis of malted sorghum starch showed porosity on the granule’s surface susceptible to the amylolysis. The results showed that physicochemical and functional properties of sorghum starches are influenced by soaking and malting methods. PMID:21152287

  15. Impact of the Soak and the Malt on the Physicochemical Properties of the Sorghum Starches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Zhou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Starches were isolated from soaked and malted sorghum and studied to understand their physicochemical and functional properties. The swelling power (SP and the water solubility index (WSI of both starches were nearly similar at temperatures below 50 °C, but at more than 50 °C, the starch isolated from malted sorghum showed lower SP and high WSI than those isolated from raw and soaked sorghum. The pasting properties of starches determined by rapid visco-analyzer (RVA showed that malted sorghum starch had a lower viscosity peak value (86 BU/RVU than raw sorghum starch (454 BU/RVU. For both sorghum, X-ray diffractograms exhibited an A-type diffraction pattern, typical of cereal starches and the relative degrees of crystallinity ranged from 9.62 to 15.50%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC revealed that raw sorghum starch showed an endotherm with a peak temperature (Tp at 78.06 °C and gelatinization enthalpies of 2.83 J/g whereas five-day malted sorghum starch had a Tp at 47.22 °C and gelatinization enthalpies of 2.06 J/g. Storage modulus (G′ and loss modulus (G″ of all starch suspensions increased steeply to a maximum at 70 °C and then decreased with continuous heating. The structural analysis of malted sorghum starch showed porosity on the granule’s surface susceptible to the amylolysis. The results showed that physicochemical and functional properties of sorghum starches are influenced by soaking and malting methods.

  16. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayegba, E. O

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal can replace soybeans meal up to 10% without affecting the growth performance of African catfish.

  17. The effect on implant fixation of soaking tricalcium phosphate granules in bisphosphonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas; Baas, Jørgen; Bechtold, Joan E;

    2012-01-01

    biomechanical implant fixation and osseointegration of experimental implant grafted with β-TCP granules (Conduit) could be improved by soaking the β-TCP granules in bisphosphonate (zoledronate). In 10 dogs, a pair of titanium coated implants surrounded by a 2.5 mm gap was inserted into the proximal part of each......The use of bone grafting is a well-established way to enhance initial implant fixation in situations with reduced bone stock. Ceramic bone substitutes are inferior alternatives to autogenous or allogeneic bone graft. Improvement of bone graft substitutes is needed. We investigated whether...

  18. Influence of Different Approaches of Plastic Film Mulching on Soil Temperature, Yield and Quality of Watermelon in Gravel-mulched Field%不同覆膜方式对旱砂田西瓜土壤温度及产量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜少平; 马忠明; 薛亮

    2011-01-01

    在传统砂田增温保墒基础上,为进一步提高对土壤的增温效果,提高砂田生产效率,在甘肃皋兰干旱山区的砂田上进行全地膜覆盖(FM)、起垄覆膜(RM)、半地膜覆盖(HM)、和不覆膜(CK)4种栽培模式试验.结果表明:各覆膜处理在5cm、10cm、15 cm、20 cm、25 cm土层的日地温、西瓜各生育时期平均地温及积温均为全覆膜>起垄覆膜>半覆膜>不覆膜,但随着土层的加深,增温效果逐渐减弱.各覆膜处理西瓜果实比不覆膜处理提前10 d左右成熟,并且西瓜产量和品质均以全覆膜(FM)最优,其产量及可溶性糖含量分别比传统半覆膜提高26%和10%.%Traditional gravel-mulched field has a certain capacity of water and heat preservation, in order to choose feasible covering techniques in enhancing the production efficiency on it, four different experiments were carried on the gravel and sand mulched field at the arid mountain area in GaoLan, Gansu, such as full plastic film mulching,ridge-forming and plastic film mulching, half flat-mulching and non-mulching. The results indicated that daily temperature, the average temperature and accumulated temperature in different soil depths (5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, 25 cm) at each growth period followed the principles: full plastic film mulching (FM)>ridge and plastic film mulching(RM)>half flat-mulching(HM)>non-mulching(CK), but the effect weaken with the depth of soil. Ripe stage of watermelon were promoted 10days under plastic film mulching, full plastic film mulching was the best than other treatments at yield and quality of watermelon, it increased yield and soluble sugar content by 26% and 10% respectively, higher than that of the half fiat-mulching.

  19. Microstructural and elasto-plastic material parameters identification by inverse finite elements method of Ti{sub (1−x)}Al{sub x}N (0 < x < 1) sputtered thin films from Berkovich nano-indentation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pac, M.-J.; Giljean, S. [LPMT, Département MMPF (EA CNRS 4365), Université de Haute Alsace, 61 rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse (France); Rousselot, C. [FEMTO-ST, Département MN2S (UMR CNRS 6174), Université de Franche-Comté, 4 place Tharradin, 25211 Montbéliard (France); Richard, F. [FEMTO-ST, Département DMA (UMR CNRS 6174), Université de Franche-Comté, 24 chemin de l' Epitaphe, 25000 Besançon (France); Delobelle, P., E-mail: patrick.delobelle@univ-fcomte.fr [FEMTO-ST, Département DMA (UMR CNRS 6174), Université de Franche-Comté, 24 chemin de l' Epitaphe, 25000 Besançon (France)

    2014-10-31

    The mechanical properties of Ti{sub (1−x)}Al{sub x}N (0 < x < 1) films of different thicknesses deposited by r.f. reactive magnetron sputtering on Si < 100 > and high speed steel substrates have been investigated. The as-deposited coatings have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, four-probe electric resistivity method, mechanical deflection of cantilever beams and Berkovich nano-indentation tests associated with inverse finite elements analysis. The coatings with x < 0.58–0.59 present a cubic structure whereas for x > 0.7 a hexagonal structure is observed. Between these two compositions cubic and hexagonal structures coexist. The roughness depends on the film thickness and on the Al content and a minimum associated to a very fine microstructure is clearly observed in the two-phase coatings. The electric resistivity sharply increases as soon as the hcp structure appears (x ∼ 0.6). The mean residual stresses are compressive, except for the AlN coating, and present a minimum at the neighborhood of x ∼ 0.64 where a mixed structure is observed. The indentation modulus M{sub } and the Berkovich hardness H{sub B} greatly depend on the Al content and a progressive decreasing has been observed for 0.58 < x < 0.7. For the M{sub } evolution, a simple model taking into account the stiffness coefficients of TiN and AlN structures, the mean residual stress level and the variations of the lattice parameters in the two structure domains is proposed. Knowing the elastic properties of these films, inverse finite elements analysis of the indentation curves considering a simple isotropic linear elasto-plastic behavior allows, as a function of the composition, the yield stress σ{sub Y} and the linear hardening coefficient H{sub p}{sup ⁎} to be estimated. σ{sub Y} and H{sub p}{sup ⁎} are in the ranges 4.2 to 6.8 GPa and 60 to 400 GPa, respectively. The maximum value of H{sub p}{sup ⁎}/σ{sub Y} which characterizes the ability

  20. 垄作覆膜条件下冬小麦田的氨挥发研究%The dynamics of ammonia volatilization in winter wheat field with furrow planting system and ridge with plastic film mulching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官宇先; 师日鹏; 韩坤; 王林权

    2011-01-01

    为了解垄作覆膜下氨挥发特点,采用密闭法研究了垄作覆膜条件下冬小麦田间氨挥发的动态过程,并结合室内模拟比较了覆膜和氮肥深施对氨挥发的影响.大田实验结果表明,垄作覆膜处理可显著减少田间氨挥发.垄作覆膜180 kg N/hm2和240 kg N/hm2处理下的氨挥发量分别为:1.9±0.2 kg N/hm2和2.4±0.7 kg N/hm2,而平作180 kg N/hm2处理下的氨挥发总量为4.3±0.8 kg N/hm2.垄作覆膜比平作180 kg N/hm2氨挥发量减少了56.3%和43%.氨挥发造成的氮肥损失由1.6%降低到了0.2% ~0.4%.氨挥发主要出现在播种后的一个月内;返青后大大降低.越冬期前氨挥发累积量符合Elovich动力学方程,而返青期后的氨挥发累积动态过程趋近于直线.覆膜和垄下施肥均有降低氨挥发的作用,室内模拟结果表明垄下施肥对氨挥发的消减效应大于地表覆膜.%To study the effects of furrow planting system and ridge with plastic film mulching (FPRFM) on soil am monia volatilization in winter wheat field, the trial was conducted in October of 2009 ~ June of 2010. A laboratory simu lation experiment was also made to investigate the effects of plastic film mulching and deep application of N on ammonia volatilization. The ammonia was collected with airproof chambers made with PVC in filed. NH3 was absorbed by boric acid (concentration 2%) loaded in culture dish in the chambers, and then titrated with dilution H2SO4 in the lab. The volatilization amount in the plots with FPRFM under the N application rate 180 kg/hm2 (RM180) and 240 kg/hm2 (RM240) were 1.9 ± 0.2 kg N/hm2 and 2.4 ± 0.7 kg N/hm2 separately, and the amount of conventional practice with nitrogen application rate 180 kg/hm2(FP180) was 4.3 ± 0.8 kg N/hm . Compared to the conventional flat planting (FP) system, the FPRFM could reduce volatilization amount by 56.3% and 43% , and N loss rate dropped from 1.6% of conventional practice to 0.2%-0.4% of FPRFM. It was

  1. Influence of physical and chemical caracteristics of plasticizers in the manufacturing and on the structural behavior and hygroscopic of films of calcium alginate

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: O consumidor consciente tem dado preferência a alimentos processados de melhor qualidade nutricional e com vida de prateleira prolongada, sempre com a devida preocupação com os efeitos prejudiciais acumulativos ao meio ambiente do descarte de subprodutos. Filmes biodegradáveis estão inseridos neste contexto. Eles são produzidos a partir de polímeros naturais, principalmente polissacarídeos e proteínas, com potencial aplicação na indústria farmacêutica e alimentícia. O alginato é um po...

  2. Steam Flooding after Steam Soak in Heavy Oil Reservoirs through Extended-reach Horizontal Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Zhengfu; Liu Huiqing; Zhang Hongling

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new development scheme of simultaneous injection and production in a single horizontal well drilled for developing small block reservoirs or offshore reservoirs.It is possible to set special packers within the long completion horizontal interval to establish an injection zone and a production zone.This method can also be used in steam flooding after steam soak through a horizontal well.Simulation results showed that it was desirable to start steam flooding after six steam soaking cycles and at this time the oil/steam ratio was 0.25 and oil recovery efficiency was 23.48%.Steam flooding performance was affected by separation interval and steam injection rate.Reservoir numerical simulation indicated that maximum oil recovery would be achieved at a separation section of 40-50 m at steam injection rate of 100-180 t/d; and the larger the steam injection rate,the greater the water cut and pressure difference between injection zone and production zone.A steam injection rate of 120 t/d was suitable for steam flooding under practical injection-production conditions.All the results could be useful for the guidance of steam flooding projects.

  3. Process Parameter Study on Microwave-assisted Foam-mat Drying Properties of Corn Soaking Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xian-zhe

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the microwave-assisted foam-mat drying properties of corn soaking water and optimize process parameters, a quadratic regression orthogonal rotary method was used to analyze the influence of microwave power, material weight, material thickness and drying time on moisture content (dry basis), color value and protein content. Results showed that the primary and secondary sequence of parameters with regard to moisture content (d. b.) was drying time, microwave power, material weight and material thickness; the primary and secondary sequence of parameters with regard to color value was material weight, drying time, microwave power and material thickness; the primary and secondary sequence of parameters with regard to protein content was drying time, material weight, microwave power and material thickness. Optimum conditions were obtained as microwave power of 560 W, material weight of 46.88 g, material thickness of 6.20 mm and drying time of 8.01 min. The results might provide the theoretical basis and technical support for the microwave-assisted foam-mat drying of corn soaking water to produce yeast protein power.

  4. Fabrication of contamination-free CVD Graphene devices using soak and peel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Abhilash; Kakatkar, Aniket; de Alba, Roberto; Zhelev, Nikolay; McEuen, Paul; Craighead, Harold; Parpia, Jeevak

    2014-03-01

    Large area graphene-based devices are commonly fabricated by transferring the CVD grown graphene from metal foils to semiconductor substrates. However, during device fabrication, the transfer process involves chemical etching of metal that leads to the degradation of electrical properties of graphene. Recently, a clean transfer of graphene to devices with improved electrical properties, by delamination of graphene from metal substrates by soak and peel using DI-water has been demonstrated. We employed the soak and peel scheme to fabricate graphene transistor arrays on a SiO2/Si substrate with a back gate configuration. The source-drain contacts are patterned using Ti/Pt with graphene channel length varying from 2-50um. The graphene is transferred subsequently to the substrate and yields a high quality junction between metal electrodes and graphene. The contact resistance is low and the Dirac peak is observed across the array. The suitability of the graphene transistors for chemical functionalization will be presented. Possible application of this transfer technique for fabricating large area suspended nano-electro mechanical systems will be discussed.

  5. Pretreatment of Corn Stover by Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia at Moderate Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tea Hyun; Lee, Y. Y.

    Soaking in aqueous ammonia at moderate temperatures was investigated as a method of pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis as well as simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) of corn stover. The method involves batch treatment of the feedstock with aqueous ammonia (15-30 wt%) at 40-90°C for 6-24 h. The optimum treatment conditions were found to be 15 wt% of NH3, 60°C, 1∶6 of solid-to-liquid ratio, and 12 h of treatment time. The treated corn stover retained 100% glucan and 85% of xylan, but removed 62% of lignin. The enzymatic digestibility of the glucan content increased from 17 to 85% with 15 FPU/g-glucan enzyme loading, whereas the digestibility of the xylan content increased to 78%. The treated corn stover was also subjected to SSCF test using Spezyme-CP and recombinant Escherichia coli (KO11). The SSCF of the soaking in aqueous ammonia treated corn stover resulted in an ethanol concentration of 19.2 g/L from 3% (w/v) glucan loading, which corresponds to 77% of the maximum theoretical yield based on glucan and xylan.

  6. [Effect of seed soaking with aluminum on seed germination and seedling physiology of Platycodon grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lixiang; Wang, Jianhua; Fang, Xinsheng; Wang, Yong; Hao, Junkai; Weiwei, Ma; Jiao, Tianying

    2010-12-01

    In order to study the effect of seed soaking with different aluminum solution on seed germination and seedling physiological characteristics of Platycondon grandiflorum, two P. grandiflorum varieties'seed (the white flower and the purple flower) were soaked in Al3+ solution with different concentrations (0, 10, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg x L) for 24 h, then germinated in illumination incubator. Results showed that the aluminum toxicity on the trends of the germination rate, germination index and vigor index was positive associated with its concentration, and the Al tolerance of the purple was slightly greater than that of the white. There were some relationships between the physiological indices, which were the leakage rate of electrolyte, the malonaldehyde (MDA) content, the activities of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) , the free praline(Pro) and the soluble sugar contents, with the concentrations of Al. It was suggested that there was Al tolerance difference between the two P. grandiflorum varieties: the purple flower was greater than the white.

  7. Electron beam irradiation enhances the digestibility and fermentation yield of water-soaked lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Seop Bak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the limitation of commercial electron beam irradiation (EBI, lignocellulosic rice straw (RS was pretreated using water soaking-based electron beam irradiation (WEBI. This environment-friendly pretreatment, without the formation (or release of inhibitory compounds (especially hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural, significantly increased the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation yields of RS. Specifically, when water-soaked RS (solid:liquid ratio of 100% was treated with WEBI doses of 1 MeV at 80 kGy, 0.12 mA, the glucose yield after 120 h of hydrolysis was 70.4% of the theoretical maximum. This value was predominantly higher than the 29.5% and 52.1% measured from untreated and EBI-treated RS, respectively. Furthermore, after simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for 48 h, the ethanol concentration, production yield, and productivity were 9.3 g/L, 57.0% of the theoretical maximum, and 0.19 g/L h, respectively. Finally, scanning electron microscopy images revealed that WEBI induced significant ultrastructural changes to the surface of lignocellulosic fibers.

  8. Laser direct joining of metal and plastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Seiji [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kawahito, Yousuke [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)], E-mail: kawahito@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2008-12-15

    We have developed an innovative rapid laser direct joining process of metal and plastic lap plates without adhesives or glues. The joints made between a Type 304 stainless steel plate and a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic sheet of 30 mm width possessed tensile shear loads of about 3000 N. Transmission electron microscope photographs of the joint demonstrated that Type 304 and the PET were bonded on the atomic, molecular or nanostructural level through a Cr oxide film.

  9. Pyrolysis Characteristics and Thermal Kinetics of Degradable Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Developing degradable films is an important means for resolving the problem of film pollution; however, in recent years,there have been only few studies related to the thermal analysis of degradable plastic films. This research detailed the composition and pyrolysis of one kind of ordinary and three kinds of degradable plastic films using the differential thermal analysis (DTA) technique. The results showed that degradable films and ordinary film had similar DTA curves, which reflected their similar compositions; however, small differences were measured, which were due to the added constituents of the degradable films. The pyrolysis reaction orders of each film were about 0.93. The pyrolysis activation energies and pre-exponential factors followed the order of ordinary film > photodegradable film > photodegradable calcium carbonate film > biodegradable film. The results of this research laid the foundation for new theories for harnessing soil pollution caused by plastic films.

  10. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Wen-xue

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014 long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored. Plastic film residues mainly remained in 0~10 cm, 10~20 cm soil layers. In 0~30 cm soil layers, the two types of mulch residues (>25 cm2, 4~25 cm2 under zero plastic film residues treatment were much less than conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments, no significant differences were observed in the mulch residues (2 among 3 treatments. After maize harvest, the amount of plastic film residues under zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were 52.71, 80.85 kg·hm-2 and 152.65 kg·hm-2, respectively, the residual coefficient for zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were -9.45%, 8.53% and 54.42%, respectively. The stem diameter, ear length, ear width, ear row number, grain number per row and 100-grain weight of maize decreased with the increase of residual film amount. Compared with the conventional plastic film residues, the mean grain yield of whole plastic film residues remainded treatment decreased by 15.08%, whereas the zero plastic film residues treatment increased by 4.70%. The plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were comprehensively analyzed, the conventional plastic film residues practice should be adopted currently without appropriate plastic film residues collector. But from the long-term development, we should speed up the

  11. Effect of Planting in Furrow and Whole Plastic-film Mulching on Double Ridges on Improving Degraded Desert Grassland%全膜双垄沟播技术改良荒漠化退化草原的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建宁; 彭文栋; 张秀红; 刘华; 高婷

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] This study aimed to provide theoretical basis and technologies for the application of planting in furrow and whole plastic-film mulching on double ridges. [ Method] The conventional method was used to re-seed the bunch Gramineous forage in the degraded desert grassland in Yanchi, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Four kinds of conservation treatments, namely, ridging with black film mulching, ridging with transparent film mulching, ridging with no mulching and the flatplanting with no ridging and mulching were conducted to the forage lo analyze the effects of each treatment on soil moisture and seedling growth. [ Result ] From July to November, the moisture contents of ridging with black film mulching, ridging with transparent film mulching, ridging with no mulching and the flalplanling were 9. 88% , 9. 24% , 8. 75% and 8. 13% , showing significant differences among the treatments; the survival rates of re-seeding forage were 96. 2% , 93.4% , 45.6% and 28. 3% , and the mulching treatment showed significant difference with the un-mulching treatments in survival rate. The treatment with black film mulching showed great advantage that its moisture content on ridge top had the buffering effect of "load shifting" , and the soil moisture content of black mulching treatment increased 21.5% than the flalplanting. Black film mulching also had the largest water supplement amount in soil below I m. Although mulching cost too much, its overall benefits were higher than that with no mulching. [ Conclusion ] This study lays the experimental basis for the application of planting in furrow and whole plastic-film mulching on double ridges in improving degraded grassland desertification.%[目的]探讨全膜双垄沟播技术改良荒漠化退化草原的效果,以期为扩大该技术的应用领域提供理论依据和技术贮备.[方法]在宁夏盐池荒漠化退化草原中采用常规方法补播丛生禾本科牧草,并对其进行起垄覆黑膜、起垄覆透明

  12. NITROGEN BALANCE AND RUMEN MICROBIAL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN GOATS FED DIETS CONTAINING SOAKED AND ROASTED MUCUNA BEAN (Mucuna Pruriens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. MBEWE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soaking and roasting velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens on nitrogen utilization and rumen microbial protein synthesis in goats was investigated. Sixteen goats were randomly assigned to four diets in a completely randomized design. Goats were fed a basal diet of Cynodon dactylon hay plus 30% soaked (treatment 1, 30% roasted (treatment 2 and 30% untreated velvet bean (treatment 3. The control diet had 100% hay (treatment 4. Animals were given experimental diets over 14 days following a 7-day adjustment period. Feed, refusals, urine and faecal samples were collected daily from individual goats for determination of nitrogen, nitrogen intake, utilization and allantoin in faeces and urine. Microbial protein yield was estimated from the allantoin. Data were analysed using PROC General Linear Model of Statistical Analysis Software. Goats fed a diet with soaked beans had significantly higher (P0.05 from that of goats fed untreated beans. Microbial protein synthesis was highest for diets with soaked beans although this was non-significantly different (P>0.05 from diets with roasted and untreated beans. All diets containing velvet beans, processed or not, contributed to significantly higher (P<0.05 microbial protein yield than diets with hay only. In terms of nitrogen balance, soaking can be recommended as an appropriate processing method for velvet beans for goat feeding. However, for microbial protein yield, processing method was not statistically important and the bean could be used untreated producing the same results.

  13. Effect of soaking, germination, and enzyme treatment of whole barley on nutritional value and digestive tract parameters of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihus, B; Newman, R K; Newman, C W

    1997-09-01

    1. An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of soaking at 0 degrees C, soaking at room temperature, germination, or enzyme treatment of whole barley on feeding value and digestive tract parameters of 2- to 4-week old broiler chickens given diets with 700g/kg whole barley. 2. Soaking or germination decreased the soluble and total beta-glucan content (P enzymes produced the lowest beta-glucan content and viscosity. 3. Except for soaking in cold water, the soaking, germination and enzyme treatments increased weight gain and decreased food:gain ratio (P enzyme treatment or germination. 4. Chickens fed on enzyme-treated or germinated barley diets had intestinal contents with a greater proportion of dry matter and lower viscosity than chickens fed on untreated barley (P cleaner (P < 0.05) and the weight of digestive organs as proportion of live weight was lower. 5. Particle size analysis of excreta revealed that whole barley was efficiently ground by the gizzards of 16-d-old chickens, and very few whole kernels were found.

  14. Biobased additive plasticizing Polylactic acid (PLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounira Maiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA is an attractive candidate for replacing petrochemical polymers because it is from renewable resources. In this study, a specific PLA 2002D was melt-mixed with two plasticizers: triethyl citrate (TEC and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC. The plasticized PLA with various concentrations were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, melt flow index (MFI, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, UV-Visible spectroscopy and plasticizer migration test. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that the addition of TEC and ATBC resulted in a decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg, and the reduction was the largest with the plasticizer having the lowest molecular weight (TEC. Plasticizing effect was also shown by decrease in the dynamic storage modulus and viscosity of plasticized mixtures compared to the treated PLA. The TGA results indicated that ATBC and TEC promoted a decrease in thermal stability of the PLA. The X-ray diffraction showed that the PLA have not polymorphic crystalline transition. Analysis by UV-Visible spectroscopy showed that the two plasticizers: ATBC and TEC have no effect on the color change of the films. The weight loss plasticizer with heating time and at 100°C is lesser than at 135 °C. Migration of TEC and ATBC results in cracks and changed color of material. We have concluded that the higher molecular weight of citrate in the studied exhibited a greater plasticizing effect to the PLA.

  15. 秸秆腐熟剂在全膜双垄沟播玉米栽培中的应用效果%Application Effect of Straw Decomposition Agent in Corn Ditch Sowing in Double Ridge Mulched With Plastic Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑琴; 何宝林

    2012-01-01

      Effects of straw decomposition agent on yield and soil nutrient of corn ditch sowing in double ridge mulched with plastic films has been observed in the experiment of Zhuanglang county . The results showed that the application of straw returning combined application of straw reminder preservatives can effectively increase the available nutrient content of soil organic matter and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, etc., the yield could reach 12 537.9 kg/hm2 and 10.6% more than that control.%  在庄浪县旱作区全膜双垄沟播条件下,试验观察了秸秆还田施用秸秆腐熟剂对玉米产量及土壤养分的影响,结果表明,秸秆还田配施秸秆腐熟剂能有效提高土壤有机质及氮、磷、钾等速效养分的含量,玉米平均产量可达12537.9 kg/hm2,较对照增产10.6%

  16. 膜下滴灌和淹灌两种栽培模式下水稻光合生理特性的研究%Photosynthetic Characteristics of Rice Under Drip Irrigation with Plastic Film Mulching and Continuous Flooding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志军; 谢宗铭; 田又升; 陈林; 董永梅; 李有忠; 吕昭智

    2015-01-01

    以粳稻品系 T-04和 T-43为试材,通过盆栽控水试验,比较了在膜下滴灌和淹灌两种栽培模式下乳熟期叶片的光合色素含量、光合特性、叶绿素荧光参数和渗透调节物质含量的差异,分析了两种栽培模式下的水分利用效率和产量构成因素。结果表明,在膜下滴灌栽培模式下,2个水稻品系的水分利用效率显著高于淹灌,叶绿素 a、叶绿素 b、类胡萝卜素含量均降低;最大净光合速率、胞间 CO 2浓度、气孔导度、蒸腾速率显著降低,表明光合速率下降受叶绿素含量和气孔的双重影响;表观量子效率、羧化效率、ΦPSI 、电子传递速率、F v/F m 均显著降低,说明光合色素含量降低导致 PSⅡ反应中心捕光能力减弱和光化学转化效率降低,从而使叶片光合速率降低;可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白均显著低于淹灌栽培;丙二醛、脯氨酸含量高于淹灌栽培,说明滴灌栽培水稻植株的膜脂过氧化加剧,细胞膜系统受到一定程度的破坏,通过主动积累渗透调节物质,适应干旱胁迫。膜下滴灌栽培水稻单位面积有效穗数和结实率显著降低,导致最终减产。%Photosynthetic pigments contents,photosynthetic characteristics,chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, osmolytes,and water use efficiency(WUE)and yield factors at milky stage of two rice lines T-04 and T-43 (Oryza sativa subsp.keng )were analyzed under traditional continuous flooding and drip irrigation with plastic film mulching in a pot experiment.The results showed that the WUE of rice under drip irrigation with plastic film mulching were higher than that under traditional flooding,but chlorophyll a,chlorophyll b and carotenoids contents were significantly reduced compared with those under traditional continuous flooding.The maximum leaf net photosynthetic rate,relatively high intercellular CO 2 concentration (C i ) and an equivalent stomatal conductance (G S ),transpiration rate (T

  17. Measuring the thickness of plastic film using near inf rared LED sources%使用近红外 LED光源测量塑料薄膜的厚度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫长涛; 郇帅; 苏海林

    2016-01-01

    A thickness measurement instrument was set up with near infrared LED sources .The emission and detection optical paths of near infrared (0 .936 μm) LED sources were designed ,and a non‐destructive detection of the thickness of different plastic films w as carried out . T he results showed that the measurement error of thickness was within 2% when the optimum distance was 14 mm and the optimum current was 100 mA .%自制近红外L ED厚度传感器综合实验仪.L ED发出波长为0.936μm的单色红外光,由硫化铅探测器接收单色光源照射到被测塑料薄膜后光的强度,信号经放大器放大由控制器计算显示被测塑料薄膜的厚度.选定最佳工作距离14 m m、最佳工作电流100 m A进行实验,厚度测量相对偏差在2.0%以内.

  18. Recobrimento de laranja 'Pêra' com filme de concentrado protéico de soro de leite associado a plastificantes 'Pêra' orange coating with whey protein concentrate film associated to plasticizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Carraro Alleoni

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito de coberturas à base de concentrado protéico de soro de leite (CPSL, associadas a dois tipos de plastificantes (glicerol e sorbitol, em laranja 'Pêra'. As frutas foram lavadas e higienizadas de acordo com os padrões comerciais e submetidas à aplicação das coberturas. As coberturas à base de CPSL não foram eficientes na redução da perda de massa fresca da laranja 'Pera', independentemente do plastificante utilizado. Depois de 11 dias de armazenagem, as laranjas cobertas com solução filmogênica de 6% de proteína e 6% de glicerol, e laranjas cobertas com solução de 4% de proteína e 8% de sorbitol perderam menos massa, quando comparadas às outras combinações de proteína e plastificante. As coberturas não interferiram nas características físico-químicas das laranjas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of whey protein coating plasticized with glycerol and sorbitol in 'Pêra' oranges. Fruits were washed and sanitized, according to trade pattern, and then coated. Whey protein coatings was not effective in avoiding oranges weight reduction, independently of plasticizing. After 11 days of storage, the oranges coated with 6% protein and 6% glycerol, and with 4% protein and 8% sorbitol, lost less weight than other treatments. Coating did not modify physico-chemical characteristics of the oranges.

  19. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R.J. MORRIS, Sean M. ROGERS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most species evolve within fluctuating environments, and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity. One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes. Yet, not all plasticity is adaptive. Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution, much less is known about maladaptive plasticity. However, maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments. This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity, two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation, genetic compensation and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation, plastic compensation. Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity. In particular, plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence. We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change [Current Zoology 59 (4: 526–536, 2013].

  20. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  1. A high-performance and low cost SERS substrate of plasmonic nanopillars on plastic film fabricated by nanoimprint lithography with AAO template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Yuanshen; Du, Wei; Li, Bin; Cui, Yushuang; Yuan, Changsheng; Zhan, Peng; Ge, Haixiong; Wang, Zhenling; Chen, Yanfeng

    2017-06-01

    As a powerful spectroscopy technique, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) can provide non-destructive and sensitive characterization down to a single molecular level. Aiming to the main challenges of high-performance SERS-active substrates for their real-world applications involving the ultra-sensitive and reproducible signals detection and signal uniformity with large-area, herein, a facile and reliable strategy based on combination of thermal imprinting polycarbonate (PC) film with porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) mold and E-beam evaporation of gold is provided to fabricate a high-quality SERS-active substrate consisting of ultra-dense hot-spots with large-area uniformity. Two kinds of sub-10 nm gaps were obtained, including the nanogaps between the neighboring gold coated PC-nanopillars and those between gold on the top of the nanopillars and that on the base, which actually build up a three-dimensional (3D) hot-spot network for high-performance SERS detection. The effect of structural parameters on SERS enhancement was investigated numerically and experimentally, and by optimizing the structural parameters, a remarkable average SERS enhancement factor up to of 1.4×108 is achieved and it shows an excellent reproducibility with a relative standard deviation of 18%, which allows for enhanced practicability in the application of quantitative biochemical detection.

  2. Tenderness, pH and Water Activity (Aw of Spices Dried Meat on Various Concentrate of Ginger Extract (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe and Different Soaking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhadiyah Afrila

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of current research were to find out the concentrate of Ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe and different soaking time of to tenderness, pH, and water activity (Aw, microbial count and sensory evaluation of spices dried meat. The result showed that higher the ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe concentrate and longer the soaking time, it would give more tenderness, pH, and water activity (Aw to spices dried meat with 15% ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe extract and 20 minutes length of soaking time. Key Words : Dendeng, ginger, soaking time, tenderness, pH and Aw

  3. Effect of soaking time and concentration of NaOH solution on mechanical properties of coir–polyester composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Jayabal; S Sathiyamurthy; K T Loganathan; S Kalyanasundaram

    2012-08-01

    The green husk coir fibres were treated with different levels of soaking time and concentration of alkali solution. As a result of alkali treatment, the surface modifications were done on the fibre surface and were studied using scanning electron micrographs. The coir–polyester composites were fabricated using hand lay up process and the mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and impact strength) were evaluated as per ASTM standards. The effect of soaking time and concentration of NaOH solution were studied based on evaluated values of mechanical properties to find out optimum fibre treatment parameters.

  4. Investigating the Effect of Cold Soak Duration on Phenolic Extraction during Cabernet Sauvignon Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwan Panprivech

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of increasing cold soak (CS duration (0, 1, 4, 7, and 10 days at 10 °C on the extraction of phenolic compounds during the CS period and primary fermentation as well as the final composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was investigated. The results showed that CS duration had no effect on hydroxycinnamate and flavonol extractions. Greater amounts of gallic acid, (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin, and total tannins were extracted with increasing CS duration, with differences maintained during bottle aging. Anthocyanin extraction and color density increased with longer periods of CS; however, by the end of primary fermentation, as well as three months’ bottle aging, there were no significant differences due to CS duration. The wines made with seven and 10 days of CS had higher seed tannin contributions and total tannin compared to the non-CS wine, which could potentially result in increased astringency.

  5. Application of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking for enhancement of methane potential of swine manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    of the solid fraction is a prerequisite for increasing its digestibility. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) and subsequent ammonia removal as a pretreatment method for increasing methane potential and biogas productivity of raw and digested manure fibers. Methods......Purpose: Increasing the methane productivity of manure based biogas plants is challenging because the solid fraction of manure contains lignocellulosic fibers, which are difficult to biodegrade and thus make anaerobic digestion process slow and economically unfavourable. Therefore, pretreatment......: Manure fibers were pretreated with AAS for 3 days at 22°C and methane production was evaluated in batch experiments (methane potential tests). Results: It was proven that AAS altered the lignocellulosic structure increasing significantly the concentration of soluble organic material. AAS pretreatment...

  6. Enhanced methane productivity from swine manure fibers by aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2011-01-01

    The necessity of increasing the methane productivity of manure based biogas plants has triggered the development of new separation technologies for being applied before anaerobic digestion of the manure. Thus, manure solid and liquid fractions could be used to centralized biogas plants for methane...... production and as fertilizer on the farm, respectively. One of the challenges of this approach is that the solid fraction of manure contains lignocellulosic fibers, which are difficult to digest and thus make anaerobic digestion process slow and economically unfavourable. In the present study, aqueous...... ammonia soaking (AAS) was investigated as a pretreatment method to disrupt lignocellulosic structure and increase methane potential of swine manure fibers. It was proven that AAS broke down the lignocellulosic structure dissolving approximately the 35% of lignin and maintaining cellulose...

  7. Use of biogas fluid-soaked water hyacinth for cultivating Pleurotus geesteranus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuxia; Jiang, Zhihe; Chen, Xi; Lei, Jingui; Weng, Boqi; Huang, Qin

    2010-04-01

    Experiments were carried out to test the viability of growing Pleurotus geesteranus on media containing varying amounts of crushed water hyacinth slices, which were soaked in pig farm biogas fluid and dried. The water hyacinth material was utilized to substitute sawdust in the media for mushroom cultivation. Mushroom fruiting bodies harvested were evaluated for yield, amino acid and heavy metal contents. Among the eight treatment groups, the greatest yield and highest amino acid content in the mushrooms were obtained when the proportions of water hyacinth and sawdust in the medium were equal. The concentrations of heavy metals, Hg, Pb and Cd, in most of the present mushroom samples did not exceed the maximum allowed levels according to the limits set forth by the food hygienic and safety regulations for edible mushrooms in China. The proposed waste utilization of water hyacinth could conceivably benefit the environment in various aspects including conservation of forest by reducing the demand on natural woods for mushroom production.

  8. Impact Behavior of Three Notched All-Ceramic Restorations after Soaking in Artificial Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomechanics play a critical role in influencing the clinical applications of all-ceramic dental restorations. The restorative biomaterials have to demonstrate mechanical durability in the oral environment because they are always exposed to a variety of oral environments. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of soaking time, notch and saliva pH values on the impact energy of three commonly used all-ceramic materials for CAD/CAM. The leucite-reinforced glass ceramic (ProCAD, lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max CAD and zirconia-based ceramic materials (IPS e.max ZirCAD were used. The experimental results indicated that the impact energy of ProCAD decreased with an increase in soaking time, but not for IPS e.max CAD and IPS e.max ZirCAD. The impact energy of the zirconia system was higher than leucite-reinforced and lithium disilicate-based ceramic systems. When subjected to preformed 0.5 mm U-shape notch on the bar specimen of 3 mm thick, the impact energy of the all-ceramic restorations revealed a markedly reduction of about 80%–90%, almost irrespective of dental compositions, which indicated the effect of flaw to a great degree. No statistically significant influence (p > 0.05 of pH values (4, 7 and 9 on impact energy was found for each group. It is concluded that the no matter which all-ceramic materials were used, it was appreciably sensitive to the presence of notches. The ceramic composition and microstructure have been shown to affect mechanical durability.

  9. A successful case on traditional Chinese fumigation-soaking therapy in treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongfang Liu; Huayang Wu; Lizhong Zhang; Jinxi Zhao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the scheme of inducing the diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DNP) symptoms by combine Chinese traditional medicine with modern medicine. METHODS: Patient hospitalized on April 1, 2005. Main symptoms in hospitalization: His bilateral fingers and toe tips felt stabbing pain, numb, cold, assuming a type of sock set which alleviated after he had a rest and aggravated after exercise. He had also got the symptom of dizziness, asthenia, eating little food, very thin bowel and body pain which had influence on his sleeping. Physical examination in hospital: The bilateral lower limbs which got a hyperpathia did not swell. The bilateral dorsum pedis artery pulsation was atlenuarive. The skin temperature was not high. Other nerve system examination had been discovered abnormal. Diagnosis: Traditional Chinese medical diagnosis: Xiaokebing (blood stasis for insufficiency of qi, blockage of meridian and collaterals). Modern medical diagnosis: Diabetes type 2, DNP, diabetic lower limbs artery obliteration, diabetic foot (0 level), diabetic retinopathy, coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary emphysema. Carried on the former therapy plan that continued to use insulin to control blood glucose, depressed blood pressure and total plasma lipoprotein etc. Meanwhile used the therapy of bilateral feet medicinal bath (Sanling 30 g, Ezhu 30 g, Ruxiang 30 g, Moyao 30 g, Zhichuanwu 30 g, Zhicaowu 30 g, Weilingxian 30 g, Mugua 30 g, Sangzhi 30 g), boiled in water, 1 dose everyday, soak feet twice a day, 20-30 minutes once, < 37 ℃. RESULTS: Seven days later, the pain of bilateral feet alleviated obviously, and the bilateral dorsum pedis artery pulsation enhanced. Blood glucose and total plasma lipoprotein had no changes. CONCLUSION: The symptoms of DNP such as pain, coldness, numbness of the lower limbs can be induced by combining feet medicinal bath (fumigation-soaking) treatment with modern medicine.

  10. Effects of Antifungal Soaked Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses on Candida albicans in an Agar Eye Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Chau-Minh; Bajgrowicz, Magdalena; McCanna, David J; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Jones, Lyndon

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of two commercial silicone hydrogel contact lenses (CLs) soaked with natamycin (NA) or fluconazole (FL) on the growth of Candida albicans in an in vitro eye model. Three-D printed molds were used as a cast for making eye-shaped models comprising potato dextrose agar. Senofilcon A (SA) and lotrafilcon B (LB) CLs were incubated with either 2 mL of NA or FL at a concentration of 1 mg/mL for 24 hr. To simulate a fungal infection, the eye models were coated with C. albicans. The drug-soaked lenses were placed on top of the eye models. Seven experimental conditions were examined: (1) NA-SA, (2) NA-LB, (3) FL-SA, (4) FL-LB, (5) SA, (6) LB, and (7) control-no lens. At specified time points (t=1, 8, 16, 24, 48 hr), the agar eyes from each experimental condition were removed from the incubator and photographed. The yeast cells from the 24 and 48 hr time point were also analyzed using light microscopy. At 24 and 48 hr, there was considerable growth observed for all conditions except for the NA-SA and NA-LB conditions. When observed under the microscope at 24 and 48 hr, the morphology of the yeast cells in the FL-SA and SA condition were similar to that of the control (oval shaped). There was limited hyphae growth observed for LB and significant visible hyphae growth for the NA-LB group. For NA-SA, NA-LB, and FL-LB groups, the cells were significantly smaller compared with the control. For NA-SA and NA-LB, there was limited growth of C. albicans observed on the eye models even after 48 hr. Under the microscope, the cell morphology differ noticeably between each testing condition, and is dependent on drug-lens combinations.

  11. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  12. Automatic Inspection Of Heat Seals Between Plastic Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Kula R.; Lew, Thomas M.; Sinclair, Robert B.

    1995-01-01

    Automatic inspection apparatus detects flaws in heat seals between films of polyethylene or other thermoplastic material. Heat-sealed strip in multilayer plastic sheet continuously moved lengthwise over illuminators. Variations in light transmitted through sheet interpreted to find flaws in heat seal. Site of flaw marked to facilitate subsequent manual inspection. Heat sealing used to join plastic films in manufacturing of variety of products, including inflatable toys and balloons carrying scientific instruments to high altitudes.

  13. Determination of plasticizers included in balloon by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.M.; Kim, J.H.; Ryu, J.Ch.; Kim, Y.M.; Lee, K.B. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-02-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with 85 {mu}m polyacrylate fiber, coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyze the plasticizers contained in balloon samples. The balloons were identified to be made of polyisoprene by IR spectroscopy. The plasticizers extracted from the balloon samples soaked in acetone-added water solvent for an hour were quantified by external standard method using nine kinds of plasticizers. The quantification method was validated for standard plasticizers in the range of 0.25-25 {mu}g/g. The detection limits were 0.11-0.38 {mu}g/g for different plasticizers. The RSDs for the reproducibility of this quantitation method were 3.7-14.2%. A few of balloons included risky level of plasticizer concerned as an endocrine disrupter, and it is necessary to regulate these products. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  14. Review of Agricultural Plastic Mulching and Its Residual Pollution and Prevention Measures In China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Chang-rong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural plastic film mulching is one of important technologies, but the plastic film pollution has been a serious issue for agri-cultural sustainable development in China. System analysis of this technique and its residue pollution and control ways have vital practicalsignificance for rational application of agricultural plastil film. In this paper, on the basis of our previous work,agricultural plastic filmmulching, its residue pollution and control technologies were concluded. Some important conclusions were found that, the amount of plasticfilm and mulching area had kept increasing with annual increasing rate about 8% since the 80s of the 20th century. From 1991 to 2011, thedensity of plastic film utilized increased 3-10 times, but it has very sharply different spatial pattern in different province. In general, the northand west China has high value, and the increase rate is also huge in the past 20 years. The crops of utilized mulching plastic film have extendedfrom cash crops to grain crops, and the order of crop area is followed by maize, vegetable, cotton, tobacco and peanut. The main functions ofmulching plastic film are keeping soil moisture and increasing soil temperature, against weeds and insect. At the same time, its side effectsappear with continuous utilization. The main problems are residues left in soil to destroy soil structure, impress soil permeability, impede seedgermination as well as water and nutrients uptaking, and block crop root system development. It has very serious pollution for the field utilizedplastic mulching film for long term. The residual amount in soil is about 71.9-259.1 kg·hm-2, and has sharply spatial difference. The residualamount in soil. In Northwest China, is more serious than that in North China and Southwest China. Because of difference of tillage and appli-canon ways, there are great differences on the area and shape of the plastic film piece left in soil. The main types of shapes are flaky

  15. Modeling increasing effect of soil temperature through plastic film mulch in ground cover rice production system using CERES-Rice%基于CERES-Rice模型的覆膜旱作稻田增温效应模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雯雯; 金欣欣; 石建初; 宁松瑞; 李森; 陶玥玥; 张亚男; 左强

    2015-01-01

    水稻覆膜旱作技术具有显著的节水、增温、防污和减排效应,是节水稻作技术体系的重要措施之一,将CERES-Rice模型用于覆膜旱作条件时,必须首先解决覆膜增温效应的准确模拟问题。该文拟应用热量传输理论及目前旱地作物生产系统中采用的覆膜增温效应模拟方法,来模拟水稻覆膜旱作生产体系中的增温效应,从而为完善 CERES-Rice 模型并使其能用于覆膜旱作水稻的生长模拟奠定基础。参数调校与模型检验验证通过2013、2014年在湖北房县开展的2 a水稻覆膜旱作田间试验来进行,共涉及淹水(对照)、覆膜湿润栽培和覆膜旱作共3个水分处理,分别对2个生长季、2个覆膜处理地表5 cm及地下10、20 cm处温度的变化过程进行了模拟,结果表明:经过参数调校后,所建立的覆膜增温模型可较好地模拟覆膜稻田地表和剖面上土壤温度的变化规律,地表5 cm处土壤温度模拟值与实测值的均方根差、相对均方根差分别低于1.8℃和10%,相关系数在0.89以上(P<0.01);尽管地下10、20 cm处的模拟误差稍大,也基本可满足要求,相应的均方根误差<3.2℃,相对均方根差<15%,相关系数>0.65(P<0.01)。%As one of the most promising water-saving rice production technologies, the ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) has been found to save water application, increase soil temperature, and reduce nitrogen pollution and methane emission. However, the feasibility of CERES-Rice, a software package widely and successfully applied in the traditional paddy rice production system (TPRPS), for simulating the rice growth in the GCRPS still remains unknown and needs further research. Undoubtedly, it should be based on accurately quantifying the effect of soil temperature enhancement caused by the ground cover material (chosen as the plastic film in this study). Therefore, the objective of

  16. Effects of chopping, and soaking in water, hydrochloric acidic and calcium hydroxide solutions on the nutritional value of Acacia villosa for goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wina, E. [Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor (Indonesia)]. E-mail: winabudi@yahoo.com; Tangendjaja, B.; Susana, I.W.R. [Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor (Indonesia)

    2005-08-19

    Acacia villosa, a thornless shrub legume, has potential as a feed supplement for ruminants if anti-nutritional factors, especially tannins, can be overcome. The effects of chopping and soaking the leaves on the amounts of tannin in the extracting solution and that left in the recovered leaves were studied. The tannin and non-tannin phenolics were solubilized in the extracting solution and the amount was increased with the soaking time. Soaking in calcium hydroxide solution, hydrochloric acid or water removed 41-76% of tannin and total phenolics removed from the recovered leaves. Soaking of the leaves also removed fermentable materials and reduced the gas production. In the first of two digestibility experiments, three groups of goats received one of these diets, those were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia leaves (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) and (3) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) + 100 g/day of cassava flour. Live weight of goats was measured every 2 weeks and a large increase in average daily gain was obtained for goats fed diet containing water soaked leaves and cassava flour (71 g/day) compared to those fed diet containing unsoaked leaves and water soaked leaves (38.9 and 44.7 g/day, respectively) (P < 0.05). In the second digestibility experiment, the three diets were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops water soaked Acacia (7:3), (3) sugar cane tops: calcium hydroxide soaked Acacia (7:3). A supplement of 100 g/day of cassava flour was added to each of these three diets. In both digestibility experiments, soaking improved intake and digestibility of Acacia leaves, and cassava flour increased the intake, but when all the diets contained cassava flour, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) found in intake or digestibility between unsoaked and soaked leaves. In conclusion, soaking reduced tannin in Acacia leaves, improved digestibility and intake of Acacia leaves. In the

  17. A Self-Instructional System in Plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Mark M.; And Others

    The purpose of this system is to teach rural high school students the process of forming objects with expandable polystyrene plastic beads. Instruction in the system generally follows a three-step sequence in which the student: 1) views one of the four demonstration films; 2) progresses through a corresponding programed instruction book; and 3)…

  18. 太阳能充电式多功能花生覆膜播种机的研究%The Research of Solar Energy Rechargeable Plastic Film Mulching Peanut Planter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林荣娜

    2014-01-01

    我国是世界上最大的花生出口国之一,但存在花生播种机械装置机械化水平低、装备适应性差、农机农艺脱节等问题。为此,进行了太阳能充电式小型多功能覆膜花生播种机的研究。该装置采用太阳能电池板实现储能作为播种机的输出动力,利用曲柄滑块机构构建插播播种装置,实现播种的精量控制。试验表明,样机能够一次性完成施肥、喷药、覆膜、覆土盖膜等多种作业,空穴率0%。该产品的多项参数可调,还可以更换作业器具用于其它农作物的播种,具有很好的市场前景,极具推广价值。%China is one of the major countries in the world , which produce and export the peanuts .But the present pea-nut machinery has several problems that the low level of mechanization , equipment with the poor adaptability , agricultural disjointed with agronomic , etc .In view of this status , it proposed the research of solar energy rechargeable plastic film mulching peanut planter .The device makes use of solar panels to provide the output power energy , which stored in the battery .It is made use of the slider-crank mechanism to design spots seeding device , which is used to achieve precision sowing .The experimental prototype is able to complete fertilizing , spraying , coating , casing cover film and other opera-tions at the same time , the hole rate is 0%.This product has a number of freely adjustable parameters , but also can re-place working instruments for other crops sown appliance , so the product has good market prospects , and great promotion-al value .

  19. Ethylene-induced gene expression, enzyme activities, and water soaking in immature and ripe watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakurt, Yasar; Huber, Donald J

    2004-04-01

    Watermelon fruit exhibit acute softening and placental-tissue water soaking following short exposure to exogenous ethylene. Experiments were performed to address transcript abundance and activities of cell wall and membrane hydrolases in placental tissue in response to treatment of watermelon fruit with ethylene. Watermelon fruit were harvested at immature and full-ripe stages and exposed to 50 microL L(-1) ethylene for 6 days at 20 degrees C. Ethylene affected the abundance of transcripts for PME (EC 3.2.1.11), and alpha-(EC 3.2.1.22) and beta-GAL (EC 3.2.1.23) but these effects were dependent on fruit maturity and appeared not to be associated with the water-soaking syndrome. PG (EC 3.2.1.15) and EXP mRNAs accumulated significantly in response to ethylene exposure. Additionally, the levels of mRNA and activities of LOX (EC 1.13.11.12), PLC (EC 3.1.4.3) and PLD (EC 3.1.4.4) were elevated in fruit of both maturity classes exposed to ethylene and were temporally associated with the visible symptoms of water soaking. The activity trends and transcript abundance in ethylene- compared with air-treated fruit indicate that PG, EXP, LOX, PLC and PLD levels increase with the onset and development of the water-soaking disorder and support the view that catabolic reactions targeting the membranes and cell-walls contribute to the disorder.

  20. THE EFFECTS OF SEED SOAKING WITH PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON SEEDLING VIGOR OF WHEAT UNDER SALINITY STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Irfan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of seed soaking with plant growth regulators (IAA, GA3, kinetin or prostart on wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Auqab-2000 emergence and seedling growth under normal (4 dS/cm and saline (15 dS/cm conditions were studied to determine their usefulness in increasing relative salt-tolerance. During emergence test, emergence percentage and mean emergence time (MET were significantly affected by most of priming treatments, however, root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings were significantly increased by 25 ppm kinetin followed by 1% prostart for 2 h treatments under both normal and saline conditions. All pre-sowing seed treatments decreased the electrolyte leakage of steep water as compared to that of non-primed seeds even after 12 h of soaking. Seed soaking with 25 ppm kinetin induced maximum decrease in electrolyte leakage while an increase in electrolyte leakage was observed by 25, 50 or 100 ppm IAA treatments. It is concluded that priming has reduced the severity of the effect of salinity but the amelioration was better due to 25 ppm kinetin and 1% prostart (2 h treatments as these showed best results on seedling growth, fresh and dry weights under non-saline and saline conditions whereas seed soaking with IAA and GA3 were not effective in inducing salt tolerance under present experimental material and conditions.

  1. Overnight soaking or boiling of "Matooke" to reduce potassium content for patients with chronic kidney disease: does it really work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, J; Sembajwe, L F; Senoga, A; Bakiika, E; Muwonge, H; Kalyesubula, R

    2013-09-01

    There is an increase in number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Uganda's health facilities looking for different options of preparing matooke (bananas), their staple food. To establish and evaluate an effective method of removing potassium from bananas (matooke). Bananas were sampled from 5 markets in Kampala, Uganda. Deionized water was used to soak the bananas and the potassium concentration was determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer in both the bananas and water after soaking for varying time intervals. We also determined the potassium concentrations in the bananas and the water after boiling the bananas at 200 degrees Celsius at intervals of 10 minutes (for 60 minutes). The potassium concentration did not appear to change on soaking alone without boiling. However, on boiling, the concentration in the bananas decreased from about 1.4 ppm to approx. 1 ppm after 60 min; yet the concentration of potassium released into deionized water increased steadily from 0.0 ppm to about 1.2 ppm after 60 min of boiling. This study demonstrates that boiling the bananas is a more effective way of removing the potassium from bananas than simply soaking them.

  2. Is Soaking Cows During Dry Period an Effective Management Tool to Reduce Heat Stress and Improve Pospartum Productivity?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Avendaño-Reyes, L; Alvarez-Valenzuela, F. D; Correa-Calderón, A; Fadel, J. G; Robinson, P. H

    2008-01-01

    Avendaño-Reyes, L., Alvarez-Valenzuela, F.D., Correa-Calderón, A., Fadel, J.G. and Robinson, P.H. 2008. Is soaking cows during dry period an effective management tool to reduce heat stress and improve pospartum productivity...

  3. EMBALAGEM INDIVIDUAL DE MANGAS CV. TOMMY ATKINS EM FILME PLÁSTICO: EFEITO SOBRE A VIDA DE PRATELEIRA INDIVIDUAL PACKAGING OF MANGOS CV. TOMMY ATKINS IN PLASTIC FILM: EFFECT ON SHELF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO YAMASHITA

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da embalagem de policloreto de vinila (PVC sobre a vida de prateleira de mangas cv. Tommy Atkins armazenadas sob refrigeração. Mangas no estádio de maturidade fisiológica, com casca verde ou levemente avermelhada, foram embaladas individualmente, com filme de 10mm de espessura, e armazenadas por 28 dias a 12ºC (80-90% UR. Frutos sem embalagem serviram de controle. Durante o período de armazenagem, foram feitas avaliações sensoriais utilizando o método de escala hedônica não estruturada para aceitação da aparência e do sabor, utilizando-se de 30 provadores não treinados por sessão. Determinou-se também a perda de massa, a acidez titulável e os teores de sólidos solúveis e vitamina C ao longo da armazenagem. As mangas embaladas apresentaram uma vida de prateleira de 21 dias contra 6 dias das não embaladas, e uma taxa de perda de massa 3,5 vezes menor que as não embaladas. Em relação à taxa de degradação de vitamina C, não houve diferença entre os tratamentos. A combinação da embalagem com a armazenagem a 12ºC aumentou a vida de prateleira do produto pela redução da atividade metabólica e do desenvolvimento de podridão.Effects of packaging in polyvinyl chloride (PVC film on postharvest shelf-life of mango cv. Tommy Atkins stored under refrigeration were studied. Mangos at mature green color stage were individually sealed in 10mm thick film and stored for 28 days at 12ºC (80-90% RH. Non-sealed fruits served as control. During the storage period, sensory evaluation was carried out using an unstructured hedonic scale for overall acceptance of appearance and flavor, with 30 untrained assessors per session. Mangos were also analyzed for weight loss, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and vitamin C during storage time. The packed mangos had a shelf life of 21 days against 6 days of the control ones, and weight loss rates 3.5 times smaller than the control ones. There was no difference in

  4. Soaking beans: alternative to improve nutritional value Feijão macerado: alternativa para melhorar a qualidade nutricional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Canuto Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bean protein is deficient in sulfur amino acids and has reduced digestibility, mainly due to the poliphenols and phytates present in the grain. The soaking process may reduce the content of thesesubstances and, thus improving protein digestibility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the soaking process on bean protein quality. Common beans (cv Carioca were soaked beforecooking over two periods of time (4 hours and 12 hours, in the proportion of 1:3 (grain:water and another bean sample was cooked without soaking. An experiment with Wistar rats was carried out andbean protein quality was estimated by means of Net Protein Ratio (NPR and Net Protein Utilization (NPU. Soaking process during 4 h was sufficient to reduce in a half the bean cooking time. Soaking for12 hours improved the protein quality of the beans. Thus, the soaking process may improve the protein intake of poor community. A proteína do feijão é deficiente em aminoácidos sulfurados e tem digestibilidade reduzida, sobretudo por causa da presença de polifenóis e fitatos no grão. O processo de maceração pode reduzir os teores dessas substâncias, e assim aumentar a digestibilidade de sua proteína. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de investigar o efeito da maceração na qualidade protéica do feijão. O feijão comum (cultivar Carioca foi submetido a dois tempos de maceração (4 horas e 12 horas antes do cozimento, na proporção grão:água de 1:3, e uma amostra de feijão foi cozida sem maceração. Foi realizado um ensaio biológico com ratos Wistar e a qualidade protéica dos feijões foi estimada por meio dos índices NPR (Net Protein Ratio e NPU (Net Protein Utilization. A maceração por 4 horas foi suficiente para reduzir o tempo de cocção do feijão pela metade. O processo de maceração, por 12 horas, melhorou a qualidade protéica do feijão.Assim, a maceração prévia à cocção do feijão pode ser uma alternativa para melhorar o aporte prot

  5. Effects of Plastic Mulching Film on Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco in High Altitude Area%地膜覆盖对高海拔地区烤烟产量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔德钧; 潘文杰; 熊晶; 马敏伦; 丁福章

    2011-01-01

    为明确威宁烤烟种植地区最佳的地膜使用方法,研究了不覆膜、35d揭膜和全生育期覆膜对烤烟产量和品质的影响.结果表明,35d揭膜和全生育期覆膜均能促进烟株早生快发,提高烟叶产量和产值,以全生育期盖膜处理效果最好,烟叶产量和产值分别较不盖膜处理提高20.9%和48.6%;但35d揭膜处理和全生育期覆膜处理均导致烟碱含量升高、钾含量降低,对烟叶品质不利.%Effect of non mulching, mulching for 35 days, and mulching for whole growing period on yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco was studied to find out the optimal mulching method of plastic mulching film in Weining tobacco growing areas. The results showed that both the treatments of mulching for 35 days and mulching for whole growing period, promoted the germination and growth, and improved the yield and output value, especially mulching for whole growing period was optimal, yield and output value increased 20. 9% and 48. 6% compared with non mulching; However, mulching for 35 days and mulching in whole growing period resulted to higher nicotine content and lower potassium content, both treatments negatively affected the quality of flue-cured tobacco.

  6. Sheet resistances of composite films prepared from chemically-reduced graphite oxides and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Weontae; Kim, Daehan; Jeong, Euh Duck; Bae, Jong-Seong

    2013-12-01

    Graphite oxides (GOs) were spray-coated on a glass substrate to prepare the GO film, and the film was soaked in a HI aqueous solution to make a chemically-reduced GO (rGO) film. The rGOs were successfully prepared by using a chemical reduction of as-made GOs, but their surfaces were seriously damaged during the chemical treatments. The Sheet resistances of rGO and rGO/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) films were characterized as functions of the film's thickness and the number of MWNTs added to the rGO films.

  7. Effect of pH and Recombinant Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Endoprotease B2 on Degradation of Proteins in Soaked Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    Nonfermented soaking of barley feedstuff has been established as an in vitro procedure prior to the feeding of pigs as it can increase protein digestibility. In the current study, two feed cultivars of barley (Finlissa and Zephyr) were soaked in vitro either nonbuffered or buffered at pH 3.6 and ...

  8. Biochemical changes in phenols, flavonoids, tannins, vitamin E,β-carotene and antioxidant activity during soaking of three whitesorghum varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd El-Moneim MR Afify; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Samiha M Abd El-Salam; Azza A Omran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes in total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, vitamin E,β-carotene and antioxidant activity during soaking of three white sorghum varieties. Methods:The changes in total phenols, total flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids compounds, flavonoid components, vitamin E, β-carotene and antioxidant activity during soaking of sorghum grains were determined. Results: Total phenols, total flavonoids, tannins, vitamin E, β-carotene and antioxidant activity in raw sorghum were ranged from 109.21 to 116.70, 45.91 to 54.69, 1.39 to 21.79 mg/100 g, 1.74 to 5.25, 0.54 to 1.19 mg/kg and 21.72% to 27.69% and 25.29% to 31.97%, respectively. The above measured compounds were significantly decreased after soaking. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid and cinnamic acid represent the major phenolic acids in Dorado variety. While ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid and caffeic acid represent the major phenolic acids in Shandaweel-6. On the other hand, protocatechuic acid represents the major phenolic acids in Giza-15. Regarding flavonoids components, Dorado was the highest variety in kampferol and naringenin while Shandaweel-6 was the highest variety in luteolin, apigenin, hypersoid, quercetin and christen. Finally, Giza-15 was the highest variety in catechin. Phenolic acids, flavonoid compounds and antioxidant activities were decreased after soaking.Conclusions:tannins, phenolic acids compounds, flavonoid components, vitamin E, β-carotene and antioxidant activity which decreased after soaking. Sorghum varieties have moderate quantities from total phenols, total flavonoids

  9. DORMANCY BREAKING OF OIL PALM SEED TENERA VARIETY BY SOAKING FOR A CERTAIN LENGTH OF TIME IN THE SULFURIC ACID SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAYAN SUENA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The experiment aimed to know the effect of length of soaked time in sulfuric acid (H2SO4 solution to the dormancy breaking upon the oil palm seeds. The experiment show that soaking seeds for 12 and 10 minutes in the acid solution resulted dormancy breaking were reached after 61.3 days, while soaking seed for 2 minutes in the same solution breaking of dormancy was reached after 73.5 days. By soaked oil palm seeds in sulfuric acid solution gave highest germination percentage (80%, peak value of germination was 0.77%/day, by an average of 0.73%/day. So that, by soaked oil palm seed in sulfuric acid solution for 12 minutes was able to increase vigor, viability, rate of germination and growth uniformity.

  10. New Generation Energy Efficient Refractory Application in Soaking Pits of Bhilai Steel Plant, Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Indranil; Chintaiah, Perumetla; Bhattacharya, Ajoy Kr.; Garai, Swapan Kr.; Ray Choudhury, Pankaj Kr.; Tiwari, Laksman

    In Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP), soaking pits are used for heating ingots for successive rolling into blooms. Pits are operated at a temperature of around 1350°C. Mixed gas (Mixture of Blast Furnace gas & Coke Oven gas) of calorific value around 2040 kcal/Nm3 is used as fuel. The walls of soaking pits were lined with traditional 38% Al2O3 firebricks and top 500mm was cast with 70% Al2O3 low cement castable (LCC). This type of lining results in frequent damages due to hitting by ingots while being lifted from pit by overhead cranes thus affecting the availability of pit. Life of pits was 2 to 2.5 years in BSP with 3-4 cold repairs and 3-4 hot repairs. Energy loss through the wall is also quite high in this type of lining. To triumph over the limitations of the conventional lining, a lining design was developed for the walls which consist of special 70% Al2O3 LCC having high hot strength (HMOR) in combination with specially design flexible SS-304 anchors. Ceramic fiber blanket and insulation bricks were provided between castable and the metallic shell of the pit to minimize the heat loss. A heating schedule was developed and introduced based on available infrastructure at BSP for proper curing of modified LCC based lining. After introduction of modified lining, pit no. 14/2 is running for more than 2.5 years without any repair. To capitalize the success, two more pits i.e. 12/1 and 9/2 were converted to modified lining. These pits are also running satisfactorily for more than 1.5 years. The modification has resulted in higher availability with substantial increase in production. Shell temperature of the modified pits reduced to 90° - 140°C from 120° - 200°C of conventional pits. This shows reduction in heat loss through walls, resulting less fuel consumption and energy saving of about 18%.

  11. Preparation of Bio-Based Polyamide Elastomer by Using Green Plasticizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao He

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the effects of three green plasticizers H2O, glycerol, and soybean oil, on the properties of bio-based BDIS polyamides. The BDIS polyamides synthesized from the following biomass monomers: 1,4-butanediamine (BD, 1,10-decanediamine (DD, itaconic acid (IA, and sebacic acid (SA. It is interesting to note that the amorphous BDIS (IA-80% polyamide was changed from the glassy state to the rubbery state after water soaking and induced crystallization at the same time. The H2O-plasticized non-crosslinked BDIS (IA-80% polyamides can be very useful for the preparation of physical water gel. The glycerol- and soybean oil-plasticized BDIS (IA-80% polyamides displayed excellent toughness. The plasticized BDIS (IA-80% polyamides were characterized by Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, mechanical testing, and X-ray diffraction (XRD.

  12. Polycarbazoles microcavities: towards plastic blue lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castex, M.C.; Olivero, C.; Fischer, A.; Mousel, S.; Michelon, J.; Ades, D.; Siove, A

    2002-09-30

    With the aim of developing a plastic blue laser emitting around 400 nm, we have investigated the luminescence and lasing possibilities of recently designed new polymeric materials based on carbazole chromophores. Our carbazole compounds are used either as doping organic dyes in usual polymer cast films (e.g. PMMA) or as thin layers deposited onto a quartz substrate. In both cases, by using different interferometric methods, periodic patterning of surfaces has been realised and compared. Efficient relief gratings are produced by laser irradiation at 193 nm of a phase mask ({lambda}=1090 nm) in con onto carbazolic films. We demonstrate that such patterning allows photopumping of doped PMMA films in a planar waveguide configuration with distributed feedback (DFB) even for high Bragg grating order (m=6). Monomode stimulated emission is observed for rhodamine doped PMMA film. Preliminary results concerning UV photopumping of carbazolic films are presented.

  13. Polycarbazoles microcavities: towards plastic blue lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castex, M. C.; Olivero, C.; Fischer, A.; Mousel, S.; Michelon, J.; Adès, D.; Siove, A.

    2002-09-01

    With the aim of developing a plastic blue laser emitting around 400 nm, we have investigated the luminescence and lasing possibilities of recently designed new polymeric materials based on carbazole chromophores. Our carbazole compounds are used either as doping organic dyes in usual polymer cast films (e.g. PMMA) or as thin layers deposited onto a quartz substrate. In both cases, by using different interferometric methods, periodic patterning of surfaces has been realised and compared. Efficient relief gratings are produced by laser irradiation at 193 nm of a phase mask ( Λ=1090 nm) in contact onto carbazolic films. We demonstrate that such patterning allows photopumping of doped PMMA films in a planar waveguide configuration with distributed feedback (DFB) even for high Bragg grating order ( m=6). Monomode stimulated emission is observed for rhodamine doped PMMA film. Preliminary results concerning UV photopumping of carbazolic films are presented.

  14. 1 MSF-3型残膜回收机机架的设计与优化%Design and Optimization of 1 MSF-3-type Plastic Film Residue Collecting Machine Frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王科杰; 罗昕; 胡斌; 陈永; 张欢

    2017-01-01

    1MSF-3-type collector of used plastic film on farm machine is the main bearing parts of wide-folding frame. The strength and rigidity of wide-folding frame directly affects the normal operation of the residual film retrieving ma-chine. Therefore, based on using SolidWorks to establish 3D parametric model for wide-folding rack. At the same time, the model is imported into ANSYS Workbench to static characteristic analysis and to get equivalence- stress and equality-displacement cloud atlas under the working condition. According to the result of finite element analysis of wide-folding frame suggests that meets the design requirements of strength and stiffness. And then, found on the Design Explorer mod-ules of ANSYS Workbench Environment, DOE ( Design of experiment) method is used. With section size of each beam of wide-folding frame as Design variables, regarding the stress and displacement as constraints, moreover, taking its quality for an indicator, to accomplish multi-objective optimization Design for the rack. The results show that not only quality of frame is decreased by 10% after optimization but also mechanical properties are good, meanwhile, the manu-facturing cost is saved and the requirement of residual film recycling machine work is satisfied.%1 MSF-3型残膜回收机的主要承载部件是宽幅可折叠式机架,其强度和刚度直接影响了残膜回收机的正常作业。为此,首先利用 SolidWorks 软件建立宽幅可折叠式机架三维参数化模型,并将模型导入 ANSYS Work-bench 中进行静态特性分析,获得其在作业情况下的等效应力及等效位移云图;其次,基于 AWE 环境下的 Design Explorer 模块,采用 DOE 方法,以宽幅可折叠式机架中的各个梁横截面尺寸作为设计变量,以应力和位移为限制条件,质量作为优化指标对机架进行多目标设计优化。结果表明:优化后机架质量减少了10%,满足力学性能要求;机具结构的设计

  15. Mechanical properties of polyurethane film exposed to solutions of nonoxynol-9 surfactant and polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Martin Kendrick

    Changes in physical properties (tensile strength, strain to failure, elastic modulus, diffusion kinetics and soft segment glass transition temperature (Tg)) were examined for polyetherurethane block copolymers Estane and Tecoflex. These polymer chains consist of 2 mutually incompatible blocks or segments which form microphases consisting of rigid/hard segments in an elastomeric matrix of soft segments. The polyurethanes were exposed to mixtures of nonoxynol 9 (N9) surfactant in polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG) at various concentrations and for various times. The purpose was to estimate the effect of exposure to mixtures of N9 spermicide and PEG lubricant on breakage of condoms made from films of these elastomers. Mechanical properties of Estane varied with direction because of molecular orientation induced during manufacturing, suggesting that condoms should be cut from the film in a way that optimizes this property-orientation relationship. Large amounts of N9 were absorbed from N9/PEG solutions. The polymer fraction of the swollen Estane film versus soak solution composition did not follow a linear rule of mixtures. As the percentage of N9 in the PEG/N9 soak solution increased, Estane absorbed more liquid and its properties decreased more than did Tecoflex. This may not matter for low concentrations of N9 where the mechanical properties of Estane were superior to those of Tecoflex. The loss of mechanical properties with increased N9 concentration was likely due to plasticization of the soft segment domains. Hard segment domain disruption was probably not occurring because the relationship between the elastic modulus and polymer volume fraction followed the Flory-Rehner relationship for swollen elastic rubber networks and diffusion of neat N9 and neat PEG followed a Fickian behavior. This is expected because hard domains are much more difficult to disrupt due to strong hydrogen bonding and/or crystallization. Most of the absorption and decrease in mechanical

  16. Interfacial molecular restructuring of plasticized polymers in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankett, Jeanne M; Lu, Xiaolin; Liu, Yuwei; Seeley, Emily; Chen, Zhan

    2014-10-07

    Upon water contact, phthalate-plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) surfaces are highly unstable because the plasticizer molecules are not covalently bound to the polymer network. As a result, it is difficult to predict how the surface polymer chains and plasticizers may interact with water without directly probing the plastic/water interface in situ. We successfully studied the molecular surface restructuring of 10 wt% and 25 wt% bis 2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)-plasticized and pure PVC films (deposited on solid substrates) in situ due to water contact using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. SFG spectral signals from both the top and the bottom of the plastic film were obtained simultaneously, so a thin-film model spectral analysis was applied to separately identify the molecular changes of plastics at the surface and the plastic/substrate interface in water. It was found that in water both the structures of the plastic surface and the buried plastic/substrate interface changed. After removing the samples from the water and exposing them to air again, the surface structures did not completely recover. Further SFG experiments confirmed that small amounts of DEHP were transferred into the water. The leached DEHP molecules could reorder and permanently transfer to new surfaces through water contact. Our studies indicate that small amounts of phthalates can transfer from surface to surface through water contact in an overall scope of minutes. This study yields vital new information on the molecular surface structures of DEHP plasticized PVC in water, and the transfer behaviors and environmental fate of plasticizers in polymers.

  17. Pretreatment and fractionation of corn stover by soaking in ethanol and aqueous ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Hicks, Kevin B

    2009-05-01

    A new process for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, designated the soaking in ethanol and aqueous ammonia (SEAA) process, was developed to improve hemicellulose preservation in solid form. In the SEAA process, an aqueous ammonia solution containing ethanol is used. Corn stover was treated with 15 wt.% ammonia at 1:9 solid-liquid ratio (by weight) at 60 degrees C for 24 h with ethanol added at 1, 5, 20, and 49 wt.% (balance was water). The extents by which xylan was solubilized with no ethanol and with ethanol added at 1, 5, 20, and 49 wt.% of the total liquid were 17.2%, 16.7%, 14.5%, 10.4%, and 6.3% of the original xylan, respectively. Thus, at the highest ethanol concentration used the loss of hemicellulose to the liquid phase was reduced by 63%. The digestibility of glucan and xylan in the pretreated corn stover samples by cellulase was not affected by ethanol addition of up to 20 wt.%. The enzymatic digestibility of the corn stover treated with 49 wt.% ethanol added was lower than the digestibility of the sample treated with no ethanol addition. Thus, based on these results, 20 wt.% was found to be the optimum ethanol concentration for use in the SEAA process for pretreatment of corn stover.

  18. Electrical conductivity of the seed soaking solution and soybean seedling emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Roberval Daiton

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vigor of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds can be evaluated by measuring the electrical conductivity (EC of the seed soaking solution, which has shown a satisfactory relationship with field seedling emergence, but has not had aproper definition of range yet. This work studies the relationship between EC and soybean seedling emergence both in the field and laboratory conditions, using twenty two seed lots. Seed water content, standard germination and vigor (EC, accelerated aging and cold tests were evaluated under laboratory conditions using -0.03; -0.20; -0.40 and -0.60 MPa matric potentials, and field seedling emergence was also observed. There was direct relationship between EC and field seedling emergence (FE. Under laboratory conditions, a decreasing relationship was found between EC and FE as water content in the substrate decreased. Relationships between these two parameters were also found when -0.03; -0.20 and -0.40 MPa matric potentials were used. EC tests can be used successfully to evaluate soybean seed vigor and identify lots with higher or lower field emergence potential.

  19. Can Soaked-in Scavengers Protect Metalloprotein Active Sites from Reduction During Data Collection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, S.; Pechlaner, M; Schmid, W; Weik, M; Sato, K; Dennison, C; Djinovic-Carugo, K

    2009-01-01

    One of the first events taking place when a crystal of a metalloprotein is exposed to X-ray radiation is photoreduction of the metal centres. The oxidation state of a metal cannot always be determined from routine X-ray diffraction experiments alone, but it may have a crucial impact on the metal's environment and on the analysis of the structural data when considering the functional mechanism of a metalloenzyme. Here, UV-Vis microspectrophotometry is used to test the efficacy of selected scavengers in reducing the undesirable photoreduction of the iron and copper centres in myoglobin and azurin, respectively, and X-ray crystallography to assess their capacity of mitigating global and specific radiation damage effects. UV-Vis absorption spectra of native crystals, as well as those soaked in 18 different radioprotectants, show dramatic metal reduction occurring in the first 60 s of irradiation with an X-ray beam from a third-generation synchrotron source. Among the tested radioprotectants only potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) seems to be capable of partially mitigating the rate of metal photoreduction at the concentrations used, but not to a sufficient extent that would allow a complete data set to be recorded from a fully oxidized crystal. On the other hand, analysis of the X-ray crystallographic data confirms ascorbate as an efficient protecting agent against radiation damage, other than metal centre reduction, and suggests further testing of HEPES and 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphtoquinone as potential scavengers.

  20. Can soaked-in scavengers protect metalloprotein active sites from reduction during data collection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Sofia; Pechlaner, Maria; Schmid, Walther; Weik, Martin; Sato, Katsuko; Dennison, Christopher; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2009-03-01

    One of the first events taking place when a crystal of a metalloprotein is exposed to X-ray radiation is photoreduction of the metal centres. The oxidation state of a metal cannot always be determined from routine X-ray diffraction experiments alone, but it may have a crucial impact on the metal's environment and on the analysis of the structural data when considering the functional mechanism of a metalloenzyme. Here, UV-Vis microspectrophotometry is used to test the efficacy of selected scavengers in reducing the undesirable photoreduction of the iron and copper centres in myoglobin and azurin, respectively, and X-ray crystallography to assess their capacity of mitigating global and specific radiation damage effects. UV-Vis absorption spectra of native crystals, as well as those soaked in 18 different radioprotectants, show dramatic metal reduction occurring in the first 60 s of irradiation with an X-ray beam from a third-generation synchrotron source. Among the tested radioprotectants only potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) seems to be capable of partially mitigating the rate of metal photoreduction at the concentrations used, but not to a sufficient extent that would allow a complete data set to be recorded from a fully oxidized crystal. On the other hand, analysis of the X-ray crystallographic data confirms ascorbate as an efficient protecting agent against radiation damage, other than metal centre reduction, and suggests further testing of HEPES and 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphtoquinone as potential scavengers.

  1. Microbial Enzymatic Degradation of Biodegradable Plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi; Bano, Kulsoom; Kuddus, Mohammed; Zaheer, Mohammed R; Zia, Qamar; Khan, Mohammed F; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Gupta, Anamika; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2017-01-01

    The renewable feedstock derived biodegradable plastics are important in various industries such as packaging, agricultural, paper coating, garbage bags and biomedical implants. The increasing water and waste pollution due to the available decomposition methods of plastic degradation have led to the emergence of biodegradable plastics and biological degradation with microbial (bacteria and fungi) extracellular enzymes. The microbes utilize biodegradable polymers as the substrate under starvation and in unavailability of microbial nutrients. Microbial enzymatic degradation is suitable from bioremediation point of view as no waste accumulation occurs. It is important to understand the microbial interaction and mechanism involved in the enzymatic degradation of biodegradable plastics under the influence of several environmental factors such as applied pH, thermo-stability, substrate molecular weight and/or complexity. To study the surface erosion of polymer film is another approach for hydrolytic degradation characteristion. The degradation of biopolymer is associated with the production of low molecular weight monomer and generation of carbon dioxide, methane and water molecule. This review reported the degradation study of various existing biodegradable plastics along with the potent degrading microbes (bacteria and fungi). Patents available on plastic biodegradation with biotechnological significance is also summarized in this paper. This paper assesses that new disposal technique should be adopted for the degradation of polymers and further research is required for the economical production of biodegradable plastics along with their enzymatic degradation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  3. Development of Green Banana (Musa paradisiaca as Potential Food Packaging Films and Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hanani Z. A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical properties. The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapour permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical

  4. Impact of the nature and concentration of plasticizers on the ability of PVC to sorb drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salloum, H; Saunier, J; Aymes-Chodur, C; Barakat, H; Yagoubi, N

    2015-12-30

    The sorption of a drug by an infusion set may dramatically reduce the drug delivery efficiency. In this paper, we investigated how the drug sorption, in static conditions, is affected by the plasticizer's nature and ratio in the case of plasticized PVC, one of the most common material for infusion set tubing. Within the study, the drug concentration in diazepam solutions was studied after contact with PVC films containing different amounts of DEHP, DEHT, TOTM and DINCH® plasticizers. Moreover the partition coefficients between material and water were calculated. The drug sorption levels were equivalent for the different plasticizers and there was a plasticizer ratio for which the drug uptake was enhanced. As a consequence, the amount of sorbed drug might not be only linked to the amount of plasticizer in the film and to the solubility of the drug in the plasticizer alone: it must probably depend on specific interactions between plasticizer and PVC.

  5. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A... plastic parts. New information shows that Fortis Plastics is now called Carlyle Plastics and Resins. In... of Carlyle Plastics and Resins, formerly known as Fortis Plastics, a subsidiary of...

  6. The molecular interfacial structure and plasticizer migration behavior of "green" plasticized poly(vinyl chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxian; Li, Yaoxin; Hankett, Jeanne M; Chen, Zhan

    2015-02-14

    Tributyl acetyl citrate (TBAC), a widely-used "green" plasticizer, has been extensively applied in products for daily use. In this paper, a variety of analytical tools including sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), contact angle goniometry (CA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were applied together to investigate the molecular structures of TBAC plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and the migration behavior of TBAC from PVC-TBAC mixtures into water. We comprehensively examine the effects of oxygen and argon plasma treatments on the surface structures of PVC-TBAC thin films containing various bulk percentages of plasticizers and the leaching behavior of TBAC into water. It was found that TBAC is a relatively stable PVC plasticizer compared to traditional non-covalent plasticizers but is also surface active. Oxygen plasma treatment increased the hydrophilicity of TBAC-PVC surfaces, but did not enhance TBAC leaching. However, argon plasma treatment greatly enhanced the leaching of TBAC molecules from PVC plastics to water. Based on our observations, we believe that oxygen plasma treatment could be applied to TBAC plasticized PVC products to enhance surface hydrophilicity for improving the biocompatibility and antibacterial properties of PVC products. The structural information obtained in this study will ultimately facilitate a molecular level understanding of plasticized polymers, aiding in the design of PVC materials with improved properties.

  7. Does soaking temperature during controlled slow freezing of pre-pubertal mouse testes influence course of in vitro spermatogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkoun, Brahim; Dumont, Ludovic; Milazzo, Jean-Pierre; Rondanino, Christine; Bironneau, Amandine; Wils, Julien; Rives, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    The banking of testicular tissue before highly gonadotoxic treatment is a prerequisite for the preservation of fertility in pre-pubertal boys not yet producing sperm. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the impact of a soaking temperature performed at -7 °C, -8 °C or -9 °C on the ability of frozen-thawed mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) to generate haploid germ cells after in vitro maturation. Testes of 6.5-day-old post-partum CD-1 mice were cryopreserved by using a controlled slow freezing protocol with soaking at -7 °C, -8 °C or -9 °C. Frozen-thawed pre-pubertal testicular tissues were cultured in vitro on agarose gel for 30 days. Histological evaluations were performed and flagellated late spermatids were counted after mechanical dissection of the cultured tissues. The differentiation of frozen SSCs into elongated spermatids was more efficient after treatment at -9 °C than at -7 °C and -8 °C. After dissection, flagellated late spermatids were observed by using Shorr staining. The number of flagellated late spermatids was significantly decreased after slow freezing when compared with a fresh tissue control. Therefore, the soaking temperature during slow freezing of pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue might positively influence the course of in vitro spermatogenesis. Our slow freezing protocol with a soaking temperature at -9 °C was the optimal condition in terms of the achievement of in vitro spermatogenesis with a higher production of elongated spermatids, although the effectiveness of the maturation process was reduced compared with the fresh tissue control.

  8. Starch gelatinization and physical quality of pea flakes in canine dinners as affected by soaking, steam treatment and infrared radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.C.; Zandstra, T.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2008-01-01

    Cleaned, whole smooth green peas (Pisum sativum L.) were reconstituted by soaking in tap water of 40¿°C (15, 20 or 25¿min) and subsequently either toasted (100¿°C during 1.5¿min) and infrared (IR) radiated or just IR radiated. For IR radiation, a small-scale, propane-fired IR radiation plant was use

  9. Starch gelatinization and physical quality of pea flakes in canine dinners as affected by soaking, steam treatment and infrared radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.C.; Zandstra, T.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2008-01-01

    Cleaned, whole smooth green peas (Pisum sativum L.) were reconstituted by soaking in tap water of 40¿°C (15, 20 or 25¿min) and subsequently either toasted (100¿°C during 1.5¿min) and infrared (IR) radiated or just IR radiated. For IR radiation, a small-scale, propane-fired IR radiation plant was

  10. Our plastic age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard C. Thompson; Shanna H. Swan; Charles J. Moore; Frederick S. vom Saal

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production...

  11. Weinig plastic in vissenmaag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Waar de magen van sommige zeevogels vol plastic zitten, lijken vissen in de Noordzee nauwelijks last te hebben van kunststofafval. Onderzoekers die plastic resten zochten in vissenmagen vonden ze in elk geval nauwelijks.

  12. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  13. Spectrophotometric analysis of the lipid fraction of microwave heated and soaked soybeans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelista, C. M.

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The flavor of soybean products, particularly soy milk, is one of the main problems to its acceptance by Western people. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different microwave pre-heating times on soybean oxidative quality by monitoring the spectrophotometric absorptivity at 232 nm of its lipid fraction during soaking for soymilk production. A decrease in oxidation level was observed in microwave heated soybeans and the longer the exposure time was, the lower was the absorptivity. Absorptivity of non-heated soybeans was 5,36, while those heated for 150s, reached a temperature of 142,5°C and presented 2.93. Data could be represented by a polynomial equation of second order.

    Uno de los principales problemas para la aceptación de los productos de la soja por las poblaciones del Occidente es el «flavor», sobre todo de la leche de soja. Con este trabajo se buscó evaluar los efectos del pre-calentamiento con microondas a diferentes tiempos sobre la calidad oxidativa de la soja, midiendo la absortividad a 232 nm de la fracción lipídica después de la maceración para la producción de la leche de soja. Con este método fue posible detectar la disminución de la oxidación durante la maceración y comprobar que fue menor cuanto más largo fue el tiempo de exposición a las microondas. La soja no calentada presentó una absortividad de 5,36 y las calentadas durante 150 segundos, 2,93, a una temperatura final de 142,5°G. Los datos se ajustaron a una ecuación de segundo orden.

  14. Soaking and extrusion effects on physicochemical parameters, phytic acid, nutrient content and mineral bio-accessibility of whole rice grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Micaela; José González, Rolando; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2015-03-01

    A combination of soaking and extrusion processes of whole rice grain was studied. The effects of temperature (35-55 °C) and time (24-48 h) of soaking treatment on phytic acid (PA), protein and ashes losses using a factorial design were evaluated. Taking into account ash, protein and PA losses, whole rice was soaked 24 h at 45 °C and extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Effects of extrusion temperature (160-190 °C) and moisture content (14-19 g/100 g) on product characteristics were evaluated using surface response methodology. Values corresponding to the different responses were: Expansion (1.64-3.28), Specific Volume (5.68-11.06 cm(3)/g), Water absorption (3.41-4.43 mL/g) and Solubility (45.44-66.20 g/100 g). The content of PA was reduced from 740.09 to 163.47 mg/100 g (77%) after both processes, resulting in a higher mineral bio-accessibility, and a 7.3% decrease of protein digestibility. Total soluble phenolics and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were affected according to the treatment. Both treatments were important to obtain a nutritionally improved whole grain product.

  15. Effect of soaking in noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice on the microbiological and color behavior of Haden minimally processed mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, José Armando; González Tapia, Noemí T; Rosas Ulloa, Petra; Ramírez Ramírez, José Carmen; Ulloa Rangel, Blanca E

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of soaking in noni juice on the microbiological and color behavior of minimally processed mango. Two batches of Haden mango cubes were treated by immersion in noni juice for 2.5 or 5.0 min. Each batch was packed in polypropylene boxes and stored at 6 °C for up to 15 days; in addition, a control group of mango cubes was prepared by immersion in sterile water for the same duration. According to the results, the soaking of mango cubes in noni juice had an antimicrobial effect on mesophilic aerobic bacteria, molds and yeasts during storage at 6 °C for 15 days, without significantly (P < 0.05) affecting the CIE L*, a*, b*, chroma and hue angle values, in comparison with the control after 12 days of storage. The noni juice soaking treatment was demonstrated to be a potentially valuable technology for decontamination of fresh-cut fruit surfaces.

  16. Biodegradability of Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Tokiwa; Calabia, Buenaventurada P.; Charles U. Ugwu; Seiichi Aiba

    2009-01-01

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical ...

  17. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  18. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  19. Soil-coated ultrathin plastic-film mulching and suitable irrigation improve water use efficiency of winter wheat%土下覆膜与适宜灌水提高冬小麦水分利用率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何立谦; 张维宏; 杜雄; 张永升; 王磊; 曹彩云; 李科江

    2016-01-01

    More than 70% of water is used for agriculture, excessive water consumption for conventional winter wheat production is aggravating the groundwater crisis in Hebei Plain. In order to mitigate the water supply and demand conflict, a field experiment was conducted from 2011 to 2014 (October-June) in Shenzhou County, where more than 90% of the agricultural fields are used for the winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping. A randomized block design was employed with six treatments and four replicates, the treatments included: 1) soil-coated ultrathin plastic-film mulching (SUPM) with 75 mm irrigation at jointing stage, 2) SUPM with 75-mm irrigation at heading stage, 3) SUPM with 75 mm irrigation at filling stage, 4) rainfed under SUPM, 5) rainfed, 6) conventional farmers’ practice with 225 mm irrigation splitted into three applications (control). The study examined the effects of SUPM with different irrigation management on WUE, yield formation of winter wheat. The fieldwork procedure of SUPM was as follows:the straw of the previous crop was removed, and after base dressing with chemical fertilizer the field was plowed twice, the field surface was leveled, and wheat seeds were sown. The whole plot was mulched using ultrathin 0.004-mm-thick plastic film without separation between adjacent strips of film. The film was tensioned and its surface kept flat without folding, then 1-2 cm of soil was manually placed on it;consequently, the film was completely covered with soil. A wheat plumule could pierce the film and emerge. So relative seamless coverage of field was achieved to control soil water evaporation. After the wheat was harvested, summer maize was manually dibbled without plowing, only 60 mm irrigation applied after sowing during its whole season. The result showed that under SUPM the seedlings and spike number decreased by 8.6%-12.0% and 7.4%-11.7%, respectively, compared with the control, but the 75 mm irrigation at jointing or heading stage ensured the biomass

  20. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  1. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  2. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  3. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  4. Evaluation of the film-forming property of hydrogenated rosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satturwar, P M; Fulzele, S V; Joshi, S B; Dorle, A K

    2003-09-01

    The film-forming and coating properties of a new biomaterial, hydrogenated rosin (HR), is investigated in the present communication. Films produced by casting method are studied for mechanical, (tensile strength, elongation, and Young's modulus), water vapor transmission, and moisture absorption characteristics. Type of plasticizer and its concentration were observed to play an important role in modifying the film characteristics. Dibutyl sebacate (DBS), a hydrophobic plasticizer, was found to be suitable for development of flexible and smooth films. Film formulations plasticized with DBS were investigated for coating the drug layered nonpareil seeds where plasticization facilitated development of smooth and uniformly coated pellets. The increase in coat buildup, however, did not sustain the drug release significantly. The studies conclude that HR films promise utility as moisture-protective hydrophobic, film-coating materials.

  5. Innovative plasticized alginate obtained by thermo-mechanical mixing: Effect of different biobased polyols systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chengcheng; Pollet, Eric; Avérous, Luc

    2017-02-10

    Plasticized alginate films with different biobased polyols (glycerol and sorbitol) and their mixtures were successfully prepared by thermo-mechanical mixing instead of the usual casting-evaporation procedure. The microstructure and properties of the different plasticized alginate formulations were investigated by SEM, FTIR, XRD, DMTA and uniaxial tensile tests. SEM and XRD results showed that native alginate particles were largely destructured with the plasticizers (polyols and water), under a thermo-mechanical input. With increasing amount of plasticizers, the samples showed enhanced homogeneity while their thermal and mechanical properties decreased. Compared to sorbitol, glycerol resulted in alginate films with a higher flexibility due to its better plasticization efficiency resulting from its smaller size and higher hydrophilic character. Glycerol and sorbitol mixtures seemed to be an optimum to obtain the best properties. This work showed that thermo-mechanical mixing is a promising method to produce, at large scale, plasticized alginate-based films with improved properties.

  6. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  7. Glassy metallic plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a class of bulk metallic glass including Ce-, LaCe-, CaLi-, Yb-, and Sr-based metallic glasses, which are regarded as glassy metallic plastics because they combine some unique properties of both plastics and metallic alloys. These glassy metallic plastics have very low glass transition temperature (Tg~25oC to 150oC) and low Young’s modulus (~20 GPa to 35 GPa). Similar to glassy plastics, these metallic plastics show excellent plastic-like deformability on macro-, micro- and even nano-scale in their supercooled liquid range and can be processed, such as elongated, compressed, bent, and imprinted at low temperatures, in hot water for instance. Under ambient conditions, they display such metallic properties as high thermal and electric conductivities and excellent mechanical properties and other unique properties. The metallic plastics have potential applications and are also a model system for studying issues in glass physics.

  8. The impact of heating and soaking on the in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of protein varies in different species of tropical legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Julieta; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Muñoz, Luz S; Peters, Michael; Montoya, Carlos A

    2016-03-01

    The effects of different thermal (raw, autoclaving or boiling for 5 and 20min) and soaking (with or without) treatments on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) of protein were investigated for selected legumes (Canavalia brasiliensis; Lablab purpureus; pink, red and white colour hulls Vigna unguiculata). Each legume preparation underwent in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract digestion comprising either pepsin (120min) or pepsin/pancreatin (120/240min) digestion. The DH was determined based on the amount of free amino groups released. Autoclaving for 5min increased the pepsin/pancreatin DH for all the unsoaked and soaked legumes (+20% to 46% units) except Canavalia, while boiling for 5min only increased DH for two soaked legumes (+12% to 28% units). Extending boiling from 5 to 20min increased the DH for three soaked legumes (+5% to 29% units). In conclusion, autoclaving, in general, extensively increased the sequential pepsin/pancreatin DH, while boiling only increased it for selected legumes.

  9. Pre-soaking of the feed pellets: a trick for successful feed utilization in juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanghae, H; Thongprajukaew, K; Phromkunthong, W; Plangsri, S; Jatupornpitukchat, S; Kittiwattanawong, K

    2017-04-01

    Pre-soaking of the feed pellets in water can improve feed utilization in juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758), but the pre-soaking has not previously been optimized. This study aimed to optimize the water amount used for pre-soaking the pellets. The experiments followed a completely randomized design with three replications of each dietary treatment group. Initially 10-day-old green turtles (20-22 g body weight) were treated in an indoor aquaculture system for 3 months. The dietary treatment pellets were pre-soaked with 0.3, 0.5 or 0.7 (v/w) relative amounts of water that are here termed soaking ratios. At the end of experiment, there were no significant differences in survival (96% on average) and growth (average body weight 75.34 g and specific growth rate 2%/day, on average) of turtles in three dietary treatments (p > 0.05). Feed utilization was the best in turtles fed with 0.7 pre-soaked ratio, as indicated by significant reductions (p < 0.05) in the feeding rate (7.44% body weight/day) and the feed conversion ratio (1.12 g feed/g gain). Digestion was also improved by the induction of faecal digestive enzymes as well as the faecal thermal properties. The rapid growth did not negatively affect the general haematological parameters of reared turtles. These findings indicate that the pre-soaking of feed pellets at the optimal soaking ratio (1:0.7 w/v of pellet to water) can contribute through improved feed utilization of green turtles.

  10. Sequential shrink photolithography for plastic microlens arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, David; Shreim, Samir; Jayadev, Shreshta; Lew, Valerie; Botvinick, Elliot; Khine, Michelle

    2011-07-18

    Endeavoring to push the boundaries of microfabrication with shrinkable polymers, we have developed a sequential shrink photolithography process. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by rapidly fabricating plastic microlens arrays. First, we create a mask out of the children's toy Shrinky Dinks by simply printing dots using a standard desktop printer. Upon retraction of this pre-stressed thermoplastic sheet, the dots shrink to a fraction of their original size, which we then lithographically transfer onto photoresist-coated commodity shrink wrap film. This shrink film reduces in area by 95% when briefly heated, creating smooth convex photoresist bumps down to 30 µm. Taken together, this sequential shrink process provides a complete process to create microlenses, with an almost 99% reduction in area from the original pattern size. Finally, with a lithography molding step, we emboss these bumps into optical grade plastics such as cyclic olefin copolymer for functional microlens arrays.

  11. Evaporation kinetics of DIDP plasticizer from PVC

    Science.gov